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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 528, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Infectious Diseases
  [SJR: 4]   [H-I: 209]   [39 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-1899 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6613
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: In “Development of a Global Respiratory Severity Score (GRSS) for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Infants” by Caserta et al. [J Infect Dis 2017 jiw624. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw624], the authors report errors in Table 3. They have revised the Global Respiratory Severity Score formula and weightings after re-analysis of the data, and report that these changes do not alter their interpretations and conclusions. The authors regret any inconvenience caused by the errors.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
       
  • 2-Dose Schedule of AS04-Adjuvanted Human Papillomavirus Types 16/18
           Vaccine
    • Authors: Poddighe D.
      Abstract: HPV vaccineimmunogenicitysafetyneuropsychiatric syndrome
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
       
  • Reply to Poddighe
    • Authors: Stevenson L; Huang L, Berlaimont V, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We thank Poddighe for the critical review of our article related to the immunogenicity and safety of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine, given as 2-dose schedules and compared to a 3-dose schedule, and for his questions related to the safety of HPV vaccine.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
       
  • Age-Related Differences in Influenza B Infection by Lineage in a
           Community-Based Sentinel System, 2010–2011 to 2015–2016, Canada
    • Authors: Skowronski D; Chambers C, De Serres G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAge-related differences in influenza B lineage detection were explored in the community-based Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) from 2010–2011 to 2015–2016. Whereas >80% of B(Victoria) cases were <40 years old, B(Yamagata) cases showed a bimodal age distribution with 27% who were <20 years old and 61% who were 30–64 years old, but with a notable gap in cases between 20 and 29 years old (4%). Overall, the median age was 20 years lower for B(Victoria) vs B(Yamagata) cases (20 vs 40 years; P < .01). Additional phylodynamic and immuno-epidemiological research is needed to understand age-related variation in influenza B risk by lineage, with potential implications for prevention and control across the lifespan.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
       
  • Placental but Not Peripheral Plasmodium falciparum Infection During
           Pregnancy Is Associated With Increased Risk of Malaria in Infancy
    • Authors: Boudová S; Divala T, Mungwira R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum infection impacts the health of mothers and newborns, but little is known about the effects of these infections on infant susceptibility to malaria. We followed 473 mother-infant pairs during pregnancy and through 2 years of age. We observed that children born to mothers with placental malaria, but not those born to mothers with peripheral infection without evidence of placental sequestration, had increased risk of malaria during the first year of life compared with children born to mothers with no malaria during pregnancy. Malaria infections with placental sequestration have long-lasting impact on infant susceptibility to malaria infection.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
       
  • Insights Into Onchocerca volvulus Population Biology Through Multilocus
           Immunophenotyping
    • Authors: Norice-Tra C; Ribeiro J, Bennuru S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractWe have developed a serologically based immunophenotyping approach to study Onchocerca volvulus (Ov) population diversity. Using genomic sequence data and polymerase chain reaction–based genotyping, we identified nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of 16 major immunogenic Ov proteins: Ov-CHI-1/Ov-CHI-2, Ov16, Ov-FAR-1, Ov-CPI-1, Ov-B20, Ov-ASP-1, Ov-TMY-1, OvSOD1, OvGST1, Ov-CAL-1, M3/M4, Ov-RAL-1, Ov-RAL-2, Ov-ALT-1, Ov-FBA-1, and Ov-B8. We assessed the immunoreactivity of onchocerciasis patient sera (n = 152) from the Americas, West Africa, Central Africa, and East Africa against peptides derived from 10 of these proteins containing SNPs. Statistically significant variation in immunoreactivity among the regions was seen in SNP-containing peptides derived from 8 of 10 proteins tested: OVOC1192(1–15), OVOC9988(28–42), OVOC9225(320–334), OVOC7453(22–36), OVOC11517(14–28), OVOC3177(283–297), OVOC7911(594–608), and OVOC12628(174–188). Our data show that differences in immunoreactivity to variant antigenic peptides may be used to characterize Ov populations, thereby elucidating features of Ov population biology previously inaccessible because of the limited availability of parasite material.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
       
  • Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota
    • Authors: Rosen G; Randis T, Desai P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundStreptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota.MethodsVaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3–V4 region was performed. ResultsFour hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated.ConclusionsVaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
       
  • Declining Transmission and Immunity to Malaria and Emerging Artemisinin
           Resistance in Thailand: A Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Ataíde R; Powell R, Moore K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundReductions in malaria transmission decrease naturally acquired immunity, which may influence the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum artemisinin-resistant phenotypes and genotypes over time.MethodsAntibodies specific for P. falciparum antigens were determined in uncomplicated hyperparasitemic malaria patients over a 10-year period of declining malaria transmission and emerging artemisinin resistance in northwestern Thailand. We investigated the association between antibody levels and both parasite clearance time (PCt½) and artemisinin resistance–associated kelch13 genotypes over time.ResultsImmunity to P. falciparum declined prior to 2004, preceding the emergence of artemisinin resistance-associated genotypes and phenotypes (maximum mean change in antibody level per year: anti-MSP142 = −0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −.31 to −.04; P = .01). In this period of declining immunity, and in the absence of kelch13 mutations, PCt½ increased. Between 2007 and 2011, levels of antibodies fluctuated, and higher antibody levels were associated with faster PCt½ (maximum yearly change in PCt½, in hours: EBA140rII = −0.39; 95% CI = −.61 to −.17; P < .001). ConclusionsUnderstanding the impact of changing transmission and immunity on the emergence of artemisinin resistance is important particularly as increased malaria control and elimination activities may enhance immunological conditions for the expansion of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
       
  • High-Sensitivity Assays for Plasmodium falciparum Infection by
           Immuno–Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of PfIDE h and PfLDH Antigens
           
    • Authors: Mu J; Andersen J, Valenzuela J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundRapid diagnostic tests based on Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRP-II) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) antigens are widely deployed for detection of P. falciparum infection; however, these tests often miss cases of low-level parasitemia, and PfHRP-II tests can give false-negative results when P. falciparum strains do not express this antigen.MethodsWe screened proteomic data for highly expressed P. falciparum proteins and compared their features to those of PfHRP-II and PfLDH biomarkers. Search criteria included high levels of expression, conservation in all parasite strains, and good correlation of antigen levels with parasitemia and its clearance after drug treatment. Different assay methods were compared for sensitive detection of parasitemia in P. falciparum cultures.ResultsAmong potential new biomarkers, a P. falciparum homolog of insulin-degrading enzyme (PfIDEh) met our search criteria. Comparative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with monoclonal antibodies against PfLDH or PfIDEh showed detection limits of 100–200 parasites/µL and 200–400 parasites/µL, respectively. Detection was dramatically improved by use of real-time immuno–polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to parasitemia limits of 0.02 parasite/µL and 0.78 parasite/µL in PfLDH- and PfIDEh-based assays, respectively.ConclusionsThe ability of PfLDH- or PfIDEh-based immuno-PCR assays to detect <1 parasite/µL suggests that improvements of bound antibody sensor technology may greatly increase the sensitivity of malaria rapid diagnostic tests.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
       
  • Opposing Effects of Nitazoxanide on Murine and Human Norovirus
    • Authors: Dang W; Yin Y, Peppelenbosch MP, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and chronic infections frequently occur in immunocompromised patients. However, no US Food and Drug Administration–approved specific medication is available for treating norovirus infection. Interestingly, substantial clinical evidence has suggested that nitazoxanide, originally developed as an antiprotozoal agent, is a potential antiviral therapy for norovirus infection [1]. Both clinical trials and case studies have reported its effects on reduction of symptom duration in immunocompetent patients [2] or clearance of the infection in immunocompromised patients [3, 4]. On the contrary, a recent study in the Journal of Infectious Diseases by Kempf et al reported that nitazoxanide was not effective for treating chronic norovirus gastroenteritis in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia [5]. These results have sparked concern regarding whether this drug holds promise in treating norovirus infection, indicating the need for further assessment of the efficacy and working mechanism of nitazoxanide [6].
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
       
