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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 586, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Protein Engineering, Design and Selection
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.063
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1741-0126 - ISSN (Online) 1741-0134
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Antibody discovery and the arrow of time
    • Authors: Huston J.
      Pages: 231 - 232
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy026
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Affinity maturation of an TpoR targeting antibody in full-length IgG form
           for enhanced agonist activity
    • Authors: Yang Z; Du M, Wang W, et al.
      Pages: 233 - 241
      Abstract: It has been observed that converting scFv formatted antibodies to full-length IgG often associates with loss of affinity. We aim to address this issue in this paper by establishing an integrated affinity maturation method applying yeast display technology platform. To demonstrate that, we employed a human thrombopoietin receptor targeting antibody named 3D9 which was identified previously from a combinational antibody library in scFv-Fc fusion protein form. We have observed that significant potency loss happened when 3D9 was transformed to full-length IgG form. In this study, we tested whether the potency of the full-length IgG can be improved by affinity maturation of 3D9 using a modified Fab yeast display platform. An efficient CDR3 targeted mutagenesis strategy was designed for Fab library with pre-designed CDR diversity. Next generation sequencing was also used for evaluation of the enrichment process and investigation of sequence-function relationship of the antibody. A variant with improved affinity and higher potency was identified. The study demonstrates that the strategy we used here are efficient for optimizing affinity and activity of full-length IgGs.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy002
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Roles of the disulfide bond between the variable and the constant domains
           of rabbit immunoglobulin kappa chains in thermal stability and affinity
    • Authors: Kawade R; Akiba H, Entzminger K, et al.
      Pages: 243 - 247
      Abstract: Rabbit antibodies show unique structural characteristics in that kappa chains have an inter-domain disulfide bond between the variable and constant domains. Here we characterized this disulfide bond from physicochemical viewpoints both in stability and affinity. It was revealed that the disulfide bond contributed to the thermal stability of the antibody, but the affinity and mechanism of antigen recognition was not altered by the mutation. The present result expands the understanding of how rabbit antibodies with kappa light chains gain affinity under characteristic mechanism to gain thermal stability, and would give suggestions for the methods to artificially stabilize antibody molecules.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy008
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Generation of orthogonal Fab-based trispecific antibody formats
    • Authors: Wu X; Yuan R, Bacica M, et al.
      Pages: 249 - 256
      Abstract: The clinical success of monoclonal antibodies to treat diseases across nearly every therapeutic area has spurred advances in bispecific antibody technology with the goal of cost-effectively combining various therapies or providing novel mechanisms for disease intervention. Many novel bispecific antibodies are now in clinical development or the late pre-clinical setting. A new horizon exists for novel molecular entities with the ability to bind three or more antigens. Here we describe the production and characterization of novel trispecific antibody-like proteins denoted ‘OrthoTsAbs’ that self-assemble through the application of engineered antibody domain interfaces.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy007
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Lessons learned from merging wet lab experiments with molecular simulation
           to improve mAb humanization
    • Authors: Schwaigerlehner L; Pechlaner M, Mayrhofer P, et al.
      Pages: 257 - 265
      Abstract: Humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are among the most promising modern therapeutics, but defined engineering strategies are still not available. Antibody humanization often leads to a loss of affinity, as it is the case for our model antibody Ab2/3H6 (PDB entry 3BQU). Identifying appropriate back-to-mouse mutations is needed to restore binding affinity, but highly challenging. In order to get more insight, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and correlated them to antibody binding and expression in wet lab experiments. In this study, we discuss six mAb variants and investigate a tyrosine conglomeration, an isopolar substitution and the improvement of antibody binding towards wildtype affinity. In the 3D structure of the mouse wildtype, residue R94h is surrounded by three tyrosines which form a so-called ‘tyrosine cage’. We demonstrate that the tyrosine cage has a supporting function for the CDRh3 loop conformation. The isopolar substitution is not able to mimic the function appropriately. Finally, we show that additional light chain mutations can restore binding to wildtype-comparable level, and also improve the expression of the mAb significantly. We conclude that the variable light chain of Ab2/3H6 is of underestimated importance for the interaction with its antigen mAb 2F5.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy009
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Analysis of nanobody paratopes reveals greater diversity than classical
           antibodies
    • Authors: Mitchell L; Colwell L, Bonvin A.
      Pages: 267 - 275
      Abstract: Nanobodies (Nbs) are a class of antigen-binding protein derived from camelid immune systems, which achieve equivalent binding affinities and specificities to classical antibodies (Abs) despite being comprised of only a single variable domain. Here, we use a data set of 156 unique Nb:antigen complex structures to characterize Nb–antigen binding and draw comparison to a set of 156 unique Ab:antigen structures. We analyse residue composition and interactions at the antigen interface, together with structural features of the paratopes of both data sets. Our analysis finds that the set of Nb structures displays much greater paratope diversity, in terms of the structural segments involved in the paratope, the residues used at these positions to contact the antigen and furthermore the type of contacts made with the antigen. Our findings suggest a different relationship between contact propensity and sequence variability from that observed for Ab VH domains. The distinction between sequence positions that control interaction specificity and those that form the domain scaffold is much less clear-cut for Nbs, and furthermore H3 loop positions play a much more dominant role in determining interaction specificity.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy017
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Contribution of an unusual CDR2 element of a single domain antibody in
           ricin toxin binding affinity and neutralizing activity
    • Authors: Rudolph M; Vance D, Kelow S, et al.
