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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 588, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Human Reproduction Update
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.317
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 18  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1355-4786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2369
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a major regulator of female reproductive
    • Authors: Ivell R; Anand-Ivell R.
      Pages: 639 - 651
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInsulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a member of the relaxin family of neohormones which has evolved to address specifically mammalian aspects of reproduction related to viviparity and internal fertilization. It was originally identified as a major product of testicular Leydig cells and has proved to be an important biomarker of Leydig cell functional capacity. However, INSL3 is also produced by theca interna cells of growing antral follicles and is secreted into the bloodstream in phases corresponding to the number and health of the follicles. Moreover, gene silencing experiments have shown that INSL3 is essentially required for androstenedione synthesis, which is the major steroid precursor for the granulosa cells of antral follicles to produce oestrogens. Knockout studies in mice confirm that loss of INSL3 or its receptor in females leads to partial infertility, with reduced follicle numbers, ovulations and litter size. Circulating INSL3 concentration corresponds to the reproductive lifespan, beginning with puberty and declining at the menopause, and thus may contribute to the physiology of other organ systems, particularly those relevant for hormone replacement strategies.SEARCH METHODSA literature review was carried out by exhaustive searching of literature databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) with the search terms INSL3, RLF, Ley-IL and RXFP2.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEWe present the first comprehensive review of INSL3 and its specific receptor RXFP2, and their roles in the context of female reproductive physiology. Moreover, we highlight the potential involvement of INSL3 in female reproductive pathology, such as PCOS, its clinical application as a valuable biomarker of reproductive processes, and its potential for therapeutic interventions.OUTCOMESIn the female mammal, INSL3 is largely produced by the theca interna cells of growing antral follicles during the follicular phase of the menstrual (oestrous) cycle. Within the follicle, INSL3 acts via its G-protein-coupled receptor, RXFP2, in an autocrine/paracrine manner to orchestrate and drive the production of the major steroid precursor androstenedione and its conversion by granulosa cells into oestrogens. These in turn create a positive feedback loop promoting the expression of more theca cell INSL3. This is countered by the follicular production of bone morphogenetic proteins and by the LH surge. Thus, the activity of the theca cell INSL3–RXFP2 system effectively determines the production of estradiol within an antral follicle through the follicular phase. INSL3 is also secreted into the circulation where it acts as a valuable biomarker to monitor the growth of antral follicles; it is consequently increased in PCOS and decreased in women with premature ovarian failure (POF). As an endocrine factor, INSL3 may also influence bone metabolism and kidney function. Additionally, INSL3 or its analogues may prove valuable as an adjunct in hormone replacement therapy or to monitor or influence IVF protocols.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe INSL3–RXFP2 system represents a new regulatory pathway essential for the proper functioning of growing antral follicles. We still know very little about its involvement in pathologies such as PCOS or POF, and its role as a new biomarker of female function needs to be explored more widely to improve diagnosis and treatment of ovarian dysfunction. We need to examine how INSL3 might be used to improve IVF protocols and outcomes. Opportunities should also be investigated in regard to the systemic application of INSL3 as a rejuvenant therapy, with positive effects on bone or kidney function, and possibly also for fertility regulation. Most research to date has involved animal models; this now needs to be extended to include more human studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy029
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2018)
  • The estrogen–macrophage interplay in the homeostasis of the female
           reproductive tract
    • Authors: Pepe G; Locati M, Della Torre S, et al.
