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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 369 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 493, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Behavioral Ecology
  [SJR: 1.698]   [H-I: 92]   [46 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Research credibility: the devil is in the details: a comment on Ihle et al
    • Authors: Blumstein DT.
      Abstract: Ihle et al. (2017) is a timely and important paper. Because the field of behavioral ecology expects and celebrates variability, variation should not necessarily be deemed wrong or irreproducible. Yet, to have faith in our results we must ensure best practices exist and are followed. Thus, arguing against a series of concrete suggestions, some of which seem to work in other fields, seems like arguing against (as an American) baseball, hotdogs, and apple pie! The devil, however, is in the details as well as the considerable inertia currently in the system. Cultures change when people benefit from changing their behavior; top down control rarely has the desired effects. I see some things that Ihle et al. (2017) suggest as in alignment with researcher needs (version control documentation, better archiving practices) and possibly more likely to “take”, while I see other things (pre-registration) a bigger up-hill challenge for widespread adoption.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
  • Practical models for publishing replications in behavioral ecology: a
           comment on Ihle et al.
    • Authors: Parker TH; Nakagawa S.
      Abstract: We would like to further develop the case made by Ihle et al. (2017) for more replication in behavioral ecology. Replication is an essential part of science. If we want to gain confidence in a given pattern or experimental result, we must determine if that result can be reproduced (Kelly 2006). This is particularly true in probabilistic disciplines such as behavioral ecology where we expect some of the patterns we observe to arise from chance alone (Nakagawa and Parker 2015). Given that the rate of false positives appears to far exceed 5% of all published statistically significant findings (Parker et al. 2016), we should demand replication before viewing any single result as other than preliminary and suggestive.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
  • Long-term data as infrastructure: a comment on Ihle et al.
    • Authors: Cockburn A.
      Abstract: Data are collected for many reasons. The easiest to consider are experimental tests of hypotheses. I agree wholeheartedly with Ihle et al. (2017) that in this case scientific integrity is facilitated by preregistration. However, I have previously argued that one of the difficulties that plagues behavioural ecology is failure to define and agree upon how hypotheses should be tested (Cockburn et al. 2002). Hence, many papers claim consistency with predictions of theory, but fall a long way short of an “adequate” test, and true replication is rare. Behavioral ecology is very prone to this problem because proper tests may take considerably longer than is allowed by a doctoral program or a 3-year research grant (Cockburn 2014). The time required for a full test is also a major disincentive to replication. However, if we were better at agreeing on what a test should look like, then I suspect replication in parallel would be far more common, allowing ideas with limited support to be discarded where appropriate. Papers proposing the criteria for a good test would be of enormous value.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
  • Striving for science that is transparent, credible—and enjoyable: a
           comment on Ihle et al.
    • Authors: Koenig WD.
      Abstract: Ihle et al. (2017) outline a program designed to enhance the reliability, accuracy, and impact of behavioral ecology research. These are all worthy goals, and many of the suggestions they offer would enhance not only the transparency of the scientific process but also benefit researchers, particularly when it comes to reconstructing the sometimes convoluted process that went into analyses performed years previously. There is also a strong argument for embracing many, if not all, of the precepts of the open science movement of which Ihle et al.’s proposals are a part. The more accessible our data, analyses, and thinking are to future workers, the more valuable and useful our work will be to them.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
  • Preregister now for an upgrade to Behavioral Ecology 2.0: a comment on
           Ihle et al.
    • Authors: Forstmeier W.
      Abstract: Let’s face it: there is an undeclared conflict of interest in our daily work that was already spotted 40 years ago (Greenwald 1975) and that has been hampering the transparency that Ihle et al. (2017) are calling for. Researchers obtain direct benefits from finding significant effects in their data and from selectively reporting those effects (Smaldino and McElreath 2016). Significant results are easier to publish than null results; they receive more media coverage and attract more citations, implying success that will likely get rewarded with grants, prizes, and a job.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
  • Replication in behavioural ecology: a comment on Ihle et al.
    • Authors: Hatchwell BJ.
      Abstract: Ihle et al. (2017) have made a valuable contribution to a current debate on open science. The general sentiment that scientific disciplines should be reliable, reproducible and replicable should, of course, hold for behavioural ecology as much as it does for any other scientific discipline, and while the extent of some of the problems they describe in our field is a matter for debate, few would disagree that we should adopt practices that enhance the transparency and credibility of behavioural ecology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
  • Transparent and credible practices under the microscope: a response to
           comments on Ihle et al.
    • Authors: Winney IS; Ihle M.
