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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 605, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioral Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.871
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 52  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Extrapair mating and the strength of sexual selection: insights from a
           polymorphic species
    • Authors: Grunst A; Grunst M, Korody M, et al.
      Pages: 278 - 290
      Abstract: Extrapair mating could drive sexual selection in socially monogamous species, but support for this hypothesis remains equivocal. We used lifetime fitness data and a unique model species, the dimorphic white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), to examine how extrapair mating affects the potential for sexual selection. In this species, the morphs employ distinct reproductive strategies, with white males pursuing extrapair mating at higher rates than tan counterparts. Social and extrapair mating is disassortative by morph, with paternity exchange occurring primarily between pairs composed of white males and tan females. Bateman gradients and Jones indexes indicated stronger sexual selection via mate numbers in white males than in females and tan males, and generally did not differ between females as compared with tan males. Extrapair mating contributed more to the Bateman gradient for white than tan males, and white males also had higher variance in annual reproductive success. However, variance in lifetime reproductive success did not differ between morphs or sexes. Moreover, extrapair mating did not increase variance in male reproductive success relative to apparent patterns, and within-pair success accounted for much more variance than extrapair success. Thus, extrapair mating by white males increases Bateman gradients and the potential for sexual selection via mate numbers. However, our latter results support previous research suggesting that extrapair mating may play a limited role in driving the overall potential for sexual selection.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary160
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Individual variation and the source-sink group dynamics of extra-group
           paternity in a social mammal
    • Authors: Marjamäki P; Dugdale H, Dawson D, et al.
      Pages: 301 - 312
      Abstract: Movement of individuals, or their genes, can influence eco-evolutionary processes in structured populations. We have limited understanding of the extent to which spatial behavior varies among groups and individuals within populations. Here, we use genetic pedigree reconstruction in a long-term study of European badgers (Meles meles) to characterize the extent of extra-group paternity, occurring as a consequence of breeding excursions, and to test hypothesized drivers of variation at multiple levels. We jointly estimate parentage and paternity distance (PD; distance between a cub’s natal and its father’s social group), and test whether population density and sex ratio influence mean annual PD. We also model cub-level PD and extra-group paternity (EGP) to test for variation among social groups and parental individuals. Mean PD varied among years but was not explained by population density or sex ratio. However, cub-level analysis shows strong effects of social group, and parental identities, with some parental individuals being consistently more likely to produce cubs with extra-group partners. Group effects were partially explained by local sex ratio. There was also a strong negative correlation between maternal and paternal social group effects on cub paternity distance, indicating source-sink dynamics. Our analyses of paternity distance and EGP indicate variation in extra-group mating at multiple levels—among years, social groups and individuals. The latter in particular is a phenomenon seldom documented and suggests that gene flow among groups may be disproportionately mediated by a nonrandom subset of adults, emphasizing the importance of the individual in driving eco-evolutionary dynamics.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary164
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Territorial defense in a network: audiences only matter to male fiddler
           crabs primed for confrontation
    • Authors: Darden S; May M, Boyland N, et al.
      Pages: 336 - 340
      Abstract: Territorial contests often occur in the presence of conspecifics not directly involved in the interaction. Actors may alter their behavior in the presence of this audience, an “audience effect,” and audiences themselves may alter their behavior as a result of observing an interaction, a “bystander effect.” Previous work has documented these effects by looking at each in isolation, but to our knowledge, none has investigated their interaction; something that is more likely to represent a realistic scenario for species where individuals aggregate spatially. We therefore have a somewhat limited understanding of the extent and direction of these potentially complex indirect social effects on behavior. Here, we examined how audience and bystander effects work in tandem to modify resident male aggressive behavior towards intruders in European fiddler crabs, Afruca tangeri. We found that male crabs with an audience showed greater aggressive behavior towards an intruder compared with males without an audience, but only if they had acted as a bystander to an aggressive signaling interaction prior to the intrusion. Indeed, bystanding during aggressive interactions elevated aggressive responses to intruders maximally if there was an audience present. Our results suggest that bystanding had a priming effect on territory-holding males, potentially by providing information on the immediate level of competition in the local neighborhood, and that same-sex audiences only matter if males have been primed. This study highlights the fundamental importance of considering broader interaction networks in studying real-world dyadic interactions and of including nonvertebrate taxonomic groups in these studies.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary169
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Local mate competition modifies the costs of mating in a mostly monandrous
           parasitoid wasp
    • Authors: Boulton R; Cook N, Greenway E, et al.
      Pages: 417 - 425
      Abstract: The costs and benefits of mating are frequently measured in order to understand why females mate multiply. However, to separate the factors that initiate the evolution of polyandry (from monandry) from the factors that maintain it, we must ascertain how the environmental context changes the economics of mating. Here, we show how context-dependent costs of mating can lead to the evolution of polyandry in a species that is monandrous in the wild, the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We have previously shown that when females have insufficient time between mating and gaining access to hosts for oviposition, they appear unable to process sperm effectively and end up overproducing sons (i.e., laying unfertilized eggs, since Nasonia is in haplodiploid). This overproduction of sons is costly due to selection on sex allocation in this species. Although N. vitripennis is monandrous in the wild, polyandry evolves under laboratory culture despite this sex allocation cost. In this study, we show why: when groups of females oviposit together, as they do in laboratory culture, selection on sex allocation via local mate competition (LMC) is reduced, increasing the reproductive value of sons. This relaxes the fitness cost of male production. Overproduction of sons still occurs, but it is penalized less in terms of fitness than when females oviposit alone, under high LMC conditions, as they typically do in the field. Our results highlight how the costs and benefits of mating can vary under different ecologically relevant conditions, in this case the spatiotemporal distribution of resources and competitors, promoting the evolution of polyandry from monandry, and vice versa.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary181
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Male phenotypic diversity experienced during ontogeny mediates female mate
           choice in guppies
    • Authors: Macario A; Croft D, Darden S.
