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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
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Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 577, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
  [SJR: 1.69]   [H-I: 79]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1461-1457 - ISSN (Online) 1469-5111
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • In MemoriamDennis L. Murphy, MD – Neuropsychopharmacologist,
           Scientifc Mentor, and Friend

    • Authors: Lesch K.
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Andrew Holmes – Dennis Murphy – Klaus-Peter Lesch: Hiking the Doe Mountain Trail, Sedona, Arizona, Spring 2005
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx113
  • A Randomized Dose-Ranging Study of Neuropeptide Y in Patients with
           Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    • Authors: Sayed S; Van Dam N, Horn S, et al.
      First page: 3
      Abstract: BackgroundAnxiety and trauma-related disorders are among the most prevalent and disabling medical conditions in the United States, and posttraumatic stress disorder in particular exacts a tremendous public health toll. We examined the tolerability and anxiolytic efficacy of neuropeptide Y administered via an intranasal route in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.MethodsTwenty-six individuals were randomized in a cross-over, single ascending dose study into 1 of 5 cohorts: 1.4 mg (n=3), 2.8 mg (n=6), 4.6 mg (n=5), 6.8 mg (n=6), and 9.6 mg (n=6). Each individual was dosed with neuropeptide Y or placebo on separate treatment days 1 week apart in random order under double-blind conditions. Assessments were conducted at baseline and following a trauma script symptom provocation procedure subsequent to dosing. Occurrence of adverse events represented the primary tolerability outcome. The difference between treatment conditions on anxiety as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory immediately following the trauma script represented efficacy outcomes.ResultsTwenty-four individuals completed both treatment days. Neuropeptide Y was well tolerated up to and including the highest dose. There was a significant interaction between treatment and dose; higher doses of neuropeptide Y were associated with a greater treatment effect, favoring neuropeptide Y over placebo on Beck Anxiety Inventory score (F1,20=4.95, P=.038). There was no significant interaction for State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score.ConclusionsOur study suggests that a single dose of neuropeptide Y is well tolerated up to 9.6 mg and may be associated with anxiolytic effects. Future studies exploring the safety and efficacy of neuropeptide Y in stress-related disorders are warranted.The reported study is registered at: (ID: NCT01533519).
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx109
  • Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Changes Associated with Intermittent Explosive
           Disorder: A Gene-Based Functional Enrichment Analysis

    • Authors: Montalvo-Ortiz J; Zhang H, Chen C, et al.
      First page: 12
      Abstract: BackgroundIntermittent explosive disorder is defined as a recurrent, problematic, and impulsive aggression that affects 3% to 4% of the US population. While behavioral genetic studies report a substantial degree of genetic influence on aggression and impulsivity, epigenetic mechanisms underlying aggression and intermittent explosive disorder are not well known.MethodsThe sample included 44 subjects (22 with a DSM-5 diagnosis of intermittent explosive disorder and 22 comparable subjects without intermittent explosive disorder). Peripheral blood DNA methylome was profiled using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip. Intermittent explosive disorder-associated genome-wide DNA methylation changes were analyzed using the CpGassoc R package, with covariates age, sex, and race being adjusted. A gene-based functional enrichment analysis was performed to identify pathways that were overrepresented by genes harboring highly differentially methylated CpG sites.ResultsA total of 27 CpG sites were differentially methylated in IED participants (P<5.0×10–5), but none reached genome-wide significant threshold. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes mapped by these CpG sites are involved in the inflammatory/immune system, the endocrine system, and neuronal differentiation.ConclusionsConsistent with our previous studies showing an association of inflammatory response with aggressive behavior in intermittent explosive disorder subjects, our gene-based pathway analysis using differentially methylated CpG sites supports inflammatory response as an important mechanism involved in intermittent explosive disorder and reveals other novel biological processes possibly associated with intermittent explosive disorder.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx087
  • Cannabis Dampens the Effects of Music in Brain Regions Sensitive to Reward
           and Emotion

    • Authors: Freeman T; Pope R, Wall M, et al.
      First page: 21
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite the current shift towards permissive cannabis policies, few studies have investigated the pleasurable effects users seek. Here, we investigate the effects of cannabis on listening to music, a rewarding activity that frequently occurs in the context of recreational cannabis use. We additionally tested how these effects are influenced by cannabidiol, which may offset cannabis-related harms.MethodsAcross 3 sessions, 16 cannabis users inhaled cannabis with cannabidiol, cannabis without cannabidiol, and placebo. We compared their response to music relative to control excerpts of scrambled sound during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging within regions identified in a meta-analysis of music-evoked reward and emotion. All results were False Discovery Rate corrected (P<.05).ResultsCompared with placebo, cannabis without cannabidiol dampened response to music in bilateral auditory cortex (right: P=.005, left: P=.008), right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus (P=.025), right amygdala (P=.025), and right ventral striatum (P=.033). Across all sessions, the effects of music in this ventral striatal region correlated with pleasure ratings (P=.002) and increased functional connectivity with auditory cortex (right: P< .001, left: P< .001), supporting its involvement in music reward. Functional connectivity between right ventral striatum and auditory cortex was increased by cannabidiol (right: P=.003, left: P=.030), and cannabis with cannabidiol did not differ from placebo on any functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging measures. Both types of cannabis increased ratings of wanting to listen to music (P<.002) and enhanced sound perception (P<.001).ConclusionsCannabis dampens the effects of music in brain regions sensitive to reward and emotion. These effects were offset by a key cannabis constituent, cannabidol.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx082
  • Decreased Resting-State Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity
           Correlated with Neurocognitive Deficits in Drug-Naive First-Episode
           Adolescent-Onset Schizophrenia

