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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 581, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Behavioral Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.871
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 52  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • When should receivers follow multiple signal components' A closer look
           at the “flag” model
    • Authors: Sherratt T; Holen Ø.
      Abstract: An earlier study concluded that receivers should and do pay attention to only the single most reliable distinguishing trait when making discriminative decisions. Hence, other explanations are needed to explain the prevalence of complex signals. Here we show that the model the authors invoked is a signal detection model and that it predicts that receivers should pay attention to multiple signal components under a range of conditions. Hence additional explanations for multi-component signals are unnecessary.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary043
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Reply to Sherratt and Holen: Goldilocks and the half-empty glass
    • Authors: Stephens D.
      Abstract: Given the apparent prevalence of multicomponent signals in nature, students of nonhuman signaling have tended to assume that multiple components must confer some pervasive advantage. Hypotheses about the nature of this supposed benefit typically take one of 2 forms: economic or perceptual benefits. Sherratt and Holen’s model considers the economic benefits derived from stimulus combinations. Their model improves upon earlier work by Tricia Rubi and myself (Rubi and Stephens 2016b) which showed that the extent to which receivers can benefit from attending to stimulus combinations depends on the relative frequency of the underlying conditions that are signaled about (e.g. the frequency good vs. bad signalers to use Sherratt and Holen’s example). Our result depended on a simplifying assumption about the underlying payoffs associated with these conditions, Sherratt and Holen’s model removes this restriction, and, in doing so, it provides some valuable insights into the nature of this important problem. I congratulate them on their theoretical achievement.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary049
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • The research bias is unfortunate but also unsurprising: a comment on
           Tinghitella et al.
    • Authors: McCullough E; Emlen D.
      Pages: 798 - 798
      Abstract: Sexual selection continues to be an active and exciting focus of research for behavioral ecologists and evolutionary biologists, but also continues to be heavily biased towards studies of female mate choice. In particular, research on sexual selection as a driver of speciation has focused almost exclusively on the role of mate choice. Tinghitella et al. (2018) offer a timely and insightful review that expands our understanding of how sexual selection can contribute to speciation. The authors summarize recent evidence that shows how male–male competition can facilitate divergence in sympatry, allopatry, and secondary contact, and give specific recommendations for future research.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx187
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • What is the role of competition among pairs in speciation': a comment
           on Tinghitella et al.
    • Authors: Lehtonen T.
      Pages: 799 - 799
      Abstract: Competition for limited resources is a major source of divergent selection, which fuels speciation processes. Tinghitella et al. (2018) focus on empirical and theoretical evidence that supports the role of competition among males in speciation. They observe that the research field has to date been dominated by speciation mechanisms in sympatry. Nonetheless, both empirical and theoretical findings suggest that competition for mates is most likely to contribute to speciation when it interacts with divergent ecological selection pressures (Tinghitella et al. 2018).
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx175
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Divergence is not speciation, or why we need females: a comment on
           Tinghitella et al.
    • Authors: Burdfield-Steel E; Shuker D.
      Pages: 801 - 801
      Abstract: Tinghitella et al. (2018) provide a wonderful review of the role of male–male competition in the divergence of traits across populations. Using a range of examples, the authors show how male traits associated with intrasexual competition for mates can diverge. They also show that, in a few examples, male–male competition can interact with other processes—such as mate choice or natural selection on ecologically relevant traits—to influence how reproductive isolation (RI) may come about. In this comment, we wish to build on that latter aspect, and emphasize that divergence itself is not enough for speciation. We note from the outset that the authors caution this, but we wish to add further emphasis, as it has important ramifications for the role of males and females in speciation.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary069
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • When does male competition foster speciation': a comment on
           Tinghitella et al.
    • Authors: Boughman J.
      Pages: 801 - 802
      Abstract: The review by Tinghitella and colleagues (2018) brings to attention the potentially important role that male competition can have on speciation. Males compete for a limiting resource—the opportunity to mate with females, which can generate very strong divergent selection. A recent study reports divergent selection gradients from male competition substantially stronger than many reported ecological selection gradients (Keagy et al. 2016). However, male competition has not been front and center in work on sexual selection and speciation, despite being a ubiquitous source of strong selection and an arbiter of mating success. This review is timely given several compelling recent papers and mounting evidence. The authors do a nice job covering the importance of geographic context and summarize some key ideas that have been explored, while pointing out fruitful avenues for future work. Here I highlight some additional ideas of when male competition can alter the speciation process.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary026
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • A major player need not be the only player in speciation: a response to
           comments on Tinghitella et al.
    • Authors: Tinghitella R; Lackey A, Martin M, et al.