  • Intestinal Damage and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency
           Virus (HIV)–Exposed and HIV-Infected Zimbabwean Infants
    • Authors: Prendergast A; Chasekwa B, Rukobo S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundDisease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown.MethodsWe measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants. We estimated multivariable odds ratios for mortality and postnatal HIV transmission for each biomarker using logistic regression.ResultsAt 6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher sCD14 and IL-6 but lower I-FABP than HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (P < .001). CRP was higher in HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants (P = .02). At 6 months, HIV-infected infants had highest sCD14, IL-6, and CRP concentrations (P < .001) and marginally higher I-FABP than other groups (P = .07). CRP remained higher in HIV-exposed vs HIV-unexposed infants (P = .04). No biomarker was associated with mortality in HIV-infected infants, or with odds of breast-milk HIV transmission in HIV-exposed infants.ConclusionsHIV-infected infants have elevated inflammatory markers by 6 weeks of age, which increase over time. In contrast to adults and older children, inflammatory biomarkers were not associated with mortality. HEU infants have higher inflammation than HIV-unexposed infants until at least 6 months, which may contribute to poor health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
       
  • Genetic Profiling and Comorbidities of Zika Infection
    • Authors: Moni M; Lio’ P.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe difficulty in distinguishing infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) from other flaviviruses is a global health concern, particularly given the high risk of neurologic complications (including Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS]) with ZIKV infection.MethodsWe developed quantitative frameworks to compare and explore infectome, diseasome, and comorbidity of ZIKV infections. We analyzed gene expression microarray and RNA-Seq data from ZIKV, West Nile fever (WNF), chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, GBS, and control datasets. Using neighborhood-based benchmarking and multilayer network topology, we constructed relationship networks based on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database and our identified significant genes.ResultsZIKV infections showed dysregulation in expression of 929 genes. Forty-seven genes were highly expressed in both ZIKV and dengue infections. However, ZIKV shared <15 significant transcripts with other flavivirus infections. Notably, dysregulation of MAFB and SELENBP1 was common to ZIKV, dengue, and GBS infection; ATF5, TNFAIP3, and BAMB1 were common to ZIKV, dengue, and WNF; and NAMPT and PMAlP1 were common to ZIKV, GBS, and WNF. Phylogenetic, ontologic, and pathway analyses showed that ZIKV infection most resembles dengue fever.ConclusionsWe have developed methodologies to investigate disease mechanisms and predictions for infectome, diseasome, and comorbidities quantitatively, and identified particular similarities between ZIKV and dengue infections.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
       
  • Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Genes Common to Cerebral Malaria and
           Neurodegenerative Disorders
    • Authors: Cabantous S; Doumbo O, Poudiougou B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCerebral malaria, a reversible encephalopathy affecting young children, is a medical emergency requiring urgent clinical assessment and treatment. We performed a whole-transcriptomic analysis of blood samples from Malian children with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria. We focused on transcripts from pathways for which dysfunction has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders. We found that SNCA, SIAH2, UBB, HSPA1A, TUBB2A, and PINK1 were upregulated (fold-increases, ≥2.6), whereas UBD and PSMC5 were downregulated (fold-decreases, ≤4.39) in children with cerebral malaria, compared with those with uncomplicated malaria. These findings provide the first evidence for pathogenic mechanisms common to human cerebral malaria and neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
       
  • HIV-Infected Children Have Elevated Levels of PD-1 + Memory CD4 T Cells
           With Low Proliferative Capacity and High Inflammatory Cytokine Effector
           Functions
    • Authors: Foldi J; Kozhaya L, McCarty B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundDuring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies “exhausted” CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood.MethodsIn a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation. Second, in vitro CD4 T-cell proliferative and cytokine responses to HIV-specific and -nonspecific stimuli were assessed with and without PD-1 blockade.ResultsHIV-infected children have increased frequencies of PD-1+ memory CD4 T cells that fail to normalize with antiretroviral treatment. These cells are comprised of central and effector memory subsets and correlate with HIV disease progression, measured by viral load, CD4 percentage, CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio, and immune activation. Last, PD-1+ CD4 T cells predict impaired proliferative potential yet preferentially secrete the Th1 and Th17 cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin 17A, and are unresponsive to in vitro PD-1 blockade.ConclusionsThis study highlights differences in PD-1+ CD4 T-cell memory phenotype and response to blockade between HIV-infected children and adults, with implications for potential immune checkpoint therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
       
