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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 368 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 368 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Journal of Infectious Diseases
  [SJR: 4]   [H-I: 209]   [39 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-1899 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6613
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [368 journals]
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: In “Cardiovascular Disease, Statins, and HIV” by Eckard et al [J Infect Dis 2016; 214(suppl 2): S83–92], supplementary references 52-104 were omitted. They are now listed online.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: In “Cardiovascular Disease, Statins, and HIV” by Eckard et al [J Infect Dis 2016; 214(suppl 2): S83–92], supplementary references 52-104 were omitted. They are now listed online.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: In “The Type of Growth Medium Affects the Presence of a Mycobacterial Capsule and Is Associated With Differences in Protective Efficacy of BCG Vaccination Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis” by Prados-Rosales et al [J Infect Dis 2016; 214(3): 426–37], Figures 4B and 5B are incorrectly labeled. The corrected figures appear below.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Management of Ebola Virus Disease: Is Environmental Decontamination
    • Authors: Walker NF; Youkee D, Brown CS, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—The West African Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) outbreak was the most extensive and devastating EVD outbreak in history. Effective case management is a key component of EVD control, involving the care of infectious patients in an environment that limits ongoing transmission. We read with interest the recent article by Poliquin et al [1], which adds information on Ebola viral contamination of clinical settings where patients with EVD were managed. The authors cite a prior study by Bausch et al [2], conducted in Uganda, as the only previous study in this area. However, we are aware of 3 other studies examining environmental contamination of EVD clinical facilities [3–5]. Given how important this issue is for the safety of health workers and patients, we would like to highlight this other relevant evidence.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
  • Reduced Transplacental Transfer of Group B Streptococcus Surface Protein
           Antibodies in HIV-infected Mother–Newborn Dyads
    • Authors: Dzanibe S; Adrian PV, Mlacha S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractWe evaluated the effect of maternal HIV infection on transplacental antibody transfer specific to 8 group B Streptococcus (GBS) surface proteins among 81 HIV-uninfected and 83 HIV-infected mother–newborn pairs using a multiplex immunoassay. Significantly lower antibody titers were detected in HIV-infected mothers and HIV-exposed uninfected newborns compared to HIV-uninfected mother–newborn dyads. Maternal HIV infection was also associated with reduced transplacental transfer of antibodies for Sip (25.8%), Foldase (30.4%), gba0392 (36.5%), gbs0393 (32.9%), gbs1539 (39.2%), gbs2106 (35.7%), and BibA (19.4%); P < .003. This reduced transplacental antibody might contribute to increased susceptibility for invasive GBS disease in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
  • Antiviral Activity of the Combination of Interferon and Ribavirin Against
           Chikungunya Virus: Are the Results Conclusive'
    • Authors: Scagnolari C; Caputo B, Rezza G, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We agree with Gallegos and colleagues [1] that chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a significant public health problem today, and that effective antiviral agents are urgently needed to treat severe cases of CHIKV fever. On the basis of their results, the authors suggest that ribavirin (RBV) and interferon (IFN) α2a are effective, when used in combination, against CHIKV replication in Vero cells, and that such combination represents a promising therapeutic strategy against the infection [1]. Although these findings are interesting and meaningful, we are concerned about some shortcomings in the experimental design, which might lead to misleading conclusions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
  • Reply to Scagnolari et al
