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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 522, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Behavioral Ecology
  [SJR: 1.698]   [H-I: 92]   [48 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Does the field of animal personality provide any new insights for
           behavioral ecology?
    • Authors: Beekman M; Jordan L.
      First page: 617
      Abstract: AbstractThe field of animal personalities claims to fill a gap in our understanding of animal behavior, because it explicitly studies the adaptive significance of behavioral differences. This is a controversial claim given that the field of behavioral ecology firmly places the study of animal behavior in an evolutionary context. In fact, it is the evolutionary context that differentiates behavioral ecology from ethology and animal behavior, 2 fields that were already concerned with the study of behavior in nonhuman animals. So, if behavioral ecology already takes an evolutionary approach to variation in behavior, we ask what is personality research about exactly? This question is particularly pertinent now the focus of personality research shifts and the field moves away from being mainly descriptive to include quantitative frameworks. As a result, the field has come to borrow heavily from already established fields. In our view, this has resulted in “animal personality” studies becoming nothing more than a rebranding of existing fields of research—fields that are far more solidly grounded and hypothesis driven than the often vague and superficial focus on animal personalities.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx022
  • The role of personality research in contemporary behavioral ecology: a
           comment on Beekman and Jordan
    • Authors: Dingemanse NJ.
      First page: 624
      Abstract: In their review, Beekman and Jordan (2017) ask whether animal personality research has provided any new insights for behavioral ecology. This is an important and timely question as much research in behavioral ecology is currently dedicated to this topic, while its contribution to behavioral ecology is subject to debate. Beekman and Jordan describe how they perceive the field’s objectives, approaches, and achievements.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx027
  • Abandoning animal personality would cause obfuscation: a comment on
           Beekman and Jordan
    • Authors: Briffa M.
      First page: 625
      Abstract: Beekman and Jordan (2017) claim that animal personality research offers few insights and distracts from more important research. Some of their objections are impossible to satisfy (because any studies deemed to have merit should not be called animal personality) and others are applicable to any area (a mix of insightful and more run of the mill work; some studies contradict one another). Their key points indicate a disparity between what they understand by the term “animal personality” and what many authors (certainly myself) using the approach think the term means. Below I outline some characteristics of animal personality studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx025
  • There is no special sauce: a comment on Beekman and Jordan
    • Authors: Bell AM.
      First page: 626
      Abstract: “No one supposes that all individuals of the same species are cast in the same mould. These individual differences are of the highest importance to us, for they are often inherited.”Charles Darwin, Origin of Species, Chapter 2, Subsection on “Individual differences”
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx031
  • Insights for behavioral ecology from behavioral syndromes: a comment on
           Beekman and Jordan
    • Authors: Sih A.
      First page: 627
      Abstract: “It’s like déjà vu all over again”- Yogi Berra
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx032
  • Are personality researchers painting the roses red? Maybe: a comment
           on Beekman and Jordan
    • Authors: Pruitt JN.
      First page: 628
      Abstract: “When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.”“The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.”“The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be master—that’s all.”Lewis Caroll, Through the Looking Glass
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx030
  • Animal personalities: an empty placeholder feigning understanding: a
           comment on Beekman and Jordan
    • Authors: Jungwirth A; Wedell N, Bshary R, et al.
      First page: 629
      Abstract: The time is ripe for analyzing where the misgivings come from that researchers have after attending “personality” sessions at behavior conferences or reading papers in behavior and ecology journals that seem to attract excitement, because of the label “personality.” Beekman and Jordan (2017) point out that “animal personality” studies is nothing more than a rebranding of existing fields of research, fields that are far more solidly grounded and hypothesis driven than the often vague and superficial focus on animal personalities. They go on to state that there has been a rapid increase of mainly descriptive papers pointing to correlations and measuring behavioral repeatability with little attempt to link observed behaviors to evolutionary theory. “This latter approach was met with bemusement among many in the field of behavioral ecology” including the present authors. The field may have profited from the “Bystander’s Dilemma” (Darley and Latané 1968), meaning that if someone needs to do something, here criticize, the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely it is that any one of them will criticize. However, somewhat surprisingly, as we took a similar initiative (Jungwirth et al., unpublished data), there are now 2 independent critical reviews of animal personality research written by outsiders to the field. Importantly, Beekman and Jordan criticize points very similar to the ones we raise, despite all of us having different scientific backgrounds. We may diverge in the emphases we place on various points but overall we agree that it is difficult to see how and where the animal personality approach has advanced our understanding of behavior, ecology, and evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx048
  • The Emperor has no clothes: a response to comments on Beekman and Jordan
    • Authors: Beekman M; Jordan L.
      First page: 630
      Abstract: Our criticism of the field of personality research focuses on 2 main points: 1) studies are frequently descriptive and lack testable hypotheses and 2) where they do quantify behavior and apply rigorous analysis, they cease to be “personality” research as they rely so heavily on existing fields as to be subsumed by them. In his reply, Dingemanse (2017) agrees with our first criticism and continues to illustrate our second point by arguing that personality research has adapted quantitative approaches to understand within-individual variation. Although debate continues as to the appropriate quantitative methods (e.g., Brommer 2013), and whether they are achievable, such approaches are nevertheless worthwhile. Where we disagree is the extent to which a continuing focus on “personality” is necessary to answer questions of interest. Bell (2017) argues that personality research is uniquely concerned with the maintenance of variation and that such variation is unexpected as natural selection should remove it from populations. Darwin pondered over this exact question, not knowing how traits inherit from parent to offspring, but Mendelian and quantitative genetics now provide thorough answers to why this variation is expected. To state that empirical evidence from “non-personality” studies is difficult to obtain is misleading to say the least, given the number of studies we mentioned in our original paper, which represent only a few examples from a larger body of work. Bell (2017) further incorrectly claims we invoke Morgan’s canon to claim that personality studies assume “higher psychological processes.” Instead we argue that the personality label does not add anything and should therefore be abandoned.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx066
  • Altered physical and social conditions produce rapidly reversible mating
           systems in water striders
    • Authors: Sih A; Montiglio P, Wey TW, et al.
      First page: 632
      Abstract: AbstractMating systems can vary within-species but the environmental drivers and behavioral mechanisms underlying this variation are seldom investigated experimentally. We experimentally assessed how individual behavioral plasticity in response to changes in pool and group size resulted in fundamental shifts in mating systems in water striders. We observed the same animals in larger and smaller pools, mimicking variation in pool size in natural streams, and observed a rapid, reversible change in the entire mating system. In large pools, striders exhibited scramble promiscuity with intense sexual conflict. Most males were active, harassing and driving females into hiding. Matings were frequent and typically lasted for more than 100 min. In contrast, when placed in small pools, the same animals often exhibited harem polygyny where the largest male drove other males into hiding, but allowed females to be relatively active. Matings were less frequent and of much shorter duration. Harem polygyny took several days to emerge after animals were moved to small pools, while these same animals returned to scramble promiscuity within hours after being moved to larger pools. Such variability in mating systems likely has important implications for the evolution of individual mating tactics.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx021
  • Time perception-based decision making in a parasitoid wasp
    • Authors: Parent J; Takasu K, Brodeur J, et al.
