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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 306, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 523, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Cardiovascular Research
  [SJR: 2.897]   [H-I: 175]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0008-6363 - ISSN (Online) 1755-3245
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Cardiovascular benefits and risks of testosterone replacement: another
    • Authors: Lenfant F; Arnal J.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx143
  • IL-10 reprogramming of metabolism in macrophages through mitophagy
    • Authors: Patel J.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx144
  • Context-dependent signalling in platelets in vascular diseases: ROCK2
           around thrombosis
    • Authors: Filep JG.
      First page: 1267
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx141
  • From drugs to devices and back again: chemical vagal nerve stimulation for
           the treatment of heart failure
    • Authors: Ripplinger CM.
      First page: 1270
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx142
  • ROCK as a molecular bond connecting coronary microvascular and cardiac
    • Authors: Merkus D; Tune J.
      First page: 1273
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx139
  • Bioactive lipids in aortic valve stenosis—a possible link to
    • Authors: Bäck M; Larsson SC.
      First page: 1276
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx138
  • Tilting at the tilted protease balance in arterial aneurysmal disease
    • Authors: Libby P; Sukhova GK, Ozaki C, et al.
      First page: 1279
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx140
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells:
           differentiation and therapeutic potential
    • Authors: Ayoubi S; Sheikh SP, Eskildsen TV.
      First page: 1282
      Abstract: AbstractCardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide and current treatment strategies have limited effect of disease progression. It would be desirable to have better models to study developmental and pathological processes and model vascular diseases in laboratory settings. To this end, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have generated great enthusiasm, and have been a driving force for development of novel strategies in drug discovery and regenerative cell-therapy for the last decade. Hence, investigating the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of hiPSCs into specialized cell types such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may lead to a better understanding of developmental cardiovascular processes and potentiate progress of safe autologous regenerative therapies in pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize the latest trends on differentiation protocols of hiPSC-derived VSMCs and their potential application in vascular research and regenerative therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx125
  • Etv2 as an essential regulator of mesodermal lineage development
    • Authors: Koyano-Nakagawa N; Garry DJ.
      First page: 1294
      Abstract: AbstractThe ‘master regulatory factors’ that position at the top of the genetic hierarchy of lineage determination have been a focus of intense interest, and have been investigated in various systems. Etv2/Etsrp71/ER71 is such a factor that is both necessary and sufficient for the development of haematopoietic and endothelial lineages. As such, genetic ablation of Etv2 leads to complete loss of blood and vessels, and overexpression can convert non-endothelial cells to the endothelial lineage. Understanding such master regulatory role of a lineage is not only a fundamental quest in developmental biology, but also holds immense possibilities in regenerative medicine. To harness its activity and utility for therapeutic interventions, it is essential to understand the regulatory mechanisms, molecular function, and networks that surround Etv2. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of Etv2 biology focused on mouse and human systems.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx133
  • Decreased thromboembolic stroke but not atherosclerosis or vascular
           remodelling in mice with ROCK2-deficient platelets
    • Authors: Sladojevic N; Oh G, Kim H, et al.
      First page: 1307
      Abstract: AbstractAimsRho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK)-2 is an important mediator of the actin cytoskeleton. Because changes in the actin cytoskeleton are critical for platelet function, we hypothesized that ROCK2 in platelets will play important role in thrombosis and can be potentially a target for therapeutic intervention in thromboembolic stroke.Methods and resultsWe generated platelet-specific ROCK2-deficient mice (ROCK2Plt−/−) from conditional ROCK2fl°x/fl°x and platelet factor (PF)-4-Cre transgenic mice. Platelets from ROCK2Plt−/− mice were less responsive to thrombin stimulation in terms of pseudopodia formation, collagen adhesion, and in the formation of homotypic and heterotypic aggregates. This corresponded to prolonged bleeding time and delayed vascular occlusion following vessel injury. To determine whether these changes in platelet function could affect thrombotic disease, we utilized a clot-embolic model of ischaemic stroke. When pre-formed clots from ROCK2Plt−/− mice were injected into the middle cerebral artery of control mice, cerebral blood flow recovery occurred more rapidly, leading to decreased cerebral injury and neurological deficits, compared to pre-formed clots from control mice. Interestingly, pre-formed clots from control mice produced similar degree of cerebral injury when injected into control or ROCK2Plt−/− mice, suggesting that platelet ROCK2 deficiency affects clot formation but not propagation. Indeed, in a non-thrombotic intra-filament MCA occlusion model of stroke, platelet ROCK2 deletion was not protective. Furthermore, ROCK2Plt−/− mice exhibit similar atherosclerosis severity and vascular remodeling as control mice.ConclusionThese findings indicate that platelet ROCK2 plays important role in platelet function and thrombosis, but does not contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx071
  • Chronic activation of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons improves cardiac
           function during left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure
    • Authors: Garrott K; Dyavanapalli J, Cauley E, et al.