      Pages: 802 - 803
      Abstract: We are delighted that our recent review (Tinghitella et al. 2018) has garnered broad interest and thoughtful commentary. Collectively, it is clear that the link between competition for mates and divergence in competitive phenotypes is well supported. As we and the invited commentary authors point out, it is less clear when mate competition can and is most likely to cause reproductive isolation. Here, we wish to highlight some solutions offered by the Invited Commentaries, and to reiterate that while competition for mates might not act alone to cause speciation, ignoring it altogether will leave gaps in our understanding because mate competition may initiate, enhance, stabilize, or hinder divergence. After all, ecological speciation requires assortative mating, and sexual selection via mate choice is less likely to cause speciation in the absence of ecological divergence.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary051
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Macronutrient signature of dietary generalism in an ecologically diverse
           primate in the wild
    • Authors: Cui Z; Wang Z, Shao Q, et al.
      Pages: 804 - 813
      Abstract: A question of considerable importance is why some animals are able to succeed on a wide range of diets whereas others are more tightly constrained. Theory predicts that generalists should show a flexible response for macronutrient regulation in the face of ecologically driven constraint on the nutritional balance of available foods, which in the modeling framework of nutritional geometry has been quantitatively characterized as an “equal distance” regulatory model. This prediction, which has empirical support from several laboratory studies on insects, has not been tested for any generalist animal in the wild, nor for any vertebrate. We performed the first such test, using dawn-to-dusk focal animal observations over 3 years (2013–2015) of rhesus macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis), a species that among primates is second only to humans in ecological generalism. Results showed, as predicted, that macronutrient regulation conformed closely to the equal distance pattern and differed markedly from the other, ecologically more-specialized primate species that have been studied to date. The same was independently true for lactating and non-lactating macaques, but lactating females had substantially higher intake of macronutrients, as well as the non-nutritional food components, indigestible fiber and tannins. This demonstrates that equal distance regulation by non-lactating monkeys was not an artefact of confounding constraints such as restricted food availability or an upper limit to the ingestion of dietary fiber or plant tannins, but a strategic regulatory response to variation in dietary macronutrient balance. We discuss implications of our results for the most generalist primate of all, humans.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary003
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • The influence of environmental variance on the evolution of signaling
    • Authors: Koykka C; Wild G.
      Pages: 814 - 820
      Abstract: A recent meta-analysis has indicated that environmental quality and variability can influence whether offspring begging and parental responses to these signals are motivated by offspring need or offspring quality. We create a model to verify and apply evolutionary logic to this hypothesis. We determine the ecological and social conditions under which species signal and respond to need in favorable environments and quality in poor environments. The environmental conditions that favor this shift are widest when signaling costs and differences in quality between offspring are moderate. Low relatedness between siblings coupled with high signaling costs, as well as moderate relatedness between siblings coupled with low signaling costs, allow for the shift between signals of need and signals of quality to occur in more volatile environments. Furthermore, only species whose offspring are highly dependent on parents for survival are not expected to use both signals of need and of quality. Ultimately, this shift between signaling need and signaling quality is the result of high-quality offspring benefiting more from meager amounts of parental provisioning, whereas low-quality offspring have most to gain when parents can contribute more substantially. We show that this differential benefit of resources depends substantially upon offspring fitness as functions of parental investments, a variable which lacks both diversity and biological realism in previous theoretical approaches. We then use this work to reassess previous theory on signals of need and of quality.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary072
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Song recognition and heterospecific associations between 2 fairy-wren
           species (Maluridae)
    • Authors: Johnson A; Masco C, Pruett-Jones S.
      Pages: 821 - 832
      Abstract: Although heterospecific associations beneficial to one or both species involved (e.g. commensalisms or mutualisms) are common, it is generally assumed that interactions between species are transient and not particular to individuals. However, long-term interactions between individuals of different species do occur. In such heterospecific social groups, discrimination between heterospecific individuals may be beneficial, allowing individuals to direct beneficial or aggressive behaviors towards appropriate targets. Here, we describe heterospecific groups composed of splendid and variegated fairy-wrens (Malurus splendens and M. lamberti) and provide the first experimental evidence that recognition of heterospecific group members occurs across species. In these species, family groups live on overlapping territories and co-defend shared territories against both heterospecific and conspecific intruders. Individuals on shared territories were frequently observed traveling and foraging together. Socially dominant males of both species responded more aggressively to songs of neighboring and foreign heterospecific fairy-wrens than they did to those of their co-resident heterospecifics. Although splendid fairy-wrens did not change their behavior when associating with heterospecifics, variegated fairy-wrens spent more time foraging, were less vigilant, had greater first-nest fledging success, and fewer extra-group young. These findings suggest heterospecific associations between these 2 species benefit the variegated fairy-wren. Our findings are novel and show that recognition and discrimination among individuals, often considered a prerequisite for conspecific cooperation, can occur across species.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary071
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Odor alters color preference in a foraging jumping spider
    • Authors: Vickers M; Taylor L.
