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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 508, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover European Journal of Public Health
  [SJR: 1.284]   [H-I: 64]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1101-1262 - ISSN (Online) 1464-360X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Precautionary bias
    • Authors: Vlassov VV.
      First page: 389
      Abstract: In June 2016, the European Commission presented criteria to identify endocrine disruptors in the field of plant protection products and biocides.1 The documents approved are instruments for the move to the practice from the WHO general approach with its definition ‘Endocrine disruptors are substances, both natural and chemical, that can alter the functions of the hormonal system and consequently cause adverse effects on people or animals’.2 The further excerpt provides the understanding of the state of the science under the regulatory efforts: ‘although it is clear that certain environmental chemicals can interfere with normal hormonal processes, there is weak evidence that human health has been adversely affected by exposure to endocrine-active chemicals. However, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that adverse endocrine‐mediated effects have occurred in some wildlife species’. This was concluded in 2002, and in 2012 (latest report2) evidence base did not improved significantly. Especially, it is weak for the effects in humans. It would not be a hyperbolae to say that there is no direct evidence that ‘endocrine disruptors’ as natural or synthetic substances in the environment are harmful to people.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx013
  • Health smart devices and applications…towards a new model of
    • Authors: Cambon L.
      First page: 390
      Abstract: Smart devices and applications (SDApps) are an integral part of all aspects of everyday life, especially in the field of health, constituting the ‘eHealth movement’. In Western countries, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases advocate for a more important place for eHealth alongside conventional preventive services. However, to date, few evaluations have been published. What is the real value of these devices as tools for prevention?
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx019
  • Health smart devices and applications for prevention—a cautionary
    • Authors: Paljarvi T.
      First page: 391
      Abstract: Many existing and emerging consumer health technologies could have various applications in health promotion and disease prevention within the general population, and in supporting chronic disease management among patients. However, as Dr Cambon points out in her viewpoint (Linda Cambon’s viewpoint article) there are still many unanswered questions in relation to adopting a new model for disease prevention based on smart devices and applications (SDApps). One additional point that deserves attention is the regulatory oversight of health SDApps.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx018
  • Compliance assessment issues in evaluating age verification tools: a
           commentary on ‘Van Hoof, 2016’
    • Authors: Schelleman-Offermans K; Roodbeen RJ, Lemmens PM.
      First page: 393
      Abstract: In a short report on the effectiveness of age verification (AV) aids in enhancing compliance with legal age limits in Dutch supermarkets, Van Hoof compares the effectiveness of two different AV systems (AVS) (i.e. AV by an in-store ID reader, and by a remote system) with a control group, in which no technical support was available.1
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw242
  • Response to ‘Compliance assessment issues in evaluating age verification
           tools: a commentary on “Van Hoof, 2016”’
    • Authors: Van Hoof JJ.
      First page: 394
      Abstract: In a Commentary, Ms Schelleman-Offermans, Mr Roodbeen and Mr Schellens questioned elements of our recent short report. We thank these authors, and we will respond in this Letter.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw272
  • Response to Behbod B et al. Environmental and Public Health Tracking to
           Advance Knowledge for Planetary Health
    • Authors: Saunders PJ; Middleton JD.
      First page: 395
      Abstract: The Viewpoint on Environmental Public Health Tracking by Behbod et al. is both welcome and timely.1 We need new ways to characterize, monitor, and respond to the changing nature and distribution of environmental stresses; new challenges as well as old ones affecting us in unexpected ways. It is important that the public health community re-evaluates the role and application of routine environmental monitoring and service data and learns to apply these using innovative methods. Another dynamic is the apparent divergence between professional and lay interests reflected in a research focus on large-scale issues such as climate change rather than the more immediate local impacts of a poor quality physical, economic and social environment. Developing an effective response is complicated by the interactions between environmental, biological and social systems meaning that relatively little is actually known about which parts of the contemporary environment, or combinations thereof, have the most important effects or indeed how. However one thing is abundantly clear as Behbod identifies; poor people are almost invariably more exposed to environmental and public health pressures.2 There is also an emerging consensus that there is something about being poor that makes people more vulnerable to those exposures, an indefensible injustice.2
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx022
  • Long working hours and metabolic syndrome
    • Authors: Kawada T.
