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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 347, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 603, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioral Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.871
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 53  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Calling in the heat: the zebra finch incubation call depends on heat AND
           reproductive stageā€”a comment on McDiarmid et al. 2018
    • Authors: Mariette M; Buchanan K.
      Abstract: We reanalysed McDiarmid et al data and showed that, contrary to their title, “calling in the heat” increases considerably in late incubation. This dataset independently confirms our previous findings, which raises interesting questions concerning the evolution of this signal of heat stress to embryos.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz045
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Zebra finch v-calls and the evidence for a signal: a response to comments
           on McDiarmid et al
    • Authors: McDiarmid C; Naguib M, Griffith S.
      Abstract: In our recent paper (McDiarmid et al. 2018), we provide acoustic data from zebra finches in the wild during different stages of reproduction as well as nonreproducing captive zebra finches, showing that they produce a specific acoustic call (“v-call”) when temperatures are high. This work was inspired by the original investigation of this call examining captive zebra finches during egg-incubation, on which basis it was referred to and framed as an “incubation call” that parents made to embryos, and which was the foundation for follow-up developmental incubator experiments (Mariette and Buchanan 2016). In the current critique of our publication, Mariette and Buchanan (2019) focus on whether or not we have demonstrated that there was a significantly higher rate of v-calls given during late incubation compared with early incubation, or chick rearing. This relationship was only one point of our work (also see below) as our study explored in broader terms whether these characteristic calls are exhibited in a wider context and beyond merely the final days of incubation. Our data show that the calls were more common in hot conditions and even produced by birds that were not breeding, and have never bred, when they are hot (McDiarmid et al. 2018). As such our main conclusions are sound, and indeed are supported by a later study (Mariette et al. 2018), which also found that v-calls are produced in nonbreeding roosting zebra finches, even though the calls were still referred to as “incubation calls” in that study (Mariette et al. 2018).
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz046
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Thermodynamic constraints and the evolution of parental provisioning in
           vertebrates
    • Authors: Beekman M; Thompson M, Jusup M.
      Pages: 583 - 591
      Abstract: Why is postnatal parental provisioning so rare in ectothermic vertebrates while prolonged parental care is almost ubiquitous in endotherms' We argue that the scarcity of postnatal parental care is a result of ectothermy itself. While almost all endothermic young require prolonged postnatal care due to thermal constraints, ectothermic physiology does not pose the same constraint. Most ectothermic young are thus independent from birth. Ectothermic mothers are better off investing in future reproductive events than to continue investing into independent young, because the cost of feeding young does not outweigh the benefits. Ectothermy further releases the constraint on offspring size resulting in offspring of ectothermic vertebrates often being much smaller than their parents. When parents and offspring differ greatly in size, both tend to specialize on different diets, making the feeding of young by much larger individuals not impossible, but less likely. Additionally, when the size difference between parents and offspring is significant, both are likely to live in different habitats. Such spatial segregation is also less conducive to the evolution of parental care. In those species where parents and offspring are not spatially separated and parental care does occur, it is mainly restricted to the guarding of eggs or juveniles; parents of very few species provide their offspring with food. We conclude that parental care beyond the guarding of eggs or young is much less likely to evolve in ectothermic vertebrates compared with endothermic vertebrates, unless there are exceptional circumstances that strongly select for parents to provide for their offspring.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz025
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • On the link between endothermy, energy budget, and parental care: a
           comment on Beekman et al
    • Authors: Meunier J.
      Pages: 592 - 593
      Abstract: Why do some species have parents that provision newborn offspring with food, whereas others have parents that abandon their offspring just after emergence' In their review, Beekman et al. (2019) suggest that an answer to this question could be found in the thermodynamic constraints of these species. The central tenet of their hypothesis conveys that all species range along a supply-demand spectrum of energy budget (associated with their mode of heat gain—see below), and that their position on this spectrum determines the strength of selection for postnatal parental care. On the supply-side of this spectrum, species typically suffer periods of severe imbalance between energy assimilation and maintenance, so that they build large reserves when resources are available in excess, and exhibit sessile lifestyles to survive periods of starvations. Beekman et al. (2019) propose that this need and capability to process additional resources can select for postnatal parental care. Conversely, demand-side species often have an efficient balance between energy assimilation and maintenance, which comes with homeostatic controls to buffer metabolism, greater flexibility in life-history traits, and motile lifestyles to pursue the right amount of energetic resources. The authors propose that this absence of need for excessive amount of resources (even if they would provide individuals with significant benefits) relaxes selection for postnatal parental care. Because most ectothermic vertebrates are on the supply-side and most endothermic vertebrates are on the demand-side of the energy budget spectrum (Sousa et al. 2010), Beekman et al. (2019) conclude that the energy budget of the ectothermy may explain why postnatal parental food provisioning is less frequent in these species compared with endotherms (Balshine 2012).
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz034
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Metabolism and parental care in ectotherms: a comment on Beekman et al.
    • Authors: Summers K.
      Pages: 593 - 594
      Abstract: Beekman et al. (2019) propose that differences in energy budgeting between ectotherms and endotherms led to 3 crucial differences that favor extensive parental care in endotherms, but disfavor it in ectotherms: offspring size, precociality, and energy requirements. The authors discuss the general lack of extensive parental care in ectotherms, and particularly the lack of offspring provisioning. They argue that a key factor promoting parental care in endotherms is that their energy budgeting strategy (demand-side species that maintain a tight correspondence between supply and demand) makes it very difficult for offspring to survive without extensive parental care, especially provisioning. In contrast, they point out that the offspring of ectotherms are generally able to survive on their own, can go for long periods without food without starving to death, and do not need to maintain an elevated body temperature (greatly reducing energy requirements). Hence, benefit to cost considerations may favor ectothermic parents that invest in somatic maintenance or resource accrual for future reproduction, rather than further investment in offspring (parental care).