      Pages: 465 - 473
      Abstract: Early social experience can be important in shaping female mate choice. Previous work has shown that females adjust their decisions based on the distribution of male sexual trait values encountered during development. However, other phenotypic features could be important in the formation of mate preferences if, for example, they provide additional information about the males available. Here, we examined how the level of overall phenotypic variance (independent of trait values) experienced during ontogeny, mediated female choice in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Developing females were reared with males either all different in coloration or all similar in coloration or with adult females representing high variance, low variance, and no experience of male variance, respectively. We found that females were more sexually responsive when reared with females only than in either of the male treatments. When reared with males, responsiveness was greater in the low-variance treatment compared with the high-variance treatment. Moreover, females had stronger sexual preferences after rearing in the high-variance condition compared with the low-variance condition. In turn, males switched mating tactics, increasing the rate of coerced copulation attempts when facing choosier females, possibly to balance the loss in mating opportunities. Taken together, these results demonstrate the adaptive plasticity of female mating decisions and the dynamic selection pressures they might impose on the evolution of male sexual traits, potentially contributing to the maintenance of the extreme polymorphism found in male color patterns.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary186
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Social rank, color morph, and social network metrics predict oxidative
           stress in a cichlid fish
    • Authors: Border S; DeOliveira G, Janeski H, et al.
      Pages: 490 - 499
      Abstract: Dominance hierarchies are a fundamental part of social systems in many species and social rank can influence access to resources and impact health and physiology. While social subordination is a profound stressor, few studies consider the social stress experienced by dominant males due to constantly needing to defend their dominance status through costly aggressive displays. Recent studies suggest that in species that use body coloration to signal status, these costs may also be color morph-specific. Our study examines the link between the social rank, intensity of territorial defense, body coloration, and oxidative stress in males of the color polymorphic cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni where males are either blue or yellow. We studied behavior in naturalistic communities and examined circulating reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) and antioxidant defenses. We found that dominant males experience higher concentrations of circulating ROMs without notably increasing their antioxidant defenses, but this effect was not related to color morph. Aggression and social network ties predicted oxidative stress in a morph-specific manner, with yellow but not blue males showing signs of increased oxidative damage with increasing agonistic effort. In contrast to expectation, oxidative stress was not influenced by cortisol or testosterone levels. We conclude that oxidative stress is instrumental to understanding the costs and benefits of high social rank.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary189
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Incubation temperature and social context affect the nest exodus of
           precocial ducklings
    • Authors: Hope S; Kennamer R, van Montfrans S, et al.
      Pages: 518 - 527
      Abstract: The environments that animals experience during development have important fitness consequences. In birds, parents influence the developmental environment of their offspring through incubation. Subtle changes in incubation temperature affect offspring morphology and physiology, such as growth, immune function, and thermoregulation, yet little is known about how it may affect critical early-life behaviors. Because expression of behavior can be influenced by the social environment, the effect of incubation temperature on behavior may be context-dependent. We investigated whether incubation temperature and social context influence a critical early-life task in wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks nest in tree cavities and, shortly after hatching, ducklings must jump and climb out of the cavity. Failure to exit the nest is fatal. In 2 experiments, we incubated eggs at different mean temperatures and examined the nest exodus of ducklings individually and in mixed-incubation temperature pairs. When tested individually, ducklings incubated at 35.8 °C and 37.0 °C were ~2.5 times more successful at exiting the nest, and jumped and climbed more often, than those incubated at 35.0 °C. However, in an experiment conducted the following year, we found that social interactions mitigated these effects and there was no difference in nest exodus success when ducklings incubated at 35.0 °C and 36.0 °C were tested together in pairs. This may be because, when in pairs, ducklings incubated at the low-temperature experience social enhancement whereas those incubated at the high temperature maintain similar behaviors. These results advance our understanding of how parental effects influence offspring behaviors and performance within different social contexts.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary192
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Temporal plasticity in habitat selection criteria explains patterns of
           animal dispersal
    • Authors: Day C; McCann N, Zollner P, et al.
      Pages: 528 - 540
      Abstract: Patterns of dispersal behavior are often driven by the composition and configuration of suitable habitat in a matrix of unsuitable habitat. Interactions between animal behavior and landscapes can therefore influence population dynamics, population and species distributions, population genetic structure, and the evolution of behavior. Spatially explicit individual-based models (IBMs) are ideal tools for exploring the effects of landscape structure on dispersal. We developed an empirically parameterized IBM in the modeling framework SEARCH to simulate dispersal of translocated American martens in Wisconsin. We tested the hypothesis that a time-limited disperser should be willing to settle in lower quality habitat over time. To evaluate model performance, we used a pattern-oriented modeling approach. Our best model matched all empirical dispersal patterns (e.g., dispersal distance) except time to settlement. This model incorporated a required search phase as well as the mechanism for declining habitat selectivity over time, which represents the first demonstration of this hypothesis for a vertebrate species. We suggest that temporal plasticity in habitat selectivity allows individuals to maximize fitness by making a tradeoff between habitat quality and risk of mortality. Our IBM is pragmatic in that it addresses a management need for a species of conservation concern. However, our model is also paradigmatic in that we explicitly tested a theory of dispersal behavior. Linking these 2 approaches to ecological modeling can further the utility of individual-based modeling and provide direction for future theoretical and empirical work on animal behavior.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary193
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Interspecific aggression among parapatric and sympatric songbirds on a
           tropical elevational gradient
    • Authors: Boyce A; Martin T.