      First page: 396
      Abstract: Pimenta et al.1 conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effect of working hours on the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each of its components by following-up for a median of 8.3 years. The authors described that long working hours did not increase the risk of MetS development or each of its components. I have some queries on their study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx032
  • The relationships between income inequality, welfare regimes and aggregate
           health: a systematic review
    • Authors: Kim K.
      First page: 397
      Abstract: Background: When analysing the relationships between income inequality, welfare regimes and aggregate health at the cross-national level, previous primary articles and systematic reviews reach inconsistent conclusions. Contrary to theoretical expectations, equal societies or the Social Democratic welfare regime do not always have the best aggregate health when compared with those of other relatively unequal societies or other welfare regimes. This article will shed light on the controversial subjects with a new decomposition systematic review method. Methods: The decomposition systematic review method breaks down an individual empirical article, if necessary, into multiple findings based on an article’s use of the following four components: independent variable, dependent variable, method and dataset. This decomposition method extracts 107 findings from the selected 48 articles, demonstrating the dynamics between the four components. Results: ‘The age threshold effect’ is recognized over which the hypothesized relations between income inequality, welfare regimes and aggregate health reverse. The hypothesis is supported mainly for younger infant and child health indicators, but not for adult health or general health indicators such as life expectancy. Further three threshold effects (income, gender and period) have also been put forward. Conclusions: The negative relationship between income inequality and aggregate health, often termed as the Wilkinson Hypothesis, was not generally observed in all health indicators except for infant and child mortality. The Scandinavian welfare regime reveals worse-than-expected outcomes in all health indicators except infant and child mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx055
  • Associations between racial discrimination, smoking during pregnancy and
           low birthweight among Roma
    • Authors: Janevic T; Osypuk T, Stojanovski K, et al.
      First page: 410
      Abstract: Background: Racial discrimination may increase the risk of low birthweight (LBW), but has not been studied among Roma, the largest minority population in Europe. Moreover, few studies test both institutional and interpersonal forms of racial discrimination on health. Our objective was to examine associations between institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination with LBW, and to test potential mediation by smoking during pregnancy. Methods: In 2012–2013, Romani women interviewers surveyed 410 Romani women in Serbia and Macedonia. We measured institutional discrimination (neighborhood segregation, legal status of housing and neighborhood socioeconomic status), interpersonal discrimination [Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS)], birthweight and smoking by self-report or interviewer report. We estimated relative risks for discrimination on LBW and separately on smoking during pregnancy using log-binomial regression, adjusting for age, parity, years at residence and wealth. Results: The indirect effect of high EDS via smoking on LBW was estimated using inverse odds weighting mediation. Living in a low SES neighborhood showed a 2-fold risk of LBW [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 5.0]; aRRs for segregation and illegal housing were weaker (aRR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.7, 4.3; aRR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6, 2.6, respectively). Institutional measures were not associated with smoking. High EDS was associated with LBW (aRR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.2) and smoking during pregnancy (aRR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8); the indirect effect of EDS on LBW via smoking was not significant. Conclusion: Interpersonal discrimination and living in a low SES neighborhood were associated with LBW among Roma. Interventions to improve Romani health may benefit from a human rights approach.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw214
  • Parental perceptions of barriers to active commuting to school in Spanish
           children and adolescents
    • Authors: Huertas-Delgado F; Herrador-Colmenero M, Villa-González E, et al.
      First page: 416
      Abstract: Background: Understanding parental barriers is crucial to promote active commuting to school since the parental perceptions influence how young people commute. This study examined parental barriers to active commuting to school among Spanish children and adolescents, and their association with their gender and the usual mode of commuting. Methods: Parents of children (n = 628) and parents of adolescents (n = 151) from Granada (Spain) completed a paper-based questionnaire about perceived parental barriers to active commuting to school and mode of commuting. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Among Spanish parents, the most common barriers reported by parents of children were traffic volume and dangerous intersections, whereas the most frequent barriers reported by parents of adolescents were distance to school and dangerous intersections. Compared to parents of children, a greater proportion of parents of adolescents reported distance to school and crime and smaller proportion reported traffic volume as barriers to active commuting to school. Among parents of children, crime was a more commonly reported as a barrier by parents of girls. Although some barriers reported by parents of passive commuters were similar for children and adolescents (such as distance to school and absence of a policeman at crosswalks), other barriers were specific to parents of children. Conclusions: The main parental barriers to active commuting in children were traffic volume and dangerous intersections whereas for adolescents were distance and dangerous intersections. Among Spanish parents, parental barriers to active commuting are influenced by children’s age, gender and mode of commuting to school.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw249
  • Education predicts cervical cancer survival: a Lithuanian cohort study
    • Authors: Vincerževskienė I; Jasilionis D, Austys D, et al.