      Pages: 652 - 672
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEstrogens are known to orchestrate reproductive events and to regulate the immune system during infections and following tissue damage. Recent findings suggest that, in the absence of any danger signal, estrogens trigger the physiological expansion and functional specialization of macrophages, which are immune cells that populate the female reproductive tract (FRT) and are increasingly being recognized to participate in tissue homeostasis beyond their immune activity against infections. Although estrogens are the only female gonadal hormones that directly target macrophages, a comprehensive view of this endocrine-immune communication and its involvement in the FRT is still missing.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALERecent accomplishments encourage a revision of the literature on the ability of macrophages to respond to estrogens and induce tissue-specific functions required for reproductive events, with the aim to envision macrophages as key players in FRT homeostasis and mediators of the regenerative and trophic actions of estrogens.SEARCH METHODSWe conducted a systematic search using PubMed and Ovid for human, animal (rodents) and cellular studies published until 2018 on estrogen action in macrophages and the activity of these cells in the FRT.OUTCOMESOur search identified the remarkable ability of macrophages to activate biochemical processes in response to estrogens in cell culture experiments. The distribution at specific locations, interaction with selected cells and acquisition of distinct phenotypes of macrophages in the FRT, as well as the cyclic renewal of these properties at each ovarian cycle, demonstrate the involvement of these cells in the homeostasis of reproductive events. Moreover, current evidence suggests an association between estrogen–macrophage signaling and the generation of a tolerant and regenerative environment in the FRT, although a causative link is still missing.WIDER IMPLICATIONSDysregulation of the functions and estrogen responsiveness of FRT macrophages may be involved in infertility and estrogen- and macrophage-dependent gynecological diseases, such as ovarian cancer and endometriosis. Thus, more research is needed on the physiology and pharmacological control of this endocrine-immune interplay.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy026
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2018)
  • Uterine stem cells: from basic research to advanced cell therapies
    • Authors: Santamaria X; Mas A, Cervelló I, et al.
      Pages: 673 - 693
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDStem cell research in the endometrium and myometrium from animal models and humans has led to the identification of endometrial/myometrial stem cells and their niches. This basic knowledge is beginning to be translated to clinical use for incurable uterine pathologies. Additionally, the implication of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) in uterine physiology has opened the field for the exploration of an exogenous and autologous source of stem cells.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEIn this review, we outline the progress of endometrial and myometrial stem/progenitor cells in both human and mouse models from their characterization to their clinical application, indicating roles in Asherman syndrome, atrophic endometrium and tissue engineering, among others.SEARCH METHODSA comprehensive search of PubMed and Google Scholar up to December 2017 was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature related to the contribution of bone marrow, endometrial and myometrial stem cells to potential physiological regeneration as well as their implications in pathologies of the human uterus.OUTCOMESThe discovery and main characteristics of stem cells in the murine and human endometrium and myometrium are presented together with the relevance of their niches and cross-regulation. The current state of advanced stem cell therapy using BMDSCs in the treatment of Asherman syndrome and atrophic endometrium is analyzed. In the myometrium, the understanding of genetic and epigenetic defects that result in the development of tumor-initiating cells in the myometrial stem niche and thus contribute to the growth of uterine leiomyoma is also presented. Finally, recent advances in tissue engineering based on the creation of novel three-dimensional scaffolds or decellularisation open up new perspectives for the field of uterine transplantation.WIDER IMPLICATIONSMore than a decade after their discovery, the knowledge of uterine stem cells and their niches is crystalising into novel therapeutic approaches aiming to treat with cells those conditions that cannot be cured with drugs, particularly the currently incurable uterine pathologies. Additional work and improvements are needed, but the basis has been formed for this therapeutic application of uterine cells.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy028
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2018)
  • Understanding variation in prevalence estimates of polycystic ovary
           syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Skiba M; Islam R, Bell R, et al.
