Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 413 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 413 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 622, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioral Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.871
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 58  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [413 journals]
  • Male harassment leads to fitness costs for females by disrupting
           oviposition site preferences
    • Authors: Bacon E; Barbosa F, Holman L.
      Pages: 611 - 617
      Abstract: AbstractIn many species, a difference in the optimal number of copulations for males and females leads to sexual conflict. This is well documented in the bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where both sexes mate multiply and females incur fitness costs from injuries caused by the male genitalia. Here, we demonstrate that sexual conflict also decreases female fitness due to male harassment. We hypothesized that harassment costs would come as 1) decreased clutch size, egg size, or both and by 2) disruption of female preference for higher-quality oviposition substrate. Mated females were housed with two bean types—cowpeas, their preferred natal hosts, and toxic pinto beans. They were then submitted to either no, moderate, or high male harassment in the oviposition site. Females under harassment produced smaller clutch sizes but not smaller eggs, resulting in the absence of an egg-size/clutch-size trade-off. Additionally, females did not exhibit a preference for their natal cowpeas hosts over toxic pinto beans when males were present at the oviposition site, although they do so when harassing males are not present. Harassment disrupted female responses to variation in oviposition substrate quality, resulting in considerable fitness consequences in the form of lower offspring production and survival.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa005
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Strong sexual selection despite spatial constraints on extrapair paternity
    • Authors: Cramer E; Greig E, Kaiser S, et al.
      Pages: 618 - 626
      Abstract: AbstractExtrapair paternity should contribute to sexual selection by increasing the number of potential mates available to each individual. Potential copulation partners are, however, limited by their proximity. Spatial constraints may therefore reduce the impact of extrapair paternity on sexual selection. We tested the effect of spatial constraints on sexual selection by simulating extrapair copulations for 15 species of socially monogamous songbirds with varying rates of extrapair paternity. We compared four metrics of sexual selection between simulated populations without spatial constraints and populations where extrapair copulations were restricted to first- and second-order neighbors. Counter to predictions, sexual selection as measured by the Bateman gradient (the association between the number of copulation partners and offspring produced) increased under spatial constraints. In these conditions, repeated extrapair copulations between the same individuals led to more offspring per copulation partner. In contrast, spatial constraints did somewhat reduce sexual selection—as measured by the opportunity for selection, s’max, and the selection gradient on male quality—when the association between simulated male quality scores and copulation success (e.g., female preferences or male–male competition) was strong. Sexual selection remained strong overall in those populations even under spatial constraints. Spatial constraints did not substantially reduce sexual selection when the association between male quality and copulation success was moderate or weak. Thus, spatial constraints on extrapair copulations are insufficient to explain the absence of strong selection on male traits in many species.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa001
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Physical and social cues shape nest-site preference and prey capture
           behavior in social spiders
    • Authors: Najm G; Pe A, Pruitt J, et al.
      Pages: 627 - 632
      Abstract: AbstractAnimals often face conflicting demands when making movement decisions. To examine the decision process of social animals, we evaluated nest-site preferences of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Colonies engage in collective web building, constructing 3D nests and 2D capture webs on trees and fences. We examined how individuals and groups decide where to construct a nest based on habitat structure and conspecific presence. Individuals had a strong preference for 3D substrates and conspecific presence. Groups were then provided with conflicting options of 3D substrates versus 2D substrates with a conspecific. Groups preferred the 3D structures without presettled conspecifics over a 2D substrate with conspecifics. When a group fragmented and individuals settled on both substrates, the minority group eventually joined the majority. Before rejoining, the collective prey capture behavior of divided groups improved with the size of the majority fragment. The costs of slow responses to prey for split groups and weak conspecific attraction may explain why dispersal is rare in these spiders.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa003
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Dietary vitamin D in female rock lizards induces condition-transfer
           effects in their offspring
    • Authors: Rodríguez-Ruiz G; López P, Martín J, et al.
