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Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 600, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Behavioral Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.871
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 52  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [397 journals]
  • Erratum to: The importance of understanding costs and benefits: a comment
           on Christensen and Radford
    • Authors: Ridley A; Mirville M.
      Abstract: Behavioral Ecology, ary063,
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary107
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Erratum to: The importance of holistically evaluating data: a comment on
    • Authors: Amsalem E; Grozinger C.
      Abstract: Behavioral Ecology, ary082,
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary108
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Queen pheromones and reproductive division of labor: a meta-analysis
    • Authors: Holman L.
      Pages: 1199 - 1209
      Abstract: Our understanding of chemical communication between social insect queens and workers has advanced rapidly in recent years. Several studies have identified chemicals produced by queens and other fertile females that apparently induce sterility in other colony members. However, other experiments produced nonsignificant results, leading some to argue either that earlier reports were mistaken, or that some queen pheromones only work in specific contexts. Here, I review the experimental evidence using meta-analysis, and show that there is near-universal support for the hypothesis that fertility-related chemicals cause sterility regardless of context; studies finding otherwise can be explained most parsimoniously as false negatives. Additionally, queen pheromone experiments that were not performed blind recorded much stronger effect sizes, suggesting bias. I conclude by highlighting several outstanding questions in the field, and by offering recommendations for future studies.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary023
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • The importance of holistically evaluating data: a comment on Holman
    • Authors: Amsalem E; Grozinger C.
      Pages: 1210 - 1211
      Abstract: Holman (2018) uses a meta-analysis of published studies to examine whether previously identified queen chemical signals can induce sterility in workers in social insect colonies. Although we applaud this attempt to synthesize the literature in this growing field, we caution readers that the underlying hypothesis and meta-analysis approach are too shallow to capture the complexity of these systems and have led to conclusions that are not supported by a closer examination of the original studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary082
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Queen pheromones, colony odors, and better science: a comment on Holman
    • Authors: Wyatt T.
      Pages: 1211 - 1212
      PubDate: Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary074
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Queen pheromones out of context: a comment on Holman
    • Authors: Smith A; Suarez A, Liebig J.
      Pages: 1212 - 1212
      Abstract: Holman’s (2018) meta-analysis demonstrates that there is ample experimental evidence of fertility-correlated cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) affecting worker fecundity across social insects. We agree with this finding; however, in framing and discussing his results, he fails to properly consider biologically relevant behavioral data. Another concern we have is the way he represented our review on the topic and our experimental studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary065
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Queen pheromones under scrutiny: a comment on Holman
    • Authors: Nehring V.
      Pages: 1213 - 1213
      Abstract: Holman (2018) demonstrates that chemicals can reduce worker fecundity across the social insects. In most studies, the bioactive substances were cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Holman’s meta-analysis should thus ground the debate on whether CHC blends, which have previously been deemed too “flexible” (Amsalem et al. 2015), can contain queen pheromones. After all, we already know that CHC profiles can encode more than one message simultaneously, and not all of them need to be learned (e.g. worker task and nest-mate identity; discussed in Nehring et al. 2013; Leonhardt et al. 2016). The time seems right to focus on the “why” and “how,” rather than on the “if,” of queen pheromones.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary064
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Queen pheromone: contraceptive or a queen presence signal'—A
           comment on Holman
    • Authors: Oldroyd B.
      Pages: 1213 - 1214
      Abstract: One might think that the existence or otherwise of queen pheromones to be a straight-forward matter that was satisfactorily answered when de Groot and Voogd (1954) showed that the heads of decapitated queen honey bees suppress ovary activation in caged workers. This remarkable finding was followed by the isolation and synthesis of a chemical from a gland in the queen’s mandibles, (E)-9-Oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), that mediates the effect on worker fecundity (Butler et al. 1961). 9-ODA fits the definition of a pheromone precisely: “substances [that] are secreted … by one individual… and received by a second individual … in which they release a specific reaction” (Karlson and Lüscher 1959). Nonetheless, outside honeybees, the existence of queen pheromones has remained controversial. In ants and stingless bees, there are no known 9-ODA homologues—a single chemical that is (almost) unique to queens and suppresses worker ovary activation. Rather, it seems that certain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) of queens suppress ovary activation in workers (van Oystaeyen et al. 2014).
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary048
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Onwards and upwards: a response to comments on Holman
    • Authors: Holman L.
      Pages: 1214 - 1215
      Abstract: I thank all authors for their 5 commentaries on Holman (2018), and here reply to criticisms in Amsalem and Grozinger (2018; AG), and Smith et al. (2018; SSL). In short, I believe that social insect science is not exempt from the reproducibility crisis and improved empirical rigor is needed to answer the questions that intrigue us. Working blind and boosting sample sizes is a good place to start.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary094
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Collective aggressiveness of an ecosystem engineer is associated with
           coral recovery
    • Authors: Pruitt J; Keiser C, Banka B, et al.
      Pages: 1216 - 1224
      Abstract: The ecological impacts of animal groups may be different and predictable depending on their collective behavior. Farmerfish (Stegastes nigricans) live in social groups and collectively defend gardens of palatable algae. These gardens also serve as settlement and nursery habitats for corals because farmerfish mob corallivores that attempt to forage on corals within these gardens. We detected large among-colony differences in farmerfish collective aggression towards intruder fish that persisted across years. We further found that the territories of aggressive groups and territories containing larger farmerfish provided greater protection to corals: territories of aggressive groups naturally harbored more branching corals than nonaggressive groups, and experimentally outplanted branching corals experienced 80% less skeletal loss and grew larger over 25 weeks in aggressive territories than in nonaggressive territories. These findings hint that factors that increase farmerfish group aggressiveness (e.g., higher temperatures) could enhance the protective value of farmerfish territories for the replenishment of coral populations.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary092
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Prudent behavior rather than chemical deception enables a parasite to
           exploit its ant host
    • Authors: Parmentier T; De Laender F, Wenseleers T, et al.