      First page: 640
      Abstract: AbstractThe capacity of animals to measure time and adjust their behaviors accordingly has been a topic of interest in vertebrates, but little evidence is currently available for insects. This capacity has yet to be properly investigated in parasitoid wasps, even though they are frequently used to test ecological models. Here, using associative learning between odors and time intervals, we show that the parasitoid wasp Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has the capacity to measure time. When released in a wind tunnel, females flew toward an odor associated with the time interval they had just experienced. We also found that reducing energy expenditure by restraining parasitoid wasp movement during the training interval prevented time perception. This serves as experimental evidence of time perception in a parasitoid wasp, provides both a rare example of learning associated to a time interval in an insect and a mechanism by which these animals could optimize their behaviors, as well as suggesting a role for energy expenditure in its time perception mechanism.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arw171
  • Acoustic communication in zebra finches signals when mates will take turns
           with parental duties
    • Authors: Boucaud IA; Perez EC, Ramos LS, et al.
      First page: 645
      Abstract: AbstractBi-parental care may involve both cooperation and conflict between parents. Parents adjust their workload to that of their partner and this ability is likely to affect reproductive success. Whether mates communicate, either to resolve the sexual conflict or to coordinate their joint investment in parental care is a largely unaddressed question which we examined by recording wild zebra finches at the nest during incubation. Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) partners produce vocal exchanges at the nest that can be characterized as duets. Some duets end in nest-relief (when birds take turns incubating and foraging) but some do not (when the foraging mate vocally interacts with its incubating partner by coming inside or in the vicinity of the nest). Our data indicate that the structure of the duet predicted its outcome (relief or not), with a parent calling differently before leaving or staying in the nest by modifying its vocal repertoire as well as the acoustic structure of one particular call type which is typically used inside the nest. Zebra finch partners may thus exchange on the time to take turns with parental duties. Our results show that acoustic communication between partners might be of importance in the organization of parental care and could help in understanding sexual conflict resolution or cooperation phenomena in future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arw189
  • Why is the giant panda black and white?
    • Authors: Caro T; Walker H, Rossman Z, et al.
      First page: 657
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough the external appearances of most mammals are drab browns and grays used to match their backgrounds, certain species stand out as exceptions, perhaps the most notable being the giant panda. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we examined associations between different pelage regions and socioecological variables across carnivores and ursid subspecies to shed light on the giant panda’s black and white pelage coloration. Analyses of fur color and background environments suggest that the giant panda’s white face, nape, dorsum, flank, belly, and rump are adapted for crypsis against a snowy background, whereas its black shoulders and legs are adapted for crypsis in shade. Dark markings on the head are not used in crypsis, however, but in communication: Dark ears may be involved with signaling intent about ferocity whereas dark eye marks may serve in individual recognition. There is no compelling support for their fur color being involved in temperature regulation, disrupting the animal’s outline, or in reducing eye glare. We infer that the giant panda’s unique pelage coloration serves a constellation of functions that enable it to match its background in different environments and to communicate using facial features.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx008
  • Repeatable and heritable behavioural variation in a wild cooperative
    • Authors: Edwards HA; Burke T, Dugdale HL.
      First page: 668
      Abstract: AbstractQuantifying consistent differences in behaviour among individuals is vital to understanding the ecological and evolutionary significance of animal personality. To quantify personality, the phenotypic variation of a behavioural trait is partitioned to assess how it varies among individuals, which is also known as repeatability. If pedigree data are available, the phenotypic variation can then be further partitioned to estimate the additive genetic variance and heritability. Assessing the repeatability and heritability of personality traits therefore allows for a better understanding of what natural selection can act upon, enabling evolution. In a natural population of facultative cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island, a lack of breeding vacancies forces individuals into different life-history strategies, and these differences in reproductive state could generate behavioural differences among individuals in the population. We used this population to estimate the repeatability of 4 behavioural traits (novel environment exploration, novel object exploration, obstinacy/struggle rate, and escape response), and narrow-sense heritability (of behavior, h2B; behavior minus observer variance; and personality), and evolvability, of the repeatable behavioural traits. We also tested for an among-individual correlation between the repeatable traits. We found that, compared to estimates in other study species, the exploratory behaviours were moderately repeatable (0.23–0.37), there was a positive among-individual correlation (0.51) between novel environment and novel object exploration, and that novel environment exploration was moderately heritable (0.17; h2B was low as it includes observer variance). This study further clarifies the additive genetic variance available for selection to act upon in this cooperatively breeding bird.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx013
  • What makes a multimodal signal attractive? A preference function
    • Authors: Ronald KL; Zeng R, White DJ, et al.
      First page: 677
      Abstract: AbstractCourtship signals are often complex and include components within and across sensory modalities. Unfortunately, the evidence for how multimodal signals affect female preference functions is still rather limited. This is an important scientific gap because preference function shape can indicate which male traits are under the strongest selection. We modelled how preference function shape can be altered under 4 scenarios of varying signal content, including both redundant and non-redundant signals. The model was tested with the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater); we manipulated male song attractiveness and visual display intensity, and assessed female preferences in an audiovisual playback study. We found that the intensity of a visual display can modify how attractive a song is for females. This indicates that the visual and acoustic male signal components are non-redundant and modulate each other. Our study shows a change in the direction of female preference functions for one signalling modality resulting from changes in the attractiveness of the other modality. Overall, our findings suggest that male signals in this species may not be under the typical directional selection documented in other species, but rather selection may favour males that possess a range of different signals that can be used strategically during different social contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx015
  • Food availability modulates differences in parental effort between
           dispersing and philopatric birds
    • Authors: Récapet C; Bize P, Doligez B.
