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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 547, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Clinical Kidney Journal
  [SJR: 0.338]   [H-I: 19]   [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2048-8505 - ISSN (Online) 2048-8513
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Announcements

    • Abstract: News from ERA-EDTA:
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Renal artery intervention utilizing carbon dioxide angiography

    • Authors: Sag A; Afsar B, Kanbay M.
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide angiography is an established non-nephrotoxic option for imaging of the infradiaphragmatic arteries and veins. Safe performance of the technique once required a somewhat cumbersome system, however, recent innovations have simplified implementation and expanded the user base for this technique. As such, patient access has also increased. In this issue, Hameed et al. provide initial feasibility data regarding carbon dioxide angiography and renal denervation therapy. This experience may be translated into future renovascular interventions in patients with limited renal reserve.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Incorporating patient-reported symptom assessments into routine care for
           people with chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: van der Veer S; Aresi G, Gair R.
      Abstract: In this issue of Clinical Kidney Journal, Brown and colleagues show that symptom burden is high across all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Still, management of symptoms in kidney patients leaves room for improvement, which may partly stem from symptoms being underreported. The use of patient-reported questionnaires may facilitate a more systematic approach to symptom assessment, but to date, the majority of these instruments have been used only in the context of research studies. In this editorial, we review how systematic patient-reported symptom assessments can be incorporated in CKD care. We show examples from an initiative in the UK where 14 renal units explored how to collect and use symptom burden assessments as part of their routine ways of working. We also discuss how to move from paper-based questionnaires towards digital collection of patient-reported symptom data. Lastly, we introduce wearable and smartphone sensors as novel methods for collecting information to support and enrich symptom assessments while minimizing data collection burden.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Recommendations for imaging-based diagnosis and management of renal
           angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex

    • Authors: Buj Pradilla M; Martí Ballesté T, Torra R, et al.
      Abstract: Renal angiomyolipomas are found in up to 80% of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients. Although these tumours are usually asymptomatic, lesions >3 cm in diameter are prone to bleeding and up to 10% of TSC patients may experience a massive and potentially fatal retroperitoneal haemorrhage. Diagnosis can be complicated because of the initial lack of symptoms and the fat-poor content of atypical renal angiomyolipomas. After diagnosis, tumour growth and the emergence of new tumours must be monitored. Treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors can reduce tumour size and is indicated in patients with TSC-associated renal angiomyolipomas >3 cm in diameter. Imaging-based assessment of kidney disease is essential to the diagnosis and management of patients with TSC. The aims of imaging studies in this context are to detect and characterize tumours, assess and detect the risk of complications and evaluate the response to treatment, especially in patients treated with mTOR inhibitors. A multidisciplinary expert panel developed a series of recommendations based on current evidence and professional experience for imaging studies in adults and children with TSC-associated renal angiomyolipoma. The recommendations cover radiological diagnosis and follow-up of the classic and atypical or fat-poor TSC-associated renal angiomyolipomas, biopsy indications, minimal requirements for radiological requests and reports and recommended technical features and protocols for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Renal denervation using carbon dioxide renal angiography in patients with
           uncontrolled hypertension and moderate to severe chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: Hameed M; Freedman J, Watkin R, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundChronic kidney disease (CKD) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. More than half of the patients have uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg on three or more antihypertensive agents at optimum doses). Renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension. Although patients with CKD have high sympathetic drive, all major clinical trials have excluded patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) <45 mL/min/1.73m2 for risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.MethodsIn this pilot study, carbon dioxide (CO2) was used as the sole contrast agent to carry out renal angiography and RSDN in patients with moderate to severe CKD (eGFR 15–44 mL/min/1.73m2) and uncontrolled hypertension.ResultsEleven patients (eight males) underwent RSDN. The median age was 57 years [interquartile range (IQR) 49–66]. The median number of antihypertensives being taken at baseline was 4 (IQR 3–4). No statistically significant difference was observed in serum creatinine in the serial follow-ups until at 6 months[median difference 0.25 mg/dL (IQR 0.09–0.53); P = 0.008]. There was a non-significant reduction in median clinic BP from baseline to 6 months [−14 mmHg (IQR −24–5)] and a significant increase in daytime ambulatory systolic BP [7 mmHg (IQR −2–12); P= 0.045]. A trend towards a serial reduction in albuminuria was observed. Procedure-related complications included a groin haematoma (n = 1) and reported flank (n = 1) and groin pain (n = 1).ConclusionsThis pilot study shows that CO2 renal angiography can be used to perform RSDN in patients with significant renal impairment and may lead to associated improvements in clinic BP and albuminuria.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hospital procedure volume does not predict acute kidney injury after
           coronary artery bypass grafting—a nationwide study

