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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 502, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover EP-Europace
  [SJR: 2.201]   [H-I: 71]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1099-5129 - ISSN (Online) 1532-2092
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • A new electrogram-based diagnostic algorithm to improve the left
           ventricular effective pacing detection corrected a non-response to cardiac
           resynchronization therapy pacing
    • Authors: Matía R; Hernández-Madrid A, Klepfer R, et al.
      Abstract: We present a case of a 79-year-old male, non-responder to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) despite the classic pacing counters indicating 99.3% biventricular (BiV) pacing. A new EGM-based diagnostic algorithm was used to uncover poor delivery of CRT pacing. The left ventricle (LV) cathode–right ventricle (RV) Coil electrogram (EGM) corresponding to each paced beat was analysed by the algorithm which automatically determined if the EGM had a QS/QS-r morphology and accordingly classified the paced beat as effective or ineffective. If CRT pacing is effective, the electrogram recorded from the pacing site should have a QS/QS-r morphology corresponding to initiation of activation from the pacing site. The BiV pacing in our case was 99.3% but the new diagnostic indicated only 7.8 % effective CRT pacing. The panel shows initial positive deflection when the right-left ventricle (VV) delay was programmed to 20 ms (LV first) (left Panel A). In the right PanelB after changing the VV delay to 80 ms, we can see how the deflection changes to be initially negative, after a long interval of capture latency, suggesting an issue with the tissue in the area of the pacing cathode. With these programming changes, we observed an increase in effective CRT pacing from 7.8% to 97.0%.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
  • Left atrial appendage empirical electrical isolation for persistent atrial
           fibrillation: time for a change in practice
    • Authors: Romero J; Natale A, Di Biase L.
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘Left atrial appendage isolation in addition to pulmonary vein isolation in persistent atrial fibrillation: one-year clinical outcome after cryoballoon-based ablation’ by H. Yorgun et al., on pages 758--768.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
  • Roof-dependent atrial-flutter after a 28 mm second-generation
           cryoballoon ablation
    • Authors: Hori Y; Nakahara S, Taguchi I.
      Abstract: A 73-year-old woman underwent a 28 mm 2nd generation cryoballoon ablation, and a roof-dependent atrial-flutter (AFL) was induced just after the pulmonary vein isolation and left atrial (LA) voltage mapping. Ablation of the PV antrum was performed with two applications per vein, one for 180 s followed by another for 150 s. The voltage map during sinus rhythm revealed an overlap of the cryoablation lesion on the LA posterior wall, and the overlapping lesion created slow conduction during the AFL. The AFL terminated after a roof linear ablation, and no further atrial arrhythmias were documented during 1-year of follow-up. The occurrence of AFL after cryoablation is rare during the follow-up period, however, investigating the mechanism of the AFL after the cryoablation may contribute to an improved clinical outcome.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
  • Presyncopal episodes after implantation of dual-chamber pacemaker
           programmed in SafeR pacing mode
    • Authors: San Antonio R; Benito E, Tolosana J, et al.
      Abstract: A 71-year-old man underwent implantation of a dual-chamber pacemaker (REPLY 200 DR, Sorin Group) programmed in SafeR mode (AAI ⇔ DDD) as treatment for a paroxysmal complete atrioventricular (AV) block and sinus node dysfunction. Three months later, he experienced several presyncopal episodes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Erratum to: Incidence of asymptomatic oesophageal lesions after atrial fibrillation ablation using an oesophageal temperature probe with insulated thermocouples: a comparative controlled study [Europace 2017; 19:385–91]
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
  • Preparticipation cardiovascular evaluation for athletic participants to
           prevents sudden death: author’s reply
    • Authors: Mont L; Guasch E, Pelliccia A.
      Abstract: We thank Dr Herbert Löllgen for his letter1 and interesting remarks regarding our recently published position paper.2 We agree with most of his comments and, indeed, firmly believe that proper measures need to be taken to foster a safe participation in exercise programmes and competitive sport. Yet we would like to address some of his comments on the performance of the exercise test and the role of exercise as a ‘disease promoter’.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
  • Cryoballoon dysfunction indicated by abrupt temperature drop during atrial
           fibrillation ablation
    • Authors: Tzeis S; Pastromas S, Sikiotis A, et al.
      Abstract: A 46-year-old male patient with symptomatic, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent cryoballoon ablation. During cryolesion delivery at the right inferior pulmonary vein, an abrupt and rapid temperature decline was noted from −42°C to −72°C within 7 s (Figure). Ablation was terminated, but retraction of the cryocatheter within the sheath was not feasible. The cryoballoon catheter and the sheath had to be retracted enbloc to the right atrium. Visual inspection demonstrated a kink in the shaft and inability to fully unwrap the balloon (Figure). The patient’s in-hospital course remained uneventful.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Erratum to:
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • The unfinished issue of ischaemic stroke and embolic events during
           catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Providencia R; Albenque J, Boveda S.
      Abstract: We have read with interest the paper by Liu et al.,1 who report a very low incidence of ischaemic stroke (0.36%; 7 patients) in 1946 consecutive procedures of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although these findings are noteworthy, we would like to comment on two aspects of the study that deserve reflection.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
  • The unfinished issue of ischaemic stroke and embolic events during
           ablation for atrial fibrillation: the authors' reply
    • Authors: Liu Y; Zhan X, Xue Y, et al.
      Abstract: We thank Dr. Providencia et al.1 for the concern and comments on our article.2 We agree with them that discontinuation of warfarin before catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is likely associated with increased risk of periprocedural thrombo-embolic events. We cannot comment on the effects of different periprocedural anticoagulation strategy used in our cohort on thrombo-embolic events during AF ablation because of only a small minority of patients who were anti-coagulated with uninterrupted warfarin. Although several reports indicate that AF ablation can be performed safely with fewer stroke and bleeding complications when oral warfarin is continued in the periprocedural period,3,4 it may be difficult to determine in some cases with high risk of major bleeding complications and over anticoagulation (such as the case 8 with complicated atrial tachyarrhythmia and long procedure duration) whether AF ablation without interruption of oral anticoagulation is an appropriate alternative.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
  • A particular case of transient ST elevation during cryoballoon ablation of
           atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Mugnai G; Longobardi M, Dore R, et al.
