Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 411 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 411 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 387, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 620, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Reproduction Update
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.317
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 19  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1355-4786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2369
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [411 journals]
  • IUI for unexplained infertility—a network meta-analysis
    • Authors: Danhof N; Wang R, van Wely M, et al.
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBACKGROUNDIUI for unexplained infertility can be performed in a natural cycle or in combination with ovarian stimulation. A disadvantage of ovarian stimulation is an increased risk of multiple pregnancies with its inherent maternal and neonatal complication risks. Stimulation agents for ovarian stimulation are clomiphene citrate (CC), Letrozole or gonadotrophins. Although studies have compared two or three of these drugs to each other in IUI, they have never been compared to one another in one analysis.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe objective of this network meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness and safety of IUI with CC, Letrozole or gonadotrophins with each other and with natural cycle IUI.SEARCH METHODSWe searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL and the Clinical Trial Registration Database indexed up to 16 August 2018. We included randomized controlled trials that compared a stimulation regimen with CC, Letrozole or gonadotrophins to each other or to natural cycle IUI among couples with unexplained infertility. We performed the network meta-analysis within a multivariate random effects model.OUTCOMESWe identified 26 studies reporting on 5316 women. The relative risk (RR) for live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates comparing IUI with CC to natural cycle IUI was 1.05 (95% CI 0.63–1.77, low quality of evidence), while comparing IUI with Letrozole to natural cycle IUI was 1.15 (95% CI 0.63–2.08, low quality of evidence) and comparing IUI with gonadotrophins to natural cycle IUI was 1.46 (95% CI 0.92–2.30, low quality of evidence). The RR for live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates comparing gonadotrophins to CC was 1.39 (95% CI 1.09–1.76, moderate quality of evidence), comparing Letrozole to CC was 1.09 (95% CI 0.76–1.57, moderate quality of evidence) and comparing Letrozole to gonadotrophins was 0.79 (95% CI 0.54–1.15, moderate quality of evidence). We did not perform network meta-analysis on multiple pregnancy due to high inconsistency. Pairwise meta-analyses showed an RR for multiple pregnancy rates of 9.11(95% CI 1.18–70.32) comparing IUI with gonadotrophins to natural cycle IUI. There was no data available on multiple pregnancy rates following IUI with CC or Letrozole compared to natural cycle IUI. The RR for multiple pregnancy rates comparing gonadotrophins to CC was 1.42 (95% CI 0.68–2.97), comparing Letrozole to CC was 0.97 (95% CI 0.47–2.01) and comparing Letrozole to gonadotrophins was 0.29 (95% CI 0.14–0.58).In a meta-analysis among studies with adherence to strict cancellation criteria, the RR for live births/ongoing pregnancy rates comparing gonadotrophins to CC was 1.20 (95% CI 0.95–1.51) and the RR for multiple pregnancy rates comparing gonadotropins to CC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.38–1.68).WIDER IMPLICATIONSBased on low to moderate quality of evidence in this network meta-analysis, IUI with gonadotrophins ranked highest on live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates, but women undergoing this treatment protocol were also at risk for multiple pregnancies with high complication rates. IUI regimens with adherence to strict cancellation criteria led to an acceptable multiple pregnancy rate without compromising the effectiveness. Within a protocol with adherence to strict cancellation criteria, gonadotrophins seem to improve live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates compared to CC. We, therefore, suggest performing IUI with ovarian stimulation using gonadotrophins within a protocol that includes strict cancellation criteria. Obviously, this ignores the impact of costs and patients preference.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz035
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • Non-invasive preimplantation genetic testing (niPGT): the next revolution
           in reproductive genetics'
    • Authors: Leaver M; Wells D.