      Pages: 633 - 640
      Abstract: AbstractOne way that maternal effects may benefit the offspring is by informing them about the characteristics of the environment. Through gestation, environmentally induced maternal effects might promote in the offspring-specific behavioral responses like dispersal or residence according to their new habitat characteristics. Females of the Carpetan rock lizard (Iberolacerta cyreni) seem to choose their home ranges using the smell of provitamin D3 in scent marks produced by males. Here, we supplemented gravid females of I. cyreni with dietary provitamin D3 or vitamin D3 to examine whether these food resources, also associated with the scent of males, affect the motivation to disperse and the locomotor performance of their offspring. Our results suggest that the supplementary availability of the resource (vitamin D3) to mothers may provoke condition-transfer maternal effects that motivate the residence or the dispersal of the offspring in their postnatal habitat. Thus, hatchlings of supplemented females had a lower dispersal trend in spite of having a greater climbing ability than hatchlings from nonsupplemented females. This suggests that the levels of provitamin D3 and vitamin D3 inside the body of the mother could act as an informative compound of the habitat quality for the offspring.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa008
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Maternity uncertainty in cobreeding beetles: females lay more and larger
           eggs and provide less care
    • Authors: Richardson J; Smiseth P, Herberstein M.
      Pages: 641 - 650
      Abstract: AbstractCobreeding, which occurs when multiple females breed together, is likely to be associated with uncertainty over maternity of offspring in a joint brood, preventing females from directing resources towards their own offspring. Cobreeding females may respond to such uncertainty by shifting their investment towards the stages of offspring development when they are certain of maternity and away from those stages where uncertainty is greater. Here we examined how uncertainty of maternity influences investment decisions of cobreeding females by comparing cobreeding females and females breeding alone in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. In this species, females sometimes breed together on a single carcass but females cannot recognize their own offspring. We found that cobreeding females shifted investment towards the egg stage of offspring development by laying more and larger eggs than females breeding alone. Furthermore, cobreeding females reduced their investment to post-hatching care of larvae by spending less time providing care than females breeding alone. We show that females respond to the presence of another female by shifting allocation towards egg laying and away from post-hatching care, thereby directing resources to their own offspring. Our results demonstrate that responses to parentage uncertainty are not restricted to males, but that, unlike males, females respond by shifting their investment to different components of reproduction within a single breeding attempt. Such flexibility may allow females to cope with maternity uncertainly as well as a variety of other social or physical challenges.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa006
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sex, synchrony, and skin contact: integrating multiple behaviors to assess
           pathogen transmission risk
    • Authors: Leu S; Sah P, Krzyszczyk E, et al.
      Pages: 651 - 660
      Abstract: AbstractDirect pathogen and parasite transmission is fundamentally driven by a population’s contact network structure and its demographic composition and is further modulated by pathogen life-history traits. Importantly, populations are most often concurrently exposed to a suite of pathogens, which is rarely investigated, because contact networks are typically inferred from spatial proximity only. Here, we use 5 years of detailed observations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) that distinguish between four different types of social contact. We investigate how demography (sex and age) affects these different social behaviors. Three of the four social behaviors can be used as a proxy for understanding key routes of direct pathogen transmission (sexual contact, skin contact, and aerosol contact of respiratory vapor above the water surface). We quantify the demography-dependent network connectedness, representing the risk of exposure associated with the three pathogen transmission routes, and quantify coexposure risks and relate them to individual sociability. Our results suggest demography-driven disease risk in bottlenose dolphins, with males at greater risk than females, and transmission route-dependent implications for different age classes. We hypothesize that male alliance formation and the divergent reproductive strategies in males and females drive the demography-dependent connectedness and, hence, exposure risk to pathogens. Our study provides evidence for the risk of coexposure to pathogens transmitted along different transmission routes and that they relate to individual sociability. Hence, our results highlight the importance of a multibehavioral approach for a more complete understanding of the overall pathogen transmission risk in animal populations, as well as the cumulative costs of sociality.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa002
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Allee effects drive the coevolution of cooperation and group size in high
           reproductive skew groups
    • Authors: Lerch B; Abbott K, Ridley A.
      Pages: 661 - 671
      Abstract: AbstractThe evolution of cooperation between conspecifics is a fundamental evolutionary puzzle, with much work focusing on the evolution of cooperative breeding. Surprisingly, although we expect cooperation to affect the population structures in which individuals interact, most studies fail to allow cooperation and population structure to coevolve. Here, we build two models containing group-level Allee effects (positive density dependence at low group sizes) to study the coevolution of cooperation and group size. Group-level Allee effects, although common in cooperatively breeding species, remain understudied for their evolutionary implications. We find that a trait that affects group size can cause increased cooperation to be favored evolutionarily even in a group with complete reproductive skew. In particular, we find a single evolutionarily stable attractor in our model corresponding to moderate helpfulness and group size. In general, our results demonstrate that, even in groups with complete reproductive skew, Allee effects can be important for the evolution of cooperation and that the evolution of cooperation may be closely linked to the evolution of group size. Further, our model matches empirical data in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), suggesting that it may have an application in understanding social evolution in this endangered species.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa009
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Individual variation in migratory behavior in a subarctic partial migrant
    • Authors: Méndez V; Alves J, Þórisson B, et al.
