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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 528, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Human Reproduction Update
  [SJR: 4.678]   [H-I: 128]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-4786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2369
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Novel reproductive technologies to prevent mitochondrial disease
    • Authors: Craven L; Tang M, Gorman GS, et al.
      First page: 501
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDThe use of nuclear transfer (NT) has been proposed as a novel reproductive treatment to overcome the transmission of maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Pathogenic mutations in mtDNA can cause a wide-spectrum of life-limiting disorders, collectively known as mtDNA disease, for which there are currently few effective treatments and no known cures. The many unique features of mtDNA make genetic counselling challenging for women harbouring pathogenic mtDNA mutations but reproductive options that involve medical intervention are available that will minimize the risk of mtDNA disease in their offspring. This includes PGD, which is currently offered as a clinical treatment but will not be suitable for all. The potential for NT to reduce transmission of mtDNA mutations has been demonstrated in both animal and human models, and has recently been clinically applied not only to prevent mtDNA disease but also for some infertility cases. In this review, we will interrogate the different NT techniques, including a discussion on the available safety and efficacy data of these technologies for mtDNA disease prevention. In addition, we appraise the evidence for the translational use of NT technologies in infertility.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEWe propose to review the current scientific evidence regarding the clinical use of NT to prevent mitochondrial disease.SEARCH METHODSThe scientific literature was investigated by searching PubMed database until Jan 2017. Relevant documents from Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority as well as reports from both the scientific and popular media were also implemented. The above searches were based on the following key words: ‘mitochondria’, ‘mitochondrial DNA’; ‘mitochondrial DNA disease’, ‘fertility’; ‘preimplantation genetic diagnosis’, ‘nuclear transfer’, ‘mitochondrial replacement’ and ‘mitochondrial donation’.OUTCOMESWhile NT techniques have been shown to effectively reduce the transmission of heteroplasmic mtDNA variants in animal models, and increasing evidence supports their use to prevent the transmission of human mtDNA disease, the need for robust, long-term evaluation is still warranted. Moreover, prenatal screening would still be strongly advocated in combination with the use of these IVF-based technologies. Scientific evidence to support the use of NT and other novel reproductive techniques for infertility is currently lacking.WIDER IMPLICATIONSIt is mandatory that any new ART treatments are first adequately assessed in both animal and human models before the cautious implementation of these new therapeutic approaches is clinically undertaken. There is growing evidence to suggest that the translation of these innovative technologies into clinical practice should be cautiously adopted only in highly selected patients. Indeed, given the limited safety and efficacy data, close monitoring of any offspring remains paramount.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx018
       
  • X chromosome inactivation in human pluripotent stem cells as a model for
           human development: back to the drawing board'
    • Authors: Geens M; Chuva De Sousa Lopes SM.
      First page: 520
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDHuman pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), both embryonic and induced (hESC and hiPSC), are regarded as a valuable in vitro model for early human development. In order to fulfil this promise, it is important that these cells mimic as closely as possible the in vivo molecular events, both at the genetic and epigenetic level. One of the most important epigenetic events during early human development is X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. XCI is important for proper development and aberrant XCI has been linked to several pathologies. Recently, novel data obtained using high throughput single-cell technology during human preimplantation development have suggested that the XCI mechanism is substantially different from XCI in mouse. It has also been suggested that hPSC show higher complexity in XCI than the mouse. Here we compare the available recent data to understand whether XCI during human preimplantation can be properly recapitulated using hPSC.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEWe will summarize what is known on the timing and mechanisms of XCI during human preimplantation development. We will compare this to the XCI patterns that are observed during hPSC derivation, culture and differentiation, and comment on the cause of the aberrant XCI patterns observed in hPSC. Finally, we will discuss the implications of the aberrant XCI patterns on the applicability of hPSC as an in vitro model for human development and as cell source for regenerative medicine.SEARCH METHODSCombinations of the following keywords were applied as search criteria in the PubMed database: X chromosome inactivation, preimplantation development, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, primordial germ cells, differentiation.OUTCOMESRecent single-cell RNASeq data have shed new light on the XCI process during human preimplantation development. These indicate a gradual inactivation on both XX chromosomes, starting from Day 4 of development and followed by a random choice to inactivate one of them, instead of the mechanism in mice where imprinted XCI is followed by random XCI. We have put these new findings in perspective using previous data obtained in human (and mouse) embryos.In addition, there is an ongoing discussion whether or not hPSC lines show X chromosome reactivation upon derivation, mimicking the earliest embryonic cells, and the XCI states observed during culture of hPSC are highly variable. Recent studies have shown that hPSC rapidly progress to highly aberrant XCI patterns and that this process is probably driven by suboptimal culture conditions. Importantly, these aberrant XCI states seem to be inherited by the differentiated hPSC-progeny.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe aberrant XCI states (and epigenetic instability) observed in hPSC throw a shadow on their applicability as an in vitro model for development and disease modelling. Moreover, as the aberrant XCI states observed in hPSC seem to shift to a more malignant phenotype, this may also have important consequences for the safety aspect of using hPSC in the clinic.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx015
       