    • Authors: Sakhuja A; Kashani K, Schold J, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundAcute kidney injury (AKI) is common after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and is associated with poor outcome. Increased hospital procedure volume has been associated with better outcomes. However, the impact of hospital CABG volume on AKI needing dialysis (AKI-D) is less clear. We designed this study to examine (i) the impact of number of annual CABG procedures per hospital (CABG-vol) on AKI-D and inpatient mortality and (ii) if it modifies the relationship between AKI-D and mortality.MethodsUsing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2010, we identified admissions with CABG and those with AKI-D using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of CABG-vol on AKI-D and mortality. We used restricted cubic splines to account for the nonlinear relationship between CABG-vol and mortality. We also evaluated the a priori interaction term between CABG-vol and AKI-D in the model for mortality.ResultsOf 4 002 730 hospitalizations for CABG, 0.7% (24 126) had AKI-D. On adjusted analysis, CABG-vol did not correlate with odds of developing AKI-D [odds ratio (OR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99–1.00] but was associated with mortality, though the association was nonlinear. AKI-D was a significant predictor of mortality with OR 7.58 (95% CI 6.81–8.44). The interaction of CABG-vol and AKI-D was not significant (P = 0.8).ConclusionsLower annual CABG hospital procedure volume is significantly associated with higher mortality but not with a higher incidence of AKI-D. AKI-D is associated with higher mortality in those undergoing CABG. However, there is no differential effect of hospital volume on odds of mortality due to AKI-D.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Environmental toxin-induced acute kidney injury

    • Authors: Vervaet B; D’Haese P, Verhulst A.
      Abstract: Human beings are exposed to various potentially toxic agents and conditions in their natural and occupational environments. The kidney, due to its concentrating ability and excretory function, is highly vulnerable to the effects of environmental toxins. Identifying the precise cause and mechanisms of environmentally induced renal injury remains a challenge for which various scientific disciplines need to be involved. Investigations in this field are confronted with the apparent infinite types of toxins, their mutual interaction, handling/metabolization by the body, ways of exposure, etc. Although interdisciplinary efforts and persistence are required to identify, mechanistically unravel and tackle environmental toxin–induced pathologies, research eventually pays off in ameliorated working/living conditions and development of preventive/therapeutic strategies. This review was compiled to particularly emphasize the need for a maintained awareness of environmental threats in general and those targeting the kidney. Different mechanisms of renal toxicity are illustrated and discussed, thereby focusing on three types of environmental toxins, namely aristolochic acid, melamine and heavy metals.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Angiotensinogen as a biomarker of acute kidney injury

    • Authors: Ba Aqeel S; Sanchez A, Batlle D.
      Abstract: Early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) is critical to prevent its associated complications as well as its progression to long term adverse outcomes like chronic kidney disease. A growing body of evidence from both laboratory and clinical studies suggests that inflammation is a key factor contributing to the progression of AKI regardless of the initiating event. Biomarkers of inflammation are therefore of interest in the evaluation of AKI pathogenesis and prognosis. There is evidence that the renin angiotensin aldosterone system is activated in AKI, which leads to an increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) formation within the kidney. Ang II activates pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic pathways that likely contribute to the progression of AKI. Angiotensinogen is the parent polypeptide from which angiotensin peptides are formed and its stability in urine makes it a more convenient marker of renin angiotensin system activity than direct measurement of Ang II in urine specimens, which would provide more direct information. The potential utility of urinary angiotensinogen as a biomarker of AKI is discussed in light of emerging data showing a strong predictive value of AKI progression, particularly in the setting of decompensated heart failure. The prognostic significance of urinary angiotensinogen as an AKI biomarker strongly suggests a role for renin–angiotensin system activation in modulating the severity of AKI and its outcomes.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Venous air embolism related to the use of central catheters revisited:
           with emphasis on dialysis catheters