      Abstract: The present case describes the occurrence of ST elevation during cryoballoon (CB) ablation secondary to the proximity of a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) to the ostium of the left inferior pulmonary vein (LIPV). A 66-year-old female with drug-resistant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent pulmonary vein (PV) isolation by means of second-generation CB ablation. During CB ablation of LIPV (at 102 s, −40°C), ST elevation in inferior leads was abruptly observed and cryo-application was immediately stopped; a few minutes later the ST elevation spontaneously reverted. Then, during a further cryo-application in LIPV the ST elevation again appeared in the inferior leads and quickly reverted. The reanalysis of the computed tomography (CT) scan (Figure 1) showed that the venous bypass graft (white arrows) for distal right coronary artery ran near the ostium of LIPV (curved arrows) suggesting that the transmural lesion might probably have injured the bypass connection, or through a vasospasm, leading to a transient myocardial ischaemia. Pre-procedural CT imaging might hypothetically help to identify in patients with previous heart surgery a close anatomical relationship between CABGs and PVs in order to choose the best ablation strategy and limit the power and duration of single applications.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
  • European Heart Rhythm Association Young Electrophysiology Community:
           introducing our National Ambassadors of Italy, Turkey, and Poland
    • Authors: Kutyifa V; Vitali Serdoz L, Özcan E, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
  • Left atrial appendage isolation in addition to pulmonary vein isolation in
           persistent atrial fibrillation: one-year clinical outcome after
           cryoballoon-based ablation
    • Authors: Yorgun H; Canpolat U, Kocyigit D, et al.
      Abstract: AimsIn this study, we sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cryoballoon (CB) based empirical left atrial appendage (LAA) isolation as an adjunct to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) compared to the PVI-only strategy in patients with persistent AF.ObjectivesClinical outcomes of catheter ablation were less beneficial for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) than paroxysmal AF.Methods and resultsA total of 100 consecutive patients with persistent AF underwent both PVI and additional LAA isolation using CB (Group II). As a control group (Group I), among persistent AF patients, we conducted a retrospective, propensity-score matched cohort, in whom only PVI was performed using CB. Recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia (Ata) at the 12th month follow-up was the primary endpoint. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between two groups. At the 12th month follow-up, 67 (67%) patients in Group I and 86 (86%) patients in Group II were free of ATa after the index procedure (P < 0.001). As a unique complication of LAA isolation, left circumflex artery spasm was observed in 4% of the Group II. After adjusting for several baseline variables, PVI-only strategy was found as a significant predictor for recurrence (HR: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.73–6.56; P < 0.001). Transoesophageal echocardiography examination during the follow-up revealed no thrombus in the LAA.ConclusionOur findings indicated that LAA isolation as an adjunct to PVI improved 1-year outcomes in persistent AF compared with the PVI-only strategy using CB without an increase in thromboembolic complications.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
  • Left atrial and pulmonary vein flutter associated with double electrical
           connections after a lung transplantation
    • Authors: Itoh T; Yamada T.
      Abstract: A 53-year-old man with a history of bilateral lung transplantation (LT) underwent electrophysiological testing of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Activation map revealed that the activation propagated from the right PV (RPV) cuff to the left atrium (LA) through a first conduction gap located at the superior aspect of the RPV cuff and from the LA back to the RPV cuff through a second conduction gap located at the inferior aspect of the RPV cuff (Panel-A), suggesting that the SVT should be a figure-of-8 type macroreentrant atrial flutter (AFL) associated with 2 conduction gaps between the donor RPV cuff and recipient LA. A single irrigated radiofrequency application was delivered at the first conduction gap with a fractionated mid-diastolic potential, resulting in prolongation of the SVT cycle length followed by termination of the SVT (Panel-B). A couple of irrigated radiofrequency applications were delivered at the second conduction gap, resulting in an isolation of the RPV cuff.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
  • Pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation for athletic participants to
           prevent sudden cardiac death
    • Authors: Löllgen H.
      Abstract: The recent position article on pre-participation examination for athletic participants is appreciated.1 Most recommendations are in accordance with the EFSMA (European Federation of Sports Medicine Asssociations) statement.2 However, this position article1 requires some comments in order to avoid discouraging top and leisure time athletes from continuing intensive endurance training. The sensitivity and specificity of electrocardiogram (ECG) are based on the prevalence of a disease within the population. This holds true for resting and especially for stress testing ECG. The only reliable parameter, then, is predictive value eliminating the possible bias. Reliability of resting ECG interpretation has been changed with developing consensus, such as Seattle criteria, the subsequent refined criteria and the forthcoming international criteria. Reliability of resting ECG in athletes has also markedly improved by using ECG devices with automatic analysis of the athlete's ECG according to the Seattle criteria. This is also superior to visual analysis, thus further reducing false positive and false negative findings (Abaecherli R. et al., abstract at ESC meeting, 2015).
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
  • Demographics, treatment and outcomes of atrial fibrillation in a
           developing country: the population-based TuRkish Atrial Fibrillation
           (TRAF) cohort
    • Authors: Yavuz B; Ata N, Oto E, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAlthough atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly common in developed countries, there is limited information regarding its demographics, co-morbidities, treatments and outcomes in the developing countries. We present the profile of the TuRkish Atrial Fibrillation (TRAF) cohort which provides real-life data about prevalence, incidence, co-morbidities, treatment, healthcare utilization and outcomes associated with AF.Methods and resultsThe TRAF cohort was extracted from MEDULA, a health insurance database linking hospitals, general practitioners, pharmacies and outpatient clinics for almost 100% of the inhabitants of the country. The cohort includes 507 136 individuals with AF between 2008 and 2012 aged >18 years who survived the first 30 days following diagnosis. Of 507 136 subjects, there were 423 109 (83.4%) with non-valvular AF and 84 027 (16.6%) with valvular AF. The prevalence was 0.80% in non-valvular AF and 0.28% in valvular AF; in 2012 the incidence of non-valvular AF (0.17%) was higher than valvular AF (0.04%). All-cause mortality was 19.19% (97 368) and 11.47% (58 161) at 1-year after diagnosis of AF. There were 35 707 (7.04%) ischaemic stroke/TIA/thromboembolism at baseline and 34 871 (6.87%) during follow-up; 11 472 (2.26%) major haemorrhages at baseline and 10 183 (2.01%) during follow-up, and 44 116 (8.69%) hospitalizations during the follow-up.ConclusionThe TRAF cohort is the first population-based, whole-country cohort of AF epidemiology, quality of care and outcomes. It provides a unique opportunity to study the patterns, causes and impact of treatments on the incidence and outcomes of AF in a developing country.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
  • Optimizing the detection of macroscopic T-wave alternans using high
           precordial leads in a patient with Brugada syndrome
    • Authors: Nakashima T; Suzuki K, Aoyama T, et al.