    • Authors: Brown AN; Gallegos KM, D’Argenio DZ, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We thank Scagnolari et al. [1] for taking an interest in our research. We would like to point out that the purpose of our study was to explore the potential of the clinically available combination therapeutic regimen of ribavirin and interferon-α against chikungunya, a virus for which currently no therapies exist. Therefore, it was not our intent to do a complete investigation of interferon and the different clinical preparations, or extend our analysis beyond a single strain of chikungunya virus. Our work was instead focused on using in vitro model systems in combination with mathematical models to describe the interaction of ribavirin and interferon-α. We appreciate the limitations to our study, and these have been addressed in the discussion of the manuscript. We enthusiastically encourage the authors to conduct further investigations, addressing the influence of viral strain, host cell lines, and multiplicity of infection on the antiviral activity of ribavirin and interferon.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: In “Adaptation of M. tuberculosis to impaired host immunity in HIV-infected patients” by Walter et al [J Infect Dis 2016; 214:1205–11], Figure 2 was inadvertently duplicated. The correct, single image is shown below.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
  • Nitazoxanide Is an Ineffective Treatment of Chronic Norovirus in Patients
           With X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia and May Yield False-Negative Polymerase
           Chain Reaction Findings in Stool Specimens
    • Authors: Kempf B; Edgar J, Mc Caughey C, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
  • Reply to Kempf et al
    • Authors: Thorne LL; Goodfellow II.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
  • Codon 91 Gyrase A Testing Is Necessary and Sufficient to Predict
           Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • Authors: Allan-Blitz L; Klausner JD.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We read with great interest the article by Grad et al [1]. We agree with their conclusion that gyrase A (gyrA) genotype testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a valuable means of resistance testing; however, we believe that gyrA testing, specifically of codon 91, is both necessary and sufficient for predicting susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. There have been 11 studies (N=4777 specimens) comparing real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) genotype results with conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, all of which have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (93.8%–100% and 93.2%–100%, respectively). Positive and negative predictive values were similarly impressive (94.4%–100% and 87.5%–100%, respectively). Furthermore, 4 studies found that mutation at codon 91 of the gyrA gene as determined by RT-PCR was 100% specific for N. gonorrhoeae compared with other Neisseria species [2–5].
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
  • Reply to Allan-Blitz and Klausner
    • Authors: Grad YH; Lipsitch M.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We thank Allan-Blitz and Klausner [1] for the citations to their group’s work in this area and to the efforts underway to test diagnostics for quinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Although our study investigated the genetic basis of resistance and assessed the positive and negative predictive values of specific mutations for resistance in the set of samples we analyzed [2], we take no position on the suitability of particular diagnostics. We note, however, that the US Food and Drug Administration has published guidance for antimicrobial susceptibility test systems [3]. The lower end of the range in negative predictive value cited by Allan-Blitz and Klausner (87.5%) is considerably lower than the 99% we observed, possibly owing to sampling from a different gonococcal population, in which alternative mechanisms of resistance may exist. This emphasizes the importance of establishing rates of major and very major discrepancy [3], as well as regularly monitoring the circulating gonococcal lineages to ensure the diagnostic test characteristics accurately reflect the distribution of resistance mechanisms in gonococci, which may vary over time and by geographic and demographic groups.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
  • Immune Responses After 2 Versus 3 Doses of HPV Vaccination up to 4½ Years
           After Vaccination: An Observational Study Among Dutch Routinely Vaccinated
    • Authors: Donken R; Schurink-van‘t Klooster TM, Schepp RM, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.In 2014 the Netherlands switched from 3 to 2 doses for routine vaccination with the prophylactic bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. The current study explored whether antibody responses are noninferior after 2 versus 3 doses in girls.Methods.Girls vaccinated at 12 years of age with 2 (at 0 and 6 months) or 3 doses (at 0, 1, and 6 months) of the bivalent HPV vaccine were identified in the vaccination registration system. Type-specific antibody concentrations and avidity against HPV-16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were assessed. Analyses were stratified for time since the first dose (0–2, 2–3, 3–4, or 4–4½ years). Noninferiority (margin, 0.5) of the 2- versus the 3-dose schedule in girls was examined.Results.Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for vaccine types were only noninferior for 2 versus 3 doses for HPV-18 (at 2–3 years after the first dose; GMC ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, .57–1.38) For vaccine types and cross-protective types (HPV-16/18/31/33/45), the avidity index was noninferior for the 2-dose compared with the 3-dose schedule, except for HPV-31 at 4–4½ years after the first dose and HPV-33 at 3–4 and 4–4½ years.Conclusions.GMCs for HPV-16/18 were not noninferior for 2 versus 3 doses, except for HPV-18 (at 2–3 years after first dose). However, antibody avidity for these types showed noninferiority, independent of concentrations.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