      Pages: 833 - 839
      Abstract: In many prey taxa with aposematic coloration, prey defenses also involve signals in other modalities (odors, sounds, etc.), yet the selective forces that have driven multimodality in warning displays are not well understood. One potential hypothesis that has recently received support in the avian literature (but has yet to be examined in invertebrates) is that different signal components may interact synergistically, such that one component of a signal (odor) may trigger a predator’s aversion to another component of a signal (color). Here, we gave jumping spiders (Habronattus trimaculatus) the choice between red or black prey (artificially colored termites) in either the presence or absence of odor from the chemically defended coreid bug (Acanthocephala femorata). When the odor was present, spiders were more likely to avoid the color red compared with when the odor was absent. Interestingly, this pattern only held up when the odor was novel; subsequent exposure to the odor had no effect on color preference. Moreover, this pattern only held for the color red (a color typically used as a warning color and often paired with odor). We replicated this experiment giving spiders the choice between green or black prey, and found that the presence of the odor had no effect on the spiders’ responses to the color green. We discuss these findings in the context of predator psychology and the evolution of prey coloration.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary068
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Elevation-related difference in serial reversal learning ability in a
           nonscatter hoarding passerine
    • Authors: Hermer E; Cauchoix M, Chaine A, et al.
      Pages: 840 - 847
      Abstract: Environments characterized by scarce and variable food supply, termed “harsh environments,” have been hypothesized to favor cognitive abilities that aid an animal in finding food, remembering where it is located, or predicting its availability. Most studies of the “harsh environment” hypothesis have found that scatter hoarders from harsher environments have better spatial memory abilities, but few studies have looked at this hypothesis in nonscatter hoarders. Here, we present the first comparison of performance on a serial reversal learning task in a nonscatter hoarder from 2 elevations that differ in harshness. Serial reversal learning tasks measure a suite of cognitive abilities that are believed to allow an animal to adjust its foraging behavior to match changes in the availability of food over time. Therefore, performance on this task is predicted to increase with elevation. There was no significant difference between the high and low elevation great tits in initial reversal learning accuracy. While both high and low elevation birds were able to improve their reversal learning accuracy, they did not differ in their rate of improvement over reversals. However, we found that lower elevation birds had higher accuracy across all reversals. Contrary to the “harsh environment” hypothesis, our findings suggest that birds from the less harsh environment at low elevation performed more accurately on the reversal learning task. Overall, our results suggest that the study of the relationship between harshness and cognition in nonhoarders would benefit from taking into account other environmental factors, and trade-offs with other cognitive abilities.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary067
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Aggressive spiders make the wrong decision in a difficult task
    • Authors: Chang C; Lim Z, Klomp D, et al.
      Pages: 848 - 854
      Abstract: Accurate and timely decisions are critical for foraging, predator avoidance, and reproductive success. However, there is often a trade-off between speed and accuracy in decision-making, where individuals that make decisions more quickly make more mistakes. An individual’s personality may influence its decision-making style (i.e., whether it errs more in the speed or accuracy of a decision) and this relationship may change depending on contexts. Despite growing research on invertebrate personality, how personality correlates with decision-making style is still largely unknown and little research has assessed these relationships across tasks of varying difficulty. Here, we test the relationship between aggressiveness and decision-making style in Portia labiata, a specialized spider-eating jumping spider, in both a simple and a difficult task. We found that aggressive spiders made fewer directional changes before completing the tasks, regardless of task difficulty. However, decision accuracy was jointly determined by both aggressiveness and task difficulty. Aggressive spiders made more accurate decisions in the simple task, while docile spiders made more accurate decisions in the difficult task. We conclude that the relationship between personality and decision-making style in P. labiata is context dependent. We also discuss how the association between aggressiveness and decision-making style may serve important functions in maintaining behavioral variation in a natural population.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary066
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Does the presence of an odd individual affect group choice'
    • Authors: Quattrini F; Bshary R, Roche D.
      Pages: 855 - 861
      Abstract: Group formation (shoaling) with conspecifics is common in fishes and provides several antipredator benefits, such as improved food and predator detection. However, coral reef fishes often form mixed-species shoals, which can generate costs for some group members. For example, individuals that stand out from a group are more likely to be targeted by predators according to the oddity effect. Consequently, the presence of an odd fish might reduce the risk of predation to other group members. Alternatively, an odd individual might attract predators and increase predation risk for the group as a whole. We examined three co-occurring species of coral reef fishes using 2-choice tests to investigate: 1) whether individuals chose to associate with conspecifics over heterospecifics (i.e. the oddity effect); and 2) whether individuals associate with or avoid shoals containing an odd individual under conditions of low- and high-predation pressure. One species actively avoided associating with heterospecifics, consistent with the oddity effect. In contrast, 2 species exhibited no preference for heterospecifics versus conspecifics, perhaps due to less pronounced phenotypic differences between species pairs resulting in a lower relative risk of being odd. None of the 3 species showed either active avoidance or preference for shoals containing an odd individual, irrespective of predation pressure. In instances where the oddity effect is apparent (one species in our study), lower individual predation risk from associating with an odd fish might be negated by greater predation risk to the group as a whole.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary062
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Niche separation, ontogeny, and heterospecific alarm responses in
           centrarchid sunfish
    • Authors: Xia J; Elvidge C, Cooke S.