      First page: 421
      Abstract: Background: We examined inequalities in cervical cancer survival in Lithuania by education and place of residence. Methods: The study is based on the linked dataset that includes all records of the 2001 population Census, all records from Lithuanian Cancer Registry (cancer incidence) and all death and emigration records from Statistics Lithuania for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009. The study group includes cervical cancers registered in the Cancer Registry from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2006. Analysis was restricted to women who were 25–64 years old at the Census date (in total 1 866 cases). Results: During the study period there were 671 deaths corresponding to an overall 5-year survival proportion 64.13% (95% CI 61.86–66.31). Place of residence and education of cervical cancer patients had strong impact on survival; 5-year survival was higher in women living in urban areas than in rural (68.61 and 55.93%) and survival decreased with decreasing education: from 79.77% in highest education group to 64.85 and 50.48% in groups with secondary and lower than secondary education. The effect of place of residence declined when stage of disease was included in the model and became not significant in final model with education adjustment. The effect of education declined after inclusion of stage and other variables, however, remained significant. Conclusions: We found that women with higher education experienced higher survival following a cervical cancer diagnosis, and stage of disease at the time of diagnosis explains only the part of observed differences.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw261
  • Trends in occupational disparities for exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic
           and reprotoxic chemicals in France 2003–10
    • Authors: Havet N; Penot A, Morelle M, et al.
      First page: 425
      Abstract: Background: To explore trends in social and occupational inequalities in terms of exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Methods: Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational hazards (SUMER) that was conducted in 2003 and 2010. We included all of the 27 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union regulations as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. Trends in prevalence and degree of exposure were examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results: The number of employees exposed to CMR agents decreased by 17.5% between 2003 and 2010. The only CMR entities for which exposure rates increased are not considered to be proven CMRs according to the European Union regulations. With the exception of apprentices, there was an overall decrease in exposure prevalence for all employees. This decrease occurred, however, to different extents. The decrease in the risk of exposure to CMR agents was much greater for those on permanent contracts, managers, and in enterprises with more than 500 employees. Nonetheless, in situations where there was potential for exposure, companies with fewer than 10 employees were in fact able to decrease the degree of risk more than the others. Conclusions: Our results confirm the relevance of reinforcing regulatory restrictions for CMR products, while also indicating that monitoring of trends in disparities will allow public health policy makers to better evaluate progress made toward reducing disparities that affect vulnerable populations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx036
  • Interventions to improve immigrant health. A scoping review
    • Authors: Diaz E; Ortiz-Barreda G, Ben-Shlomo Y, et al.
      First page: 433
      Abstract: Background: Disparities in health between immigrants and their host populations have been described across countries and continents. Hence, interventions for improving health targeting general populations are not necessarily effective for immigrants. Aims: To conduct a systematic search of the literature evaluating health interventions for immigrants; to map the characteristics of identified studies including range of interventions, immigrant populations and their host countries, clinical areas targeted and reported evaluations, challenges and limitations of the interventions identified. Following the results, to develop recommendations for research in the field. Methods: A scoping review approach was chosen to provide an overview of the type, extent and quantity of research available. Studies were included if they empirically evaluated health interventions targeting immigrants and/or their descendants, included a control group, and were published in English (PubMed and Embase from 1990 to 2015). Results: Most of the 83 studies included were conducted in the USA, encompassed few immigrant groups and used a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or cluster RCT design. Most interventions addressed chronic and non-communicable diseases and attendance at cancer screening services, used individual targeted approaches, targeted adult women and recruited participants from health centres. Outcome measures were often subjective, with the exception of interventions for cardiovascular risk and diabetes. Generally, authors claimed that interventions were beneficial, despite a number of reported limitations. Conclusions: Recommendations for enhancing interventions to improve immigrant health are provided to help researchers, funders and health care commissioners when deciding upon the scope, nature and design of future research in this area.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx001
  • Assessing trauma and mental health in refugee children and youth: a
           systematic review of validated screening and measurement tools
    • Authors: Gadeberg AK; Montgomery EE, Frederiksen HW, et al.