  • Genome-Wide Association Mapping of the Antibody Response to Diphtheria,
           Tetanus and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Mice
    • Authors: Mosley YC; Radder JE, Berndt A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of the current study was to investigate the genetics of antibody responses to an acellular pertussis vaccine by a genome-wide association study in mice. Female mice of 28 inbred strains received this vaccine at 6, 8, and 12 weeks of age. The antibody titer and avidity of immunoglobulin (Ig) G specific for diphtheria toxin, pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin were measured at 14 and 24 weeks of age. The magnitude, longevity and avidity of IgG differed significantly among mouse strains. There was significant correlation between antigen-specific IgGs for longevity but not for magnitude and avidity. Association mapping and analysis with PolyPhen software identified 6 genetic markers associated with longevity for all 4 antigens, although the expression levels of these genes did not correlate with longevity phenotype. This study provides novel insights into the genetic basis and potential candidate genes for differences in the IgG responses to vaccination.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
  • Effect of the Streptococcus agalactiae Virulence Regulator CovR on the
           Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infection
    • Authors: Sullivan MJ; Leclercq SY, Ipe DS, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI). The role of the S. agalactiae global virulence regulator, CovR, in UTI pathogenesis is unknown.Methods.We used murine and human bladder uroepithelial cell models of UTI and S. agalactiae mutants in covR and related factors, including β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-h/c), surface-anchored adhesin HvgA, and capsule to study the role of CovR in UTI.Results.We found that covR-deficient serotype III S. agalactiae 874391 was significantly attenuated for colonization in mice and adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Mice infected with covR-deficient S. agalactiae produced less proinflammatory cytokines than those infected with wild-type 874391. Acute cytotoxicity in uroepithelial cells triggered by covR-deficient but not wild-type 874391 was associated with significant caspase 3 activation. Mechanistically, covR mutation significantly altered the expression of several genes in S. agalactiae 874391 that encode key virulence factors, including β-h/c and HvgA, but not capsule. Subsequent mutational analyses revealed that HvgA and capsule, but not the β-h/c, exerted significant effects on colonization of the murine urinary tract in vivo.Conclusions.S. agalactiae CovR promotes bladder infection and inflammation, as well as adhesion to and viability of uroepithelial cells. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI is complex, multifactorial, and influenced by virulence effects of CovR, HvgA, and capsule.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
  • Blood Gene Signatures of Chagas Cardiomyopathy With or Without Ventricular
    • Authors: Ferreira L; Ferreira F, Nakaya H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractChagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 7 million people in Latin American areas of endemicity. About 30% of infected patients will develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocarditis. Further studies are necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of disease progression. Transcriptome analysis has been increasingly used to identify molecular changes associated with disease outcomes. We thus assessed the whole-blood transcriptome of patients with Chagas disease. Microarray analysis was performed on blood samples from 150 subjects, of whom 30 were uninfected control patients and 120 had Chagas disease (1 group had asymptomatic disease, and 2 groups had CCC with either a preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]). Each Chagas disease group displayed distinct gene expression and functional pathway profiles. The most different expression patterns were between CCC groups with a preserved or reduced LVEF. A more stringent analysis indicated that 27 differentially expressed genes, particularly those related to natural killer (NK)/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity, separated the 2 groups. NK/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity could play a role in determining Chagas disease progression. Understanding genes associated with disease may lead to improved insight into CCC pathogenesis and the identification of prognostic factors for CCC progression.