      Pages: 672 - 679
      Abstract: AbstractMigratory behavior can differ markedly amongst individuals within populations or species. Understanding the factors influencing this variation is key to understanding how current environmental changes might influence migratory propensity and the distribution and abundance of migratory species across their range. Here, we investigate variation in migratory behavior of the partially migratory Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) population breeding in Iceland. We use the resightings of color-ringed adults and stable isotopes to determine whether individuals migrate or remain in Iceland during winter and test whether individual migratory strategies vary in relation to sex, body size, and breeding location. We also explore individual consistency in migratory strategy and test whether assortative mating with respect to strategy occurs in this population. The proportion of migrants and residents varied greatly across breeding locations but not with respect to sex or body size. Individuals were consistent in migratory strategy between years and there was no evidence of assortative mating by migratory strategy. We use these findings to explore factors underlying the evolution and maintenance of partial migration at high latitudes.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa010
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Intrapopulation variation in the behavioral responses of dwarf mongooses
           to anthropogenic noise
    • Authors: Eastcott E; Kern J, Morris-Drake A, et al.
      Pages: 680 - 691
      Abstract: AbstractAnthropogenic noise is an increasingly widespread pollutant, with a rapidly burgeoning literature demonstrating impacts on humans and other animals. However, most studies have simply considered if there is an effect of noise, examining the overall cohort response. Although substantial evidence exists for intraspecific variation in responses to other anthropogenic disturbances, this possibility has received relatively little experimental attention with respect to noise. Here, we used field-based playbacks with dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) to test how traffic noise affects vigilance behavior and to examine potential variation between individuals of different age class, sex, and dominance status. Foragers exhibited a stronger immediate reaction and increased their subsequent vigilance (both that on the ground and as a sentinel) in response to traffic-noise playback compared with ambient-sound playback. Traffic-noise playback also resulted in sentinels conducting longer bouts and being more likely to change post height or location than in ambient-sound playback. Moreover, there was evidence of variation in noise responses with respect to age class and dominance status but not sex. In traffic noise, foraging pups were more likely to flee and were slower to resume foraging than adults; they also tended to increase their vigilance more than adults. Dominants were more likely than subordinates to move post during sentinel bouts conducted in traffic-noise trials. Our findings suggest that the vigilance–foraging trade-off is affected by traffic noise but that individuals differ in how they respond. Future work should, therefore, consider intrapopulation response variation to understand fully the population-wide effects of this global pollutant.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa011
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Investigating social and environmental predictors of natal dispersal in a
           cooperative breeding bird
    • Authors: Suh Y; Pesendorfer M, Tringali A, et al.
      Pages: 692 - 701
      Abstract: AbstractNatal dispersal is a crucial life-history trait that affects both individual fitness and population structure, yet drivers of variation in dispersal probability and distance are difficult to study in wild populations. In cooperatively breeding species, individuals typically delay dispersal beyond their first breeding season and remain on the natal territory as nonbreeders, which prolongs social dynamics that can affect dispersal decisions. Using a 35-year data set covering almost 600 dispersal events in the cooperatively breeding Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), we examined the environmental and social parameters that predict dispersal probability over time and distance. In both sexes, dispersal probability increased with age, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with dispersal distance. In males, individuals occupying low-quality natal territories and living with a stepfather had an increased probability of dispersal. Older and more dominant males were more likely to inherit their natal territory. In females, which generally disperse earlier and farther than males, socially subordinate jays dispersed farther than dominant ones. Overall, jays that delayed dispersal the longest were more likely to attain breeding status near their natal territory, which was previously found to be associated with increased survival and lifetime fitness. Our results suggest that social dynamics and environmental factors on the natal territory affect delayed dispersal patterns differently for the two sexes in this cooperative breeder.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa007
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Contrasting multilevel relationships between behavior and body mass in
           blue tit nestlings
    • Authors: Class B; Brommer J, Dingemanse N.