      Pages: 16 - 42
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDPreimplantation genetic testing (PGT) encompasses methods that allow embryos to be tested for severe inherited conditions or for chromosome abnormalities, relevant to embryo health and viability. In order to obtain embryonic genetic material for analysis, a biopsy is required, involving the removal of one or more cells. This invasive procedure greatly increases the costs of PGT and there have been concerns that embryo viability could be compromised in some cases. The recent discovery of DNA within the blastocoele fluid (BF) of blastocysts and in spent embryo culture media (SCM) has led to interest in the development of non-invasive methods of PGT (niPGT).OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review evaluates the current scientific evidence regarding non-invasive genetic assessment of preimplantation embryos. The success of different PGT methodologies in collecting and analysing extra-embryonic DNA is evaluated, and consideration is given to the potential biological and technical hindrances to obtaining a reliable clinical diagnosis.SEARCH METHODSOriginal research and review papers concerning niPGT were sourced by searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases until July 2019. Searches comprised the keywords: ‘non-invasive’; ‘cell-free DNA’; ‘blastocentesis’; ‘blastocoel fluid’; ‘spent culture media’; ‘embryo culture medium’; ‘preimplantation genetic testing’; ‘preimplantation genetic diagnosis’; ‘preimplantation genetic screening’; and ‘aneuploidy’.OUTCOMESEmbryonic DNA is frequently detectable in BF and SCM of embryos produced during IVF treatment. Initial studies have achieved some success when performing cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. However, in many cases, the efficiency has been restricted by technical complications associated with the low quantity and quality of the DNA. Reported levels of ploidy agreement between SCM/BF samples and biopsied embryonic cells vary widely. In some cases, a discrepancy with respect to cytogenetic data obtained after trophectoderm biopsy may be attributable to embryonic mosaicism or DNA contamination (usually of maternal origin). Some research indicates that aneuploid cells are preferentially eliminated from the embryo, suggesting that their DNA might be over-represented in SCM and BF samples; this hypothesis requires further investigation.WIDER IMPLICATIONSAvailable data suggest that BF and SCM samples frequently provide DNA templates suitable for genetic analyses, offering a potential means of PGT that is less expensive than traditional methods, requires less micromanipulation skill and poses a lower risk to embryos. Critically, DNA isolation and amplification protocols must be optimised to reproducibly obtain an accurate clinical diagnosis, whilst minimising the impact of confounding factors such as contamination. Further investigations are required to understand the mechanisms underlying the release of embryonic DNA and to determine the extent to which this material reflects the true genetic status of the corresponding embryo. Currently, the clinic al potential of niPGT remains unknown.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz033
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • BRCA-related ATM-mediated DNA double-strand break repair and ovarian aging
    • Authors: Turan V; Oktay K.
      Pages: 43 - 57
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOocyte aging has significant clinical consequences, and yet no treatment exists to address the age-related decline in oocyte quality. The lack of progress in the treatment of oocyte aging is due to the fact that the underlying molecular mechanisms are not sufficiently understood. BRCA1 and 2 are involved in homologous DNA recombination and play essential roles in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. A growing body of laboratory, translational and clinical evidence has emerged within the past decade indicating a role for BRCA function and ATM-mediated DNA DSB repair in ovarian aging.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEAlthough there are several competing or complementary theories, given the growing evidence tying BRCA function and ATM-mediated DNA DSB repair mechanisms in general to ovarian aging, we performed this review encompassing basic, translational and clinical work to assess the current state of knowledge on the topic. A clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying oocyte aging may result in targeted treatments to preserve ovarian reserve and improve oocyte quality.SEARCH METHODSWe searched for published articles in the PubMed database containing key words, BRCA, BRCA1, BRCA2, Mutations, Fertility, Ovarian Reserve, Infertility, Mechanisms of Ovarian Aging, Oocyte or Oocyte DNA Repair, in the English-language literature until May 2019. We did not include abstracts or conference proceedings, with the exception of our own.OUTCOMESLaboratory studies provided robust and reproducible evidence that BRCA1 function and ATM-mediated DNA DSB repair, in general, weakens with age in oocytes of multiple species including human. In both women with BRCA mutations and BRCA-mutant mice, primordial follicle numbers are reduced and there is accelerated accumulation of DNA DSBs in oocytes. In general, women with BRCA1 mutations have lower ovarian reserves and experience earlier menopause. Laboratory evidence also supports critical role for BRCA1 and other ATM-mediated DNA DSB repair pathway members in meiotic function. When laboratory, translational and clinical evidence is considered together, BRCA-related ATM-mediated DNA DSB repair function emerges as a likely regulator of ovarian aging. Moreover, DNA damage and repair appear to be key features in chemotherapy-induced ovarian aging.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe existing data suggest that the BRCA-related ATM-mediated DNA repair pathway is a strong candidate to be a regulator of oocyte aging, and the age-related decline of this pathway likely impairs oocyte health. This knowledge may create an opportunity to develop targeted treatments to reverse or prevent physiological or chemotherapy-induced oocyte aging. On the immediate practical side, women with BRCA or similar mutations may need to be specially counselled for fertility preservation.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz043
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • Age-related presence of spermatogonia in patients with Klinefelter
           syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Deebel N; Galdon G, Zarandi N, et al.