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz038
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Why is ecotherm parental care so cold' a comment on Beekman et al.
    • Authors: While G.
      Pages: 594 - 595
      Abstract: Parental care spans a continuum in complexity from simple investment in gametes to care long after nutritional dependence (Royle et al. 2012). Prolonged parental care is unlikely to take off unless parents and offspring encounter one another (Lion and van Baalen 2007), which may explain why such parental care is more common in species that attend eggs or give birth to live young (Wesolowski 1994; Halliwell et al. 2017). Once these interactions become a regular feature of a species’ biology, there is opportunity for further elaboration of care, including evolution of parental provisioning after hatching or birth.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz053
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Too cool to care: a comment on Beekman et al
    • Authors: Smiseth P.
      Pages: 595 - 596
      Abstract: Why is parental provisioning of food for offspring after birth common among endothermic vertebrates (birds and mammals) but rare among ectothermic vertebrates (reptiles, amphibians, and fishes)' I welcome the attempt of Beekman et al (2019) to address this interesting question, but as detailed later, I am less convinced by their explanation based on arguments about thermodynamic constraints.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz061
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Ectothermic vertebrates are too cool to care: a response to comments on
           Beekman et al.
    • Authors: Beekman M; Thompson M, Jusup M.
      Pages: 596 - 597
      Abstract: One could be forgiven to think that parents should provision for their young simply because parents have a stake in their offspring’s welfare. After all, if offspring die before they reached maturity and reproduced, the parents’ fitness is severely reduced. But therein lies the rub. If offspring are perfectly capable of looking after themselves, then parents are selected to ignore them and instead invest in future reproductive events. Due to their physiology, young of ectothermic vertebrates do not face thermal constraints and as a result, can often be very small without the need to grow fast to escape the phase in which thermal loss jeopardizes their survival. Hence, while individual offspring might benefit from prolonged investment, parents do not. Or so we argue (Beekman et al. 2019).
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz071
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Anthropogenic increases in nutrients alter sexual selection dynamics: a
           case study in butterflies
    • Authors: Espeset A; Kobiela M, Sikkink K, et al.
      Pages: 598 - 608
      Abstract: Anthropogenic increases in nutrient availability offer opportunities to study evolutionary shifts in sexual selection dynamics in real time. A rapid increase in nutrient availability may reduce the utility of condition-dependent ornaments as signals of quality and lessen any nutritional benefits to females from re-mating. We explored these ideas using cabbage white butterflies, focusing on nitrogen as a nutrient, as it is important to this species in not only in ornamentation, but also as a key macronutrient transferred in spermatophores. We compared a nonagricultural population to an agricultural population, which has seen an increase in nitrogen availability over the last 40 years due in part to fertilizer application. When reared in a common garden, both male and female butterflies from the agricultural population allocate significantly more to nitrogen-rich wing pigments used in mate choice. However, this increase in allocation is not correlated with an increase in the ability to assimilate nitrogen from their diet. Spermatophore counts from wild females show that females in the agricultural population rarely mate more than once, while those in the nonagricultural population are much more likely to be polyandrous. Similarly, the structure in the female reproductive tract that processes spermatophores has evolved lower tooth density in the agricultural population, consistent with the idea that these females benefit less from high throughput of spermatophores. These results suggest that anthropogenic increases in nutrient availability have resulted in a decline in the nutritional benefits of re-mating in females along with evolutionary increases in ornamentation in both males and females.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz004
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Do zombie ant fungi turn their hosts into light seekers'
    • Authors: Andriolli F; Ishikawa N, Vargas-Isla R, et al.
      Pages: 609 - 616
      Abstract: Specialized parasites can modify host behavior to benefit transmission and reproduction. Such behavior is considered an extended phenotype of the parasite. The interactions between certain ant species and fungi of the genus Ophiocordyceps form an evident example. Once infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis, Camponotus atriceps ants die, biting at specific sites where abiotic conditions are optimal for fungal development. For many species of free-living fungi, light is needed to induce growth of the reproductive stage. However, the role of light in Ophiocordyceps behavioral manipulation and fruiting body development is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the association between illuminance and the incidence of dead manipulated C. atriceps ants. We identified ant graveyards in the field and experimentally changed the incident illumination for half of each graveyard using shading screens. Such screens resulted in a clear reduction of incident light, as well as slightly higher, more stable humidity levels. We measured the appearance of recently died, infected ants, the height at which they were found, and their fruiting body production. The presence of dead infected C. atriceps was strongly influenced by experimental light reduction. Shaded areas harbored fewer recently infected ants compared to naturally illuminated areas. In addition, in shaded areas, a smaller number of ants produced fruiting bodies and these ants also appeared to have climbed to higher elevations in comparison to control areas. Our findings indicate that light influences the place of the C. atriceps death, and fungal development by seemingly affecting fruiting body formation in O. camponoti-atricipis.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary198
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Functional relations between body mass and risk-taking behavior in wild
           great tits
    • Authors: Moiron M; Araya-Ajoy Y, Mathot K, et al.
      Pages: 617 - 623
      Abstract: Natural selection often favors particular combinations of functionally-related traits, resulting in adaptive phenotypic integration. Phenotypic integration has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the existence of repeatable among-individual differences in behavior (i.e., animal personality). In this study, we investigated patterns of covariation between morphology and behavior in a population of free-living great tits (Parus major) monitored for 7 years. In particular, we aimed to disentangle the effect of structural size versus body condition on risk-taking behavior. To do so, we repeatedly quantified multiple morphological (body mass, wing, tarsus, and bill length) and behavioral traits (aggressiveness and exploration) in 742 individual males. Structural equation modeling (SEM) allowed us to test causal a priori hypothesized relationships between the different morphological and behavioral traits. Our best-fitting SEM model supported the existence of a behavioral character, “risk-taking behavior” that covaried simultaneously with the latent variable “body size,” and “body condition.” Our findings thus demonstrate that an individual’s morphological and behavioral traits represent expressions of an integrated phenotype, suggesting a role for phenotypic integration in generating animal personality in a wild bird population.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary199
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Little to fear: largest lizard predator induces weak defense responses in
           ungulate prey
    • Authors: Jessop T; Ariefiandy A, Purwandana D, et al.
