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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 368 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 368 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Behavioral Ecology
  [SJR: 1.698]   [H-I: 92]   [47 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [368 journals]
  • Weaponry and defenses in fighting animals: how allometry can alter
           predictions from contest theory
    • Authors: Palaoro AV; Briffa M.
      Abstract: AbstractTheoretical models have been developed to understand how animals decide to withdraw from a contest. They provide testable predictions regarding the relationship between resource holding potential (RHP) and contest duration that assume linear relationships among RHP traits. However, RHP traits might scale with body size according to power laws. Furthermore, investment across different RHP traits may vary. Herein, we provide a model that encompasses the allometric relationship between body size and other RHP traits. First, we partition RHP traits into “offensive” traits (i.e., the ability to inflict damage) and “defensive” traits (i.e., persistence in a contest). Defensive traits may in turn be subdivided into “damage endurance” (DE) or the ability to absorb damage and “stamina.” We then model scenarios where: 1) there are power relationships among RHP traits; 2) individuals invest differently in defensive and offensive traits; 3) offensive traits and DE have a positive/negative relationship with body size. We modeled sized-matched injurious contests where 1) offensive capacity (OC) increases superlinearly with body size, 2) DE increases superlinearly, and 3) OC increases superlinearly but DE increases sublinearly. Our analyses indicate that if RHP traits scale linearly current predictions are upheld for injurious contests—contest duration increases with body size. However, with power relationships we can expect nonlinear relationships. Here, contest duration increased with body size until a maximum, decreasing afterwards. Thus, considering allometric relationships between body size and RHP traits may lead to new insights in animal contest theory and may help to solve discrepancies between current theory and empirical data.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
       
  • When the mean no longer matters: developmental diet affects behavioral
           variation but not population averages in the house cricket ( Acheta
           domesticus )
    • Authors: Royauté R; Dochtermann NA.
      Abstract: AbstractDespite recent progress in elucidating the genetic basis for behavioral variation, the effects of the developmental environment on the maintenance and generation of behavioral variation across multiple traits remain poorly resolved. We investigated how nutritional status during development affected behavioral variation and covariance between activity in an open field test and response to cues of predator presence in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus). We provided 98 juvenile crickets with either a high or low quality diet during development, throughout which we measured body mass, activity in a modified open-field, and response to predator excreta twice every week for 3 weeks. Diet quality affected growth rate but not average activity or response to cues of predator presence, nor the correlation between the 2. However, repeatability (τ) in response to cues of predator presence was reduced by 0.24 in individuals exposed to the high quality diet versus the low quality diet. Larger individuals also increased their response to predator cues when reared on a high quality diet, suggesting negative feedbacks between growth rate and antipredator behaviors. Our results also indicate that changes in the developmental environment are not sufficient to collapse behavioral syndromes, suggesting a genetic link between activity and predator cue response in house crickets, and that nutritional stress early in life can lead to more consistent behavioral responses when individuals faced predatory threats. Our results demonstrate that subtle differences in the quality of the environment experienced early in life can influence how individuals negotiate behavioral and life-history trade-offs later in life.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
       
  • Task switching is associated with temporal delays in Temnothorax rugatulus
           ants
    • Authors: Leighton GM; Charbonneau D, Dornhaus A.
      Abstract: AbstractThe major evolutionary transitions often result in reorganization of biological systems, and a component of such reorganization is that individuals within the system specialize on performing certain tasks, resulting in a division of labor. Although the traditional benefit of division of labor is thought to be a gain in work efficiency, one alternative benefit of specialization is avoiding temporal delays associated with switching tasks. While models have demonstrated that costs of task switching can drive the evolution of division of labor, little empirical support exists for this hypothesis. We tested whether there were task-switching costs in Temnothorax rugatulus. We recorded the behavior of every individual in 44 colonies and used this dataset to identify each instance where an individual performed a task, spent time in the interval (i.e., inactive, wandering inside, and self-grooming), and then performed a task again. We compared the interval time where an individual switched task type between that first and second bout of work to instances where an individual performed the same type of work in both bouts. In certain cases, we find that the interval time was significantly shorter if individuals repeated the same task. We find this time cost for switching to a new behavior in all active worker groups, that is, independently of worker specialization. These results suggest that task-switching costs may select for behavioral specialization.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
       
  • Experience with predators shapes learning rules in larval amphibians
    • Authors: Crane AL; Demuth BS, Ferrari MO.
      Abstract: AbstractExperience is essential for many prey species that must learn about predation risk to survive and reproduce. How prey incorporate information about predation risk via multiple learning events has been the subject of several studies, but results have been inconsistent, with cases where multiple conditionings have enhanced or weakened the learned responses. We hypothesized that such different outcomes reflect differences in the timing and frequency of past experience with the predator. To test this hypothesis, we provided naive wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus) with 4 days of experience with a predator. After a short (2 days) or longer (17 days) delay, tadpoles (naive or experienced) were conditioned to recognize the predator 0, 1, or 6 times. When tested the following day, all tadpoles from the short-delay group exhibited similar intensities of learned responses following 1 or 6 conditionings. However, a different pattern emerged when their background and recent experiences were separated by the longer time lag. Naive tadpoles responded similarly following the conditionings, but experienced tadpoles exhibited stronger responses after receiving multiple conditionings. We confirmed our hypothesis again using wild-caught tadpoles that had predator experience in their natural environment. Our results provide new insight into the surprisingly sophisticated learning rules for how certain aspects of past experience dictate the intensity of learned responses in tadpoles. These results also shed light on conflicting outcomes of past studies and have implications for conservation programs that make decisions about when and how often to train animals to recognize predators before their release.
      PubDate: 2016-11-11
       
  • The spatial distribution of foragers and food patches can influence
           antipredator vigilance
    • Authors: Beauchamp G.
      Abstract: AbstractAntipredator vigilance is a major component of defenses against predators for many prey species. For group foragers, such vigilance is predicted by models to decrease with group size reflecting better predator detection ability and risk dilution in larger groups. Influential vigilance models for group foragers have made simplifying and often quite restrictive assumptions. Prey species, for instance, are expected to search for resources in groups of fixed sizes although frequent changes in group sizes often occur while foraging. Groups of prey in the same area are also assumed to be attacked independently, but predators could sequentially target several local groups after a failed attempt. I propose a framework in which prey animals can form groups by joining feeding neighbors and also adjust their vigilance in these groups of varying sizes. Predators can attack one of the many groups that occur in the same area and can also target groups of specific sizes. I used a genetic algorithm approach to simultaneously tackle joining and vigilance choices by prey individuals. I show that joining tendencies and the effect of group size on vigilance can vary with forager population size, the spatial distribution of resources, and predator attack tactics. The modeling framework adopted here generates several novel predictions about vigilance and joining tendencies for group foragers, and highlights the importance of considering the availability and vulnerability of prey groups in the same habitat when predicting antipredator vigilance.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27
       
