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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 580, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
  [SJR: 1.69]   [H-I: 79]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1461-1457 - ISSN (Online) 1469-5111
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Ketamine-Induced Prefrontal Serotonin Release Is Mediated by Cholinergic
           Neurons in the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus

    • Authors: Kinoshita H; Nishitani N, Nagai Y, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundKetamine rapidly elicits antidepressive effects in humans and mice in which serotonergic activity is involved. Although α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2 nAChR) in the dorsal raphe nucleus plays a key role in the ketamine-induced prefrontal serotonin release, the source of cholinergic afferents, and its role is unclear.MethodsPrefrontal serotonin levels after ketamine injection were measured by microdialysis in rats. Electrolytic lesion of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus was made with constant direct current.ResultsBilateral lesion of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, but not laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, attenuated prefrontal serotonin release induced by systemic ketamine. Intra-pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, but not intra-laterodorsal tegmental nucleus ketamine perfusion, increased prefrontal serotonin release. This increase was attenuated by intra-dorsal raphe nucleus injection of dihydro-β-erythroidine, an α4β2 nAChR antagonist, or NBQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist.ConclusionsThese results suggest the ketamine-induced serotonin release in medial prefrontal cortex is mediated by cholinergic neurons projecting from pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to dorsal raphe nucleus via α4β2 nAChRs.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mitochondria Are Critical for BDNF-Mediated Synaptic and Vascular
           Plasticity of Hippocampus following Repeated Electroconvulsive Seizures

    • Authors: Chen F; Ardalan M, Elfving B, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundElectroconvulsive therapy is a fast-acting and efficient treatment of depression used in the clinic. The underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effect is still unclear. However, recovery of synaptic connections and synaptic remodeling is thought to play a critical role for the clinical efficacy obtained from a rapid antidepressant response. Here, we investigated the relationship between synaptic changes and concomitant nonneuronal changes in microvasculature and mitochondria and its relationship to brain-derived neurotrophic factor level changes after repeated electroconvulsive seizures, an animal model of electroconvulsive therapy.MethodsElectroconvulsive seizures or sham treatment was given daily for 10 days to rats displaying a genetically driven phenotype modelling clinical depression: the Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Line rats. Stereological principles were employed to quantify numbers of synapses and mitochondria, and the length of microvessels in the hippocampus. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were quantified with immunohistochemistry.ResultsIn untreated controls, a lower number of synapses and mitochondria was accompanied by shorter microvessels of the hippocampus in “depressive” phenotype (Flinders Sensitive Line) compared with the “nondepressed” phenotype (Flinders Resistant Line). Electroconvulsive seizure administration significantly increased the number of synapses and mitochondria, and length of microvessels both in Flinders Sensitive Line-electroconvulsive seizures and Flinders Resistant Line-electroconvulsive seizures rats. In addition, the amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein was significantly increased in Flinders Sensitive Line and Flinders Resistant Line rats after electroconvulsive seizures. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and mitochondria/synapses.ConclusionOur results indicate that rapid and efficient therapeutic effect of electroconvulsive seizures may be related to synaptic plasticity, accompanied by brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein level elevation and mitochondrial and vascular support.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • β1-Adrenoceptor in the Central Amygdala Is Required for Unconditioned
           Stimulus-Induced Drug Memory Reconsolidation