      Pages: 624 - 636
      Abstract: Nonconsumptive effects can strongly influence apex predator ecological function. These effects arise because prey often induce costly phenotypic responses to mitigate predation risk. Yet because predator–prey interactions are complex, prey defenses may vary considerably. We investigated if the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), a reptile apex predator, induced multiscale antipredator responses in key prey, the Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) and the wild pig (Sus scrofa). To this end, we examined the temporal and spatial partitioning of habitats by predator and prey, determined the size of ungulate groups as a function of risk, and assessed changes in individual behavior of prey individuals exposed to predator kairomones at feeding stations. Komodo dragon, deer, and pig populations exhibited significant, but subtle differences in 3 habitat preferences that otherwise indicated high niche overlap. Komodo dragon predation risk, alongside other commonly considered predictor variables, did not affect deer or pig group size. With the exception of one individual-based vigilance-type behavior in pigs, no other antipredator behavior, including reduced food consumption, significantly varied in the presence of predator odor cue at feeding stations. Overall, our results indicated limited evidence for antipredator behavior and suggested Komodo dragons exert weak nonconsumptive effects of predation in ungulates. However, weak predatory interactions could be beneficial in island ecosystems as it could promote predator–prey coexistence that reduces extinction risk.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary200
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Great spotted cuckoos disregard information on conspecific breeding
           success while parasitizing magpie hosts
    • Authors: Molina-Morales M; Precioso M, Avilés J, et al.
      Pages: 637 - 645
      Abstract: The study of mechanisms underlying host selection by brood parasites usually lays on selection by parasites of host traits that inform on host parental abilities or location. However, brood parasites might use information extracted from past reproductive performance of either their hosts or themselves, a possibility almost neglected. In this study, we use a long-term data set to analyze whether the probability of parasitism by great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) of a magpie (Pica pica) nest in a given year is related with the reproductive outcome of any of the 2 species in the surroundings of that nest the previous year. We found that probability of parasitism for a nest in a year was explained by previous year cuckoo reproductive outcome and parasitism rate in the area surrounding the focal nest, but not by host reproductive outcome. To discern between the effect of parasitism rate and that of parasite reproductive success on parasite choices, we carried out an experiment modifying the natural correlation found between parasitism status and host and parasite success in the patches. The results showed that neither host nor cuckoo reproductive outcome in a patch after the experiment explained probability of parasitism in the following year. Only parasitism rate in the surroundings of a nest before the experiment explained probability of parasitism for this nest in the following year. Hence, these results indicate that great spotted cuckoos disregard social information related to past parasitism outcome, probably because parasitism outcome is tightly correlated with parasitism itself.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary201
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Female preference for novel males constrains the contemporary evolution of
           assortative mating in guppies
    • Authors: Dargent F; Chen L, Fussmann G, et al.
      Pages: 646 - 657
      Abstract: Progress toward local adaptation is expected to be enhanced when divergent selection is multidimensional, because many simultaneous sources of selection can increase the total strength of selection and enhance the number of independent traits under selection. Yet, whether local adaptation ensues from multidimensional selection also depends on its potential to cause the build-up of reproductive barriers such as sexual signals and preference for these signals. We used replicate experimental introductions of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in nature to test whether an abrupt and dramatic shift in multiple important ecological dimensions (at a minimum: parasitism, predation, and diet/resources) promoted the contemporary evolution of assortative mating. After 8–12 postintroduction guppy generations in the wild, we bred descendants of each population in a common-garden laboratory environment for 2 generations, after which we recorded the preferences of females from each population for males from all populations. We found contemporary evolution of male traits (size, body condition, color) that should influence mate choice, but no evidence for the occurrence of positive assortative preferences. That is, females in a given evolving population did not prefer males from that population over males from other populations. Instead, females tended to prefer novel males (i.e., disassortative mating), which likely acts as a mechanism preventing the evolution of reproductive isolation. Preferences for novelty may explain why many cases of local adaptation do not lead to the evolution of reproductive barriers and ecological speciation.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary202
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Fitness costs of mating with preferred females in a scramble mating system
    • Authors: Swierk L; Langkilde T.
      Pages: 658 - 665
      Abstract: Little is known about the operation of male mate choice in systems with perceived high costs to male choosiness. Scramble mating systems are one type of system in which male choice is often considered too costly to be selected. However, in many scramble mating systems, there are also potentially high rewards of male choosiness, as females vary dramatically in reproductive output and males typically mate once per season and/or per lifetime. Using scramble mating wood frogs (Rana sylvatica), we tested whether males gain fitness benefits by mating with preferred females. We conducted choice trials (1 male presented simultaneously with 2 females) and permitted males to mate with their preferred or nonpreferred female. Offspring of preferred and nonpreferred females were reared in the laboratory and field, and we quantified various fitness-relevant parameters, including survivorship and growth rates. Across multiple parameters measured, matings with preferred females produced fewer and lower-quality offspring than did those with nonpreferred females. Our results are inconsistent with the idea that mate choice confers benefits on the choosing sex. We instead propose that, in scramble systems, males will be more likely to amplex females that are easier to capture, which may correlate with lower quality but increases male likelihood of successfully mating. Such male choice may not favor increased fitness when the operational sex ratio is less biased toward males in scramble mating systems but is, instead, a bet-hedging tactic benefitting males when available females are limited.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz001
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Variation in the condition-dependence of individual sexual traits in male
           eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki
    • Authors: Fox R; Gearing E, Jennions M, et al.
