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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 517, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover EP-Europace
  [SJR: 2.201]   [H-I: 71]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1099-5129 - ISSN (Online) 1532-2092
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • First description of a Brugada phenocopy in the inferior leads in the
           context of an acute inferior myocardial infarction
    • Authors: Alper A; Tekkesin A, Çinier G, et al.
      Abstract: A 67-year-old male patient with no prior medical cardiac history presented to the emergency department with anginal chest pain lasting for 1 h. His electrocardiographic (ECG) revealed ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF (Figure, A). A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made and the patient was transferred to our Cath Lab for a coronary angiography that revealed right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion in the mid segment and 50% stenosis of the circumflex artery (CX). Personal or family history of unexplained syncope, sudden cardiac death, or implantable cardiac defibrillator implantation was denied. Initial blood tests were normal except increased high sensitive troponin I: 24.98 ng/mL (0.002–0.0342). The patient presented polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) with haemodynamic deterioration (Figure B). He was successfully defibrillated. Following defibrillation, the ECG revealed typical type-1 Brugada pattern in leads II, III, and aVF (Figure C). Electrolytes were normal and the patient was not receiving any medication known to trigger a Brugada ECG pattern. A new coronary angiogram showed a patent stent to the RCA and no progression of the CX lesion. The ECG normalized spontaneously immediately after the angiogram (Figure, D). A provocative test with ajmaline was performed 2 days later which failed to induce a type-1 Brugada ECG pattern.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
  • Inappropriate sinus tachycardia in a heart transplant successfully treated
           with ivabradine
    • Authors: Mehta N; Bapat A, Tedrow U, et al.
      Abstract: A 55-year-old male with history of two prior orthotopic heart transplants presented with his third heart failure hospitalization in 4 months with a steady decrement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from 65% to 35%. During each hospitalization, he demonstrated a long-RP tachycardia in the 130 beats/min (Panel A). His tachycardia preceded the deterioration in LVEF. An extensive evaluation included a right heart catheterization showing elevated filling pressures, coronary angiography showing no epicardial coronary artery disease, and endomyocardial biopsies at two different times finding no evidence of allograft rejection. Owing to persistent tachycardia, he underwent electrophysiology study that showed earliest atrial activation in the sinoatrial nodal region (Panel B). Outpatient Holter monitoring revealed a mean heart rate (HR) averaging 127 beats/min (range 116–147 bpm). Given concern for inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) and the worsening LVEF, tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy (TCM) was presumptively diagnosed. Pharmacologic therapy for atrioventricular nodal blockade was hindered by hypotension. Initiation of ivabradine decreased resting HR to 90–110 beats/min. The slower HR persisted with ongoing therapy. Follow-up echocardiography showed LVEF recovery with no further heart failure hospitalizations. This is the first report of reversal of IST-related TCM in a cardiac transplant patient with ivabradine.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
  • Visualizing induced silent steam pop with intracardiac echocardiography
    • Authors: Kondo Y; Ueda M, Kobayashi Y.
      Abstract: A piglet underwent aggressively endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) (FlexAbilityTM; St Jude Medical). RFCA was applied in the left ventricle. An intracardiac echocardiography catheter (ViewFlexTM, Xtra ICE Catheter; St Jude Medical) was inserted in the right ventricle (PanelA). Formation of focal microbubbles was observed before steam pop initiation. After 44 s from initiation of RFCA, a silent steam explosion occurred. Explosive microbubbles were clearly observed. The impedance tracing was not remarkable. The endocardial damage caused by this induced steam pop was a void 15 mm in diameter and 8 mm in depth (PanelB). However, cardiac tamponade was not observed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
  • Chronic total occlusion: a black-box'
    • Authors: Akin II; Borggrefe MM.
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘Prognostic impact of chronic total coronary occlusion on long-term outcomes in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients with ischaemic heart disease’ by T. Nishikawa et al., on pages 1153--1162.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
  • Denervation of the extrinsic cardiac sympathetic nervous system as a
           treatment modality for arrhythmia
    • Authors: Witt CM; Bolona L, Kinney MO, et al.
      Abstract: Denervation of the extrinsic cardiac sympathetic nervous system is a method of altering the autonomic tone experienced by the heart and vasculature. It has been studied and employed as a therapy for cardiac disease for decades. Currently, there is a high level of interest in using cardiac denervation for treatment of arrhythmias. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the cardiac autonomic nervous system followed by a discussion of the mechanistic studies which provide a basis for the therapeutic use of sympathetic denervation. The clinical research supporting its use in human arrhythmias is then appraised, covering the standard indications, such as long QT syndrome, as well as future possibilities. Last, a detailed account of the methods for performing surgical cardiac denervation and percutaneous stellate ganglion anesthetic block is provided, including the complications of each procedure. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiac autonomic nervous system along with the techniques of surgical denervation and percutaneous anesthetic block will allow the clinician to effectively discuss and implement these therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
  • Physicians' knowledge of implantable defibrillator treatment: are we good
    • Authors: Kinch Westerdahl A; Frykman V.