      Abstract: Improving research practices is a community project, and as such we are excited to have received many responses to our paper (Ihle et al. 2017). Overall, preregistration provoked the most reactions, ranging from enthusiasm to reluctance to adopt the measures, and we will dedicate most of our response to this topic. The remaining comments focused on replications. Hatchwell (2017) highlighted that they provide the raw data to study the underlying cause of variation. Almost in answer to this, Parker and Nakagawa (2017) proposed that journals append each replication to the original study, and that researchers launch groups of related replications or “replication batteries,” so that we can begin to understand the variation in our systems. Before addressing some common misunderstandings about preregistration, we need to stress that, as publically funded scientists, we are accountable for the work that we do. Facing drastic funding cuts and the erosion of public confidence, this is not the time to argue about whether unreliable, irreproducible, and nonreplicable methods are more fun or bring us personal success; it is the time to embrace more rigorous scientific practices.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
  • Striving for transparent and credible research: practical guidelines for
           behavioral ecologists
    • Authors: Ihle M; Winney IS, Krystalli A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractScience is meant to be the systematic and objective study of the world but evidence suggests that scientific practices are sometimes falling short of this expectation. In this invited idea, we argue that any failure to conduct research according to a documented plan (lack of reliability) and/or any failure to ensure that reconducting the same project would provide the same finding (lack of reproducibility), will result in a low probability of independent studies reaching the same outcome (lack of replicability). After outlining the challenges facing behavioral ecology and science more broadly and incorporating advice from international organizations such as the Center for Open Science (COS), we present clear guidelines and tutorials on what we think open practices represent for behavioral ecologists. In addition, we indicate some of the currently most appropriate and freely available tools for adopting these practices. Finally, we suggest that all journals in our field, such as Behavioral Ecology, give additional weight to transparent studies and therefore provide greater incentives to align our scientific practices to our scientific values. Overall, we argue that producing demonstrably credible science is now fully achievable for the benefit of each researcher individually and for our community as a whole.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
  • Guidelines for Transparency and Openness (TOP)
    • Authors: Simmons LW.
      Abstract: Following the 2016 ISBE Congress in Exeter, a group of delegates met for a post-congress symposium to discuss recent initiatives in improving transparency in behavioral ecology research. The discussion meeting was triggered by the open science movement, and new guidelines emerging from organizations such as The Centre for Open Science (COS) that are aimed at promoting research transparency and reproducibility. Rigorous publishing standards, with transparency and openness have long been core values at Behavioral Ecology so we invited the organizers and contributors to the post-congress symposium to write a review of their findings for publication in the Forum section of this issue. Together with Invited Commentaries from senior figures in the behavioral ecology community we aim to begin a discussion in our discipline on how to maintain the highest standards of scientific rigor. We encourage readers to contribute to this discussion via posts on the journal’s Facebook page.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18
  • Rain, predators, and spider sociality: a manipulative experiment
    • Authors: Hoffman CR; Avilés L.
      Abstract: AbstractGroup-living organisms offer a unique perspective on how environmental gradients influence geographic distributions, as not only the properties of individuals, but also those of their groups interact with the environment to determine a species range. In turn, the ranges of group-living organisms should provide insights on the conditions that favor group versus solitary living. Here we show that rain intensity and predation by ants, factors postulated to exclude subsocial Anelosimus spiders from the lowland tropical rainforest, are greater in this habitat than at higher elevations. We further show that experimentally excluding these factors increases the survival of subsocial Anelosimus colonies when transplanted to the lowland rainforest, but not at their native higher elevation range. While providing a rare experimental test of the simultaneous importance of abiotic and biotic gradients on species range limits, these results provide direct evidence that adverse environmental factors may prevent solitary living and require group living in certain environments.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
  • The carotenoid beta-carotene enhances facial color, attractiveness and
           perceived health, but not actual health, in humans
    • Authors: Foo Y; Rhodes G, Simmons LW.
      Abstract: AbstractCarotenoid-based coloration plays an important role in mate choice in many animal species. It is argued to be an honest signal of health because carotenoids function as antioxidants and only healthy individuals can afford to use available carotenoids for signaling. Here, we tested the effect of dietary supplementation of the carotenoid beta-carotene on facial appearance and health in human males. Beta-carotene supplementation altered skin color to increase facial attractiveness and perceived health. However, we found no effect of beta-carotene on measures of actual health, including oxidative stress, innate immune function, and semen quality. We conclude that although carotenoid-based skin color may be sexually selected in human males, it may not be an honest signal of health.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
  • Innovative females are more promiscuous in great tits ( Parus major )
    • Authors: Bókony V; Pipoly I, Szabó K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIndividual variation in the propensity to express innovative behaviors is increasingly recognized as ecologically and evolutionary significant. A growing number of studies show that more innovative individuals can realize higher breeding success, indicating that innovativeness may be important in mating decisions. Here we investigated whether male and female performance in innovative problem-solving tasks is linked to sexual selection via extra-pair mating behavior. We observed the problem-solving success of great tit (Parus major) pairs in 2 tasks at the nest, and related it to the occurrence of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in their broods. In a food-acquisition task, we found no difference in EPP among pairs in which the male solved, pairs in which the female solved, and unsuccessful pairs. In an obstacle-removal task that was solved almost exclusively by females, EPP was more frequent in broods of solver females than in broods of unsuccessful females. These results do not support the hypothesis that the social male’s innovativeness influences the female’s extra-pair mating behavior. Instead, they suggest that the female’s infidelity covaries positively with her innovativeness. Furthermore, EPP was related to both parents’ neophobia such that pairs of highly neophobic individuals were less likely to have EPP than pairs that contained at least one individual with low neophobia. These findings indicate that promiscuity is associated with certain behavioral phenotypes, suggesting that both innovativeness and novelty seeking may facilitate the investment into and/or the exposure to extra-pair mating attempts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
  • Food-sharing vampire bats are more nepotistic under conditions of
           perceived risk
    • Authors: Carter GG; Wilkinson GS, Page RA.
