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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 392 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 392 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.075, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 3.771, h-index: 262)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 580, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clean Energy     Open Access  
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.62, h-index: 53)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 59)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.199, h-index: 61)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.994, h-index: 107)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.327, h-index: 82)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.878, h-index: 80)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)

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Journal Cover Journal of Infectious Diseases
  [SJR: 4]   [H-I: 209]   [40 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-1899 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6613
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [392 journals]
  • Amplifying the Population Health Benefits of PrEP for HIV Prevention
    • Authors: Baeten J.
      Pages: 1509 - 1511
      Abstract: (See the Major Article by Volz et al, on pages 1522–9.)
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy045
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • A Breathprint for Malaria: New Opportunities for Noninterventional
           Diagnostics and Mosquito Traps'
    • Authors: Fidock D.
      Pages: 1512 - 1514
      Abstract: Plasmodium falciparumvolatile organic compoundsbreath metabolitesbiomarkersdiagnostic tests
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy073
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Sustained Cross-protection of the Bivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
    • Authors: Pollock K.
      Pages: 1515 - 1516
      Abstract: (See the Major Article by Donken et al, on pages 1579–89.)
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy068
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • OAS1, 2, and 3: Significance During Active Tuberculosis'
    • Authors: Leisching G; Wiid I, Baker B.
      Pages: 1517 - 1521
      Abstract: Evidence to-date points to a detrimental role of the type I IFNs during tuberculosis. The mechanisms underpinning the IFNαβ-mediated exacerbation of the disease is unclear. The 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS), namely OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3 are part of the interferon-induced genes which until now have been synonymous with an anti-viral function. Blood transcriptome profiling has continuously observed their upregulation in a number of gene expression signatures which discriminate active TB from latent TB infection, however the role of the OASs and the effect that their expression has on the pathogenesis and persistence of TB is unknown. Evidence suggests that the OASs exhibit other cellular functions which include the induction of apoptosis, enhancement of IFNαβ signalling, immune cell receptor modulation and autophagy. We propose that i) during the late stages of disease, sustained RNaseL expression through OAS activation enhances type I IFN signalling and, ii) that they may exhibit immune-modulatory capabilities.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy084
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Subtype B Reveals Heterogeneous
           Transmission Risk: Implications for Intervention and Control
    • Authors: Volz E; Le Vu S, Ratmann O, et al.
      Pages: 1522 - 1529
      Abstract: BackgroundThe impact of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on infections averted by protecting vulnerable individuals as well as infections averted by preventing transmission by those who would have been infected if not receiving PrEP. Analysis of HIV phylogenies reveals risk factors for transmission, which we examine as potential criteria for allocating PrEP.MethodsWe analyzed 6912 HIV-1 partial pol sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom combined with global reference sequences and patient-level metadata. Population genetic models were developed that adjust for stage of infection, global migration of HIV lineages, and changing incidence of infection through time. Models were extended to simulate the effects of providing susceptible MSM with PrEP.ResultsWe found that young age <25 years confers higher risk of HIV transmission (relative risk = 2.52 [95% confidence interval, 2.32–2.73]) and that young MSM are more likely to transmit to one another than expected by chance. Simulated interventions indicate that 4-fold more infections can be averted over 5 years by focusing PrEP on young MSM.ConclusionsConcentrating PrEP doses on young individuals can avert more infections than random allocation.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy044
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Characterization of the Neutralizing Antibody Response in a Case of
           Genetically Linked HIV Superinfection
    • Authors: Ssemwanga D; Doria-Rose N, Redd A, et al.
      Pages: 1530 - 1534
      Abstract: This report describes the identification of a genetically confirmed linked heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection (HIV-SI) in a woman with chronic HIV infection who acquired a second strain of the virus from her husband. Serum neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses against their homologous and heterologous viruses, including the superinfecting strain, in the woman and her husband were examined before and after onset of HIV-SI. The woman displayed a moderately potent and broad anti-HIV NAb response prior to superinfection but did not possess NAb activity against the superinfecting strain. This case highlights the unique potential of linked HIV-SI studies to examine natural protection from HIV infection.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy071
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors for Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in
           Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men
    • Authors: Combes J; Heard I, Poizot-Martin I, et al.