      Abstract: AimsWhen admitted to hospitals, patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are treated in a variety of departments. Physicians need to have basic ICD knowledge in order to provide the best possible care from implantation to the end of life. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of knowledge concerning ICD treatment among physicians active in Cardiology, Internal Medicine, and Geriatrics.Methods and resultsThis cross-sectional comparative study, after stratified sampling, distributed 432 surveys in 18 hospitals with a response rate of 99.5%. As many as 349 (83%) physicians had experience with ICD patients; 288 (68%) rated their ICD knowledge to be low. According to predefined criteria, 175 (41%) physicians' scores reflected sufficient knowledge. There was a significant difference in the level of knowledge between specialities. Sufficient knowledge was reached by 56 (30%) of the physicians in Internal Medicine and 20 (19%) of them in Geriatrics, whereas in Cardiology 99 (71%) reached sufficient knowledge.ConclusionThere is lack of basic knowledge in ICD treatment and clinical management among physicians. The majority of the respondents had prior experience in treating ICD patients. Over two-thirds of the physicians rated their knowledge to be low, while test scores revealed sufficient knowledge in only 41% of the physicians surveyed. The lack of ICD knowledge is most prominent in Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, but it also extends to physicians in Cardiology departments. With an increasing number of ICD patients, it is of great importance to fill this knowledge gap as soon as possible.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
  • Radiofrequency catheter ablation of left-sided accessory pathways in
           children using a new fluoroscopy integrated 3D-mapping system
    • Authors: Drago F; Grifoni G, Remoli R, et al.
      Abstract: IntroductionAdvances in 3D electroanatomic-mapping technologies have resulted in a safe and effective profile of radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. The aim of this study was to evaluate a different catheter ablation approach in patients with left-sided accessory pathways (APs).Methods and resultsFrom January 2015 to December 2015, 30 patients (median age 11 years, median weight 45 kg) with manifest or concealed left-sided APs underwent RF catheter ablation with a new protocol. All procedures were performed with the CARTO UNIVU™ system, integrating electroanatomic maps with fluoroscopic views. A 7 Fr ablation catheter was inserted into the right femoral vein and advanced into the right atrium. Geometrical reconstruction and activation map of the right atrium, tricuspid annulus, and coronary sinus were acquired. The ablation catheter was then inserted into the left femoral artery and advanced through the aorta and aortic valve, creating an activation map of the mitral annulus. Catheter ablation was targeted to the site of the earliest activation. No complications occurred. The median procedure and fluoroscopy times were 130 min and 6 s, with a median fluoroscopy dose 0.5 mGy. An average of two catheters was used. Long-term success rate was 97% (29/30) at a median follow-up of 9.6 months. This approach reduced fluoroscopy time, dose and number of catheters used compared with manifest or concealed left-sided AP ablation using CARTO 3™ (P < 0.05).ConclusionsThis new ablation protocol seems to be promising in reducing fluoroscopy exposure and number of catheters used during left-sided AP ablation in children.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
  • Mapping the unmappable: local vector mapping
    • Authors: Yang F.
      Abstract: Arrhythmias are commonly mapped using a timing reference signal. There are a number of situations where mapping may be difficult or even impossible using conventional reference-based mapping. Wobbling arrhythmias or those who do not maintain a 1:1 relationship with the reference signal are problematic. Local vector mapping may be performed in these situations to map arrhythmias without the use of a reference signal.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
  • Epsilon wave on an electronic loop in a case of arrhythmogenic right
           ventricular dysplasia with myocarditis: an updated definition of the
           Epsilon wave
    • Authors: Fontaine G; Duthoit G, Li G, et al.
      Abstract: A young man presented with a history of myocarditis with palpitations and dizziness. He had implantation of a loop recorder that showed repetitive short episodes of VT. In addition, there were fragmented potentials immediately following the large and sharp electrograms (EGMs) before as well as after episodes of VT suggesting an Epsilon wave. This signal can be observed in multiple cardiac conditions including coronary artery disease. It was originally recorded on the epicardium as well as on the endocardium. However, in ARVD it can be defined as an electric signal observed after the end of the QRS complex in the right as opposed to the left precordial leads (difference ≥ 25 ms). It can also be an aid to the diagnosis of patients with ARVD who have other signs or symptoms suggesting ARVD including episodes of myocarditis. This potential consists of a slurring at the end of the QRS complex or an independent potential after the return to the isoelectric line. It can be better observed by increasing amplification of the ECG tracing as well as double speed using the Fontaine lead system. Epsilon wave too small to be recorded on the standard ECG can be extracted by Signal Averaging ECG SAECG).
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
  • Ranolazine reduces atrial fibrillatory wave frequency
    • Authors: Black-Maier EW; Pokorney SD, Barnett AS, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAntiarrhythmic medications for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) have limited efficacy and rare but potentially life-threatening side effects. Ranolazine is an antianginal agent that may have antiarrhythmic activity in AF.Methods and resultsUsing the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer database, we analysed a cohort of AF patients on ranolazine. Patients served as their own historic control. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were analysed before and after ranolazine initiation to determine the effect of ranolazine on dominant frequency (DF), f-wave amplitude, and organizational index (OI). We identified 15 patients with ECGs in AF before and after ranolazine. Ranolazine was associated with lower DF by an average of 10% (5.10 ± 0.74 vs. 5.79 ± 0.96 Hz, P = 0.04) but not with changes in OI (0.47 ± 0.11 vs. 0.50 ± 0.12, P = 0.71) or amplitude (0.47 ± 0.43 vs. 0.41 ± 0.40 mV, P = 0.82). Ranolazine was also associated with lower DF in patients (n = 10) not on concomitant antiarrhythmic therapy (5.25 ± 0.78 vs. 6.03 ± 0.79 Hz, P = 0.04).ConclusionRanolazine is associated with lower AF DF but no change in OI or fibrillatory wave amplitude. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate ranolazine's potential as a novel antiarrhythmic drug for AF.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18
  • Clinical events preceding switching and discontinuation of oral
           anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Hellfritzsch M; Grove E, Husted S, et al.