      Pages: 58 - 72
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDKlinefelter syndrome (KS) has been defined by sex chromosome aneuploidies (classically 47, XXY) in the male patient. The peripubertal timeframe in KS patients has been associated with the initiation of progressive testicular fibrosis, loss of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC), hypogonadism and impaired fertility. Less than half of KS patients are positive for spermatozoa in the ejaculate or testis via semen analysis or testicular sperm extraction, respectively. However, the chance of finding spermatogonia including a sub-population of SSCs in KS testes has not been well defined. Given the recent demonstration of successful cell culture for mouse and human SSCs, it could be feasible to isolate and propagate SSCs and transplant the cells back to the patient or to differentiate them in vitro to haploid cells.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe main objective of this study was to meta-analyse the currently available data from KS patients to identify the prevalence of KS patients with spermatogonia on testicular biopsy across four age groups (year): fetal/infantile (age ≤ 1), prepubertal (age 1 ≤ x ≤ 10), peripubertal/adolescent (age 10 < x < 18) and adult (age ≥ 18) ages. Additionally, the association of endocrine parameters with presence or absence of spermatogonia was tested to obtain a more powered analysis of whether FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin B can serve as predictive markers for successful spermatogonia retrieval.SEARCH METHODSA thorough Medline/PubMed search was conducted using the following search terms: ‘Klinefelter, germ cells, spermatogenesis and spermatogonia’, yielding results from 1 October 1965 to 3 February 2019. Relevant articles were added from the bibliographies of selected articles. Exclusion criteria included non-English language, abstracts only, non-human data and review papers.OUTCOMESA total of 751 papers were identified with independent review returning 36 papers with relevant information for meta-analysis on 386 patients. For the most part, articles were case reports, case-controlled series and cohort studies (level IV-VI evidence). Spermatogonial cells were present in all of the fetal/infantile and 83% of the prepubertal patients’ testes, and in 42.7% and 48.5% of the peripubertal and adult groups, respectively were positive for spermatogonia. Additionally, 26 of the 56 (46.4%) peripubertal/adolescent and 37 of the 152 (24.3%) adult patients negative for spermatozoa were positive for spermatogonia (P < 0.05). In peripubertal/adolescent patients, the mean ± SEM level for FSH was 12.88 ± 3.13 IU/L for spermatogonia positive patients and 30.42 ± 4.05 IU/L for spermatogonia negative patients (P = 0.001); the mean ± SEM level LH levels were 4.36 ± 1.31 and 11.43 ± 1.68 IU/L for spermatogonia positive and negative, respectively (P < 0.01); the mean ± SEM level for testosterone levels were 5.04 ± 1.37 and 9.05 ± 0.94 nmol/L (equal to 145 ± 40 and 261 ± 27 and ng/dl) for the spermatogonia positive and negative groups, respectively (P < 0.05), while the difference in means for inhibin B was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A similar analysis in the adult group showed the FSH levels in spermatogonia positive and negative patients to be 25.77 ± 2.78 and 36.12 ± 2.90 IU/L, respectively (mean ± SEM level, P < 0.05). All other hormone measurements were not statistically significantly different between groups.WIDER IMPLICATIONSWhile azoospermia is a common finding in the KS patient population, many patients are positive for spermatogonia. Recent advances in SSC in vitro propagation, transplantation and differentiation open new avenues for these patients for fertility preservation. This would offer a new subset of KS patients a chance of biological paternity. Data surrounding the hormonal profiles of KS patients and their relation to fertility should be interpreted with caution as a paucity of adequately powered data exists. Future work is needed to clarify the utility of FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin B as biomarkers for successful retrieval of spermatogonia.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz038
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • Polymorphisms and endometriosis: a systematic review and meta-analyses
    • Authors: Méar L; Herr M, Fauconnier A, et al.