      First page: 1318
      Abstract: AbstractAimsA distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity, and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF.Methods and resultsTwo groups of male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF. In one TAC group, OXT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were chronically activated by selective expression and activation of excitatory DREADDs receptors with daily injections of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) (TAC + OXT). Two additional age-matched groups received either saline injections (Control) or CNO injections for excitatory DREADDs activation (OXT NORM). Heart rate (HR), LV developed pressure (LVDP), and coronary flow rate were measured in isolated heart experiments. Isoproterenol (0.01 nM–1.0 µM) was administered to evaluate β-adrenergic sensitivity. We found that increases in cellular hypertrophy and myocardial collagen density in TAC were blunted in TAC + OXT animals. Inflammatory cytokine IL-1β expression was more than twice higher in TAC than all other hearts. LVDP, rate pressure product (RPP), contractility, and relaxation were depressed in TAC compared with all other groups. The response of TAC and TAC + OXT hearts to isoproterenol was blunted, with no significant increase in RPP, contractility, or relaxation. However, HR in TAC + OXT animals increased to match Control at higher doses of isoproterenol.ConclusionsActivation of hypothalamic OXT neurons to elevate parasympathetic tone reduced cellular hypertrophy, levels of IL-1β, and fibrosis during TAC-induced HF in rats. Cardiac contractility parameters were significantly higher in TAC + OXT compared with TAC animals. HR sensitivity, but not contractile sensitivity, to β-adrenergic stimulation was improved in TAC + OXT hearts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx084
  • Enhanced endothelin-1/Rho-kinase signalling and coronary microvascular
           dysfunction in hypertensive myocardial hypertrophy
    • Authors: Tsai S; Lu G, Xu X, et al.
      First page: 1329
      Abstract: AbstractAimsHypertensive cardiac hypertrophy is associated with reduced coronary flow reserve, but its impact on coronary flow regulation and vasomotor function remains incompletely understood and requires further investigation.Methods and resultsLeft ventricular hypertrophy was induced in mice by transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) for 4 weeks. The left coronary artery blood velocity (LCABV) and myocardium lactate level were measured following the metabolic activation by isoproterenol. Septal coronary arterioles were isolated and pressurized for functional studies. In TAC mice, the heart-to-body weight ratio was increased by 45%, and cardiac fractional shortening and LCABV were decreased by 51 and 14%, respectively. The resting myocardial lactate level was 43% higher in TAC mice. Isoproterenol (5 µg/g, i.p.) increased heart rate by 20% in both groups of animals, but the corresponding increase in LCABV was not observed in TAC mice. The ventricular hypertrophy was associated with elevation of myocardial endothelin-1 (ET-1), increased vascular expression of rho-kinases (ROCKs), and increased superoxide production in the myocardium and vasculature. In coronary arterioles from TAC mice, the endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was reversed to vasoconstriction and the vasoconstriction to ET-1 was augmented. Inhibition of ROCK by H-1152 alleviated oxidative stress and abolished enhanced vasoconstriction to ET-1. Both H-1152 and superoxide scavenger Tempol abolished coronary arteriolar constriction to ACh in a manner sensitive to NO synthase blocker NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.ConclusionsMyocardial hypertrophy induced by pressure overload leads to cardiac and coronary microvascular dysfunction and ischaemia possibly due to oxidative stress, enhanced vasoconstriction to ET-1 and compromised endothelial NO function via elevated ROCK signalling.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx103
  • Exosomes secreted by cardiomyocytes subjected to ischaemia promote cardiac
    • Authors: Ribeiro-Rodrigues TM; Laundos TL, Pereira-Carvalho R, et al.