    • Authors: Wong S; Kwaan H, Ing T.
      Abstract: Venous air embolism is a dreaded condition particularly relevant to the field of nephrology. In the face of a favourable, air-to-blood pressure gradient and an abnormal communication between the atmosphere and the veins, air entrance into the circulation is common and can bring about venous air embolism. These air emboli can migrate to different areas through three major routes: pulmonary circulation, paradoxical embolism and retrograde ascension to the cerebral venous system. The frequent undesirable outcome of this disease entity, despite timely and aggressive treatment, signifies the importance of understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and of the implementation of various preventive measures. The not-that-uncommon occurrence of venous air embolism, often precipitated by improper patient positioning during cervical catheter procedures, suggests that awareness of this procedure-related complication among health care workers is not universal. This review aims to update the pathophysiology of venous air embolism and to emphasize the importance of observing the necessary precautionary measures during central catheter use in hopes of eliminating this unfortunate but easily avoidable mishap in nephrology practice.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Kidney involvement in the Schnitzler syndrome, a rare disease

    • Authors: Basile C; Rossi L, Casucci F, et al.
      Abstract: The Schnitzler syndrome (SS) is a rare and underdiagnosed entity that associates a chronic urticarial rash, monoclonal IgM (or sometimes IgG) gammopathy and signs and symptoms of systemic inflammation. During the past 45 years, the SS has evolved from an elusive little-known disorder to the paradigm of a late-onset acquired auto-inflammatory syndrome. Though there is no definite proof of its precise pathogenesis, it should be considered as an acquired disease involving abnormal stimulation of the innate immune system, which can be reversed by the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. It clearly expands our view of this group of rare genetic diseases and makes the concept of auto-inflammation relevant in polygenic acquired diseases as well. Increasing numbers of dermatologists, rheumatologists, allergologists, haematologists and, more recently, nephrologists, recognize the SS. The aim of this review is to focus on kidney involvement in the SS. Although the literature regarding kidney involvement in the SS is very poor it can be severe, as in our own case here reported, leading us to recommend the systematic search for nephropathy markers in the SS.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Complement-dependent cytotoxicity and Luminex technology for human
           leucocyte antigen antibody detection in kidney transplant candidates
           exposed to different sensitizing events

    • Authors: Katalinić N; Starčević A, Mavrinac M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure to different sensitizing events (SEs) and to assess their effects on human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alloimmunization in transplant candidates using two different HLA antibody screening techniques: complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and Luminex.MethodsThis retrospective study included HLA antibody screening results for 163 patients on the kidney transplant waiting list (WL) tested from March 2012 until the end of December 2015 at the Tissue Typing Laboratory, Rijeka, Croatia. All sera samples were tested using the CDC and Luminex techniques in parallel.ResultsTwo-thirds of the patients [114 (70%)] on the WL were exposed to transfusions, pregnancies and/or kidney transplant. The pre-transplant sera of 104 (63.80%) patients were negative for antibodies. In the sera of 23 (14.11%) patients, HLA antibodies were detected by CDC and Luminex and in the sera of 36 (22.09%) patients by Luminex only.ConclusionIn patients on kidney WL, previous organ transplantation represents the strongest immunogenic stimulus, followed by blood transfusions (the most frequent SE) and pregnancies. Although Luminex is more sensitive than CDC in HLA antibody detection, the decision on unacceptable HLA antigens in WL patients has to be based on the results of both assays and the patient’s immunization history.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effective immunosuppressive management with belatacept and eculizumab in
           post-transplant aHUS due to a homozygous deletion of CFHR1/CFHR3 and the
           presence of CFH antibodies

    • Authors: Münch J; Bachmann A, Grohmann M, et al.
      Abstract: Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) may clinically present as acute renal graft failure resulting from excessive activation of the complement cascade. While mutations of complement-encoding genes predispose for aHUS, it is generally thought to require an additional insult (e.g. drugs) to trigger and manifest the full-blown clinical syndrome. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) used for immunosuppression act as potential triggers, especially in the post-transplantation setting. Therefore, CNI-free immunosuppressive regimens may be beneficial. We report on a 58-year-old woman who developed aHUS with acute graft failure within 20 days after renal transplantation. Genetic investigation revealed a homozygous deletion of the CFH-related 1 (CFHR1) and CFHR3 genes in addition to the presence of autoantibodies against complement factor H (CFH). The patient was treated with plasmapheresis and administration of the complement component 5 (C5) antibody eculizumab, and her immunosuppressive regimen was switched from CNI (tacrolimus) to the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor belatacept. Renal graft function recovered and stabilized over an 18-month follow-up period. We describe the successful management of post-transplant aHUS using a CNI-free immunosuppressive regimen based on eculizumab and belatacept. Ideally, adequate molecular diagnostics, performed prior to transplantation, can identify relevant genetic risk factors for graft failure and help to select patients for individualized immunosuppressive regimens.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Symptom burden in patients with chronic kidney disease not requiring renal
           replacement therapy