      Pages: 541 - 547
      Abstract: Interspecific competition is hypothesized to be a strong force that sets species range limits and drives parapatric distributions of closely related species on tropical mountains. Yet, experimental evidence that competition drives spatial segregation of closely related species on elevational gradients is rare. To test whether competition limits elevational ranges of tropical songbirds, we conducted reciprocal playback experiments on 2 pairs of species with adjacent but nonoverlapping (parapatric) distributions and 1 pair of sympatric species. We found asymmetric interspecific aggression in one parapatric pair (Pycnonotidae) and a complete absence of interspecific aggression in the other (Zosteropidae). We also found asymmetric interspecies aggression in a pair of sympatric flycatchers (Muscicapidae). Our results indicate that interspecific aggression may set range limits in some cases, but it is not a prerequisite for parapatry. Furthermore, the presence of interspecific aggression between co-occurring relatives suggests that while competition may play a role in limiting species distributions, interspecific aggression alone is not sufficient evidence to assert that competition is the primary driver of parapatric distributions.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary194
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Long-term dynamics of phenotype-dependent dispersal within a wild bird
    • Authors: Camacho C; Martínez-Padilla J, Canal D, et al.
      Pages: 548 - 556
      Abstract: Dispersers are not a random subset of the source population, and there is considerable evidence that they differ from non-dispersers in a number of phenotypic traits. However, it is not clear whether the magnitude and direction of these differences vary over time. Between 1988 and 2016, we investigated patterns of phenotype-dependent dispersal of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in nest-boxes in their ancestral habitat (an oak forest) and a new habitat (a pine plantation) where nest-boxes were installed for pied flycatcher colonization. Natal dispersal between the oak and the pine forest is common (ca. 25% of each cohort change habitats), and this study revealed a link between male size—a major determinant of social dominance—and dispersal propensity from the pine to the oak forest. However, the extent of size-dependent dispersal decreased following the colonization of the pine forest, to the point that dispersers and non-dispersers from the 2 habitats became morphologically indistinguishable nearly 3 decades later. In addition, there was a link between local breeding densities and the distribution of large, dominant males across the 2 habitats. Overall, these results suggest that the observed patterns of size-dependent dispersal reflect a dynamic balance between dispersal motivation, determined by the density of conspecifics in the source and destination patches, and the social dominance of large over small competitors for nest cavities in densely populated areas. Future studies using a long-term dynamic approach are needed for a comprehensive understanding of the role of non-random dispersal in shaping the phenotypic trajectories of natural populations.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary195
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • The behavioral origins of novelty: did increased aggression lead to
           scale-eating in pupfishes'
    • Authors: St. John M; McGirr J, Martin C.
      Pages: 557 - 569
      Abstract: Behavioral changes in a new environment are often assumed to precede the origins of evolutionary novelties. Here, we examined whether an increase in aggression is associated with a novel scale-eating trophic niche within a recent radiation of Cyprinodon pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas. We measured aggression using multiple behavioral assays and used transcriptomic analyses to identify differentially expressed genes in aggression and other behavioral pathways across 3 sympatric species in the San Salvador radiation (generalist, snail-eating specialist, and scale-eating specialist) and 2 generalist outgroups. Surprisingly, we found increased behavioral aggression and differential expression of aggression-related pathways in both the scale-eating and snail-eating specialists, despite their independent evolutionary origins. Increased behavioral aggression varied across both sex and stimulus context in both species. Our results indicate that aggression is not unique to scale-eating specialists. Instead, selection may increase aggression in other contexts such as niche specialization in general or mate competition. Alternatively, increased aggression may result from indirect selection on craniofacial traits, pigmentation, or metabolism—all traits which are highly divergent, exhibit signs of selective sweeps, and are affected by aggression-related genetic pathways which are differentially expressed in this system. In conclusion, the evolution of a novel predatory trophic niche within a recent adaptive radiation does not have clear-cut behavioral origins as previously assumed, highlighting the multivariate nature of adaptation and the complex integration of behavior with other phenotypic traits.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary196
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Do wolf spiders’ egg-sacs emit tactochemical signals perceived by
    • Authors: Ruhland F; Schulz S, Hervé M, et al.
      Pages: 570 - 581
      Abstract: Parent–offspring relationships take many forms. One particular form of parental behavior is egg care when parents brood their eggs after laying them. Parents of many oviparous vertebrates and terrestrial arthropods brood their eggs. Spiders present a particular interesting form of parental behavior, enclosing their eggs in a silk sac (or egg-sac) and can care for it until spiderlings emerge. This study investigated proximal cues which stimulate the wolf spider Pardosa saltans (Lycosidae) to care for their egg-sacs, transport them for 30 days and open it to allow spiderlings to emerge. We showed that mothers discriminate between egg-sacs differencing in mass (empty or not) as they do not hang an empty egg-sacs but do not discriminate between egg-sacs with viable and nonviable juveniles either when manipulating or when hanging them. However, mothers do not open nonviable egg-sacs but abandon them only at the end of the juvenile development period when spiderlings are due to emerge (30-day-old egg-sacs). We investigated egg-sac silk chemical cues that mothers detected by presenting them egg-sacs washed with different polar solvents or chemical egg-sacs silk extracts. We identified the polar and apolar chemical compounds of lipid extracts of egg-sacs detected by mothers during manipulation. Our results demonstrate that these compounds stimulate maternal care, and mothers detect mobility of juveniles at the end of the postembryonic period, when juveniles are ready to emerge from a 30-day-old egg-sacs indicating that tactochemical stimuli are involved in egg-sacs care.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary197
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Corrigendum to: ‘Rate maximization and hyperbolic discounting in human
           experiential intertemporal decision making’ by Maayke Suzanne Seinstra,
           Manuela Sellitto and Tobias Kalenscher
    • Authors: Seinstra M; Sellitto M, Kalenscher T.