      First page: 439
      Abstract: Background: It is estimated that children below 18 years constitute 50% of the refugee population worldwide, which is the highest figure in a decade. Due to conflicts like the Syrian crises, children are continuously exposed to traumatic events. Trauma exposure can cause mental health problems that may in turn increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Tools such as questionnaires and interview guides are being used extensively, despite the fact that only a few have been tested and their validity confirmed in refugee children and youth. Aims: Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the validated screening and measurement tools available for assessment of trauma and mental health among refugee children and youth. Methods: We systematically searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and PILOTS. The search yielded 913 articles and 97 were retained for further investigation. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines two authors performed the eligibility assessment. The full text of 23 articles was assessed and 9 met the eligibility criteria. Results: Only nine studies had validated trauma and mental health tools in refugee children and youth populations. A serious lack of validated tools for refugee children below the age of 6 was identified. Conclusions: There is a lack of validated trauma and mental health tools, especially for refugees below the age of 6. Detection and treatment of mental health issues among refugee children and youth should be a priority both within the scientific community and in practice in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx034
  • Access to healthcare for undocumented migrants: analysis of avoidable
           hospital admissions in Sicily from 2003 to 2013
    • Authors: Mipatrini D; Addario S, Bertollini R, et al.
      First page: 459
      Abstract: Background: Access to healthcare services for undocumented migrants is one of the main public health issues currently being debated among European countries. Exclusion from primary healthcare services may lead to serious consequences for migrants’ health. We analyzed the risk among undocumented migrants, in comparison with regular migrants, of being hospitalized for preventable conditions in the Region of Sicily (Italy). Methods: We performed a hospital-based cross-sectional study of the foreign population hospitalized in the Sicily region between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2013. The first outcome was the proportion of avoidable hospitalization (AHs) among regular and irregular migrants. Second outcomes were the subcategories of AHs for chronic, acute and vaccine preventable diseases. Results: 85 309 hospital admissions were analyzed. In the hospitalized population, in comparison to regular migrants, undocumented migrants show a higher proportion of hospitalization for diseases preventable through primary and preventive care (AOR1·48, 95%CI 1·37–1·59). The proportion of avoidable hospitalizations associated with the lack of legal status is higher for vaccine preventable conditions (AOR 2·06, 95%CI 1·66–2·56) than for chronic conditions (AOR 1·47, 95%CI 1·42–1·63) and acute conditions (AOR 1·37; 95%CI 1·23–1·53). Between 2003 and 2013, the proportion of avoidable hospitalizations decreased both in regular and undocumented migrants but decreased faster for regular than for undocumented migrants. Conclusions: Undocumented migrants experience higher proportion of hospitalization for preventable conditions in comparison with regular migrants probably due to a lack of access to the national healthcare service. Policies and strategies to involve them in primary healthcare and preventive services should be developed to tackle this inequality.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx039
  • Examination of the double burden hypothesis—a systematic review of
           work–family conflict and sickness absence
    • Authors: Nilsen W; Skipstein A, Østby KA, et al.
      First page: 465
      Abstract: Background: Women consistently have higher sickness absence than men. The double-burden hypothesis suggests this is due to higher work–family burden in women than men. The current study aimed to systematically review prospective studies of work–family conflict and subsequent sickness absence. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase with subject heading terms and keywords with no language or time restrictions. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and read full-texts with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Eight included studies (n = 40 856 respondents) measure perceived work–family conflict and subsequent sickness absence. We found moderate evidence for a positive relationship between work–family conflict and subsequent sickness absence, and that women experience higher levels of work–family conflict than men. Conclusion: Work–family conflict is associated with later sickness absence, and work–family conflict is more common for women than for men. This indicates that work–family conflict may contribute to the gender gap in sick leave. However, further studies are needed to confirm whether this relationship is causal.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx054
  • Pre-pregnancy mental distress and musculoskeletal pain and sickness
           absence during pregnancy – a twin cohort study
    • Authors: Seglem KB; Ørstavik R, Torvik FA, et al.