      Pages: 862 - 868
      Abstract: Behavioral responses to alarm cues in aquatic species are typically examined with emphasis on the potential survival benefits accrued by conspecific receivers. By contrast, heterospecific responses to alarm cues and changes in responses with ontogeny in fishes are relatively unexplored. Taking an ecological niche perspective, we hypothesized that the response patterns of fish to risky chemical cues should be closely related to their degree of niche differentiation, which increases with ontogeny. We tested this hypothesis using the responses of adults from sympatric bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus) populations to the alarm cues of conspecific and heterospecific adults and juveniles, including water as a control treatment. Responses measured consisted of changes in body posture (time spent with the dorsal fin <30°, between 30° and 60°, or >60°) and behavior (times spent still, frozen, at the surface, or on the bottom of the tank). Both adult bluegill and pumpkinseed spent significantly more time with their fins held >60° in response to adult versus juvenile alarm cues, with these responses mediated by donor species such that adult conspecific cues resulted in greater responses than heterospecific cues. The same general pattern was observed in the behavioral measures. These results demonstrate that behavioral response patterns to chemical alarm cues in sunfishes are highly plastic and are likely related to niche separation in adults. Our findings open new lines of research into the role of ecological niches in shaping behavioral responses of fish to risky information.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary061
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Social context alters host behavior and infection risk
    • Authors: Keiser C; Rudolf V, Sartain E, et al.
      Pages: 869 - 875
      Abstract: Variation in infection risk and transmission potential are widespread in human and wildlife diseases and play a central role in host–pathogen dynamics. To explain this variation, most studies focus on linking host traits to differences in pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission, but typically do not account for hosts’ social context. Yet, an individual’s risk of acquiring infection is likely influenced jointly by their own traits and their social environment. Here, we use 3 natural genotypes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to test how variation in pathogen transmission is linked to differences in host behavior and social context. We constructed groups of 12 flies from 1 of 3 different genotypes and 5 different sex ratios (0%, 33%, 50%, 67%, or 100% female) in a fully factorial design. To each group, we added a male or female “primary case” fly that had been exposed to the generalist fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium robertsii. We then recorded groups’ aggregation behavior, mating frequency, and infection prevalence. Aggregation and mating behavior were influenced either jointly or additively by fly genotype and sex ratio. However, a combination of individual-level (mating history; the sex of the primary case) and group-level factors (sex ratio) jointly influenced individuals’ infection risk. There were more infections in female-biased groups, though the sex of the primary case also influenced sex-biased mortality and the relationship between individuals’ mating history and infection risk. Thus, an individual’s social environment can be an important predictor of social dynamics and their survival outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary060
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Are females in good condition better able to cope with costly males'
    • Authors: Iglesias-Carrasco M; Jennions M, Zajitschek S, et al.
      Pages: 876 - 884
      Abstract: The costs of mating for a female might depend on both her phenotype and that of her mate. Sexually antagonistic male traits that negatively affect females are often condition dependent, so a male’s rearing environment can affect the costs he imposes on his mate. Likewise, a female’s ability to resist male-imposed costs might be condition dependent. We experimentally manipulated female and male body conditions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus by rearing larvae on a good or poor quality diet. We then tested whether the cost of mating for a female (measured as copulation behaviors associated with sexual conflict as well as her fecundity and survival) depended on her and/or her mate’s body condition. As expected, females in better condition laid more eggs and lived longer, indicating higher fitness. More interestingly, females that mated with males in better condition had shorter copulations and started to kick sooner. Both results are potentially indicative of greater sexual conflict. We suggest that these changes in mating behavior might be driven by the higher toxicity of ejaculates of males that are in better condition. Crucially, however, the lack of any interaction between male and female conditions for the variables measured suggests that any increase in the costs of mating with a male in better condition is not ameliorated by the female’s own condition.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary059
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Statistically testing the role of individual learning and decision-making
           in trapline foraging
    • Authors: Ayers C; Armsworth P, Brosi B.