      Pages: 582 - 582
      Abstract: Values in the ‘Block duration’ column of Table 1 have been updated to reflect the actual values used in the experimental tasks. This correction does not affect any of the presented analyses, results, main conclusions, or any part of the article outside Table 1.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz028
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2019)
  • Gene expression shifts in yellow-bellied marmots prior to natal dispersal
    • Authors: Armenta T; Cole S, Geschwind D, et al.
      Pages: 267 - 277
      Abstract: The causes and consequences of vertebrate natal dispersal have been studied extensively, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. We used RNA-seq to quantify transcriptomic gene expression in blood of wild yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) prior to dispersing from or remaining philopatric to their natal colony. We tested 3 predictions. First, we hypothesized dispersers and residents will differentially express genes and gene networks since dispersal is physiologically demanding. Second, we expected differentially expressed genes to be involved in metabolism, circadian processes, and immune function. Finally, in dispersing individuals, we predicted differentially expressed genes would change as a function of sampling date relative to dispersal date. We detected 150 differentially expressed genes, including genes that have critical roles in lipid metabolism and antigen defense. Gene network analysis revealed a module of 126 coexpressed genes associated with dispersal that was enriched for extracellular immune function. Of the dispersal-associated genes, 22 altered expression as a function of days until dispersal, suggesting that dispersal-associated genes do not initiate transcription on the same time scale. Our results provide novel insights into the fundamental molecular changes required for dispersal and suggest evolutionary conservation of functional pathways during this behavioral process.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary175
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • “Hot deals at sea”: responses of a top predator (Bottlenose dolphin,
           Tursiops truncatus) to human-induced changes in the coastal ecosystem
    • Authors: Díaz López B.
      Pages: 291 - 300
      Abstract: The main response of top predators to human-induced environmental changes is often behavioral. Although human activities regularly impose a disturbance on top predators, they can also be a source of reliable and concentrated food resources for species with a high degree of behavioral plasticity. This study represents the first assessment of the influence of these resources on migratory patterns and social interaction of a marine top predator, the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Pollock’s closed robust design models and association analyses were applied to data collected over 9 consecutive years of research in a coastal area subject to significant use and pressure by humans. Photo-identification data were collected year-round during 955 boat-based surveys, resulting in 1638 common bottlenose dolphin group encounters. Results of this study revealed a significant upward trend in density of bottlenose dolphins, preferences for a coastal area with higher human pressure, and a reduction of the social interactions associated to a temporal switch to the food sources provided by human activities. The observed link between human activities and changes in common bottlenose dolphin behavior aim to contribute to a better understanding of the ecology of a marine top predator and provide some of the needed baseline data, from which effective management and conservation strategies can be designed.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary162
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Equivalent effect of UV coloration and vibratory signal on mating success
           in a jumping spider
    • Authors: Zeng H; Wee S, Painting C, et al.
      Pages: 313 - 321
      Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV; wavelengths: 280–400 nm) coloration has been shown to be an important visual signal but has not been studied in conjunction with other signals such as vibratory signals previously. Here, we investigated multimodal signaling function in the visual and substrate-borne vibratory modalities of the UV-ornamented jumping spider Cosmophasis umbratica, in which the importance of UV coloration in courtship displays has been demonstrated. We first described vibratory signals produced by courting males. We found that while vibratory signals mainly consist of palp drumming and abdomen thump, amplitude of abdomen thump shows a high variance and is positively correlated with body mass. This suggests that abdomen thump as a vibratory component may be condition-dependent. To examine whether the vibratory and UV signal function as backup to each other in a variable environment (efficacy-based backup hypothesis), we used a fully crossed 2 × 2 mating assay, a signal-isolation approach, to investigate how isolated and combined signals affect mate choice by females. Our results showed that both signals in isolation or in combination result in similar female responses (i.e., mating success, latency to copulation, female attention ratio). The presence of both vibratory and UV signals affects mating frequency, with no significant differences in mating frequency when vibratory and UV signals are presented in isolation or in combination. These results support the efficacy-based backup hypothesis. We therefore conclude that vibratory and UV signals have equivalent effects in predicting mating success in C. umbratica.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary167
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Physiological and social consequences of gastrointestinal nematode
           infection in a nonhuman primate
    • Authors: Müller-Klein N; Heistermann M, Strube C, et al.
      Pages: 322 - 335
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal nematodes are intensely studied models for host–pathogen interactions in wildlife, yet consequences of infections are not fully understood. Among the potential costs of nematode infection are physiological changes caused by immune system activation, reduction or reallocation of available energy, as well as potential social consequences in terms of decreased social activity or avoidance of infected individuals. We used experimental anthelmintic treatment to investigate effects of strongyle nematode infection in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), comparing 56 treated to 17 untreated individuals. Deworming success was monitored by coproscopy and infection probability estimated from patch occupancy models. Increasing strongyle infection probabilities were associated with increased fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels and slightly decreased activity and had no significant effect on energy balance quantified as urinary C-Peptide levels. The frequency to approach into close spatial proximity of a partner was predicted by the partner’s, but not focal individual’s infection status, with a tendency toward infected individuals being approached less frequently. Although effects were weak, they suggest a co-occurrence of sickness behavior and avoidance of infected conspecifics, both possibly shaping social interaction patterns with potential consequences for an individual’s social relationships. This study adds to the growing body of research on the complex interactions of sociality, health, and fitness in a group living species.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary168
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Resource variation generates positive correlations between pre- and
           postcopulatory sexual traits
    • Authors: Supriya K; Price T, Rowe M.