      Pages: 694 - 709
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) prevalence estimates vary when different diagnostic criteria are applied. Lack of standardization of individual elements within these criteria may contribute to prevalence differences.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEA systematic review of studies reporting prevalence of PCOS, using at least one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or Androgen Excess Society (AE-PCOS) criteria, was conducted. The aim was to investigate the impact on prevalence reporting of different definitions of the clinical elements for PCOS diagnosis.SEARCH METHODSA systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Emcare and BIOSIS was conducted. The search was limited to English language and studies published between January 1990 and January 2018. Included articles needed to define PCOS by at least one of the NIH, Rotterdam or AE-PCOS criteria, be of an unselected population and be published as a full text article. Risk-of-bias was assessed.OUTCOMESA total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. The random-effects pooled prevalence of PCOS in studies that used the NIH criteria (7% [95% CI: 6–7%]), was significantly different from that identified in studies that used the Rotterdam criteria (12% [95% CI: 10–15%], P < 0.0001) but not studies that used the AE-PCOS criteria (10% [95% CI: 6–13%], P = 0.075). The pooled estimates for Rotterdam and AE-PCOS were not significantly different from each other (P = 0.201). Pooled prevalence estimates were compared between studies separated on the basis of: oligo-amenorrhoea vs oligo-amenorrhoea plus short cycles, clinical androgen excess requiring hirsutism vs any clinical androgen excess, use of different versions and cut-offs for the Ferriman–Gallwey (F–G) score, and inclusion vs non-inclusion of oral contraceptive users. There were no statistically significant differences for any of these comparisons. There was insufficient information to allow subgroup analyses of definitions of polycystic ovaries.WIDER IMPLICATIONSInclusion of ovarian morphology results in statistically significantly higher pooled prevalence estimates for PCOS. Heterogeneity in prevalence estimates for PCOS reflect the broad clinical spectrum of the condition, lack of standardization of the elements within each set of diagnostic criteria and the use of a range of diagnostic cut-offs, as well as potential differences between study populations. The use of different definitions for anovulation and clinical androgen excess did not appear to contribute to differences in the estimated prevalence of PCOS in this study. However, as the number of studies in most of the comparison groups was small, real differences may have been missed. Uncertainty surrounding the diagnosis of PCOS urgently needs to be addressed in order to provide clinicians and their patients with greater diagnostic certainty, and hence reduce inappropriate labelling and the potential psychological harm that may accompany misdiagnosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy022
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2018)
  • Ureteral endometriosis: a systematic review of epidemiology, pathogenesis,
           diagnosis, treatment, risk of malignant transformation and fertility
    • Authors: Barra F; Scala C, Biscaldi E, et al.
      Pages: 710 - 730
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe ureter is the second most common site affected by urinary tract endometriosis, after the bladder. Optimal strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of ureteral endometriosis (UE) are not yet well defined.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this study was to systematically review evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, impact on fertility and risk of malignant transformation of UE.SEARCH METHODSA systematic literature review, by searching the MEDLINE and PUBMED database until April 2018, was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement and was registered in the PROSPERO registry ( CRD42017060065). A total of 67 articles were selected to be included in this review.OUTCOMESThe involvement of the ureter by endometriosis is often asymptomatic or leads to non-specific symptoms. When the diagnosis is delayed, UE may lead to persistent hydronephrosis and eventually loss of renal function. Ultrasonography is the first-line technique for the assessment of UE; alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging provides an evaluation of ureteral type involvement. The surgical treatment of UE aims to relieve ureteral obstruction and avoid disease recurrence. It includes conservative ureterolysis or radical approaches, such as ureterectomy with end-to-end anastomosis or ureteroneocystostomy performed in relation to the type of ureteral involvement. Fertility and pregnancy outcomes are in line with those observed after surgical treatment of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Current evidence does not support the potential risk of malignant transformation of UE.WIDER IMPLICATIONSIn this article, we review available evidence on ureteral endometriosis, providing a useful tool to guide physicians in the management of this disease. Diagnosis and management of UE remain a challenge. In relation to the degree of ureteral involvement and the association with other DIE implants, the surgical approach should be planned and carried out in an interdisciplinary collaboration between gynecologist and urologist.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy027
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2018)
  • The psychological impact of early pregnancy loss
    • Authors: Farren J; Mitchell-Jones N, Verbakel J, et al.