      Pages: 885 - 893
      Abstract: Trapline foraging, a behavior consisting of repeated visitation to spatially fixed resources in a predictable sequence, has been observed over diverse taxa and is important ecologically for efficient resource gathering. Despite this, few null models exist to test the significance of suspected traplines, particularly for studies interested in the role of individual decision-making in the formation of traplines versus the role of resource layouts and random movement patterns. Here, we present a spatially explicit, individual-based null model, which may be used to test whether resource layout and realistic forager movement may account for sequence repeats in suspected traplines. In our model, we generate resource visitation sequences by modeling a forager without spatial memory using a random walk to discover and visit spatially fixed resources. We quantify traplining using Determinism, a metric derived from recurrence quantification analysis. Using both simulated and empirical bee foraging data, we compared our model with 2 existing null models—a completely random model and a sample randomization model. The former creates null sequences by randomly selecting available resources, whereas the latter randomizes the order of visits in observed sequences. We found that our model has a higher propensity of being (correctly) rejected than a sample randomization model for trapliners, and a lower propensity of being (incorrectly) rejected for non-trapliners compared to a completely random model. The use of a spatially explicit individual-based null model to test the statistical significance of patterns in empirical data is a novel approach that may be useful for other spatial and individual-based processes.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary058
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Coloration of chicks modulates costly interactions among family members
    • Authors: Morales J; Velando A.
      Pages: 894 - 903
      Abstract: The resolution of family conflicts over parental care involves elaborate behavioral interactions where signals and information exchange play a central role. Usually, the focus is on offspring begging and adult signals and their effect on parental provisioning. Yet, despite offspring of many animal species display structural ornaments during parental dependency, their role in intrafamily conflicts remains practically unexplored. In the blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus, we experimentally manipulated nestling ultraviolet (UV) color and food availability in 60 broods to investigate if family members flexibly adjust their decisions according to color under different conditions. Feeding rates were not affected by experimental treatments, but plumage color did affect parent–offspring interactions in the form of prey-testings (when a parent places a prey item into a nestling’s gape but removes it again). In nonsupplemented nests, fathers but not mothers tested more prey on UV-reduced offspring, suggesting that fathers evaluate less ornamented chicks when food is scarce. As predicted by theoretical studies, UV-reduced nestlings increased begging in food-supplemented nests, although only to mothers. Moreover, UV-reduced nestlings increased parent-absent begging in all nests, indicating that plumage color affected sib-sib competitive interactions. Finally, UV-reduced offspring gained less body mass and this was probably due to costly intrafamily interactions. Overall, our results suggest that ornamentation during early life plays an important role on social-mediated costs and reveals sex-specific parental strategies according to offspring ornaments.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary057
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Does multiple paternity explain phenotypic variation among offspring in
           wild boar'
    • Authors: Gamelon M; Gayet T, Baubet E, et al.
      Pages: 904 - 909
      Abstract: During pregnancy, littermates compete to extract maternal resources from the placenta. Unequal extraction of resources leads to developmental differences among offspring and thus within-litter variation in offspring mass. Because competition among littermates can be stronger among half-sibs, multiple paternity may represent an adaptive strategy allowing females to increase within-litter phenotypic variation among offspring when facing variable environments. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females produce large litters with diversified offspring in terms of body mass. Additionally, multiple paternities within a litter have been observed in this promiscuous species. One can hypothesize that multiple paternity represents the mechanism by which females increase within-litter phenotypic variation. Combining long-term monitoring data with paternity analyses in a wild boar population, we tested whether the increase in the number of fathers within a litter explained the increase in within-litter variation in offspring mass observed in large litters. We showed that heavy females mated earlier during the rut, produced larger litters with a higher number of fathers and more variable fetus mass than lighter females. Within-litter variation of offspring mass increased with gestation stage and litter size, suggesting differential allocation of maternal resource among offspring “in utero.” However, we found only a weak paternal effect on offspring mass and no direct effect of the number of fathers on the within-litter variation in offspring mass. These results indicate that differential maternal allocation to offspring during pregnancy is unlikely related to paternal identity in this species.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary056
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Evidence for personality conformity, not social niche specialization in
           social jays
    • Authors: McCune K; Jablonski P, Lee S, et al.
      Pages: 910 - 917
      Abstract: Animal personality traits are defined as consistent individual differences in behavior over time and across contexts. Occasionally this inflexibility results in maladaptive behavioral responses to external stimuli. However, in social groups inflexible behavioral phenotypes might be favored as this could lead to more predictable social interactions. Two hypotheses seek to describe the optimal distribution of personality types within groups. The social niche specialization hypothesis states that individuals within groups should partition social roles, like personality types, to avoid conflict; whereas the conformity hypothesis states that individuals should assort with conspecifics of similar personality. However, no research so far has compared these hypotheses using data from wild animal systems. We tested boldness in the wild on 2 species with different social systems, the Mexican Jay and California Scrub-Jay. We found support for the conformity hypothesis over the social niche specialization hypothesis because individuals within groups of the social species had more similar personalities, and consequently there was a statistically significant group effect. The most likely mechanism for this conformity is social learning of behaviors through development, but more explicit research on this is needed.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary055
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Males mate with multiple females to increase offspring numbers in a
           nursery web spider
    • Authors: Anderson A; Hebets E, Bickner B, et al.