      Pages: 702 - 710
      Abstract: AbstractRepeatable behaviors (i.e., animal personality) are pervasive in the animal kingdom and various mechanisms have been proposed to explain their existence. Genetic and nongenetic mechanisms, which can be equally important, predict correlations between behavior and body mass on different levels (e.g., genetic and environmental) of variation. We investigated multilevel relationships between body mass measured on weeks 1, 2, and 3 and three behavioral responses to handling, measured on week 3, which form a behavioral syndrome in wild blue tit nestlings. Using 7 years of data and quantitative genetic models, we find that all behaviors and body mass on week 3 are heritable (h2 = 0.18–0.23) and genetically correlated, whereas earlier body masses are not heritable. We also find evidence for environmental correlations between body masses and behaviors. Interestingly, these environmental correlations have different signs for early and late body masses. Altogether, these findings indicate genetic integration between body mass and behavior and illustrate the impacts of early environmental factors and environmentally mediated growth trajectory on behaviors expressed later in life. This study, therefore, suggests that the relationship between personality and body mass in developing individuals is due to various underlying mechanisms, which can have opposing effects. Future research on the link between behavior and body mass would benefit from considering these multiple mechanisms simultaneously.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa014
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Benefits of cooperation in captive Damaraland mole-rats
    • Authors: Houslay T; Vullioud P, Zöttl M, et al.
      Pages: 711 - 718
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough the social mole-rats are commonly classified as eusocial breeders on the grounds that groups include a single breeding female (the “queen”) and a number of nonbreeding individuals (“helpers”) of both sexes, alloparental care is not highly developed in these species and there is no direct evidence that the presence or number of nonbreeders is associated with reductions in the workload of the “queen.” An alternative interpretation of mole-rat groups is that the social mole-rats are cooperative foragers rather than cooperative or eusocial breeders. Here, in captive colonies of Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis), we provide the first evidence that increases in the number of nonbreeding subordinates in mole-rat groups are associated with reductions in the workload of “queens” and with increases in their fecundity.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa015
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Risk exposure trade-offs in the ontogeny of sexual segregation in
           Antarctic fur seal pups
    • Authors: Jones K; Wood H, Ashburner J, et al.
      Pages: 719 - 730
      Abstract: AbstractSexual segregation has important ecological implications, but its initial development in early life stages is poorly understood. We investigated the roles of size dimorphism, social behavior, and predation risk on the ontogeny of sexual segregation in Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, pups at South Georgia. Beaches and water provide opportunities for pup social interaction and learning (through play and swimming) but increased risk of injury and death (from other seals, predatory birds, and harsh weather), whereas tussock grass provides shelter from these risks but less developmental opportunities. One hundred pups were sexed and weighed, 50 on the beach and 50 in tussock grass, in January, February, and March annually from 1989 to 2018. Additionally, 19 male and 16 female pups were GPS-tracked during lactation from December 2012. Analysis of pup counts and habitat use of GPS-tracked pups suggested that females had a slightly higher association with tussock grass habitats and males with beach habitats. GPS-tracked pups traveled progressively further at sea as they developed, and males traveled further than females toward the end of lactation. These sex differences may reflect contrasting drivers of pup behavior: males being more risk prone to gain social skills and lean muscle mass and females being more risk averse to improve chances of survival, ultimately driven by their different reproductive roles. We conclude that sex differences in habitat use can develop in a highly polygynous species prior to the onset of major sexual size dimorphism, which hints that these sex differences will increasingly diverge in later life.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa018
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Presence of same-sex kin promotes explorative behavior in subadult cichlid
    • Authors: Vitt S; Madge Pimentel I, Thünken T, et al.
      Pages: 731 - 738
      Abstract: AbstractWhile the importance of kin discrimination, that is, kin recognition and subsequent differential treatment of kin and nonkin, is well established for kin-directed cooperation or altruism, the role of kin discrimination in the context of kin competition and kin avoidance is largely unexplored. Theory predicts that individuals avoiding competition with kin should be favored by natural selection due to indirect fitness benefits. Using an experimental approach, we investigated whether the presence of same-sex kin affects avoidance and explorative behavior in subadult Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a West African cichlid fish with strong intrasexual competition in both sexes. Pelvicachromis taeniatus is capable of recognizing kin using phenotype matching and shows kin discrimination in diverse contexts. When exposed to a same-sex conspecific, both males and females tended to interact less with the related opponent. Moreover, individuals explored a novel environment faster after exposure to kin than to nonkin. This effect was more pronounced in females. Individuals avoiding the proximity of same-sex relatives may reduce kin competition over resources such as mating partners or food.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa019
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • On the use of private versus social information in oviposition site choice
           decisions by Drosophila melanogaster females
    • Authors: Malek H; Long T, Holman L.