      Pages: 1225 - 1233
      Abstract: Many parasites display complex strategies to evade host detection. The principal view is that the parasites of social insects deceive their host by means of advanced chemical adaptations such as mimicking the cuticular host recognition cues, being chemically odorless, or emitting manipulative volatiles. Apart from these chemical adaptations, parasites of social insects may also use simpler behavioral strategies to evade host detection. As yet, such a behavior has rarely been studied. Here we tested which chemical and behavioral strategies the unspecialized parasitic rove beetle Thiasophila angulata uses to avoid detection by its aggressive Formica rufa red wood ant host. Chemical comparisons of the beetle’s and the host ants’ cuticular hydrocarbons showed that the beetle carried an idiosyncratic cuticular profile that was clearly different from that of its host. Beetles that were isolated from their host or were placed in the nests of another Formica species perfectly retained their original cuticular profiles and provoked equal levels of aggression. These results suggest that the beetles do not avoid host detection through chemical deception. In contrast, the beetle adapted its behavior to avoid aggression by the ants. In the presence of ants, the beetle behaved much more prudently by hiding more frequently and engaging in less risky runs. Overall, these results highlight that for relatively unspecialized parasites, general strategies such as prudent behavior can be equally effective as more specialized deception strategies to evade host detection.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary134
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • The role of red coloration and song in peacock spider courtship: insights
           into complex signaling systems
    • Authors: Girard M; Kasumovic M, Elias D.
      Pages: 1234 - 1244
      Abstract: Research on animal signaling enhances our understanding of links between sensory processing, decision making, behavior, and evolution. Studies of sexually-selected signals may be particularly informative as mate choice provides access to decision patterns in the way that courtship leads to an easily observable behavioral output in choosers, i.e., mating. Male peacock spiders have some of the most elaborate and varied courtship displays known among animals. Particularly striking to human observers is the diversity of red, orange, and yellow ornaments that males exhibit across the genus. The primary objective of our research was to investigate how these visual ornaments interact with vibratory songs to affect female mating behavior of one species, Maratus volans. Accordingly, we conducted mating trials under a series of experimentally manipulated vibratory and lighting conditions. Contrary to expectation, chromatic characteristics of longer wavelength ornaments are not driving female mate choice decisions, despite their extensive presence on male fans. Instead, our results suggest that contrast is important to females. Additionally, we found that vibratory signals were not necessary and did not increase mating rates. Our study demonstrates the intricacies inherent in complex signaling systems.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary128
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Calling in the heat: the zebra finch “incubation call” depends on heat
           but not reproductive stage
    • Authors: McDiarmid C; Naguib M, Griffith S.
      Pages: 1245 - 1254
      Abstract: Environmental conditions during early development can profoundly impact an organism’s phenotype, potentially resulting in future adaptations. Offspring can often obtain environmental information directly, but in some cases rely on parental cues or signals. It was recently suggested that at high ambient temperatures zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) parents use acoustic signals (“incubation calls” or hereon “v-calls”) to adaptively alter offspring development for hot conditions. However, this conclusion requires a thorough understanding of the timing and production of the call. In this study, we use audio recordings (1696 h) from within wild zebra finch nest-boxes, and of nonbreeding captive zebra finches experimentally exposed to heat, to characterize the circumstances under which v-calls are produced. V-call incidence was positively related to ambient temperature in the wild and captivity, confirming that v-calls are temperature dependent. However, v-calls were not limited to late incubation (as previously suggested) and were instead produced throughout incubation and chick rearing in the wild, and by nonbreeding captive adults. Videos of the captive birds revealed that v-calls were produced during “bouts” of panting. We found no evidence that during v-call production breathing patterns were being altered from that optimal for panting and typical of quiet respiration (1:1 inspiration:expiration). While embryos may gather climatic information from this heat-related call, it is produced over a range of conditions so is unlikely to be a specifically evolved signal for offspring programming. The idea that parents use specifically evolved signals to provide offspring with climate information requires further study.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary123
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • An androgenic endocrine disruptor alters male mating behavior in the guppy
           (Poecilia reticulata)
    • Authors: Bertram M; Saaristo M, Ecker T, et al.
      Pages: 1255 - 1263
      Abstract: Hormonally active chemical pollution threatens human and wildlife populations globally. However, despite the well-established capacity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to alter reproductive traits, relatively few studies have examined the impacts of EDCs on mechanisms of sexual selection. This study investigated the effects of short-term exposure to an environmentally realistic level of 17β-trenbolone—a potent anabolic steroid used in livestock production worldwide—on male mate preference, reproductive behavior, and morphology in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Male guppies prefer to mate with larger females because such females are generally more fecund. Hence, males gain direct fitness benefits by being choosy. Here, we found no significant effect of 17β-trenbolone exposure on male courting behavior, with both unexposed and exposed males courting larger females more often. However, exposure to 17β-trenbolone significantly altered the amount of coercive copulatory behavior (“sneak” matings) performed. Specifically, while both unexposed and exposed males demonstrated a preference for larger females by conducting more sneaking attempts toward these females, exposed males carried out a greater number of sneaks toward large females than did unexposed males. Further, exposure resulted in increased male condition index (i.e., mass relative to length). Together, our results show for the first time that 17β-trenbolone can alter reproductive behavior and morphology in male fish at concentrations as low as 4 ng/L, highlighting the potential for disruption of reproductive processes in wildlife exposed to this potent agricultural contaminant.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary121
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Simulated hatching failure predicts female plasticity in extra-pair
           behavior over successive broods
    • Authors: Yuta T; Nomi D, Ihle M, et al.