      Abstract: AimsSwitching between oral anticoagulants and treatment discontinuation are common events related to therapy with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). However, knowledge on the reasons leading to these treatment changes is scarce. The aim of this study was to identify clinical events preceding anticoagulant switching and NOAC discontinuation during oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.Methods and resultsWe performed a nationwide register-based study including Danish atrial fibrillation patients initiating a NOAC between August 2011 and February 2016 (n = 50 623). We explored potential reasons leading to changes in anticoagulant treatment by identifying clinical events preceding switches from vitamin K antagonists (VKA) to NOAC, switches from NOAC to VKA, and discontinuations of NOACs. Among 23 531 anticoagulant users changing treatment, we identified 13 295 switches from VKA to NOAC, 5206 switches from NOAC to VKA, and 8995 discontinuations of NOACs. Approximately half of all treatment changes were preceded by a hospitalization. A relevant specific clinical event or procedure was identified prior to 18.3% of switches from VKA to NOAC, prior to 23.0% of switches from NOAC to VKA, and prior to 26.6% of discontinuations. Switches from VKA to NOAC were most often preceded by thromboembolic events (7.0%), whereas cardioversion was the most common specific event prior to a switch from NOAC to VKA (11.4%). Discontinuations were most often preceded by bleeding events (7.6%).ConclusionFor about one in five patients, treatment changes during anticoagulant therapy were preceded by a major clinical event. However, the majority of patients changed treatment for reasons not recorded in health registries.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17
  • Cryoballoon ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation: feasibility and
           safety of left atrial roof ablation with generation of conduction block in
           addition to antral pulmonary vein isolation
    • Authors: Kuniss M; Greiß H, Pajitnev D, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAlthough the generation of linear lesions by ablation improves success rates in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), the procedure has been considered unsuitable for cryoablation balloon catheter technologies. We developed a technique for linear ablations, using second-generation cryoballoon technology.Methods and resultsThis was a single-arm, prospective study in 76 patients with persistent AF treated consecutively at our centre. Cryoablation was performed using a 28 mm second-generation cryoballoon. The first cryoenergy application was performed in close proximity to the position during isolation of the left superior pulmonary vein (PV). Sequential overlapping freezes were applied along the left atrial (LA) roof by slight clockwise rotation of the sheath in combination with slight retraction of the sheath and incremental advancement of the cryoballoon, until reaching the original position for right superior PV isolation. The acute endpoint was the creation of a roofline, defined as complete conduction block across the LA roof >120 ms and ascending activation across the posterior LA wall. Acute success in roofline generation was achieved in 88% of patients, applying on average five (median 4–6) freezes with nadir temperature of −40°C (−36 to −44°C). In five patients, conduction block could not be achieved. No phrenic nerve injuries occurred during roofline generation.ConclusionGeneration of linear roofline lesions is possible with the second-generation cryoballoon. The technique can be used in combination with PV isolation to treat persistent AF with good acute success rates, short procedure times, and acceptable safety concerns. If validated by further studies, the method would be an appealing alternative to radiofrequency ablation techniques.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
  • Prognostic impact of chronic total coronary occlusion on long-term
           outcomes in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients with
           ischaemic heart disease
    • Authors: Nishikawa T; Fujino M, Nakajima I, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe prognostic impact of chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients remains unclear.Methods and resultsEighty-four consecutive patients with ischaemic heart disease who received ICD therapy for primary or secondary prevention were analysed. We investigated all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including cardiac death, appropriate device therapy, hospitalization for heart failure, and ventricular assist device implantation. Of the study patients (mean age 70 ± 8 years; 86% men), 34 (40%) had CTO. There were no significant differences in age, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), New York Heart Association functional class III or IV status, and proportion who underwent secondary prevention between patients with CTO (CTO group) and without CTO (non-CTO group). During a median follow-up of 3.8 years (interquartile range 2.7–5.4 years), the CTO group tended to have a higher MACE rate (log-rank P = 0.054) than the non-CTO group. Within the CTO group, there was no difference in the MACE rate between patients with and without viable myocardium. In patients with ICD for secondary prevention (n = 47), 16 patients (34%) with CTO had a higher MACE rate than patients without CTO (log-rank P < 0.01). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the presence of CTO, but not LVEF, was associated with a higher MACE rate. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of CTO was a predictor of MACE (P < 0.05).ConclusionIn patients with ischaemic heart disease receiving ICD implantation, the presence of CTO has an adverse impact on long-term prognosis, especially as secondary prevention.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
  • Validation of defibrillator lead performance registry data: insight from
           the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Register
    • Authors: Kristensen A; Larsen J, Nielsen J, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe validity of registry data on defibrillator lead performance is described only sparsely, despite its clinical importance. This study investigated the validity of defibrillator lead performance registry data in a nationwide and population-based registry.Methods and resultsWe identified all reported surgical interventions due to defibrillator lead events in the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Register (DPIR) from 2000 to 2013. Medical records of all patients (n = 753) were examined blinded for 5 predefined intervention types and 18 reasons for lead intervention. The overall level of agreement for the types of lead intervention had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 89.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.0–91.5%] and an adjusted agreement (κ value) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77–0.85) representing an almost perfect match. Regarding the reasons for lead intervention, the overall PPV was 63.0% (95% CI: 54.8–61.7%) with a κ value of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.55–0.64) representing a moderate match with only few subcategories having low PPV. By redistribution of the specific reasons for lead interventions into three categories commonly used to report lead performance, the overall PPV improved to 87.9% (95% CI: 85.2–90.2%) with a κ value of 0.82 (95% CI:0.78–0.86) representing an almost perfect match.ConclusionThe validity of data on defibrillator lead performance recorded in the DPIR is excellent for the specific types of lead intervention and good for the specific reasons for defibrillator lead intervention. The validity of the less detailed overall reasons for lead interventions commonly used to report lead performance is also excellent. These findings indicate high registry data quality appropriate for scientific analysis and industry-independent post-marketing surveillance.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
  • Cardiac arrhythmias in patients with Danon disease
    • Authors: Konrad T; Sonnenschein S, Schmidt F, et al.