    • Authors: Zhu H; Zhou Y, Liu Z, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundDrug memories become labile and reconsolidated after retrieval by presentation of environmental cues (conditioned stimulus) or drugs (unconditioned stimulus). Whether conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus retrieval trigger different memory reconsolidation processes is not clear.MethodsProtein synthesis inhibitor or β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist was systemically administrated or intra-central amygdala infused immediately after cocaine reexposure in cocaine-conditioned place preference or self-administration mice models. β-ARs were selectively knocked out in the central amygdala to further confirm the role of β-adrenergic receptor in cocaine reexposure-induced memory reconsolidation of cocaine-conditioned place preference.ResultsCocaine reexposure triggered de novo protein synthesis dependent memory reconsolidation of cocaine-conditioned place preference. Cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement was also impaired with post cocaine retrieval manipulation, in contrast to the relapse behavior with post context retrieval manipulation. Cocaine retrieval, but not context retrieval, induced central amygdala activation. Protein synthesis inhibitor or β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist infused in the central amygdala after cocaine retrieval, but not context retrieval, inhibited memory reconsolidation and reinstatement. β1-adrenergic receptor knockout in the central amygdala suppressed cocaine retrieval-triggered memory reconsolidation and reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference. β1-adrenergic receptor antagonism after cocaine retrieval also impaired reconsolidation and reinstatement of cocaine self-administration.ConclusionsCocaine reward memory triggered by unconditioned stimulus retrieval is distinct from conditioned stimulus retrieval. Unconditioned stimulus retrieval induced reconsolidation of cocaine reward memory depends on β1-adrenergic signaling in the central amygdala. Post unconditioned stimulus retrieval manipulation can prevent drug memory reconsolidation and relapse to cocaine, thus providing a potential strategy for the prevention of substance addiction.Significance StatementIt is well known that drug memories become labile and reconsolidated upon retrieval by the presentation of conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US). Whether CS and US retrieval trigger different memory reconsolidation processes is unknown. In this study, we found that US retrieval, but not CS retrieval, triggered memory reconsolidation of cocaine-conditioned place preference dependent on β1-AR and de novo protein synthesis in the central amygdala. Furthermore, cocaine priming-induced reinstatement was impaired with post US retrieval manipulation in contrast to the relapse behavior with post CS retrieval manipulation. In cocaine self-administration, β1-AR antagonism after US retrieval also impaired reconsolidation and reinstatement. Our study indicates that reconsolidation of cocaine reward memory triggered by US retrieval is distinct from CS retrieval. US retrieval induced reconsolidation of cocaine reward memory depends on β1-adrenergic signaling in the central amygdala.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Selective Activation of Striatal NGF-TrkA/p75NTR/MAPK Intracellular
           Signaling in Rats That Show Suppression of Methamphetamine Intake 30 Days
           following Drug Abstinence

    • Authors: Torres O; Jayanthi S, McCoy M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThe continuing epidemic of methamphetamine addiction has prompted research aimed at understanding striatal dysfunctions potentially associated with long-term methamphetamine use.MethodsHere, we investigated transcriptional and translational alterations in the expression of neurotrophic factors in the rat striatum at 30 days following methamphetamine self-administration and footshock punishment. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) or saline during twenty-two 9-hour sessions. Subsequently, rats were subjected to incremental footshocks for 13 additional methamphetamine self-administration sessions. This paradigm led to the identification of rats with shock-resistant and shock-sensitive phenotypes. Thirty days following the last footshock session, the dorsal striatum was dissected and processed for gene expression and protein analyses.ResultsPCR arrays revealed significant differences in neurotrophins and their receptors between the 2 phenotypes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor protein levels were increased in the dorsal striatum of both shock-resistant and shock-sensitive rats. However, neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1 phosphorylation and nerve growth factor receptor protein expression were increased only in the shock-sensitive phenotype. Moreover, shock-sensitive rats showed increased abundance of several phosphorylated proteins known to participate in Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade including cRaf, ERK1/2, MSK1, and CREB.ConclusionsThese findings support the notion that animals with distinct phenotypes for methamphetamine intake in the presence of adverse consequences also display differential changes in an intracellular signaling cascade activated by nerve growth factor-TrkA/p75NTR interactions. Thus, the development of pharmacological agents that can activate nerve growth factor-dependent pathways may be a promising therapeutic approach to combat methamphetamine addiction.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Strategies to Advance Drug Discovery in Rare Monogenic Intellectual
           Disability Syndromes

    • Authors: Hettige N; Manzano-Vargas K, Jefri M, et al.
      Abstract: Some intellectual disability syndromes are caused by a mutation in a single gene and have been the focus of therapeutic intervention attempts, such as Fragile X and Rett Syndrome, albeit with limited success. The rate at which new drugs are discovered and tested in humans for intellectual disability is progressing at a relatively slow pace. This is particularly true for rare diseases where so few patients make high-quality clinical trials challenging. We discuss how new advances in human stem cell reprogramming and gene editing can facilitate preclinical study design and we propose new workflows for how the preclinical to clinical trajectory might proceed given the small number of subjects available in rare monogenic intellectual disability syndromes.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Retrieval-Induced Upregulation of Tet3 in Pyramidal Neurons of the Dorsal
           Hippocampus Mediates Cocaine-Associated Memory Reconsolidation