      Pages: 1535 - 1543
      Abstract: BackgroundWe assessed prevalence and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high-risk of HPV-related anal cancer.MethodsAPACHES is a multicentric, prospective study of anal HPV infection and lesions in HIV-positive MSM aged ≥35 years. At baseline, participants underwent anal swabs for HPV and cytology, plus high-resolution anoscopy. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was tested by Cobas4800, with genotyping of HR-HPV positives by PapilloCheck.ResultsAmong 490 participants, prevalence of HPV16 and HR-HPV was 29% and 70%, respectively, and did not differ significantly by age, sexual behavior, or markers of HIV or immune deficiency. Smoking was the only, albeit weak (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–2.7), predictor of HR-HPV. High-risk HPV and HPV16 prevalence increased strongly with anal diagnosis severity, both by worse cytological/histological (composite) diagnosis at APACHES baseline and worse historical diagnosis. HPV16 rose from 19% among participants who were negative for lesions to 63% among participants with high-grade lesions. In contrast, non-HPV16 HR-HPVs were less prevalent in high-grade (37%) than negative (64%) composite diagnosis, and their causal attribution was further challenged by multiple HPV infections.ConclusionsHuman papillomavirus 16 is ubiquitously frequent among human immunodeficiency virus -positive men having sex with men, and more strongly associated with high-grade anal lesions than other high-risk types, confirming it as a target for anal cancer prevention.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy059
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human
           Papillomavirus (HPV) Types Covered by Current HPV Vaccines Among
           HIV-Infected Women in the SUN Study
    • Authors: Kojic E; Conley L, Bush T, et al.
      Pages: 1544 - 1552
      Abstract: BackgroundNonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women.MethodsThe SUN Study enrolled 167 US women in 2004–2006. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types: 14 HR included: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68.ResultsBaseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA < 400 copies/mL; 90% CD4 counts ≥200 cells/mm3. HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. The 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5; 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively.ConclusionsAnal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical, with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy087
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Breathprinting Reveals Malaria-Associated Biomarkers and Mosquito
    • Authors: Schaber C; Katta N, Bollinger L, et al.
      Pages: 1553 - 1560
      Abstract: Current evidence suggests that malarial infection could alter metabolites in the breath of patients, a phenomenon that could be exploited to create a breath-based diagnostic test. However, no study has explored this in a clinical setting. To investigate whether natural human malarial infection leads to a characteristic breath profile, we performed a field study in Malawi. Breath volatiles from children with and those without uncomplicated falciparum malaria were analyzed by thermal desorption–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Using an unbiased, correlation-based analysis, we found that children with malaria have a distinct shift in overall breath composition. Highly accurate classification of infection status was achieved with a suite of 6 compounds. In addition, we found that infection correlates with significantly higher breath levels of 2 mosquito-attractant terpenes, α-pinene and 3-carene. These findings attest to the viability of breath analysis for malaria diagnosis, identify candidate biomarkers, and identify plausible chemical mediators for increased mosquito attraction to patients infected with malaria parasites.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy072
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Contribution to Malaria Transmission of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic
           Parasite Carriers in Cambodia
    • Authors: Vantaux A; Samreth R, Piv E, et al.
      Pages: 1561 - 1568
      Abstract: BackgroundEliminating falciparum malaria in Cambodia is a top priority, requiring the implementation of novel tools and strategies to interrupt its transmission. To date, few data are available regarding the contributions to malaria transmission of symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers.MethodsDirect-membrane and skin feeding assays (DMFAs, SFAs) were performed, using Anopheles minimus and Anopheles dirus, to determine infectivity of symptomatic falciparum-infected patients and malaria asymptomatic carriers; a subset of the latter were followed up for 2 months to assess their transmission potential.ResultsBy microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction, Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte prevalence rates were, respectively, 19.3% (n = 21/109) and 44% (n = 47/109) on day (D) 0 and 17.9% (n = 5/28) and 89.3% (n = 25/28) in recrudescent patients (Drec) (RT-PCR Drec vs D0 P = .002). Falciparum malaria patient infectivity was low on D0 (6.2%; n = 3/48) and in Drec (8.3%; n = 1/12). Direct-membrane feeding assays and SFAs gave similar results. None of the falciparum (n = 0/19) and 3 of 28 Plasmodium vivax asymptomatic carriers were infectious to mosquitoes, including those that were followed up for 2 months. Overall, P. falciparum gametocytemias were low except in a few symptomatic carriers.ConclusionsOnly symptomatic falciparum malaria patients were infectious to mosquito vectors at baseline and recrudescence, highlighting the need to detect promptly and treat effectively P. falciparum patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy060
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Immunization of Malaria-Preexposed Volunteers With PfSPZ Vaccine Elicits
           Long-Lived IgM Invasion-Inhibitory and Complement-Fixing Antibodies
    • Authors: Zenklusen I; Jongo S, Abdulla S, et al.