      PubDate: 2016-12-17
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis Small-Colony Variants Are Induced by Low pH and
           Their Frequency Reduced by Lysosomal Alkalinization
    • Authors: Perez K; Patel R.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
  • Reply to Perez and Patel
    • Authors: Leimer N; Zinkernagel AS.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
  • Modified Profile of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 and 9 Production by Human
           Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells After Infection In Vitro With Neisseria
    • Authors: Rodas PI; Pérez D, Jauffret C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractEpithelial shedding and scarring of fallopian tube mucosa are the main consequences of sexually transmitted Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection and probably involve an imbalance of host extracellular matrix components and their regulators such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the current study, primary human fallopian tube epithelial cells were infected with N. gonorrhoeae, and MMP patterns were examined. Gonococcal infection induced a significant increase in secreted MMP-9 and an accumulation of cytoplasmic MMP-2 over time, but no significant MMP-3 or MMP-8 production was observed. Thus, MMP-9 in particular could play a role in tubal scarring in response to gonococcal infection.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Completing Polio Eradication: The Case for Antiviral Drugs
    • Authors: Sutter RW; Modlin JF, Zaffran M.
      Abstract: olioviruseradicationantiviral drugprimary immunodeficiency disorder.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Validation of the Cepheid GeneXpert for Detecting Ebola Virus in Semen
    • Authors: Loftis A; Quellie S, Chason K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA persistence in semen, reported sexual transmission, and sporadic clusters at the end of the 2013–2016 epidemic have prompted recommendations that male survivors refrain from unprotected sex unless their semen is confirmed to be EBOV free. However, there is no fully validated assay for EBOV detection in fluids other than blood.Methods.The Cepheid Xpert Ebola assay for EBOV RNA detection was validated for whole semen and blood using samples obtained from uninfected donors and spiked with inactivated EBOV. The validation procedure incorporated standards from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and Good Clinical Laboratory Practices guidelines for evaluating molecular devices for use in infectious disease testing.Results.The assay produced limits of detection of 1000 copies/mL in semen and 275 copies/mL in blood. Limits of detection for both semen and blood increased with longer intervals between collection and testing, with acceptable results obtained up to 72 hours after specimen collection.Conclusions.The Cepheid Xpert Ebola assay is accurate and precise for detecting EBOV in whole semen. A validated assay for EBOV RNA detection in semen informs the care of male survivors of Ebola, as well as recommendations for public health.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Dissecting Antibodies Induced by a Chimeric Yellow Fever–Dengue,
           Live-Attenuated, Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Naive and
           Dengue-Exposed Individuals
    • Authors: Henein S; Swanstrom J, Byers AM, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSanofi Pasteur has developed a chimeric yellow fever–dengue, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) that is currently approved for use in several countries. In clinical trials, CYD-TDV was efficacious at reducing laboratory-confirmed cases of dengue disease. Efficacy varied by dengue virus (DENV) serotype and prevaccination dengue immune status. We compared the properties of antibodies in naive and DENV-exposed individuals who received CYD-TDV. We depleted specific populations of DENV-reactive antibodies from immune serum samples to estimate the contribution of serotype-cross-reactive and type-specific antibodies to neutralization. Subjects with no preexisting immunity to DENV developed neutralizing antibodies to all 4 serotypes of DENV. Further analysis demonstrated that DENV4 was mainly neutralized by type-specific antibodies whereas DENV1, DENV2, and DENV3 were mainly neutralized by serotype cross-reactive antibodies. When subjects with preexisting immunity to DENV were vaccinated, they developed higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than naive subjects who were vaccinated. In preimmune subjects, CYD-TDV boosted cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies while maintaining type-specific neutralizing antibodies acquired before vaccination. Our results demonstrate that the quality of neutralizing antibodies induced by CYD-TDV varies depending on DENV serotype and previous immune status. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding vaccine efficacy.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Ontogeny of CD4 + T Lymphocytes With Phenotypic Susceptibility to HIV-1