      First page: 688
      Abstract: AbstractDispersal entails costs and might have to be traded off against other life-history traits. Dispersing and philopatric individuals may thus exhibit alternative life-history strategies. Importantly, these differences could also partly be modulated by environmental variation. Our previous results in a patchy population of a small passerine, the collared flycatcher, suggest that, as breeding density, a proxy of habitat quality, decreases, dispersing individuals invest less in reproduction but maintain a stable oxidative balance, whereas philopatric individuals maintain a high reproductive investment at the expense of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed at experimentally testing whether these observed differences between dispersing and philopatric individuals across a habitat quality gradient were due to food availability, a major component of habitat quality in this system. We provided additional food for the parents to use during the nestling rearing period and we measured subsequent parental reproductive effort (through provisioning rate, adult body mass, and plasmatic markers of oxidative balance) and reproductive output. Density-dependent differences between dispersing and philopatric parents in body mass and fledging success were observed in control nests but not in supplemented nests. However, density-dependent differences in oxidative state were not altered by the supplementation. Altogether, our results support our hypothesis that food availability is responsible for some of the density-dependent differences observed in our population between dispersing and philopatric individuals but other mechanisms are also at play. Our study further emphasizes the need to account for environmental variation when studying the association between dispersal and other traits.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx017
  • Background colour matching increases with risk of predation in a
           colour-changing grasshopper
    • Authors: Edelaar P; Baños-Villalba A, Escudero G, et al.
      First page: 698
      Abstract: AbstractCryptic colouration can be adjusted to the local environment by physiological (rapid) change, and/or by morphological (slow) change. The threat-sensitivity hypothesis predicts that the degree of crypsis should respond to the risk of predation (assuming some cost to crypsis). This has not been studied for morphological colour changers, so we manipulated the colour of the rearing substrate (black vs. white) and the perceived risk of predation (higher vs. lower) for the grasshopper Sphingonotus azurescens. Over a period of several weeks, both nymphs and adults greatly adjusted the brightness of their body towards that of the substrate. Moreover, when individuals were exposed to a greater simulated predation risk (disturbance by hand), they became even more similar in brightness to their substrates, apparently augmenting their degree of crypsis. This study on a morphological colour changer shows that the degree of cryptic colouration (body brightness) is under individual control and appears to change adaptively in response to increased predation risk. In addition, based on analyses of systematic differences in colour in lab-reared offspring, we found indications that even in colour changers there is genetic variation in colouration among individuals, and that populations have diverged adaptively. Such integration of factors determining the cryptic phenotype improves our understanding of the natural selection and constraints imposed on crypsis, which influence both its optimization and evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx016
  • Physiological conditions and genetic controls of phaeomelanin pigmentation
           in nestling barn swallows
    • Authors: Arai E; Hasegawa M, Makino T, et al.
      First page: 706
      Abstract: AbstractPhaeomelanin is a common pigment that confers a reddish colour to animals. Since phaeomelanogenesis requires the sulfhydryl group from cysteine or glutathione (GSH), which is an important antioxidant, this pigmentation and the associated coloration may be an honest signal, whereby only high-quality individuals (e.g. with lower oxidative stress) are able to develop showy plumage. The present study tested the mechanisms underlying the honest signal hypothesis using nestling barn swallows, Hirundo rustica gutturalis, which exhibit phaeomelanic throat plumage patches. We examined the relationship between phaeomelanin pigmentation levels and physiological condition during trait development, and the expression of the phaeomelanin-related gene agouti-signalling protein (ASIP) and the GSH-related gene glutathione S-transferase (GST) in throat feather follicles. We found that during phaeomelanogenesis, heavier nestlings produced more pigmented feathers, indicating that nestlings with high phaeomelanin concentrations are in better condition. We also found that phaeomelanin concentration was negatively correlated with total GSH level, but not significantly related with measures of oxidative stress. Among the GST genes, GSTM3 exhibited the highest expression in the developing feathers during phaeomelanogenesis. The expression levels of ASIP were positively associated with the amount of phaeomelanin deposition and negatively associated with the expression of GSTM3, reducing the amount of GSH that was available as an antioxidant. These findings suggest that high-quality individuals produce high concentrations of phaeomelanin in their plumage without experiencing increased oxidative stress, despite phaeomelanin production, which is triggered by ASIP, potentially actively consuming the sulfhydryl group from GSH.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx012
  • Rearing conditions have long-term sex-specific fitness consequences in the
           collared flycatcher
    • Authors: Szász E; Szöllősi E, Hegyi G, et al.
      First page: 717
      Abstract: AbstractRearing conditions may exert profound effects on individual performance, however, effects manifested after independence and recruitment are seldom considered. Here, we examine the long-term fitness consequences of rearing conditions in the collared flycatcher, a species where rearing conditions have sex-specific effects on nestling growth (with greater effects in males) but not on morphology at fledging. We performed a brood size manipulation experiment and followed the recruits during their local lifetime. Brood size manipulation did not influence recruitment probability. However, the experiment had a sex-specific effect on the number of eggs the recruits had during their entire lifetime. While reproductive output was unaffected by rearing conditions in females, males reared in enlarged broods were outperformed by males reared in reduced broods. This effect was mediated by the number of years, in which the recruits were recaptured. Interestingly, at their first reproductive event, recruits from reduced broods bred later. In the study, we controlled for paternity and found that extrapair young had fewer eggs than within-pair young at their first reproductive event but not during their whole local lifetime. In general, our results show that first, long-term effects of rearing conditions are not necessarily detectable by looking at recruitment probability only. Second, the sex that is more affected by rearing conditions in the short-term seems to be the one that is more affected in the long-term as well. Third, short-term sex-specific environmental sensitivity may have predictive value for fitness consequences even if the sex difference that is apparent during development vanishes by fledging.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx018
  • Alarm calls of a cooperative bird are referential and elicit
           context-specific antipredator behavior
    • Authors: Farrow LF; Doohan SJ, McDonald PG.
      First page: 724
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough functionally referential signals have been extensively studied, largely in mammals (e.g., nonhuman primates, see Cheney and Seyfarth (1988); mongooses, see Manser et al. (2002); and other ground-dwelling species, see Blumstein and Armitage (1997), other social taxa such as birds would similarly benefit from the use of referential signals. We therefore investigated alarm calling in the cooperative noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala), a species that has been anecdotally recorded producing aerial alarms to flying predators and empirically recorded generating terrestrial alarms to ground-based threats. For these signals to be truly referential however, they must meet 3 criteria. First, calls must be structurally distinct, a requirement that these 2 call types meet. Second, calls must be stimulus-specific and reliably associated with a given stimulus. We tested this on free-living birds by exposing them to a simulated aerial predator that was either in flight or subsequently perched and thus presented one of the first studies on functionally referential alarm systems where both aerial and terrestrial alarm calls have been tested. Miners only produced aerial alarms while the stimulus was in flight, switching to terrestrial alarms once it landed. Third, referential signals must elicit different escape responses that are “appropriate” to the associated threat. Under field conditions, aerial alarm playback alone provoked an almost instantaneous response of fleeing to vegetation cover, whereas terrestrial alarm playback elicited significantly slower responses by receivers and an increase in scanning behavior. During laboratory experiments, aerial alarms stimulated birds to spend more time looking upwards, whereas terrestrial alarm calls stimulated individuals to scan perpendicularly, as expected if these stimuli provided information on likely predator location. Although other avian taxa have been shown to use referential alarm signals, this system provides novel evidence of referential calls based on the behavior rather than the type of predator, providing a highly adaptive means of communicating risk to other members of the social group in this cooperative species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx020
  • Foraging sparrows exhibit individual differences but not a syndrome when
           responding to multiple kinds of novelty
    • Authors: Moldoff DE; Westneat DF.