      Pages: 73 - 102
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEndometriosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecological disorder that affects at least 10% of women of reproductive age. It may lead to infertility and non-specific symptoms such as chronic pelvic pain. Endometriosis screening and diagnosis are difficult and time-consuming. Late diagnosis (with a delay ranging from 3.3 to 10.7 years) is a major problem and may contribute to disease progression and a worse response to treatment once initiated. Efficient screening tests might reduce this diagnostic delay. As endometriosis is presumed to be a complex disease with several genetic and non-genetic pathogenic factors, many researchers have sought to identify polymorphisms that predispose to this condition.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEWe performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the most regularly reported polymorphisms in order to identify those that might predispose to endometriosis and might thus be of value in screening.SEARCH METHODSThe MEDLINE database was searched for English-language publications on DNA polymorphisms in endometriosis, with no date restriction. The PubTator text mining tool was used to extract gene names from the selected publications’ abstracts. We only selected polymorphisms reported by at least three studies, having applied strict inclusion and exclusion criteria to their control populations. No stratification based on ethnicity was performed. All steps were carried out according to PRISMA guidelines.OUTCOMESThe initial selection of 395 publications cited 242 different genes. Sixty-two genes (corresponding to 265 different polymorphisms) were cited at least in three publications. After the application of our other selection criteria (an original case-control study of endometriosis, a reported association between endometriosis and at least one polymorphism, data on women of reproductive age and a diagnosis of endometriosis in the cases established by surgery and/or MRI and confirmed by histology), 28 polymorphisms were eligible for meta-analysis. Only five of the 28 polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with endometriosis: interferon gamma (IFNG) (CA) repeat, glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) null genotype, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) rs1695 and wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4 (WNT4) rs16826658 and rs2235529. Six others showed a significant trend towards an association: progesterone receptor (PGR) PROGINS, interCellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) rs1799969, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) rs2292596, cytochrome family 17 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1) rs743572, CYP2C19 rs4244285 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) rs1801282), and 12 showed a significant trend towards the lack of an association: tumor necrosis factor (TNF) rs1799964, interleukin 6 (IL6) rs1800796, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) rs1800469, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) rs2234693, PGR rs10895068, FSH receptor (FSHR) rs6166, ICAM1 rs5498, CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP19A1 rs10046, tumor protein 53 (TP53) rs1042522, X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1 (XRCC1) rs25487 and serpin peptidase inhibitor clade E member 1 (SERPINE1) rs1799889; however, for the 18 polymorphisms identified in the latter two groups, further studies of the potential association with the endometriosis risk are needed. The remaining five of the 28 polymorphisms were not associated with endometriosis: glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) null genotype, vascular endothelial growth factor alpha (VEGFA) rs699947, rs833061, rs2010963 and rs3025039.WIDER IMPLICATIONSBy carefully taking account of how the control populations were defined, we identified polymorphisms that might be candidates for use in endometriosis screening and polymorphisms not associated with endometriosis. This might constitute the first step towards identifying polymorphism combinations that predispose to endometriosis (IFNG (CA) repeat, GSTM1 null genotype, GSTP1 rs1695, WNT4 rs16826658 and WNT4 rs2235529) in a large cohort of patients with well-defined inclusion criteria. In turn, these results might improve the diagnosis of endometriosis in primary care. Lastly, our present findings may enable a better understanding of endometriosis and improve the management of patients with this disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz034
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • Cardiometabolic health in offspring of women with PCOS compared to healthy
           controls: a systematic review and individual participant data
    • Authors: Gunning M; Sir Petermann T, Crisosto N, et al.
      Pages: 103 - 117
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDWomen diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) suffer from an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile, which is already established by child-bearing age.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this systematic review along with an individual participant data meta-analysis is to evaluate whether cardiometabolic features in the offspring (females and males aged 1–18 years) of women with PCOS (OPCOS) are less favorable compared to the offspring of healthy controls.SEARCH METHODSPubMed, Embase and gray literature databases were searched by three authors independently (M.N.G., M.A.W and J.C.) (last updated on 1 February 2018). Relevant key terms such as ‘offspring’ and ‘PCOS’ were combined. Outcomes were age-specific standardized scores of various cardiometabolic parameters: BMI, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, lipid profile and the sum scores of various cardiometabolic features (metabolic sum score). Linear mixed models were used for analyses with standardized beta (β) as outcome.OUTCOMESNine relevant observational studies could be identified, which jointly included 1367 children: OPCOS and controls, originating from the Netherlands, Chile and the USA. After excluding neonates, duplicate records and follow-up screenings, a total of 885 subjects remained. In adjusted analyses, we observed that OPCOS (n = 298) exhibited increased plasma levels of fasting insulin (β = 0.21(95%CI: 0.01–0.41), P = 0.05), insulin-resistance (β = 