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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 511, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Infectious Diseases
  [SJR: 4]   [H-I: 209]   [40 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-1899 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6613
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Preventing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Disease in
           Urban US Hospitals—Now for the Hard Part: More Evidence Pointing to the
           Community as the Source of MRSA Acquisition
    • Authors: Ray SM.
      Pages: 1631 - 1633
      Abstract: (See the major article by Popovich et al on pages 1640–7.)
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix109
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Vaccine Impact Data Should Support Country Decision Making
    • Authors: Nelson ES; Steele A.
      Pages: 1634 - 1636
      Abstract: Rotavirus vaccinerotavirusdiarrheavaccine impactNITAG.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix187
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Deep Lessons From the Uncultured
    • Authors: Pellett PE.
      Pages: 1637 - 1639
      Abstract: Herpesvirushuman cytomegaloviruscytomegalovirusvirus evolutionvirus diversity
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix158
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Genomic and Epidemiological Evidence for Community Origins of
           Hospital-Onset Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream
    • Authors: Popovich KJ; Snitkin ES, Hota B, et al.
      Pages: 1640 - 1647
      Abstract: Background.We examined whether disparities existed in hospital-onset (HO) Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSIs) and used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify factors associated with USA300 transmission networks.Methods.We evaluated HO methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and HO methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) BSIs for 2009–2013 at 2 hospitals and used an adjusted incidence for modeling. WGS and phylogenetic analyses were performed on a sample of USA300 BSI isolates. Epidemiologic data were analyzed in the context of phylogenetic reconstructions.Results.On multivariate analysis, male sex, African-American race, and non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity were significantly associated with HO-MRSA BSIs whereas Hispanic ethnicity was negatively associated (rate ratio, 0.41; P = .002). Intermixing of community-onset and HO-USA300 strains on the phylogenetic tree indicates that these strains derive from a common pool. African-American race was the only factor associated with genomic clustering of isolates.Conclusions.In a multicenter assessment of HO–S. aureus BSIs, African-American race was significantly associated with HO-MRSA but not MSSA BSIs. There appears to be a nexus of USA300 community and hospital transmission networks, with a community factor being the primary driver. Our data suggest that HO-USA300 BSIs likely are due to colonizing strains acquired in the community before hospitalization. Therefore, prevention efforts may need to extend to the community for maximal benefit.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiw647
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Cluster of Fatal Group A Streptococcal emm87 Infections in a Single
           Family: Molecular Basis for Invasion and Transmission
    • Authors: Flores AR; Luna R, Runge JK, et al.
      Pages: 1648 - 1652
      Abstract: Hypervirulent disease due to group A Streptococcus (GAS) can result from strains with mutations that enhance virulence gene expression but reduce subsequent transmission. We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate intrafamilial spread among 4 siblings of infection due to a hypervirulent GAS strain that resulted in a fatality. All invasive and pharyngeal GAS isolates had an identical mutation in a gene encoding a key regulatory protein that yielded a hyperinvasive phenotype. These data challenge the prevailing theory of reduced transmission induced by mutations that lead to hypervirulent GAS by showing that spread of hypervirulent GAS may lead to clusters of invasive disease.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix177
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Immunoglobulin-Based Investigation of Spontaneous Resolution of Chlamydia
           trachomatis Infection
    • Authors: Bakshi RK; Gupta K, Jordan SJ, et al.
      Pages: 1653 - 1656
      Abstract: Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to investigate serum anti-CT immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1; long-lived response) and immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3; short-lived response indicating more recent infection) from treatment (enrollment) and 6-month follow-up visits in 77 women previously classified as having spontaneous resolution of chlamydia. Of these women, 71.4% were IgG1+IgG3+, consistent with more recent chlamydia resolution. 15.6% were IgG3− at both visits, suggesting absence of recent chlamydia. Using elementary body ELISA, we demonstrated approximately 1 in 6 women classified as having spontaneous resolution of chlamydia might have been exposed to C. trachomatis but not infected. Further, we classified their possible infection stage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix194
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Demonstration of Persistent Infections and Genome Stability by
           Whole-Genome Sequencing of Repeat-Positive, Same-Serovar Chlamydia
           trachomatis Collected From the Female Genital Tract
    • Authors: Suchland RJ; Dimond ZE, Putman TE, et al.