      Pages: 1264 - 1270
      Abstract: Although many studies have investigated the occurrence of extra-pair paternity (EPP) and its adaptive significance in wild population of birds, we still know surprising little about the plasticity in mating behavior of females at the individual level and how it affects the patterns of paternity. To address this question, we focused on the direct fertility benefit hypothesis for the function of EPP and studied if female birds react in extra-pair mating behavior after reproductive failures using a wild population of the Japanese great tit, Parus minor, a socially monogamous passerine with a moderate frequency of EPP and a high-multiple brooding rate. We simulated hatching failure by replacing with artificial eggs during the egg laying period to investigate whether females subsequently altered their mating behavior and became more promiscuous to improve reproductive success in their following clutches. The proportion of extra-pair offspring per clutches of both experimental and control pairs increased in the second clutches (replacement and repeat), but compared with the control pairs, the increase in the experimental pairs was significantly greater. The present study suggests that individual females appear to be making decisions based on specific cues and flexibly altering mating behavior in adaptive ways. Also, our results are compatible with one of the long-debated hypotheses for the evolutionary maintenance of EPP which predicts that females gain direct fitness benefit through increased reproductive success from mating multiply.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary124
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Anthropogenic noise disrupts mate searching in Gryllus bimaculatus
    • Authors: Bent A; Ings T, Mowles S.
      Pages: 1271 - 1277
      Abstract: Many animals use acoustic communication as a means of sending important biological information, such as their location, to potential receivers. However, anthropogenic noise is known to affect the ability of some species to either produce or receive signals, which may influence their reproductive success. In this study, we investigate the effect of anthropogenic noise on the mate-searching behaviors of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. To accomplish this, phonotaxis trials were conducted with female field crickets under different acoustic conditions, and their ability to detect and move towards conspecific male calls was assessed. The presence of traffic noise reduced the likelihood that the female would approach the male calls and also reduced the time that the female spent attending to the calling stimulus before making her decision. However, the presence of white noise did not reduce the likelihood of approaching the calling speaker, indicating that the average amplitude of anthropogenic noise is, alone, not important in this conflict, but frequency and fluctuations in the stimulus or other characteristics might be. This study supports the hypothesis that anthropogenic noise does indeed influence the detectability of acoustic mate location signals, thus disrupting mate searching behavior.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary126
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Dead or alive' Sexual conflict and lethal copulatory interactions in
           long-jawed Tetragnatha spiders
    • Authors: Baba Y; Tanikawa A, Takada M, et al.
      Pages: 1278 - 1285
      Abstract: Intersexual and intrasexual selections are important driving forces that lead to diversification of sexual characteristics. Tetragnatha spiders have elongated chelicerae and sexual dimorphism in chelicera length whose magnitude varies among species. Because they use their chelicerae during copulation and as weapons in male–male competition, this divergence reflects repeated intersexual and intrasexual selection. To infer the causes of chelicera length diversity, we examined the roles of the elongated chelicerae in copulatory behavior of a Tetragnatha species and clarified the interspecific sexual dimorphism of chelicera length in 15 species. The longer chelicerae of female Tetragnatha allowed females to kill males, suggesting female rejection of mating using the elongated chelicerae. Comparisons based on independent contrasts showed that chelicera length was significantly positively correlated between the sexes across species, possibly reflecting sexually antagonistic coevolution of male and female chelicera lengths. However, some species showed male-biased sexual dimorphism, indicating that intrasexual selection (male competition) may be more important than intersexual competition in some species. Our results demonstrate that both intersexual and intrasexual selection led to interspecific variation in sexual dimorphism of chelicera length in this group.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary125
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Flower signal variability overwhelms receptor-noise and requires plastic
           color learning in bees
    • Authors: Garcia J; Shrestha M, Dyer A.
      Pages: 1286 - 1297
      Abstract: Color discrimination thresholds proposed by receptor-noise type models are frequently used in animal vision studies to predict a precise limit on the capacity of an animal to discriminate between stimuli. Honeybees and bumblebees are 2 closely related hymenopteran species for which precise data on photoreceptor sensitivities and receptor noise exist, enabling accurate testing on how their vision conforms to model predictions. Color vision has been proved in these species, and they are known to predominantly visit flowers using visual signals to collect nutrition. Surprisingly, however, the natural variability of flower signals has been rarely considered, and recent work also suggests bees may tune color vision through experience. We initially measured the spectral variability of flowers from 2 species: Goodenia ovata and Rosemarinus officinalis where free-flying honeybees were observed constantly foraging from conspecific flowers. We empirically determined honeybee color discrimination thresholds for color stimuli considering either absolute- or differential-conditioning discrimination functions. Secondly, we analyzed greenhouse grown wild-type Antirrhinum majus flower petal spectra as well as spectra from mixta and nivea strains of this species, and empirically determined bumblebee color discrimination considering conditioning experience. In all measured cases, within-flower type spectral variability exceeded a 1.0 Receptor Noise threshold, often by several units. Observed behavioral color discrimination functions considering the respective conditioning procedures closely matched the range of signal variability for both honeybees and bumblebees, showing that color vision in bees cannot be described by a single fixed value, and plasticity is a key component of bee foraging behavior in natural environments.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary127
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Maternal presence facilitates plasticity in offspring behavior: insights
           into the evolution of parental care
    • Authors: Munch K; Noble D, Budd L, et al.
