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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
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American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
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American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
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Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
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Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
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Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
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Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
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Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
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Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
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British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 576, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
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Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Human Reproduction Update
  [SJR: 4.678]   [H-I: 128]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-4786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2369
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • The epidermal growth factor network: role in oocyte growth, maturation and
           developmental competence
    • Authors: Richani D; Gilchrist R.
      First page: 1
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe LH surge induces great physiological changes within the preovulatory follicle, which culminate in the ovulation of a mature oocyte that is capable of supporting embryo and foetal development. However, unlike mural granulosa cells, the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells are not directly responsive to LH, indicating that the LH signal is mediated by secondary factors produced by the granulosa cells. The mechanisms by which the oocyte senses the ovulatory LH signal and hence prepares for ovulation has been a subject of considerable controversy for the past four decades. Within the last 15 years several significant insights have been made into the molecular mechanisms orchestrating oocyte development, maturation and ovulation. These findings centre on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway and the role it plays in the complex signalling network that finely regulates oocyte maturation and ovulation.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review outlines the role of the EGF network during oocyte development and regulation of the ovulatory cascade, and in particular focuses on the effect of the EGF network on oocyte developmental competence. Application of this new knowledge to advances in ART is examined.SEARCH METHODSThe PubMed database was used to search for peer-reviewed original and review articles concerning the EGF network. Publications offering a comprehensive description of the role of the EGF network in follicle and oocyte development were used.OUTCOMESIt is now clear that acute upregulation of the EGF network is an essential component of the ovulatory cascade as it transmits the LH signal from the periphery of the follicle to the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). More recent findings have elucidated new roles for the EGF network in the regulation of oocyte development. EGF signalling downregulates the somatic signal 3′5′-cyclic guanine monophosphate that suppresses oocyte meiotic maturation and simultaneously provides meiotic inducing signals. The EGF network also controls translation of maternal transcripts in the quiescent oocyte, a process that is integral to oocyte competence. As a means of restricting the ovulatory signal to the Graffian follicle, most COCs in the ovary are unresponsive to EGF-ligands. Recent studies have revealed that development of a functional EGF signalling network in cumulus cells requires dual endocrine (FSH) and oocyte paracrine cues (growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15), and this occurs progressively in COCs during the last stages of folliculogenesis. Hence, a new concept to emerge is that cumulus cell acquisition of EGF receptor responsiveness represents a developmental hallmark in folliculogenesis, analogous to FSH-induction of LH receptor signalling in mural granulosa cells. Likewise, this event represents a major milestone in the oocyte’s developmental progression and acquisition of developmental competence. It is now clear that EGF signalling is perturbed in COCs matured in vitro. This has inspired novel concepts in IVM systems to ameliorate this perturbation, resulting in improved oocyte developmental competence.WIDER IMPLICATIONSAn oocyte of high quality is imperative for fertility. Elucidating the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanims by which the EGF network regulates oocyte maturation and ovulation can be expected to open new opportunities in ART. This knowledge has already led to advances in oocyte IVM in animal models. Translation of such advances into a clinical setting should increase the efficacy of IVM, making it a viable treatment option for a wide range of patients, thereby simplifying fertility treatment and bringing substantial cost and health benefits.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx029
       