      Pages: 1657 - 1665
      Abstract: Background.The biology of recurrent or long-term infections of humans by Chlamydia trachomatis is poorly understood. Because repeated or persistent infections are correlated with serious complications in humans, understanding these processes may improve clinical management and public health disease control.Methods.We conducted whole-genome sequence analysis on C. trachomatis isolates collected from a previously described patient set in which individuals were shown to be infected with a single serovar over a lengthy period.Results.Data from 5 of 7 patients showed compelling evidence for the ability of these patients to harbor the same strain for 3–5 years. Mutations in these strains were cumulative, very uncommon, and not linked to any single protein or pathway. Serovar J strains isolated from 1 patient 3 years apart did not accumulate a single base change across the genome. In contrast, the sequence results of 2 patients, each infected only with serovar Ia strains, revealed multiple same-serovar infections over 1–5 years.Conclusions.These data demonstrate examples of long-term persistence in patients in the face of repeated antibiotic therapy and show that pathogen mutational strategies are not important in persistence of this pathogen in patients.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix155
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Global Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Childhood Hospitalizations and
           Mortality From Diarrhea
    • Authors: Burnett E; Jonesteller CL, Tate JE, et al.
      Pages: 1666 - 1672
      Abstract: In 2006, 2 rotavirus vaccines were licensed. We summarize the impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations and deaths from rotavirus and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) during the first 10 years since vaccine licensure, including recent evidence from countries with high child mortality. We used standardized guidelines (PRISMA) to identify observational evaluations of rotavirus vaccine impact among children <5 years of age that presented at least 12 months of pre– and post–vaccine introduction surveillance data. We identified 57 articles from 27 countries. Among children <5 years of age, the median percentage reduction in AGE hospitalizations was 38% overall and 41%, 30%, and 46% in countries with low, medium, and high child mortality, respectively. Hospitalizations and emergency department visits due to rotavirus AGE were reduced by a median of 67% overall and 71%, 59%, and 60% in countries with low, medium, and high child mortality, respectively. Implementation of rotavirus vaccines has substantially decreased hospitalizations from rotavirus and all-cause AGE.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix186
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Characterization of Human Cytomegalovirus Genome Diversity in
           Immunocompromised Hosts by Whole-Genome Sequencing Directly From Clinical
    • Authors: Hage E; Wilkie GS, Linnenweber-Held S, et al.
      Pages: 1673 - 1683
      Abstract: Background.Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow comprehensive studies of genetic diversity over the entire genome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a significant pathogen for immunocompromised individuals.Methods.Next-generation sequencing was performed on target enriched sequence libraries prepared directly from a variety of clinical specimens (blood, urine, breast milk, respiratory samples, biopsies, and vitreous humor) obtained longitudinally or from different anatomical compartments from 20 HCMV-infected patients (renal transplant recipients, stem cell transplant recipients, and congenitally infected children).Results.De novo–assembled HCMV genome sequences were obtained for 57 of 68 sequenced samples. Analysis of longitudinal or compartmental HCMV diversity revealed various patterns: no major differences were detected among longitudinal, intraindividual blood samples from 9 of 15 patients and in most of the patients with compartmental samples, whereas a switch of the major HCMV population was observed in 6 individuals with sequential blood samples and upon compartmental analysis of 1 patient with HCMV retinitis. Variant analysis revealed additional aspects of minor virus population dynamics and antiviral-resistance mutations.Conclusions.In immunosuppressed patients, HCMV can remain relatively stable or undergo drastic genomic changes that are suggestive of the emergence of minor resident strains or de novo infection.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix157
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Identifying Cytomegalovirus Complications Using the Quantiferon-CMV Assay
           After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
    • Authors: Yong MK; Cameron PU, Slavin M, et al.
      Pages: 1684 - 1694
      Abstract: Background.A simple test to identify recovery of CMV-specific T-cell immunity following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) could assist clinicians in managing CMV-related complications.Methods.In an observational, multicenter, prospective study of 94 HSCT recipients we evaluated CMV-specific T-cell immunity at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after transplant using the Quantiferon-CMV, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot), and intracellular cytokine staining.Results.At 3 months after HSCT, participants who developed CMV disease (n = 8) compared with CMV reactivation (n = 26) or spontaneous viral control (n = 25) had significantly lower CD8+ T-cell production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to CMV antigens measured by Quantiferon-CMV (P = .0008). An indeterminate Quantiferon-CMV result had a positive predictive value of 83% and a negative predictive value of 98% for identifying participants at risk of further CMV reactivation. Participants experiencing CMV reactivation compared with patients without CMV reactivation had a reduced proportion of polyfunctional (IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor α–positive) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of interleukin 2–secreting cells (P = .01 and P = .002, respectively).Conclusions.Quantifying CMV-specific T-cell immunity after HSCT can identify participants at increased risk of clinically relevant CMV-related outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix192
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age
           Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis
    • Authors: Huang X; Mengersen K, Milinovich G, et al.