      First page: 732
      Abstract: AbstractDifferences between individuals in correlated responses across contexts have both functional and mechanistic implications. Such syndromes may have either beneficial or harmful consequences when novel changes in the environment occur. We used wild-caught house sparrows, Passer domesticus, to test in functionally relevant circumstances, whether neophobia (initial fear of novelty), habituation, and the learning of novel cues (discriminant learning) were linked by a common underlying mechanism or reflected separate processes. We repeatedly measured individual latencies to approach and also to feed from a familiar feeding site in 3 contexts: a baseline control for mild disturbance, in the presence of a novel object and to a novel cue indicating hidden food. House sparrows on average exhibited neophobia, habituated to novel objects, and learned to associate new cues with a reward. We also found evidence for consistent individual differences in both latencies within most contexts but there was no evidence of individual differences in plasticity with repeated trials within either the novel object (habituation) or novel cue (learning) contexts. There was also little or no correlation between the 2 latencies within individuals within contexts. Individual differences in latencies to arrive at the food station exhibited strong correlations across contexts but latencies to feed were weaker. These results suggest a personality trait that exists regardless of novelty but no syndrome affecting reactions to different forms of novelty. House sparrows appear strongly plastic when responding to novel environments. Such plasticity is likely favored by the varied consequences of novelty across environments.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx014
  • Silk wrapping of nuptial gifts aids cheating behaviour in male spiders
    • Authors: Ghislandi P; Beyer M, Velado P, et al.
      First page: 744
      Abstract: AbstractSexual traits, such as nuptial gifts, are costly and often condition-dependent. Males should be under selection to reduce these costs without impairing their reproductive success. Spider gifts consist of silk-wrapped food, but may also consist of worthless (non-nutritive) donations that successfully lead to mating, despite yielding shorter copulations. Worthless gifts may either represent a cheaper cheating strategy or the inability to produce genuine gifts due to resource limitations (i.e. poor body condition). Unless energetic constraints limit expenditure in silk, males should apply more silk to worthless gifts to compensate for their lower reproductive value. We ask whether in Pisaura mirabilis 1) worthless gifts are condition-dependent and 2) males strategically use silk based on gift type (genuine vs worthless). We tested whether male body condition explains the gift-giving strategy and compared silk amounts covering each gift type, in gifts collected from the field and produced in the laboratory by males given different feeding regimes. Our findings show that worthless gifts are not promoted by poor body condition or limited resources. They rather result from a cheating strategy evolved to opportunistically reduce the costs of genuine gifts while ensuring nutritional advantages, with cheaters gaining body mass. Males applied more silk to worthless gifts regardless of their body condition or feeding state, suggesting they can strategically adjust silk expenditure despite its costs. By masking gift contents and prolonging female feeding, silk is crucial for the maintenance of cheating, likely resulting from an evolutionary arms race between male deception and female assessment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx028
  • Kinship and association in a highly social apex predator population,
           killer whales at Marion Island
    • Authors: Reisinger RR; Beukes (née Janse van Rensburg) C, Hoelzel A, et al.
      First page: 750
      Abstract: AbstractSocial structure is a core element of population biology, influenced by intrinsic and environmental factors. Intra-taxon comparisons of social organization are useful in elucidating the role of such ecological determinants of sociality. Killer whales Orcinus orca are widely distributed, social delphinids with diverse morphology, diet, behaviour, and genetics, but few studies have quantitatively examined social structure in this species. We used 7 years of individual identification data on killer whales at Marion Island, Southern Ocean, to calculate the half-weight association index among 39 individuals, creating a weighted association network. There were long-term associations between individuals, though associations were dynamic over time. We defined 8 social modules using a community detection algorithm and these typically contained 3 individuals of various ages and sexes. Pairwise genetic relatedness among 20 individuals was not significantly correlated with association index. Individuals were on average more related within than between social modules, but social modules contained related as well as unrelated individuals. Likely parent pairs of 6 individuals indicated mating between social modules.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx034
  • Relatedness and age reduce aggressive male interactions over mating in
           domestic fowl
    • Authors: Rosher C; Favati A, Dean R, et al.
      First page: 760
      Abstract: AbstractAltruistic behaviour represents a fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology. It is often best understood through kin selection, where favourable behaviour is directed towards relatives. Kin selection can take place when males cooperate to enhance the reproductive success of relatives. Here, we focus on reduced male–male competition over mating as a case of cooperation, by examining male tolerance of matings by related and unrelated competitors. A suitable model for exploring whether relatedness affects male–male interactions over mating is the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus. In this species, males form social hierarchies and dominant males commonly interrupt subdominant males’ copulation attempts. We investigated whether dominant male fowl differentially direct aggressive interactions towards unrelated and related subordinate males during mating attempts. Dominant male fowl were found to interrupt mating attempts of male relatives less often than those of unrelated males. We further tested whether male age mediates the magnitude of kin tolerance behaviour. However, we found no support for this as both young and old dominant males were less likely to interrupt related, compared to unrelated, subdominant males’ copulations during male–male interactions. Our results, consistent with kin selection, provide a rare experimental demonstration of relatedness relaxing male–male competition over mating.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx024
  • Interspecific social information use in habitat selection decisions among
           migrant songbirds
    • Authors: Szymkowiak J; Thomson RL, Kuczyński L.
      First page: 767
      Abstract: AbstractThe presence of conspecifics is a social cue frequently used by songbirds in breeding-site selection. In migratory species, conspecific attraction is not possible for individuals that arrive first to breeding grounds, but these individuals may use information from ecologically similar heterospecifics. Resident tits (Paridae) are known to provide cues for migratory songbirds, however, the relevance of resident settlement decisions decreases as the season progresses. We investigated heterospecific attraction within migrant songbirds, and examined whether later arriving species use the presence of earlier arriving species as a cue for breeding habitat selection. We used a song playback experiment to test if wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix settlement decisions are affected by chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita and blackcap Sylvia atricapilla cues. Our results suggest that wood warblers used cues from heterospecifics when deciding where to breed. Wood warblers settled earlier and more numerously on plots with simulated presence of chiffchaffs, in contrast blackcap presence had a negative effect on settlement, suggesting heterospecific avoidance. Chiffchaffs and blackcaps were attracted to sites with simulated presence of conspecifics, which provides evidence for conspecific attraction in breeding-site selection of these species. Our experiment suggests that heterospecific attraction is not a phenomenon limited to resident-migrant interactions, but acts also between migrant species. Our results show an interplay of attraction and avoidance when using social cues for habitat selection decisions within a migrant songbird guild, and stress the importance of both positive and negative effects of social environment on settlement behaviour of individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx029
  • Steller’s jays assess and communicate about predator risk using
           detection cues and identity
    • Authors: Billings AC; Greene E, MacArthur-Waltz D.