      Pages: 1298 - 1306
      Abstract: Fundamental to the definition of parental care is that care confers benefits to the offspring. However, the mechanisms resulting in these benefits remain poorly understood, particularly in species where postnatal care is not obligatory. Here, we address this shortcoming using a lizard, Liopholis whitii, in which family life is facultative and relatively simple—extending to prolonged associations between parents and offspring within the parental territory. Using a split-clutch design, we housed offspring either with their mother or alone during the first 8 weeks of postnatal life and examined whether maternal presence affected 1) the expression of key functional behaviors and 2) learning ability in a biologically relevant antipredatory task. We found that offspring housed with their mothers expressed heightened levels of activity, boldness, and exploration compared with offspring who were housed alone. Furthermore, we show that associating with mothers during early postnatal periods led to improved offspring performance in the antipredation learning task. Together these results suggest that even relatively simple forms of enhanced parent-offspring association can have significant impacts on offspring traits. We argue that such effects may help refine and stabilize parent–offspring associations early in their evolution, potentially setting the stage for the elaboration of both parent and offspring behaviors.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary122
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Expression of and choice for condition-dependent carotenoid-based color in
           an urbanizing context
    • Authors: Giraudeau M; Toomey M, Hutton P, et al.
      Pages: 1307 - 1315
      Abstract: Urban environments create a unique suite of conditions, leading to changes in animal behavior, morphology, phenology, and physiology. Condition-dependent traits such as the carotenoid-based coloration offer a unique opportunity to assess the impacts of urbanization on organisms because they reflect the nutrition, health, or other resource-based attributes of their bearers and they play an essential role in intra and intersex interactions. To determine if and how the carotenoid-based coloration of male house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) varies along a gradient of urbanization, we quantified the plumage coloration of more than 1000 individuals in urban, suburban, rural, and desert habitats over the course of 17 months. We also examined for the first time the preference of females for male plumage coloration across the urban–rural gradient, to test if and how female preferences varied relative to the plumage coloration displayed by males in their local population. We found that carotenoid-based coloration decreased along the gradient of urbanization, suggesting that the enzyme-driven metabolic conversion of dietary carotenoids into red carotenoids used to color plumage is sensitive to urban stressors. The stronger negative effect of urbanization on carotenoid-based plumage coloration during breeding than during molt and winter suggests that urbanization affects color fading rate, maybe through modifications of feather-degrading bacterial load. Finally, we have shown that urbanization influences female mate-choice behavior, suggesting that female color preferences may track the variation in male coloration across the gradient of urbanization.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary093
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • More than kin: subordinates foster strong bonds with relatives and
           potential mates in a social bird
    • Authors: Teunissen N; Kingma S, Hall M, et al.
      Pages: 1316 - 1324
      Abstract: Social interactions shape relationships between individuals in complex societies. Affiliative interactions are associated with benefits and strengthen social bonds, while aggressive interactions are costly and negatively affect social bonds. Individuals may attempt to reduce aggressive encounters through submissive displays directed at higher-ranking individuals. Thus, fine-scale patterns of affiliative, aggressive, and submissive interactions may reflect costly and beneficial social relationships within groups, providing insight into the benefits of group living and the mechanisms of conflict resolution. So far, however, most studies have looked at social interactions and benefits of group living in isolation. We investigated how the strength of social bonds (affiliative vs. aggressive interactions) and submissive displays varied with kin-selected and potential mating benefits, and with reproductive conflict in the cooperatively breeding purple-crowned fairy-wren, Malurus coronatus. Our results revealed that subordinates formed equally strong social bonds with kin and potential mates (unrelated opposite-sex individuals) while they formed antagonistic relationships with reproductive competitors that offered no kin-selected or mating benefits (unrelated same-sex individuals). Submissive displays were directed exclusively at same-sex breeders, regardless of relatedness. Affiliation and submission were associated with reduced foraging time when food was limited, indicating a cost to maintaining positive relationships. Together, our results suggest that the strength of social bonds is determined by (potential) benefits obtained from group members, while submission likely serves to reduce conflict. Our findings highlight the importance of time-costly social interactions for maintaining relationships with group members, providing insight into how social groups of individuals with (partly) divergent interests can remain stable.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary120
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • The “tolerant chimpanzee”—towards the costs and benefits of
           sociality in female bonobos
    • Authors: Nurmi N; Hohmann G, Goldstone L, et al.
      Pages: 1325 - 1339
      Abstract: Humans share an extraordinary degree of sociality with other primates, calling for comparative work into the evolutionary drivers of the variation in social engagement observed between species. Of particular interest is the contrast between the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), the latter exhibiting increased female gregariousness, more tolerant relationships, and elaborate behavioral adaptations for conflict resolution. Here, we test predictions from 3 socioecological hypotheses regarding the evolution of these traits using data on wild bonobos at LuiKotale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Focusing on the behavior of co-feeding females and controlling for variation in characteristics of the feeding patch, food intake rate moderately increased while feeding effort decreased with female dominance rank, indicating that females engaged in competitive exclusion from high-quality food resources. However, these rank effects did not translate into variation in energy balance, as measured from urinary C-peptide levels. Instead, energy balance varied independent of female rank with the proportion of fruit in the diet. Together with the observation that females join forces in conflicts with males, our results support the hypothesis that predicts that females trade off feeding opportunities for safety against male aggression. The key to a full understanding of variation in social structure may be an integrated view of cooperation and competition over access to the key resources food and mates, both within and between the sexes.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary118
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Habitat-mediated effects of diurnal and seasonal migration strategies on
           juvenile salmon survival
    • Authors: Melnychuk M; Welch D.