      Pages: 739 - 749
      Abstract: AbstractIndividuals are faced with decisions throughout their lifetimes, and the choices they make often have important consequences toward their fitness. Being able to discern which available option is best to pursue often incurs sampling costs, which may be largely avoided by copying the behavior and decisions of others. Although social learning and copying behaviors are widespread, much remains unknown about how effective and adaptive copying behavior is, as well as the factors that underlie its expression. Recently, it has been suggested that since female fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) appear to rely heavily on public information when selecting oviposition sites, they are a promising model system for researching patch-choice copying, and more generally, the mechanisms that control decision making. Here, we set out to determine how well female distinguish between socially produced cues, and whether females are using “relevant” signals when choosing an oviposition site. We found that females showed a strong preference for ovipositing on media patches that had been previously occupied by ovipositing females of the same species and diet over other female outgroups. However, in a separate assay, we observed that females favored ovipositing on media patches that previously housed virgin males over those exhibiting alternative conspecific signals. Our results confirm that females use cues left behind by other flies when choosing between potential oviposition sites, though their prioritization of these signals raises serious questions as to whether fruit flies are employing copying behavior, or are instead responding to signals that may not be of relevance to oviposition site suitability.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa021
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Siring success in kangaroos: size matters for those in the right place at
           the right time
    • Authors: Montana L; Rousseu F, Garant D, et al.
      Pages: 750 - 760
      Abstract: AbstractIn polygynous species, male reproductive success is predicted to be monopolized by a few dominant males. This prediction is often not supported, suggesting that ecological and alternative mating tactics influence siring success. The spatiotemporal distribution of individuals and the number of males competing for each receptive female are often overlooked because they are difficult to monitor in wild animals. We examined how spatial overlap of female–male pairs, the time spent by a male on the breeding site, number of competitors, and morphological traits influence siring probability in eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). We compared home range overlap for 12 208 dam–male pairs and 295 known dam–sire pairs to define local competitive groups and to estimate every male’s opportunity to sire the young of each female. We compared models considering morphological traits relative to the entire population or to local competitive groups. Including local competition improved model performance because it estimated the intensity of competition and compared each male’s morphological traits to those of its competitive group. Regardless of size, males can increase their probability to sire a young by increasing their mating opportunity relative to the mother. We underline the importance of considering spatial structure to assess the intensity of competition in species where males cannot equally access all females in a population. The estimation of mating opportunity and intensity of local competition improves our understanding of how morphological traits affect siring success when each mating event involves a different set of competing males, a characteristic of most wild species.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa020
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Predator defense is shaped by risk, brood value and social group benefits
           in a cooperative breeder
    • Authors: Teunissen N; Kingma S, Peters A, et al.
      Pages: 761 - 771
      Abstract: AbstractPredation is a major cause of mortality and nest failure in birds. Cooperative predator defense can enhance nest success and adult survival but, because it is inherently risky, dynamic risk assessment theory predicts that individuals modify defense behavior according to the risk posed by the predator. Parental investment theory, on the other hand, predicts that reproductive payoffs (brood value) determine investment in nest defense. We propose that, in cooperative breeders, fitness benefits deriving from the survival of other group members may additionally influence defense behavior (social group benefits theory). We tested predictions of these theories in the cooperatively breeding purple-crowned fairy-wren, Malurus coronatus, where brood value is higher for breeders, but social group benefits more important for helpers. We recorded experimentally induced individual defense behaviors in response to predator models presented near nests, representing differing levels of threat to nests and adults. As predicted, 1) individuals engaged in less risky defenses when encountering a more dangerous predator (dynamic risk assessment theory); 2) individuals defended older broods more often, and breeders defended more than helpers (parental investment theory); and 3) helpers were more likely to respond to a predator of adults (social group benefits theory). Our findings highlight that predator defense in cooperative breeders is complex, shaped by the combination of immediate risk and multiple benefits.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa012
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Exploration profiles drive activity patterns and temporal niche
           specialization in a wild rodent
    • Authors: Gharnit E; Bergeron P, Garant D, et al.