      Abstract: AimsDifferent cardiac arrhythmias have been suggested to be associated with Danon disease, e.g. Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. However, a systematic electrophysiological investigation of patients with Danon disease is lacking thus far.Methods and resultsSeven patients with Danon disease (4 males, 35.8 ± 10.8 years; 3 females, 51.3 ± 19.9 years) from 3 different families were studied. In all patients, the presence of Danon disease was confirmed by western blot of biopsy material or genetic testing. The patients were characterized by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter ECG, echocardiography, and serial implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) interrogations (in ICD recipients). All male patients underwent electrophysiological investigation (EP study). Asymptomatic ventricular tachyarrhythmias were documented in six of the seven patients. Moreover, 5 of the 7 patients suffered from atrial fibrillation (AF), with 1 of them experiencing thromboembolic stroke at the age of 30 years. In male patients, the initial QRS complex was characterized by a slurring upstroke and shortened PQ interval mimicking ventricular pre-excitation. One male patient showed initial QRS complex slurring with prolonged PR interval. However, the presence of an accessory pathway was excluded by an EP study in all patients. In female patients, initial QRS complex slurring was significantly less distinct. In four patients, ICD implantation was performed for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. However, sustained ventricular arrhythmias were not documented in any of the patients.ConclusionsThe present study indicates that the distinct surface ECG pattern in Danon disease is not associated with ventricular pre-excitation. Atrial fibrillation is frequently observed in these patients and may be associated with thromboembolic events in the young, while sustained ventricular arrhythmias occur less frequently than previously reported.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
  • ‘Smart’ solutions for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation'
    • Authors: Grieten L; Vandenberk T, Nuyens D.
      Abstract: On the basis of the review of Carpenter and Frontera we present a case of a 66-year-old female patient who was implanted with an implantable loop recorder (ILR) (LinQ, Medtronic) due to a history of unexplained syncope and symptoms of palpitations. After the procedure, the patient received a smartwatch device (E4, Empatica), which measures the photoplethysmography (PPG) signal at the wrist, and an iPhone 5S smartphone with a custom-made application (FibriCheck®), which measures the PPG signal in the tip of the finger using the smartphone camera.
      PubDate: 2016-10-11
  • Migration of femoral vein thrombus to the right ventricle: an
           undesiderable complication in patients undergoing electrophysiological
    • Authors: De Sensi F; Cresti A, Addonisio L.
      PubDate: 2016-10-11
  • Venous access and long-term pacemaker lead failure: comparing
           contrast-guided axillary vein puncture with subclavian puncture and
           cephalic cutdown
    • Authors: Chan N; Kwong N, Cheong A.
      Abstract: AimsExisting data on the relationship between venous access and long-term pacemaker lead failure (PLF) are scarce and inconsistent. We aim to study the hypothesis that contrast-guided axillary vein puncture (AP) is better than subclavian puncture (SP) and similar to cephalic vein cutdown (CV) in the incidence of PLF and the success rate of AP is higher than CV.Methods and resultsThe case records of 409 patients with 681 implantable pacemaker leads were reviewed. Two hundred and fifty-two, 217, and 212 leads were implanted via AP, CV, and SP, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 73.6 ± 33.1 months, 20 (2.9%) PLF occurred. Three (1.2%), 5 (2.3%), and 12 (5.6%) PLF occurred in the AP, CV, and SP groups, respectively. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the only independent predictor for PLF was the use of SP instead of AP (AP vs. SP; hazard ratio: 0.261; 95% confidence interval: 0.071–0.954, P = 0.042). The success rate of CV (78.2%) was significantly lower than those of AP (97.6%) and SP (96.8%) (P < 0.001).ConclusionCompared with SP, the use of AP but not CV independently predicted a lower risk of PLF. The success rates in achieving venous accesses were similar between AP and SP, but significantly lower for CV. Axillary vein puncture may thus be considered the venous access of choice for pacemaker lead implantation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-11
  • Atrial fibrillation detection using a novel three-vector cardiac
           implantable monitor: the atrial fibrillation detect study
    • Authors: Ciconte G; Saviano M, Giannelli L, et al.