  • Sexual and nonsexual cannibalism have different effects on offspring
           performance in redback spiders
    • Authors: Boisseau RP; Wilder SM, Barry KL.
      Abstract: AbstractSexual cannibalism is often set apart from other forms of cannibalism; however, no studies have directly compared the fitness consequences of these 2 types of cannibalism. Here, we compared the consequences of cannibalism of a male by a female outside the context of mating (referred to as nonsexual cannibalism) and within the context of mating (referred to as sexual cannibalism) for the propensity to remate, fecundity, and offspring traits of female redback spiders Latrodectus hasselti. Although the timing of cannibalism relative to copulation is critical for male fitness, it is still unclear whether it can also influence female fitness, beyond the fertilization of eggs. Our results showed that sexual cannibalism and nonsexual cannibalism had different effects on offspring survival and growth. Sexually cannibalistic females produced offspring that survived better and grew faster than nonsexually cannibalistic or noncannibalistic females. By experimentally manipulating the quality of prey given to offspring, we showed that these effects were dependent on the spiderlings’ diet quality. In particular, the effects of sexual cannibalism on offspring growth and survival were clearer when offspring were, respectively, fed a high-nutrient diet and a low-nutrient diet. However, sexual cannibalism did not increase offspring tolerance to starvation. Additionally, we did not find any effect of nonsexual cannibalism nor sexual cannibalism on female fecundity or subsequent sexual receptivity. As copulation duration did not account for these effects on offspring performance, our findings suggest that copulation occurring simultaneously with cannibalism plays an essential role in the fitness consequences of this behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-10-25
       
  • Investigating variation in third-party intervention behavior during a
           fallow deer ( Dama dama ) rut
    • Authors: Jennings DJ; Boys RJ, Gammell MP.
      Abstract: AbstractPairwise contests are frequently disrupted by the intervention of third-party group members. However, little is known about whether an individual’s engagement in intervention behavior varies over time, or what factors might be associated with such variation. Using a hierarchical “hurdle” model with 2 levels, we investigated the conditions under which focal males: 1) would or would not engage in an intervention, and 2) varied the number of interventions per day they engaged in. The lower level of the model showed that the proportion of unique opponents per day (estimated from the overall number of mature males in the herd) that focal males competed with, and the number of interventions suffered by a focal male were associated with an increased probability that this individual would itself engage in third-party intervention behavior. At the upper level of the model, there was no association between these 2 variables and the rate at which individuals engaged in intervention behavior. The number of matings observed per day and aggression rate within the herd failed to contribute meaningfully to either level of the model. We also show that, although inconsistent over days and between years, some individuals displayed a greater propensity to intervene than others. The data from our study show that intervention behavior is more likely to occur as a result of individual directly experiencing aggressive behavior at a sufficiently high level, and not as a result of individuals monitoring aggressive or sexual activity in the wider social group.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19
       
  • From randomness to traplining: a framework for the study of routine
           movement behavior
    • Authors: Riotte-Lambert L; Benhamou S, Chamaillé-Jammes S.
      Abstract: AbstractMemory allows many animals to benefit from the spatial predictability of their environment by revisiting known profitable places. Travel route optimization or resource acquisition constraints usually lead to repeated sequences of visits, which may have major evolutionary and ecological implications. However, the study of this behavior has been impaired by a lack of concepts and methodologies. We here formally define routine movement behavior, provide an index that quantifies the degree of repetitiveness in movement sequences in terms of minimal conditional entropy, and design a flexible procedure that detects the specific subsequences that are repeated. We demonstrate our framework using computer simulations and real-world movement data of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) introduced into a novel environment. The simulation example showed that our methods can suitably reveal the increase in the level of routine movement behavior during home range (HR) establishment. Black-tailed deer did not show such an increase, suggesting that HR establishment occurred very fast. In both examples, our procedure determining the subsequences that are repeated provides a precise visualization of routine movements. Our approach solves limitations in the study of routine movement behavior and thus opens promising perspectives for the study of the linkages between cognition, foraging strategies, and environments. Although we developed it to study routine movement behavior, it can be applied to any type of behavioral sequence and should thus be of interest to a broad range of behavioral ecologists.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13
       
  • Changes in dominance status erode personality and behavioral syndromes
    • Authors: Rudin FS; Tomkins JL, Simmons LW.
      Abstract: AbstractThe interplay between consistent individual differences in behavior (i.e., animal personality) and behavioral plasticity has recently attracted increased interest. We used male Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to investigate how dominance status influences the consistency and plasticity of different personality traits, namely boldness, exploration, and activity, by experimentally manipulating dominance status between measuring sessions. We found that dominants that became subordinate when socially challenged, shifted their behavior, becoming less bold, explorative, and active, whereas subordinates that became dominant, became bolder, more explorative, and more active. Individuals that experienced no change in dominance status did not alter their behavior. Changes in dominance status reduced the repeatability of the putative personality traits of exploration and activity while not affecting the repeatability of boldness. Moreover, changes in dominance status affected the presence of correlations between some personality traits, but not others. Finally, calling behavior was related to current and future dominance and explorative tendencies. We discuss the broader evolutionary and ecological implications of our findings and propose that changes in social status should be considered when investigating behavioral syndromes and the interplay between animal personality and behavioral plasticity.
      PubDate: 2016-10-11
       