      First page: 477
      Abstract: Background: Sickness absence (SA) among pregnant women is high. The aim of this study was to examine whether factors known to predict SA in general also predict SA during pregnancy by estimating the association between prior mental distress and musculoskeletal pain and SA during pregnancy, and to assess the influence of familial (genetic and shared environmental) factors. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, data from 2076 female twins born 1967–79 who participated in a questionnaire study in 1998 were linked to register data on SA and childbirth during the years 1998–2008. Baseline measures included mental distress (symptoms of anxiety and depression; SCL-5) and musculoskeletal pain (lumbar spine, neck/shoulder and/or persisting muscular pain). SA was measured as a ratio of days on SA divided by potential working days. Negative binomial regression was performed for individual and within-pair effects. Results: Musculoskeletal pain, but not mental distress, was prospectively associated with overall SA during pregnancy in the adjusted individual-level analyses. With each standard deviation increase in musculoskeletal pain, SA granted for any disorder increased with 12% (IRR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07–1.17) and SA granted for pregnancy related disorders increased with 9% (IRR 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02–1.17). Within-pair estimates were similar, suggesting little or no familial confounding. Conclusions: Women with previous musculoskeletal pain are at increased risk of SA during pregnancy, whereas no increased risk in women with previous symptoms of mental distress could be demonstrated. SA during pregnancy seems partly to be associated with different factors than SA in general.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw267
  • Daily alcohol consumption and sickness absence in the GAZEL cohort
    • Authors: Morois S; Airagnes G, Lemogne C, et al.
      First page: 482
      Abstract: Background: Previous studies that examined the association between daily alcohol consumption and sickness absences (SA) were mostly retrospective and did not take into account the characteristics of SA. Methods: A total of 9907 daily drinkers (8442 men and 1465 women) of the GAZEL prospective cohort were included. Daily alcohol consumption over the three previous years was self-reported at baseline and categorized as low, moderate, high or very high risk according to the World Health Organization. Duration of SA (short: ≤7 days; moderate: 8–28; long: >28) was collected from administrative records as well as causes for long SA. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate Risk Ratios of SA according to alcohol consumption with low-risk category as reference. Results: Duration of follow-up (in years) for SA was 8.4 ± 3.7 in men and 11.2 ± 5.4 in women. Increasing alcohol consumption predicted increasing risk of SA with a dose–response relationship (P < 0.01 for men; P = 0.01 for women). In men, strength of this association increased with SA duration [e.g. RRs from 1.41 (95% CI: 1.12–1.79) to 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49–3.00) in the very high-risk category, for short and long SA, respectively]. In men, even a moderate consumption predicted increased risk of SA whatever their duration (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.07–1.23). In women, a moderate consumption predicted only long SA (RR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.00–1.50). Daily alcohol consumption was associated with almost all causes of long SA in men, and with respiratory diseases, digestive diseases and injury in women. Conclusions: We found a dose–response relationship between daily alcohol consumption and the risk of SA. Even moderate consumption could increase this risk, particularly in men.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx012
  • Multi-sectoral action for child safety–a European study exploring
           implicated sectors
    • Authors: Scholtes B; Schröder-Bäck P, Förster K, et al.
      First page: 512
      Abstract: Background: Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). Methods: We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. Results: We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as ‘core sectors’ (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). Conclusions: This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx010
  • Associations of unhappiness with sociodemographic factors and unhealthy
           behaviours in Chinese adolescents
    • Authors: Chen J; Ho S, Leung L, et al.
      First page: 518
      Abstract: Background: Evidence on the effects of lack of physical exercise, alcohol drinking and smoking on happiness is limited and inconsistent. We examined the associations of unhappiness with sociodemographic factors and these unhealthy behaviours in Chinese adolescents. Methods: In a school-based survey in 2012–13 in Hong Kong, 45 857 secondary school students (mean age 14.8 years, 54.0% boys) reported their happiness level (not happy at all/not very happy/happy/very happy), frequency of physical exercise, alcohol drinking status, smoking status and sociodemographic factors. A main and a sensitivity analysis examined the associations of unhappiness with the study factors, treating unhappiness as a binary (combining ‘not happy at all’ and ‘not very happy’) and a four-level ordered variable, respectively. Results: The main and the sensitivity analysis both showed that unhappiness was associated with older age, very poor families, non-intact families, more co-residing smokers, lack of physical exercise and alcohol drinking; current smokers were unhappier than never and ex-smokers; unhappiness also increased significantly with the number of unhealthy behaviours (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions: In Chinese adolescents, unhappiness levels were higher in those who had a very poor family, a non-intact family and more co-residing smokers, and in those who were physically inactive, drank alcohol and smoked.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx015
  • Increase in vaccination coverage between subsequent generations of
           orthodox Protestants in The Netherlands
    • Authors: Spaan D; Ruijs WM, Hautvast JA, et al.