      Abstract: AimsContinuous rhythm monitoring is valuable for adequate atrial fibrillation (AF) management in the clinical setting. Subcutaneous leadless implantable cardiac monitors (ICMs) yield an improved AF detection, overcoming the intrinsic limitations of the currently available external recording systems, thus resulting in a more accurate patient treatment. The study purpose was to assess the detection performance of a novel three-vector ICM device equipped with a dedicated AF algorithm.Methods and resultsSixty-six patients (86.4% males; mean age 60.4 ± 9.4 years) at risk to present AF episodes, having undergone the novel ICM implant (BioMonitor, Biotronik SE&Co. KG, Berlin, Germany), were enrolled. External 48-h ECG Holter was performed 4 weeks after the device implantation. The automatic ICM AF classification was compared with the manual Holter arrhythmia recordings. Of the overall study population, 63/66 (95.5%) had analysable Holter data, 39/63 (62%) showed at least one true AF episode. All these patients had at least one AF episode stored in the ICM. On Holter monitoring, 24/63 (38%) patients did not show AF episodes, in 16 of them (16/24, 67%), the ICM confirmed the absence of AF. The AF detection sensitivity and positive predictive value for episodes’ analysis were 95.4 and 76.3%, respectively.ConclusionContinuous monitoring using this novel device, equipped with a dedicated detection algorithm, yields an accurate and reliable detection of AF episodes. The ICM is a promising tool for tailoring individual AF patient management. Further long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm these encouraging results.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Time matters: adenosine testing immediately after pulmonary vein isolation
           does not substitute a waiting period
    • Authors: Teunissen C; Clappers N, Kassenberg W, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAdenosine testing can reveal dormant pulmonary vein (PV) conduction after PV antrum isolation (PVAI). However, the optimal timing for adenosine administration is unknown. We hypothesized that adenosine testing immediately after PVAI reliably reveals PV reconnection and thereby eliminates the need for an observation period.Methods and resultsFifty patients underwent PVAI. Immediately after isolation of a PV pair, adenosine was administered. Both PV pairs were separately tested. If adenosine restored PV conduction, PVs were re-isolated. During a ≥30 min observation period after immediate adenosine-guided isolation, spontaneous reconnection was assessed and reconnected PVs were re-isolated. After the observation period, adenosine testing was repeated. Immediate adenosine testing revealed dormant conduction in 10.4% of the left PVs and 16.3% of the right PVs. All PVs were successfully re-isolated. During a mean observation period of 36 ± 10 min, spontaneous reconnection occurred in 8.2% of the left and 16.3% of the right PVs. None of these PVs had shown reconnection during immediate testing. Late adenosine testing revealed dormant conduction in 12.5% of the left and 16.3% of the right PVs. In patients without reconnection during immediate adenosine testing, 14.6% of the left PVs and 30.6% of the right PVs showed either spontaneous reconnection or restored PV conduction during late adenosine testing.ConclusionAdenosine testing immediately after PVAI does not reliably exclude later spontaneous or adenosine-induced PV reconnection. Adenosine testing should be performed after an appropriate observation period to reduce risk of PV reconnection.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Antiadrenergic autoimmunity in postural tachycardia syndrome
    • Authors: Fedorowski A; Li H, Yu X, et al.
      Abstract: AimsPostural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a common and debilitating cardiovascular disorder, is characterized by an exaggerated heart rate increase during orthostasis and a wide spectrum of adrenergic-related symptoms. To determine the aetiology of POTS, we examined a possible pathophysiological role for autoantibodies against α1-adrenergic (α1AR) and β1/2-adrenergic receptors (β1/2AR).Methods and resultsImmunoglobulin G (IgG) derived from 17 POTS patients, 7 with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS), and 11 normal controls was analysed for its ability to modulate activity and ligand responsiveness of α1AR and β1/2AR in transfected cells and to alter contractility of isolated rat cremaster arterioles in vitro. Immunoglobulin G activation of α1AR and β1/2AR was significantly higher in POTS compared with VVS and controls in cell-based assays. Eight, 11, and 12 of the 17 POTS patients possessed autoantibodies that activated α1AR, β1AR and β2AR, respectively. Pharmacological blockade suppressed IgG-induced activation of α1AR and β1/2AR. Eight of 17 POTS IgG decreased the α1AR responsiveness to phenylephrine and 13 of 17 POTS IgG increased the β1AR responsiveness to isoproterenol irrespective of their ability to directly activate their receptors. Postural tachycardia syndrome IgG contracted rat cremaster arterioles, which was reversed by α1AR blockade. The upright heart rate correlated with IgG-mediated β1AR and α1AR activity but not with β2AR activity.ConclusionThese data confirm a strong relationship between adrenergic autoantibodies and POTS. They support the concept that allosteric-mediated shifts in the α1AR and β1AR responsiveness are important in the pathophysiology of postural tachycardia.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Reduction of falls and fractures after permanent pacemaker implantation in
           elderly patients with sinus node dysfunction
    • Authors: Brenner R; Ammann P, Yoon S, et al.
      Abstract: AimsElderly patients with sinus node dysfunction (SND) are at increased risk of falls with possible injuries. However, the incidence of these adverse events and its reduction after permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation are not known.Methods and resultsEighty-seven patients (mean [SD] age 75.4 [8.3] years, 51% women) with SND and an indication for cardiac pacing were included and were examined by a standardized interview targeting fall history. The incidence and total number of falls, falls with injury, falls requiring treatment, and falls resulting in a fracture were assessed for the time period of 12 months before (retrospectively) and after PPM implantation (prospectively). Furthermore, symptoms such as syncope, dizziness, and dyspnea were evaluated before and after PPM implantation. The implantation of a PPM was associated with a reduced proportion of patients experiencing at least one fall by 71% (from 53 to 15%, P < 0.001) and a reduction of the absolute number of falls by 90% (from 127 to 13, P < 0.001) during the 12 months before vs. after PPM implant. Falls with injury (28 vs. 10%, P = 0.005), falls requiring medical attention (31 vs. 8%, P < 0.001), and falls leading to fracture (8 vs. 0%, P = 0.013) were similarly reduced. Notably, fewer patients had syncope (4 vs. 45%, P < 0.001) and dizziness after PPM implantation (12 vs. 45%, P < 0.001).ConclusionFalls, fall-related injuries, and fall-related fractures are frequent in SND patients. Permanent pacemaker implantation is associated with a significantly reduced risk of these adverse events, although no causal relationship could be established due to the study design.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Do we need intracardiac echo to guide ablation of ventricular arrhythmias
           from the papillary muscles'
    • Authors: Eitel C; Tilz RR.