      Pages: 341 - 347
      Abstract: Male fertilization success depends on investment in both pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits, and considerable attention has recently been paid to quantifying the strength and direction of covariance between pre- and postcopulatory trait expression. Here, building upon previous sperm competition models, we theoretically investigate how variation in total investment into fertilization success, as well as differences in the form of precopulatory competition, influences the correlation between pre- and postcopulatory traits across species. We find that whenever species differ in the total investment into fertilization, optimal partitioning of investment typically generates positive correlations between sexual traits. This contrasts with the general expectation of a negative correlation based on the trade-off between investment in pre- and postcopulatory traits at the level of an individual. Nonetheless, negative correlations do arise under some conditions, notably when total investment into fertilization is similar across species and species vary in the form of precopulatory male–male competition along a continuum from dyadic contest to scramble competition. These results imply that the assessment of underlying trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory trait investment requires an evaluation of how overall investment into total fertilization success varies across species.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary170
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Multiple environmental cues impact habitat choice during nocturnal homing
           of specialized reef shrimp
    • Authors: Ashur M; Dixson D.
      Pages: 348 - 355
      Abstract: Habitat selection is a critical process for animals throughout their life, and adult organisms that travel to forage or mate must reselect habitat frequently. On coral reefs, competition for space has led to a high proportion of habitat specialists. Habitat selection is especially vital for organisms that require specialized habitat; however, research has primarily focused on the initial habitat choice made during the larval/juvenile stage. Here, we analyze habitat selection in the adult sponge-dwelling reef shrimp, Lysmata pederseni. Using a mark-and-recapture technique, belt transects, patch reefs, and cue isolation experiments, this study reveals that adult L. pederseni diurnally reselect habitat and a natural preference exists for specific sponge species and shapes. This natural preference is a function of chemical and morphological cues as well as sponge distribution. As habitat specialists can drive biodiversity, understanding the mechanisms behind habitat selection can inform research and management practices.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary171
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Condition-dependent foraging strategies in a coastal seabird: evidence for
           the rich get richer hypothesis
    • Authors: Geary B; Walter S, Leberg P, et al.
      Pages: 356 - 363
      Abstract: The degree to which foraging individuals are able to appropriately modify their behaviors in response to dynamic environmental conditions and associated resource availability can have important fitness consequences. Despite an increasingly refined understanding of differences in foraging behavior between individuals, we still lack detailed characterizations of within-individual variation over space and time, and what factors may drive this variability. From 2014 to 2017, we used GPS transmitters and accelerometers to document foraging movements by breeding adult Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, where the prey landscape is patchy and dynamic at various scales. Assessments of traditional foraging metrics such as trip distance, linearity, or duration did not yield significant relationships between individuals. However, we did observe lower site fidelity and less variation in energy expenditure in birds of higher body condition, despite a population-level trend of increased fidelity as the breeding season progressed. These findings suggest that high-quality individuals are both more variable and more efficient in their foraging behaviors during a period of high energetic demand, consistent with a “rich get richer” scenario in which individuals in better condition are able to invest in more costly behaviors that provide higher returns. This work highlights the importance of considering behavioral variation at multiple scales, with particular reference to within-individual variation, to improve our understanding of foraging ecology in wild populations.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary173
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Testes size increases with sperm competition risk and intensity in bony
           fish and sharks
    • Authors: Rowley A; Daly-Engel T, Fitzpatrick J.
      Pages: 364 - 371
      Abstract: Female multiple mating provides the opportunity for sexual selection to continue after gamete release, generating strong selection on male reproductive traits. In particular, in species where female multiple mating is common, males are expected to invest more in testicular tissue to afford them a numerical advantage during sperm competition. However, although relative testes size (correcting for body size) is a commonly used proxy of the strength of sperm competition, there is surprisingly scant direct evidence linking male investment in testes with genetic estimates of multiple paternity across species. Here, we test the hypothesis that testes size is associated with genetic estimates of sperm competition risk (multiple paternity percentage) and intensity (number of sires per brood) in fishes, the most diverse and specious vertebrate group. We provide conclusive evidence that relative testes size is larger in species experiencing a higher risk and intensity of sperm competition, a finding that remains consistent among sharks and bony fishes (including in separate analyses focused only on cichlids). These findings shed new light on evolutionary processes governing sperm competition in a basal vertebrate lineage and validate the now-widespread use of relative testes mass as a proxy for sperm competition risk and intensity in fishes.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary174
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Horizontal partner exchange does not preclude stable mutualism in
           fungus-growing ants
    • Authors: Howe J; Schiøtt M, Boomsma J.