      First page: 524
      Abstract: Background: The Netherlands experienced several outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases, largely confined to an orthodox Protestant minority group. Based on religious arguments some orthodox Protestants accept vaccination, while others refuse. Their acceptance of vaccination, however, seems to be changing over time. We estimated vaccination coverage in subsequent generations of orthodox Protestants and identified determinants of the intention to vaccinate their (future) children. Methods: In 2013 orthodox Protestants in the age of 18–40 years were invited to fill out an online questionnaire on their own vaccination status, vaccination status of their parents, the vaccination status or vaccination intention for their (future) children, and possible determinants of the intention to vaccinate (future) children. Vaccination coverage of respondents’ parents and respondents was compared using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to identify determinants associated with vaccination of (future) children. Results: In total, 981 orthodox Protestant respondents were included in the study. Vaccination coverage among the parents of respondents was 40.1% (95% CI 37.8–42.5%), among respondents 55.3% (95% CI 52.2–58.4%). This means an increase of 15.2% in one generation (P < 0.001). About 65% of respondents vaccinated or intends to vaccinate their (future) children. Multivariate logistic regression showed that strongest predictors for vaccinating (future) children were low or moderate level of religious conservatism (OR 10.4 [95% CI 5.7–18.9] and 4.6 [95% CI 2.9–7.4], respectively), being vaccinated themselves (OR 6.0 [95% CI 4.3–8.5]) and high educational level (OR 2.5 [95% CI 1.6–4.0]). Conclusion: Vaccination coverage among Dutch orthodox Protestants is increasing over time.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw248
  • Global seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant and childbearing age
           women: a meta-analysis
    • Authors: Pandolfi EE; Gesualdo FF, Rizzo CC, et al.
      First page: 530
      Abstract: Background: We conducted a meta-analysis of articles published between January 2000 and July 2016 with the aim of defining the proportion of rubella seronegative women of childbearing age (WCBA), providing the best information available on the seroprevalence of rubella in this population. Methods: We selected articles published in the time period between 2000 and 2016. The pooled prevalence of rubella seronegative women was calculated by a fixed effect model and a random effect model, according to the heterogeneity among studies. Studies were sub-grouped by population type (pregnant women and WCBA with no mention of ongoing pregnancy) and by geographic area [World Health Organization (WHO) region]. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the stability of results. Results: We found important differences in rubella seronegativity prevalence estimates by WHO Region. About 88% of the studies conducted on pregnant women reported a seronegativity rate >5%. The pooled rubella seronegativity prevalence was 9.3%. When considering population groups, we obtained a seronegativity pooled estimate of 9.4% for pregnant women and of 9.5% for WCBA with no mention of ongoing pregnancy. Conclusions: This meta-analysis shows that the proportion of WCBA who are susceptible to rubella is still high. The figures are worrisome, taking into account that the WHO set at 5% the rubella susceptibility threshold for WCBA.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw259
  • The cost of Lyme borreliosis
    • Authors: van den Wijngaard CC; Hofhuis A, Wong A, et al.
      First page: 538
      Abstract: Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequently reported tick-borne infection in Europe and North America. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-of-illness of LB in the Netherlands. Methods: We used available incidence estimates from 2010 for tick bite consultations and three symptomatic LB outcomes: erythema migrans (EM), disseminated LB and Lyme-related persisting symptoms. The cost was estimated using these incidences and the average cost per patient as derived from a patient questionnaire. We estimated the cost from a societal perspective, including healthcare cost, patient cost and production loss, using the friction cost method and a 4% annual discount rate. Results: Tick bites and LB in 2010 led to a societal cost of €19.3 million (95% CI 15.6–23.4; 16.6 million population) for the Netherlands. Healthcare cost and production loss each constituted 48% of the total cost (€9.3 and €9.2 million/year), and patient cost 4% (€0.8 million/year). Of the total cost, 37% was related to disseminated LB, followed by 27% for persisting symptoms, 22% for tick bites and 14% for EM. Per outcome, for an individual case the mean cost of disseminated LB and Lyme-related persisting symptoms was both around €5700; for EM and GP consultations for tick bites this was €122 and €53. As an alternative to the friction cost method, the human capital method resulted in a total cost of €23.5 million/year. Conclusion: LB leads to a substantial societal cost. Further research should therefore focus on additional preventive interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw269
  • Association between the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and nutrient and energy
           densities of German households’ food purchases
    • Authors: Peltner J; Thiele S.