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘Intracardiac echo-facilitated 3D electroanatomical mapping of ventricular arrhythmias from the papillary muscles: assessing the “fourth dimension” during ablation’ by R. Proietti et al., on pages 21–28.
      PubDate: 2016-08-02
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy: mechanisms of action and scope for
           further improvement in cardiac function
    • Authors: Jones S; Lumens J, Sohaib S, et al.
      Abstract: AimsCardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may exert its beneficial haemodynamic effect by improving ventricular synchrony and improving atrioventricular (AV) timing. The aim of this study was to establish the relative importance of the mechanisms through which CRT improves cardiac function and explore the potential for additional improvements with improved ventricular resynchronization.Methods and ResultsWe performed simulations using the CircAdapt haemodynamic model and performed haemodynamic measurements while adjusting AV delay, at low and high heart rates, in 87 patients with CRT devices. We assessed QRS duration, presence of fusion, and haemodynamic response. The simulations suggest that intrinsic PR interval and the magnitude of reduction in ventricular activation determine the relative importance of the mechanisms of benefit. For example, if PR interval is 201 ms and LV activation time is reduced by 25 ms (typical for current CRT methods), then AV delay optimization is responsible for 69% of overall improvement. Reducing LV activation time by an additional 25 ms produced an additional 2.6 mmHg increase in blood pressure (30% of effect size observed with current CRT). In the clinical population, ventricular fusion significantly shortened QRS duration (Δ-27 ± 23 ms, P < 0.001) and improved systolic blood pressure (mean 2.5 mmHg increase). Ventricular fusion was present in 69% of patients, yet in 40% of patients with fusion, shortening AV delay (to a delay where fusion was not present) produced the optimal haemodynamic response.ConclusionsImproving LV preloading by shortening AV delay is an important mechanism through which cardiac function is improved with CRT. There is substantial scope for further improvement if methods for delivering more efficient ventricular resynchronization can be developed.Clinical Trial RegistrationOur clinical data were obtained from a subpopulation of the British Randomised Controlled Trial of AV and VV Optimisation (BRAVO), which is a registered clinical trial with unique identifier: NCT01258829,
      PubDate: 2016-07-13
  • Reliability of luminal oesophageal temperature monitoring during
           radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation: insights from probe
           visualization and oesophageal reconstruction using magnetic resonance
    • Authors: Knecht S; Sticherling C, Reichlin T, et al.
      Abstract: AimsA current concept to prevent atrio-oesophageal fistula during radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is to monitor luminal oesophageal temperature (LET). The objective of this study was to describe the temporal course of LET and to assess the reliability of monitoring the maximal LET during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using irrigated multi-electrode (IMEA, nMARQTM) and focal ablation catheters.Methods and resultsWe studied 40 patients with LET monitoring during PVI (20 patients using the IMEA and 20 patients using the focal catheter). A linear probe was used and visualized in the 3D mapping system. Left atrial and oesophageal reconstructions from delayed enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were integrated. Analysing 745 temperature profiles, LET >38°C was observed in 48 of 296 (17%) and 44 of 449 (10%) ablations for the IMEA and the focal catheter, respectively (P = 0.012). Temporal latency after interruption of RF energy delivery was observed for both catheters. Time until LET baseline temperature was restored after an increase of >1°C was 100 and 86 s for the IMEA and the focal catheter, respectively (P = 0.183). Imprecise representation of the maximal LET was observed in 24 (60%) and 28 patients (70%) for the left and right PVs, respectively.ConclusionDue to the unknown exact lateral position of the LET probe within the oesophagus, the measured temperature does not necessarily reflect the maximal LET. The absence of LET increase does not rule out significant temperature increase within the oesophagus. Consequently, the temperature information of the linear multipolar probe should be used with caution.
      PubDate: 2016-06-29
  • Impact of surround flow catheter tip irrigation in contact force ablation
           on the incidence of asymptomatic oesophageal lesions after atrial
           fibrillation ablation: a prospective comparative study
    • Authors: Halbfass P; Nentwich K, Krug J, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a recently introduced contact force ablation catheter with modified irrigation technology compared with a conventionally irrigated ablation catheter on the incidence of endoscopically detected oesophageal lesions (EDEL).Methods and resultsPatients with symptomatic, drug-refractory paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent left atrial radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation were prospectively enrolled. Patients were ablated using a single-tip RF contact force ablation catheter with conventional irrigation (Group 1; n = 50) or with a recently introduced intensified ‘surround flow’ irrigation technology (Group 2; n = 50). Assessment of EDEL was performed by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in all patients after ablation. A total of 100 patients (mean age 63.6 ± 12.1 years; men 58%) with paroxysmal (n = 41; 41%) or persistent AF were included. Groups 1 and 2 patients were comparable in regard to baseline characteristics and procedural parameters, especially ablation time at posterior left atrial wall. Overall, 13 patients (13%) developed EDEL after AF ablation (8 oesophageal ulcerations, 5 erythema). The incidence of EDEL including oesophageal ulcerations was higher in Group 2 compared with Group 1 patients without statistical significance (18 vs. 8%, P = 0.23). One pericardial tamponade and one access site bleeding occurred in Group 2. No further adverse events were reported in both groups.ConclusionAccording to these preliminary results, the use of an improved ablation catheter irrigation technology (surround flow) in conjunction with contact force measurement was associated with a higher but not statistically significant probability of oesophageal thermal lesions. Further studies including larger patient cohorts are needed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
  • Prognosis of high sinus heart rate after catheter ablation for atrial
    • Authors: Yu H; Kim T, Uhm J, et al.