      Abstract: AbstractCooperative behaviors exist along a spectrum of cost, from no-risk scenarios of mutual benefit to self-sacrificing altruism. Hamilton’s rule predicts that as risk increases, cooperative decisions should become increasingly kin-biased (nepotistic). To manipulate the perceived risks of regurgitated food sharing in captive vampire bats, we created a novel “rescue” condition, which required that donors leave their preferred roosting location, descend to an illuminated spot on the cage floor, and regurgitate food across cage bars to a trapped hungry bat. Vampire bats adapted their food sharing to this novel context, but with a dramatic reduction in the probability and amount of food sharing. Sixteen of 29 bats were fed by groupmates when trapped. All 15 starved bats that were tested in both trapped and free conditions received less food when trapped. Donations to trapped bats came from kin and nonkin, but subjects received a greater proportion of their food from closer relatives when trapped than when free. This finding supports the prediction that nepotistic biases should be exaggerated under dangerous conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-05
  • Male risk-taking is related to number of mates in a polygynous bird
    • Authors: Habig B; Chiyo PI, Lahti DC.
      Abstract: AbstractEvolutionary theory predicts that when intrasexual competition is intense, risky behaviors can evolve if they enhance reproductive success. Here we tested the idea that polygynous males exhibit predictable variation in risk-taking during intense competition for mates. We conducted an observational study of a village weaverbird (Ploceus cucullatus) breeding colony, and video recorded synchronous fleeing events, a common predator avoidance behavior. Males adjusted their flight from the colony according to the amplitude (loudness) and Wiener entropy (harshness) of conspecific alarm calls during a perceived threat. Males also varied in how often they fled the colony. Specifically, in line with predictions based on the value of a male’s territory, males with more nesting females were less likely to flee, and returned sooner if they did flee, compared to males with fewer nesting females. Males with a nest under construction also returned to their nests sooner than males without constructions in progress, consistent with predictions based on nest sabotage by conspecifics. These results suggest that male weavers perform a cost-benefit analysis in real time in order to decide how to respond to a perceived threat, with self-protection trading off with the security of one’s territory and mates.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Relative advantages of dichromatic and trichromatic color vision in
           camouflage breaking
    • Authors: Troscianko J; Wilson-Aggarwal J, Griffiths D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThere is huge diversity in visual systems and color discrimination abilities, thought to stem from an animal’s ecology and life history. Many primate species maintain a polymorphism in color vision, whereby most individuals are dichromats but some females are trichromats, implying that selection sometimes favors dichromatic vision. Detecting camouflaged prey is thought to be a task where dichromatic individuals could have an advantage. However, previous work either has not been able to disentangle camouflage detection from other ecological or social explanations, or did not use biologically relevant cryptic stimuli to test this hypothesis under controlled conditions. Here, we used online “citizen science” games to test how quickly humans could detect cryptic birds (incubating nightjars) and eggs (of nightjars, plovers and coursers) under trichromatic and simulated dichromatic viewing conditions. Trichromats had an overall advantage, although there were significant differences in performance between viewing conditions. When searching for consistently shaped and patterned adult nightjars, simulated dichromats were more heavily influenced by the degree of pattern difference than were trichromats, and were poorer at detecting prey with inferior pattern and luminance camouflage. When searching for clutches of eggs—which were more variable in appearance and shape than the adult nightjars—the simulated dichromats learnt to detect the clutches faster, but were less sensitive to subtle luminance differences. These results suggest there are substantial differences in the cues available under viewing conditions that simulate different receptor types, and that these interact with the scene in complex ways to affect camouflage breaking.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Color pattern facilitates species recognition but not signal detection: a
           field test using robots
    • Authors: Klomp DA; Stuart-Fox D, Cassidy EJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThere are many factors that affect signal design, including the need for rapid signal detection and the ability to identify the signal as conspecific. Understanding these different sources of selection on signal design is essential to explain the evolution of both signal complexity and signal diversity. We assessed the relative importance of detection and recognition for signal design in the black-bearded gliding lizard, Draco melanopogon, which uses the extension and retraction of a large, black-and-white dewlap (or throat fan) in territorial communication. We presented free-living lizards with robots displaying dewlaps of different designs that varied in the proportion of the black and white components. We found no effect of dewlap brightness or design on the time it took for a lizard to detect the robot, consistent with the view that initial detection is likely to be primarily elicited by movement rather than specific color or pattern. However, males (but not females) responded with a greater intensity to the dewlap treatment that most resembled the natural dewlap color and design of the species. Furthermore, males were more likely to display to any dewlap color in the presence of a neighbor. These results suggest that dewlap pattern may play an important role in species recognition but has minimal influence on the initial detection of the signal. Importantly, our results also highlight that factors unrelated to discrimination, such as social cues and individual motivational state, may affect responses to species identity cues.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
  • Discrimination behavior mediates foraging quality versus quantity
           trade-offs: nut choice in wild rodents
    • Authors: Chen W; Zhang Z, Buesching CD, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDiscrimination, the ability to distinguish sensory stimuli and respond accordingly, is a critical factor underscoring optimal foraging decisions. Nevertheless, little is known about how mammals discriminate between apparently similar foods of different quality. Here, we compared the foraging behavior of Chinese white-bellied rats, Niviventer confucianus, and Edwards’s long-tailed giant rats, Leopoldamys edwardsi, under natural conditions in the field and in a captive enclosure without predation/competition. We examined the behavioral processes involved in discriminating between sound (i.e., undamaged) and insect larvae-infested nuts of seguin chestnuts (Castanea seguinii) and demonstrated that both rats could discriminate nut quality, where nut examination improved the rats’ success rate at selecting sound nuts. Despite similar extents of discrimination-derived benefit in both settings for each species, differences between species-specific discrimination processes were identified. Chinese white-bellied rats engaged in a higher relative frequency and longer duration of nut examination in the enclosure than in the wild. This indicates that they alter their feeding strategy to trade-off selection for nut quality in captivity for a quantity-driven strategy in the field. In contrast, giant rats showed a consistent relative frequency of nut examination in both experimental settings. Their fixed strategy balanced food quality and quantity primarily to maximize caloric uptake without compromise when faced with predation or competition risk. We posit that this behavioral difference in optimal foraging between rat species is mediated by their differing, size-dependent energetic requirements as well as the higher competition pressure and predation risk faced by the approximately 8 times smaller white-bellied rats.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