      Pages: 666 - 674
      Abstract: Most sexually selected traits are costly to produce and therefore tend to show condition-dependent expression. But individuals have a finite set of resources to invest across the multiple traits on which sexual selection acts. This necessarily leads to trade-offs among individual traits and between different reproductive stages. The effect of male condition on trait expression might therefore vary for different sexually selected traits depending on the marginal gains from investment into one trait rather than another. We manipulated the diet of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) to test the condition-dependence of 4 components of male mating effort that are under precopulatory sexual selection (male–male aggressiveness, time spent with females, rate of copulation attempts, and male mate choice). We found positive condition-dependence of both the time spent with females and the rate of copulation attempts, but negative condition-dependence of male aggression towards rivals (all P < 0.05). By contrast, the level of male mating preference for larger, more fecund females did not vary significantly with male condition. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating variation in resource acquisition, hence condition, into allocation models that predict investment into multiple sexually selected traits.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz002
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Multiple mating is linked to social setting and benefits the males in a
           communally rearing mammal
    • Authors: Ebensperger L; Correa L, Ly Prieto Á, et al.
      Pages: 675 - 687
      Abstract: Individuals in social species may mate with multiple opposite-sex individuals, including members of the same or different social groups. This variation may be linked to genetic benefits, where multiple mating decreases risk of inbreeding. Multiple mating may also be constrained by the sociospatial setting through its effect on availability of mates. Because multiple mating with individuals from same or different groups may determine sex-specific fitness effects, we also examined how multiple mating modulates social benefits of females and males. We used 7 years of data on demography, social organization, and genetics of a natural population of the group-living and colonial rodent, Octodon degus, to determine how kin and sex composition within social groups, and spatial relations between these groups (i.e., colonial habits) influence multiple mating and its fitness consequences. Males (81.3%) and females (64.9%) produced offspring with multiple opposite-sex individuals within groups and with individuals of neighboring groups. Thus, polygynandry was the dominant mating system in the degu population examined. Multiple mating in degus was high when compared with estimates reported in other social mammals. Variation in female and male multiple mating was better explained by social setting through its effect on availability of potential mates rather than by benefits derived from decreasing risk of inbreeding. Finally, our study revealed how multiple mating enhances male, but not female reproductive success.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz003
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Fighting in rounds: males of a neotropical cricket switch assessment
           strategies during contests
    • Authors: Lobregat G; Gechel Kloss T, Peixoto P, et al.
      Pages: 688 - 696
      Abstract: How animals decide to withdraw from contests is central to understand the evolution of fighting behavior. Game theory models suggest 2 major types of decision criteria: 1) self-assessment, where individuals withdraw when they reach a cost-threshold determined by their own fighting ability that may or may not be affected by injuries, or 2) mutual assessment, where the decision is based on information about the relative fighting ability of the opponents. Many empirical studies have assumed that opponents use a single strategy throughout the whole fight. However, they often find partial support for a specific model. This might be due to individuals changing their strategy between phases of a contest. In this work, we addressed this issue by evaluating if males of the cricket Melanotes ornata switch their assessment strategy between phases. We used hind femur length as a proxy for fighting ability, as it was the attribute most strongly associated with contest outcome. Overall fight duration was positively associated with the loser’s femur length and negatively associated with the winner’s femur length, while the probability of escalation to physical aggression was negatively related to the difference in femur between opponents. However, such relationships held only at the first contest phase. During the escalated phase, fight duration was only correlated (although weakly) with femur length of losers. These results indicate that M. ornata males perform mutual assessment in the initial phase but switch their assessment strategy when fights escalate, suggesting a single strategy does not correctly explain how contests are settled.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz005
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • How size and conspicuousness affect the efficacy of flash coloration
    • Authors: Bae S; Kim D, Sherratt T, et al.
      Pages: 697 - 702
      Abstract: Some prey are cryptic at rest but expose conspicuous colors when in motion. Previous findings suggest that these “flash displays” deceive would-be predators by providing false information about the color of prey, tricking them into continuing to look for prey with the conspicuous color when the prey have actually returned to their cryptic resting state. These results raise questions about the properties of flash coloration that make it effective. Here, using humans as visual foragers searching for artificial prey models on a computer screen, we tested whether the effectiveness of flash coloration depends on the size of artificial prey. In addition, we tested whether flashing a different, but inconspicuous, color other than the resting color of prey is sufficient to deceive predators, or whether the flash coloration actually needs to be conspicuous to elicit predator confusion. Results indicate that 1) flash coloration tends to be more effective in large prey and 2) only conspicuous flash displays substantially reduce predation. Our findings help to explain why hidden color patches are more likely to be found in large insect species and why flash coloration is so often conspicuous. This study provides direct experimental evidence that the effectiveness of flash coloration is conditional, in that not all forms of flash display increase survivorship.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz006
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Cleaner personality and client identity have joint consequences on
           cleaning interaction dynamics
    • Authors: Dunkley K; Ioannou C, Whittey K, et al.
      Pages: 703 - 712
      Abstract: Mutualistic interactions involve 2 species beneficially cooperating, but it is not clear how these interactions are maintained. In many mutualisms, one species interacts with multiple species, and since partners differ in terms of the commodities they trade, partner identity will directly influence the decisions and behaviors of interacting individuals. Here, we investigated the consequences of within and between-species diversity on a model cleaner–client interaction in a natural environment, by quantifying the behavior of both partners. We found that the predominant Caribbean cleaner fish, the sharknose goby (Elacatinus evelynae), shows personality variation as we documented repeatable individual differences in activity, boldness, and exploratory behaviors. Personality variation was associated with cleaner–client interactions: cleaner boldness and activity were significantly related to posing by clients and cleaning, respectively. Cleaner personality variation was also associated with the functional identity (sociality, mobility, body size, and trophic level) of clients posing and being cleaned. We thus demonstrate that partner identity can have consequences on mutualistic outcomes which will contribute to the context-dependency and highly heterogeneous patterns we observe at a population level. We also suggest that within- and between-species differences have consequences on partner choice, a feature that has been previously thought to be absent from these cleaner–client interactions.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz007
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Contest dynamics and assessment strategies in combatant monkey beetles
           (Scarabaeidae: Hopliini)
    • Authors: Rink A; Altwegg R, Edwards S, et al.