      Abstract: AimsAlthough atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation increases sinus heart rate (HR), its mechanism and prognosis have not yet been clearly elucidated. We hypothesize that post-AF ablation high sinus HR (PA-HSR) is associated with a better clinical outcome of AF ablation without adverse cardiac effects.Methods and resultsWe studied 991 AF patients (75% male, 58 ± 11 years old, 70% paroxysmal AF) with HR variability (HRV) at 3 months and 1 year after catheter ablation, and pre- and post-1-year echocardiograms. Post-AF ablation high sinus HR was defined as an average HR greater than 2 SD (≥92 bpm) as measured by 24 h Holter. (1) Average HR increased significantly (P< 0.001), and PA-HSR was observed in 28 patients (2.8%) 3 months after AF ablation. At 1 year after catheter ablation, 21% were taking β-blockers and 36% maintained an average HR of ≥92 bpm. (2) Post-AF ablation high sinus HR was independently associated with pre-procedural high average HR (OR 1.097; 95% CI 1.029–1.169, P= 0.005), high left atrium (LA) electrogram voltage (OR 3.545; 95% CI 1.183–10.618, P= 0.024), and reduced root mean square of differences between successive NN intervals (rMSSD) at 3 months HRV (OR 0.959; 95% CI 0.919–0.999, P= 0.047). (3) At 1 year echocardiography, size reduction of LA (P= 0.055) or LV (P= 0.372) and the improvement in ejection fraction (P= 0.529) were not significantly different between patients with PA-HSR and those without. (4) Throughout 27 ± 17 months of follow-up, patients with PA-HSR showed significantly lower clinical recurrence than those without (log rank, P= 0.020).ConclusionPost-AF ablation high sinus HR was observed in patients with smaller LA size and higher LA electrogram voltage and significant vagal modulation without adverse cardiac effects. Post-AF ablation high sinus HR was associated with a significantly lower clinical recurrence of AF after catheter ablation.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Left-ventricular geometry and risk of sudden cardiac arrest in patients
           with preserved or moderately reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction
    • Authors: Aro AL; Reinier K, Phan D, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe majority of sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) occur in patients with left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) >35%, yet there are no methods for effective risk stratification in this sub-group. Since abnormalities of LV geometry can be identified even with preserved LVEF, we investigated the potential impact of LV geometry as a novel risk marker for this patient population.Methods and resultsIn the ongoing Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study, SCA cases with archived echocardiographic data available were prospectively identified during 2002–15, and compared with geographical controls. Analysis was restricted to subjects with LVEF >35%. Based on established measures of LV mass and relative wall thickness (ratio of wall thickness to cavity diameter), four different LV geometric patterns were identified: normal geometry, concentric remodelling, concentric hypertrophy, and eccentric hypertrophy. Sudden cardiac arrest cases (n = 307) and controls (n = 280) did not differ in age, sex, or LVEF, but increased LV mass was more common in cases. Twenty-nine percent of SCA cases presented with normal LV geometry, 35% had concentric remodelling, 25% concentric hypertrophy, and 11% eccentric hypertrophy. In multivariate model, concentric remodelling (OR 1.76; 95%CI 1.18–2.63; P = 0.005), concentric hypertrophy (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.90–5.39; P < 0.001), and eccentric hypertrophy (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.30–4.66; P = 0.006) were associated with increased risk of SCA.ConclusionConcentric and eccentric LV hypertrophy, but also concentric remodelling without hypertrophy, are associated with increased risk of SCA. These novel findings suggest the potential utility of evaluating LV geometry as a potential risk stratification tool in patients with preserved or moderately reduced LVEF.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Multipoint pacing via a quadripolar left-ventricular lead: preliminary
           results from the Italian registry on multipoint left-ventricular pacing in
           cardiac resynchronization therapy (IRON-MPP)
    • Authors: Forleo GB; Santini L, Giammaria M, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThis registry was created to describe the experience of 76 Italian centres with a large cohort of recipients of multipoint pacing (MPP) capable cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices.Methods and resultsA total of 507 patients in whom these devices had been successfully implanted were enrolled between August 2013 and May 2015. We analysed: (i) current clinical practices for the management of such patients, and (ii) the impact of MPP on heart failure clinical composite response and on the absolute change in ejection fraction (EF) at 6 months. Multipoint pacing was programmed to ‘ON’ in 46% of patients before discharge. Methods of optimizing MPP programming were most commonly based on either the greatest narrowing of the QRS complex (38%) or the electrical delays between the electrodes (34%). Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up data were evaluated in 232 patients. These patients were divided into two groups according to whether MPP was programmed to ‘ON’ (n = 94) or ‘OFF’ (n = 138) at the time of discharge. At 6 months, EF was significantly higher in the MPP group than in the biventricular-pacing group (39.1 ± 9.6 vs. 34.7 ± 7.6%; P < 0.001). Even after adjustments, early MPP activation remained an independent predictor of absolute increase in LVEF of ≥5% (odds ratio 2.5; P = 0.001). At 6 months, an improvement in clinical composite score was recorded in a greater proportion of patients with MPP-ON than in controls (56 vs. 38%; P = 0.009). On comparing optimal MPP and conventional vectors, QRS was also seen to have decreased significantly (P < 0.001).ConclusionThis study provides information that is essential in order to deal with the expected increase in the number of patients receiving MPP devices in the coming years. The results revealed different practices among centres, and establishing the optimal programming that can maximize the benefit of MPP remains a challenging issue. Compared with conventional CRT, MPP improved clinical status and resulted in an additional increase in EF.Clinical Trial Registration Unique identifier: NCT02606071.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17
  • Fluconazole-induced long QT syndrome via impaired human
           ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) protein trafficking in rabbits
    • Authors: Wang J; Wang G, Quan X, et al.