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Type 2 Infects T Cells in Healthy Kenyan Children
    • Authors: Coleman C; Daud I, Ogolla S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe 2 strains of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBV type 1 (EBV-1) and EBV-2, differ in latency genes, suggesting that they use distinct mechanisms to establish latency. We previously reported that EBV-2 infects T cells in vitro. In this study, we tested the possibility that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo.MethodsPurified T-cell fractions isolated from children positive for EBV-1 or EBV-2 and their mothers were examined for the presence of EBV and for EBV type.ResultsWe detected EBV-2 in all T-cell samples obtained from EBV-2–infected children at 12 months of age, with some children retaining EBV-2–positive T cells through 24 months of age, suggesting that EBV-2 persists in T cells. We were unable to detect EBV-2 in T-cell samples from mothers but could detect EBV-2 in samples of their breast milk and saliva.ConclusionsThese data suggest that EBV-2 uses T cells as an additional latency reservoir but that, over time, the frequency of infected T cells may drop below detectable levels. Alternatively, EBV-2 may establish a prolonged transient infection in the T-cell compartment. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrate that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo and suggest EBV-2 may use the T-cell compartment to establish latency.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
       
  • Immunologic Profiling of Human Metapneumovirus for the Development of
           Targeted Immunotherapy
    • Authors: Tzannou I; Nicholas S, Lulla P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractHuman metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory virus detected in ≥9% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, in whom it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Given the lack of effective antivirals, we investigated the potential for immunotherapeutic intervention, using adoptively transferred T cells. Thus, we characterized the cellular immune response to the virus and identified F, N, M2-1, M, and P as immunodominant target antigens. Reactive T cells were polyclonal (ie, they expressed CD4 and CD8), T-helper type 1 polarized, and polyfunctional (ie, they produced interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and granzyme B), and they were able to kill autologous antigen-loaded targets. The detection of hMPV-specific T cells in HSCT recipients who endogenously controlled active infections support the clinical importance of T-cell immunity in mediating protective antiviral effects. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of developing an immunotherapy for immunocompromised patients with uncontrolled infections.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
       
  • Enhanced Macrophage M1 Polarization and Resistance to Apoptosis Enable
           Resistance to Plague
    • Authors: Pachulec E; Abdelwahed Bagga R, Chevallier L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundSusceptibility to infection is in part genetically driven, and C57BL/6 mice resist various pathogens through the proinflammatory response of their M1 macrophages (MPs). However, they are susceptible to plague. It has been reported elsewhere that Mus spretus SEG mice resist plague and develop an immune response characterized by a strong recruitment of MPs.MethodsThe responses of C57BL/6 and SEG MPs exposed to Yersinia pestis in vitro were examined.ResultsSEG MPs exhibit a stronger bactericidal activity with higher nitric oxide production, a more proinflammatory polarized cytokine response, and a higher resistance to Y. pestis–induced apoptosis. This response was not specific to Y. pestis and involved a reduced sensitivity to M2 polarization/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 activation and inhibition of caspase 8. The enhanced M1 profile was inducible in C57BL/6 MPs in vitro, and when transferred to susceptible C57BL/6 mice, these MPs significantly increased survival of bubonic plague.ConclusionsMPs can develop an enhanced functional profile beyond the prototypic M1, characterized by an even more potent proinflammatory response coordinated with resistance to killing. This programming plays a key role in the plague-resistance phenotype and may be similarly significant in other highly lethal infections, suggesting that orienting the MP response may represent a new therapeutic approach.
      PubDate: 2017-07-23
       