    • Authors: Liu C; Sun X, Wang Z, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundMemory retrieval refers to reexposure to information previously encoded and stored in the brain. Following retrieval, a once-consolidated memory destabilizes and undergoes reconsolidation, during which gene expression changes to restabilize memory. Investigating epigenetic regulation during reconsolidation could provide insights into normal memory formation and pathological memory associated with psychiatric disorders.MethodsWe used cocaine-induced conditioned place preference to assess the cocaine-associated memory of mice and used chemogenetic methods to manipulate the activity of the pyramidal neurons in the dorsal hippocampus. We isolated the ribosome-associated transcripts from the excitatory neurons in the dorsal hippocampus by RiboTag purification to identify the potential epigenetic regulators, and we specifically knocked down gene expression in pyramidal neurons with a Cre-dependent lentivirus.ResultsChemogenetically silencing the activity of the pyramidal neurons in the dorsal hippocampus immediately after memory retrieval markedly impaired memory reconsolidation, and the ribosome-associated mRNA level of the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet3, but not Tet1 or Tet2, was dramatically upregulated 10 minutes after memory retrieval. The protein level of Tet3 in the dorsal hippocampus but not in the anterior cingulate cortex was dramatically increased 1 hour after memory retrieval. Specifically, knockdown of Tet3 in pyramidal neurons in the dorsal hippocampus decreased the activation of pyramidal neurons and impaired the reconsolidation of cocaine-associated memory.ConclusionsOur findings highlight the new function of the DNA demethylation regulator Tet3 in pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus in regulating the reconsolidation of cocaine-associated memory.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • NYX-2925 Is a Novel NMDA Receptor-Specific Spirocyclic-β-Lactam That
           Modulates Synaptic Plasticity Processes Associated with Learning and

    • Authors: Khan M; Houck D, Gross A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundN-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are one member of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity processes associated with learning and have become attractive therapeutic targets for diseases such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neuropathic pain. NYX-2925 ((2S, 3R)-3-hydroxy-2-((R)-5-isobutyryl-1-oxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide) is one member of a spiro-β-lactam-based chemical platform that mimics some of the dipyrrolidine structural features of rapastinel (formerly GLYX-13: threonine-proline-proline-threonine) and is distinct from known N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonists or antagonists such as D-cycloserine, ketamine, MK-801, kynurenic acid, or ifenprodil.MethodsThe in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of NYX-2925 were examined.ResultsNYX-2925 has a low potential for “off-target” activity, as it did not exhibit any significant affinity for a large panel of neuroactive receptors, including hERG receptors. NYX-2925 increased MK-801 binding to human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A-D subtypes expressed in HEK cells and enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current and long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampal slices (100–500 nM). Single dose ex vivo studies showed increased metaplasticity in a hippocampal LTP paradigm and structural plasticity 24 hours after administration (1 mg/kg p.o.). Significant learning enhancement in both novel object recognition and positive emotional learning paradigms were observed (0.01–1 mg/kg p.o.), and these effects were blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist CPP. NYX-2925 does not show any addictive or sedative/ataxic side effects and has a therapeutic index of >1000. NYX-2925 (1 mg/kg p.o.) has a cerebrospinal fluid half-life of 1.2 hours with a Cmax of 44 nM at 1 hour.ConclusionsNYX-2925, like rapastinel, activates an NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity process and may have therapeutic potential for a variety of NMDA receptor-mediated central nervous system disorders.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Studies on Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 1: Lower Levels in
           Schizophrenia and After Treatment with Antipsychotic Drugs in Conjunction
           with Aspirin

    • Authors: Dean B; Gibbons A, Gogos A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundAntipsychotic drugs plus aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1: COX1), improved therapeutic outcomes when treating schizophrenia. Our microarray data showed higher levels of PTGS1 mRNA in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from subjects with schizophrenia of long duration of illness, suggesting aspirin plus antipsychotic drugs could have therapeutic effects by lowering PTGS1 expression in the cortex of subjects with the disorder.MethodsWe used Western blotting to measure levels of PTSG1 protein in human postmortem CNS, rat and mouse cortex, and cells in culture.ResultsCompared with controls, PTGS1 levels were 41% lower in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P<.01), but not the anterior cingulate or frontal pole, from subjects with schizophrenia. Levels of PTGS1 were not changed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in mood disorders or in the cortex of rats treated with antipsychotic drugs. There was a strong trend (P=.05) to lower cortical PTGS1 10 months after mice were treated postnatally with polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid sodium salt (Poly I:C), consistent with cortical PTGS1 being lower in adult mice after exposure to an immune activator postnatally. In CCF-STTG1 cells, a human-derived astrocytic cell line, aspirin caused a dose-dependent decrease in PTGS1 that was decreased further with the addition of risperidone.ConclusionsOur data suggest low levels of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex PTGS1 could be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and improved therapeutic outcome from treating schizophrenia with antipsychotic drugs augmented with aspirin may be because such treatment lowers cortical PTGS1.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Neural Response After a Single ECT Session During Retrieval of Emotional
           Self-Referent Words in Depression: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled fMRI