      Pages: 277 - 287
      Abstract: Ricin toxin’s enzymatic subunit (RTA) has been subjected to intensive B cell epitope mapping studies using a combination of competition ELISAs, hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Those studies identified four spatially distinct clusters (I–IV) of toxin-neutralizing epitopes on the surface of RTA. Here we describe A9, a new single domain camelid antibody (VHH) that was proposed to recognize a novel epitope on RTA that straddles clusters I and III. The X-ray crystal structure of A9 bound to RTA (2.6 Å resolution) revealed extensive antibody contact with RTA’s β-strand h (732 Å2 buried surface area; BSA), along with limited engagement with α-helix D (90 Å2) and α-helix C (138 Å2). Collectively, these contacts explain the overlap between epitope clusters I and III, as identified by competition ELISA. However, considerable binding affinity, and, consequently, toxin-neutralizing activity of A9 is mediated by an unusual CDR2 containing five consecutive Gly residues that interact with α-helix B (82 Å2), a known neutralizing hotspot on RTA. Removal of a single Gly residue from the penta-glycine stretch in CDR2 reduced A9’s binding affinity by 10-fold and eliminated toxin-neutralizing activity. Computational modeling indicates that removal of a Gly from CDR2 does not perturb contact with RTA per se, but results in the loss of an intramolecular hydrogen bond network involved in stabilizing CDR2 in the unbound state. These results reveal a novel configuration of a CDR2 element involved in neutralizing ricin toxin.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy022
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Variable heavy–variable light domain and Fab-arm CrossMabs with charged
           residue exchanges to enforce correct light chain assembly
    • Authors: Regula J; Imhof-Jung S, Mølhøj M, et al.
      Pages: 289 - 299
      Abstract: Technologies for the production of bispecific antibodies need to overcome two major challenges. The first one is correct heavy chain assembly, which was solved by knobs-into-holes technology or charge interactions in the CH3 domains. The second challenge is correct light chain assembly. This can be solved by engineering the Fab-arm interfaces or applying the immunoglobulin domain crossover approach. There are three different crossovers possible, namely Fab-arm, constant domain and variable domain crossovers. The CrossMabCH1–CL exchange does not lead to the formation of unexpected side products, whereas the CrossMabFab and the CrossMabVH–VL formats result in the formation of typical side products. Thus, CrossMabCH1–CL was initially favored for therapeutic antibody development. Here, we report a novel improved CrossMab design principle making use of site-specific positional exchanges of charged amino acid pairs in the constant domain of these CrossMabs to enable the correct light chain assembly in the CrossMabVH–VL and improvements for the CrossMabFab design.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy021
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Synthetic 10FN3-based mono- and bivalent inhibitors of MDM2/X function
    • Authors: Lau S; Siau J, Sobota R, et al.
      Pages: 301 - 312
      Abstract: Engineered non-antibody scaffold proteins constitute a rapidly growing technology for diagnostics and modulation/perturbation of protein function. Here, we describe the rapid and systematic development of high-affinity 10FN3 domain inhibitors of the MDM2 and MDMX proteins. These are often overexpressed in cancer and represent attractive drug targets. Using facile in vitro expression and pull-down assay methodology, numerous design iterations addressing insertion site(s) and spacer length were screened for optimal presentation of an MDM2/X dual peptide inhibitor in the 10FN3 scaffold. Lead inhibitors demonstrated robust, on-target cellular inhibition of MDM2/X leading to activation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Significant improvement to target engagement was observed by increasing valency within a single 10FN3 domain, which has not been demonstrated previously. We further established stable reporter cell lines with tunable expression of EGFP-fused 10FN3 domain inhibitors, and showed their intracellular location to be contingent on target engagement. Importantly, competitive inhibition of MDM2/X by small molecules and cell-penetrating peptides led to a readily observable phenotype, indicating significant potential of the developed platform as a robust tool for cell-based drug screening.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy018
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
  • Rational optimization of a monoclonal antibody for simultaneous
           improvements in its solution properties and biological activity
    • Authors: Kumar S; Roffi K, Tomar D, et al.
      Pages: 313 - 325
      Abstract: Developability considerations should be integrated with lead engineering of antibody drug candidates in interest of their cost effective translations into medicines. To explore feasibility of this imperative, we have performed rational mutagenesis studies on a monoclonal antibody (MAB1) whose development was discontinued owing to manufacturability hurdles. Seven computationally designed variants of MAB1 containing single point (V44K, E59S, E59T and E59Y) and double (V44KE59S, V44KE59T and V44KE59Y) mutations in its light chain were produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and purified by using platform processes employed during commercial scale production of monoclonal antibodies. MAB1 and its variants were formulated in the same platform buffer and subjected to a battery of experiments to assess their solution behaviors, and biological activities. Five of the seven (71%) variants of MAB1 demonstrated improved biophysical attributes in multiple experimental testings. Contrary to the commonly expressed reservations about potential biological activity loss upon developability optimizations, the improvements in solution behavior of MAB1 also increased its biological activity up to ~180%. In particular, concentrate-ability and apparent solubility of V44KE59S improved to ~150% and ~160%, respectively. Its diffusion interaction parameter (kD) reduced to 28% and viscosity at ~100 mg/ml decreased to less than half of the corresponding values for MAB1. V44KE59S is also slightly more active and its transfections in CHO cells were more productive. It also degraded slower than MAB1 in three month long 25°C and 40°C formulation stability studies. These results open doors to an exciting realm of structure-based biologic drug design where developability and biological activity can be simultaneously optimized at the molecular engineering stages.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzy020
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 7-8 (2018)
       
 
 
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