    • Authors: Liu Y; Guo W, Zhang Y, et al.
      First page: 33
      Abstract: BackgroundGiven that adolescence is a critical epoch in the onset of schizophrenia, studying aberrant brain changes in adolescent-onset schizophrenia, particularly in patients with drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia, is important to understand the biological mechanism of this disorder. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in separate hemispheres in patients with adult-onset schizophrenia. Our aim to study adolescent-onset schizophrenia can provide clues for the early aetiology of schizophrenia.MethodA total of 48 drug-naïve, first-episode, adolescent-onset schizophrenia outpatients and 31 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Data were subjected to voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity and support vector machine analyses.ResultsCompared with the healthy controls, the adolescent-onset schizophrenia group showed significantly lower voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity values in different brain regions, including the fusiform gyrus, superior temporal gyrus/insula, precentral gyrus, and precuneus. Decreased voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity values in the superior temporal gyrus/insula were significantly correlated with Trail-Making Test: Part A performance (r = −0.437, P = .002). A combination of the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity values in the precentral gyrus and precuneus may be used to discriminate patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia from controls with satisfactory classification results, which showed sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 87.09%, and accuracy of 94.93%.ConclusionOur findings highlight resting-state interhemispheric FC abnormalities within the sensorimotor network of patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia and confirm the relationship between adolescent-onset schizophrenia and adult-onset schizophrenia. These findings suggest that reduced interhemispheric connectivity within the sensorimotor network has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx095
  • Mapping Compulsivity in the DSM-5 Obsessive Compulsive and Related
           Disorders: Cognitive Domains, Neural Circuitry, and Treatment

    • Authors: Fineberg N; Apergis-Schoute A, Vaghi M, et al.
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioral inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder, distributed network perturbation appears focused around the prefrontal cortex, caudate, putamen, and associated neuro-circuitry. Obsessive compulsive disorder-related attentional set-shifting deficits correlated with reduced resting state functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex on neuroimaging. In contrast, experimental provocation of obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms reduced neural activation in brain regions implicated in goal-directed behavioral control (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, caudate) with concordant increased activation in regions implicated in habit learning (presupplementary motor area, putamen). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a multifaceted role, integrating affective evaluative processes, flexible behavior, and fear learning. Findings from a neuroimaging study of Pavlovian fear reversal, in which obsessive compulsive disorder patients failed to flexibly update fear responses despite normal initial fear conditioning, suggest there is an absence of ventromedial prefrontal cortex safety signaling in obsessive compulsive disorder, which potentially undermines explicit contingency knowledge and may help to explain the link between cognitive inflexibility, fear, and anxiety processing in compulsive disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx088
  • Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders: From the Biological Basis to a
           Rational Pharmacological Treatment

    • Authors: Sachs G; Erfurth A.
      First page: 59
      Abstract: obsessive compulsive and related disorderscomorbidityserotoninneurocognitionpersonalized treatment
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx101
  • ECT Has Greater Efficacy Than Fluoxetine in Alleviating the Burden of
           Illness for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Taiwanese Pooled

    • Authors: Lin C; Huang C, Chen C.
      First page: 63
      Abstract: BackgroundThe burden of major depressive disorder includes suffering due to symptom severity, functional impairment, and quality of life deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the differences between electroconvulsive therapy and pharmacotherapy in reducing such burdens.MethodsThis was a pooled analysis study including 2 open-label trials for major depressive disorder inpatients receiving either standard bitemporal and modified electroconvulsive therapy with a maximum of 12 sessions or 20 mg/d of fluoxetine for 6 weeks. Symptom severity, functioning, and quality of life were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and SF-36. Side effects following treatment, including subjective memory impairment, nausea/vomiting, and headache, were recorded. The differences between these 2 groups in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, quality of life, side effects, and time to response (at least a 50% reduction of 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) and remission (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ≤7) following treatment were analyzed.ResultsElectroconvulsive therapy (n=116) showed a significantly greater reduction in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and quality of life deficits and had significantly shorter time to response/remission than fluoxetine (n=126). However, the electroconvulsive therapy group was more likely to experience subjective memory impairment and headache.ConclusionsCompared with fluoxetine, electroconvulsive therapy was more effective in alleviating the burden of major depressive disorder and had a substantially increased speed of response/remission in the acute phase. Increased education and information about electroconvulsive therapy for clinicians, patients, and their families and the general public is warranted.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx114
  • Modulation of Rat 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Glucocorticoid
           Signaling: Possible Relevance to Reward and Motivation