  • In vivo oxygen, temperature and pH dynamics in the female reproductive
           tract and their importance in human conception: a systematic review
    • Authors: Ng K; Mingels R, Morgan H, et al.
      First page: 15
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDespite advances in ART, implantation and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer still remain low. IVF laboratories strive to ensure that the process of handling gametes in vitro closely mimics the in vivo environment. However, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the in vivo regulation and dynamic variation in biophysical parameters such as oxygen concentration, pH and temperature within the reproductive tract.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALETo undertake a systematic review of the current understanding of the physico-chemical parameters of oxygen tension (pO2), pH and temperature within the female reproductive tract, and their potential implications in clinical and pathological processes related to fertility and those pertaining to limited reproductive capacity.SEARCH METHODSA comprehensive literature search was performed using electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Pubmed to identify original and review articles addressing the biophysical parameters (pO2, pH and temperature) in the female reproductive tract of any species. The search included all studies published between 1946 and November 2015. Search terms included ‘oxygen’, ‘pH’, ‘hydrogen ion concentration’, ‘acid base’ and others terms. We also used special features and truncations to identify synonyms and broaden the search. Studies were excluded if they only assessed embryo culture conditions, fetal acid–base status, oxidative stress, outcomes of pregnancy and measurements of these parameters in non-reproductive organs.OUTCOMESOur search generated 18 685 records and 60 articles were included. pO2 within the female reproductive tract shows cyclical variation and minute-to-minute oscillations, which may be influenced by uterine contractility, hormones, the autonomic system, cardiac pulsatility, and myometrial and smooth muscle integrity. Fine balanced control of pO2 and avoidance of overwhelming oxidative stress is crucial for embryogenesis and implantation. The pH in the female reproductive tract is graduated, with lowest pH in the vagina (~pH 4.42) increasing toward the Fallopian tubes (FTs) (~pH 7.94), reflecting variation in the site-specific microbiome and acid–base buffering at the tissue/cellular level. The temperature variation in humans is cyclical by day and month. In humans, it is biphasic, increasing in the luteal phase; with the caudal region of the oviduct 1–2 degrees cooler than the cranial portion. Temperature variation is influenced by hormones, density of pelvic/uterine vascular beds and effectiveness of heat exchange locally, crucial for sperm motility and embryo development. We have identified significant deficiencies and inconsistencies in the methods used to assess these biophysical factors within the reproductive tract. We have suggested that the technological solutions including the development of methods and models for real time, in vivo recordings of biophysical parameters.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe notion of ‘back to nature’ in assisted conception suggested 20 years ago has yet to be translated into clinical practice. While the findings from this systematic review do not provide evidence to change current in vitro protocols, it highlights our current inability to assess the in vivo reproductive tract environment in real time. Data made available through future development of sensing technology in utero may help to provide new insights into how best to optimize the in vitro embryo environment and allow for more precise and personalized fertility treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx028
       
  • Is frozen embryo transfer better for mothers and babies' Can
           cumulative meta-analysis provide a definitive answer'
    • Authors: Maheshwari A; Pandey S, Amalraj Raja E, et al.
      First page: 35
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInitial observational studies and a systematic review published 5 years ago have suggested that obstetric and perinatal outcomes are better in offspring conceived following frozen rather than fresh embryo transfers, with reduced risks of preterm birth, small for gestational age, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia. More recent primary studies are beginning to challenge some of these findings. We therefore conducted an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis to examine if these results have remained consistent over time.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis (trend with time) of obstetric and perinatal complications in singleton pregnancies following the transfer of frozen thawed and fresh embryos generated through in-vitro fertilisation.SEARCH METHODSData Sources from Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials DARE and CINAHL (1984–2016) were searched using appropriate key words. Observational and randomised studies comparing obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies conceived through IVF using either fresh or frozen thawed embryos. Two independent reviewers extracted data in 2 × 2 tables and assessed the methodological quality of the relevant studies using CASP scoring. Both aggregated as well as cumulative meta-analysis was done using STATA.OUTCOMESTwenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Singleton babies conceived from frozen thawed embryos were at lower relative risk (RR) of preterm delivery (0.90; 95% CI 0.84–0.97) low birth weight (0.72; 95% CI 0.67–0.77) and small for gestational age (0.61; 95% CI 0.56–0.67) compared to those conceived from fresh embryo transfers, but faced an increased risk (RR) of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (1.29; 95% CI 1.07–1.56) large for gestational age (1.54; 95% CI 1.48–1.61) and high birth weight (1.85; 95% CI 1.46–2.33). There was no difference in the risk of congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality between the two groups. The direction and magnitude of effect for these outcomes have remained virtually unchanged over time while the degree of precision has improved with the addition of data from newer studies.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe results of this cumulative meta-analysis confirm that the decreased risks of small for gestational age, low birth weight and preterm delivery and increased risks of large for gestational age and high birth weight associated with pregnancies conceived from frozen embryos have been consistent in terms of direction and magnitude of effect over several years, with increasing precision around the point estimates. Replication in a number of different populations has provided external validity for the results, for outcomes of birth weight and preterm delivery. Meanwhile, caution should be exercised about embarking on a policy of electively freezing all embryos in IVF as there are increased risks for large for gestational age babies and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Therefore, elective freezing should ideally be undertaken in specific cases such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, fertility preservation or in the context of randomised trials.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx031
       
  • Extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma pathogenesis: a potential target
           for future therapeutics
    • Authors: Islam M; Ciavattini A, Petraglia F, et al.
      First page: 59
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDUterine leiomyoma (also known as fibroid or myoma) is the most common benign tumor of the uterus found in women of reproductive age. It is not usually fatal but can produce serious clinical symptoms, including excessive uterine bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, infertility and pregnancy complications. Due to lack of effective medical treatments surgery has been a definitive choice for the management of this tumor.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEExtracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and remodeling are thought to be crucial for fibrotic diseases such as uterine leiomyoma. Indeed, ECM plays important role in forming the bulk structure of leiomyoma, and the ECM-rich rigid structure within these tumors is thought to be a cause of abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain. Therefore, a better understanding of ECM accumulation and remodeling is critical for developing new therapeutics for uterine leiomyoma.SEARCH METHODSPubMed and Google Scholar were searched for all original and review articles/book chapters related to ECM and medical treatments of uterine leiomyoma published in English until May 2017.OUTCOMESThis review discusses the involvement of ECM in leiomyoma pathogenesis as well as current and future medical treatments that target ECM directly or indirectly. Uterine leiomyoma is characterized by elevated levels of collagens, fibronectin, laminins and proteoglycans. They can induce the mechanotransduction process, such as activation of the integrin-Rho/p38 MAPK/ERK pathway, resulting in cellular responses that are involved in pathogenesis and altered bidirectional signaling between leiomyoma cells and the ECM. ECM accumulation is affected by growth factors (TGF-β, activin-A and PDGF), cytokines (TNF-α), steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and microRNAs (miR-29 family, miR-200c and miR-93/106b). Among these, TGF-βs (1 and 3) and activin-A have been suggested as key players in the accumulation of excessive ECM (fibrosis) in leiomyoma. The presence of elevated levels of ECM and myofibroblasts in leiomyoma supports the fibrotic character of these tumors. Interestingly, ECM may serve as a reservoir of profibrotic growth factors and enhance their activity by increasing their stability and extending their duration of signaling. At present, several classes of compounds, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (leuprolide acetate), GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate), selective progesterone receptor modulators (ulipristate acetate and asoprisnil), antiprogestin (mifepristone) and natural compounds like vitamin D and resveratrol have been studied as medical treatments that target ECM in uterine leiomyoma.WIDER IMPLICATIONSAlthough several types of drugs (mostly antiproliferative agents) are available for leiomyoma treatment, none of them were introduced specifically as antifibrotic agents. In light of its critical role in the process of fibrosis in leiomyoma, we propose that ECM should be considered as a crucial target for future therapeutics. Thus, the introduction of drugs that are specifically antifibrotic could be a good solution to control abnormal leiomyoma growth and associated clinical symptoms. The antifibrotic compounds can be introduced based on their ability to regulate ECM components and their receptors, as well as growth factors, cytokines, steroid hormones and their corresponding receptors and intracellular signaling pathways, as well as microRNAs, involved in ECM production in leiomyoma.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx032
       
  • Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male reproductive function: a
           systematic review
    • Authors: Maresch C; Stute D, Alves M, et al.
      First page: 86
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing. Impaired regulation of glucose and the resultant hyperglycemia are major threats to the health of individuals in modern societies especially given the rapidly rising prevalence affecting an increasing number of men in their reproductive years. Consequently, diabetes-induced hyperglycemia is likely to contribute to a decline in global birth rates especially in those societies with a high diabetic prevalence.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis systematic review addresses and summarizes the impact of hyperglycemia on male reproductive health with a particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms that influence the testis and other parts of the male reproductive tract.SEARCH METHODSA systematic search of the literature published in the MEDLINE-Pubmed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) and Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com) was performed, as well as hand searching reference lists, from the earliest available online indexing year until May 2017, using diabetes- and male fertility-related keywords in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topic of hyperglycemia.Inclusion criteria were: clinical studies on type 1 diabetic (T1D) men and studies on T1D animal models with a focus on reproductive parameters. Case reports/series, observational studies and clinical trials were included. Studies on patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or animal models of T2D were excluded to distinguish hyperglycemia from other metabolic effects.OUTCOMESA total of 890 articles were identified of which 197 (32 clinical, 165 animal studies) were selected for qualitative analysis. While the clinical data from men with hyperglycemia-induced reproductive dysfunction were reported in most studies on T1D, the study designs were variable and lacked complete information on patients. Moreover, only a few studies (and mostly animal studies) addressed the underlying mechanisms of how hyperglycemia induces infertility. Potential causes included impaired function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, increased DNA damage, perturbations in the system of advanced glycation endproducts and their receptor, oxidative stress, increased endoplasmatic reticulum stress, modulation of cellular pathways, impaired mitochondrial function and disrupted sympathetic innervation. However, intervention studies to identify and confirm the pathological mechanisms were missing: data that are essential in understanding these interactions.WIDER IMPLICATIONSWhile the effects of regulating the hyperglycemia by the use of insulin and other modulators of glucose metabolism have been reported, more clinical trials providing high quality evidence and specifically addressing the beneficial effects on male reproduction are required. We conclude that interventions using insulin to restore normoglycemia should be a feasible approach to assess the proposed underlying mechanisms of infertility.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx033
       
  • Patient-centered early pregnancy care: a systematic review of quantitative
           and qualitative studies on the perspectives of women and their partners
    • Authors: van den Berg M; Dancet E, Erlikh T, et al.
      First page: 106
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEarly pregnancy complications, defined as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, affect the physical and psychological well-being of intended parents. Research in this field so far has focused mainly on improving accuracy of diagnostic tests and safety and effectiveness of therapeutic management. An overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners is missing.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis systematic review aims to provide an overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners faced with early pregnancy complications and to identify potential targets for improvement in early pregnancy healthcare.SEARCH METHODSWe searched five electronic databases for empirical quantitative or qualitative studies on patients’ perspectives of early pregnancy care in July 2017. We first identified aspects of early pregnancy care valued by women and/or their partners based on qualitative and quantitative data and organized these aspects of care according to the eight dimensions of patient-centered care. Second, we extracted the assessment of service quality from women and/or their partners on each of these aspects of care based on quantitative data. Third, we combined the findings on patients’ values with the findings of service quality assessment to identify potential targets for improvement in five groups according to how likely these targets are to require improvement.OUTCOMESThe search yielded 6240 publications, of which 27 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. All included studies focused on miscarriage or recurrent miscarriage care. We identified 24 valued aspects of care, which all covered the eight dimensions of patient-centered care. The most frequently reported valued aspect was ‘being treated as an individual person experiencing a significant life event rather than a common condition’. Assessment of service quality from women and/or their partners was available for 13 of the 24 identified aspects of care. Quantitative studies all documented service quality as problematic for these 13 aspects of care. We thus identified 13 potential targets for improvement in the patient-centeredness of miscarriage and recurrent miscarriage care of which none were very likely, four were likely, six were unlikely and three were very unlikely, to require improvement. The four likely potential targets for improvement were ‘Understandable information provision about the etiology of pregnancy’, ‘Staff discussing patients’ distress’, ‘Informing patients on pregnancy loss in the presence of a friend or partner’ and ‘Staff performing follow-up phone calls to support their patients after a miscarriage’.WIDER IMPLICATIONSIt is important for clinicians to realize that women and their partners undergoing a miscarriage experience a significant live event and appreciate an individual approach. Future qualitative studies are needed to explore the identified potential targets for improvement of (recurrent) miscarriage care and to explore patients’ perspectives in women suspected and treated for ectopic pregnancy.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx030
       
 
 
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