      Pages: 1695 - 1701
      Abstract: Background.The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia.Methods.Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (<15, 15–64, and ≥65 years).Results.The results showed that the expected decrease in monthly influenza cases was 19.3% (95% credible interval [CI], 14.7%–23.4%), 16.3% (95% CI, 13.6%–19.0%), and 8.5% (95% CI, 1.5%–15.0%) for a 1°C increase in monthly MIT at <15, 15–64, and ≥65 years of age, respectively, while the average increase in the monthly influenza cases was 14.6% (95% CI, 9.0%–21.0%), 12.1% (95% CI, 8.8%–16.1%), and 9.2% (95% CI, 1.4%–16.9%) for a 1-hPa increase in vapor pressure.Conclusions.Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0–14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix181
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Risk Factors for Primary Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
           Infection in Camel Workers in Qatar During 2013–2014: A Case-Control
    • Authors: Sikkema RS; Farag EA, Himatt S, et al.
      Pages: 1702 - 1705
      Abstract: The transmission routes and risk factors for zoonotic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections are still unknown. We used the World Health Organization questionnaire for MERS-CoV case-control studies to assess risk factors for human MERS-CoV seropositivity at a farm complex in Qatar. Nine camel workers with MERS-CoV antibodies and 43 workers without antibodies were included. Some camel-related activities may pose a higher risk of MERS-CoV infection, as may cross-border movements of camels, poor hand hygiene, and overnight hospital stays with respiratory complaints. The risk factors identified in this study can be used to develop infection prevention and control measures for human MERS-CoV infections.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix174
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Can Analysis of Routine Viral Testing Provide Accurate Estimates of
           Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Burden in Adults'
    • Authors: Datta S; Walsh EE, Peterson DR, et al.
      Pages: 1706 - 1710
      Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of adult respiratory illness. We evaluated routine viral testing and discharge diagnoses for identifying RSV and influenza burden. Polymerase chain reaction results performed in adults during emergency room visits or hospitalizations were reviewed. Peak RSV activity preceded influenza activity by 8 weeks. The ratio of total number of viral tests performed divided by total number of respiratory visits was higher during influenza than RSV peaks (1.31 vs 0.72; P = .0001). Influenza and RSV were listed primary diagnoses in 56 (30%) vs 7 (6%), respectively (P < .0001). Routine viral testing to estimate adult RSV disease burden has limitations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix196
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Sustained Immunogenicity of 2-dose Human Papillomavirus 16/18
           AS04-adjuvanted Vaccine Schedules in Girls Aged 9–14 Years: A Randomized
    • Authors: Huang L; Puthanakit T, Cheng-Hsun C, et al.
      Pages: 1711 - 1719
      Abstract: Background.We previously reported the noninferiority 1 month after the last dose of 2-dose human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine schedules at months 0 and 6 (2D_M0,6) and months 0 and 12 (2D_M0,12) in girls aged 9–14 years compared with a 3-dose schedule at months 0, 1, and 6 (3D_M0,1,6) in women aged 15–25 years. Here, we report the results at study end (month 36 [M36]).Methods.Girls were randomized 1:1 and received 2 vaccine doses either 6 months (2D_M0,6) or 12 months apart (2D_M0,12); women received 3 doses at months 0, 1, and 6 (3D_M0,1,6). Endpoints included noninferiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies for 2D_M0,6 versus 3D_M0,1,6; 2D_M0,12 versus 3D_M0,1,6; and 2D_M0,12 versus 2D_M0,6; and assessment of neutralizing antibodies, T cells, B cells, and safety.Results.At M36, the 2D_M0,6 and 2D_M0,12 schedules remained noninferior to the 3D_M0,1,6 schedule in terms of seroconversion rates and 3D/2D geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18. All schedules elicited sustained immune responses up to M36.Conclusions.Both 2-dose schedules in young girls remained noninferior to the 3-dose schedule in women up to study conclusion at M36. The AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine administered as a 2-dose schedule was immunogenic and well tolerated in young girls.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix154
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Fetal Growth Restriction Caused by Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus in
    • Authors: Uraki R; Jurado K, Hwang J, et al.