  • Redder isn’t always better: cost of carotenoids in Chinook salmon
    • Authors: Lehnert SJ; Devlin RH, Pitcher TE, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCarotenoids provide animals with many fitness benefits through increased mating success, immune function, gamete quality, and antioxidant capacity. Despite these benefits, carotenoids are not utilized equally by all animals, implying trade-offs associated with the pigments; although, few studies have quantified fitness costs of carotenoid pigmentation. Salmon are known for their conspicuous red coloration; however, amongst Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a natural genetic color polymorphism exists (red and white morphs) which results in carotenoid-based color differences in eggs and other tissues. Although the fitness benefit of egg carotenoid content on egg incubation survival has been demonstrated, carotenoid pigmentation also results in highly visible eggs vulnerable to predation. Therefore, although white Chinook salmon eggs experience costs in terms of viability, a potential benefit in terms of reduced predation could help explain the maintenance of the polymorphism. Here, using red and white eggs from wild Chinook salmon, we show that increased carotenoid content of salmon eggs leads to greater predation risk. We found that 2 populations of wild-type rainbow trout (O. mykiss; an ecologically relevant predator) showed a significant bias for red eggs over white eggs under choice experiments, where red eggs were consumed first twice as often and significantly faster than white eggs. Our study suggests that trade-offs between red and white Chinook salmon during the egg stage provide an evolutionary mechanism promoting the maintenance of the unique Chinook salmon color polymorphism in nature, while also, for the first time, demonstrating a direct fitness cost of carotenoids in salmon.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
  • Habitat saturation promotes delayed dispersal in a social reptile
    • Authors: Halliwell B; Uller T, Chapple DG, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractWhen and where offspring disperse has important implications for the evolutionary emergence and maintenance of group living. In noncooperative breeders, direct benefits of delayed dispersal are relatively limited, suggesting that decisions regarding whether or not to remain in the parental territory are largely driven by the availability of suitable habitat in which to settle. Although there is ample evidence of correlations between habitat saturation and delayed dispersal, experimental tests are rare, particularly for species with facultative group formation. We manipulated the density of conspecifics in enclosed populations of a family living reptile to experimentally evaluate the influence of habitat saturation on the tendency to delay dispersal. Habitat saturation did not influence whether or not offspring explored their surroundings. However, when conspecific density was high, more offspring delayed dispersal and those that did settle in high-density enclosures had reduced survival. These patterns appear to be due to increased dispersal costs imposed by conspecific aggression; offspring that explored high-density enclosures had reduced body condition and a greater risk of mortality. We discuss these results in the context of the evolutionary origins of family living.
      PubDate: 2017-01-02
  • Adult sex ratio and operational sex ratio exhibit different temporal
           dynamics in the wild
    • Authors: Carmona-Isunza M; Ancona S, Székely T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAdult sex ratio (ASR, the proportion of adult males in the adult population) and operational sex ratio (OSR, the proportion of sexually active males in the mating pool) are fundamental properties of breeding populations and they are often linked to mating systems and sexual selection. However, ASR and OSR emerge via different routes in a population and may exhibit different temporal patterns. Here, we use data from a well-monitored polygamous snowy plover Charadrius nivosus population sampled over 3 consecutive breeding seasons to investigate whether temporal changes in ASR relate to changes in OSR. We found that snowy plovers exhibited male-biased ASR and OSR. Consistent with theoretical expectations, OSR was more variable than ASR. However, there was no consistent relationship between OSR and ASR: in only 1 of the 3 study years we found a weak positive relationship (r = 0.22). The lack of association was corroborated by time series analyses and sensitivity tests. Our work therefore suggests that ASR and OSR exhibit different temporal patterns in a polygamous population, and we call for further theoretical and empirical studies that analyze their relationship across a range of different breeding systems.
      PubDate: 2017-01-02
  • Social call divergence in bats: a comparative analysis
    • Authors: Luo B; Huang X, Li Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAcoustic signals mediate important life history events in a variety of species, providing new vistas for understanding speciation. It has been proposed that animal acoustic signals undergo complex interactions among morphology, ecology, social pressure, and phylogenetic history. Yet, the relative importance of these factors in shaping acoustic divergence is rarely assessed within a comparative framework. Herein, we aim to investigate the key determinants of social call divergence across 31 bat species from 5 families. We compiled a wide data set on bat aggressive calls, body size, foraging habitats, foraging modes, climatic conditions, colony size, and phylogenetic components. We identified remarkable interspecific divergence versus within-species variation in aggressive vocalizations. Despite weak effects of ecological factors, colony size, body size, and phylogenetic components accounted for the majority of variation in call parameters among species. The colony size and body size played a major role in influencing spectral parameters, whereas phylogenetic relationships determined call duration and minimum frequency. Together, our findings constitute convincing evidence that sociality, morphological constraint, and phylogenetic constraint mold social call divergence in bats. This study expands our limited knowledge of the evolution of bat social calls, and highlights the importance of sociality in driving acoustic phenotype diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-01-02
  • Overlapping vocalizations produce far-reaching choruses: a test of the
           signal enhancement hypothesis
    • Authors: Rehberg-Besler N; Doucet SM, Mennill DJ.