      Pages: 372 - 382
      Abstract: Vertical symbiont transmission tends to stabilize mutualisms by aligning the reproductive interests of cooperating species. The attine ants conform well to this principle because all species are nutritionally dependent on vertically transmitted and clonally propagated fungal cultivars. Multiple mechanisms expressed by both partners constrain cultivar transmission between established colonies, but these appear not to preclude horizontal transfer during colony founding, consistent with multiple phylogenetic analyses indicating at least occasional horizontal transfer. The ecological and evolutionary impact of transfers is unknown because, although they can be induced in laboratory experiments, they remain undocumented in natural colonies. In a large-scale field study, we manipulated clusters of newly founded nests and their still portable gardens in two sympatric species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants. This created mosaics of intact nests, queens without a cultivar, and cultivars without a tending queen. We tracked the movements of queens and cultivars through direct observation and microsatellite analysis, respectively. This showed that horizontal acquisition of incipient gardens is surprisingly common because queens actively searched for replacement cultivars and often adopted orphaned gardens. However, these horizontal cultivar exchanges are unlikely to destabilize obligate farming mutualisms when they are restricted to the founding stage, as colonies eventually commit to a single cultivar clone, irreversibly aligning the partners’ fitness interests before colonies reproduce.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary176
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Social context affects thermoregulation but not activity level during
           avian immune response
    • Authors: Vaziri G; Johny M, Caragea P, et al.
      Pages: 383 - 392
      Abstract: Determining how an animal’s social context alters its immune responses will help us understand how pathogens impact individual health and spread within groups. Several studies have shown that group-housed animals can suppress components of the acute phase immune response, specifically sickness behaviors like lethargy. However, we do not know whether individuals alter sickness behaviors or other components of the acute phase response, including thermoregulation, in response to the infection status of other group members. We used automated radio telemetry on captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to test whether sickness behaviors and thermoregulation differed during immune challenge under 2 social contexts: 1) all of the flock inoculated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a non-replicating component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, or 2) half of the flock inoculated. We predicted that with half of the flock inoculated, LPS-treated birds would be under more pressure to maintain competitive behaviors, so would suppress components of the acute phase response. As we predicted, LPS-inoculated birds showed less pronounced heterothermia (fever) when housed with a mixture of inoculated and healthy flockmates. In contrast, LPS-inoculated birds exhibited similar degrees of lethargy regardless of the infection status of their flockmates. Our results show that the infection status of an individual’s social group did exert an effect on the acute phase response but surprisingly did not impact the expression of lethargy, a canonical sickness behavior. Determining the mechanisms underlying these responses will require testing additional social contexts with different ratios of infected to uninfected birds.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary177
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Behavioral syndromes vary among geographically distinct populations in a
    • Authors: Michelangeli M; Chapple D, Goulet C, et al.
      Pages: 393 - 401
      Abstract: A key goal in the study of animal personalities is to determine their adaptive potential and importance for behavioral evolution. Behavioral syndromes are evolutionarily intriguing because they suggest that an adaptive change in one behavior requires a concomitant shift in another. Within species, behavioral syndromes might be evolutionarily constrained by intrinsic mechanisms that restrict behaviors from evolving independently. Alternatively, behavioral correlations might easily be decoupled over short evolutionary time scales due to variation in selective pressures between environments. In this regard, comparative studies that explore differences in diverse aspects of personality between geographically distinct populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary processes acting on different behavioral tendencies. Accordingly, we investigated how behavioral types and behavioral syndromes differed across four geographically distinct populations of the delicate skink, Lampropholis delicata. We found strong evidence of mean trait-level variation in activity, exploration, and boldness across populations, suggesting adaptation to local environmental conditions. Similarly, we found that within-population correlations involving boldness varied substantially between populations. However, we did find a consistent within- and among-population correlation between activity and exploration, suggesting that this behavioral syndrome is relatively stable and could explain behavioral divergence in activity and exploration between populations. We suggest that there may be thermal physiological mechanisms that could be limiting the adaptive potential of an activity-exploration correlation in the delicate skink. Broadly, we argue that some behavioral correlations may be more adaptive than others, and that this should be more regularly considered within the animal personality framework.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary178
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Predictable gene expression related to behavioral variation in parenting
    • Authors: Benowitz K; McKinney E, Cunningham C, et al.
      Pages: 402 - 407
      Abstract: Differential gene expression has been associated with transitions between behavioral states for a wide variety of organisms and behaviors. Heterochrony, genetic toolkits, and predictable pathways underlying behavioral transitions have been hypothesized to explain the relationship between transcription and behavioral changes. Less studied is how variation in transcription is related to variation within a behavior, and if the genes that are associated with this variation are predictable. Here, we adopt an evolutionary systems biology perspective to address 2 hypotheses relating differential expression to changes within and between behavior. We predicted fewer genes will be associated with variation within a behavior than with transitions between states, and the genes underlying variation within a behavior will represent a narrower set of biological functions. We tested for associations with parenting variation within a state with a set of genes known a priori to be differentially expressed (DE) between parenting states in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. As predicted, we found that far fewer genes are DE related to variation within parenting. Moreover, these were not randomly distributed among categories or pathways in the gene set we tested and primarily involved genes associated with neurotransmission. We suggest that this means candidate genes will be easier to identify for associations within a behavior, as descriptions of behavioral state may include more than a single phenotype.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary179
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Communal and efficient movement routines can develop spontaneously through
           public information use
    • Authors: Riotte-Lambert L; Matthiopoulos J.