      Pages: 772 - 783
      Abstract: AbstractIndividual niche specialization can have important consequences for competition, fitness, and, ultimately, population dynamics and ecological speciation. The temporal window and the level of daily activity are niche components that may vary with sex, breeding season, food supply, population density, and predator’s circadian rhythm. More recently, ecologists emphasized that traits such as dispersal and space use could depend on personality differences. Boldness and exploration have been shown to correlate with variation in foraging patterns, habitat use, and home range. Here, we assessed the link between exploration, measured from repeated novel environment tests, activity patterns, and temporal niche specialization in wild eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Intrinsic differences in exploration should drive daily activity patterns through differences in energy requirements, space use, or the speed to access resources. We used collar-mounted accelerometers to assess whether individual exploration profiles predicted: 1) daily overall dynamic body acceleration, reflecting overall activity levels; 2) mean activity duration and the rate of activity sequences, reflecting the structure of daily activity; and 3) patterns of dawn and dusk activity, reflecting temporal niche differentiation. Exploration and overall activity levels were weakly related. However, both dawn activity and rate of activity sequences increased with the speed of exploration. Overall, activity patterns varied according to temporal variability in food conditions. This study emphasizes the role of intrinsic behavioral differences in activity patterns in a wild animal population. Future studies will help us understand how yearly seasonality in reproduction, food abundance, and population density modulate personality-dependent foraging patterns and temporal niche specialization.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa022
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • The role of signaling constraints in defining optimal marginal costs of
           reliable signals
    • Authors: Harris K; Daon Y, Nanjundiah V, et al.
      Pages: 784 - 791
      Abstract: AbstractThe handicap principle was originally proposed to resolve the question of why, in their competition for mates, certain species invest in exaggerated ornaments that are often detrimental to their survival. Zahavi suggested that the traits that are most suitable to serve as signals are precisely those that require the burden of extra investment to increase in magnitude: that burden enables the signal to be correlated with the signaler’s quality. According to his model, the additional investment in signaling results in a functional advantage. It does so by providing more accurate information regarding the signaler as it increases the distinction between males of similar quality. There are a number of formalizations of this model, and experimental studies of the handicap principle have focused on testing them. Nonetheless, there is little consensus whether 1) ensuring reliability requires an additional investment or 2) traits that require a relatively higher investment to increase (have higher marginal costs) are selected as signals over those with lower marginal costs. Here, we present an agent-based mate choice model that quantifies the relative stability of signals with different marginal costs. Our model demonstrates how quality-independent constraints (in signal production and perception) affect the range of marginal costs for which a signal is informative. In turn, receiver preference for informative signals drives the selection of signals according to marginal cost. The presence or absence of signaling constraints can determine the outcome of costly signaling models and, thus, explain the different conclusions of Zahavi’s verbal model and its subsequent formalizations.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa025
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sexual size dimorphism and sexual selection in artiodactyls
    • Authors: Cassini M; Taborsky M.
      Pages: 792 - 797
      Abstract: AbstractSexual size dimorphism is biased toward males in most mammalian species. The most common explanation is precopulatory intramale sexual selection. Large males win fights and mate more frequently. In artiodactyls, previous tests of this hypothesis consisted of interspecific correlations of sexual dimorphism with group size as a surrogate for the intensity of sexual selection (Is). However, group size is not a proper measure of sexual selection for several reasons as is largely recognized in other mammalian taxa. I conducted an interspecific test on the role of sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism using the variance in genetic paternity as a proxy for the Is. I reviewed the literature and found 17 studies that allowed estimating Is= V/(W2), where V and W are the variance and mean number of offspring per male, respectively. A phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis indicated that dimorphism (Wm/Wf) showed a significant positive regression with the intensity of sexual selection but not group size (multiple r2= 0.40; F3,17= 12.78, P = 0.002). This result suggests that sexual selection may have played a role in the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in Artiodactyla. An alternative hypothesis based on natural selection is discussed.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa017
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Heritability and correlations among learning and inhibitory control traits
    • Authors: Langley E; Adams G, Beardsworth C, et al.
      Pages: 798 - 806
      Abstract: AbstractTo understand the evolution of cognitive abilities, we need to understand both how selection acts upon them and their genetic (co)variance structure. Recent work suggests that there are fitness consequences for free-living individuals with particular cognitive abilities. However, our current understanding of the heritability of these abilities is restricted to domesticated species subjected to artificial selection. We investigated genetic variance for, and genetic correlations among four cognitive abilities: inhibitory control, visual and spatial discrimination, and spatial ability, measured on >450 pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, over four generations. Pheasants were reared in captivity but bred from adults that lived in the wild and hence, were subject to selection on survival. Pheasant chicks are precocial and were reared without parents, enabling us to standardize environmental and parental care effects. We constructed a pedigree based on 15 microsatellite loci and implemented animal models to estimate heritability. We found moderate heritabilities for discrimination learning and inhibitory control (h2 = 0.17–0.23) but heritability for spatial ability was low (h2 = 0.09). Genetic correlations among-traits were largely positive but characterized by high uncertainty and were not statistically significant. Principle component analysis of the genetic correlation matrix estimate revealed a leading component that explained 69% of the variation, broadly in line with expectations under a general intelligence model of cognition. However, this pattern was not apparent in the phenotypic correlation structure which was more consistent with a modular view of animal cognition. Our findings highlight that the expression of cognitive traits is influenced by environmental factors which masks the underlying genetic structure.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa029
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Song overlapping, noise, and territorial aggression in great tits
    • Authors: Akçay Ç; Porsuk Y, Avşar A, et al.