      Pages: 1340 - 1350
      Abstract: Behavioral decisions during periods of vulnerability to predation risk, such as migrations during the juvenile life-history stage, may strongly affect the probability of survival. Habitats through which animals migrate are heterogeneous, and risk-reducing behaviors may be more important in some habitats than others. Using biotelemetry data, diurnal and seasonal riverine migration patterns of >3800 juvenile salmon across 4 species, 12 watersheds, and 5 years were quantified to evaluate possible effects of migration timing on survival from lower river reaches to coastal waters. In small, clear rivers most salmon avoided migrating during daylight hours and average survival of fish migrating at night (55%; 95% confidence limits 50–61%) was twice that of fish migrating in daylight (24%; CL 17–31%). Conversely, in the large, heavily silted Fraser River neither preference for nocturnal travel nor effects of diurnal timing on survival were observed. Early ocean survival was also influenced by the timing of ocean entry, but in opposite directions for fish from the Fraser River and smaller rivers. In the Fraser River, average survival for later migrants (69%; CL 60–77%) was nearly twice that of earlier migrants (38%; CL 33–44%), likely related to seasonal increases in river flow. In contrast, in smaller rivers, average survival for earlier migrants (70%; CL 65–74%) was 3-fold greater than survival for later migrants (19%; 95% CL 14–25%). Together, these results demonstrate that timing decisions affecting survival of juvenile salmon during their migration are likely mediated by landscape characteristics that plausibly influence the risk of predation.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary119
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Senescent declines in elite tennis players are similar across the sexes
    • Authors: Sutter A; Barton S, Sharma M, et al.
      Pages: 1351 - 1358
      Abstract: Aging is characterized by rising mortality, declining fertility and declines in physiological function with age (functional senescence). Sex differences in the tempo and severity of survival and fertility declines are widespread, but it is less clear how often and how much trajectories of functional senescence diverge between the sexes. We tested how physiological function changed with age in male and female elite tennis players using first-serve speed (power) and first-serve accuracy as performance measures. We found absolute differences between the sexes with men serving faster, but less accurately than women. Both power and accuracy showed senescent declines but these began earlier for power. There were signals of trait-compensation, where players with pronounced power declines showed relative increases in accuracy, which might partially buffer against power deterioration. However, there were no sex differences in how either trait changed with age, contrasting with other sports. Sex differences in functional senescence are probably shaped by interactions between natural and sexual selection, the proximate costs of trait expression and a trait’s genetic architecture, and so are highly trait-specific. We discuss the strengths and potential pitfalls of using data from elite athletes to disentangle these complex interactions.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary112
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Mate choice driven by genome in an allopolyploid fish complex
    • Authors: Morgado-Santos M; Magalhães M, Vicente L, et al.
      Pages: 1359 - 1370
      Abstract: Nonsexual complexes which lack typical reproductive isolation and show multiple conspecific and heterospecific mating options among hybrids and parental species are excellent models to study mate choice based on genetics. The allopolyploid fish complex Squalius alburnoides includes multiple fertile male and female genomotypes reproducing among each other and with the sympatric species of the Squalius genus. We used this hybridogenetic complex to study the relationship between mate preference and mates’ genetic background, focusing on a population whose mating options include 2 Squalius species. The preference of S. alburnoides hybrid females towards multiple male genomotypes was assessed in affiliation trials, and the levels of admixture between the genomes of the 2 Squalius species were measured using next-generation genotyping. The genome of the most recent Squalius species in the drainage was admixed with variable genetic portions typically allocated to the other species, but not the opposite, suggesting that the newer species in the drainage may be more prone to interspecific crosses. Female mate preferences were related to males’ genetic background, but also to the genetic background of the choosy female itself. Overall, females showed higher preference towards males with admixed genomes over pure males, and towards males with a genetic background more similar to their own. This trend favors crosses between the hybrids and the most recent Squalius species in the drainage, promoting the flow of its genome into the hybridogenetic complex. These findings highlight an intricate interplay between mate choice and mates’ genomes, which may be directly related to genetic benefits.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary117
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • A pollen fatty acid enhances learning and survival in bumblebees
    • Authors: Muth F; Breslow P, Masek P, et al.
      Pages: 1371 - 1379
      Abstract: Learning associations between food-related stimuli and nutrients allows foragers to collect resources efficiently. In turn, the nutrients that foragers consume can themselves affect learning performance, through innate preferences for pre-ingestive stimuli, as well as post-ingestive reinforcement. Bees are insect models of learning and memory, yet the vast majority of this research concerns nectar (carbohydrate) rather than pollen (protein/lipid) rewards, despite the fact that many bees collect both simultaneously. We asked how one component of pollen surface chemistry, a free fatty acid (oleic acid), affected bees’ performance in a nectar-learning task. We found that ingestion of oleic acid enhanced visual learning, likely through positive post-ingestive reinforcement. This was supported by our finding that although bees did not prefer to consume the oleic acid solution, its ingestion both decreased motor activity and increased survival. These results are a step towards understanding how nutritionally complex floral rewards may affect cognitive processes that underlie pollination mutualisms.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary111
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Genetic relatedness and sex predict helper provisioning effort in the
           cooperatively breeding noisy miner
    • Authors: Barati A; Andrew R, Gorrell J, et al.
      Pages: 1380 - 1389
      Abstract: Cooperative breeding is a breeding system in which offspring receive care not only from their parents but also from other conspecific helpers. This helping behavior could potentially be costly to attendants; however, one of the means by which helpers can override these costs is through preferentially directing aid towards kin. Helping patterns might vary according to helper sex if sex-biased dispersal is present. Here, we examined how genetic relatedness and sex of helpers shaped their provisioning behavior in the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala). This common Australian passerine lives year-round in large colonies that contain both related and unrelated individuals. There was a strong sex-bias in helper effort, with 93% of helpers being philopatric males that remain in natal colonies for life, even though males make up only 69% of the population. Females dispersed prior to breeding and rarely helped at the nest. Helpers varied in their level of relatedness to the breeders which positively predicted their provisioning rate and biomass delivered to the broods, with the majority of help provided by related helpers. These results show that there was a clear sex difference in helping behavior in this species; with related males, most likely retained offspring from previous years, being the main providers of aid among all helpers. Kinship and patterns of philopatry, therefore, appear to be important drivers of helping behavior in noisy miners, although given that unrelated helpers also provisioned young at substantial levels, other types of direct benefits may further play a role in maintaining cooperatively breeding in this species.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary109
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Relatedness within and between leks of golden-collared manakin differ
           between sexes and age classes
    • Authors: Fusani L; Barske J, Natali C, et al.