    • Authors: Brown S; Tyrer F, Clarke A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough evidence shows that patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) experience a high symptom burden which impacts on quality of life (QoL), less is known about patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to explore symptom burden and potential contributing factors in patients with CKD Stage 1-5 not requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).MethodsPatients with CKD Stage 1-5 and not on RRT were asked to report their symptoms using the Leicester Uraemic Symptom Score (LUSS), a questionnaire which assesses the frequency and intrusiveness of 11 symptoms commonly reported by kidney patients.ResultsSymptoms were assessed in 283 CKD Stage 1-5 patients: 54% male, mean age 60.5 standard error± 1.0, mean eGFR 38ml/min/1.73m2. Some 96% (95% confidence interval 93.2–98.0) of participants reported experiencing at least one symptom, the median reported being six. Excessive tiredness (81%;76.0–85.6), sleep disturbance (70%;64.3–75.3) and pain in bones/joints (69%;63.4–74.6) were reported most commonly. Overall, few significant associations were found between biochemical markers of disease severity and symptom burden. Men tended to report fewer symptoms than women and South Asian patients often described experiencing symptoms with a greater severity. Older patients found musculoskeletal symptoms more intrusive whereas younger patients found reduced concentration more intrusive.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that patients with CKD stages 1–5 experience a multitude of symptoms that could potentially impact QoL. Using multidimensional tools like the LUSS, more exploration and focus could provide a greater opportunity for patient focussed symptom control from the earliest stages of CKD.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Perioperative Plasma-Lyte use reduces the incidence of renal replacement
           therapy and hyperkalaemia following renal transplantation when compared
           with 0.9% saline: a retrospective cohort study

    • Authors: Adwaney A; Randall D, Blunden M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundKidney transplant recipients often receive large volumes of intravenous fluid replacement in the peri-operative period. Administration of 0.9% saline has previously been associated with acidosis, hyperkalaemia and acute kidney injury. The perioperative use of physiologically balanced replacement fluids may reduce the incidence of post-operative renal replacement therapy and hyperkalaemia.MethodsA retrospective review of consecutive renal transplants before and after a change in perioperative fluid prescription from 0.9% saline to Plasma-Lyte 148.ResultsA total of 97 patients were included in the study, 59 receiving exclusively 0.9% saline and 38 receiving exclusively Plasma-Lyte. Patients in the Plasma-Lyte group were less likely to require emergency postoperative dialysis than those receiving 0.9% saline [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (95% confidence interval 0.03–0.48), P = 0.004], and these patients had more favourable biochemical parameters with less hyperkalaemia, less acidosis and better diuresis. Patients in the Plasma-Lyte group also had a shorter length of hospital stay (7 days versus 11 days; P < 0.0001) and better graft function at 3 months postoperatively (estimated glomerular filtration rate 51 versus 44 mL/min/1.73 m2; P = 0.03); however, there was no difference in graft function at 1 year.ConclusionsPlasma-Lyte in the perioperative period is safe in renal transplantation and is associated with a favourable biochemical profile, including a reduced incidence of hyperkalaemia, better diuresis and less frequent use of renal replacement therapy early after surgery. In patients receiving Plasma-Lyte, graft function was better at 3 months, but this difference did not persist up to 1 year after transplantation.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The utility of whole body vibration exercise in haemodialysis patients: a
           pilot study