  • The Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccine Failure on Long-term Natural Course of
           Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Hepatitis B e
           Antigen–Seropositive Children
    • Authors: Tai C; Wu J, Chen H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundVaccine failure with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection still develops in children after universal hepatitis B immunization. This study aimed to investigate the natural course of chronic HBV infection in children with vaccine failure and compare it with that of nonvaccinated children.MethodsThree hundred fifty-six hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)–seropositive, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier children, who were followed for at least 1 year without antiviral therapy, were enrolled. These comprised 105 vaccine failure subjects who received 3 doses of HBV vaccine in infancy and 251 nonvaccinated subjects. The clinical, serologic, and virologic features were compared between the 2 groups.ResultsThe cumulative HBeAg seroconversion rate was significantly lower in the vaccine failure group than in the nonvaccinated group (30.5% vs 77.7%, P < .0001). Genotype C HBV infection was more frequent in the vaccine failure group (33.7% vs 13.4%, P < .0001), and the maternal HBsAg-positive rate was higher (97.1% vs 66.4%, P < .0001). In a multivariate analysis, vaccine failure, genotype C infection, and maternal HBsAg positivity were significantly associated with delayed HBeAg seroconversion.ConclusionsHBeAg-seropositive vaccine failure HBV-carrier children were associated with delayed HBeAg seroconversion during long-term follow-up, and more HBV genotype C infection and maternal HBsAg seropositivity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
       
  • Human Bocavirus Capsid Messenger RNA Detection in Children With Pneumonia
    • Authors: Schlaberg R; Ampofo K, Tardif K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe role of human bocavirus (HBoV) in respiratory illness is uncertain. HBoV genomic DNA is frequently detected in both ill and healthy children. We hypothesized that spliced viral capsid messenger RNA (mRNA) produced during active replication might be a better marker for acute infection.MethodsAs part of the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, children aged <18 years who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and children asymptomatic at the time of elective outpatient surgery (controls) were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were tested for HBoV mRNA and genomic DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.ResultsHBoV DNA was detected in 10.4% of 1295 patients with CAP and 7.5% of 721 controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0–2.0]); HBoV mRNA was detected in 2.1% and 0.4%, respectively (OR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.6–26]). When adjusted for age, enrollment month, and detection of other respiratory viruses, HBoV mRNA detection (adjusted OR, 7.6 [95% CI, 1.5–38.4]) but not DNA (adjusted OR, 1.2 [95% CI, .6–2.4]) was associated with CAP. Among children with no other pathogens detected, HBoV mRNA (OR, 9.6 [95% CI, 1.9–82]) was strongly associated with CAP.ConclusionsDetection of HBoV mRNA but not DNA was associated with CAP, supporting a pathogenic role for HBoV in CAP. HBoV mRNA could be a useful target for diagnostic testing.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
       
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: In “Chronic Kidney Disease in the Aging Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Population” by Jeffrey B. Kopp [J Infect Dis 2017 jix205. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix205], the corresponding author of the article to which this editorial refers is misspelled, and should be “Kooij.”
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
       
  • Low Frequency of Acquired Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistance in
           Rifampicin-Susceptible Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Setting of High HIV-1
           Infection and Tuberculosis Coprevalence
    • Authors: Rockwood N; Sirgel F, Streicher E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundWe estimated the incidence of acquired isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis in a setting of high human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and tuberculosis coprevalence.MethodsGeneXpert MTB/RIF–confirmed patients with rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis were recruited at antituberculosis treatment initiation in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Liquid culture and adherence assessment were performed at 2 and 5–6 months. MTBDRplus was performed on mycobacteria-positive cultures to ascertain acquired drug resistance (ADR). Spoligotyping and whole-genome sequencing were performed to ascertain homogeneity between baseline isolates and isolates with ADR. Baseline isolates were retrospectively tested for isoniazid monoresistance. An electronic database review was performed to ascertain tuberculosis recurrences.ResultsA total of 306 participants (62% with HIV-1 coinfection, of whom 71% received antiretroviral therapy) were recruited. Ascertainment of outcomes was complete for 284 participants. Five acquired a resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain during or subsequent to treatment. One strain was confirmed to have ADR, 2 were confirmed as causing exogenous reinfection, and 2 were unrecoverable for genotyping. Incident ADR was estimated to have ranged from 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], .1%–1.9%; 1 of 284 participants) to 1% (95% CI, .2%–3%; 3 of 284 participants). Seventeen of 279 baseline isolates (6.1%; 95% CI, 3.6%–9.6%) had isoniazid monoresistance (13 of 17 had an inhA promoter mutation), but 0 of 17 had amplified resistance.ConclusionsTreatment with standardized antituberculosis regimens dosed daily throughout, high uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and low prevalence of isoniazid monoresistance were associated with a low frequency of ADR.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
       