      First page: 776
      Abstract: AbstractPredators can vary in the risk they pose, depending upon the factors such as body size, maneuverability, hunting strategy, and diet. Prey can also detect predators with different senses, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling them. We presented wild Steller’s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri annectens) with visual cues (robotic raptors) or acoustic cues (call playbacks) of 4 different raptors to test how they assess risk and how this influences their alarm calls. The assessment of risk from different predator cues varied with different species of raptors: Jays responded to sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) with an increase in latency to resume foraging regardless of whether they were seen or heard, whereas latency responses to northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) were longer if they were seen versus if they were heard. Furthermore, Steller’s jays altered the acoustic structure of their alarm calls depending on the species of raptor and whether they saw or heard them. These results demonstrate that Steller’s jay’s assessment of risk involves an interaction between predator identity and predator detection cue and in response, they alter their acoustically-simple alarm calls in surprisingly nuanced ways.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx035
  • Male zebra finches have limited ability to identify high-fecundity females
    • Authors: Wang D; Kempenaers N, Kempenaers B, et al.
      First page: 784
      Abstract: AbstractIn species with biparental care and lifetime monogamy, the fecundity of a male’s partner can be a major component of his fitness but it is unclear whether males can assess female fecundity before breeding. We carried out an experiment in which we measured variation in female fecundity (repeatability 39%, 213 females) in a captive zebra finch population and tested whether males preferred unfamiliar females of high fecundity (approximately top 10% of the population; 30 eggs laid on average) over those of low fecundity (bottom 10%; 6 eggs). We first tested whether naïve human observers could identify the high-fecundity female when confronted with duos of high and low fecundity. Humans guessed correctly in 58% of the cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 50–66%) indicating that differences in female condition were not highly obvious to humans. Zebra finch males preferred the high-fecundity female in 59% of choice tests that lasted 20 min (CI 52–66%). When extending such choice tests over several days, male “success” in associating with the high-fecundity female was still modest (61% correct choices, CI 44–76%). Overall, male zebra finches seem to have only limited abilities to identify the better mate when faced with a choice between extremes in terms of female fecundity. We found no male preference for heavier females. We speculate that such a preference may not have evolved because, in contrast to many ectothermic species, predicting fecundity from female weight is not sufficiently accurate (r2 = 0.04) for the benefits to outweigh the costs of increased male–male competition for heavy females.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx037
  • Nest-box temperature affects clutch size, incubation initiation, and
           nestling health in great tits
    • Authors: Bleu J; Agostini S, Biard C.
      First page: 793
      Abstract: AbstractPrenatal maternal effects can be a source of phenotypic plasticity and may play a role in adaptation to climate change. However, we do not know how far temperature could influence such effects, if at all. We studied the influence of temperature during egg laying on maternal reproductive investment and on the phenotype of adult females, adult males, and nestlings. We expected temperature to have an effect, as it influences maintenance costs for females, who can also use it as a cue of the advancement of the breeding season. We experimentally increased night-time nest-box temperatures by approximately 1 °C throughout the entire laying period in great tits (Parus major). Clutch size was negatively correlated with laying date in heated females. Heated females did not delay incubation after clutch completion as frequently as control females did. Finally, blood sedimentation rate, which is an indicator of acute infections and inflammatory diseases, was positively correlated with hatching date in control broods. This suggests that nestlings were of lower quality in late-hatched broods than in early-hatched broods. This seasonal effect was not detected in heated nests. Our results show that a small increase in temperature during laying can influence breeding strategy and nestling characteristics. These results suggest that birds used temperature as a cue of seasonal advancement to adjust breeding phenology, with beneficial effects on nestling health. To better understand the consequences of maternal adjustments during egg laying, it would be interesting to combine studies with heating treatment during different periods of the breeding cycle.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx039
  • Large brains and groups associated with high rates of agonism in primates
    • Authors: Cowl VB; Shultz S.
      First page: 803
      Abstract: AbstractAnimals living in social groups will almost inevitably experience competition for limited resources. One consequence of competition can be agonism, an activity that is not only costly to participate in at the individual level but potentially also at the group level due the detrimental effects that agonism can have on group stability and cohesion. Agonism rates across primate species have previously been associated with group size and terrestriality; therefore primates, particularly those in large groups, should develop strategies to mitigate or counter-act agonism. Here, we use phylogenetically controlled analyses to evaluate whether the known relationship between brain size and group size may partially reflect an association between agonism and brain size in large groups. We find strong positive associations between group level agonism and 2 measures of brain size (endocranial volume and neocortex ratio) in 45 separate populations across 23 different primate species. In contrast, dyadic (pair-wise) rates of agonism are inversely associated with group size and not with brain size. Moreover, we find a distinct absence of relationships between agonism and the prevalence of prosocial, cooperative behaviors. That overall rates of agonism increase but dyadic rates decrease with group size suggests that individuals in larger groups either can buffer aggression better or only species with low levels of dyadic conflict can maintain large groups.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx041
  • Acoustic cues from within the egg do not heighten depredation risk to
           shorebird clutches
    • Authors: Kostoglou K; van Dongen WD, Lees D, et al.
      First page: 811
      Abstract: AbstractEgg predators use an array of olfactory and visual cues to locate eggs. Precocial avian embryos within eggs can produce vocalizations for a period prior to hatching, which may be audible to predators. Here, we investigated, under field conditions, the embryonic vocalizations emitted from eggs of a shorebird species, the Red-capped Plover Charadrius ruficapillus. We characterize the acoustic properties of the vocalizations and the circumstances under which they are emitted, then test whether such vocalizations are used as an acoustic cue by predators to locate eggs. Embryonic vocalizations typically occurred between 0 and 5 days before hatching (henceforth the “vocalization period”). Within the vocalization period, the maximum acoustic frequency (kHz) of vocalizations increased with egg age (perhaps as a consequence of embryonic development) and the minimum acoustic frequency (kHz) increased with ground temperature (perhaps as mode of communication with parents regarding thermal needs). An artificial nest experiment compared the survival of nests with and without acoustic cues (prerecorded embryonic vocalizations played continuously from the nest). Corvids were the major egg predator (accounting for 76% of cases of artificial nest predation). However, the presence of vocalizations did not affect the time taken for predators to locate and depredate eggs. Our results suggest that embryonic vocalizations are important signals that may aid in communication with parents but that they do not increase predation rates. Further research involving a greater diversity of predators (e.g., acoustic predators) is required to examine whether vocalizations from the egg incur costs under other predator regimes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx040
  • Early life nutritional quality effects on adult memory retention in a
           parasitic wasp
    • Authors: Farahani H; Ashouri A, Zibaee A, et al.