      Pages: 1569 - 1578
      Abstract: BackgroundThe assessment of antibody responses after immunization with radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (Sanaria PfSPZ Vaccine) has focused on IgG isotype antibodies. Here, we aimed to investigate if P. falciparum sporozoite binding and invasion-inhibitory IgM antibodies are induced following immunization of malaria-preexposed volunteers with PfSPZ Vaccine. MethodsUsing serum from volunteers immunized with PfSPZ, we measured vaccine-induced IgG and IgM antibodies to P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) via ELISA. Function of this serum as well as IgM antibody fractions was measured via in vitro in an inhibition of sporozoite invasion assay. These IgM antibody fractions were also measured for binding to sporozoites by immunofluorescence assay and complement fixation on whole sporozoites.ResultsWe found that in addition to anti-PfCSP IgG, malaria-preexposed volunteers developed anti-PfCSP IgM antibodies after immunization with PfSPZ Vaccine and that these IgM antibodies inhibited P. falciparum sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes in vitro. These IgM plasma fractions also fixed complement to whole P. falciparum sporozoites.ConclusionsThis is the first finding that PfCSP and P. falciparum sporozoite-binding IgM antibodies are induced following immunization of PfSPZ Vaccine in malaria-preexposed individuals and that IgM antibodies can inhibit P. falciparum sporozoite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro and fix complement on sporozoites. These findings indicate that the immunological assessment of PfSPZ Vaccine-induced antibody responses could be more sensitive if they include parasite-specific IgM in addition to IgG antibodies.Clinical Trials RegistrationNCT02132299.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy080
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • High Effectiveness of the Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine
           Against Incident and Persistent HPV Infections up to 6 Years After
           Vaccination in Young Dutch Women
    • Authors: Donken R; King A, Bogaards J, et al.
      Pages: 1579 - 1589
      Abstract: BackgroundMonitoring vaccine effectiveness (VE) in vaccination programs is of importance for assessing the impact of immunization. This study aimed to estimate the VE of the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against incident and 12-month persistent infections up to 6 years after vaccination.MethodsIn 2009–2010, girls eligible for the vaccination catch-up campaign (ie, those aged 14–16 years) were enrolled into a prospective cohort. Annually, participants completed a questionnaire and submitted a self-collected vaginal swab sample for HPV testing by the SPF10-LiPA25 assay. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and infection rates between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls. The VE was adjusted for characteristics related to HPV vaccination status. We used combined end points for VE estimation.ResultsIn total, 1635 women, of whom 54% were fully vaccinated, were included for VE estimation. The adjusted VE against HPV16 and 18 persistent infections amounted to 97.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.5%–99.7%). We found a VE against HPV31, 33, and 45 persistent infections of 61.8% (95% CI, 16.7%–82.5%). We found no indications that the protection against vaccine or cross-protective types changes over time.ConclusionOur findings of nearly full protection against vaccine-type persistent infections and significant cross-protection to nonvaccine types in a population-based cohort study confirm the effectiveness of the bivalent HPV vaccine as estimated in trials. We found no indications for waning protection up to 6 years after vaccination.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy067
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Very Low Prevalence of Vaccine Human Papillomavirus Types Among 18- to
           35-Year Old Australian Women 9 Years Following Implementation of
    • Authors: Machalek D; Garland S, Brotherton J, et al.