           During Exclusive and Nonexclusive Breastfeeding in HIV-1–Exposed Ugandan
    • Authors: McFarland EJ; Powell TM, Onyango-Makumbi C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Among infants exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, mixed breastfeeding is associated with higher postnatal HIV-1 transmission than exclusive breastfeeding, but the mechanisms of this differential risk are uncertain.Methods.HIV-1–exposed Ugandan infants were prospectively assessed during the first year of life for feeding practices and T-cell maturation, intestinal homing (β7hi), activation, and HIV-1 coreceptor (CCR5) expression in peripheral blood. Infants receiving only breast milk and those with introduction of other foods before 6 months were categorized as exclusive and nonexclusive, respectively.Results.Among CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the expression of memory, activation, and CCR5 markers increased rapidly from birth to week 2, peaking at week 6, whereas cells expressing the intestinal homing marker increased steadily in the central memory (CM) and effector memory T cells over 48 weeks. At 24 weeks, when feeding practices had diverged, nonexclusively breastfed infants showed increased frequencies and absolute counts of β7hi CM CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, including the HIV-1–targeted cells with CD4+β7hi/CCR5+ coexpression, as well as increased activation.Conclusions.The T-cell phenotype associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection (CCR5+, gut-homing, CM CD4+ T cells) was preferentially expressed in nonexclusively breastfed infants, a group of infants at increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Legionella longbeachae Is Immunologically Silent and Highly Virulent In
    • Authors: Massis LM; Assis-Marques MA, Castanheira FS, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Legionella longbeachae (Llo) and Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) are the most common pneumonia-causing agents of the genus. Although both species can be lethal to humans and are highly prevalent, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of Llo infections. In murine models of infection, Lpn infection is self-limited, whereas Llo infection is lethal.Methods.We used mouse macrophages, human macrophages, human epithelial cells, and mouse infections in vivo to evaluate multiple parameters of the infection.Results.We determined that the Llo Dot/Icm secretion system is critical for virulence. Different than Lpn, Llo disseminates and the animals develop a severe pulmonary failure, as demonstrated by lung mechanics and blood oxygenation assays. As compared to Lpn, Llo is immunologically silent and fails to trigger the production of cytokines in human pulmonary epithelial cells and in mouse and human macrophages. Infections in Tnfr1-/-, Ifng-/-, and Il12p40-/- mice supported the participation of cytokines for the resistance phenotype.Conclusions.Both Lpn and Llo require the Dot/Icm system for pathogenesis, but the infection outcome is strikingly different. Llo is immunologically silent, highly virulent, and lethal. The differences reported herein may reflect unappreciated clinical differences in patients infected with Lpn or Llo.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • The Roles of Unfolded Protein Response Pathways in Chlamydia Pathogenesis
    • Authors: George Z; Omosun Y, Azenabor AA, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractChlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium that relies on host cells for essential nutrients and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for a productive infection. Although the unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a major role in certain microbial infectivity, its role in chlamydial pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that Chlamydia induces UPR and exploits it to upregulate host cell uptake and metabolism of glucose, production of ATP, phospholipids, and other molecules required for its replicative development and host survival. Using a combination of biochemical and pathway inhibition assays, we showed that the 3 UPR pathway transducers—protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α), and activating transcription factor-6α (ATF6α)—were activated during Chlamydia infection. The kinase activity of PERK and ribonuclease (RNase) of IRE1α mediated the upregulation of hexokinase II and production of ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. In addition, the activation of PERK and IRE1α promoted autophagy formation and apoptosis resistance for host survival. Moreover, the activation of IRE1α resulted in the generation of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP1) and upregulation of lipid production. The vital role of UPR pathways in Chlamydia development and pathogenesis could lead to the identification of potential molecular targets for therapeutics against Chlamydia.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Statins, Influenza Vaccination and Influenza
    • Authors: Fedson DS.