      Pages: 918 - 924
      Abstract: Males are often expected to benefit from mating with multiple females; however, in species where females are highly cannibalistic, achieving multiple matings may be a difficult task. When males employ strategies to avoid sexual cannibalism, it is presumed that there are benefits associated with survival—e.g. increased fitness associated with more mating opportunities. In the nursery web spider (Pisaurina mira), all males attempt to avoid sexual cannibalism by wrapping female’s legs in silk prior to copulation. If males are unsuccessful, however, there are fitness benefits obtained by both sexes that are associated with their consumption—heavier and longer-lived offspring. Regardless, we hypothesize that P. mira males can achieve higher fitness by avoiding sexual cannibalism. Specifically, we predict that males can and will mate with multiple females and that mating with multiple partners benefits males. To test these predictions, we conducted 1) laboratory assays to determine if males will mate with multiple females and 2) field assays to determine natural sex ratios, density, and female and male movement patterns. Finally, 3) we used our field data to construct a mathematical model that predicts natural male encounter rates with potential mates. We found that male P. mira will mate with multiple females and that increased mating numbers leads to increased offspring production. Our model suggests that under natural conditions, males have the opportunity to mate with multiple females. Overall, our findings strongly suggest that P. mira males are likely to benefit from avoiding sexual cannibalism through increased mating opportunities.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary054
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Can mixed singing facilitate coexistence of closely related nightingale
    • Authors: Souriau A; Kohoutová H, Reif J, et al.
      Pages: 925 - 932
      Abstract: Knowledge of the mechanisms facilitating the coexistence of closely related competing species is crucial for understanding biodiversity patterns. The concept of convergent agonistic character displacement (ACD) suggests that interspecific interference competition may lead to convergence in territorial signals between species, which helps to establish interspecific territoriality and thus facilitate the species coexistence. Despite a strong theoretical background, however, empirical evidence for convergent ACD in nature is still scarce. Here we tested whether mixed singing (i.e. copying of elements from songs of a closely related sympatric species) in the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) in a secondary contact zone with the Common Nightingale (L. megarhynchos) could represent a case of convergent ACD. Using playback experiments, we measured the intensity of physical and vocal territorial responses of Common Nightingale males to 3 stimuli: conspecific song, pure heterospecific song, and mixed heterospecific song of the Thrush Nightingale. We found that Common Nightingale males showed a stronger physical territorial response to conspecific than both pure and mixed heterospecific songs. However, the intensity of vocal territorial response significantly increased with the presence of Common Nightingale elements in the stimuli, being lowest to pure heterospecific songs, intermediate to mixed heterospecific songs, and strongest to conspecific songs. These results indicate that mixed singing in the Thrush Nightingale may indeed be a case of convergent ACD. Our findings highlight the potential importance of mixed singing in facilitating species coexistence in the early stages of divergence.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary053
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Plover parents care more for young of the opposite sex
    • Authors: Lees D; Sherman C, Kostoglou K, et al.
      Pages: 933 - 938
      Abstract: Within some socially monogamous species, the relative contribution of care provided by each parent varies substantially, from uniparental to equitable biparental care. The provision of care is influenced by its costs and benefits, which may differ between parents (leading to inter-parental “conflict”) and are expected to change in relation to the needs of young (which vary with age) and potentially to traits such as their sex. If the fitness benefits to parents differ with the sex of offspring, parents may adjust their investment in young of different sexes to optimize their own fitness. We radio-tracked 42 Red-capped Plover Charadrius ruficapillus broods and found that, at least diurnally, females cared for the brood for the first half of brood-rearing, while gradually reducing care. Males contributed little diurnal care early in brood-rearing, then increased care, taking over from females as young approached independence. The sex-ratio of the brood influenced the division of care between parents; male parents attended the brood more when there were greater proportions of female chicks, whereas female parents attended the brood more when there were a greater proportion of male chicks. This is apparently the first recorded case in a precocial bird where each parents’ investment in brood care is influenced by the brood sex-ratio. Our results defy unambiguous explanation.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary052
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • The costs of kleptoparasitism: a study of mixed-species seabird breeding
    • Authors: Gaglio D; Sherley R, Cook T, et al.