      Pages: 1590 - 1600
      Abstract: IntroductionA quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination program targeting females aged 12–13 years commenced in Australia in 2007, with catch-up vaccination of 14–26 year olds through 2009. We evaluated the program’s impact on HPV prevalence among women aged 18–35 in 2015.MethodsHPV prevalence among women aged 18–24 and 25–35 was compared with prevalence in these age groups in 2005–2007. For women aged 18–24, we also compared prevalence with that in a postvaccine study conducted in 2010–2012.ResultsFor the 2015 sample, Vaccination Register-confirmed 3-dose coverage was 53.3% (65.0% and 40.3% aged 18–24 and 25–35, respectively). Prevalence of vaccine HPV types decreased from 22.7% (2005–2007) and 7.3% (2010–2012), to 1.5% (2015) (P trend < .001) among women aged 18–24, and from 11.8% (2005–2007) to 1.1% (2015) (P = .001) among those aged 25–35.ConclusionsThis study, reporting the longest surveillance follow-up to date, shows prevalence of vaccine-targeted HPV types has continued to decline among young women. A substantial fall also occurred in women aged 25–35, despite lower coverage. Strong herd protection and effectiveness of less than 3 vaccine doses likely contributed to these reductions.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy075
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Genetic Variability of the Noncoding Control Region of Cutaneous Merkel
           Cell Polyomavirus: Identification of Geographically Related Genotypes
    • Authors: Hashida Y; Higuchi T, Matsui K, et al.
      Pages: 1601 - 1611
      Abstract: BackgroundMerkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a ubiquitous cutaneous virus that causes Merkel cell carcinoma, which develops preferentially in white populations from Europe and North America. However, the genomic variations of MCPyV among ethnic groups have not been well delineated, and even less is known regarding alterations in the noncoding control region (NCCR) in the general population.MethodsMCPyV strains recovered from skin swab specimens from 250 healthy participants with distinct ethnicities and geographic origins were subjected to sequencing analysis of the NCCR.ResultsA 25–base pair tandem repeat caused by a 25–base pair insertion within the NCCR was found predominantly in Japanese and East Asian individuals. Based on the presence of 2 other insertions and a deletion, the NCCR could be classified further into 5 genotypes. This tandem repeat was also found exclusively in the NCCR from Japanese patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, while other genotypes were detected in white patients from Europe and North America.ConclusionsOur results suggest that the MCPyV NCCR varies according to ethnicity and that assessing the short NCCR sequence provides a rapid and simple means for identification of the Japanese and East Asian variant genotype. It remains to be established whether these NCCR variations are associated differentially with the pathogenesis of MCPyV-driven Merkel cell carcinoma between regions with varying endemicity.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy070
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Contribution of Breastfeeding to False-Positive Saliva Polymerase Chain
           Reaction for Newborn Congenital Cytomegalovirus Screening
    • Authors: Ross S; Michaels M, Ahmed A, et al.
      Pages: 1612 - 1615
      Abstract: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of saliva is highly sensitive for newborn congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) screening. This study uses nationally published CMV seroprevalence and breastfeeding rates to estimate the contribution of CMV DNA in breast milk to false-positive saliva PCR results. The false-positive rates adjusted for breastfeeding ranged from 0.03% in white Hispanic persons to 0.14% in white non-Hispanic persons. Saliva CMV PCR for newborn screening is highly sensitive, and the low false-positive rates in this study suggest that saliva PCR results are unlikely to be significantly influenced by breastfeeding or other perinatal exposures.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy057
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Safety and Immunogenicity of 3 Formulations of an Investigational
           Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine in Nonpregnant Women: Results From 2
           Phase 2 Trials
    • Authors: Beran J; Lickliter J, Schwarz T, et al.
      Pages: 1616 - 1625
      Abstract: BackgroundRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes bronchiolitis and pneumonia in neonates and infants. RSV vaccination during pregnancy could boost preexisting neutralizing antibody titers, providing passive protection to newborns.MethodsTwo observer-blinded, controlled studies (RSV F-020 [clinical trials registration NCT02360475] and RSV F-024 [NCT02753413]) evaluated immunogenicity and safety of an investigational RSV vaccine in healthy, nonpregnant 18–45-year-old women. Both studies used a licensed adult formulation of combined tetanus toxoid-diphtheria toxoid-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine as a control. RSV F-020 evaluated immunogenicity and safety: participants were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive 1 dose of RSV–prefusion F protein (PreF) vaccine containing 30 µg or 60 µg of nonadjuvanted RSV-PreF, 60 µg of aluminum-adjuvanted RSV-PreF, or Tdap. RSV F-024 evaluated safety: participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 1 dose of 60 µg of nonadjuvanted RSV-PreF or Tdap.ResultsBoth studies showed similar reactogenicity profiles for RSV-PreF and Tdap. No serious adverse events were considered vaccine related. In RSV F-020, geometric mean ratios of RSV-A neutralizing antibody levels at day 30 versus prevaccination were 3.1–3.9 in RSV-PreF recipients and 0.9 in controls. Palivizumab-competing antibody concentrations increased >14-fold in RSV-PreF recipients on day 30. RSV antibody titers waned after day 30 but remained well above baseline through day 90.ConclusionsAll formulations of RSV-PreF boosted preexisting immune responses in 18–45-year old women with comparable immunogenicity. The RSV-PreF safety profile was similar to that of Tdap vaccine.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy065
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Human Cervical Mucus Plugs Exhibit Insufficiencies in Antimicrobial
           Activity Towards Group B Streptococcus
    • Authors: Vornhagen J; Quach P, Santana-Ufret V, et al.