    • Authors: Simola N; Paci E, Serra M, et al.
      First page: 73
      Abstract: abstractBackgroundRats emit 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) to communicate positive emotional states, and these USVs are increasingly being investigated in preclinical studies on reward and motivation. Although it is the activation of dopamine receptors that initiates the emission of 50-kHz USVs, non-dopaminergic mechanisms may modulate calling in the 50 kHz frequency band. To further elucidate these mechanisms, the present study investigated whether the pharmacological manipulation of glucocorticoid signaling influenced calling.MethodsRats were administered corticosterone (1–5 mg/kg, s.c.), the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone (40 or 100 mg/kg, s.c.), or the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.). The effects of these drugs on calling initiation and on calling recorded during nonaggressive social contacts or after the administration of amphetamine (0.25 or 1 mg/kg, i.p.) were then evaluated.ResultsCorticosterone failed to initiate the emission of 50-kHz USVs and did not influence pro-social and amphetamine-stimulated calling. Similarly, mifepristone and metyrapone did not initiate calling. However, metyrapone suppressed pro-social calling and calling stimulated by a moderate dose (1 mg/kg, i.p.) of amphetamine. Conversely, mifepristone attenuated calling stimulated by a low (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.), but not moderate (1 mg/kg, i.p.), dose of amphetamine and had no influence on pro-social calling.ConclusionsThe present results demonstrate that glucocorticoid signaling modulates calling in the 50 kHz frequency band only in certain conditions and suggest that mechanisms different from the inhibition of corticosterone synthesis may participate in the suppression of calling by metyrapone.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx106
  • Lack of Antidepressant Effects of (2R,6R)-Hydroxynorketamine in a Rat
           Learned Helplessness Model: Comparison with (R)-Ketamine

    • Authors: Shirayama Y; Hashimoto K.
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Background(R)-Ketamine exhibits rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in animal models of depression. It is stereoselectively metabolized to (R)-norketamine and subsequently to (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine in the liver. The metabolism of ketamine to hydroxynorketamine was recently demonstrated to be essential for ketamine’s antidepressant actions. However, no study has compared the antidepressant effects of these 3 compounds in animal models of depression.MethodsThe effects of a single i.p. injection of (R)-ketamine, (R)-norketamine, and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine in a rat learned helplessness model were examined.ResultsA single dose of (R)-ketamine (20 mg/kg) showed an antidepressant effect in the rat learned helplessness model. In contrast, neither (R)-norketamine (20 mg/kg) nor (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (20 and 40 mg/kg) did so.ConclusionsUnlike (R)-ketamine, its metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine did not show antidepressant actions in the rat learned helplessness model. Therefore, it is unlikely that the metabolism of ketamine to hydroxynorketamine is essential for ketamine’s antidepressant actions.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx108
  • Cued Reinstatement of Cocaine but Not Sucrose Seeking Is Dependent on
           Dopamine Signaling in Prelimbic Cortex and Is Associated with Recruitment

    • Authors: James M; McGlinchey E, Vattikonda A, et al.
      First page: 89
      Abstract: BackgroundDrug cues recruit prelimbic cortex neurons that project to ipsilateral nucleus accumbens core. However, it is not known if the same is true for prelimbic cortex projections that decussate to innervate contralateral nucleus accumbens core. Further, a role for prelimbic cortex dopamine signaling in cued reinstatement of cocaine seeking has not been shown.MethodsWe assessed Fos expression in prelimbic cortex neurons that project to contralateral nucleus accumbens core following cued reinstatement of cocaine or sucrose seeking. We also tested the effect of intra-prelimbic cortex infusions of the D1/D2 antagonist fluphenazine on cued cocaine and sucrose seeking.ResultsPrelimbic cortex-contralateral nucleus accumbens core projections were activated by cocaine cues but not sucrose cues, and this activation correlated with reinstatement behavior. Blockade of prelimbic cortex dopamine signaling prevented cued reinstatement of cocaine- but not sucrose-seeking behavior.ConclusionsCued cocaine seeking is associated with activation of the prelimbic cortex-contralateral nucleus accumbens core pathway. Prelimbic cortex dopamine signaling is necessary for cues to reinstate drug-seeking behavior.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx107
  • Erratum

    • First page: 95
      Abstract: Correction of “Dremencov E, Csatlósová K, Ďurišová B, Moravčíková L, Lacinová L, Ježová D (2017) Effect of physical exercise and acute escitalopram on the excitability of brain monoamine neurons: in vivo electrophysiological study in rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyx024.”
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx084
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