  • Fission–fusion processes weaken dominance networks of female Asian
           elephants in a productive habitat
    • Authors: de Silva S; Schmid V, Wittemyer G.
      Abstract: AbstractDominance hierarchies are expected to form in response to socioecological pressures and competitive regimes. We assess dominance relationships among free-ranging female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and compare them with those of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana), which are known to exhibit age-based dominance hierarchies. Both species are generalist herbivores, however, the Asian population occupies a more productive and climatically stable environment relative to that of the African savannah population. We expected this would lower competition relative to the African taxon, relaxing the need for hierarchy. We tested whether 1) observed dominance interactions among individuals were transitive, 2) outcomes were structured either by age or by social unit according to 4 independent ranking methods, and 3) hierarchy steepness among classes was significant using David’s score. Elephas maximus displayed less than a third the number of dominance interactions as observed in L. africana, with statistically insignificant transitivity among individuals. There was weak but significant order as well as steepness among age-classes but no clear order among social units. Loxodonta africana showed significant transitivity among individuals, with significant order and steepness among age-classes and social units. Elephas maximus had a greater proportion of age-reversed dominance outcomes than L. africana. When dominance hierarchies are weak and nonlinear, signals of dominance may have other functions, such as maintaining social exclusivity. We propose that resource dynamics reinforce differences via influence on fission–fusion processes, which we term “ecological release.” We discuss implications of these findings for conservation and management when animals are spatially constrained.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
       
  • Prenatal exposure to predation affects predator recognition learning via
           lateralization plasticity
    • Authors: Lucon-Xiccato T; Chivers DP, Mitchell MD, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPrey with cerebral lateralization often shows a bias in escape direction and asymmetrical use of eyes for scanning. Such asymmetries are likely to cause ecological disadvantages when, for example, predators attack from the side in which the prey is more susceptible. However, lateralized individuals are diffuse in many species and, paradoxically, their frequency increases via developmental plasticity in environments with high-predation risk. Using wood frog tadpoles, Lithobates sylvaticus, we tested the hypothesis that cerebral lateralization enhances predator recognition learning and thus overcomes the costs of behavioral asymmetries in high predation risk environments. In the first experiment, we found tadpoles exposed to risk as embryos developed more intense lateralization in a rotational test compared to predator-naive controls. Risk exposure led to the more frequent development of clockwise swimming preference. In the second experiment, we found that tadpoles exhibiting no behavioral lateralization and tadpoles with marked clockwise swimming preference learned to recognize the novel predator odor, with the latter showing a better performance as predicted. Tadpoles with anticlockwise swimming preference did not learn to associate the predator with risk. Exposure to a high-risk environment during early ontogeny appears to favor the development of either a lateralization phenotype with refined predator recognition learning skills, or, to a lesser extent, a lateralization phenotype with poor predator recognition learning skills. Such individuals likely cope with predation using mechanisms other than learning.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
       
  • Deceiving predators: linking distraction behavior with nest survival in a
           ground-nesting bird
    • Authors: Gómez-Serrano M; López-López P.
      Abstract: AbstractIndividual behavior that minimizes predation risk is favored by natural selection. Ground-nesting birds employ different defensive behaviors as part of their antipredator strategies because they nest where a wide range of predators have access. We investigated the influence of distraction displays on breeding success in the Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, in order to explore the role of the defensive behavior on nest survival. We quantified the intensity of defensive behavior of adult plovers in response to nest disturbance caused by an approaching researcher, by ranking display types according to the intensity and exposure to predation. We also examined sex differences in nest defense to determine whether the existence, intensity, and consistency of individual defensive behaviors could have an impact on nest survival. We used the nest survival model in Program MARK to estimate daily survival rates of nests and to examine the influence of temporal, behavioral, and habitat variables on nest success. Our results show a positive correlation between male and female defense behaviors within pairs and that nests in which parents invested more on defense survived longer. Nevertheless, there were differences in the risks assumed by the 2 members of breeding pairs in nest defense, with females performing riskier defensive behaviors than males. The top-ranked nest survival models included combined additive effects of site, season, habitat type, nest exposure, and the defense behavioral response of females as best predictors. Finally, our study highlights that increased risk assumption in offspring defense is advantageous in terms of individual fitness.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
       