      Pages: 731 - 749
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEarly pregnancy loss (EPL) is a common event, with scope for long-term personal and societal impact. There are three decades worth of published evidence of profound psychological sequelae in a significant proportion of women. However, the wide variety of outcomes, screening instruments, assessment timings and geographical locations makes it challenging to form a coherent picture of the morbidity within the whole group and its subgroups.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review aims to investigate three questions. (1) What is the evidence for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy in women and/or their partners' (2) What is the intensity and duration of these conditions, and how do they compare to those without losses' (3) Which patients have been found to be at highest risk of psychopathology' Answers to these questions are salient not only in day-to-day clinical interactions with those experiencing EPL, whose psychological needs may not be prioritized, but should also form the basis for tailoring healthcare policy in terms of screening for and treating the associated psychological morbidity.SEARCH METHODSThe following databases were searched, from the start of each database up to July 2017: MEDLINE (Ovid interface, 1948 onwards), Embase classic + Embase (Ovid interface, 1947 onwards), and PsychINFO (Ovid interface, 1806 onwards). Search strategies were developed using medical subject headings (MeSH). The concepts of psychological morbidity (anxiety, depression or PTSD) and pregnancy loss (miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy) were first expanded with the Boolean operator ‘or’, then linked together using ‘and’.Included studies were of prospective cohort design, including women or men following EPL (with the majority to have experienced losses before 24 weeks gestation), and reporting standardized psychometric measures for anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The timing of follow-up had to be specified and standardized across participants. Manuscript quality and risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale.OUTCOMESWe found evidence of significant depression and anxiety in the first month following EPL in women. Partners were also shown to display depression and anxiety, albeit to a generally lower level. There is also evidence of post-traumatic stress symptoms relating to the EPL in three studies.WIDER IMPLICATIONSIn view of their high frequency, EPLs can significantly contribute to the overall burden of psychopathology within a population. Recognition of this impact is important, so that severely affected individuals may be screened and treated appropriately. Further research to establish risk factors to promptly identify and treat these patients, and to optimize their management, is crucial.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy025
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2018)
  • Placental formation in early pregnancy: how is the centre of the placenta
    • Authors: Boss A; Chamley L, James J.
      Pages: 750 - 760
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDCorrect development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited. Due to ethical constraints and the inaccessibility of very early implantation tissues, our knowledge of early placentation has been largely based on historical histological sections. More recently, stem cell technologies have begun to shed important new light on the origins of the placental mesenchymal lineages.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review aims to amalgamate the older and more modern literature regarding the origins of the non-trophoblast lineages of the human placenta. We highlight ways in which rapidly developing stem cell technologies may shed new light on these crucial peri-implantation events.SEARCH METHODSRelevant articles were identified using the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engines. A pearl growing method was used to expand the scope of papers relevant to the cell differentiation events of non-trophoblast placental lineages.OUTCOMESAt the start of pregnancy, cells of the extraembyronic mesoderm migrate to underlie the primitive trophoblast layers forming the first placental villi. The mesenchymal cells in the villus core most likely originate from the hypoblast of the embryo, but whether cells from the epiblast also contribute is yet to be determined. This is important because, following the formation of the villus core, vasculogenesis and haematopoiesis take place in the nascent placenta before it is connected to the embryonic circulation, making it likely that haematopoietic foci, placental macrophages, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells all arise in the placenta de novo. Evidence from the stem cell field indicates that these cells could directly differentiate from the extraembryonic mesoderm. However, the lineage hierarchy involved in cell fate decisions has not been well-established. Mesodermal progenitors capable of differentiating into both vascular and haematopoietic lineages can be derived from human embryonic stem cells, but the identification of such stem cells in the placenta is lacking. Future work profiling rare progenitor populations in early placentae will aid our understanding of early placentation.WIDER IMPLICATIONSUnderstanding the origins of the cell lineages of the normal placenta will help us understand why so many pregnancies fail and address mechanisms that may salvage some of these losses.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy030
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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