      Abstract: AbstractMany animals gather in large groups to mate. When these animals produce sexual signals, their signals may overlap. The signal enhancement hypothesis proposes that overlapping signals exhibit enhanced transmission properties, increasing the active space and potency of the signal. We tested this hypothesis using multispeaker playback to simulate a chorus of explosively breeding Neotropical Yellow Toads (Incilius luetkenii). We varied the number of simulated males and the frequency of their vocalizations and we rerecorded the choruses at different distances through this species’ native habitat in Costa Rica. Our results support the signal enhancement hypothesis: transmission distance increased with the number of simultaneous calls. Call frequency varies inversely with body size in many animals, including Yellow Toads, and our results reveal that the signal enhancement effect of overlapping calls is heightened when the calls are low in frequency (i.e., a chorus of large-bodied animals) compared to medium or high frequency (i.e., a chorus of smaller-bodied animals). Our findings represent the first experimental demonstration of chorus-level signal enhancement in the vocalizations of vertebrates.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29
  • A multilevel society of herring-eating killer whales indicates adaptation
           to prey characteristics
    • Authors: Tavares SB; Samarra FP, Miller PO.
      Abstract: AbstractNon-social factors can influence animal social structure. In killer whales (Orcinus orca), fish- versus mammal-eating ecological differences are regarded as key ecological drivers of their multilevel society, including group size, but the potential importance of specific target prey remains unclear. Here, we investigate the social structure of herring-eating killer whales in Iceland and compare it to the described social structures of primarily salmon- and seal-eating populations in the Northeast Pacific, which form stable coherent basic units nested within a hierarchical multilevel society. Using 29023 photographs collected over 6 years, we examined the association patterns of 198 individuals combining clustering, social network structure, and temporal patterns of association analysis. The Icelandic population had largely weak but non-random associations, which were not completely assorted by known ranging patterns. A fission–fusion dynamic of constant and temporary associations was observed but this was not due to permanent units joining. The population-level society was significantly structured but not in a clear hierarchical tier system. Social clusters were highly diverse in complexity and there were indications of subsclusters. There was no indication of dispersal nor strong sex differences in associations. These results indicate that the Icelandic herring-eating killer whale population has a multilevel social structure without clear hierarchical tiers or nested coherent social units, different from other populations of killer whales. We suggest that local ecological context, such as the characteristics of the specific target prey (e.g., predictability, biomass, and density) and subsequent foraging strategies may strongly influence killer whale social association patterns.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29
  • Are 2D space-use analyses adapted to animals living in 3D environments? A
           case study on a fish shoal
    • Authors: Vivancos A; Closs G, Tentelier C.
      Abstract: AbstractMethodologies enabling the monitoring of animal movement and behavior in 3-dimensions (3D; x, y, z, the latter accounting for the vertical dimension) are becoming increasingly accessible and can be deployed on entire groups of animals inhabiting 3D habitats. When 2-dimensional (2D; x, y) space-use analyses are used on such groups, their spatial organization is represented as a planar projection of individuals’ space-use. Movement on the vertical dimension is ignored and could biased ecological inference made from the spatial structure of the group. We used a digital imaging technique to track movements and feeding behavior of individual animals within a free-range aggregation of juvenile drift-feeding fish (Galaxias anomalus) in 3D and at fine spatiotemporal scales. We estimated spatiotemporal overlap of space-use and feeding territories between group-members using 2D (x, y) and 3D spatial analysis to: (1) describe the spatial structure of the group, (2) identify patterns of resource partitioning, and (3) investigate the relationship between space-use overlap and feeding behavior. We found that overlapping ratios of space-use and feeding territories were over-estimated in 2D, while 3D analysis of space-use provided evidence of spatial partitioning between group-members. We also found that, regardless of the computation used, the overlapping ratios of space-use were positively correlated with overlapping ratios of feeding territories while no effect was found on feeding activity. In conclusion, whilst 3D analysis provided valuable information on the spatial structure of a group, inferences on the ecological function of space-use can also be obtained from 2D analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
  • Environmental heterogeneity and population differences in blue tits
           personality traits
    • Authors: Dubuc-Messier G; Réale D, Perret P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractEnvironmental heterogeneity can result in spatial variation in selection pressures that can produce local adaptations. The pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis predicts that habitat-specific selective pressures will favor the coevolution of personality, physiological, and life-history phenotypes. Few studies so far have compared these traits simultaneously across different ecological conditions. In this study, we compared 3 personality traits (handling aggression, exploration speed in a novel environment, and nest defense behavior) and 1 physiological trait (heart rate during manual restraint) across 3 Corsican blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) populations. These populations are located in contrasting habitats (evergreen vs. deciduous) and are situated in 2 different valleys 25 km apart. Birds from these populations are known to differ in life-history characteristics, with birds from the evergreen habitat displaying a slow pace-of-life, and birds from the deciduous habitat a comparatively faster pace-of-life. We expected personality to differ across populations, in line with the differences in pace-of-life documented for life-history traits. As expected, we found behavioral differences among populations. Despite considerable temporal variation, birds exhibited lower handling aggression in the evergreen populations. Exploration speed and male heart rate also differed across populations, although our results for exploration speed were more consistent with a phenotypic difference between the 2 valleys than between habitats. There were no clear differences in nest defense intensity among populations. Our study emphasizes the role of environmental heterogeneity in shaping population divergence in personality traits at a small spatial scale.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
  • Which traits do observers use to distinguish Batesian mimics from their
    • Authors: Taylor CH; Warrin J, Gilbert F, et al.