  • Brood size, telomere length, and parent-offspring color signaling in barn
           swallows
    • Authors: Costanzo A; Parolini M, Bazzi G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractTrade-offs select for optimal allocation of resources among competing functions. Parents are selected to maximize production of viable offspring by balancing between progeny number and “quality.” Telomeres are nucleoproteins, at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, that shorten when cells divide. Because shortening below a certain threshold depresses organismal functioning and rate of shortening depends on environmental conditions, telomeres are good candidates as mediators of trade-offs. We altered brood size of barn swallow Hirundo rustica and found that brood enlargement caused a reduction in relative telomere length (RTL). Reliable signals of offspring quality should evolve that mediate adaptive parental care allocation. Because nestlings with darker coloration receive more care, we analyzed the covariation between RTL and coloration and found that RTL increased with plumage darkness, both within and between broods. Hence, we provide unprecedented evidence that signals relevant to parent-offspring communication reflect telomere length and thus offspring reproductive value.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
  • Does competitive interaction drive species recognition in a house mouse
           secondary contact zone?
    • Authors: Latour Y; Ganem G.
      Abstract: AbstractMiscommunication may induce a high risk of unnecessary escalated fights between competitors (populations to species), resulting in selection favoring signal divergence through agonistic character displacement (ACD). When signals allowing discrimination between competitors are also involved in mate recognition, ACD could explain reproductive character displacement (RCD). We tested interference competition between males as a potential driver of RCD (here, subspecies recognition) in a secondary contact zone between two mouse subspecies (Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus) displaying asymmetric dominance. Since such asymmetry could create a conflict between subspecies (compatibility) and quality (dominance) recognition in the contact zone, we tested for geographic variation in female preference for dominant males in the subordinate subspecies, musculus. We assessed competition between males and tested ACD during dyadic encounters comparing behavior displayed during trials between heterosubspecifics originating from populations close to the secondary contact (“contact”) and further away (“allopatric”). We also compared behavior of contact versus allopatric males during homosubspecific versus heterosubspecific trials to test whether subspecies discrimination evolved under competitive interference. Although domesticus dominated most heterosubspecific trials regardless of geographic origin, agonistic behavior was more marked (i.e., lower attack latencies) during contact than allopatric encounters, suggesting that ACD occurred. Comparing behavior during homosubspecific and heterosubspecific encounters, only allopatric musculus displayed differences, that is, higher attack latencies toward heterosubspecifics, indicating that discrimination between competitors did not evolve with ACD. Finally, although allopatric musculus females seemed to prefer dominant males, their contact counterparts did not, suggesting that “compatibility” may have outweighed “quality” under a risk of hybridization.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
  • Mechanisms and fitness consequences of laying decisions in a migratory
           raptor
    • Authors: Catry T; Moreira F, Alcazar R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSeasonal decline in breeding performance is a commonly observed pattern in birds, but disentangling the contributions of environmental conditions (“timing” hypothesis) and individual quality (“quality” hypothesis) to such a pattern is challenging. Moreover, despite the strong selection for early breeding, the individual optimization model predicts that each individual has an optimal breeding window. We investigated the causes and consequences of laying decisions in the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) by combining a long-term dataset on reproductive traits with information on food availability. A marked seasonal decline was found in breeding success, mostly mediated by a decline in clutch size. The “timing” hypothesis, supported by the decline in consumption of mole crickets, key prey for prelaying females, seems to explain the seasonal trend in clutch size, as this pattern was recorded in both higher (adults) and lower (yearlings) quality individuals. Contrarily, the higher proportion of yearlings breeding late in the season, rather than a decay in food availability during chick rearing, seems to drive the decline in fledging success, giving support to the “quality” hypothesis. Advanced breeding and increased clutch size, as proxies of reproductive effort, were not offset by lower survival. Low repeatability in both these traits suggests that individual quality is a dynamic attribute and reproduction costs are minimized by individual optimization. Understanding the mechanisms driving individual breeding decisions is critical to anticipate species’ ability to cope with environmental changes. Here, we show that lesser kestrels failing the prelaying food window opportunity compromise reproductive performance, mostly regardless of their individual quality.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
  • Familiarity affects network structure and information flow in guppy (
           Poecilia reticulata ) shoals
    • Authors: Hasenjager MJ; Dugatkin L.
      Abstract: AbstractHow individuals respond toward one another can depend on the level of familiarity between them. Variation in the proportion of familiar individuals comprising a group can shape group-level outcomes and group members’ fitness, but less is known about how this variation shapes the emergence and structure of social networks or the resulting consequences for social processes. We formed guppy (Poecilia reticulata) groups in which individuals were: 1) all familiar with one another, 2) all unfamiliar, or 3) part of a mixed group of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. We then examined the fission–fusion dynamics of these shoals, their social network structure, and the speed and pattern by which foraging information diffused through them. Although fission–fusion dynamics were not driven by group composition, differences in social network structure were observed. Both familiar and unfamiliar groups exhibited nonrandom network structure, whereas mixed groups expressed more homogeneous social organization. How quickly—and in what order—individuals discovered foraging sites was socially influenced, but there was little evidence for social transmission. More likely, closely associated individuals discovered foraging sites at similar times to one another as a result of traveling together. Group composition affected the speed of information diffusion, with knowledge of the foraging site spreading most rapidly through mixed groups, potentially due to either their less structured networks or the dense clustering of highly social individuals observed in those groups. Our study joins a growing body of literature pointing to the importance of group composition in driving group-level patterns and outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
  • Direction matching for sparse movement data sets: determining interaction
           rules in social groups
    • Authors: Bonnell TR; Henzi S, Barrett L.
      Abstract: AbstractIt is generally assumed that high-resolution movement data are needed to extract meaningful decision-making patterns of animals on the move. Here we propose a modified version of force matching (referred to here as direction matching), whereby sparse movement data (i.e., collected over minutes instead of seconds) can be used to test hypothesized forces acting on a focal animal based on their ability to explain observed movement. We first test the direction matching approach using simulated data from an agent-based model, and then go on to apply it to a sparse movement data set collected on a troop of baboons in the DeHoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. We use the baboon data set to test the hypothesis that an individual’s motion is influenced by the group as a whole or, alternatively, whether it is influenced by the location of specific individuals within the group. Our data provide support for both hypotheses, with stronger support for the latter. The focal animal showed consistent patterns of movement toward particular individuals when distance from these individuals increased beyond 5.6 m. Although the focal animal was also sensitive to the group movement on those occasions when the group as a whole was highly clustered, these conditions of isolation occurred infrequently. We suggest that specific social interactions may thus drive overall group cohesion. The results of the direction matching approach suggest that relatively sparse data, with low technical and economic costs, can be used to test between hypotheses on the factors driving movement decisions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
       
  • Experimentally provided conspecific cues boost bird territory density but
           not breeding performance
    • Authors: Grendelmeier A; Arlettaz R, Olano-Marin J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDecision-making during different life-history stages requires information, which is obtained through own or others’ experience and interaction with the environment. In birds, song is important for territory defense and mate attraction. Although song has evolved to purposely convey information, it can be inadvertently exploited by conspecifics. Experiments attempting to attract focal species by playing back their song are numerous, yet the consequences for reproductive performance remain little understood. In 2013 and 2014, settlement, reproduction, and extrapair paternity of Phylloscopus sibilatrix were assessed in a randomized experiment. We hypothesized that territory number, reproductive performance, and extrapair paternity would be higher on song plots (wood warbler song playbacks during prebreeding periods) than on control plots (no wood warbler song playback). On song plots, 3 times more territories were established, settlement occurred faster, and maximum plot occupancy was higher compared with control plots. Pairing rate, daily nest survival rate, mean clutch size, mean number of nestlings and fledglings, rates of extrapair young, nest abandonment, and nest predation did not differ between treatments, but fledging success was lower on song plots compared with control plots. This study shows the important role social cues can play for territory selection of birds, but also exemplifies the necessity for postattraction evaluation of reproduction to rule out negative effects of artificial attraction. Decreased fledging success on song plots and ambiguity about consequences of artificial attraction for distribution and settling dynamics of the species give reason to further evaluate whether acoustic attraction represents a suitable method for songbird conservation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
       
  • Behavioral flexibility versus rules of thumb: how do grey squirrels deal
           with conflicting risks?
    • Authors: Leaver LA; Jayne K, Lea SG.
      Abstract: AbstractIn order to test how flexibly animals are able to behave when making trade-offs that involve assessing constantly changing risks, we examined whether wild Eastern grey squirrels showed flexibility of behavioral responses in the face of variation in 2 conflicting risks, cache pilferage, and predation. We established that cache pilferage risk decreased with distance from cover and was thus negatively correlated with long-term predation risk. We then measured changes in foraging and food-caching behavior in the face of changes in the risk of predation and food theft over a short time-scale. We found that, overall, squirrels move further away from the safety of cover when they cache, compared to when they forage, as predicted by pilferage risk. However, there was no effect of immediate pilferage or predation risk (i.e., the presence of potential predators or pilferers) on the distance from cover at which they cached, and only a slight increase in forage distance when predation risk increased. These results suggest that “rules of thumb” based on static cues may be more cost-effective for assessing risk than closely tracking changes over time in the way suggested by a number of models of risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
       