      Pages: 807 - 814
      Abstract: AbstractCommunication often happens in noisy environments where interference from the ambient noise and other signalers may reduce the effectiveness of signals which may lead to more conflict between interacting individuals. Signalers may also evolve behaviors to interfere with signals of opponents, for example, by temporally overlapping them with their own, such as the song overlapping behavior that is seen in some songbirds during aggressive interactions. Song overlapping has been proposed to be a signal of aggressive intent, but few studies directly examined the association between song overlapping and aggressive behaviors of the sender. In the present paper, we examined whether song overlapping and ambient noise are associated positively with aggressive behaviors. We carried out simulated territorial intrusions in a population of great tits (Parus major) living in an urban–rural gradient to assess signaling and aggressive behaviors. Song overlapping was associated negatively with aggressive behaviors males displayed against a simulated intruder. This result is inconsistent with the hypothesis that song overlapping is an aggressive signal in this species. Ambient noise levels were associated positively with aggressive behaviors but did not correlate with song rate, song duration, or song overlapping. Great tits in noisy urban habitats may display higher levels of aggressive behaviors due to either interference of noise in aggressive communication or another indirect effect of noise.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa030
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • First explorations: ontogeny of central place foraging directions in two
           tropical seabirds
    • Authors: Collet J; Prudor A, Corbeau A, et al.
      Pages: 815 - 825
      Abstract: AbstractA widespread hypothesis for the ontogeny of behavior and decision-making is the early-exploration-later-canalization hypothesis. It postulates that juveniles are more exploratory and adults more consistent in their behavior. In addition, it is often assumed that naïve juveniles could overcome the costs of individual experience building by copying more the decisions of others than adults (early-conformism-later-self-defining hypothesis). Here, we compare the central place foraging movements of adults and postfledging juveniles in their first flights around the colony before dispersal and migration in two sympatric species of tropical seabirds: red-footed boobies and great frigatebirds. Using GPS records of individual movements, we analyzed the foraging directions of seabirds from the colony across successive trips. Juveniles of both species showed significant within-individual consistency in foraging direction but at lower levels than adults. Juveniles leaving the colony within the same time window showed significant but low between-individual resemblance in foraging direction at levels similar to adults. In both species, homing efficiency was lower in juveniles than in adults. Juvenile foraging directions were initially influenced by wind conditions, particularly in low wing loading frigatebirds. Wind conditions progressively lost influence on juvenile foraging directions during their first weeks of flights. In contrast, within-individual consistency, between-individual resemblance, and homing efficiency did not show signs of progression in juveniles. Our results support the early-exploration-later-canalization hypothesis but not the early-conformism-later-self-defining hypothesis. Relaxed constraints on self-feeding efficiency could favor high variability in postfledging tropical seabirds. Our simple approach could be applied to further test these hypotheses by comparing strategies across a wide range of central place foragers.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa028
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Age and location influence the costs of compensatory and accelerated
           growth in a hibernating mammal
    • Authors: Heissenberger S; de Pinho G, Martin J, et al.
      Pages: 826 - 833
      Abstract: AbstractThe increase of structural growth rates to compensate for a poor initial body condition, defined as compensatory growth, may have physiological costs, but little is known about its effects on individual fitness in the wild. Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) are obligate hibernators and depend on fat accumulation acquired during an approximately 4-month summer to survive overwinter. We investigated the costs of survival and longevity of rapid growth in a wild population of yellow-bellied marmots. We used trapping data collected from 2002 to 2014 to calculate individual relative seasonal growth and assess its effects on longevity and annual survival of juveniles, yearlings, and adults. Sites were distributed in two main areas, down-valley and up-valley; the latter has a higher elevation and is an overall harsher environment. We found that relative seasonal growth had no effect on individual longevity or on juvenile and adult annual survival. For yearlings, the effect of relative seasonal growth on survival depended on the location: yearlings with high relative seasonal growth had lower survival if located up-valley, and higher survival if located down-valley. In conclusion, juveniles and adults do not appear to have detectable costs of rapid growth, although there are costs to yearling survival depending on environmental conditions. Substantial structural growth occurs when marmots are yearlings and our results are likely driven by the high conflicting demands of somatic growth versus maintenance at this stage. Thus, the costs of rapid growth are age and site dependent and may be seen in the short term for species facing temporal constraints on growth.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa013
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Full spectra coloration and condition-dependent signaling in a skin-based
           carotenoid sexual ornament
    • Authors: Harris S; Kervinen M, Lebigre C, et al.