      Abstract: Batesian mimicry, in which a harmless mimic resembles a more aversive model, can encompass a wide range of morphological traits, but the resemblance is never perfect. Previous studies have used abstract “prey” designs to show that differences in certain traits may not be relevant to mimicry if they are not perceived or recognized by a predator. Here, we extend these results by examining how human “predators” respond to realistic variation in traits of aposematic wasps and their hoverfly mimics. We measured the ability of humans to discriminate between images of wasps and hoverflies in which only certain traits were visible, to determine the contributions of those traits to discrimination decisions. We found that shape is a particularly useful and easily learnt trait for separating the 2 taxa. Subjects did not successfully discriminate on the basis of abdominal patterns, despite those containing useful information. Color similarity between wasps and hoverflies is relatively high in comparison with other traits, suggesting that selection has acted more strongly on color. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of natural variation in the traits of prey and their salience to predators for understanding the evolution of prey defenses.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
  • When should I be aggressive? A state-dependent foraging game between
    • Authors: Shuai L; Zhang Z, Zeng Z.
      Abstract: AbstractMore often than not, animals forage with other foragers present. A foraging game may take place when the outcome of a forager’s actions depends on both its own and other foragers’ strategies. Previous studies on predator–prey systems have verified that complex state-dependent foraging games exist between predators and prey. In this study, we looked for evidence of such a state-dependent foraging game between intra-guild competitors. We studied a desert rodent system featuring 2 coexisting species known to compete with each other: midday gerbils (Meriones meridianus, the dominant competitor) and 3-toed jerboas (Dipus sagitta, the subordinate competitor). We simultaneously manipulated the energetic states of both species and allowed them to forage and interact in arenas with artificial food patches. We found that both species responded to their own energetic states, whereas hungry jerboas also significantly responded to gerbils’ energetic state in terms of food harvest. Gerbils preferred to carry food items away when foraging alone but switched to on-tray consumption when jerboas were present. Jerboas harvested more food when gerbils were hungry and the most intensive interference occurred when hungry jerboas encountered well-fed gerbils. A plausible explanation for these results is that the future rather than current value of cacheable food is more important to well-fed gerbils. In contrast, hungry gerbils prefer immediate consumption to completely excluding jerboas from resource patches.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
  • Aggressive jumping spiders make quicker decisions for preferred prey but
           not at the cost of accuracy
    • Authors: Chang C; Ng PJ, Li D.
      Abstract: AbstractThere has been an increasing interest in consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., personality) in recent years. However, consistent interindividual differences in cognitive styles remain largely unexplored. Individual differences in cognitive styles are hypothesized to be functionally related to differences in personality types. It is assumed that proactive individuals make faster decisions at the expense of accuracy (i.e., the speed–accuracy trade-offs hypothesis). Here, we investigated the relationship between personality and speed–accuracy trade-off using Portia labiata, a specialized spider-eating jumping spider that exhibits excellent cognitive ability. We first established consistent individual differences in aggressiveness and decision-making in P. labiata. We then tested whether individual differences in aggressiveness could predict how fast and accurately P. labiata makes a prey-choice decision (a large vs. a small orb-web spider). We demonstrated that P. labiata exhibited individual differences not only in aggressiveness, but also in the speed of prey-choice decisions but not in the choices. Importantly, we found that aggressiveness was not related to the choice of the prey, but it predicted the speed of prey-choice decision: aggressive individuals were faster to make choices than docile ones but both chose large spiders as preferred prey. This suggests a lack of an association between a speed–accuracy trade-off and variation in personality types of P. labiata.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
  • Dominance rank and boldness predict social attraction in great tits
    • Authors: Snijders L; Naguib M, van Oers K.