  • Post-spawning sexual selection in red and white Chinook salmon (
           Oncorhynchus tshawytscha )
    • Authors: Lehnert SJ; Heath DD, Devlin RH, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPost-copulatory processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can play important roles in the maintenance of polymorphisms. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), color morphs (red and white) exist due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition in flesh, skin, and gametes. We investigated the role of post-spawning sexual selection in maintaining the polymorphism in a mixed population. First, we compared sperm velocity differences in water between morphs. Next, we measured color-based CFC via 2 methods: 1) sperm velocity in ovarian fluid and 2) in vitro competitive fertilization using paired red and white males. We found that red males had marginally faster sperm relative to white males in water, suggesting that carotenoid storage may affect sperm performance. However, ovarian fluid of red and white females influenced sperm velocity of red and white males differently, indicative of color-based CFC on sperm velocity. Furthermore, we found evidence of color-based CFC on paternity success during in vitro competitive fertilizations; however, sperm velocity in ovarian fluid did not predict results found under in vitro fertilization. Instead, in our study, sperm velocity in water was a significant predictor of fertilization success. When we accounted for this difference in sperm velocity (in water) between paired males, we partitioned the amount of variation in fertilization success that was attributed to individual level CFC (male pair × female) and male competitiveness (male pair) as 43% and 16%, respectively. In conclusion, post-spawning sexual selection processes represent important mechanisms contributing to the maintenance of the color polymorphism in nature.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
       
  • Vigor and skill in the acrobatic mating displays of a Neotropical songbird
    • Authors: Manica LT; Macedo RH, Graves JA, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAnimal social behaviors are often mediated by signals that provide information about signaler attributes. Although some signals are structurally simple, others are temporally dynamic and multifaceted. In such cases, exaggeration of some display components is likely to curtail the expression of others. We quantified features of the acrobatic, multimodal “leap display” of blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina), which appears to entail moderate-to-high performance levels in terms of vigor and skill. We video recorded and quantified leap parameters (height, duration, rotation angle, launch velocity, and number of wing beats) and assessed how these parameters covaried with each other and with vocal parameters, display rates, and body mass index. Our analyses revealed correlations among multiple performance variables: leap height, duration, launch velocity, and number of wing beats. Leap height also correlated positively with song duration. By contrast, no leap parameters covaried with rotation angle. Our analyses also revealed a trade-off in vigor and skill-based leap attributes: birds with a lower body mass index showed a negative relationship between leap heights and the proportion of displays that included leaps (vs. perched vocalizations only). Our results identify directions of display evolution subject to mechanical or timing constraints and provide evidence that display attributes that emphasize vigor and skill may limit one another. Our results also support a key expectation of handicap models of display evolution, which is that costs of display execution should be borne disproportionately by signalers of lower quality.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
       
  • Resource distribution mediates social and mating behavior in a family
           living lizard
    • Authors: Halliwell B; Uller T, Wapstra E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe distribution of resources should influence mate availability and the costs and benefits of pursuing different mating strategies. Where resources are dispersed, males may be constrained in the extent to which they can monopolize more than 1 partner, resulting in social and genetic monogamy. There is abundant correlational evidence that resource distribution influences social and mating systems, but experiments that demonstrate a causal link between these variables are relatively rare. Here, we used a replicated experiment involving 160 animals to examine how the distribution of a key resource, crevice sites used as nesting habitat, shapes social and mating behavior of a family living lizard, Liopholis whitii. The distribution of crevice sites had significant effects on several important aspects of the social and mating system. When habitat was aggregated, adults had larger home ranges and overlapped with more individuals of the opposite sex, resulting in increased opportunity for social polygyny. Aggressive female territoriality appears to impose upper limits on opportunities for polygyny by restricting female–female home range overlap. Despite this, males in aggregated habitats still formed polygynous social groups more often than males in dispersed habitat. Aggregated habitat also increased the opportunity for sexual selection, resulting in greater variance in male reproductive success and a steeper Bateman gradient compared with males occupying dispersed habitat. These effects were independent of the increase in social polygyny. Overall, our study is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat structure is fundamentally important to the evolution of social and mating systems.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
       
  • Hiding behavior in Christmas tree worms on different time scales
    • Authors: Pezner AK; Lim AR, Kang JJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMany animals escape predators by hiding. Hiding decisions are economic in that individuals trade off the physiological costs of hiding with the benefits of increased security. The number of conspecifics may increase competition, security, or attract predators, influencing predation risk. We studied hiding time in Christmas tree worms (Spirobranchus giganteus), sessile marine invertebrates, which lived with 0–17 other worms within 20cm. Competition and predation risk reduction both predict a shorter latency to re-emerge given the necessity to feed and potential for safety in numbers, respectively. In contrast, if grouped worms attract more predators, individuals should hide longer. We experimentally induced hiding in 174 worms and found a significant, positive relationship between hiding time and number of conspecifics. We repeated the test 4 consecutive times in 1 day on a subset of 30 worms that were either solitary or lived with one other untested worm. We found that worms with longer hiding times habituated more quickly than worms with shorter hiding times, and that the individual worm explained 55.8% of the variation in hiding time. When we conducted the trials for 4 days, we found that the individual worm explained 41.75% of the variation, but no evidence of behavioral plasticity. Worm antipredator responses were consistently individualistic, but behavioral plasticity was only evident over short time scales. For sessile marine invertebrates, higher densities may attract predators, enhancing rather than diluting predation risk. Worms that cannot move away from their neighbors, thus seemingly modify antipredator behavior in consistent ways.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
       
  • Personality, plasticity, and resource defense
    • Authors: Hall ML; Parson T, Riebel K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn many animal taxa, behavior varies both among individuals (animal “personalities”) and within individuals (“plasticity”). Personality and plasticity may co-vary if individuals differ in responsiveness to changes in their environment (“I × E” interaction). The nature and fitness implications of individual differences in behavioral plasticity in the wild are poorly understood. In territorial animals, fitness depends fundamentally on resource-defense behavior—their response to various threats from conspecific competitors. Such systems thus offer an ideal opportunity to investigate individual differences in behavioral plasticity. We used male superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) to test for individual differences in the intensity and plasticity of territorial defense behavior. Using captive assays, we identified behavioral types on the basis of fast versus slow exploration of a novel environment (the “proactive–reactive” axis of behavior). Then we simulated territorial intrusions in the wild, using playback of experimentally manipulated songs that differed in trill length in a pair-wise design. Although previous work suggests that proactive individuals are more aggressive and less responsive than reactive individuals, we found no support for these differences in the context of territorial defense in the wild. Fast explorers (proactive) and slow explorers (reactive) responded equally aggressively to a simulated territorial intrusion overall. Furthermore, although fast explorers responded equally strongly to the two different playback stimuli, there was little evidence that slow explorers differentiated between the two stimuli, and this “I × E” interaction was not statistically significant. Further work is needed to determine the prevalence in the wild of personality-related differences in behavioral plasticity.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16
       