      First page: 1338
      Abstract: AbstractAimsMyocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and results from an obstruction in the blood supply to a region of the heart. In an attempt to replenish oxygen and nutrients to the deprived area, affected cells release signals to promote the development of new vessels and confer protection against MI. However, the mechanisms underlying the growth of new vessels in an ischaemic scenario remain poorly understood. Here, we show that cardiomyocytes subjected to ischaemia release exosomes that elicit an angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs).Methods and resultsExosomes secreted by H9c2 myocardial cells and primary cardiomyocytes, cultured either in control or ischaemic conditions were isolated and added to ECs. We show that ischaemic exosomes, in comparison with control exosomes, confer protection against oxidative-induced lesion, promote proliferation, and sprouting of ECs, stimulate the formation of capillary-like structures and strengthen adhesion complexes and barrier properties. Moreover, ischaemic exosomes display higher levels of metalloproteases (MMP) and promote the secretion of MMP by ECs. We demonstrate that miR-222 and miR-143, the relatively most abundant miRs in ischaemic exosomes, partially recapitulate the angiogenic effect of exosomes. Additionally, we show that ischaemic exosomes stimulate the formation of new functional vessels in vivo using in ovo and Matrigel plug assays. Finally, we demonstrate that intramyocardial delivery of ischaemic exosomes improves neovascularization following MI.ConclusionsThis study establishes that exosomes secreted by cardiomyocytes under ischaemic conditions promote heart angiogenesis, which may pave the way towards the development of add-on therapies to enhance myocardial blood supply.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx118
  • OxLDL-derived lysophosphatidic acid promotes the progression of aortic
           valve stenosis through a LPAR1-RhoA–NF-κB pathway
    • Authors: Nsaibia M; Boulanger M, Bouchareb R, et al.
      First page: 1351
      Abstract: AbstractAimsOxidatively modified lipoproteins may promote the development/progression of calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Oxidative transformation of low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator that accumulates in mineralized aortic valves. LPA activates at least six different G protein-coupled receptors, which may play a role in the pathophysiology of CAVS. We hypothesized that LPA derived from OxLDL may promote a NF-κB signature that drives osteogenesis in the aortic valve.Methods and resultsThe role of OxLDL-LPA was examined in isolated valve interstitial cells (VICs) and the molecular pathway was validated in human explanted aortic valves and in a mouse model of CAVS. We found that OxLDL-LPA promoted the mineralization and osteogenic transition of VICs through LPAR1 and the activation of a RhoA-NF-κB pathway. Specifically, we identified that RhoA/ROCK activated IκB kinase alpha, which promoted the phosphorylation of p65 on serine 536 (p65 pS536). p65 pS536 was recruited to the BMP2 promoter and directed an osteogenic program not responsive to the control exerted by the inhibitor of kappa B. In LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100/IGFII transgenic mice (IGFII), which develop CAVS under a high-fat and high-sucrose diet the administration of Ki16425, a Lpar1 blocker, reduced by three-fold the progression rate of CAVS and also decreased the osteogenic activity as measured with a near-infrared fluorescent probe that recognizes hydroxyapatite of calcium.ConclusionsOxLDL-LPA promotes an osteogenic program in the aortic valve through a LPAR1-RhoA/ROCK–p65 pS536 pathway. LPAR1 may represent a suitable target to prevent the progression of CAVS.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx089
  • Gingival fibroblasts protect against experimental abdominal aortic
           aneurysm development and rupture through tissue inhibitor of
           metalloproteinase-1 production
    • Authors: Giraud A; Zeboudj L, Vandestienne M, et al.