  • Baseline anatomical assessment of the uterus and ovaries in infertile
           women: a systematic review of the evidence on which assessment methods are
           the safest and most effective in terms of improving fertility outcomes
    • Authors: Armstrong SC; Showell M, Stewart EA, et al.
      First page: 533
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDThis review focuses on the initial presentation of women who suspect that they are infertile, and how best to assess the anatomy of their uterus and ovaries in order to investigate the cause of their infertility, and potentially improve desired fertility outcomes. This review was undertaken as part of a World Health Organization initiative to assess the evidence available to address guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility within a global context. Providing access to care for infertile women will help to ease the psycho-social burdens, such as ostracization, intimate partner violence and other negative consequences of being involuntarily childless or unable to become pregnant despite desiring a biological child or children.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this paper was to present an evidence base for the diagnostic and prognostic value of various investigations used for detecting uterine and/or ovarian pathology in women presenting at fertility clinics for their initial assessment.SEARCH METHODSWe performed a comprehensive search of relevant studies on 28 August and 10 September 2014. A further search was performed on 6 June 2016 to ensure all possible studies were captured. These strategies were not limited by date or language. The search returned 3968 publications in total; 63 full text articles were retrieved and 10 additional studies were found through hand-searching. After excluding 54, a total of 19 studies were analysed. We extracted and tabulated data on the characteristics, quality and results of each eligible study and combined the findings in a narrative synthesis. Risk of bias was assessed according to article type using tools such as assessment of the methodological quality of systematic reviews, Newcastle Ottawa Scale, Cochrane risk of bias tool, quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies and quality in prognostic studies. Nineteen studies were selected as being the best evidence available. A narrative synthesis of the data was undertaken. Discussion of the data, and resultant consensus for best practice were accomplished in a consensus expert consultation in Geneva, October 2015. An independent expert review process concerning this work and outcomes was conducted during 2016.OUTCOMESThe draft recommendations presented here apply to infertile women whether or not they are undergoing fertility treatment. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) should be offered to all infertile women with symptoms or signs of anatomic pelvic pathology. TVUS should not be offered routinely to women without symptoms of pelvic pathology. Hysteroscopy should be offered if intrauterine pathology is suspected by TVUS. Hysteroscopy should not be routinely offered to infertile women who have normal TVUS findings. In women who have normal TVUS findings and are undergoing IVF, hysteroscopy does not improve the outcome. Good practice points recommend that providers of fertility care should confirm that all infertile women have a recent pelvic examination, recent cervical screening and well-woman screening in line with local guidelines. Additionally, hystero-contrast salpingography in infertile women does not improve clinical pregnancy rates with expectant management in heterosexual couples and should not be offered as a therapeutic procedure. Most of the findings of this review on diagnosis are based on a low, or very low, quality of evidence, according to GRADE Working Group (grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation) criteria. A low quality grading indicates that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate, while a very low grade indicates that any estimate of effect is very uncertain.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThis review provides the most reliable evidence available to guide clinicians worldwide in the initial, evidence-based investigation of women with fertility problems in order to undertake the most useful investigation and avoid the burden of unnecessary tests.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx019
       