      Pages: 1626 - 1636
      Abstract: Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and lacks an effective therapy. Ascending microbial infections from the lower genital tract lead to infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetus causing preterm birth or stillbirth. Directly in the path of an ascending infection is the cervical mucus plug (CMP), a dense mucoid structure in the cervical canal with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, we aimed to define the components of CMP responsible for antimicrobial activity against a common lower genital tract organism associated with preterm birth and stillbirths, namely, group B streptococcus (GBS). Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified antimicrobial factors in CMPs that were collected from healthy human pregnancies. However, we noted that the concentration of antimicrobial peptides present in the human CMPs were insufficient to directly kill GBS, and antimicrobial activity, when observed, was due to antibiotics retained in the CMPs. Despite this insufficiency, CMP proteins were able to activate leukocytes in whole blood resulting in increased rates of bacterial killing, suggesting a role for the CMP in enhancing complement-mediated killing or leukocyte activation. This study provides new insight into how the human CMP may limit ascending bacterial infection.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy076
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Increased Virulence of an Encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Upon
           Expression of Pneumococcal Surface Protein K
    • Authors: Pipkins H; Bradshaw J, Keller L, et al.
      Pages: 1637 - 1644
      Abstract: BackgroundCurrent Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines selectively target capsular polysaccharide of specific serotypes, leading to an increase in nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp). Cocolonization by encapsulated pneumococci and NESp increases the opportunity for intraspecies genetic exchange. Acquisition of NESp genes by encapsulated pneumococci could alter virulence and help vaccine-targeted serotypes persist in the host.MethodsAdhesion and invasion assays were performed using immortalized human pharyngeal or lung epithelial cells. In vivo models assessing murine nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia, as well as chinchilla otitis media (OM), were also used.ResultsPneumococcal surface protein K (PspK) expression increased encapsulated pneumococcal adhesion and invasion of lung cells and enhanced virulence during pneumonia and OM. Additionally, PspK increased nasopharyngeal colonization, persistence in the lungs, and persistence in the middle ear when expressed in a capsule deletion mutant. Competition experiments demonstrated encapsulated pneumococci expressing PspK also had a selective advantage in both the lungs and nasopharynx.ConclusionsPspK increases pneumococcal virulence during pneumonia and OM. PspK also partially compensates for loss of virulence in the absence of capsule. Additionally, PspK provides a selective advantage in a competitive environment. Therefore, acquisition of PspK increases encapsulated virulence in a condition-dependent manner. Together, these studies demonstrate risks associated with pneumococcal intraspecies genetic exchange.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy058
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Increased NK Cell Function After Cessation of Long-Term Nucleos(t)ide
           Analogue Treatment in Chronic Hepatitis B Is Associated With Liver Damage
           and HBsAg Loss
    • Authors: Zimmer C; Rinker F, Höner zu Siederdissen C, et al.