      Pages: 939 - 947
      Abstract: Mixed-species assemblages are common in nature, providing mutual benefits to associating species including anti-predator advantages or resource facilitation. However, associating with other species may also impose costs through kleptoparasitism (food theft). Identification of these costs, and how they vary when different species breed alongside one another, is essential to understand the payoffs of mixed-species assemblages. We explore the costs of kleptoparasitism for greater crested terns Thalasseus bergii provisioning offspring at a single-species colony, where individuals suffer kleptoparasitism from conspecifics, and at a mixed colony where terns breed alongside Hartlaub’s gulls Chroicocephalus hartlaubii and are vulnerable to both intra and interspecific kleptoparasitism. Gull presence likely contributes to increases in both kleptoparasitic attacks and the proportion of prey lost or stolen during provisioning, relative to the single-species colony. Provisioning adults suffered additional energetic costs in response to gull kleptoparasitism, requiring more attempts to deliver prey, taking longer to do so, and swallowing more prey (to the detriment of their offspring). Gulls also appear to increase the duration of tern vulnerability to kleptoparasitism, because they continued to steal food from adults and chicks after precocial chicks left the nest, when intraspecific kleptoparasitism is negligible. Terns breeding in a mixed colony, therefore, suffer direct and indirect costs through decreased provisioning and increased provisioning effort, which may ultimately affect reproductive success, resulting in colony decline where kleptoparasitism is frequent. This study illustrates how forming a mixed-species seabird breeding assemblage has costs as well as benefits, potentially fluctuating between a parasitic and a mutualistic relationship.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary050
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Bidirectionality of hormone-behavior relationships and satellite-caller
           dynamics in green treefrogs
    • Authors: Crocker-Buta S; Leary C.
      Pages: 948 - 957
      Abstract: Whether hormonal differences among males that conditionally alternate between mating tactics are a cause or consequence of behavioral expression is central to understanding the mechanisms regulating alternative mating tactics. This issue is rooted in the bidirectionality of hormone–behavior relationships and is particularly relevant to alternative mating tactics in anuran amphibians because the social-acoustic environment can mediate changes in both tactic expression and hormone levels. Hence, it is not clear whether males adopt different mating tactics in response to rival male signals, changes in hormone levels, or both. Here, we address this problem in male green treefrogs, Hyla cinerea, using vocal playback experiments combined with measures of circulating hormone levels, vocal attractiveness, body size, body condition, and plasma glucose levels. Calling males in natural choruses that adopted non-calling satellite behavior in response to broadcast advertisement calls produced less attractive calls were smaller and in poorer body condition than males that continued to call but did not differ in circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), androgens, or glucose. These results were unexpected because satellite males in natural choruses possess higher CORT levels and lower androgen levels than calling males and CORT administration increases the probability of satellite tactic expression in this species. Our results suggest that there may be no clear cause versus consequence dichotomy associated with hormonal disparities among males practicing different mating tactics because multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence tactic expression.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary047
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Habitat geometry and limited perceptual range affect habitat choice of a
           trap-building predator
    • Authors: Katz N; Scharf I.
      Pages: 958 - 964
      Abstract: By considering various biotic and abiotic factors, organisms are expected to distinguish among suitable habitats of different quality and choose the one that offers them the highest fitness payoff. According to the ideal-free-distribution model, density drives organism choice and ultimately distribution among habitats. However, deviations from the basic model are common, as it does not take into account intrinsic and extrinsic constraints. Two important constraints are those of habitat geometry (e.g. habitat area, habitat shape), and perceptual range. We used a trap-building predator, the wormlion larva, to examine these constraints. We manipulated the geometry of the preferred shaded microhabitat and the distance of individuals from it, and assessed their effect on wormlion habitat choice, distribution patterns, and performance. Habitat geometry affected wormlion microhabitat choice and distribution patterns, measured as distance from the habitat center and spatial pattern type, but had no effect on performance, expressed as the area of the pit-trap constructed. The interaction between habitat geometry and density was inconsistent regarding the distribution patterns, affecting distance from the center but not the spatial pattern type. Furthermore, we found that wormlions demonstrated a low perceptual range, which limited their ability to sense proximate shaded conditions. We highlight the importance of incorporating the interplay between habitat geometry, density, and perceptual range when studying habitat choice and spatial patterns and suggest that spatial patterns should be analyzed in more than a single way.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary046
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Thick eggshells of brood parasitic cowbirds protect their eggs and damage
           host eggs during laying
    • Authors: López A; Fiorini V, Ellison K, et al.
      Pages: 965 - 973
      Abstract: Brood parasites lay thick-shelled eggs and numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the significance of this trait. We examined whether thick eggshells protect the parasite egg during laying events. We used eggs of the parasitic shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) and its hosts, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbird (Mimus saturninus) in South America, and the eggs of the parasitic brown-headed cowbird (M. ater) and its hosts, the house wren and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) in North America. We experimentally dropped parasite eggs onto host eggs to simulate laying by the parasite, parasite eggs onto parasite eggs to simulate multiple parasitism, host eggs onto parasite eggs to simulate hosts laying from the height cowbirds lay, and stirred eggs to simulate jostling that may occur when cowbirds and hosts interact during laying events. We found that cowbird eggs were significantly less likely to be damaged than host eggs when they were laid onto a host egg and when host and cowbird eggs were laid onto them. There was minimal damage to eggs during jostling experiments, thereby failing to support the hypothesis that thick eggshells provide protection when eggs are jostled. These findings support the hypotheses that thick eggshells resist damage when laid from an elevated position, when additional cowbird eggs are laid onto them in multiply parasitized nests, and these eggs also damage host eggs when laid.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary045
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Context-dependent costs and benefits of a heterospecific nesting
    • Authors: Swift R; Rodewald A, Senner N.