    • Authors: Doyle A; Chalmers K, Chinn D, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundExercise improves physical capacity in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis (HD), but few patients engage in it. Whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a novel protocol that has been shown to benefit frail elderly patients’ rehabilitation. We assessed the utility of WBVE before HD sessions and tested methods to inform the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).MethodsPhysical condition and quality of life were assessed at enrolment and repeated 2 weeks later in a pilot study of 49 patients undergoing regular HD. All patients then undertook 8 weeks of WBVE, thrice weekly for 3 min, after which the assessments were repeated and results compared (paired t-tests). Further assessments were made after a 4-week layoff. Patients completed a post-study questionnaire about their experiences of using WBVE. The reproducibility of WBVE and effects on measures of functionality, muscle strength, indirect exercise capacity, nutritional status, bone health and quality of life were recorded to undertake a power calculation for an RCT.ResultsOf 49 patients enrolled, 25 completed all assessments. The dropout rate was high at 49%, but overall, WBVE was an acceptable form of exercise. Functionality as assessed by the 60-s sit-to-stand test (STS-60) improved significantly by 11% (P = 0.002). Some quality of life domains also improved significantly. All improvements were maintained 4 weeks after discontinuing WBVE.ConclusionsWBVE was acceptable, safe, easily incorporated into the routine of HD and was associated with useful improvements in physical function sufficient to justify a RCT.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hypercalcaemia preceding diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in
           renal transplant recipients

    • Authors: Ling J; Anderson T, Warren S, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThe overall incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in solid organ transplant recipients is 5–15%. A timely diagnosis of PJP is difficult and relies on imaging and detection of the organism.MethodsWe present a case series of four patients displaying hypercalcaemia with an eventual diagnosis of PJP and document the management of the outbreak with a multidisciplinary team approach. We discuss the underlying pathophysiology and previous reports of hypercalcaemia preceding a diagnosis of PJP. We also reviewed the evidence concerning PJP diagnosis and treatment.ResultsWithin our renal transplant cohort, four patients presented within 7 months with hypercalcaemia followed by an eventual diagnosis of PJP. We measured their corrected calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] levels at admission and following treatment of PJP. All four patients diagnosed with PJP were 4–20 years post-transplantation. Three of the four patients demonstrated PTH-independent hypercalcaemia (corrected calcium >3.0 mmol/L). The presence of high 1,25(OH)2D3 and low 25(OH)D levels suggest negation of the negative feedback mechanism possibly due to an extrarenal source; in this case, the alveolar macrophages. All four patients had resolution of their hypercalcaemia after treatment of PJP.ConclusionsGiven the outbreak of PJP in our renal transplant cohort, and based on previous experience from other units nationally, we implemented cohort-wide prophylaxis with trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole for 12 months in consultation with our local infectious diseases unit. Within this period there have been no further local cases of PJP.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Patient-perceived barriers to a screening program for depression: a
           patient opinion survey of hemodialysis patients

    • Authors: Farrokhi F; Beanlands H, Logan A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundDepression is a prevalent, yet underdiagnosed, psychiatric disorder among patients with end-stage renal disease. Active case identification through routine screening is suggested; however, patient-related barriers may reduce the effectiveness of screening for, and treating, depression. This study aimed to explore the perceived barriers that limit patients from participating in screening and treatment programs for depression.MethodsIn a cross-sectional study of chronic maintenance hemodialysis patients, the Perceived Barriers to Psychological Treatment questionnaire, adapted to include screening, was used to measure perceived barriers. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to identify patients with depressive symptoms.ResultsOf 160 participants, 73.1% reported at least one barrier preventing them from participation [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 66.2–80.0%]. Patients with depressive symptoms were more likely to perceive at least one barrier to a screening program for depression compared with those without depressive symptoms (96% versus 68.9%, respectively; odds ratio = 10.8; 95% CI 1.4–82.8; P = 0.005). The association of the barrier scores with depressive symptoms remained significant after adjustment for patient’s characteristics. The most common barriers that patients expressed were concerns about the side effects of any antidepressant medications that may be prescribed (40%), concerns about having more medications (32%), feeling that the problem is not severe enough (23%) and perceiving no risk of depression (23%).ConclusionsNegative perceptions about depression and its treatment among hemodialysis patients constitute an important barrier to identifying this condition and first need to be addressed before implementing a screening program in this population.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Histologic regression of fibrillary glomerulonephritis: the first report
           of biopsy-proven spontaneous resolution of disease