      Abstract: AbstractSocial relationships can have important fitness consequences, and how well an individual is socially connected often correlates with other behavioral traits. Whether such correlations are caused by underlying individual differences in social attraction usually remains unclear, because to identify effects of individual traits on social attraction, it is essential to experimentally exclude the influence of the social partner. Using standardized high-definition video playback on captive great tits (Parus major), we effectively demonstrate the influence of individual traits on the motivation to be near a conspecific. We show that social attraction varied contrastingly with boldness and stimulus novelty. Shyer birds tended to show stronger social attraction when they were confronted with the stimulus bird for the first time. Lower ranked birds showed the overall strongest social attraction. This rank effect remained after experimentally changing dominance ranks by altering group compositions. Moreover, preference for social association tended to increase with a decrease in dominance rank, suggesting that birds plastically change their social preference in relation to their within-group dominance status. Our results provide insight into how social relations can form and change, processes that are key for understanding the long-term consequences of the social environment, and the role individuals might play in influencing this environment themselves.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
  • Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird
    • Authors: Bebbington K; Kingma SA, Fairfield EA, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMany studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a suite of hypothesized immediate (early-life body mass, telomere length, and survival) and delayed (adult reproductive potential and lifespan) costs of sibling rivalry for offspring of differing competitive ability in Seychelles warblers, where most offspring are raised singly and hence competitor success can be compared to a competition-free scenario. Compared to those raised alone, all competing nestlings had lower body mass and weaker competitors experienced reduced survival. However, the stronger competitors appeared to have longer adult breeding tenures and lifespan than those raised alone. We propose that comparisons with competition-free groups, as well as detailed fitness measures across entire lifetimes, are needed to understand the evolution of sibling rivalry and thus individual reproductive strategy in wild systems.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
  • Individual shifts toward safety explain age-related foraging distribution
           in a gregarious shorebird
    • Authors: van den Hout PJ; Piersma T, ten Horn J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough age-related spatial segregation is ubiquitous, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we aim to elucidate the processes behind a previously established age-related foraging distribution of red knots (Calidris canutus canutus) in their main wintering area in West Africa (Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania). Based on 10 years of observations of 1232 uniquely color-ringed individuals of 1 to 18+ years old, we examined whether the observed age-related foraging distribution resulted from 1) spatial differences in mortality or 2) age-related shifts in habitat use. Using multistate capture–recapture modeling, we showed that with age foraging red knots moved away from the shoreline, that is, to areas with fewer surprise attacks by raptors. Considering uncertainties in the subjective gradient in predation danger with increasing distance from shore (as assessed from correlations between vigilance and distance from shore in foraging birds), we applied 2 different danger zone boundaries, at 40 m and 500 m from shore. Between years, red knots had a much higher chance to move from the dangerous nearshore area to the “safe” area beyond (71–78% and 26% for 40-m and 500-m danger zone boundary, respectively), than vice versa (4% and 14%). For neither danger zone boundary value did we find differences in annual mortality for individuals using either dangerous or safe zone, so the move away from the shore with age is attributed to individual careers rather than differential mortality. We argue that longitudinal studies like ours will reveal that ontogenetic shifts in habitat use are more common than so far acknowledged.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
  • Guppies occupy consistent positions in social networks: mechanisms and
    • Authors: Krause S; Wilson AM, Ramnarine IW, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe social network approach has focused increasing attention on the complex web of relationships found in animal groups and populations. As such, network analysis has been used frequently to identify the role that particular individuals play in their social interactions and this approach has led to the question of whether, and in what context, individuals consistently occupy certain positions within their network. Here we investigated the social networks of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, in the wild and tested whether 1) individual fish occupy consistent positions in their network and 2) whether these positions are robust to experimental manipulations to their habitat. Our habitat manipulations involved increasing and decreasing the surface area of their pools as well as translocating an entire pool population between different pools in situ. We found that guppies did indeed consistently occupy positions within their social networks, irrespective of the type of manipulation and that individual network positions vary between individuals. Our results suggest that at least 2 factors contribute to the observed individual variation in network position including 1) the tendency to be social and 2) sex-specific social preferences. Finally, we used a simulation to explore the implications of individuals consistently occupying different network positions regarding the exposure of fish to parasites and predators. The time until infection decreased with increasing rank of individual betweenness and the predation risk increased with decreasing rank of the individual node strength thus illustrating the potential ecological and evolutionary consequences of consistent network positions.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
  • Fearlessness towards extirpated large carnivores may exacerbate the
           impacts of na├»ve mesocarnivores
    • Authors: Suraci JP; Roberts DJ, Clinchy M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBy suppressing mesocarnivore foraging, the fear large carnivores inspire can be critical to mitigating mesocarnivore impacts. Where large carnivores have declined, mesocarnivores may quantitatively increase foraging, commensurate with reductions in fear. The extirpation of large carnivores may further exacerbate mesocarnivore impacts by causing qualitative changes in mesocarnivore behavior. Error management theory suggests that, where predators are present, prey should be biased towards over-responsiveness to predator cues, abandoning foraging in response to both predator cues and benign stimuli mistaken for predator cues (false-positives). Where predators are absent, prey may avoid these foraging costs by becoming unresponsive (naïve) to both predator cues and false-positives. If naiveté occurs in mesocarnivores where large carnivores have been extirpated, it could substantively exacerbate their impacts, as “fearless” mesocarnivores may engage in virtually unrestricted foraging. We tested the naiveté of raccoons (Procyon lotor) to extirpated large carnivores in the context of a larger experiment demonstrating that fear of large carnivores can mediate mesocarnivore impacts. Raccoon responsiveness to playbacks of their extirpated large carnivore predators (cougars, Puma concolor; bears, Ursus americanus) was significantly less than to the only extant large carnivore predator (dogs), and was no greater than to non-predators (“seals”; Phoca vitulina, Eumetopias jubatus). Raccoons failed to recognize their now extirpated predators as threatening, spending as much time foraging as when hearing non-predators, which we estimate has substantive impacts, based on results from the larger experiment. We discuss the potentially powerful role of “fearlessness” in exacerbating mesocarnivore impacts in systems where large carnivores have been lost.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
  • Male mate choice in the Trinidadian guppy is influenced by the phenotype
           of audience sexual rivals
    • Authors: Auld HL; Ramnarine IW, Godin JJ.