  • Song playback increases songbird density near low to moderate use roads
    • Authors: Schepers MJ; Proppe DS.
      Abstract: AbstractMany songbird species avoid roads. Although acoustic masking, vehicle collision, and edge effects are likely culprits, spatial avoidance also occurs along low use roads and at locations distant from the pavement. Neophobia may be one factor contributing to avoidance in these regions. In this case, playback of bird song, generally a signal of high-quality habitat, may reduce avoidance and increase territory establishment. We investigated whether playback of song from 6 migratory species increased territory establishment along low to moderate use roads in a community of songbird species. We determined whether the intensity and regularity of anthropogenic noise altered the pattern of response, and whether particular life-history traits predicted which species were responsive to playback. Territory density was significantly higher where song playback was present. Species-specific responses were variable, with 11 species increasing territory density by >30% at playback sites and 6 species decreasing in density. Noise level did not significantly impact establishment. Foraging behavior, habitat, and song frequency predicted which species were most responsive to playback. These results are similar to a companion study conducted near forest edges that did not contain roads, and suggests that song playback may be a viable method for increasing songbird use of near road habitats. Although additional work is needed to understand the variable responses of particular species and to address vital issues, such as the reproductive success of lured birds, this study highlights a behavioral management technique that may have significant conservation implications along the vast worldwide network of roads.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
       
  • Do mothers bias offspring sex ratios in carotenoid-rich environments?
    • Authors: MacLeod KJ; Brekke P, Tong W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIf environmental or maternal factors favor the fitness of one sex over the other, theory predicts that mothers should produce more offspring of the sex most likely to benefit from prevailing conditions. For species where males depend on carotenoid-based colorful ornaments to secure territory or attract mates, carotenoid availability in the environment could be one such component: mothers experiencing high availability of carotenoids should produce more sons. Here, we test this hypothesis by providing carotenoids to a wild population of a sexually dimorphic passerine, the hihi (stitch bird: Notiomystis cincta). Access to carotenoids during early life influences the color of male hihi plumage, which improves territory acquisition as adults. Therefore, carotenoid availability when young may influence male fitness. However, we found no evidence of sex ratio bias in treated or untreated groups, either before or after hatching. First-laid eggs, where carotenoid concentrations are usually highest, were also unbiased. For hihi, access to carotenoids during egg laying does not appear to encourage mothers to alter sex ratios of offspring. Alternatively, the fitness of daughters may also benefit from increased carotenoids during development. Disentangling these alternatives requires further work.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
       
  • Are red bishops red enough? On the persistence of a generalized
           receiver bias in Euplectes
    • Authors: Ninnes CE; Webb SL, Andersson S.
      Abstract: AbstractIn the genus Euplectes (17 species of widowbirds and bishops), red carotenoid-based coloration has been found to function in male contest competition over territories and appears to exploit a generalized receiver bias by which redder (more longwave) hues are perceived as more aversive or intimidating. A major piece missing, however, is that among the 5 most extensively red species, forming the clade of “red bishops,” the agonistic function has remained unexplored or undetected. Moreover, does the receiver bias remain generalized (“open-ended”) after coevolution of the most exaggerated signal phenotypes? In this field experiment with southern red bishops E. orix, we increased the color hue 27nm, beyond its natural range, and compared the success in territorial competition of these supernormal red males to that of control-red and green (down-manipulated) males. The treatment, but no pre-manipulation colorimetrics or morphometrics, had a significant effect on territory establishment; 76% of super-red males, 45% of control-red males, and 17% of green males were recorded as territory holders at the end of the experiment. The receiver bias, that is, a generalized aversion of redder hues, thus appears to remain after the signal elaboration process, likely (but not necessarily) reinforced by adaptive receiver coevolution, through, for example, exploitation resistance or signal honesty.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10
       
  • Male within-individual variability in a sexual signal component and its
           impact on female choice
    • Authors: Lengagne T; Voituron Y, Gomez D.
      Abstract: AbstractA growing body of literature deals with the influence of physical or social environments on signal components over long time periods. Surprisingly, variations of signal quality over minutes or hours are less studied although most of the behavioral decisions of the receiver are taken at this time scale. Despite potentially strong implications on theoretical developments linked to sexual selection and communication, within-individual variability in a signal component and its possible consequence on accuracy of female choice has never been thoroughly investigated. Focusing on call dominant frequency (DF) in the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, we showed that frequency variability is due to a warm-up effect on the beginning of the call sequence but not to an exhaustion effect at the end of the sequence. Nevertheless, the great majority of male within-variability at the night scale is due to sudden discontinuities with independent temporal patterns from one individual to another. Secondly, we simulated female mate choice decisions with simple rules based on DF. Within-individual variability in DF the proportion of beneficial choice decreases up to 30% in the worst case. In addition, to overcome these temporary variations in male signal, we emphasize a weak advantage supplied by increasing sampling duration. The costs of being selective are assumed to increase with time sampling. We suggest that females may benefit from assessing several signal components simultaneously in short samples instead of disproportionately increasing sampling duration.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
       
  • Does personality affect the ability of individuals to track and respond to
           changing conditions?
    • Authors: Gibelli J; Dubois F.
      Abstract: AbstractOne possibility for why individual differences in behavioral plasticity are frequently associated with differences in personality might be that variation in personality is functionally related to variation in cognition. Evidence supporting a link between personality and cognition, however, is still limited and contradictory. In this study, we then conducted a laboratory experiment with zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) aimed at examining the role of cognition in shaping individual differences in contextual plasticity (i.e., plasticity in behavior between contexts). Specifically, we measured neophobia by quantifying the latency of the birds to eat near a novel object in two different environments across a social gradient and assessed their learning performance on two discriminant tasks and a reversal task. In agreement with our expectation, we found that less neophobic individuals were less plastic in their responses compared to more neophobic ones. Less neophobic individuals were also faster to reach the learning criterion but only in the less difficult discriminant task they performed first. On the contrary, although we found evidence for individual consistency in learning performances, differences among individuals in the number of trials needed to pass the task in both the more difficult discriminant and reversal tasks were not associated with individual differences in neophobia. Thus, our findings indicate that individual differences in contextual plasticity do not necessarily result from some individuals being more sensitive to environmental changes. Instead, we suggest that differences among individuals in their level of plasticity might result from differences in the number of suitable habitats they may occupy.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02
       