  • The role of TGF-β in the pathophysiology of peritoneal endometriosis
    • Authors: Young VJ; Ahmad SF, Duncan W, et al.
      First page: 548
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDEndometriosis is estimated to affect 6–10% of women of reproductive age and it is associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea and subfertility. It is currently managed surgically or medically but symptoms recur in up to 75% of cases and available medical treatments have undesirable side effects. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus with lesions typically found on the peritoneum. The aetiology of endometriosis is uncertain but there is increasing evidence that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a major role.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEA descriptive review was undertaken of the published literature on the expression pattern of TGF-β ligands and signalling molecules in women with and without endometriosis, and on the potential roles of TGF-β signalling in the development and progression of peritoneal endometriosis. The current understanding of the TGF-β signalling pathway is summarized.SEARCH METHODSWe searched the Pubmed database using the terms ‘transforming growth factor beta’ and ‘endometriosis’ for studies published between 1995 and 2016. The initial search identified 99 studies and these were used as the basic material for this review. We also extended our remit for important older publications. In addition, we searched the reference lists of studies used in this review for additional studies we judged as relevant. Studies which were included in the review focused on peritoneal endometriosis only as increasing evidence suggests that ovarian and deep endometriosis may have a differing pathophysiology. Thus, a final 95 studies were included in the review.OUTCOMESTGF-β1 is reported to be increased in the peritoneal fluid, serum, ectopic endometrium and peritoneum of women with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis, and TGF-β1-null mice have reduced endometriosis lesion growth when compared to their wild-type controls. Studies in mice and women have indicated that increasing levels of TGF-β ligands are associated with decreased immune cell activity within the peritoneum, together with an increase in ectopic endometrial cell survival, attachment, invasion and proliferation, during endometriosis lesion development. TGF-β1 has been associated with changes in ectopic endometrial and peritoneal cell metabolism and the initiation of neoangiogenesis, further fuelling endometriosis lesion development.WIDER IMPLICATIONSTogether these studies suggest that TGF-β1 plays a major role in the development of peritoneal endometriosis lesions and that targeting this pathway may be of therapeutic potential.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx016
       
  • GnRH antagonist versus long agonist protocols in IVF: a systematic review
           and meta-analysis accounting for patient type
    • Authors: Lambalk CB; Banga FR, Huirne JA, et al.
      First page: 560
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDMost reviews of IVF ovarian stimulation protocols have insufficiently accounted for various patient populations, such as ovulatory women, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or women with poor ovarian response, and have included studies in which the agonist or antagonist was not the only variable between the compared study arms.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of the current study was to compare GnRH antagonist protocols versus standard long agonist protocols in couples undergoing IVF or ICSI, while accounting for various patient populations and treatment schedules.SEARCH METHODSThe Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Review Group specialized register of controlled trials and Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception until June 2016. Eligible trials were those that compared GnRH antagonist protocols and standard long GnRH agonist protocols in couples undergoing IVF or ICSI. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were: live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, number of oocytes retrieved and safety with regard to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Separate comparisons were performed for the general IVF population, women with PCOS and women with poor ovarian response. Pre-planned subgroup analyses were performed for various antagonist treatment schedules.OUTCOMESWe included 50 studies. Of these, 34 studies reported on general IVF patients, 10 studies reported on PCOS patients and 6 studies reported on poor responders. In general IVF patients, ongoing pregnancy rate was significantly lower in the antagonist group compared with the agonist group (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.96). In women with PCOS and in women with poor ovarian response, there was no evidence of a difference in ongoing pregnancy between the antagonist and agonist groups (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84–1.11 and RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.65–1.17, respectively).Subgroup analyses for various antagonist treatment schedules compared to the long protocol GnRH agonist showed a significantly lower ongoing pregnancy rate when the oral hormonal programming pill (OHP) pretreatment was combined with a flexible protocol (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59–0.91) while without OHP, the RR was 0.84, 95% CI 0.71–1.0. Subgroup analysis for the fixed antagonist schedule demonstrated no evidence of a significant difference with or without OHP (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.79–1.12 and RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83–1.05, respectively).Antagonists resulted in significantly lower OHSS rates both in the general IVF patients and in women with PCOS (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.50–0.81 and RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30–0.95, respectively). No data on OHSS was available from trials in poor responders.WIDER IMPLICATIONSIn a general IVF population, GnRH antagonists are associated with lower ongoing pregnancy rates when compared to long protocol agonists, but also with lower OHSS rates. Within this population, antagonist treatment prevents one case of OHSS in 40 patients but results in one less ongoing pregnancy out of every 28 women treated. Thus standard use of the long GnRH agonist treatment is perhaps still the approach of choice for prevention of premature luteinization. In couples with PCOS and poor responders, GnRH antagonists do not seem to compromise ongoing pregnancy rates and are associated with less OHSS and therefore could be considered as standard treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx017
       
  • Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase
           deficiency revisited: an update with a special focus on adolescent and
           adult women
    • Authors: Carmina E; Dewailly D, Escobar-Morreale HF, et al.
      First page: 580
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNon-classic congenital hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by androgen excess.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEWe conducted a systematic review and critical assessment of the available evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of NCAH. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data was also performed.SEARCH METHODSPeer-reviewed studies evaluating NCAH published up to October 2016 were reviewed. Multiple databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, ERIC, EBSCO, dissertation abstracts, and current contents.OUTCOMESThe worldwide prevalence of NCAH amongst women presenting with signs and symptoms of androgen excess is 4.2% (95% confidence interval: 3.2–5.4%). The clinical consequences of NCAH expand from infancy, i.e. accelerated growth, to adolescence and adulthood, i.e. premature pubarche, cutaneous symptoms and oligo-ovulation in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like clinical picture. The diagnosis of NCAH relies on serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations. A basal 17-OHP concentration ≥2 ng/ml (6 nmol/l) should be used for screening if more appropriate in-house cut-off values are not available. Definitive diagnosis requires a 17-OHP concentration ≥10 ng/ml (30 nmol/l), either basally or after cosyntropin-stimulation. Molecular genetic analysis of the CYP21A2 gene, which is responsible for 21-hydroxylase activity, may be used for confirmation purposes and should be offered to all patients with NCAH along with genetic counseling because these patients frequently carry alleles that may result in classic CAH, the more severe form of the disease, in their progeny. Treatment must be individualized. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy may benefit pediatric patients with accelerated growth or advanced bone age or adult women seeking fertility, whereas adequate control of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and other cutaneous symptoms is best served by the use of oral contraceptive pills and/or anti-androgens. Some women may need ovulation induction or assisted reproductive technology to achieve pregnancy. Patients with NCAH have a higher risk of miscarriage and may benefit from glucocorticoid treatment during pregnancy.WIDER IMPLICATIONSEvidence-based diagnostic and treatment strategies are essential for the proper management of women with NCAH, especially considering that these patients may need different therapeutic strategies at different stages during their follow-up and that appropriate genetic counseling may prevent the occurrence of CAH in their children.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx014
       
  • Nitric oxide-heat shock protein axis in menopausal hot flushes: neglected
           metabolic issues of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with deranged
           heat shock response
    • Authors: Miragem A; Homem de Bittencourt P, Jr.
      First page: 600
      Abstract: AbstractBACKGROUNDAlthough some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease. On the other hand, oestrogen induces the expression of heat shock proteins of the 70 kDa family (HSP70), which are anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective protein chaperones, whose expression is modulated by different types of physiologically stressful situations, including heat stress and exercise. Therefore, lower HSP70 expression secondary to oestrogen deficiency increases cardiovascular risk and predisposes the patient to senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that culminates in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as obesities, type 2 diabetes, neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review focuses on HSP70 and its accompanying heat shock response (HSR), which is an anti-inflammatory and antisenescent pathway whose intracellular triggering is also oestrogen-dependent via nitric oxide (NO) production. The main goal of the manuscript was to show that the vasomotor symptoms that accompany hot flushes may be a disguised clue for important neuroendocrine alterations linking oestrogen deficiency to the anti-inflammatory HSR.SEARCH METHODSResults from our own group and recent evidence on hypothalamic control of central temperature guided a search on PubMed and Google Scholar websites.OUTCOMESOestrogen elicits rapid production of the vasodilatory gas NO, a powerful activator of HSP70 expression. Whence, part of the protective effects of oestrogen over cardiovascular and neuroendocrine systems is tied to its capacity of inducing the NO-elicited HSR. The hypothalamic areas involved in thermoregulation (infundibular nucleus in humans and arcuate nucleus in other mammals) and whose neurons are known to have their function altered after long-term oestrogen ablation, particularly kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin neurons, (KNDy) are the same that drive neuroprotective expression of HSP70 and, in many cases, this response is via NO even in the absence of oestrogen. From thence, it is not illogical that hot flushes might be related to an evolutionary adaptation to re-equip the NO-HSP70 axis during the downfall of circulating oestrogen.WIDER IMPLICATIONSUnderstanding of HSR could shed light on yet uncovered mechanisms of menopause-associated diseases as well as on possible manipulation of HSR in menopausal women through physiological, pharmacological, nutraceutical and prebiotic interventions. Moreover, decreased HSR indices (that can be clinically determined with ease) in perimenopause could be of prognostic value in predicting the moment and appropriateness of starting a HRT.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx020
       
 
 
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