      Pages: 1720 - 1724
      Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) can be transmitted by mosquito bite or sexual contact. Using mice that lack the type I interferon receptor, we examined sexual transmission of ZIKV. Electron microscopy analyses showed association of virions with developing sperm within testes as well as with mature sperm within epididymis. When ZIKV-infected male mice were mated with naive female mice, the weight of fetuses at embryonic day 18.5 was significantly reduced compared with the control group. Additionally, we found ocular deformities in a minority of the fetuses. These results suggest that ZIKV causes fetal abnormalities after female mating with an infected male.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix204
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Clinical Trial of the Anti-PD-L1 Antibody BMS-936559 in HIV-1 Infected
           Participants on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy
    • Authors: Gay CL; Bosch R, Ritz J, et al.
      Pages: 1725 - 1733
      Abstract: Background.Reversing immune exhaustion with an anti-PD-L1 antibody may improve human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–specific immunity and increase clearance of HIV-1–expressing cells.Methods.We conducted a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BMS-936559, including HIV-1–infected adults aged >18 to <70 years on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ counts >350 cells/μL and detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA by single-copy assay. Data on single infusions of BMS-936559 (0.3 mg/kg) versus placebo are described. The primary outcomes were safety defined as any grade 3 or greater or immune-related adverse event (AE) and the change in HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses from baseline to day 28 after infusion.Results.Eight men enrolled: 6 received 0.3 mg/kg of BMS-936559, and 2 received placebo infusions. There were no BMS-936559-related grade 3 or greater AEs. In 1 participant, asymptomatic hypophysitis (a protocol-defined immune-related AE) was identified 266 days after BMS-936559 infusion; it resolved over time. The mean percentage of HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8+ T cells expressing interferon γ increased from baseline (0.09%) through day 28 (0.20%; P = .14), driven by substantial increases in 2 participants who received BMS-936559.Conclusions.In this first evaluation of an immunologic checkpoint inhibitor in healthy HIV-1–infected persons, single low-dose BMS-936559 infusions appeared to enhance HIV-1–specific immunity in a subset of participants.Clinical Trials Registration.NCT02028403.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix191
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Central Role for Dermal Fibroblasts in Skin Model Protection against
           Candida albicans
    • Authors: Kühbacher A; Henkel H, Stevens P, et al.
      Pages: 1742 - 1752
      Abstract: The fungal pathogen Candida albicans colonizes basically all human epithelial surfaces, including the skin. Under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression, invasion of the epithelia occurs. Not much is known about defense mechanisms against C. albicans in subepithelial layers such as the dermis. Using immune cell–supplemented 3D skin models we defined a new role for fibroblasts in the dermis and identified a minimal set of cell types for skin protection against C. albicans invasion. Dual RNA sequencing of individual host cell populations and C. albicans revealed that dermal invasion is directly impeded by dermal fibroblasts. They are able to integrate signals from the pathogen and CD4+ T cells and shift toward an antimicrobial phenotype with broad specificity that is dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 and interleukin 1β. These results highlight a central function of dermal fibroblasts for skin protection, opening new possibilities for treatment of infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix153
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Host Pore-Forming Protein Complex Neutralizes the Acidification of
           Endocytic Organelles to Counteract Intracellular Pathogens
    • Authors: Li S; Liu L, Guo X, et al.
      Pages: 1753 - 1763
      Abstract: Many intracellular pathogens invade cells via endocytic organelles and have adapted to the drop in pH along the endocytic pathway. However, the strategy by which the host cell counteracts this pathogen adaptation remains unclear. βγ-CAT is an aerolysin-like pore-forming protein and trefoil factor complex in the frog Bombina maxima. We report here that βγ-CAT, as a host-secreted factor with an intrinsic channel-forming property, is the first example of a molecule that actively neutralizes the acidification of endocytic organelles to counteract Listeria monocytogenes infection. Immunodepletion of endogenous βγ-CAT largely impaired the control of L. monocytogenes by frog cells. βγ-CAT elevates the pH of L. monocytogenes-containing vacuoles to limit the vacuole escape of L. monocytogenes to cytosol. Furthermore, βγ-CAT promotes intracellular L. monocytogenes clearance via autophagy and by that the nonlytic expulsion of the bacteria from host cells. Finally, βγ-CAT attenuated the dissemination of L. monocytogenes in vivo. These findings reveal a novel host strategy and effectors that combat pathogen adaptation to acidic conditions along the endocytic pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix183
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Contribution of Progranulin to Protective Lung Immunity During Bacterial
    • Authors: Zou S; Luo Q, Song Z, et al.