      Pages: 713 - 723
      Abstract: Some of the most striking examples of intrasexual contest competition are to be found in the insects, whose weaponry and contest behaviors have become highly intricate and diverse. Game theory has been used as a basis to develop models of the competitive assessment strategies that may be used by males either to judge their probability of winning by comparing their own fighting ability to that of their opponents or to persist in contests for a period determined only by their own fighting ability. Conclusions from empirical studies about the means of assessment in their study systems have not, however, always been clear. In view of this, some authors have suggested that utilizing a broad suite of data concerning multiple facets of the study system may assist in gaining clearer insights into animal contests and assessment strategies. The present study integrates data on contest behavior, weapon morphology, residency effects, cost accumulation, and correlates of contest success to test game theory-informed models of competitive assessment strategies in the sexually dimorphic monkey beetle, Heterochelus chiragricus. We found that males of all sizes engaged aggressively in intrasexual contests for mating access to sedentary females, utilizing their hypertrophied hind legs as weapons. Contest outcome was determined by hind femur size and strongly influenced by residency effects. We found mixed support for both pure self-assessment and mutual assessment contest strategies. Such inconclusive findings are not uncommon in animal contest assessment studies, even when contest cost and resource holding power data are contextualized with behavioral and ecological data.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz008
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Environmental constraints on size-dependent signaling affects mating and
           rival interactions
    • Authors: Smit J; Loning H, Ryan M, et al.
      Pages: 724 - 732
      Abstract: Advertisement signals can convey information about a sender’s characteristics, such as body size. The reliability of signals, however, can be reduced when signal production is partially dependent on the environment. Here, we assess the effect of display-site properties on the production, attractiveness and honesty of sexual signals. We recorded male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) while manipulating water levels in order to constrain calling. We found that water level affected male call properties in a size-dependent manner, with call amplitude being less affected in smaller males when forced to call in shallow water. Next, we tested how size-dependent and display-site-dependent signaling affected female choice and rival competition. Both males and females showed the strongest response to the call of a large male when he was calling at the deepest water levels. However, females showed no preference for large over small males when both were recorded in shallow water levels, or, depending on the call rate and timing of calls, even preferred small males. Likewise, males responded equally to large and small rivals recorded calling during shallow water level trials. Our experiments show that display-site properties can influence signal production and attractiveness in a size-dependent manner. These results can have important consequences for the evolution of signaling, as small males may be able to use their size to their advantage when selecting appropriate display sites and thereby outcompete large males.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz009
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Achromatic plumage brightness predicts stress resilience and social
           interactions in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)
    • Authors: Taff C; Zimmer C, Vitousek M.
      Pages: 733 - 745
      Abstract: Theory suggests that signal honesty may be maintained by differential costs for high and low quality individuals. For signals that mediate social interactions, costs can arise from the way that a signal changes the subsequent social environment via receiver responses. These receiver-dependent costs may be linked with individual quality through variation in resilience to environmental and social stress. Here, we imposed stressful conditions on female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) by attaching groups of feathers during incubation to decrease flight efficiency and maneuverability. We simultaneously monitored social interactions using an RFID network that allowed us to track the identity of every individual that visited each nest for the entire season. Before treatments, plumage coloration was correlated with baseline and stress-induced corticosterone. Relative to controls, experimentally challenged females were more likely to abandon their nest during incubation. Overall, females with brighter white breasts were less likely to abandon, but this pattern was only significant under stressful conditions. In addition to being more resilient, brighter females received more unique visitors at their nest-box and tended to make more visits to other active nests. In contrast, dorsal coloration did not reliably predict abandonment or social interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that females differ in their resilience to stress and that these differences are signaled by plumage brightness, which is in turn correlated with the frequency of social interactions. While we do not document direct costs of social interaction, our results are consistent with models of signal honesty based on receiver-dependent costs.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz010
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Associative learning of flowers by generalist bumble bees can be mediated
           by microbes on the petals
    • Authors: Russell A; Ashman T.
      Pages: 746 - 755
      Abstract: Communication is often vital to the maintenance of mutualisms. In plant-pollinator mutualisms, plants signal pollinators via floral displays, composed of olfactory, visual, and other plant-derived cues. While plants are understood to be associated with microbes, only recently has the role of microbial (yeast and bacteria) inhabitants of flowers as intermediaries of plant-pollinator communication been recognized. Animals frequently use microbial cues to find resources, yet no study has examined whether microbes directly mediate learned and innate pollinator responses. Here, we asked whether microbes on the flower surface, independent of their modification of floral rewards, can mediate these key components of pollinator preference. In the field, we characterized flower and bumble bee microbial abundance, and in laboratory assays we tested whether bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) discriminated flowers on the basis of an experimental floral microbial community on the petals and whether microbe-derived chemicals were effective cues. Learning of microbial community cues was associative and reward context-dependent and mediated by microbial chemicals. Deconstructing the experimental microbial community showed bees innately avoided flowers with bacteria, but were undeterred by yeast. Microbial cues thus potentially facilitate dynamic communication between plants and pollinators such as bumble bees, especially as pollinator visitation can change flower microbiota. We suggest that the study of communication in mutualism generally would benefit by considering not only the multicellular eukaryote partners, but their microbial associates.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz011
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Love them all: mothers provide care to foreign eggs in the European earwig
           Forficula auricularia
    • Authors: Van Meyel S; Devers S, Meunier J.