    • Authors: Sekulic M; Nasr S, Grande J, et al.
      Abstract: Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) is a rare immune complex type glomerulonephritis characterized by glomerular deposition of randomly oriented fibrils measuring 10–30 nm in thickness, and typically presents with proteinuria with or without renal insufficiency and hematuria. We present a case in which a patient initially presented at age 41 years with nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypertension; a kidney biopsy showed FGN. The patient was treated with angiotensin receptor blockage only, without immunosuppression as per patient preference, and the level of protein in the urine improved. During the follow-up period of 17 years, the patient developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient re-presented with nephrotic-range proteinuria 17 years later, at the age of 58 years. A kidney biopsy was performed and showed diffuse diabetic glomerulosclerosis with secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and related vascular changes. There was no evidence of FGN by immunofluorescence or electron microscopy. Although FGN has been rarely reported to regress clinically, this is the first documented case of histologic regression of FGN. The potential for FGN fibrils to regress spontaneously is important in the management of FGN patients considering that currently available immunosuppressive agents have limited efficacy, and is an encouraging finding for future studies aiming to find a cure for the disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regular exercise during haemodialysis promotes an anti-inflammatory
           leucocyte profile

    • Authors: Dungey M; Young H, Churchward D, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundCardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients and is highly predicted by markers of chronic inflammation. Regular exercise may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects, but this is unclear in HD patients. This study assessed the effect of regular intradialytic exercise on soluble inflammatory factors and inflammatory leucocyte phenotypes.MethodsTwenty-two HD patients from a centre where intradialytic cycling was offered thrice weekly and 16 HD patients receiving usual care volunteered. Exercising patients aimed to cycle for 30 min at rating of perceived exertion of ‘somewhat hard’. Baseline characteristics were compared with 16 healthy age-matched individuals. Physical function, soluble inflammatory markers and leucocyte phenotypes were assessed again after 6 months of regular exercise.ResultsPatients were less active than their healthy counterparts and had significant elevations in measures of inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intermediate and non-classical monocytes; all P < 0.001]. Six months of regular intradialytic exercise improved physical function (sit-to-stand 60). After 6 months, the proportion of intermediate monocytes in the exercising patients reduced compared with non-exercisers (7.58 ± 1.68% to 6.38 ± 1.81% versus 6.86 ± 1.45% to 7.88 ± 1.66%; P < 0.01). Numbers (but not proportion) of regulatory T cells decreased in the non-exercising patients only (P < 0.05). Training had no significant effect on circulating IL-6, CRP or TNF-α concentrations.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that regular intradialytic exercise is associated with an anti-inflammatory effect at a circulating cellular level but not in circulating cytokines. This may be protective against the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality that is associated with chronic inflammation and elevated numbers of intermediate monocytes.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Achieving high convection volumes in postdilution online
           hemodiafiltration: a prospective multicenter study

    • Authors: de Roij van Zuijdewijn C; Chapdelaine I, Nubé M, et al.
      Abstract: Background. Available evidence suggests a reduced mortality risk for patients treated with high-volume postdilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) when compared with hemodialysis (HD) patients. As the magnitude of the convection volume depends on treatment-related factors rather than patient-related characteristics, we prospectively investigated whether a high convection volume (defined as ≥22 L/session) is feasible in the majority of patients (>75%).Methods. A multicenter study was performed in adult prevalent dialysis patients. Nonparticipating eligible patients formed the control group. Using a stepwise protocol, treatment time (up to 4 hours), blood flow rate (up to 400 mL/min) and filtration fraction (up to 33%) were optimized as much as possible. The convection volume was determined at the end of this optimization phase and at 4 and 8 weeks thereafter.Results. Baseline characteristics were comparable in participants (n = 86) and controls (n = 58). At the end of the optimization and 8 weeks thereafter, 71/86 (83%) and 66/83 (80%) of the patients achieved high-volume HDF (mean 25.5 ± 3.6 and 26.0 ± 3.4 L/session, respectively). While treatment time remained unaltered, mean blood flow rate increased by 27% and filtration fraction increased by 23%. Patients with <22 L/session had a higher percentage of central venous catheters (CVCs), a shorter treatment time and lower blood flow rate when compared with patients with ≥22 L/session.Conclusions. High-volume HDF is feasible in a clear majority of dialysis patients. Since none of the patients agreed to increase treatment time, these findings indicate that high-volume HDF is feasible just by increasing blood flow rate and filtration fraction.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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