      Pages: 974 - 983
      Abstract: The costs and benefits of interactions among species can vary spatially or temporally, making them context-dependent. For example, benefits associated with nesting near species that deter predators may give way to costs if the association increases the risk of predation during other stages of reproduction. We examined the extent to which the costs and benefits of heterospecific aggregations between a declining shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica), and a potential protector and predator, the Mew Gull (Larus canus), varied with breeding stage. Specifically, we assessed the spatial distribution and fate of 43 godwit and 262 gull nests in Beluga, Alaska, from 2014 to 2016. We then evaluated the effect of habitat and proximity to gulls on daily survival rates of 120 godwit nests from 2009 to 2016. We also examined the relationship between the proximity to gulls and survival of godwit chicks to 5 days old, the period when they are vulnerable to gull predation. Nests of godwits and gulls were significantly clustered across the landscape, a pattern that habitat heterogeneity failed to explain. Hatching success of godwit nests improved with proximity to the gull colony and increasing numbers of gull nests within 200 m. In contrast, survival of godwit chicks to 5 days improved with increasing distance to the gull colony. The costs and benefits that godwits derived from associating with Mew Gulls were thus context-dependent, with benefits pre-hatch and costs post-hatch. Our results show how spatiotemporal variation in species interactions precludes simple generalizations about the nature of their outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary042
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Risk of cache pilferage determines hoarding behavior of rodents and seed
    • Authors: Cao L; Wang B, Yan C, et al.
      Pages: 984 - 991
      Abstract: Cache pilferage by competitors is thought to drive the evolution of hoarding behavior in animals, which plays significant roles in tree regeneration and formation of mutualisms between trees and animals. However, little is known how cache pilferage risk among seeds of different tree species or years affects hoarding behavior and seed dispersal by animals. We hypothesized that scatter-hoarding rodents could adjust hoarding behavior according to variation in cache pilferage risk among seeds and years to minimize cache pilferage, by investigating the relationship between cache pilferage risk and seed dispersal of 7 tree species over 3 years in tropical forest in southwest China. Among years, the high pilferage risk was related to high probability of larder-hoarding and short periods of scatter-hoarding; whereas, the probability of scatter-hoarding was higher in intermediate pilferage year than in both low and high pilferage years. Among seeds, high pilferage risk was related to low probability and short periods of scatter-hoarding. Our results indicated that cache pilferage risk significantly affected hoarding behaviors and seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents as well as seed fates. Cache pilferage risk was a reliable explanatory factor for variation in seed dispersal, and it might be an important driving force in the evolution of rodent hoarding behaviors and seed characteristics.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary040
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Viability selection by invertebrate predators in the polyphenic black
           scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica
    • Authors: Busso J; Blanckenhorn W.
      Pages: 992 - 1000
      Abstract: Predation is a major factor influencing the fitness and life history of animals. Two key traits affecting prey survival are body size and coloration. Sepsis thoracica males display a sigmoid relationship between these 2 traits, defining a size threshold above which investment in melanin drastically drops, producing small melanic (black) or large amber morphs. In trying to understand the evolution of this rare dimorphism, we performed laboratory predation experiments to estimate the intensity of adult viability selection exerted by various arthropod predators (bugs, flies, and spiders) on male body size and coloration. Selection was performed against 2 different backgrounds mimicking the natural habitat (dung and grass) in which the camouflage and/or warning effect of the morphs should vary. Body size was mainly under positive selection (larger survived better), which overpowered selection on coloration and varied somewhat among predator species but not backgrounds. No disruptive selection was found, nor did selection change the sigmoid relationship between the 2 traits. We conclude that, for this fly, predator evasion and escaping skills determined by body size are more effective against invertebrate predators than its conspicuousness determined by coloration, contrasting what has been found for vertebrate predators, where prey coloration is important and negative selection on size dominates. Because arthropod predators have strong effects on insect populations, the positive directional selection imposed by invertebrate predators is likely an important force driving the evolution of body size in S. thoracica and insects in general.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary039
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
  • Corrigendum: Reply to Sherratt and Holen: Goldilocks and the half-empty
    • Authors: Stephens D.
      Pages: 1001 - 1001
      Abstract: Behavioral Ecology, ary049,
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary070
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 4 (2018)
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