      Pages: 756 - 762
      Abstract: The rejection of foreign individuals is considered a central parameter in the evolution of social life. Within family units, parents are typically thought to reject foreign offspring to ensure that their investment into care is directed towards their own descendants. Whereas selection for such kin bias is expected to be high when parental care is extended and involves numerous and energetically costly behaviors, it can be reduced when the acceptance of foreigners provide subsequent benefits to offspring and when alternative parental strategies limit the risk of clutch parasitism. In this study, we investigated the outcome of these conflicting selection pressures in the European earwig. Our results overall demonstrate that mothers do not eliminate foreign eggs, provide the same level of care to both foreign and own eggs (egg grooming, egg defense, and maternal return) and pay the same costs of care in terms of weight loss and immunity when tending each type of eggs. We also show that foreign and own eggs exhibit similar development time, hatching success and lead to comparable juvenile quality. Interestingly, our results reveal that tending eggs (of any origin) reduces mothers’ weight loss during this long period, possibly due to egg cannibalism. Hence, these findings emphasize the difficulty to predict the occurrence of kin bias, and stress the need to broaden our knowledge on the net benefits of egg rejection for parents to better understand the general importance of kin bias in the evolution of pre-hatching parental care.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz012
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Breeding success but not mate choice is phenotype- and context-dependent
           in a color polymorphic raptor
    • Authors: Gangoso L; Figuerola J.
      Pages: 763 - 769
      Abstract: Morph-specific mate choice has been proposed as one of the evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of variation in color polymorphic systems. Coloration usually covaries with other phenotypic traits affecting life history and thus is often used as a criterion for mate choice. Here, we assess whether mating patterns, natal dispersal, and breeding output are phenotype-dependent in the color polymorphic Eleonora’s falcon. We used a long-term dataset of 946 individually ringed adult falcons that included 109 individuals monitored from birth up to recruitment into the breeding population. Overall, patterns of mate choice with regard to coloration were neither assortative nor disassortative. Natal dispersal distance was greater in females but was not associated with coloration. Breeding success was both morph-dependent and context-dependent. Although clutch size was similar in differently colored pairs, differences arose in the number of chicks that fledge. In some years, dark males raised more offspring, regardless of female color morph. Differences in the breeding tactics between male morphs could be associated with intraspecific predation and may thus contribute to the observed differences in breeding output, especially when food availability is low. This suggests that mating patterns may interact with other factors and give rise to the observed higher breeding output of dark males only under certain environmental conditions.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz013
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Gender-related behaviors: evidence for a trade-off between sexual
           functions in a hermaphrodite
    • Authors: Picchi L; Lorenzi M.
      Pages: 770 - 784
      Abstract: According to sex allocation theory, hermaphrodites are expected to allocate most of their reproductive resources to the female function when there is a low level of mate competition and to shift them to the male function when mate competition increases: sex allocation theory assumes that there is a trade-off between sexual functions. Although several studies highlight some adjustments of sex allocation according to mating opportunities, empirical support for the trade-off between sexual functions is surprisingly scarce. Here, we argue that this lack of support for a trade-off might partially depend on the fact that sex allocation studies often overlook gender-related traits other than gamete production. We investigated whether parental care (a putative female behavior) and motility (a proxy for mate searching, and a putative male behavior) varied plastically according to mating opportunities in the hermaphroditic polychaete worm Ophryotrocha diadema. We found that parental care was higher under low mating opportunities, whereas motility increased under high mating opportunities, and the two behaviors were negatively correlated with each other—that is, there was a trade-off between them. We also observed the behavior of a separate-sex species closely-related to O. diadema—Ophryotrocha labronica. We found that males moved more than females in the separate-sex species and that mothers performed more parental care than fathers in both Ophryotrocha species. Our results provide convincing evidence in support of a trade-off between sexual functions and highlight the importance of investigating sex allocation adjustments in reproductive traits other than gametes.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz014
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Night reveals individuality in a shoaling fish
    • Authors: Härkönen L; Alioravainen N, Vainikka A, et al.
      Pages: 785 - 791
      Abstract: Many animals rely heavily on visual cues from their environment, and therefore show circadian rhythmicity in their behavioral activities. In group-living animals, individuals’ activity rhythms must be synchronized not only with diel light–dark cycle but also with other group members. Increasing evidence has recently shown that circadian behaviors of animals are consistent within individuals and different between individuals, but the sources and consistency of diel activity variation in social context are less known. Using radio frequency identification technology, we recorded individual moving activity of the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in randomly formed groups through 10 full diel cycles in seminatural environment. We found diel changes in variability and repeatability of behavioral activity both within and between the groups: individual differences in activity were more repeatable in nighttime, whereas group differences were more repeatable in daytime. The results suggest that collective group behavior in daylight obscures the expression of individuality, whereas the weak group effects in nighttime reveal a substantially wider continuum of individually consistent activity types. Our findings imply that 1) studying activity variation only on diurnal basis may underestimate the total activity variation among social individuals and may thus bias the repeatability estimates, and 2) accounting for diel variation in social effects may be essential for detecting ecologically realistic behavioral variation within and between animal groups. To conclude, this study highlights the complex interactions between circadian activity rhythms, individual behavioral differences, and group dynamics, and thereby provides new insights for understanding overall behavioral diversity in social animals.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz015
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Specialization reduces foraging effort and improves breeding performance
           in a generalist bird
    • Authors: van den Bosch M; Baert J, Müller W, et al.