      Pages: 1656 - 1666
      Abstract: BackgroundTreatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) suppresses hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA but rarely leads to functional cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Following NA cessation, some hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB patients experience hepatitis B s antigen (HBsAg) loss. Cellular immune responses, including natural killer (NK) cell responses, explaining virological events following NA treatment cessation remain elusive.MethodsIn a single-center prospective trial, 15 HBeAg-negative CHB patients on long-term NA treatment underwent structured NA cessation and were studied longitudinally. The NK cell compartment was assessed using high-dimensional flow cytometry and correlated with the clinical course.ResultsUnsupervised stochastic neighbor embedding analysis revealed NA-treated CHB patients to have a significantly affected NK cell compartment compared to controls. Cessation of NA treatment resulted in minor phenotypic alterations, but it significantly augmented NK cell natural cytotoxicity responses in the CHB patients. This increased NK cell functionality correlated with alanine aminotransferase flares in the patients and was particularly enhanced in patients experiencing HBsAg seroclearance at long-term follow-up.ConclusionsIncreased NK cell function is associated with active hepatitis and HBsAg seroclearance following structured NA cessation. This adds to our knowledge of the immunological events that develop following cessation of NA treatment in CHB.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy097
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor
           Cells Unable to Express Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Propagate
           Tuberculosis in Mice
    • Authors: Reece S; Vogelzang A, Tornack J, et al.
      Pages: 1667 - 1671
      Abstract: Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human bone marrow stem cells has been identified as a potential bacterial niche during latent tuberculosis. Using a murine model of tuberculosis, we show here that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagated tuberculosis when transferred to naive mice, given that both transferred cells and recipient mice were unable to express inducible nitric oxide synthase, which mediates killing of intracellular bacteria via nitric oxide. Our findings suggest that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagate hallmarks of disease if nitric oxide-mediated killing of bacteria is defective.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy041
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Errata
    • Pages: 1672 - 1672
      Abstract: “Linking Individual Natural History to Population Outcomes in Tuberculosis” by Salvatore et al. [J Infect Dis 2017; 217(1): 112–21]. This is an Open Access article and should have contained the following copyright line: © The
      Authors [2018]. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy147
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Errata
    • Pages: 1672 - 1672
      Abstract: “Pharmacodynamics of the Novel Antifungal Agent F901318 for Acute Sinopulmonary Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus flavus” by Negri et al. [J Infect Dis 2017; doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix479]. This is an Open Access article and should have contained the following copyright line: © The Author(s) [2018]. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy145
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Errata
    • Pages: 1672 - 1672
      Abstract: “A Persistent Hotspot of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in a Five-Year Randomized Trial of Praziquantel Preventative Chemotherapy Strategies” by Wiegand et al. [J Infect Dis 2017; 216(12): 1425–33]. This is an Open Access article and should have contained the following copyright line: © The Author [2018]. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy146
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Errata
    • Pages: 1673 - 1673
      Abstract: “Increased Urinary Trimethylamine N-Oxide Following Cryptosporidium Infection and Protein Malnutrition Indepen dent of Microbiome Effects” by Bolick et al. [J Infect Dis 2017; 216(1): 64–71]. This is an Open Access article and should have contained the following copyright line: © The Author [2018]. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy144
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Errata
    • Pages: 1673 - 1673
      Abstract: In “Higher Prevalence and Faster Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Middle-Aged Individuals Compared With Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Uninfected Controls” by Kooij et al. [J Infect Dis 2017; 216(6): 622–31], there is an error in the abstract. The number of HIV-infected vs HIV-uninfected patients included in the longitudinal analysis as mentioned in the abstract text are switched. The text in the body of the article is correct.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy143
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2018)
  • Mechanical Ventilation Induces Interleukin 4 Secretion in Lungs and
           Reduces the Phagocytic Capacity of Lung Macrophages
    • Authors: Bielen K; ‘s Jongers B, Boddaert J, et al.
      Pages: 1645 - 1655
      Abstract: Patients receiving mechanical ventilation are at risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Here, we show that clinically utilized ventilation protocols in rats with 5 mL/kg or 8 mL/kg tidal volumes cause increased interleukin 4 (IL-4) expression, lowered ratio of TH1:TH2 transcriptional factors (Tbet:Gata3), and increased arginase 1–positive (Arg1+) macrophages and eosinophils in lungs. Macrophages from ventilated lungs had reduced ex vivo capacity toward phagocytosing bacteria. Ventilated animals, when further challenged with bacterial pneumonia, continued to show persistence of Arg1+ M2 macrophages as well as an increased bacterial burden compared with spontaneously breathing animals receiving the same bacterial dose. Increased IL-4 expression also occurred in a mouse ventilation model, and abrogation of IL-4 signaling restored lung bacterial burden in an IL-4Rα−/− ventilator-associated pneumonia model. Our data suggest that mechanical ventilation induces an immunosuppressive state in lungs, providing new insight in the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix573
      Issue No: Vol. 217, No. 10 (2017)
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