      Pages: 1390 - 1401
      Abstract: Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the evolution of leks, a mating system in which males aggregate at display sites where females choose their mates. Only a small proportion of males obtain copulations, and why other males join the lek remains unexplained. One hypothesis has called kin selection into play: if juvenile males join leks where their relatives display and contribute to attract females to the lek, they can gain indirect fitness benefits. We investigated the genetic structure of 8 leks of golden-collared manakin, a tropical Passerine. Adult court-holder males, females, and immature males were caught within lek boundaries and the geographical location of the courts was recorded. For court-holding males, within-lek relatedness among 4 leks was significantly higher than average across-lek relatedness. Courts of more closely related males were not spatially associated within leks. Relatedness among immature males was relatively lower, yet higher within than between leks. Values of relatedness and genetic differentiation among leks were even lower for females. Thus, leks were composed of males that were more related to each other than to other males of the population, and the degree of relatedness decreased from court-holding males to immature males to females. This suggests that immature males explore several leks and eventually join those where their relatives display, whereas females appear to visit leks randomly with respect to relatedness. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that kin selection influences the evolution of lekking behavior in this species.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary116
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Female mosquitoes disperse further when they develop under predation risk
    • Authors: Alcalay Y; Tsurim I, Ovadia O.
      Pages: 1402 - 1408
      Abstract: Predation is one of the strongest selective forces in nature. Organisms characterized by a complex life cycle, undergoing an ontogenetic niche shift, can reduce predation risk on natal stages by metamorphosing earlier. Yet, this antipredatory response may incur numerous life-history–related costs. Interestingly, the consequence of larval predation risk on adult dispersal, a key trait dictating the persistence of spatially structured populations, is largely understudied. Here, we explored the effect of larval predation risk on the life-history and dispersal characteristics of female adults in the mosquito Culex pipiens. As predicted, mosquito larvae reared in the presence of a caged larvivorous-fish metamorphosed earlier, while also suffering from reduced survival. Despite this reduction in development time, the body size of emerging females was larger, implying that more resources were allocated to increase the growth rate, probably at the expense of reduced maintenance and storage. This shift in energy allocation translated into decreased pupa and adult survival. Remarkably, the respective dispersal distance of these larger bodied females was greater. We suggest that the increase in dispersal distance allows these females to cover larger areas, while searching for oviposition sites that are safer than their natal aquatic habitat. Exploring the effects of larval conditions on adult dispersal is central for understanding the distribution of organisms with a complex life cycle in spatially heterogeneous environments, and specifically for disease transmission by mosquitoes.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary113
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Past and present resource availability affect mating rate but not mate
           choice in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Tudor E; Promislow D, Arbuthnott D.
      Pages: 1409 - 1414
      Abstract: The choices of when, where, and with whom to mate represent some of the most important decisions an individual can make to increase their fitness. Several studies have shown that the resources available to an individual during development can dramatically alter their mating rate later in life, and even the choice of mate. However, an individual’s surroundings and available resources can change rapidly, and it is not clear how quickly the redistribution of resources towards reproduction can change. To address this important question, we measured mating rate and mate choice among Drosophila melanogaster males that were manipulated in terms of both past resources (control vs. starvation) and the resources available during mate choice (food vs. no food). We found that males given access to ample resources prior to mate choice showed higher mating rates than those that were starved, in agreement with previous studies. However, we also found that this effect can be reversed quickly, as starved males given the opportunity to mate in a high-quality environment mated at frequencies equivalent to their fed counterparts. Although past and present resources affected mating rate, they did not affect mate choice, as males mated with high-quality females at high frequencies regardless of their condition and environment. Our results show that both current condition as well as the promise of future resources can dramatically influence individuals’ investment into reproduction and that such mating decisions are extremely plastic and reliant on environmental cues.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary114
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Urbanization and individual differences in exploration and plasticity
    • Authors: Thompson M; Evans J, Parsons S, et al.
      Pages: 1415 - 1425
      Abstract: Urban environments impose novel challenges on animals and, as a result, the behaviors of urban wildlife are changing. In particular, high exploratory tendencies and an ability to gather more information from the environment may facilitate adoption of novel ecological opportunities. As of yet, very few studies have examined if urbanization predicts the way in which animals explore novel environments, or the extent of among-individual variation within these habitats. Here, we assess exploration and its temporal plasticity in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; N = 169 individuals, 14 sites) caught along an urban gradient to examine individual differences in exploration and changes in exploration over time and assays under a reaction-norm framework. As predicted, urban birds were significantly faster explorers in a novel environment (contacted more features and moved more), however urbanization did not predict individual differences in the change in exploration over time. Exploration score was moderately repeatable; interestingly, urban chickadees were more repeatable in their initial exploration behaviors, but seemed less repeatable in how they explored over time between assays in comparison to forest birds. Our results support the importance of high exploratory tendencies for urban animals, and suggest, for the first time, that individuals from urban and non-urban habitats differ in the amount of among-individual variation in exploration, and thus urban individuals may benefit from diverging more from one another in their behavior. Future work should examine the extent to which this variation in exploration and plasticity of exploration behaviors represent differences in how individuals gather information from their environment.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary103
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Navigating infection risk during oviposition and cannibalistic foraging in
           a holometabolous insect
    • Authors: Siva-Jothy J; Monteith K, Vale P.