      First page: 1364
      Abstract: AbstractAimsAbdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), frequently diagnosed in old patients, is characterized by chronic inflammation, vascular cell apoptosis and metalloproteinase-mediated extracellular matrix destruction. Despite improvement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm, no pharmacological treatment is yet available to limit dilatation and/or rupture. We previously reported that human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) can reduce carotid artery dilatation in a rabbit model of elastase-induced aneurysm. Here, we sought to investigate the mechanisms of GF-mediated vascular protection in two different models of aortic aneurysm growth and rupture in mice.Methods and resultsIn vitro, mouse GFs proliferated and produced large amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (Timp-1). GFs deposited on the adventitia of abdominal aorta survived, proliferated, and organized as a layer structure. Furthermore, GFs locally produced Il-10, TGF-β, and Timp-1. In a mouse elastase-induced AAA model, GFs prevented both macrophage and lymphocyte accumulations, matrix degradation, and aneurysm growth. In an Angiotensin II/anti-TGF-β model of aneurysm rupture, GF cell-based treatment limited the extent of aortic dissection, prevented abdominal aortic rupture, and increased survival. Specific deletion of Timp-1 in GFs abolished the beneficial effect of cell therapy in both AAA mouse models.ConclusionsGF cell-based therapy is a promising approach to inhibit aneurysm progression and rupture through local production of Timp-1.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx110
  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta promotes intracellular lipid
           accumulation in M1 macrophages of vascular lesions
    • Authors: Lai H; Hsu L, Tsai H, et al.
      First page: 1376
      Abstract: AbstractAimsLipid homeostasis is reprogrammed in the presence of inflammation, which results in excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages, and leads to the formation of lipid–laden foam cells. We aimed to link an inflammation-responsive transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) with polarized macrophages and dissect its contribution to lipid accumulation.Methods and resultsWe found that CEBPD protein colocalized with macrophages in human and mouse (C57BL/6, Apoe−/−) atherosclerotic plaques and that Cebpd deficiency in bone marrow cells suppressed atherosclerotic lesions in hyperlipidemic Apoe−/− mice. CEBPD was responsive to modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) via the p38MAPK/CREB pathway, and it promoted lipid accumulation in M1 macrophages but not in M2 macrophages. CEBPD up-regulated pentraxin 3 (PTX3), which promoted the macropinocytosis of LDL, and down-regulated ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), which impaired the intracellular cholesterol efflux in M1 macrophages. We further found that simvastatin (a HMG–CoA reductase inhibitor) could target CEBPD to block lipid accumulation in a manner not directly related to its cholesterol-lowering effect in M1 macrophages.ConclusionThis study underscores how CEBPD functions at the junction of inflammation and lipid accumulation in M1 macrophages. Therefore, CEBPD-mediated lipid accumulation in M1 macrophages could represent a new therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx134
  • Amyloidogenic medin induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular
           inflammation through the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts
    • Authors: Migrino RQ; Davies HA, Truran S, et al.
      First page: 1389
      Abstract: AbstractAimsMedin is a common amyloidogenic protein in humans that accumulates in arteries with advanced age and has been implicated in vascular degeneration. Medin’s effect on endothelial function remains unknown. The aims are to assess medin’s effects on human arteriole endothelial function and identify potential mechanisms underlying medin-induced vascular injury.Methods and resultsEx vivo human adipose and leptomeningeal arterioles were exposed (1 h) to medin (0.1, 1, or 5 µM) without or with FPS–ZM1 [100 µM, receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE)-specific inhibitor] and endothelium-dependent function (acetylcholine dilator response) and endothelium-independent function (dilator response to nitric oxide donor diethylenetriamine NONOate) were compared with baseline control. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to medin without or with FPS–ZM1 and oxidative and nitrative stress, cell viability, and pro-inflammatory signaling measures were obtained. Medin caused impaired endothelial function (vs. baseline response: −45.2 ± 5.1 and −35.8 ± 7.9% in adipose and leptomeningeal arterioles, respectively, each P < 0.05). Dilator response to NONOate was not significantly changed. Medin decreased arteriole and endothelial cell nitric oxide production, increased superoxide production, reduced endothelial cell viability, proliferation, and migration. Medin increased gene and protein expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 via activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). Medin-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress were reversed by antioxidant polyethylene glycol superoxide dismutase and by RAGE inhibitor FPS-ZM1.ConclusionsMedin causes human microvascular endothelial dysfunction through oxidative and nitrative stress and promotes pro-inflammatory signaling in endothelial cells. These effects appear to be mediated via RAGE. The findings represent a potential novel mechanism of vascular injury.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx135
  • Impaired calcium homeostasis is associated with sudden cardiac death and
           arrhythmias in a genetic equivalent mouse model of the human HRC-Ser96Ala
    • Authors: Tzimas C; Johnson DM, Santiago DJ, et al.