      Abstract: To the Editor—McLean et al have reported on the impact of statins on the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza [1]. They prospectively enrolled outpatients ≥45 years of age with acute respiratory illness during ten influenza seasons. Influenza vaccination for the current and previous influenza seasons was documented in a vaccination registry. Statin use was documented in electronic health records. Using a test- negative study design and controlling for confounding variables, they found that among 1938 patients with influenza A (H3N2), adjusted vaccination effectiveness (VE) among those not using statins was 45% (95% confidence interval (CI) 27% to 59%). However, among statin users, VE was -21% (95% CI -84% to 20%) (Figure 2A in reference 1). Statin use might also have had a greater effect in reducing VE in persons with a history of vaccination in two consecutive seasons compared with those with no history of prior vaccination (Figure 3A in reference 1). The investigators analysed the findings for influenza A (H1N1) and influenza B, but there were not enough patients to give meaningful results.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
  • Antiviral Activity of Pocapavir in a Randomized, Blinded,
           Placebo-Controlled Human Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Challenge Model
    • Authors: Collett MS; Hincks JR, Benschop K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Immunodeficient individuals who excrete vaccine-derived polioviruses threaten polio eradication. Antivirals address this threat.Methods.In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study, adults were challenged with monovalent oral poliovirus type 1 vaccine (mOPV1) and subsequently treated with capsid inhibitor pocapavir or placebo. The time to virus negativity in stool was determined.Results.A total of 144 participants were enrolled; 98% became infected upon OPV challenge. Pocapavir-treated subjects (n = 93) cleared virus a median duration of 10 days after challenge, compared with 13 days for placebo recipients (n = 48; P = .0019). Fifty-two of 93 pocapavir-treated subjects (56%) cleared virus in 2–18 days with no evidence of drug resistance, while 41 of 93 (44%) treated subjects experienced infection with resistant virus while in the isolation facility, 3 (3%) of whom were infected at baseline, before treatment initiation. Resistant virus was also observed in 5 placebo recipients (10%). Excluding those with resistant virus, the median time to virus negativity was 5.5 days in pocapavir recipients, compared with 13 days in placebo recipients (P < .0001). There were no serious adverse events and no withdrawals from the study.Conclusions.Treatment with pocapavir was safe and significantly accelerated virus clearance. Emergence of resistant virus and transmission of virus were seen in the context of a clinical isolation facility.Clinical Trials Registration.EudraCT 2011-004804-38.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
  • Use of an Anopheles Salivary Biomarker to Assess Malaria Transmission Risk
           Along the Thailand-Myanmar Border
    • Authors: Ya-umphan P; Cerqueira D, Parker DM, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.The modalities of malaria transmission along the Thailand-Myanmar border are poorly understood. Here we address the relevance of using a specific Anopheles salivary biomarker to measure the risk among humans of exposure to Anopheles bites.Methods.Serologic surveys were conducted from May 2013 to December 2014 in 4 sentinel villages. More than 9400 blood specimens were collected in filter papers from all inhabitants at baseline and then every 3 months thereafter, for up to 18 months, for analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between the intensity of the human antibody response and entomological indicators of transmission (human biting rates and entomological inoculation rates [EIRs]) was studied using a multivariate 3-level mixed model analysis. Heat maps for human immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses for each village and survey time point were created using QGIS 2.4.Results.The levels of IgG response among participants varied significantly according to village, season, and age (P
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
  • Type 1 Reaction in Patients With Leprosy Corresponds to a Decrease in
           Proresolving Lipid Mediators and an Increase in Proinflammatory Lipid
    • Authors: Silva CM; Webb K, Andre BG, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Type 1 reaction (T1R) is an acute T-helper type 1 (Th1) inflammatory episode in patients with leprosy. While immunological responses associated with T1R have been investigated, the corresponding metabolic responses that could contribute to T1R pathology have received little attention.Methods.Metabolomics-based analyses of sera from 7 patients with and 9 without T1R were conducted via liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Serum metabolites present at levels that significantly differed (P < .05) with a log2 fold change of ≥ 1.0 between patient groups were interrogated against known metabolic pathways. The structural identification of targeted metabolites was confirmed and abundance changes validated by mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunoassay.Results.Forty metabolic pathways were perturbed in patients with T1R, with 71 dysregulated metabolites mapping to pathways for lipid mediators of inflammation. Of note was an increase in the abundance of the proinflammatory leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and a corresponding decrease in the level of proresolving resolvin D1 (RvD1). Also, levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in patients with T1R were significantly increased, while the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was decreased.Conclusions.The dysregulation of metabolic pathways leading to abundance shifts between proinflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators provides a link between metabolic and cellular immune responses that result in the Th1-mediated pathology of T1R.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