      Pages: 834 - 843
      Abstract: AbstractCarotenoid-based traits commonly act as condition-dependent signals of quality to both males and females. Such colors are typically quantified using summary metrics (e.g., redness) derived by partitioning measured reflectance spectra into blocks. However, perceived coloration is a product of the whole spectrum. Recently, new methods have quantified a range of environmental factors and their impact on reflection data at narrow wavebands across the whole spectrum. Using this approach, we modeled the reflectance of red integumentary eye combs displayed by male black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) as a function of ornament size and variables related to male quality. We investigated the strength and direction of effect sizes of variables at each waveband. The strongest effect on the spectra came from eye comb size, with a negative effect in the red part of the spectrum and a positive effect in ultraviolet reflectance. Plasma carotenoid concentration and body mass were also related to reflectance variance in differing directions across the entire spectra. Comparisons of yearlings and adults showed that the effects were similar but stronger on adult reflectance spectra. These findings suggest that reflectance in different parts of the spectrum is indicative of differing components of quality. This method also allows a more accurate understanding of how biologically relevant variables may interact to produce perceived coloration and multicomponent signals and where the strongest biological effects are found.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa031
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • Defense against predators incurs high reproductive costs for the
           aposematic moth Arctia plantaginis
    • Authors: Lindstedt C; Suisto K, Burdfield-Steel E, et al.
      Pages: 844 - 850
      Abstract: AbstractTo understand how variation in warning displays evolves and is maintained, we need to understand not only how perceivers of these traits select color and toxicity but also the sources of the genetic and phenotypic variation exposed to selection by them. We studied these aspects in the wood tiger moth Arctia plantaginis, which has two locally co-occurring male color morphs in Europe: yellow and white. When threatened, both morphs produce defensive secretions from their abdomen and from thoracic glands. Abdominal fluid has shown to be more important against invertebrate predators than avian predators, and the defensive secretion of the yellow morph is more effective against ants. Here, we focused on the morph-linked reproductive costs of secretion of the abdominal fluid and quantified the proportion of phenotypic and genetic variation in it. We hypothesized that, if yellow males pay higher reproductive costs for their more effective aposematic display, the subsequent higher mating success of white males could offer one explanation for the maintenance of the polymorphism. We first found that the heritable variation in the quantity of abdominal secretion was very low (h2 = 0.006) and the quantity of defensive secretion was not dependent on the male morph. Second, deploying the abdominal defensive secretion decreased the reproductive output of both color morphs equally. This suggests that potential costs of pigment production and chemical defense against invertebrates are not linked in A. plantaginis. Furthermore, our results indicate that environmentally induced variation in chemical defense can alter an individual’s fitness significantly.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa033
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
  • An invasive amphibian drives antipredator responses in two prey at
           different trophic positions
    • Authors: Secondi J; Raux F, Griffin A.
      Pages: 851 - 857
      Abstract: AbstractGeneralist invasive predators consume prey at different trophic levels and generate drastic changes in local communities. However, the long-term effects of predation may be reduced by eco-evolutionary responses of native populations. The capacity of prey species distributed across the trophic network to develop antipredator responses may determine the ecosystem potential to buffer against the invader. The African clawed frog is a major invader on several continents. Because of its large size, generalist diet, and aquatic lifestyle, we predicted the development of antipredator responses in prey species at different trophic levels. We tested for behavioral shifts between populations within and outside the invasive range in the herbivorous snail Physella acuta and the predatory heteropteran, the backswimmer Notonecta glauca. We detected antipredator responses in both prey species. In sympatry, P. acuta stayed higher in the water column, while N. glauca spent more time swimming underwater and less time surfacing when the predator cues were present. In allopatry, P. acuta dived deeper and N. glauca spent more time surfacing and stayed longer still underwater. In both species, sympatric populations showed evidence of olfactory recognition of the frog. Our results show that the introduction of a top predator like Xenopus laevis in the pond ecosystem drives behavioral antipredator responses in species across the trophic network. Eco-evolutionary processes may allow some degree of long-term resilience of pond communities to the invasion of X. laevis.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa036
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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