      Pages: 1426 - 1435
      Abstract: Deciding where to eat and raise offspring carries important fitness consequences for all animals, especially if foraging, feeding, and reproduction increase pathogen exposure. In insects with complete metamorphosis, foraging mainly occurs during the larval stage, while oviposition decisions are made by adult females. Selection for infection avoidance behaviors may therefore be developmentally uncoupled. Using a combination of experimental infections and behavioral choice assays, we tested if Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies avoid infectious environments at distinct developmental stages. When given conspecific fly carcasses as a food source, larvae did not discriminate between carcasses that were clean or infected with the pathogenic Drosophila C Virus (DCV), even though cannibalism was a viable route of DCV transmission. When laying eggs, DCV-infected females did not discriminate between infectious and noninfectious carcasses, and laying eggs near potentially infectious carcasses was always preferred to sites containing only fly food. Healthy mothers, however, laid more eggs near a clean rather than an infectious carcass. Avoidance during oviposition changed over time: after an initial oviposition period, healthy mothers stopped avoiding infectious carcasses. We interpret this result as a possible trade-off between managing infection risk and maximizing reproduction. Our findings suggest infection avoidance contributes to how mothers provision their offspring and underline the need to consider infection avoidance behaviors at multiple life-stages.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary106
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Optimal sperm length for high siring success depends on forehead patch
           size in collared flycatchers
    • Authors: Ålund M; Persson Schmiterlöw S, McFarlane S, et al.
      Pages: 1436 - 1443
      Abstract: Dominance over rivals, sexual attractiveness, and highly efficient ejaculates are 3 important contributors of male fertilization success but theories about how primary and secondary sexual characters may co-evolve largely remain to be tested. We investigated how variation in a sexual signal (forehead patch size) and sperm morphology jointly affected siring success of 70 males in a natural population of collared flycatchers. We show that the optimal sperm length to attain high relative fertilization success depended on the size of a male’s secondary sexual character. Males with small forehead patches sired more offspring in their nest when they produced long sperm and vice-versa. These results are not compatible with theories based on simple relationships between display traits and sperm “quality” but imply that the optimal fertilization strategy (and hence optimal sperm traits) differs between males even in a predominantly socially monogamous population with moderate extra-pair paternity rates. Thus, a better knowledge of the complex chain of behavioural interactions between the sexes and their gametes is needed for a complete understanding of how sexual selection operates in nature.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary115
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Which tools to use' Choice optimization in the tool-using ant,
           Aphaenogaster subterranea
    • Authors: Lőrinczi G; Módra G, Juhász O, et al.
      Pages: 1444 - 1452
      Abstract: When encountering liquid food sources, ants of the genus Aphaenogaster drop various materials as tools into the food, and then carry the food-soaked tools back to the nest. Although this is one of the well-documented examples of tool use in insects, we know little about which factors influence their choice of tools during foraging. Here, we investigated the tool-using behavior of Aphaenogaster subterranea by examining, across a range of settings, how tool-using workers deal with various foraging challenges. We used different types of tools and liquid baits with varying distances between the baits and the tools piled around them. Although ants showed the strongest preference for the most easily transportable tools, the frequency of usage of the less preferred larger tools increased when these were the first to be discovered or were more readily accessible to the ants. Additionally, tool selection occurred at 2 stages: when tools were picked up and dropped into baits, and later, when food-soaked tools were retrieved from baits. Our results confirm that tool use in A. subterranea exhibits a high degree of flexibility. Ants seem to be able not only to optimize their foraging effort by selecting tools that are best matched to the particular foraging environment, but also to learn how to improve the use of certain tools by modifying them. The adaptive value of flexibility in tool use may be the increased efficiency in the utilization of liquid food sources, which gains importance in the light of competition with co-occurring ant species.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary110
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Frequently mated males have higher protein preference in German
    • Authors: Jensen K; Silverman J.
      Pages: 1453 - 1461
      Abstract: Protein is an abundant nutrient in sperm, and males therefore expend protein every time they mate. In addition, many males provide the female with a nitrogen-rich nuptial gift during mating, which often increases female fertility by supplementing her pool of limiting nutrients. However, it is unknown whether males compensate for the nitrogen cost of mating by increasing their preference for protein, which would facilitate the production of new sperm and nuptial gift material. Using artificial diets, we investigated whether male German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) would compensate for nitrogen expenses of mating by increasing protein preference when given the opportunity to self-select their diet from complementary foods differing only in protein and carbohydrate content. We distributed adult males across 4 mating regimes differing in the frequency of mating opportunities with receptive females and measured protein and carbohydrate consumption as well as reproductive output over the lifespan of each male. Receptive females were either never available (no mating opportunity), or they were available overnight at a frequency of each 28 days (rare mating opportunities), each 14 days (occasional mating opportunities), or each 7 days (frequent mating opportunities). Males selected highly carbohydrate-biased diets. However, males that mated more frequently had higher consumption and reproduction and self-selected higher lifetime protein to carbohydrate ratios. Our study demonstrates that male German cockroaches actively select a more protein-biased diet that compensates for their nutritional requirements following mating. The study shows that male mating significantly affects foraging decisions for specific nutrients to compensate for the expenses of mating.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary104
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Chemically mediated sexual signals restrict hybrid speciation in a flea
    • Authors: Xue H; Segraves K, Wei J, et al.