  • A Zebrafish Model of Mycobacterium leprae Granulomatous Infection
    • Authors: Madigan C; Cameron J, Ramakrishnan L.
      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding the pathogenesis of leprosy granulomas has been hindered by a paucity of tractable experimental animal models. Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, grows optimally at approximately 30°C, so we sought to model granulomatous disease in the ectothermic zebrafish. We found that noncaseating granulomas develop rapidly and eventually eradicate infection. rag1 mutant zebrafish, which lack lymphocytes, also form noncaseating granulomas with similar kinetics, but these control infection more slowly. Our findings establish the zebrafish as a facile, genetically tractable model for leprosy and reveal the interplay between innate and adaptive immune determinants mediating leprosy granuloma formation and function.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
       
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in the Aging Human Immunodeficiency
           Virus–Infected Population
    • Authors: Kopp JB.
      Abstract: AlbuminuriaHIV-associated nephropathyChronic inflammationEstimated glomerular filtration rateEnd-stage kidney disease
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
       
  • Higher Prevalence and Faster Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in
           Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Middle-Aged Individuals Compared
           With Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Uninfected Controls
    • Authors: Kooij KW; Vogt L, Wit FM, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute.MethodsWe compared prevalence of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2), albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio >2.93μg/mmol and/or fractional phosphate excretion >20% with plasma phosphate <0.8 mmol/L) in 596 HIV-infected and 544 HIV-uninfected AGEhIV Cohort Study participants. We also assessed whether being HIV-infected on cART, with follow-up censored when cART regimen was modified, was associated with greater eGFR decline or worsening albuminuria (increase ≥10%/year with change in albuminuria category).ResultsHuman immunodeficiency virus infection was independently associated with renal impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–4.4), albuminuria (aOR = 5.8; 95% CI = 3.7–9.0), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (aOR = 7.0; 95% CI = 4.9–10.2]). Among 479 HIV-infected and 377 HIV-uninfected individuals (median follow-up = 3.9/4.1 years, respectively) included in longitudinal analyses, being HIV-infected and remaining on unmodified cART was independently associated with greater eGFR decline (−0.56; 95% CI = −0.87 to −0.24 mL/min/1.73m2/year) and worsening albuminuria (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–4.0).ConclusionsIn these middle-aged individuals, HIV infection was independently associated with renal impairment, albuminuria, and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus–infected individuals on cART (predominantly containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) were also more likely to experience eGFR decline and worsening albuminuria compared with HIV-uninfected individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
       
  • Impact of CCR7 on T-Cell Response and Susceptibility to Yersinia
           pseudotuberculosis Infection
    • Authors: Pezoldt J; Pisano F, Heine W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundTo successfully limit pathogen dissemination, an immunological link between the entry tissue of the pathogen and the underlying secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) needs to be established to prime adaptive immune responses. Here, the prerequisite of CCR7 to mount host immune responses within SLOs during gastrointestinal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection to limit pathogen spread was investigated.MethodsSurvival, bacterial dissemination, and intestinal and systemic pathology of wild-type and CCR7−/− mice were assessed and correlated to the presence of immune cell subsets and cytokine responses throughout the course of infection.ResultsThe CCR7−/− mice show a significantly higher morbidity and are more prone to pathogen dissemination and intestinal and systemic inflammation during the oral route of infection. Significant impact of CCR7 deficiency over the course of infection on several immunological parameters were observed (ie, elevated neutrophil-dominated innate immune response in Peyer’s patches, limited dendritic cell migration to mesenteric lymph nodes [mLNs] causing reduced T cell–mediated adaptive immune responses (in particular Th17-like responses) in mLNs).ConclusionsOur work indicates that CCR7 is required to mount a robust immune response against enteropathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis by promoting Th17-like responses in mLNs.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
       
 
 
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