      First page: 818
      Abstract: AbstractNutritional quality during early life can affect learning ability and memory retention of animals. Here we studied the effect of resource quality gained during larval development on the learning ability and memory retention of 2 sympatric strains of similar genetic background of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae: one uninfected and one infected by Wolbachia. Wolbachia is a common arthropod parasite/mutualistic symbiont with a range of known effects on host fitness. Here we studied, for the first time, the interaction between resource quality and Wolbachia infection on memory retention and resource acquisition. Memory retention of uninfected wasps was significantly longer when reared on high quality hosts when compared to low quality hosts. Furthermore, uninfected wasps emerging from high quality hosts showed higher values of protein and triglyceride than those emerging from low quality hosts. In contrast, the memory retention for infected wasps was the same irrespective of host quality, although retention was significantly lower than uninfected wasps. No significant effect of host quality on capital resource amount of infected wasps was observed, and infected wasps displayed a lower amount of protein and triglyceride than uninfected wasps when reared on high quality hosts. This study suggests that the nutritional quality of the embryonic period can affect memory retention of adult wasps not infected by Wolbachia. However, by manipulating the host’s obtained capital resource amount, Wolbachia could enable exploitation of the maximum available resources from a range of hosts to acquire suitable performance in complex environments.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx042
  • Baltic pipefish females need twice as many males as they get
    • Authors: Berglund A; Sundin J, Rosenqvist G.
      First page: 827
      Abstract: AbstractSex role reversal in 2 pipefish species, Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion, is potentially explained by females reproducing twice as fast as males. Moreover, in oceanic populations from the Swedish west coast, females compete for males with males preferring to mate with larger females. However, in a brackish Baltic population of S. typhle, males do not prefer larger mates, whereas choosiness remains in the local N. ophidion population. We explore whether this absence of male choice in brackish S. typhle can be explained by males and females having more similar potential reproductive rates here, whereas the sex difference may remain in the local N. ophidion population. Contrary to our expectations, in both species, females out-reproduced males by a factor of more than 2, just as in the oceanic populations. We measured this experimentally as the number of males a female potentially could fill with eggs within the time span of 1 male pregnancy, in relation to males available in nature. Thus, we conclude that sexual selection on females is as strong in brackish as in oceanic populations of both species but that targets of selection via male choice are shifted to traits other than body size in S. typhle. Hence, costs and benefits of choice are probably more important than potential reproductive rates to understand mate choice. We suggest that it may be misleading to use targets of sexual selection, such as choice for large body size, as an indicator of the strength of sexual selection.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx046
  • Early social experience shapes female mate choice in guppies
    • Authors: Macario A; Croft DP, Endler JA, et al.
      First page: 833
      Abstract: AbstractMating decisions are often plastic and individuals adjust their decisions depending on the social and ecological environment. Although the implications of the social environment on mate choice has been well studied in species with parental care, surprisingly little research has examined the role played by the social environment experienced during ontogeny in species lacking parental care. We used guppies to test the hypothesis that females alter their mate choice in response to variation in the distribution of male sexual traits encountered during development. To manipulate their juvenile experience, we exposed maturing females to groups of males differing in the values of male coloration, known to be sexual traits in guppies. These exposures were carried out either during the entire developmental period or the latter half of the developmental period. Both choosiness and preference functions for a number of male color traits were affected by rearing treatments. Furthermore, females exhibited disassortative preferences for the phenotypes experienced as juveniles, suggesting a rare-male advantage. Finally, depending on male stimuli, only long-exposed females formed preferences for specific male colors. Our study demonstrates the importance of socially mediated preferences and highlights how preferences for rare phenotypes and fluctuating selection due to heterogeneity in signaling conditions may contribute to the maintenance of the polymorphism found in male color patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx043
  • The signal in noise: acoustic information for soundscape orientation in
           two North American tree frogs
    • Authors: Vélez A; Gordon NM, Bee MA.
      First page: 844
      Abstract: AbstractDiverse animals use environmental sounds to orient in ecological soundscapes. Yet, we know little about how acoustic information use drives behavioral decisions to orient. Although the sound generated by frog choruses functions as noise that impairs signal reception by listeners in the aggregation, it can also serve as an informative ecological signal that allows other individuals to orient toward and localize active breeding aggregations. Here, we investigated the acoustic cues that elicit orientation toward the sound of a chorus in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope’s gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis). We measured phonotaxis behavior of gravid females in response to playbacks of natural choruses and artificial choruses that differed in the types of acoustic information present. Females of both species oriented to natural choruses and to artificial choruses that contained information on the actual timing and temporal structure of individual calls embedded in the sound of the chorus. Artificial choruses with the time-averaged frequency spectrum and amplitude-modulation spectrum of natural choruses, but lacking information on the timing and temporal structure of individual calls, did not elicit positive phonotaxis. Our results indicate that temporal information from individual calls in the din of chorus sounds is necessary to elicit soundscape orientation. Because the temporal structure of individual calls may degrade quickly as the sound of the chorus propagates through the habitat, orientation to breeding choruses based on acoustic information alone may be limited to relatively short distances in these 2 species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx044
  • Get smart: native mammal develops toad-smart behavior in response to a
           toxic invader
    • Authors: Kelly E; Phillips BL.
      First page: 854
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough invasive species can cause major declines in native populations, some individuals in a native population are better equipped to deal with the threat than others. Existing trait variation—especially in highly flexible behavioral traits—may thus buffer populations and allow natural selection to proceed. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have caused dramatic declines in native Australian predators, which unwittingly attack the poisonous toads. The northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) is one such predator, with declines and local extinction of quoll populations typically occurring rapidly after toads arrive. Despite this, some quoll populations persist in areas where toads have been present for ≥70 years. Here, we compare northern quolls from toad-infested and toad-free areas to test whether this persistence is enabled by behavioral traits. We demonstrate that northern quolls from long-term toad-infested areas have indeed become “toad-smart,” spending significantly less time investigating a toad compared with a control prey item, and limiting this investigation time to investigatory rather than attacking behavior. By contrast, quolls from toad-naive populations vary in their response to toads, with many exhibiting attack behavior. These results demonstrate that behavioral variation exists within naive populations and the few persisting northern quoll populations in toad-infested areas have naturally developed toad-smart behavior. Population modeling suggests this behavior likely persists across generations. Although the mechanism is unknown, the observed shift in toad-smart behavior may be due to rapid adaption, and if so could become a vital tool for conserving this endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx045
  • How cuckoos find and choose host nests for parasitism
    • Authors: Yang C; Wang L, Liang W, et al.