      Abstract: AbstractIn populations with male mate-choice copying, males may mitigate their risk of sexual competition by reducing their preference for a particular female in the presence of sexual rivals (audience). Because of the cost of missed mating opportunities from such an audience effect, males should reduce their mating preference to a greater extent in the presence of more sexually competitive rivals compared with less competitive ones. We tested this hypothesis using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). We compared a focal male’s baseline mating preference for either of 2 stimulus females, which differed in overall body size, in the absence of any sexual rival to his preference for the same females in the presence of a sexual rival using dichotomous-choice tests. Focal and audience males differed in body length and proportion of their body covered in orange and black pigmentation. In the presence of a larger rival, focal males exhibited a greater reduction in preference for their initially preferred female compared to focal males in the presence of a smaller rival, irrespective of whether the latter male was more or less ornamented than the focal. The strength of the initial mating preference of focal males and the magnitude of the audience effect were significantly positively correlated when the audience male was larger than the focal male. Male guppies are thus sensitive to the phenotype of nearby males and alter their preference for a particular mate to a greater extent in the presence of relatively larger eavesdropping males compared to smaller ones.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16
  • Stripes for warning and stripes for hiding: spatial frequency and
           detection distance
    • Authors: Barnett JB; Redfern AS, Bhattacharyya-Dickson R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractStriped patterns are common in nature and are used both as warning signals and camouflage. Their effectiveness in either role depends on their color and spatial frequency, and how these compare to the background. Although this general principle is well established, the specific detail of how visual texture influences defensive coloration remains untested in the field. For aposematic patterns, especially, little work has focused on how pattern components, as opposed to color, affect warning signal efficacy. By presenting artificial moth-like stimuli, pinned to tree bark, to wild avian predators, and human observers, we examine how the spatial frequency and orientation of stripes affects the survival and detectability of yellow-and-black (aversive) and olive-and-black (cryptic) patterns. For the cryptic stripes, we find that matching the dominant spatial frequency and orientation of the background increases survival against bird predation and decreases the distance from which humans first detect the target. For aversive stripes, however, survival against birds peaked at spatial frequencies that neither matched the dominant background spatial frequency nor maximized the mismatch between target and background. This peak in survival at intermediate spatial frequencies did not match detectability by humans: there was no difference in the initial detection distance between stripes of different spatial frequencies, although the distance at which stripes could be resolved did differ. We suggest that, although the best cryptic strategy is to match the dominant components of the background as closely as possible, the optimal aposematic signal is one that balances signal distinctiveness and recognition at a distance.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
  • Using playback of territorial calls to investigate mechanisms of kin
           discrimination in red squirrels
    • Authors: Shonfield J; Gorrell JC, Coltman DW, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractKin recognition can facilitate kin selection and may have played a role in the evolution of sociality. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) defend territories using vocalizations known as rattles. They use rattles to discriminate kin, though the mechanism underlying this ability is unknown. Our objective was to distinguish between the mechanisms of prior association, where animals learn the phenotypes of kin they associate with early in life, and phenotype matching/recognition alleles, where animals use a template to match phenotypes, thereby allowing them to recognize kin without an association early in life. We used audio playbacks to measure the responses of squirrels to rattles from familiar kin, unfamiliar kin, and non-kin. Initial analyses revealed that red squirrels did not discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar kin, but also did not discriminate between kin and non-kin, despite previous evidence indicating this capability. Post hoc analyses showed that a squirrel’s propensity to rattle in response to playback depended on an interaction between relatedness and how the playback stimuli had been recorded. Red squirrels discriminated between rattles from close kin (r = 0.5) and rattles from non-kin (r < 0.125) when the rattles were recorded from provoked squirrels. Squirrels did not exhibit kin discrimination in response to unsolicited rattles. Once we accounted for how the stimuli had been recorded, we found no difference in the responses to familiar and unfamiliar kin. Our study suggests that kin discrimination by red squirrels may be context dependent.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
  • The relative response of songbirds to shifts in song amplitude and song
           minimum frequency
    • Authors: Luther DA; Danner R, Danner J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAnthropogenic noise presents a problem for acoustic communication in animal taxa around the world. Many animals respond by modifying their acoustic signals, sometimes along multiple axes, such as song structure, redundancy, or amplitude. To date, no study has assayed the relative response of animals to multiple axes of signal variation, such as song structure and song amplitude, associated with anthropogenic noise levels. To investigate the impact of multiple potential adaptations to anthropogenic noise on targeted receivers, we manipulated song amplitude and song minimum frequency of white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) songs. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design of playback experiments to measure male territorial responses to songs that were relatively quiet or loud in relation to typical Z. leucophrys songs and with lower or higher minimum frequencies within the range of natural Z. leucophrys songs. Males responded more strongly to louder songs than to quieter songs and more strongly to lower than to higher minimum frequency songs, with the strongest responses to louder songs with relatively lower minimum frequencies. These results indicate that whether or not increasing amplitude or increasing minimum frequency is more effective at increasing signal transmission distance in anthropogenic noise, increases in signal amplitude increase signal salience in male–male interactions. Thus in the context of territoriality and sexual selection, an increase in song amplitude can compensate for losses in signal salience due to higher minimum frequency. An increase in only song minimum frequency in the context of low frequency anthropogenic noise could be maladaptive.
      PubDate: 2016-12-11
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