      Pages: 1462 - 1471
      Abstract: The evolution of reproductive isolation following hybridization is a major obstacle that may limit the prevalence of hybrid speciation among specific groups of organisms. Here, we use a flea beetle system to offer a behavioral hypothesis for why there are so few examples of homoploid hybrid speciation among insects. Specifically, we examined cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) mating signals and mate-choice decisions of Altica fragariae and A. viridicyanea to test whether the signals produced by hybrids cause prezygotic reproductive isolation. Although hybrids of A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea had unique CHC profiles as compared to the parental species, mate-choice trials indicated that these differences were insufficient to prevent gene flow between hybrids and parental species. We found that mate-choice decisions and CHC signals were not correlated. Considering the ubiquity of CHC signaling molecules in insects, we propose that decoupling of CHC signals and mate choice may be a general mechanism limiting hybrid speciation in insects.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary105
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Barn swallow antipredator behavior covaries with melanic coloration and
           predicts survival
    • Authors: Costanzo A; Romano A, Ambrosini R, et al.
      Pages: 1472 - 1480
      Abstract: Conspecific individuals often consistently differ in their behavioral responses to specific exogenous stimuli. Such individual differences in “personality” have been shown to be heritable, suggesting that selection maintains variation in personality. However, survival selection on a major personality trait, antipredator behavior, and its sex-dependency, has been seldom measured in the wild. Here, we found that yearling barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) showed consistency in agitation upon repeated exposure to a restraint-handling protocol, probably reflecting antipredator behavior, and that males were more agitated than females. Females that exhibited larger antipredator behavior were more likely to survive until the next breeding season with no variation among 3 study years nor across 7 breeding colonies, suggesting that variation in antipredator behavior is not maintained by spatiotemporal variation in viability selection on antipredator behavior. In both sexes, the intensity of melanin-based ventral plumage coloration positively covaried with antipredator behavior, consistent with previous observations from diverse vertebrate species. In some barn swallow populations, male coloration is targeted by directional intersexual selection, suggesting that melanization signals antipredator behavior to prospecting females and that sexual selection for antipredator behavior, or other correlated personality traits, can drive the evolution of sexual color dimorphism in barn swallows. Thus, we showed that viability selection occurs on antipredator behavior and that spatiotemporal variation in selection has no major role in promoting variation in antipredator behavior. More melanized individuals were more agitated, implying that melanization may signal personality in a sexual communication context in a species where male coloration is an epigamic trait.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary102
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Pattern edges improve predator learning of aposematic signals
    • Authors: Green N; Urquhart H, van den Berg C, et al.
      Pages: 1481 - 1486
      Abstract: Edges are salient visual cues created by abrupt changes in luminance and color and are crucial in perceptual tasks such as motion detection and object recognition. Disruptively colored animals exploit edge detection mechanisms to obscure their body outline and/or to conceal themselves against their background. Conversely, aposematic species may use contrasting patterns with well-defined edges to create highly salient, memorable warning signals. In this study, we investigated how the amount of internal pattern edge, colored area, pattern type, or shape repetition of warning signals influenced avoidance learning in the triggerfish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus. Using 6 different warning signals, we found that fish learnt to avoid aposematic signals faster when they featured more internal pattern edge. We found little evidence that the amount of colored area or pattern type affected learning rates. An optimal amount of pattern edge within a warning signal may therefore improve how warning signals are learnt. These findings offer important insights into the evolution of prey warning signal evolution and predator psychology.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary089
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • The shortfall of sociality: group-living affects hunting performance of
           individual social spiders
    • Authors: Harwood G; Avilés L.
      Pages: 1487 - 1493
      Abstract: Ineffective hunters in cooperative foraging groups may be shielded from natural selection by their more effective group mates, whereas those living solitarily would starve and thus be removed from the population. The problem may be exacerbated in large groups where it may be easier for individuals to withhold participation. Group foragers may thus be ineffective individual hunters or exhibit greater inter-individual variation in hunting abilities, in particular, when living in large groups. We test these hypotheses in spider species of the genus Anelosimus that differ in their level of sociality and, among social species, in colonies of different sizes. We found that individuals from the more social species, and those from larger groups, reacted more slowly to prey than those from solitary species or small groups. Individuals from these categories also had greater inter-individual variation in reaction times. Individuals from large social groups also had lower prey-capture success than those from small ones. These differences may have been driven by the size of the group from which the social individuals were taken, as those from small colonies behaved similarly to individuals of the 2 less social species. This finding suggests that hunting ability may develop as a phenotypically plastic trait.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary099
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
  • Life-history and behavioral trait covariation across 3 years in
           Temnothorax ants
    • Authors: Bengston S.
      Pages: 1494 - 1501
      Abstract: Consistent among-individual differences in behavior have been described in numerous taxa. More recently, the hypothesis that such behavioral variation may also correlate to life-history traits, such as investment in current or future reproduction, has been proposed as a potential explanation for why variation is maintained among and within populations. A continual challenge in measuring the integration of these traits, or the pace-of-life syndrome (POLS), is to find a reliable and quantifiable proxy for energy allocation between reproduction and self-maintenance. Here, I address this challenge using the eusocial insects, Temnothorax ants, in a common garden experiment to directly quantify energy allocation by tracking the number of sterile workers (somatic effort) and winged reproductive ants (reproductive effort) produced across years. I use colonies collected from populations previously demonstrated to show significant differences in a risk-tolerance behavioral syndrome. I provide an empirical test of the POLS hypothesis between 2 populations of Temnothorax ants over three years. I find strong evidence for a POLS between populations and weaker, but present support for a within population POLS. More risk-tolerant populations also allocate more energy towards reproduction and grow faster across years. This study then emphasizes the value of a more holistic study of among-individual variation. Additionally, it suggests more research is needed on understanding how and why traits may correlate in some populations, but remain independent in others.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ary101
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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