      First page: 859
      Abstract: AbstractHow cuckoos find the nests of their hosts and choose nests with respect to egg phenotype for parasitism is a long-standing puzzle that has so far not been solved. We recently developed an experimental design to shed light on this mystery by studying the egg-laying behavior of common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) in nests of its Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) host. Our results showed that common cuckoos only parasitized host nests with host activities but ignored the egg phenotypes in the nests. Furthermore, cuckoos distinguished between nest types of black-browed reed warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps) and Oriential reed warbler and chose to parasitize the latter. This study provides strong evidence for host activities being a prime factor affecting cuckoo parasitism. Cuckoos must first locate the general site of host nests from activities by the host and then target the nests for parasitism. These observations reject the optimal egg-laying hypothesis stating that cuckoos are capable of choosing to lay eggs in host nests with visually matching egg phenotypes. Therefore, our studies challenge the idea that cuckoos recognize eggs that match their own.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx049
  • Bill morphology and neutral genetic structure both predict variation in
           acoustic signals within a bird population
    • Authors: Langin KM; Sillett T, Morrison SA, et al.
      First page: 866
      Abstract: AbstractAdaptive evolutionary divergence within a population can be facilitated by associated divergence in mating signals. Acoustic signals are often involved in mate choice and are also known to diverge spatially in response to a variety of processes. In birds, for instance, variation in bill size and shape can result in correlated changes in vocalizations due to functional constraints on sound production. Acoustic signals can also vary spatially in relation to neutral genetic structure (due to cultural drift) and/or habitat structure (due to acoustic adaptation for optimal sound transmission). Here, we test these alternative hypotheses as causes of variation in acoustic signal structure in the Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis), a species that is restricted to one small island (Santa Cruz Island, CA) and exhibits spatial genetic structure and microgeographic divergence in bill morphology across short distances and habitat types. We find that bill morphology is related to the structure of the female “rattle” call, a vocalization associated with territorial disputes and male–female interactions. Females with longer, shallower bills produced calls that were more rapid, and those with shallower bills also produced calls that were lower in frequency. In addition, rattle rapidity varied across the island in accordance with neutral genetic structure. Vocal characteristics were not related to habitat structure, suggesting that variation in rattle calls is unlikely to reflect optimization for sound transmission. Our findings indicate that selection on bill morphology and cultural drift can jointly shape variation in acoustic signal structure, even at fine spatial scales within populations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx051
  • Individual aggression, but not winner–loser effects, predicts social
           rank in male domestic fowl
    • Authors: Favati A; Løvlie H, Leimar O.
      First page: 874
      Abstract: AbstractMany factors can affect the probability for an individual to obtain a high social rank, including size, weaponry, and behavioral attributes such as aggression. Recent experiences of winning or losing can also affect the chances of winning future contests, commonly referred to as “winner–loser effects”. Individuals often differ in behavior in a consistent way, including in aggression, thereby showing differences in personality. However, the relative importance of recent experience and aspects of personality in determining rank, as well as the extent to which winning or losing affects aggression, has rarely been studied. Here, we investigate these questions using male domestic fowl. We matched males for body size, comb size, and aggression in pair-wise duels to: 1) study the effect of contest outcome on aggression and 2) compare the effect of individual aggression and contest experience on future social status in small groups. We found that aggression was a highly repeatable personality trait and that aggression increased after winning and decreased after losing. Nevertheless, such winner–loser effects were not enough to increase the odds of becoming dominant in a small group. Instead, aggressiveness measured prior to a contest experience best predicted future rank. Boldness and exploration did not predict rank and of the 2, only boldness was positively correlated with aggressiveness. We conclude that for male domestic fowl in contests among phenotypically matched contestants, aggressiveness is more important for obtaining high rank than winner–loser effects, or other aspects of personality.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx053
  • Replacing bold individuals has a smaller impact on group performance than
           replacing shy individuals
    • Authors: Pinter-Wollman N; Mi B, Pruitt JN.
      First page: 883
      Abstract: AbstractIn many animal societies, just one or few individuals referred to as keystone individuals can have a disproportionately large impact on collective outcomes. Despite ongoing interest in the consequences of losing a keystone individual on group performance, little is known about whether other individuals with an appropriate behavioral type can readily assume the keystone role. Here, we examine if the identity of a keystone individual impacts its influence on the collective behavior of its group in a society of social spiders. We find that the repeated replacement of a keystone individual, which is typically a group’s boldest constituent, has little impact on the collective prey capture of the colony. However, repeatedly replacing a shy, generic, individual in the group reduces prey capture success. Groups in which the keystone individual is repeatedly replaced increase their overall boldness, thus potentially collectively substituting the bold behavioral type that they lost. Furthermore, newly replaced keystone individuals participate in a greater proportion of prey attacks than established keystone individuals in undisturbed colonies, as seen in prior work on colony social development, suggesting that the repeated replacement of a keystone individual maintains colonies in an early stage of social succession. By uncovering the mechanisms that underlie a group’s robustness to social perturbations, our work sheds light on how social dynamics dictate colony-level phenotypes in animal groups.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx054
  • Specialists and generalists coexist within a population of spider-hunting
           mud dauber wasps
    • Authors: Powell EC; Taylor LA.
      First page: 890
      Abstract: AbstractIndividual foraging specialization describes the phenomenon where conspecifics within a population of generalists exhibit differences in foraging behavior, each specializing on different prey types. Individual specialization is widespread in animals, yet is understudied in invertebrates, despite potential impacts to food web and population dynamics. Sceliphron caementarium (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is an excellent system to examine individual specialization. Females of these mud dauber wasps capture and paralyze spiders which they store in mud nests to provision their offspring. Individuals may make hundreds of prey choices in their short lifespan and fully intact prey items can be easily excavated from their mud nests, where each distinct nest cell represents a discrete foraging bout. Using data collected from a single population of S. caementarium (where all individuals had access to the same resources), we found evidence of strong individual specialization; individuals utilized different resources (with respect to prey taxa, prey ecological guild, and prey size) to provision their nests. The extent of individual specialization differed widely within the population with some females displaying extreme specialization (taking only prey from a single species) while others were generalists (taking prey from up to 6 spider families). We also found evidence of temporal consistency in individual specialization over multiple foraging events. We discuss these findings broadly in the context of search images, responses to changing prey availability, and intraspecific competition pressure.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx050
  • Asynchronous hatching in a nonavian species: a test of the hurry-up
    • Authors: Ford LE; Smiseth PT.