      First page: 1403
      Abstract: AbstractAimsThe histidine-rich calcium-binding protein (HRC) Ser96Ala variant has previously been identified as a potential biomarker for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Herein, the role of this variant in cardiac pathophysiology is delineated through a novel mouse model, carrying the human mutation in the homologous mouse position.Methods and resultsThe mouse HRC serine 81, homologous to human HRC serine 96, was mutated to alanine, using knock-in gene targeting. The HRC-Ser81Ala mice presented increased mortality in the absence of structural or histological abnormalities, indicating that early death may be arrhythmia-related. Indeed, under stress-but not baseline-conditions, the HRC-Ser81Ala mice developed ventricular arrhythmias, whilst at the cardiomyocyte level they exhibited increased occurrence of triggered activity. Cardiac contraction was decreased in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Additionally, Ca2+ transients and SR Ca2+ load were both reduced suggesting that cytosolic Ca2+ overload is not the underlying proarrhythmic mechanism. Interestingly, total SR Ca2+ leak was increased in HRC-Ser81Ala cardiomyocytes, without an increase in Ca2+ spark and wave frequency. However, Ca2+ wave propagation was significantly slower and the duration of the associated Na/Ca exchange current was increased. Moreover, action potential duration was also increased. Notably, Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor was increased, whilst KN-93, an inhibitor of CaMKII, reduced the occurrence of arrhythmias.ConclusionsThe homologous mutation Ser81Ala in HRC in mice, corresponding to Ser96Ala in humans, is associated with sudden death and depressed cardiac function. Ventricular arrhythmias are related to abnormal Ca2+ cycling across the SR. The data further support a role for CaMKII with the perspective to treat arrhythmias through CaMKII inhibition.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx113
  • Future strategies for acute cardioprotection: ‘melatonin as
           promising therapy’
    • Authors: Dominguez-Rodriguez A; Abreu-Gonzalez P.
      First page: 1418
      Abstract: To the Editor,
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx136
  • Melatonin as a cardioprotective therapy following ST-segment elevation
           myocardial infarction: is it really promising' Reply
    • Authors: Hausenloy DJ; Garcia-Dorado D, Erik Bøtker H, et al.
      First page: 1418
      Abstract: We thank Dominguez-Rodriguez and Abreu-Gonzalez1 for their comment on our ESC Working Group (WG) Position Paper on cardioprotection,2 in which they propose melatonin to be a promising cardioprotective strategy. This was based, in part, on the recently published results of the Melatonin Adjunct in acute myocaRdial Infarction treated with Angioplasty (MARIA) trial, in which they investigated the cardioprotective effects of melatonin in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).3 However, in the MARIA trial, the authors found that intravenous and intracoronary melatonin administered at the time of reperfusion failed to reduce acute myocardial infarct (MI) size (assessed by cardiac MRI).3 In fact, in that study, melatonin was found to actually worsen adverse post-MI left ventricular (LV) remodelling when compared to placebo (with significantly higher left LV end diastolic and systolic volumes, and lower ejection fraction on cardiac MRI at 4 months following PPCI).3 The cause of this detrimental effect of melatonin on post-MI LV remodelling is not clear, but may be related to its reported effects on increasing myocardial accumulation of collagen and glycosaminoglycans following infarction.4 In another study, oral melatonin started on the night following PPCI and continued daily during the hospitalisation, had mixed results on enzymatic MI size following STEMI (CK-MB and hs-Troponin-T at 6 h post-PPCI),5 although the study was underpowered (only 40 patients), and the dosing regimen was suboptimal. Another clinical study reported cardioprotective effects with 5 days’ pre-treatment with melatonin in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, as evidenced by less peri-operative myocardial injury when compared to placebo pre-treatment,6 suggesting that melatonin may be more effective as a cardioprotective agent when administered prior to index ischaemia (as in CABG surgery) rather than at the time of reperfusion (as in STEMI patients).
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvx137
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