      Pages: 408 - 416
      Abstract: Animal aggregations occur in almost all taxa and can be strongly influential for consumer-resource dynamics and population health. Their adaptive value and underlying mechanisms are thus fundamental questions. Many animals use information about resource locations inadvertently broadcasted by other individuals through visual, acoustic, or olfactory cues. Such simple, involuntary information transfer is commonly employed in groups of social animals. However, it remains unknown whether public information use could have been the initial cause of social aggregations. Here, using agent-based modeling, in the absence of inclusive fitness benefits or direct conspecific attraction, we show that the use of ephemeral public information about resource locations can cause memory-based foragers to spontaneously and permanently aggregate into communal home ranges that take the form of movement circuits (also called traplines) along which individuals travel asynchronously. Even though experienced individuals only rely on their personal memory to inform their movement decisions, we find that the use of public information during the learning phase is very beneficial in the long term because the communal circuits are more efficient than those established by individuals that do not use public information. Our results reveal how simple, inadvertent information transfer between naïve, selfish foragers can cause the emergence of long-term aggregations, which are a prerequisite for the evolution of more complex social behaviors. They also suggest that individuals may not necessarily need to witness the entire sequences of actions performed by others to converge to the same behavioral routines.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary180
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Applying Lanchester’s laws to the interspecific competition of coral
           reef fish
    • Authors: Černý D; Lee K, Medal J, et al.
      Pages: 426 - 433
      Abstract: Lanchester’s laws of combat are a mathematical framework describing the relative contributions of individual fighting ability and group size to overall group fighting ability. Since 1993, several studies have attempted to apply this framework to interspecific dominance relationships between nonhuman animals. However, this prior work addressed only the corollaries of Lanchester’s laws rather than the laws themselves. Here, we directly test Lanchester’s linear and square law to explain interspecific competition of coral reef fish. First, we analyzed the relationship between body size and dominance to find a biologically accurate proxy of individual fighting ability. We then tested whether group fighting ability was linearly (linear law) or quadratically (square law) related to group size while accounting for the different fighting abilities of competing species. We found support for the linear law; however, both laws were outperformed by a simpler model that only included body size. After accounting for possible outliers and data limitations, we suggest that Lanchester’s linear law may prove useful for explaining interspecific competition in marine ecosystems.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary182
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Modeling the functional link between movement, feeding activity, and
           condition in a marine predator
    • Authors: Pirotta E; Schwarz L, Costa D, et al.
      Pages: 434 - 445
      Abstract: The ability to quantify animals’ feeding activity and the resulting changes in their body condition as they move in the environment is fundamental to our understanding of a population’s ecology. We use satellite tracking data from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), paired with simultaneous diving information, to develop a Bayesian state-space model that concurrently estimates an individual’s location, feeding activity, and changes in condition. The model identifies important foraging areas and times, the relative amount of feeding occurring therein, and thus the different behavioral strategies in which the seals engage. The fitness implications of these strategies can be assessed by looking at the resulting variation in individuals’ condition, which in turn affects the condition and survival of their offspring. Therefore, our results shed light on the processes affecting an individual’s decision-making as it moves and feeds in the environment. In addition, we demonstrate how the model can be used to simulate realistic patterns of disturbance at different stages of the trip, and how the predicted accumulation of lipid reserves varies as a consequence. Particularly, disturbing an animal in periods of high feeding activity or shortly after leaving the colony was predicted to have the potential to lead to starvation. In contrast, an individual could compensate even for very severe disturbance if such disturbance occurred outside the main foraging grounds. Our modeling approach is applicable to marine mammal species that perform drift dives and can be extended to other species where an individual’s buoyancy can be inferred from its diving behavior.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary183
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Better the devil you know' How familiarity and kinship affect prey
           responses to disturbance cues
    • Authors: Bairos-Novak K; Crane A, Chivers D, et al.
      Pages: 446 - 454
      Abstract: Prey can greatly improve their odds of surviving predator encounters by eavesdropping on conspecific risk cues, but the reliability of these cues depends on both previous accuracy as well as the cue’s relevance. During a predator chase, aquatic prey release chemical disturbance cues that may vary in their reliability depending on the individuals receiving them. Thus, prey may rely differentially on disturbance cues from familiar individuals (due to previous experience) or from kin (due to their relatedness). We examined the responses of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles to disturbance cues from familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics and kin versus non-kin. In accordance with our prediction, tadpoles responded differently to disturbance cues from familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics. Tadpoles receiving disturbance cues from unfamiliar individuals displayed a fright response, whereas tadpoles ignored disturbance cues from familiar individuals. Tadpoles may have habituated to familiar cues since they were unaccompanied by a true threat, hence rendering these cues functionally unreliable. Tadpoles responded similarly to disturbance cues from related and unrelated individuals suggesting they were similarly reliable and this mirrors the matching reliability of prey responses to damage-released alarm cues from kin and non-kin. Our findings shed light on a seldom-studied chemical communication system in aquatic prey.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary184
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Juvenile social experience generates differences in behavioral variation
           but not averages
    • Authors: DiRienzo N; Johnson J, Dornhaus A.
      Pages: 455 - 464
      Abstract: Developmental plasticity is known to influence the mean behavioral phenotype of a population. Yet, studies on how developmental plasticity shapes patterns of variation within populations are comparatively rare and often focus on a subset of developmental cues (e.g., nutrition). One potentially important but understudied developmental experience is social experience, as it is explicitly hypothesized to increase variation among individuals as a way to promote “social niches.” To test this, we exposed juvenile black widow spiders (Latrodectus hesperus) to the silk of conspecifics by transplanting them onto conspecific webs for 48 h once a week until adulthood. We also utilized an untouched control group as well as a disturbed group. This latter group was removed from their web at the same time points as the social treatment, but was immediately placed back on their own web. After repeatedly measuring adult behavior and web structure, we found that social rearing drove higher or significant levels of repeatability relative to the other treatments. Repeatability in the social treatment also decreased in some traits, paralleling the decreases observed in the disturbed treatments. Thus, repeated juvenile disturbance may decrease among-individual differences in adult spiders. Yet, social rearing appeared to override the effect of disturbance in some traits, suggesting a prioritization effect. The resulting individual differences were maintained over at least one-third of the adult lifespan and thus appear to represent stable, canalized developmental effects and not temporal state differences. These results provide proximate insight into how a broader range of developmental experiences shape trait variation.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary185
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Alternative reproductive tactics and lifetime reproductive success in a
           polygynandrous mammal
    • Authors: Balmer A; Zinner B, Gorrell J, et al.