      First page: 899
      Abstract: AbstractThe hurry-up hypothesis suggests that completing reproduction as soon as possible is favored when the quantity or quality of resources used for breeding declines over time. However, completing reproduction sooner may incur a cost if it leads to an asynchronous hatching pattern that reduces overall growth and survival of offspring. Here, we present the first test of the hurry-up hypothesis in a nonavian system, the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, which breeds on small vertebrate carcasses. To this end, we conducted 2 experiments in which we provided females with an incentive to complete reproduction sooner by giving them carcasses that varied either with respect to decomposition (resource quality) or size (resource quantity). We recorded the delay until laying and measures of the laying pattern and fitness consequences for the offspring. As predicted, we found that larvae dispersed from the carcass earlier when females commenced oviposition sooner and that laying spread was greater when females commenced egg laying earlier. However, we found no evidence that females commenced egg laying earlier on either decomposed or larger carcasses. Our results suggest that, although asynchronous hatching might emerge as a by-product of parents attempting to complete reproduction sooner, there is no evidence that females attempt to complete reproduction sooner under conditions where this would be favorable. Our results are therefore inconsistent with the hurry-up hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx055
  • The behavioral trade-off between thermoregulation and foraging in a
           heat-sensitive species
    • Authors: Mason TE; Brivio F, Stephens PA, et al.
      First page: 908
      Abstract: AbstractThe range-shifts of many species are lagging behind climate change, meaning that those species are likely to experience increases in average ambient temperature. Heat-sensitive species may experience increasingly precarious trade-offs between investment in thermoregulation versus other key processes as the climate warms. We investigated the potential for trade-offs to exist between behavioral thermoregulation and foraging, studying a typical heat-sensitive endotherm: the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex). Ibex use higher altitudes when it is hotter, which could restrict them from more profitable foraging areas at lower altitudes. We investigated this potential trade-off using data on the altitude-use and activity budgets of 43 marked males collected during the vegetation growing season in Gran Paradiso National Park, Italy. We used structural equation modeling to assess the support for models linking ambient temperature, altitude-use, vegetation productivity, and foraging time. Ibex migrated to higher altitudes during spring and summer, maintaining their ambient temperature within a very narrow band. Consequently, when it was warmer ibex utilized areas that were less productive, as indicated by lower normalized difference vegetation indices, and consumed lower quality forage, as indicated by lower levels of fecal crude protein. Ibex did not compensate behaviorally for reduced forage productivity by adjusting their foraging effort. We identify a trade-off between thermoregulation and foraging in ibex, which could affect this species negatively in the future. Such trade-offs could be a general phenomenon for heat-sensitive species. Our study reveals that behavioral thermoregulation can exert a strong influence on animal distributions, even overriding resource productivity in importance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx057
  • Collective decision making in guppies: a cross-population comparison study
           in the wild
    • Authors: Clément RG; Vicente-Page J, Mann RP, et al.
      First page: 919
      Abstract: AbstractCollective cognition has received much attention in recent years but most of the empirical work has focused on comparing individuals and groups within single populations, thereby not addressing evolutionary origins of collective cognition. Here, we investigated collective cognition in multiple populations that are subject to different levels of predation. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were given a simultaneous choice between an edible and a nonedible stimulus. We found evidence for an improvement in decision accuracy when in groups but only in low-predation guppies. This performance increase was due to a combination of increased private sampling behavior when in groups (compared to being alone) and social information use. In contrast, high-predation fish did not sample more when in groups, nor used social information; hence did not improve decision-accuracy when in groups. The improvement of groups in foraging accuracy in low but not in high-predation sites, suggests that these populations differ in their trade-off between attention dedicated to food and predators. In high-predation sites, investing time in predator detection is more crucial than in low-predation sites, thereby possibly conflicting with food detection. Our results highlight the importance of considering the effects of ecological gradients on collective cognition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx056
  • Parental coordination with respect to color polymorphism in a crater lake
    • Authors: Lehtonen TK.
      First page: 925
      Abstract: AbstractIn many taxa, success in parental care requires the coordinated efforts of both parents. Given the evolutionary potential of parental performance, as well as phenotype-related behavioral differences, it is surprising that parental coordination in polymorphic species has attracted only very limited research attention. To redress this gap, I combined multiple approaches to assess parental performance and coordination of parental effort in the color polymorphic and biparental cichlid fish, Amphilophus sagittae, in its natural crater lake habitat. I compared parents of the 2 color morphs, dark and gold, as well as pairs that had mated color assortatively (“same color” pairs) versus disassortatively (“mixed” pairs). The 2 morphs differed in terms of a higher than expected number of single gold morph parents. Interestingly, parental coordination, in terms of the size of the defended territory and the rate of aggressive responses toward natural territory intruders, was lower in mixed than same color pairs. Mixed pairs also had their territories in deeper water. However, no pair type differences in early survival of biparentally defended broods were detected. The findings contribute toward a better understanding of the role of parental coordination in polymorphic species, highlighting the importance of considering parental effort, coordination, and performance in the context of the dynamics of (color) polymorphisms in the wild. Indeed, if the observed behavioral differences will translate into negative fitness effects for mixed pairs, parental performance can also provide a mechanism selecting for color assortative mating and restricting gene flow under mating regimes that are not completely assortative.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx052
  • A new method for statistical detection of directional and stabilizing
           mating preference
    • Authors: Roff DA; Fairbairn DJ, Prokuda A.
      First page: 934
      Abstract: AbstractEstimation of mating preferences is a prerequisite for understanding how sexual selection through mate choice shapes both mating systems and sexual dimorphisms. Most studies of mating preferences assay mate choice using either a no choice or a binary choice design. Binary choice trials typically employ either an artificial signal or some fixed difference (e.g. colour or size) between the signalling individuals. Although statistically more powerful than no choice designs, such experiments cannot be used to detect stabilizing preference. Further, the use of artificial signals is problematic because signal components tend to be varied in isolation, and hence do not reflect natural variation. Here, we present a new method that uses natural variation among individuals in choice trials to determine if mating preference is absent, directional, and/or stabilizing. The protocol is tested using simulation and shown to be robust to the preference function, to have the required statistical power, to be unbiased in almost all cases, and to give confidence regions that modestly overestimate the desired 95% criterion. We demonstrate the use of the method with data from mate choice trials of the sand cricket, Gryllus firmus. Software to apply this new approach is provided in Dryad.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx038
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