      Abstract: A 31-year-old man was resuscitated after cardiopulmonary arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Physical examination, laboratory tests, echocardiography, and coronary angiography did not show any abnormalities. Five days after resuscitation, standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed spontaneous macroscopic T-wave alternans (TWA) in the V2 lead. In addition, QT interval alternans (480–520 ms) were observed (PanelA, arrows). At the same time, an ECG recorded with the V1–V6 leads placed one intercostal space higher showed pronounced TWA in the V2 lead. Furthermore, TWA manifested in the V1 and V3 leads (PanelB, arrows). Standard electrode position can identify specific Brugada ECG changes; however, this may lead to the underestimation of macroscopic TWA. Our case suggests that a less obvious TWA recorded with a standard ECG may be more obvious when using higher precordial leads.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy for patients with cardiac sarcoidosis
    • Authors: Sairaku A; Yoshida Y, Nakano Y, et al.
      Abstract: AimsSarcoidosis with cardiac involvement is a rare pathological condition, and therefore cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for patients with cardiac sarcoidosis is even further rare. We aimed to clarify the clinical features of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis who received CRT.Methods and resultsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical data on CRT at three cardiovascular centres to detect cardiac sarcoidosis patients. We identified 18 (8.9%) patients with cardiac sarcoidosis who met the inclusion criteria out of 202 with systolic heart failure who received CRT based on the guidelines. The majority of the patients were female [15 (83.3%)] and underwent an upgrade from a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator [13 (72.2%)]. We found 1 (5.6%) cardiovascular death during the follow-up period (mean ± SD, 4.7 ± 3.0 years). Seven (38.9%) patients had a composite outcome of cardiovascular death or hospitalization from worsening heart failure within 5 years after the CRT. Twelve (66.7%) patients had a history of sustained ventricular arrhythmias or those occurring after the CRT. Among the overall patients, no significant improvement was found in either the end-systolic volume or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 6 months after the CRT. A worsening LVEF was, however, more likely to be seen in 5 (27.8%) patients with ventricular arrhythmias after the CRT than in those without (P = 0.04). An improved clinical composite score was seen in 10 (55.6%) patients.ConclusionsCardiac sarcoidosis patients receiving CRT may have poor LV reverse remodelling and a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
  • Left juxtaposed right atrial appendage suspected on a plain chest
    • Authors: Gunadeva N; Shah R, Sharma GK, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
  • Is epicardial fat depot associated with atrial fibrillation? A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Gaeta M; Bandera F, Tassinari F, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAtrial fibrillation (AF) is the leading rhythm disorder in western countries. A direct relationship between left atrium (LA) enlargement and electromechanical remodelling has been established. A causative link between epicardial fat (EF), visceral adipose tissue deposited around the heart, and AF has been hypothesized. Several reports suggested the association between EF and the presence of AF. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between AF and EF depot, performing a meta-analysis of observational case series studies.Methods and resultsStudies were identified by searching electronic databases by two independent investigators using ‘atrial fibrillation’ and ‘epicardial fat’ as keywords. Comparisons between healthy participants and AF cases were performed using a random effect meta-analysis estimating standardized mean difference among comparison groups. Meta regression was used to address the effect given by potential biological and technical confounders. Through a search result of 502 articles, only 7 were selected to conduct the present study. The comparison between all AF with respect to healthy participants resulted in a 32.0 ml of EF difference (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.5, 42.5) showing that EF volume is higher in AF cases. A statistical significant difference of EF was observed when comparing both persistent and paroxysmal AF subtypes with respect to healthy participants (EF difference 48.0 ml (95% CI = 25.2, 70.8) and 15.7 ml (95% CI = 10.1, 21.4) for persistent and paroxysmal, respectively). A significant EF difference resulted also when comparing persistent to paroxysmal AF subtypes (29.6 ml (95% CI = 12.7, 46.5)) ConclusionsThe present work expands the strength of previously reported association between EF amount and atrial arrhythmia.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
  • Cryoablation vs. radiofrequency ablation for treatment of paroxysmal
           atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Chen Y; Lu Z, Xiang Y, et al.
      Abstract: AimsCryoablation is a promising alternative technique to RF ablation for treating paroxysmal AF with encouraging results. However, data about the efficacy and safety comparison between cryoablation and RF ablation is still lacking.Methods and resultsWe systematically search the PubMed, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases, and finally identify 16 eligible studies including 7195 patients (2863 for cryoablation; 4332 for RF ablation). Freedom from AF/atrial tachycardial replase is slightly higher in cryoablation than RF ablation during a median 12 months of follow-up, with no statistical significant (RR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.98–1.13, P = 0.159). In cryoablation, the procedure time is substantially shortened (WMD: −27.66, 95% CI: −45.24 to − 10.08, P = 0.002), whereas the fluoroscopy time is identical to RF ablation (WMD: −0.37, 95% CI: −2.78 to 2.04, P = 0.763). Procedure-related adverse events in cryoablation are parallel with that in RF ablation (RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86–1.35, P = 0.159).ConclusionsCompared with RF ablation, cryoablation present a comparable long-term AF/atrial tachycardial-free survival and procedure-related adverse events. Meanwhile, cryoablation markedly shorten the procedure time, nonetheless, with negligible impact on the fluoroscopy time.