      Pages: 792 - 800
      Abstract: While competition is generally presumed to promote intraspecific niche diversification, populations of many apparent generalist species still exhibit considerable individual variation in foraging specialization. This suggests that different cost-benefit trade-offs may underlie individual variation in foraging specialization. Indeed, while specialization may improve foraging efficiency by a better knowledge of the spatio-temporal availability of resources, individuals may also become more vulnerable to fluctuations in these resources. In this study, we used multiyear GPS tracking data of 19 Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) breeding along the Belgian coast to assess whether foraging effort and reproductive success varied among different levels of foraging specialization. First, we quantified spatial and habitat specialization during incubation and chick rearing for 31 individual breeding cycles during which birds raised young until the age of 21 days. Next, we tested whether spatial and habitat specialization were related to the daily distance covered (as a proxy for foraging effort), and to chick growth (as a proxy for reproductive success). We found that birds primarily varied in their extent of habitat specialization. Habitat specialization was associated with reduced daily distances covered and increased offspring growth rates, in particular the growth rate of the youngest chicks. Yet, positive effects of habitat specialization on chick growth decreased at high levels of spatial specialization. Our results thus demonstrate fitness benefits of foraging specialization during our 5-year study period, but also highlight the need for longer-term studies as environmental changes may cause benefits to vary throughout a lifetime.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz016
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Collective responses to heterospecifics emerge from individual differences
           in aggression
    • Authors: Neumann K; Pinter-Wollman N.
      Pages: 801 - 808
      Abstract: Variation in individual behavior among group members impacts collective outcomes. The ability of both individuals and groups to outcompete others can determine access to resources. The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, dominates resources and displaces native species. To determine how access to resources by groups of L. humile is impacted by their behavioral composition, we first determined that L. humile workers consistently vary in aggressive behavior. We then asked if variation in aggression within a group influences the group’s ability to access a resource in the presence of cues of a native species, Tapinoma sessile. We found that the behavioral composition of L. humile groups impacted the groups’ collective response to cues of T. sessile. Group behavior was the result of mostly additive, rather than synergistic, combinations of the behaviors of the group members. The behavior of groups that contained 50% highly aggressive and 50% low-aggression individuals was similar to the average of the behaviors of groups of all highly aggressive and groups of all low-aggression individuals. Uncovering the mechanisms that allow social invasive species to dominate the ecological communities they invade can inform the mitigation of invasion.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz017
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Differences in combinatorial calls among the 3 elephant species cannot be
           explained by phylogeny
    • Authors: Pardo M; Poole J, Stoeger A, et al.
      Pages: 809 - 820
      Abstract: Understanding why related species combine calls in different ways could provide insight into the selection pressures on the evolution of combinatorial communication. African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana), African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis), and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) all combine broadband calls (roars, barks, and cries) and low-frequency calls (rumbles) into single utterances known as “combination calls.” We investigated whether the structure of such calls differs among species and whether any differences are better explained by phylogenetic relationships or by socioecological factors. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the species differ significantly in the frequency with which they produce different call combinations using data from multiple study sites. Elephas maximus and L. africana mostly produced roar–rumble combinations, whereas L. cyclotis produced a more even distribution of roar–rumble, rumble–roar, and rumble–roar–rumble combinations. There were also significant differences in favored structure among populations of the same species. Moreover, certain call orders were disproportionately likely to be given in particular behavioral contexts. In L. africana, rumble–roar–rumble combinations were significantly more likely than expected by chance to be produced by individuals separated from the group. In E. maximus, there was a nonsignificant trend for rumble–roar–rumbles to be given more often in response to a disturbance. Site-specific socioecological conditions appear more influential for call combination structure than phylogenetic history.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz018
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Behavioral responses by an apex predator to urbanization
    • Authors: Ellington E; Gehrt S.
      Pages: 821 - 829
      Abstract: Wildlife can respond to urbanization positively (synanthropic) or negatively (misanthropic), and for some species, this is a nonlinear process, whereby low levels of urbanization elicit a positive response, but this response becomes negative at high levels of urbanization. We applied concepts from foraging theory to predict positive and negative behavioral responses of coyotes (Canis latrans) along an urbanization gradient in the Chicago metropolitan area, USA. We estimated home range size and complexity, and metrics of 3 movement behaviors (encamped, foraging, and traveling) using Hidden Markov movement models. We found coyotes exhibited negative behavioral responses to highly urbanized landscapes: coyotes viewed the landscape as lower quality, riskier, and more fragmented (home range size and complexity, and time spent encamped increased). Conversely, we found evidence of both positive and negative responses to suburban landscapes: coyotes not only viewed the landscape as higher quality than natural fragments and equally risky, but also viewed it as fragmented (home range size decreased, time spent encamped did not change, and home range complexity increased). Although the spatial and behavioral responses of coyotes to urbanization became increasingly negative as urbanization increased, coyotes were still able to occupy highly urbanized landscapes. Our study demonstrates how wildlife behavioral responses can be dependent on the degree of urbanization and represents one of the first descriptions of apex predator space use and movement in a highly urbanized landscape.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz019
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Early life and transgenerational stressors impact secondary sexual traits
           and fitness
    • Authors: Wilson K; Tatarenkov A, Burley N.
      Pages: 830 - 842
      Abstract: Developmental stress from early life challenges impacts adult phenotype across a range of species. However, the potential transgenerational consequences for adult phenotype are largely unknown. Additionally, the possible impacts of natural hatch/birth order and natal brood composition in unmanipulated broods/litters on adult performance has been understudied. This experiment takes a novel approach to studying developmental stress by integrating and assessing multiple potential stressors and multiple secondary sexual traits simultaneously in order to determine how these influence both social and genetic reproductive success. Male zebra finches were colony-reared on high- or low-quality diets; as adults, they reproduced competitively on an intermediate diet. Male visual ornaments (beak color and cheek patch size) were found to be reliable signals of developmental stress, since they showed high sensitivity to multiple early conditions and predicted reproductive success. Contrary to the nutritional stress hypothesis, early diet did not impact song traits investigated. Male reproductive success was impacted by diet history, male hatch order, and natal brood traits of males’ fathers, with daughter and son production sensitive to different subsets of identified reproductive stressors. Notably, diet influenced only son production and the hatch orders of males and their fathers influenced only daughter production. Findings suggest that the sexes respond differently to early life conditions, which may influence subsequent sex allocation patterns. Despite good general correspondence in patterns of social and genetic reproductive success, males that sired 1 or more extra-pair offspring achieved higher fitness through greater son production.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz020
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Natal habitat and sex-specific survival rates result in a male-biased
           adult sex ratio
    • Authors: Loonstra A; Verhoeven M, Senner N, et al.