      Pages: 1764 - 1773
      Abstract: Background.Progranulin (PGRN) is an important immunomodulatory factor in a variety of inflammatory diseases. However, its role in pulmonary immunity against bacterial infection remains unknown.Methods.Pneumonia was induced in PGRN-deficient and normal wild-type mice using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, and we assessed the effects of PGRN on survival, bacterial burden, cytokine and chemokine production, and pulmonary leukocyte recruitment after bacterial pneumonia.Results.Patients with community-acquired pneumonia displayed elevated PGRN levels. Likewise, mice with Gram-negative and Gram-positive pneumonia had increased PGRN production in the lung and circulation. Progranulin deficiency led to increased bacterial growth and dissemination accompanied by enhanced lung injury and mortality in bacterial pneumonia, which was associated with impaired recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils in the lung. The reduced number of pulmonary macrophages and neutrophils observed in PGRN-deficient mice was related to a reduction of CCL2 and CXCL1 in the lungs after bacterial pneumonia. Importantly, therapeutic administration of PGRN improved mortality in severe bacterial pneumonia.Conclusions.This study supports a novel role for PGRN in pulmonary immunity and suggests that treatment with PGRN may be a viable therapy for bacterial pneumonia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix197
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Erratum
    • Pages: 1774 - 1774
      Abstract: In “Enhanced genetic characterization of influenza A(H3N2) viruses and vaccine effectiveness by genetic group, 2014–2015” by Flannery et al [J Infect Dis 2017;doi:10.1093/infdis/jiw181], the financial support information was omitted. The statement should have read: Financial Support: At the University of Pittsburgh, the project was also supported by the National Institutes of Health through Grant Numbers UL1 RR024153 and UL1TR000005.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix220
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Erratum
    • Pages: 1774 - 1774
      Abstract: In “The Performance of Dengue Diagnostic Tests in a Single-Specimen Diagnostic Algorithm” by Hunsperger et al [J InfectDis 2016; 214:836–844]. It should be noted that figure 6 published with the article is incorrect. The correct figure is shown below.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix219
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Erratum
    • Pages: 1774 - 1774
      Abstract: In “The interleukin-1 balance is associated with clinical severity, blood-brain barrier permeability, neuroimaging changes and outcome in encephalitis” by Michael et al [J Infect Dis 2015; 213:1651–60], an author name was misspelled. Małgorzata Wnęk is the correct spelling.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix218
      Issue No: Vol. 215, No. 11 (2017)
  • Posaconazole-Loaded Leukocytes as a Novel Treatment Strategy Targeting
           Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis
    • Authors: Baistrocchi SR; Lee MJ, Lehoux M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundImpaired delivery of antifungals to hyphae within necrotic lesions is thought to contribute to therapeutic failure in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). We hypothesized that transfusion of leukocytes loaded ex vivo with the lipophilic antifungal posaconazole could improve delivery of antifungals to the sites of established infection and improve outcome in experimental IPA.MethodsThe HL-60 leukemia cell line was differentiated to a neutrophil-like phenotype (differentiated HL-60 [dHL-60] cells) and then exposed to a range of posaconazole concentrations. The functional capacity and antifungal activity of these cells were assessed in vitro and in a mouse model of IPA.ResultsPosaconazole levels in dHL-60 cells were 265-fold greater than the exposure concentration. Posaconazole-loaded cells were viable and maintained their capacity to undergo active chemotaxis. Contact-dependent transfer of posaconazole from dHL-60 cells to hyphae was observed in vitro, resulting in decreased fungal viability. In a neutropenic mouse model of IPA, treatment with posaconazole-loaded dHL-60 cells resulted in significantly reduced fungal burden in comparison to treatment with dHL-60 cells alone.ConclusionsPosaconazole accumulates at high concentrations in dHL-60 cells and increases their antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that posaconazole-loading of leukocytes may hold promise for the therapy of IPA.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28
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