      PubDate: 2017-01-08
  • Multicentre safety of adding Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation (FIRM) to
           conventional ablation for atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Krummen DE; Baykaner T, Schricker AA, et al.
      Abstract: AimsFocal Impulse and Rotor Modulation (FIRM) uses 64-electrode basket catheters to identify atrial fibrillation (AF)-sustaining sites for ablation, with promising results in many studies. Accordingly, new basket designs are being tested by several groups. We set out to determine the procedural safety of adding basket mapping and map-guided ablation to conventional pulmonary vein isolation (PVI).Methods and resultsWe collected 30 day procedural safety data in five US centres for consecutive patients undergoing FIRM plus PVI (FIRM-PVI) compared with contemporaneous controls undergoing PVI without FIRM. A total of 625 cases were included in this analysis: 325 FIRM-PVI and 300 PVI-controls. FIRM-PVI patients were more likely than PVI-controls to be male (83% vs. 66%, P < 0.001) and have long-standing persistent AF (26% vs. 13%, P < 0.001) reflecting patients referred for FIRM. Total ablation time was greater for FIRM-PVI (62 ± 22 min) vs. PVI-controls (52 ± 18 min, P = 0.03). The complication rate for FIRM-PVI procedures (4.3%) was similar to controls (4.0%, P = 1) for both major and minor complications; no deaths were reported. The rate of complications potentially attributable to the basket catheter was small and did not differ between basket types (Constellation 2.8% vs. FIRMap 1.8%, P = 0.7) or between cases in which basket catheters were and were not used (P = 0.5). Complication rates did not differ between centres (P = 0.6).ConclusionsProcedural complications from the use of the basket catheters for AF mapping are low, and thus procedural safety appears similar between FIRM-PVI and PVI-controls in a large multicentre cohort. Future studies are required to determine the optimal approach to maximize the efficacy of FIRM-guided ablation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device replacement considerations:
           upgrade or downgrade? A complex decision in the current clinical setting
    • Authors: Nakou ES; Simantirakis EN, Kallergis EM, et al.
      Abstract: There are limited data about the management of patients presenting for elective generator replacements in the setting of previously implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices that are nearing end-of-life. The individual patient’s clinical status and concomitant morbidities may evolve so that considerations may include not only replacement of the pulse generator, but also potentially changing the type of device [e.g. downgrading CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) to CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) or ICD or upgrading of CRT-P to CRT-D]. Moreover, the clinical evidence for CRT-D/CRT-P implantation may change over time, with ongoing research and availability of new trial data. In this review we discuss the ethical, clinical and financial implications related to CRT generator replacements and the need for additional clinical trials to better understand which patients should undergo CRT device downgrading or upgrading at the time of battery depletion.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
  • Torsade de pointes arrhythmias arise at the site of maximal heterogeneity
           of repolarization in the chronic complete atrioventricular block dog
    • Authors: Dunnink A; Stams TG, Bossu A, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe chronic complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) dog is highly sensitive for drug-induced torsade de pointes (TdP) arrhythmias. Focal mechanisms have been suggested as trigger for TdP onset; however, its exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, detailed mapping of the ventricles was performed to assess intraventricular heterogeneity of repolarization in relation to the initiation of TdP.Methods and resultsIn 8 CAVB animals, 56 needles, each containing 4 electrodes, were inserted in the ventricles. During right ventricular apex pacing (cycle length: 1000–1500 ms), local unipolar electrograms were recorded before and after administration of dofetilide to determine activation and repolarization times (RTs). Maximal RT differences were calculated in the left ventricle (LV) within adjacent electrodes in different orientations (transmural, vertical, and horizontal) and within a square of four needles (cubic dispersion). Dofetilide induced TdP in five out of eight animals. Right ventricle–LV was similar between inducible and non-inducible dogs at baseline (327 ± 30 vs. 345 ± 17 ms) and after dofetilide administration (525 ± 95 vs. 508 ± 15 ms). All measurements of intraventricular dispersion were not different at baseline, but this changed for horizontal (206 ± 20 vs. 142 ± 34 ms) and cubic dispersion (272 ± 29 vs. 176 ± 48 ms) after dofetilide: significantly higher values in inducible animals. Single ectopic beats and the first TdP beat arose consistently from a subendocardially located electrode terminal with the shortest RT in the region with largest RT differences.ConclusionChronic complete atrioventricular block dogs susceptible for TdP demonstrate higher RT differences. Torsade de pointes arises from a region with maximal heterogeneity of repolarization suggesting that a minimal gradient is required in order to initiate TdP.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17
  • Safety of magnetic resonance scanning without monitoring of patients with
    • Authors: Bertelsen L; Petersen H, Philbert B, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe objective of this study was to investigate whether it is safe to perform 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in pacemaker (PM) patients without pulse oximetry or electrocardiogram monitoring and with no special specific absorption rate (SAR) or time limits, provided that the PMs are interrogated and programmed to asynchronous mode prior to the scan.Methods and resultsThis study reports the outcome of 207 MRI scans on PM patients at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital from June 2010 to September 2013. All MRIs were performed with the PMs in asynchronous mode and without additional monitoring. There were no adverse events registered among the PM patients during the study period. The only statistically significant change after MRI scans was a small, but clinically insignificant increase in atrial sense. No occurrences of reprogramming to power-on-reset were registered.ConclusionIt is possible to perform MRI scans relatively safely in PM patients without additional monitoring or change in the normal MRI protocol, given that the PM has been assessed and reprogrammed prior to MRI. This is especially important to remember in the acute setting where MRI scans may be delayed when monitoring facilities are unavailable.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
  • Death and thrombo-embolic risk after ablation of atrial flutter compared
           with atrial fibrillation: a nationwide cohort study
    • Authors: Vadmann H; Gorst-Rasmussen A, Hjortshøj S, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a similar mortality and thrombo-embolic risk, after an atrial ablation procedure, compared with an atrial fibrillation (AF) procedure.Methods and resultsUsing data from nationwide Danish health registries, we identified patients aged 18–75 years undergoing a first-time atrial flutter or an AF ablation procedure in the period 2000–13. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) after 5 years of follow-up, adjusting for concomitant risk factors. A total of 1096 and 2266 patients underwent an ablation for atrial flutter or AF, respectively. Age distribution was similar in the two, but atrial flutter patients had more co-morbidities. During 5 years of follow-up, we observed 38 and 36 deaths in the atrial flutter and AF groups, corresponding to an almost two-fold higher mortality rate among atrial flutter patients [crude HR 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–3.03]. The higher mortality rate persisted after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension (adjusted HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05–2.69). The rate of thrombo-embolic events was similar in the two groups (crude HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.71–2.56; adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.62–2.41).ConclusionIn this observational study, patients with atrial flutter had a significantly higher all-cause mortality rate compared with those with AF after an ablation procedure, but similar thrombo-embolic event rates. Future studies should elucidate the reason for this difference in mortality.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
  • Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in a patient with unilateral
           left pulmonary artery agenesis: an enlarged right pulmonary vein caused
           arrhythmogenicity of atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Hashiguchi N; Kurita T, Miyazaki S.