0.21(95%CI: 0.01–0.42), P = 0.04), triglycerides (β = 0.19(95%CI: 0.02–0.36), P = 0.03) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations (β = 0.31(95%CI: 0.08–0.54), P < 0.01), but a reduced birthweight (β = −116(95%CI: −195 to 38), P < 0.01) compared to controls (n = 587). After correction for multiple testing, however, differences in insulin and triglycerides lost their statistical significance. Interaction tests for sex revealed differences between males and females when comparing OPCOS versus controls. A higher 2-hour fasting insulin was observed among female OPCOS versus female controls (estimated difference for females (βf) = 0.45(95%CI: 0.07 to 0.83)) compared to the estimated difference between males ((βm) = −0.20(95%CI: −0.58 to 0.19)), with interaction-test: P = 0.03. Low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol differences in OPCOS versus controls were lower among females (βf = −0.39(95%CI: −0.62 to 0.16)), but comparable between male OPCOS and male controls (βm = 0.27(95%CI: −0.03 to 0.57)), with interaction-test: P < 0.01. Total cholesterol differences in OPCOS versus controls were also lower in females compared to the difference in male OPCOS and male controls (βf = −0.31(95%CI: −0.57 to 0.06), βm = 0.28(95%CI: −0.01 to 0.56), interaction-test: P = 0.01). The difference in HDL-cholesterol among female OPCOS versus controls (βf = 0.53(95%CI: 0.18–0.88)) was larger compared to the estimated mean difference among OPCOS males and the male controls (βm = 0.13(95%CI: −0.05−0.31), interaction-test: P < 0.01). Interaction test in metabolic sum score revealed a significant difference between females (OPCOS versus controls) and males (OPCOS versus controls); however, sub analyses performed in both sexes separately did not reveal a difference among females (OPCOS versus controls: βf = −0.14(95%CI: −1.05 to 0.77)) or males (OPCOS versus controls: βm = 0.85(95%CI: −0.10 to 1.79)), with P-value < 0.01.WIDER IMPLICATIONSWe observed subtle signs of altered cardiometabolic health in OPCOS. Therefore, the unfavorable cardiovascular profile of women with PCOS at childbearing age may—next to a genetic predisposition—influence the health of their offspring. Sensitivity analyses revealed that these differences were predominantly observed among female offspring aged between 1 and 18 years. Moreover, studies with minimal risk of bias should elucidate the influence of a PCOS diagnosis in mothers on both sexes during fetal development and subsequently during childhood.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz036
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • Ovarian stimulation for freeze-all IVF cycles: a systematic review
    • Authors: Mizrachi Y; Horowitz E, Farhi J, et al.
      Pages: 118 - 135
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDFreeze-all IVF cycles are becoming increasingly prevalent for a variety of clinical indications. However, the actual treatment objectives and preferred treatment regimens for freeze-all cycles have not been clearly established.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEWe aimed to conduct a systematic review of all aspects of ovarian stimulation for freeze-all cycles.SEARCH METHODSA comprehensive search in Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library was performed. The search strategy included keywords related to freeze-all, cycle segmentation, cumulative live birth rate, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy, fertility preservation, oocyte donation and frozen-thawed embryo transfer. We included relevant studies published in English from 2000 to 2018.OUTCOMESOur search generated 3292 records. Overall, 69 articles were included in the final review. Good-quality evidence indicates that in freeze-all cycles the cumulative live birth rate increases as the number of oocytes retrieved increases. Although the risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is virtually eliminated in freeze-all cycles, there are certain risks associated with retrieval of large oocyte cohorts. Therefore, ovarian stimulation should be planned to yield between 15 and 20 oocytes. The early follicular phase is currently the preferred starting point for ovarian stimulation, although luteal phase stimulation can be used if necessary. The improved safety associated with the GnRH antagonist regimen makes it the regimen of choice for ovarian stimulation in freeze-all cycles. Ovulation triggering with a GnRH agonist almost completely eliminates the risk of OHSS without affecting oocyte and embryo quality and is therefore the trigger of choice. The addition of low-dose hCG in a dual trigger has been suggested to improve oocyte and embryo quality, but further research in freeze-all cycles is required. Moderate-quality evidence indicates that in freeze-all cycles, a moderate delay of 2–3 days in ovulation triggering may result in the retrieval of an increased number of mature oocytes without impairing the pregnancy rate. There are no high-quality studies evaluating the effects of sustained supraphysiological estradiol (E2) levels on the safety and efficacy of freeze-all cycles. However, no significant adverse effects have been described. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of late follicular progesterone elevation in freeze-all cycles.WIDER IMPLICATIONSOvarian stimulation for freeze-all cycles is different in many aspects from conventional stimulation for fresh IVF cycles. Optimisation of ovarian stimulation for freeze-all cycles should result in enhanced treatment safety along with improved cumulative live birth rates and should become the focus of future studies.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz037
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • Pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells co-exist along with
           spermatogonial stem cells in adult mammalian testis
    • Authors: Bhartiya D; Anand S, Kaushik A.
      Pages: 136 - 137
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz030
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
  • Reply: Pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells co-exist along
           with spermatogonial stem cells in adult mammalian testis
    • Authors: Sharma S; Wistuba J, Neuhaus N, et al.
      Pages: 138 - 138
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmz031
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2019)
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