      Pages: 843 - 851
      Abstract: The adult sex ratio (ASR) is a crucial component of the ecological and evolutionary forces shaping the dynamics of a population. Although in many declining populations ASRs have been reported to be skewed, empirical studies exploring the demographic factors shaping ASRs are still rare. In this study of the socially monogamous and sexually dimorphic Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa limosa), we aim to evaluate the sex ratio of chicks at hatch and the subsequent sex-specific survival differences occurring over 3 subsequent life stages. We found that, at hatch, the sex ratio did not deviate from parity. However, the survival of pre-fledged females was 15–30% lower than that of males and the sex bias in survival was higher in low-quality habitat. Additionally, survival of adult females was almost 5% lower than that of adult males. Because survival rates of males and females did not differ during other life-history stages, the ASR in the population was biased toward males. Because females are larger than males, food limitations during development or sex-specific differences in the duration of development may explain the lower survival of female chicks. Differences among adults are less obvious and suggest previously unknown sex-related selection pressures. Irrespective of the underlying causes, by reducing the available number of females in this socially monogamous species, a male-biased ASR is likely to contribute to the ongoing decline of the Dutch godwit population.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz021
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Adult nutritional stress decreases oviposition choosiness and fecundity in
           female butterflies
    • Authors: Jaumann S; Snell-Rood E.
      Pages: 852 - 863
      Abstract: Despite the benefits of careful decision-making, not all animals are choosy. One explanation is that choosiness can cost time and energy and thus depend on nutrition. However, it is not clear how allocation to choosiness versus other components of life-history shifts in the face of nutritional stress. We tested 2 hypotheses about the effects of nutritional stress on choosiness and other life-history traits: 1) poor nutrition leads to compensatory shifts in life-history strategy towards greater investment per offspring in terms of choosy oviposition behavior and egg resources, and 2) poor nutrition negatively affects a range of life-history traits. Cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) females were reared under low or high nutrition conditions during the larval and adult stage in a fully factorial design. Choosiness was quantified as avoidance of conspecific models during oviposition. Adult life-history traits included egg number, egg size, and thorax protein. Females that experienced nutritional stress as adults were less choosy and less fecund, in support of the second hypothesis. Yet females that were stressed as larvae invested more in thorax muscle, consistent with the first hypothesis. Overall, adult nutritional stress decreased investment in multiple reproductive traits, including a behavioral trait, but larval stress increased investment in flight, potentially to disperse away from nutritionally poor environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz022
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • An avian equivalent of selective abortion: postlaying clutch reduction
           under resource limitation
    • Authors: Kloskowski J.
      Pages: 864 - 871
      Abstract: Selective elimination of excess offspring with poor fitness prospects may occur prenatally (selective abortion) or postnatally (brood reduction). Postnatal reduction is the dominant strategy, presumably because surplus progeny serves as a hedge against environmental and developmental uncertainty. In birds, its main proximate mechanism is asynchronous hatching, generating within-brood competitive asymmetry. Here, clutch-size reduction via last-egg abandonment was investigated in the asynchronously hatching red-necked grebe in a study area comprising 2 human-managed poorly predictable habitats with distinctly different food supplies. Last-egg abandonment, virtually absent in favorable food conditions, occurred regularly in larger clutches in conditions of brood-stage food scarcity. In the food-poor habitat, the production and body condition of fledglings did not differ between last-egg abandoning and caring pairs. The experimentally prolonged hatching interval increased the egg abandonment rate (irrespective of clutch size), but mainly in food-poor conditions. This is the first demonstration of parental clutch reduction in anticipation of brood-stage food limitation. Last-egg abandonment functions as an equivalent of abortion, as discarded offspring are excluded from the postnatal selection arena. This strategy might have evolved as “best-of-a-bad-job” to reallocate parental resources when a strong mismatch between clutch size and chick survival probability reduced the hedging value of later-laid eggs.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz023
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Disentangling the costs of male harassment and the benefits of polyandry
           for females
    • Authors: Fox R; Head M, Jennions M.
      Pages: 872 - 881
      Abstract: Many studies quantify how polyandry affects female fitness by allowing females to either mate with one or several males. But even if the number of matings is standardized, such studies conflate any costs of interacting with males with the potential benefits of receiving sperm from several males, obscuring the benefits of polyandry. We conducted a 2×2 factorial experiment on the mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki to quantify the independent effects of male harassment and polyandry. We artificially inseminated virgin females with sperm from either 1 or 5 males (monandry vs. polyandry). Females were then housed in the presence or absence of reproductively ablated males who could harass, but not mate with them. Our design ensured that the number of males inseminating a female was independent of the level of male harassment and the number of matings she received. Females who were not housed with males were instead housed with immature females to maintain densities constant across treatments. Unexpectedly, females that experienced sexual harassment were more likely to give birth, had shorter gestation periods and gave birth to larger broods. Furthermore, polyandrous females were more likely than monandrous females to give birth. Polyandrous females’ sons also reached maturity faster than those of monandrous females. We therefore found no detectable costs to females producing their first brood of being harassed by males when the direct costs of mating were absent. We also showed that, in the absence of mating costs, there are direct and indirect fitness benefits of being inseminated by multiple males. If the costs of the act of mating are small or absent, polyandry will benefit female G. holbrooki producing their first brood.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz024
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Corrigendum: A mathematical model of aggressive mimicry
    • Authors: Kloock C; Getty T.
      Pages: 882 - 882
      Abstract: The version of this article originally published online and in print contained an error in the labelling of axes in figure 2 (panels A and B). The x-axis should be labelled p(F) and the y-axis p(H). The online version has been corrected.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arz051
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2019)
       
 
 
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