      PubDate: 2016-10-11
  • Data mining experiments on the Angiotensin II-Antagonist in Paroxysmal
    • Authors: Okutucu S; Katircioglu-Öztürk D, Oto E, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe aims of this study include (i) pursuing data-mining experiments on the Angiotensin II-Antagonist in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (ANTIPAF-AFNET 2) trial dataset containing atrial fibrillation (AF) burden scores of patients with many clinical parameters and (ii) revealing possible correlations between the estimated risk factors of AF and other clinical findings or measurements provided in the dataset.MethodsRanking Instances by Maximizing the Area under a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve (RIMARC) is used to determine the predictive weights (Pw) of baseline variables on the primary endpoint. Chi-square automatic interaction detector algorithm is performed for comparing the results of RIMARC. The primary endpoint of the ANTIPAF-AFNET 2 trial was the percentage of days with documented episodes of paroxysmal AF or with suspected persistent AF.ResultsBy means of the RIMARC analysis algorithm, baseline SF-12 mental component score (Pw= 0.3597), age (Pw= 0.2865), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (Pw= 0.2719), systolic blood pressure (Pw= 0.2240), and creatinine level (Pw= 0.1570) of the patients were found to be predictors of AF burden. Atrial fibrillation burden increases as baseline SF-12 mental component score gets lower; systolic blood pressure, BUN and creatinine levels become higher; and the patient gets older. The AF burden increased significantly at age >76.ConclusionsWith the ANTIPAF-AFNET 2 dataset, the present data-mining analyses suggest that a baseline SF-12 mental component score, age, systolic blood pressure, BUN, and creatinine level of the patients are predictors of AF burden. Additional studies are necessary to understand the distinct kidney-specific pathophysiological pathways that contribute to AF burden.
      PubDate: 2016-10-11
  • Death after ablation of atrial flutter: are we doing the right thing?
    • Authors: Trines SA.
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘Death and thrombo-embolic risk after ablation of atrial flutter compared with atrial fibrillation: a nationwide cohort study’ by H. Vadmann et al., doi:10.1093/europace/euw107.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Antiarrhythmic effect of vernakalant in an experimental model of
    • Authors: Frommeyer G; Clauss C, Ellermann C, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe antiarrhythmic drug vernakalant exerts antiarrhythmic effects in atrial fibrillation. Recent experimental data suggest interactions with the late sodium current and antiarrhythmic effects in ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed at investigating whether treatment with vernakalant reduces polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in an experimental model of Long-QT-syndrome (LQTS).Methods and resultsTwenty-nine isolated rabbit hearts were assigned to two groups and treated with erythromycin (300 µM, n = 15) or veratridine (0.5 µM, n = 14) after obtaining baseline data. Thereafter, vernakalant (10 µM) was additionally infused. Infusion of erythromycin or veratridine significantly increased action potential duration (APD90) and QT interval. Erythromycin and veratridine also significantly augmented spatial dispersion of repolarization (erythromycin: +43 ms; veratridine: +55 ms, P < 0.01, respectively) and temporal dispersion of repolarization. After lowering extracellular [K+] in bradycardic hearts, 11 of 15 erythromycin-treated hearts and 4 of 14 veratridine-treated hearts showed early afterdepolarizations and subsequent polymorphic VT. Additional treatment with vernakalant resulted in a significant reduction of spatial dispersion of spatial dispersion in both groups (erythromycin: −32 ms; veratridine: −35 ms, P < 0.05 each) and a stabilization of temporal dispersion. After additional treatment with vernakalant, only 5 of 15 erythromycin-treated hearts (P = 0.07) and 1 of 14 veratridine-treated hearts (P = 0.32) presented polymorphic VT.ConclusionVernakalant has antiarrhythmic effects in this experimental model of acquired LQTS. A reduction of spatial dispersion of repolarization and a stabilization of temporal dispersion in hearts showing polymorphic VT represent the major underlying electrophysiological mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Traditional and novel electrocardiographic conduction and repolarization
           markers of sudden cardiac death
    • Authors: Tse G; Yan BP.