      Abstract: AimshERG protein trafficking deficiency has long been known in drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS). However, validated evidence from in vivo data kept scanty. Our goal was to investigate the proarrhythmic action of fluconazole and its underlying mechanism in an animal model.Methods and resultsTwenty female Japanese long-eared white rabbits were randomly distributed into a control group and a fluconazole group for a chronic 2-week treatment. The control group was treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa), and the fluconazole group was treated with fluconazole. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during the experimental period. Isolated arterially perfused left ventricular wedge preparations from the rabbits were made 2 weeks after treatment, and the arrhythmia events, the transmural ECG, and action potential from both the endocardium and epicardium were recorded. The changes in hERG protein expression were measured by western blot. The fluconazole group showed a longer QT interval 1 week after treatment (P < 0.05) and a higher arrhythmia occurrence 2 weeks after treatment (P < 0.05) than the control group. The fluconazole group also showed a longer transmural dispersion of repolarization and a higher occurrence of life-threatening torsades de pointes in arterially perfused left ventricular preparations. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that the density of mature hERG protein was lower in the fluconazole group than that in the control group.ConclusionFluconazole can prolong the QT interval and possess proarrhythmic activity due to its inhibition of hERG protein trafficking in our experimental model. These findings may impact the clinical potential of fluconazole in humans.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17
  • Transseptal puncture and catheter ablation via the superior vena cava
           approach for persistent atrial fibrillation in a patient with polysplenia
           syndrome and interruption of the inferior vena cava: contact
           forceā€“guided pulmonary vein isolation
    • Authors: Kato H; Kubota S, Goto T, et al.
      Abstract: AimsWe sought to establish the technical feasibility of transseptal puncture and left atrial (LA) ablation through the right internal jugular vein via the superior vena cava (SVC) approach in patients with an interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC).Methods and resultsA 34-year-old man with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) and polysplenia syndrome (hypoplasia of the left kidney, aplasia of the pancreas tail, bilaterally bilobed lungs, and an interrupted IVC) was referred to our hospital for radiofrequency ablation. Because transseptal puncture and LA ablation would be impossible by a standard IVC approach via the femoral vein, we performed transseptal puncture and LA ablation through the right internal jugular vein via the SVC approach using a manually curved Brockenbrough needle and intracardiac echocardiographic guidance. We accomplished pulmonary vein (PV) isolation using a deflectable guiding sheath and a contact force-sensing ablation catheter to monitor the contact force and the force–time integral of the tip of the ablation catheter. No complications occurred during or after the procedure. The patient was discharged home without recurrence of AF 3 days after the procedure. He had no recurrence of AF and was taking no medication 5 months after ablation.ConclusionsWe successfully performed transseptal puncture in a patient with persistent AF, polysplenia syndrome, and complete interruption of the IVC using the superior route through the internal jugular vein. We also accomplished PV isolation using a deflectable guiding sheath and real-time monitoring of the contact force of the ablation catheter.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
  • Activation of N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors reduces heart rate
           variability and facilitates atrial fibrillation in rats
    • Authors: Shi S; Liu T, Wang D, et al.
      Abstract: AimsThe goal of this study was to assess the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors activation on heart rate variability (HRV) and susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF).Methods and resultsRats were randomized for treatment with saline, NMDA (agonist of NMDA receptors), or NMDA plus MK-801 (antagonist of NMDA receptors) for 2 weeks. Heart rate variability was evaluated by using implantable electrocardiogram telemeters. Atrial fibrillation susceptibility was assessed with programmed stimulation in isolated hearts. Compared with the controls, the NMDA-treated rats displayed a decrease in the standard deviation of normal RR intervals, the standard deviation of the average RR intervals, the mean of the 5-min standard deviations of RR intervals, the root mean square of successive differences, and high frequency (HF); and an increase in low frequency (LF) and LF/HF (all P< 0.01). Additionally, the NMDA-treated rats showed prolonged activation latency and reduced effective refractory period (all P< 0.01). Importantly, AF was induced in all NMDA-treated rats. While atrial fibrosis developed, connexin40 downgraded and metalloproteinase 9 upgraded in the NMDA-treated rats (all P< 0.01). Most of the above alterations were mitigated by co-administering with MK-801.ConclusionThese results indicate that NMDA receptors activation reduces HRV and enhances AF inducibility, with cardiac autonomic imbalance, atrial fibrosis, and degradation of gap junction protein identified as potential mechanistic contributors.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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