    • Authors: Miskowiak K; Macoveanu J, Jørgensen M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundNegative neurocognitive bias is a core feature of depression that is reversed by antidepressant drug treatment. However, it is unclear whether modulation of neurocognitive bias is a common mechanism of distinct biological treatments. This randomized controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study explored the effects of a single electroconvulsive therapy session on self-referent emotional processing.MethodsTwenty-nine patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder were randomized to one active or sham electroconvulsive therapy session at the beginning of their electroconvulsive therapy course in a double-blind, between-groups design. The following day, patients were given a self-referential emotional word categorization test and a free recall test. This was followed by an incidental word recognition task during whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Mood was assessed at baseline, on the functional magnetic resonance imaging day, and after 6 electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Data were complete and analyzed for 25 patients (electroconvulsive therapy: n = 14, sham: n = 11). The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library randomize algorithm, and the Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement method was used to identify significant clusters (corrected at P < .05).ResultsA single electroconvulsive therapy session had no effect on hippocampal activity during retrieval of emotional words. However, electroconvulsive therapy reduced the retrieval-specific neural response for positive words in the left frontopolar cortex. This effect occurred in the absence of differences between groups in behavioral performance or mood symptoms.ConclusionsThe observed effect of electroconvulsive therapy on prefrontal response may reflect early facilitation of memory for positive self-referent information, which could contribute to improvements in depressive symptoms including feelings of self-worth with repeated treatments.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Plasma Nervonic Acid Is a Potential Biomarker for Major Depressive
           Disorder: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Kageyama Y; Kasahara T, Nakamura T, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundDiagnostic biomarkers of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are urgently needed, because none are currently available.MethodsWe performed a comprehensive metabolome analysis of plasma samples from drug-free patients with major depressive disorder (n=9), bipolar disorder (n=6), schizophrenia (n=17), and matched healthy controls (n=19) (cohort 1) using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A significant effect of diagnosis was found for 2 metabolites: nervonic acid and cortisone, with nervonic acid being the most significantly altered. The reproducibility of the results and effects of psychotropic medication on nervonic acid were verified in cohort 2, an independent sample set of medicated patients [major depressive disorder (n=45), bipolar disorder (n=71), schizophrenia (n=115)], and controls (n=90) using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.ResultsThe increased levels of nervonic acid in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls and patients with bipolar disorder in cohort 1 were replicated in the independent sample set (cohort 2). In cohort 2, plasma nervonic acid levels were also increased in the patients with major depressive disorder compared with the patients with schizophrenia. In cohort 2, nervonic acid levels were increased in the depressive state in patients with major depressive disorder compared with the levels in the remission state in patients with major depressive disorder and the depressive state in patients with bipolar disorder.ConclusionThese results suggested that plasma nervonic acid is a good candidate biomarker for the depressive state of major depressive disorder.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Possible Association between Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)
           Levels and Relapse in Depressed Patients following Electroconvulsive
           Therapy (ECT)

    • Authors: Shibasaki C; Itagaki K, Abe H, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundMatrix metalloproteinases are involved in neuroinflammatory processes, which could underlie depression. Serum levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in depressed patients are significantly altered following electroconvulsive therapy, but an association between altered matrix metalloproteinases after successful ECT and possible relapse has yet to be investigated.MethodsSerum was obtained twice, before and immediately after a course of electroconvulsive therapy, from 38 depressed patients. Serum was also collected, once, from two groups of age- and gender-matched healthy controls, 40 volunteers in each group. Possible associations between levels of matrix metalloproteinases and relapse during a 1-year follow-up period were analyzed.ResultsExcluding patients who did not respond to electroconvulsive therapy and patients lost to follow-up, data from 28 patients were evaluated. Eighteen of the patients (64.3%) relapsed within 1 year. In the group that did not relapse, serum levels of MMP-9 were significantly decreased after a course of electroconvulsive therapy, but not in the group that relapsed. No association between MMP-2 and relapse was observed.ConclusionThe degree of change in serum MMP-9 change could be associated with relapse following electroconvulsive therapy in depressed patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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