      Abstract: Sudden cardiac death, frequently due to ventricular arrhythmias, is a significant problem globally. Most affected individuals do not arrive at hospital in time for medical treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify the most-at-risk patients for insertion of prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Clinical risk markers derived from electrocardiography are important for this purpose. They can be based on repolarization, including corrected QT (QTc) interval, QT dispersion (QTD), interval from the peak to the end of the T-wave (Tpeak – Tend), (Tpeak – Tend)/QT, T-wave alternans (TWA), and microvolt TWA. Abnormal repolarization properties can increase the risk of triggered activity and re-entrant arrhythmias. Other risk markers are based solely on conduction, such as QRS duration (QRSd), which is a surrogate marker of conduction velocity (CV) and QRS dispersion (QRSD) reflecting CV dispersion. Conduction abnormalities in the form of reduced CV, unidirectional block, together with a functional or a structural obstacle, are conditions required for circus-type or spiral wave re-entry. Conduction and repolarization can be represented by a single parameter, excitation wavelength (λ = CV × effective refractory period). λ is an important determinant of arrhythmogenesis in different settings. Novel conduction–repolarization markers incorporating λ include Lu et al.' index of cardiac electrophysiological balance (iCEB: QT/QRSd), [QRSD× (Tpeak − Tend)/QRSd] and [QRSD × (Tpeak − Tend)/(QRSd × QT)] recently proposed by Tse and Yan. The aim of this review is to provide up to date information on traditional and novel markers and discuss their utility and downfalls for risk stratification.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Smart detection of atrial fibrillation †
    • Authors: Krivoshei L; Weber S, Burkard T, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAtrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice, and its paroxysmal nature makes its detection challenging. In this trial, we evaluated a novel App for its accuracy to differentiate between patients in AF and patients in sinus rhythm (SR) using the plethysmographic sensor of an iPhone 4S and the integrated LED only.Methods and resultsFor signal acquisition, we used an iPhone 4S, positioned with the camera lens and LED light on the index fingertip. A 5 min video file was recorded with the pulse wave extracted from the green light spectrum of the signal. RR intervals were automatically identified. For discrimination between AF and SR, we tested three different statistical methods. Normalized root mean square of successive difference of RR intervals (nRMSSD), Shannon entropy (ShE), and SD1/SD2 index extracted from a Poincaré plot. Eighty patients were included in the study (40 patients in AF and 40 patients in SR at the time of examination). For discrimination between AF and SR, ShE yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity with 85 and 95%, respectively. Applying a tachogram filter resulted in an improved sensitivity of 87.5%, when combining ShE and nRMSSD, while specificity remained stable at 95%. A combination of SD1/SD2 index and nRMSSD led to further improvement and resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 95%.ConclusionThe algorithm tested reliably discriminated between SR and AF based on pulse wave signals from a smartphone camera only. Implementation of this algorithm into a smartwatch is the next logical step.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Implanted defibrillators in trouble: initial device misclassification
           leads to correct diagnosis—a case series
    • Authors: Müssigbrodt A; Knopp H, Seewöster T, et al.
      Abstract: AimsSupraventricular tachycardia, mistakenly diagnosed as ventricular tachycardia, may lead to inappropriate ICD therapy. Inappropriate ICD therapy associates with increased morbidity and mortality. A reduction of inappropriate therapy is therefore desired.Methods and resultsWe present three different cases that beautifully illustrate the diagnostic possibilities of stored electrograms. Initial differential diagnoses in all three patients included ventricular tachycardia, focal atrial tachycardia, atrio-ventricular re-entry tachycardia, and atrio-ventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia. The first case was diagnosed as atrio-ventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia. In the second case, atrio-ventricular re-entry tachycardia was revealed. Ectopic atrial tachycardia was the reason for inappropriate therapy in the third patient.ConclusionThorough analysis of stored electrograms yielded correct diagnosis in all cases, which subsequently was confirmed by electrophysiological study.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Influence of patients' age at implantation on mortality and defibrillator
    • Authors: Saba S; Adelstein E, Wold N, et al.
      Abstract: AimsPatients have increasing comorbidities and competing causes of death with advancing age, raising questions about the effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in older age. We therefore investigated the effect of patients' age at initial device implantation on all-cause mortality and on the risk of ICD shocks in single-chamber (V-ICD), dual-chamber (D-ICD), and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) recipients.Methods and resultsWe reviewed de-identified records of 67 128 ICD recipients enrolled in the Boston Scientific ALTITUDE database of remote monitored patients [V-ICD (n = 11 422), D-ICD (n = 23 974), and CRT-D (n = 31 732)]. Over a mean follow-up of 2.3 ± 1.4 years, patients in all ICD groups had increased all-cause mortality but decreased risk of defibrillator shocks and/or anti-tachycardia pacing per 10 year increase in age. Compared with the youngest age group (<50 years), patients in the oldest age group (≥80 years) had a 6.8-fold, 5.9-fold, and 3.4-fold increase in all-cause mortality (P < 0.001 for all comparisons) and a 31, 45, and 53% decrease in the risk of ICD shock (P ≤ 0.002 for all comparisons) for the V-ICD, D-ICD, and CRT-D groups, respectively.ConclusionOlder recipients of standard and CRT defibrillators have higher mortality but fewer ICD shocks and/or therapies compared with younger patients. These data highly suggest less benefit of ICD therapy with increasing age, presumably because of competing risks of non-arrhythmic mortality. The role of defibrillator therapy in older patients may need to be evaluated with randomized controlled trials.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac implanted electronic
           devices: focus on contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging
    • Authors: Horwood L; Attili A, Luba F, et al.
      Abstract: AimsMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported to be safe in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) provided a specific protocol is followed. The objective of this study was to assess whether this is also true for patients excluded from published protocols.Methods and resultsA total of 160 MRIs were obtained in 142 consecutive patients with CIEDs [106 patients had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and 36 had a pacemaker implanted] using an adapted, pre-specified protocol. A cardiac MRI was performed in 95 patients, and a spinal/brain MRI was performed in 47 patients. Forty-six patients (32%) had either abandoned leads (n = 10), and/or were pacemaker dependent with an implanted ICD (n = 19), had recently implanted CIEDs (n = 1), and/or had a CIED device with battery depletion (n = 2), and/or a component of the CIED was recalled or on advisory (n = 32). No major complications occurred. Some device parameters changed slightly, but significantly, right after or at 1-week post-MRI without requiring any reprogramming. In one patient with an ICD on advisory, the pacing rate changed inexplicably during one of his two MRIs from 90 to 50 b.p.m.ConclusionUsing a pre-specified protocol, cardiac and non-cardiac MRIs were performed in CIED patients with pacemaker dependency, abandoned leads, or depleted batteries without occurrence of major adverse events. Patients with devices on advisory need to be monitored carefully during MRI, especially if they are pacemaker dependent.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Ablation index, a novel marker of ablation lesion quality: prediction of
           pulmonary vein reconnection at repeat electrophysiology study and regional
           differences in target values
    • Authors: Das M; Loveday JJ, Wynn GJ, et al.