  • Schistosomal MicroRNAs Isolated From Extracellular Vesicles in Sera of
           Infected Patients: A New Tool for Diagnosis and Follow-up of Human
    • Authors: Meningher T; Lerman G, Regev-Rudzki N, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Schistosomiasis traditionally has been diagnosed by detecting eggs in stool or urine. However, the sensitivity of these examinations is limited, especially in travelers with a low worm burden. Serologic tests have a greater sensitivity, but their results remain positive regardless of treatment and thus cannot be used for follow-up of patients. We hypothesized that detection of worm microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum can overcome the drawbacks of the existing diagnostic methods.Methods and Results.Twenty-six returning travelers with schistosomiasis (based on positive results of serologic tests or detection of ova) and 17 healthy controls were included in the study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification of miRNA extracted directly from 500 µL of serum had limited sensitivity and specificity. However, qRT-PCR analysis of RNA extracted from 200 μL of serum extracellular vesicles detected 4 schistosomal miRNAs; the sensitivity and specificity of the 2 highest expressed miRNAs (bantam and miR-2c-3p) were 86% and 84%, respectively. In 7 patients with posttreatment serum available for analysis, we observed outcomes ranging from a reduction in the schistosomal miRNA level to full recovery from disease.Conclusions.qRT-PCR of pathogen miRNAs isolated from extracellular vesicles in sera from infected individuals may provide a new tool for diagnosing schistosomiasis in patients with a low parasite burden. This assay could also be used for evaluating the outcome of therapy, as well as disease-control programs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-14
  • Selective Destruction of Interleukin 23–Induced Expansion of a Major
           Antigen–Specific γδ T-Cell Subset in Patients With Tuberculosis
    • Authors: Shen H; Gu J, Xiao H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA loss of antigen-specific T-cell responses due to defective cytokine signaling during infections has not been reported. We hypothesize that tuberculosis can destroy signaling effects of selective cytokine(s) and induce exhaustion of antigen-specific T cells. To test this hypothesis, mechanistic studies were performed to examine whether and how tuberculosis blocked interleukin 23 (IL-23) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) signaling effects on a major human γδ T-cell subpopulation, phosphoantigen HMBPP–specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. IL-23 and IL-2 significantly expanded HMBPP-stimulated Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from subjects with latent tuberculosis infection, and IL-2 synergized the effect of IL-23. IL-23–induced expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells involved STAT3. Surprisingly, patients with tuberculosis exhibited a selective destruction of IL-23–induced expansion of these cells. The tuberculosis-driven destruction of IL-23 signaling coincided with decreases of expression and phosphorylation of STAT3. Interestingly, impairing of STAT3 was linked to marked increases in the microRNAs (miRNAs) hsa-miR-337-3p and hsa-miR-125b-5p in Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from patients with tuberculosis. Downregulation of hsa-miR-337-3p and hsa-miR-125b-5p by miRNA sponges improved IL-23–mediated expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and restored the ability of these cells to produce anti–tuberculosis cytokines. These results support our hypothesis that tuberculosis can selectively impair a cytokine effect while sparing another and can induce exhaustion of T cells in response to the respective cytokine.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
  • Real-time Imaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Using a Novel
           Near-Infrared Fluorescent Substrate
    • Authors: Yang H; Kong Y, Cheng Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractSlow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, hinders advancement in all areas of research toward prevention and treatment. Real-time imaging with reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) that uses custom fluorogenic substrates for bacterial enzymes allows rapid and specific detection of M. tuberculosis in live animals. We have synthesized a novel REF substrate, CNIR800, that carries a near-infrared (NIR) fluorochrome IRDye 800CW, with a quencher connected through the lactam ring that is hydrolyzed by the enzyme BlaC (β-lactamase) that is naturally expressed by M. tuberculosis. CNIR800 produces long-wavelength emission at 795 nm upon excitation (745 nm) and exhibits significantly improved signal to noise ratios for detection of M. tuberculosis. The detection threshold with CNIR800 is approximately 100 colony-forming units (CFU) in vitro and
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
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