  • Water flow impacts group behavior in zebrafish ( Danio rerio )
    • Authors: Suriyampola PS; Sykes DJ, Khemka A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractConstant temporal and spatial fluctuations of the physical environment pose a great challenge for individual survival, making plastic behavioral responses an important mechanism for coping with environmental fluctuations. For aquatic animals, water flow is one of the most important factors, imposing additional physiological costs and changing their relationship with the biotic environment including conspecifics, predators, and disease agents. Here, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment to test the influence of water flow on the behavior of zebrafish (Danio rerio), considering also the impact of obstructions. Using wild-caught zebrafish, we formed groups of 6 fish and tested their behavior in 4 treatments that varied in water flow and obstructions. We used automated tracking software to estimate shoal cohesion, aggression, and activity level. Zebrafish strongly responded to the presence of even a weak flow by forming less cohesive, more aggressive, and more active groups. The effect of flow was not exaggerated by turbulence generated from obstructions. Zebrafish were also more active and more aggressive when in a structurally complex context. These findings highlight the plasticity of zebrafish social behavior and provide insight to understand the impact of water flow on behavioral plasticity of social groups.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
       
  • Consistency of animal social networks after disturbance
    • Authors: Formica V; Wood C, Cook P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSocial networks encompass both individual and group phenotypes that have been shown to covary with fitness in several species. In order for network characters to be evolutionarily important, they must reliably reflect properties of an individual or groups of individuals; however, it is unknown whether network traits are consistently expressed at either level. To determine if measurable components of individual social network position were repeatable and if the network structure as a whole was consistent in Bolitotherus cornutus (the forked fungus beetle), we constructed 8 experimental populations. Half of the populations were disturbed between 2 observation periods. Two individual network metrics (strength and betweenness) were significantly repeatable across time in all treatments; a third (clustering coefficient) was not. At the network level, all 3 metrics changed more in undisturbed than disturbed networks. These findings suggest that individual network position can be a consistent property of individuals that is resilient to disturbance and could experience selection in a predictable fashion. However, group network structure seems to change over time unless reset by disturbance.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
       
  • Experience and motivation shape leader–follower interactions in fish
           shoals
    • Authors: Webster MM.
      Abstract: AbstractLeadership is an important process shaping collective movement in some species. Recent work has demonstrated that experienced or motivated individuals can emerge as leaders, and provides insight into the mechanisms by which this occurs. Ultimately, leadership depends on the effectiveness with which would-be leaders can entrain followers, and although the properties of leaders have received much attention, less is known about the factors that affect the propensity of their groupmates to follow them. Here, the roles of experience and state (hunger) in shaping leader and follower behavior were investigated using shoals of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). A first experiment revealed that individuals trained to approach a target could entrain and lead their naive groupmates out of a refuge toward it, and that they did so more effectively when they (the trained fish) were food deprived. In the second experiment, the hunger level of the trained fish was held constant, whereas that of the naive fish was varied. Here, leadership by trained fish was only apparent when the hunger levels of the naive group members were intermediate. When naive fish were recently fed, they took a long time to visit the target and their arrival times were not affected by the presence of a trained individual. Very hungry groups recruited to the target most rapidly, but again with no evidence of influence by their trained groupmates. These experiments demonstrate that leadership in animal groups depends not only on the state and experience of the leader but also on that of the potential followers.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25
       
  • Multidimensional environmental predictors of variation in avian forest and
           city life histories
    • Authors: Sprau P; Mouchet A, Dingemanse NJ.
      Abstract: AbstractOptimal life-history decisions are shaped by prevailing environmental conditions. In the context of urbanization, environmental differences between urban and rural areas are known to vary across a multitude of axes. The relative roles of specific axes and whether they explain variation in avian life histories between forest and city populations have not often been studied empirically. This study comprehensively views urbanization from a multidimensional environmental perspective. For each of 13 nest box plots of a common passerine bird (the great tit Parus major), we quantified temperature, humidity, light, and noise, and subsequently assessed direct versus indirect effects of each environmental axis on components of annual reproductive success by applying a path analytical framework. All quantified environmental axes, and life-history traits, showed substantial repeatable variation between the plots. Forest and city plots differed tremendously in temperature, humidity, and light. We were able to attribute among-population variation in life history to variation in these environmental effects. However, the simple dichotomy between forest and city populations explained the data best. Birds in the city laid earlier, which indirectly resulted in smaller clutches, and their offspring fledged in poorer condition, compared to conspecifics in forests. Those differences persisted after controlling for temperature, humidity, light, and noise, which implies that they were shaped by other factors than the ones quantified in this study. In summary, our findings question the common interpretation that differences between forest and city areas relate to specific environmental axes that covary with urbanization, especially in in lieu of quantitative measurements.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24
       
  • A stranger is tastier than a neighbor: cannibalism in Mediterranean and
           desert antlion populations
    • Authors: Barkae ED; Scharf I, Ovadia O.
      Abstract: AbstractCannibalism, the process of killing and consuming conspecifics, can become enhanced by various environmental stresses. Organisms inhabiting Mediterranean habitats are better adapted for coping with competition—an adaptation that can manifest itself in increased cannibalism. Conversely, desert environments are characterized by long periods of food shortage, also selecting for cannibalism to overcome starvation. We tested for differences in the frequency of cannibalism between Mediterranean and desert populations of pit-building antlions. We also quantified the frequency of cannibalism within and between these populations. We could not detect a significant geographic variation in the frequency of cannibalism. We suggest that strong plastic responses to environmental stresses buffer against divergent selection, and thus no significant differentiation in cannibalism rate should occur. Cannibalism frequency was higher in mixed pairs comprised of individuals originating from different populations within and between climate regions, compared with that observed within populations. We suggest that this intraspecific discrimination ability is mediated by behavioral and/or chemical cues, associated with co-occurrence in a common environment, as well as by genetic relatedness.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24
       