      Abstract: AimsForce–Time Integral (FTI) is commonly used as a marker of ablation lesion quality during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), but does not incorporate power. Ablation Index (AI) is a novel lesion quality marker that utilizes contact force, time, and power in a weighted formula. Furthermore, only a single FTI target value has been suggested despite regional variation in left atrial wall thickness. We aimed to study AI's and FTI's relationships with PV reconnection at repeat electrophysiology study, and regional threshold values that predicted no reconnection.Methods and resultsForty paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients underwent contact force-guided PVI, and the minimum and mean AI and FTI values for each segment were identified according to a 12-segment model. All patients underwent repeat electrophysiology study at 2 months, regardless of symptoms, to identify sites of PV reconnection. Late PV reconnection was seen in 53 (11%) segments in 25 (62%) patients. Reconnected segments had significantly lower minimum AI [308 (252–336) vs. 373 (323–423), P < 0.0001] and FTI [137 (92–182) vs. 228 (157–334), P < 0.0001] compared with non-reconnected segments. Minimum AI and FTI were both independently predictive, but AI had a smaller P value. Higher minimum AI and FTI values were required to avoid reconnection in anterior/roof segments than for posterior/inferior segments (P < 0.0001). No reconnection was seen where the minimum AI value was ≥370 for posterior/inferior segments and ≥480 for anterior/roof segments.ConclusionThe minimum AI value in a PVI segment is independently predictive of reconnection of that segment at repeat electrophysiology study. Higher AI and FTI values are required for anterior/roof segments than for posterior/inferior segments to prevent reconnection.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
  • Is modification of the VVI backup mode in implantable
           cardioverter-defibrillators from St Jude medical required due to increased
           risk of inappropriate shocks?
    • Authors: Philbert BT; Tfelt-Hansen J, Jacobsen PK, et al.
      Abstract: Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock therapy is painful, stressful, and typically occurs unexpected in conscious patients and may be related to a less favourable prognosis. In our institution, we have observed four cases of multiple inappropriate ICD shocks during reset to VVI backup mode. All four patients were implanted with a St Jude Medical ICD since 2010. The reset to VVI backup mode happens as a ‘safety’ response when the ICD encounters errors in the software or hardware often due to electromagnetic interference. The ICD then operates in a simple mode, with only a ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone starting at 146 b.p.m., with shock therapy only and changes in sensitivity settings making the ICD more sensitive. In all cases, the reason for the multiple inappropriate shocks was that the VF zone was reached due to exercise-induced sinus tachycardia or due to oversensing during sinus rhythm. The VVI backup mode has to balance between protection from failure of ICD therapy during life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and from inappropriate shocks. It seems the non-programmable parameters in VVI backup mode of St Jude Medical ICDs carry an unacceptable high risk of inappropriate shocks during normal rhythm as illustrated by our four cases. A higher VF zone comparable with the zones chosen by the other manufacturer would give a better balance, since it is very unlikely that a patient will need shock therapy urgently for slow ventricular tachycardia.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
  • Influence of automatic frequent pace-timing adjustments on effective left
           ventricular pacing during cardiac resynchronization therapy
    • Authors: Varma N; Stadler RW, Ghosh S, et al.
      Abstract: AimsCardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) requires effective left ventricular (LV) pacing (i.e. sufficient energy and appropriate timing to capture). The AdaptivCRT™ (aCRT) algorithm serves to maintain ventricular fusion during LV or biventricular pacing. This function was tested by comparing the morphological consistency of ventricular depolarizations and percentage effective LV pacing in CRT patients randomized to aCRT vs. echo-optimization.Methods and resultsContinuous recordings (≥20 h) of unipolar LV electrograms from aCRT (n = 38) and echo-optimized patients (n = 22) were analysed. Morphological consistency was determined by the correlation coefficient between each beat and a template beat. Effective LV pacing of paced beats was assessed by algorithmic analysis of negative initial EGM deflection in each evoked response. The %CRT pacing delivered, %effective LV pacing (i.e. % of paced beats with effective LV pacing), and overall %effective CRT (i.e. product of %CRT pacing and %effective LV pacing) were compared between aCRT and echo-optimized patients. Demographics were similar between groups. The mean correlation coefficient between individual beats and template was greater for aCRT (0.96 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.13, P = 0.07). Although %CRT pacing was similar for aCRT and echo-optimized (median 97.4 vs. 98.6%, P = 0.14), %effective LV pacing was larger for aCRT [99.6%, (99.1%, 99.9%) vs. 94.3%, (24.3%, 99.8%), P=0.03]. For aCRT vs. echo-optimized groups, the proportions of patients with ≥90% effective LV pacing was 92 vs. 55% (P = 0.002), and with ≥90% effective CRT was 79 vs. 45%, respectively (P = 0.018).ConclusionAdaptivCRT™ significantly increased effective LV pacing over echo-optimized CRT.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
  • Noninvasive epicardial and endocardial mapping of premature ventricular
    • Authors: Wissner E; Revishvili A, Metzner A, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe aim of the present study was to estimate the accuracy of a novel non-invasive epicardial and endocardial electrophysiology system (NEEES) for mapping ectopic ventricular depolarizations.Methods and resultsThe study enrolled 20 patients with monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardia (VT). All patients underwent pre-procedural computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and torso. Radiographic data were semi-automatically processed by the NEEES to reconstruct a realistic 3D model of the heart and torso. In the electrophysiology laboratory, body-surface electrodes were connected to the NEEES followed by unipolar EKG recordings during episodes of PVC/VT. The body-surface EKG data were processed by the NEEES using its inverse-problem solution software in combination with anatomical data from the heart and torso. The earliest site of activation as denoted on the NEEES 3D heart model was compared with the PVC/VT origin using a 3D electroanatomical mapping system. The site of successful catheter ablation served as final confirmation. A total of 21 PVC/VT morphologies were analysed and ablated. The chamber of interest was correctly diagnosed non-invasively in 20 of 21 (95%) PVC/VT cases. In 18 of the 21 (86%) cases, the correct ventricular segment was diagnosed. Catheter ablation resulted in acute success in 19 of the 20 (95%) patients, whereas 1 patient underwent successful surgical ablation. During 6 months of follow-up, 19 of the 20 (95%) patients were free from recurrence off antiarrhythmic drugs.ConclusionThe NEEES accurately identified the site of PVC/VT origin. Knowledge of the potential site of the PVC/VT origin may aid the physician in planning a successful ablation strategy.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20
  • Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in electrophysiological
           procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Sobolev M; Shiloh AL, Di Biase L, et al.