      Pages: 474 - 482
      Abstract: The widespread occurrence of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) highlights the diverse ways in which sexual selection can operate within a population. We studied ARTs in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), evaluating paternity, lifetime reproductive success, and life histories. Reproductively mature male Columbian ground squirrels displayed either a territorial or satellite (nonterritorial) tactic. Territorial males secured a higher proportion of copulations, were more likely to mate at earlier positions in females’ mating sequences, and sired more offspring than satellite males. The tactic males adopted were largely a function of weight, age, and experience, with larger, older, and more experienced males displaying the territorial tactic. At 2 years of age, males adopted the satellite tactic or deferred breeding for the season. Two-year-old satellite males were heavier than males that deferred breeding, but by age 3, there was no difference between their weights. Males that deferred breeding either adopted the satellite or territorial tactic in the following year, with the lighter males displaying the satellite tactic. The ARTs that males adopted at 2 and 3 years of age led to alternative life history pathways. Males that deferred breeding and only adopted the territorial tactic during their lifetime had twice the number of lifetime offspring compared with males that adopted the satellite tactic and then switched to territorial behavior in following years, although this difference was not statistically significant. Our findings show that the satellite tactic results in lower reproductive output both within a single year, except at age 2, and over their lifetime.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary187
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Arena size modulates functional responses via behavioral mechanisms
    • Authors: Uiterwaal S; Dell A, DeLong J.
      Pages: 483 - 489
      Abstract: Laboratory-based functional response experiments, in which foraging rates are measured across a range of resource densities, are central for determining trophic interaction strength. Historically these experiments often are performed in arbitrarily sized arenas, with larger sized organisms generally used in larger arenas. However, arena size influences foraging rates and therefore also estimates of the functional response parameters, particularly space clearance rate (attack rate). We hypothesized that nonrandom movement within arenas by predators and prey may explain this effect. To test this hypothesis, we video-recorded Schizocosa ocreata wolf spiders (predators) and flightless Drosophila melanogaster prey in circular arenas of 3 different sizes to reveal thigmotactic behavior. We then estimated foraging rates and space clearance rates from feeding trials performed at a single, low prey density in 3 differently-size arenas in either annular (ring-shaped) or circular arenas. Annular arenas mitigated the effects of predator and prey aggregation and thus controlled the experienced prey density near arena edges. Unlike the circular arenas, annular arenas produced similar foraging rates and space clearance rate estimates across arena sizes, confirming that it is the increased density of prey along edges that generates the previously observed arena size effect. Our results provide a key insight into how animal behavior and experimental design must be considered for the accurate interpretation of foraging rates, both when considering standalone functional responses and when making comparisons across experiments.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary188
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Choice in a floral marketplace: the role of complexity in bumble bee
    • Authors: Austin M; Horack P, Dunlap A.
      Pages: 500 - 508
      Abstract: Animals have evolved in complex, heterogeneous environments. Thus, decision-making behavior is likely affected by a diversity of co-occurring community-level traits. Here, we investigate how 3 co-occurring traits of floral communities—the number of flower types, reliability that flowers are associated with a reward, and signal complexity of flowers—affect bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) decision-making. We used arrays of artificial flowers in a full factorial experimental design to assess floral selectivity (preference and constancy), foraging efficiency, and decision latency in foraging bumble bees. We find that our environmental traits uniquely affect each of these behavioral variables, revealing the intricate, yet biologically significant ways that co-occurring environmental traits can affect behavior. Floral selectivity, but not foraging efficiency, is increased by a greater number of choices. Decision latency is greatest when bees are inexperienced foraging in environments with high choice number. Collectively taken, we argue that these results suggest a cost to deciding among many choices, which promotes choice fidelity when many options are present. We suggest that these results have implications for theory on decision-making and selection in biological markets, while demonstrating the importance of studying interactions between naturally co-occurring traits.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary190
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
  • Silver spoon effects of hatching order in an asynchronous hatching bird
    • Authors: Song Z; Zou Y, Hu C, et al.
      Pages: 509 - 517
      Abstract: The silver spoon hypothesis proposes that individuals which develop under favorable conditions will gain fitness benefits throughout their lifetime. Hatching order may create a considerable size hierarchy within a brood and lead to earlier-hatched nestlings having a competitive advantage over their siblings, which has been illustrated in some studies. However, there have been few explorations into the effect on subsequent generations. Here, using a 15-year-long study, we investigated the long-term fitness consequences of hatching order in the endangered crested ibis, Nipponia nippon, a species with complete hatching asynchrony. In this study, we found strong support for silver spoon effects acting on hatching order. Compared with later-hatched nestlings, first-hatched nestlings begin reproduction at an earlier age, have higher adult survival rates, possess a longer breeding life span, and achieve higher lifetime reproductive success. Interestingly, we found carry-over effects of hatching order into the next generation. Nestlings which hatched earlier and became breeders in turn also produced nestlings with larger tarsus and better body condition. Additionally, we found a positive correlation among life-history traits in crested ibis. Individuals which started reproduction at a younger age were shown to possess a longer breeding life span, and the annual brood size increased with an individual’s breeding life span. This suggests that the earlier-hatched nestlings are of better quality and the “silver spoon” effects of hatching order cover all life-history stages and next generation effects.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary191
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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