  • Evolution of elaborate parental care: phenotypic and genetic correlations
           between parent and offspring traits
    • Authors: Andrews CP; Kruuk LB, Smiseth PT.
      Abstract: AbstractThe evolution of elaborate forms of parental care is an important topic in behavioral ecology, yet the factors shaping the evolution of complex suites of parental and offspring traits are poorly understood. Here, we use a multivariate quantitative genetic approach to study phenotypic and genetic correlations between parental and offspring traits in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. To this end, we recorded 2 prenatal traits (clutch size and egg size), 2 postnatal parental behaviors (direct care directed toward larvae and indirect care directed toward resource maintenance), 1 offspring behavior (begging), and 2 measures of breeding success (larval dispersal mass and number of dispersing larvae). Females breeding on larger carcasses provided less direct care but produced larger larvae than females breeding on smaller carcasses. Furthermore, there were positive phenotypic correlations between clutch size, direct, and indirect care. Both egg size and direct care were positively correlated with dispersal mass, whereas clutch size was negatively correlated with dispersal mass. Clutch size and number of dispersed larvae showed genetic variance both in terms of differences between populations of origin and significant heritabilities. However, we found no evidence of genetic variance underlying other parental or offspring traits. Our results suggest that correlations between suites of parental traits are driven by variation in individual quality rather than trade-offs, that some parental traits promote offspring growth while others increase the number of offspring produced, and that parental and offspring traits might respond slowly to selection due to low levels of additive genetic variance.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22
       
  • Spatiotemporal variation of host use in a brood parasite: the role of the
           environment
    • Authors: Baglione V; Bolopo D, Canestrari D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAvian brood parasites should target the most profitable host species, but current conditions might locally influence their choice, producing geographic mosaics of coevolution. Throughout Europe, the magpie Pica pica has been invariably reported as the primary host of the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius, whereas the carrion crow Corvus corone is the secondary one. However, we found that this pattern reversed in northern Spain, where up to 70% of carrion crow nests were parasitized versus 20% of magpie nests. In southern Spain, conversely, parasitism increased proportionally in both hosts (up to approximately 90% of available nests) throughout the 3 years of study. Surprisingly, magpies provided the best reproductive output for cuckoos in both areas, in contrast with cuckoo’s preference for the crow host in the north. Genetic data ruled out the presence of different host-specific races in this brood parasite, dismissing the hypothesis that a prevalence of different gentes at the 2 sites explained the observed variability in host choice. Instead, we found that magpie nests in the south were easier to reach and more scattered than in the north, where cuckoos preferentially targeted nests that were less concealed and more isolated. We suggest that the habitat constraints parasitism on magpies in the north, driving cuckoo host choice toward the crows. The coevolutionary scenario therefore includes a 3-way interaction, where the pressure that the parasite puts on a host species in a given place critically depends on the environmentally mediated interaction between the same parasite and a different host.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22
       
  • Interactive effects of yolk testosterone and carotenoid on prenatal growth
           and offspring physiology in a precocial bird
    • Authors: Giraudeau M; Ziegler A, Pick JL, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractConditions experienced by individuals during prenatal development can have long-term effects on their phenotype. Maternally transmitted resources are important mediators of such prenatal effects, but the potential interactive effects among them in shaping offspring phenotype have never been studied. Maternally derived testosterone is known to stimulate growth, but these benefits may be counterbalanced by an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Maternally transmitted carotenoids might have the capacity to scavenge ROS and thereby buffer an increase in oxidative stress caused by prenatal exposure to high testosterone levels. Here, we experimentally tested for such interactive effects between maternal yolk testosterone and carotenoid in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We found that hatching mass was reduced and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) levels at the end of the period of maximal growth increased in chicks from eggs injected with either testosterone or carotenoid (only a tendency in chicks from testosterone-injected eggs). However, when both egg compounds were manipulated simultaneously, hatching mass and ROM levels were not affected, showing that both carotenoid and testosterone lose their detrimental effects when the ratio between the 2 compounds is balanced. Our study provides the first experimental evidence for interactive effects of 2 maternally derived egg compounds on offspring phenotype and suggests that developmental cues are tightly coadjusted within an egg.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12
       
  • Concessions, lifetime fitness consequences, and the evolution of
           coalitionary behavior
    • Authors: Koykka C; Wild G.
      Abstract: AbstractThe relationship between the costs of coalitionary behavior and the evolution of such behavior has not been closely examined by theoretical studies. Here, we create a set of life-history models for species whose coalitionary behavior is genetically determined to investigate how different types of costs afflicted upon members of failed coalitions, in terms of survival, fecundity, and social rank, may influence the nature of coalitionary behavior that emerges at evolutionary equilibrium. We also extend previous theory by examining the coevolution between coalitionary behavior and concessions granted by dominant individuals to prevent dominants from being targeted by coalitions. We show that species that form coalitions to contest social rank evolve to regularly form bridging coalitions under a vast majority of social and ecological settings, whereas species that contest fecundity form all-up coalitions under most conditions. Further, dominant individuals concede resources to subordinates to prevent coalitionary attacks only in very few circumstances, and these concessions occur only to ensure another individual is a more attractive coalition target. We compare and contrast results to empirical data to provide an evolutionary context for commonly observed coalitionary behaviors in the animal kingdom.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
       
  • A cost of being amicable in a hibernating mammal
    • Authors: Yang W; Maldonado-Chaparro AA, Blumstein DT.
      Abstract: AbstractAmicable social interactions can enhance fitness in many species, have negligible consequences for some, and reduce fitness in others. For yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris), a facultatively social rodent species with demonstrable costs of social relationships during the active season, the effects of sociality on overwinter survival have yet to be fully investigated. Here, we explored how summer social interactions, quantified as social network attributes, influenced marmot survival during hibernation. Using social data collected from 2002 to 2012 on free-living yellow-bellied marmots, we calculated 8 social network measures (in-degree, out-degree, in-closeness, out-closeness, in-strength, out-strength, embeddedness, and clustering coefficient) for both affiliative and agonistic interactions. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce those attributes to 3 affiliative (connectedness, strength, and clustering) and 4 agonistic (submissiveness, bullying, strength, and clustering) components. Then, we fitted a generalized linear mixed model to explain variation in overwinter survival as a function of these social components, along with body mass, sex, age, weather conditions, hibernation group size, and hibernation group composition. We found that individuals with stronger amicable relationships were more likely to die during hibernation. This suggests that social relationships, even affiliative ones, need not be beneficial; for yellow-bellied marmots, they can even be fatal.
      PubDate: 2016-08-06
       
 
 
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