      Abstract: AimsIn an effort to minimize periprocedural stroke risk, increasingly, electrophysiological (EP) procedures are being performed on anticoagulation. The decrease in stroke has been accompanied by an increase in potentially devastating vascular access complications. Ultrasound guidance for femoral vein cannulation reduces complications in other applications. The aim of this study is to determine the utility of real-time two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound guidance for femoral vein cannulation in EP.Methods and resultsA comprehensive literature search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed. Five years of conference abstracts from the Heart Rhythm Society, European Heart Rhythm Association, and European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society were reviewed. Two independent reviewers identified trials comparing ultrasound-guided with standard cannulation in EP procedures. Data were extracted on study design, study size, operator and patient characteristics, use of anticoagulation, vascular complication rates, first-pass success rate, and inadvertent arterial puncture. Four trials, with a total of 4065 subjects, were included in the review, with 1848 subjects in the ultrasound group and 2217 subjects in the palpation group. Ultrasound guidance for femoral vein cannulation was associated with a 60% reduction of major vascular bleeding (relative risk, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.28–0.91). Additionally, there was a 66% reduction in minor vascular complications (relative risk, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.15–0.78).ConclusionThe use of real-time 2D ultrasound guidance for femoral vein cannulation decreases access-related bleeding rates and life-threatening vascular complications.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20
  • Five seconds of 50–60 W radio frequency atrial ablations were transmural
           and safe: an in vitro mechanistic assessment and force-controlled in vivo
    • Authors: Bhaskaran A; Chik W, Pouliopoulos J, et al.
      Abstract: AimsLonger procedural time is associated with complications in radiofrequency atrial fibrillation ablation. We sought to reduce ablation time and thereby potentially reduce complications. The aim was to compare the dimensions and complications of 40 W/30 s setting to that of high-power ablations (50–80 W) for 5 s in the in vitro and in vivo models.Methods and resultsIn vitro ablations—40 W/30 s were compared with 40–80 W powers for 5 s. In vivo ablations—40 W/30 s were compared with 50–80 W powers for 5 s. All in vivo ablations were performed with 10 g contact force and 30 mL/min irrigation rate. Steam pops and depth of lung lesions identified post-mortem were noted as complications. A total of 72 lesions on the non-trabeculated part of right atrium were performed in 10 Ovine. All in vitro ablations except for the 40 W/5 s setting achieved the critical lesion depth of 2 mm. For in vivo ablations, all lesions were transmural, and the lesion depths for the settings of 40 W/30 s, 50 W/5 s, 60 W/5 s, 70 W/5 s, and 80 W/5 s were 2.2 ± 0.5, 2.3 ± 0.5, 2.1 ± 0.4, 2.0 ± 0.3, and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. The lesion depths of short-duration ablations were similar to that of the conventional ablation. Steam pops occurred in the ablation settings of 40 W/30 s and 80 W/5 s in 8 and 11% of ablations, respectively. Complications were absent in short-duration ablations of 50 and 60 W.ConclusionHigh-power, short-duration atrial ablation was as safe and effective as the conventional ablation. Compared with the conventional 40 W/30 s setting, 50 and 60 W ablation for 5 s achieved transmurality and had fewer complications.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20
  • Cost effectiveness of LAA closure in patients with AF and
           contraindications to warfarin: comment
    • Authors: Belley-Côté EP; Jaffer I, Lamy A, et al.
      Abstract: We read with great interest the recent report on the time to cost effectiveness of different stroke reduction strategies in atrial fibrillation by Reddy et al. in your journal.1 This study evaluated the costs of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) using the Watchman device (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA). As pointed out by the authors, procedures to implement percutaneous devices are associated with a 6.7% short-term risk of major complications (air embolism, major bleeding, and pericardial effusion). Moreover, the device and technical platform necessary for the procedure come at a significant cost (€9136). Despite these downsides, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of €30 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, the authors found that relative to both aspirin and apixaban, LAAC was cost effective at 8 years. Left atrial appendage closure was also likely cost effective in patients with contraindications to warfarin at 10 years.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
  • ‘Real-world’ atrial fibrillation management in Europe: observations
           from the 2-year follow-up of the EURObservational Research
           Programme-Atrial Fibrillation General Registry Pilot Phase
    • Authors: Proietti M; Laroche C, Opolski G, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAtrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly associated with a high risk of stroke, thromboembolism, and mortality. The 1-year follow-up of the EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot Registry demonstrated a high mortality but good outcomes with European Society of Cardiology guideline-adherent therapy. Whether these ‘real-world’ observations on patients managed by European cardiologists extend to 2 years remains uncertain.Methods and resultsIn this report from the EORP-AF General Registry Pilot Phase, we provide data on the 2-year follow-up outcomes. Consistent with the 1-year follow-up report, only a small proportion of patients were symptomatic (24.9%), with minor differences between the different AF subtypes. Persistence of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy remains high at 2-years, with ∼80% of patients treated with OAC. The prescribing rates of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are progressively increasing (13.7% at 2 years). Rate and rhythm control approaches remained consistent across the entire follow-up observation. Overall mortality rates remained high, with 5.0% of patients dead during the 2-year follow-up, mostly due to cardiovascular causes (61.8%). Atrial fibrillation readmissions were frequent, particularly related to arrhythmias and heart failure. On multivariate analyses, any cardiovascular reason for admission rather than AF was significantly associated with increased mortality during the 2-year follow-up.ConclusionIn this 2-year follow-up report from EORP-AF, mortality rates with AF remain high from cardiovascular causes, despite the high prevalent use of OAC. Improved management strategies to reduce major adverse outcomes in AF patients are needed.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
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