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Background: The USDA Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is used widely to measure diet quality because it allows a number of different applications. Although several evaluations of the HEI-2010 have already been carried out, there is lack of those which focus on associations between the HEI and nutrient intakes. This study updates and expands upon previous findings on these associations. Methods: Using German consumption data, where ∼12 million purchases from 13 131 households are recorded, HEI-2010 total and individual scores, as well as several energy and nutrient densities were calculated. Correlations between the HEI and individual energy and nutrient densities were carried out to identify which nutrients are more or less well represented by the HEI. Results: The HEI had the highest correlations with energy density and the densities of water-soluble vitamins (e.g. folic acid) and minerals (e.g. calcium). Weaker associations were identified for the densities of fat-soluble vitamins (e.g. vitamin D) as well as of the vitamins B1 and B12. Negligible correlations were detected for the densities of trace elements (e.g. fluoride and iodine), salt and fat composition. Conclusions: Given that energy intake and the intake of plant-based foods are relevant dietary issues, the HEI-2010 can be defined as a meaningful index to describe diet quality. However, because the intakes of salt, trace elements (e.g. fluoride and iodine) and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as the fat composition may be less reflected, they should be analyzed separately when using the HEI for measuring diet quality.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw247
  • Developing a food basket for fulfilling physical and non-physical needs in
           Cyprus. Is it affordable?
    • Authors: Chrysostomou S; Andreou SN, Polycarpou A.
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Background: An acceptable and affordable food basket (FB) is necessary to meet not only physical (healthy) needs but also the non-physical needs of individuals and communities. Methods: FBs were developed based on the Cypriot national food-based dietary guidelines for six types of household: single woman (±40 years), single man (±40 years), a couple (±40 years) without children, single woman (±40 years) with two children (10-year-old boy and 14-year-old girl), single man (±40 years) with two children and a couple (±40 years) with two children. Non-physical needs (kitchen equipment, physical activity and other related functions of food) were added to the baskets. The cost, acceptability and feasibility of FB were examined through the focus group discussions. Affordability was defined as the cost of the each basket as a percentage of household income (Guaranteed Minimum Income [GMI]). Results: The budget for healthy food has the highest proportion in the total food budget (83–89%) compared with the other components. The part of the budget required for other functions of food is small compared with that of healthy food and ranged between 4.7 and 6.7% of the total monthly budget. For low-income families, the proportion of income that needs to be spent on the FB for physical needs and FB for physical and non-physical needs ranged from around 39 to 72% and 47 to 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The FB fulfilling physical and non-physical needs is not affordable among the low-income families (mainly with children) receiving the GMI scheme in Cyprus.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx009
  • Malnutrition and birth related determinants among children in Qazvin, Iran
    • Authors: Jahanihashemi H; Noroozi M, Zavoshy R, et al.
      First page: 559
      Abstract: Background: Little is known about the effect of birth weight, birth order and number of siblings on the nutritional status in children in Iran, especially in Qazvin province. The aim of this study was to provide the current data on malnutrition and birth related determinants among children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in six cities of Qazvin province (Iran), during December 2009–December 2010. Data on age, weight and height were taken and birth weight, number of children in family, birth order, parental career and educational state and family caretaker were collected by a questionnaire that a trained team filled in. Sample size was1351, almost 225 children under 6-years-old from each city participated in the study (692 boys and 659 girls). In each city, subjects were randomly selected among children who had profiles at health centers. Results: The overall prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight was 10.3%, 5.8% and 4.8% respectively. There was association between ‘birth weight’ and wasting (P = 0.022), stunting (P = 0.032) and underweight (P < 0.001). A non-significant association was obtained between factors ‘number of children at home’ and ‘birth order’ with wasting, stunting and underweight. Conclusion: These data suggest that birth weight can influence malnutrition indicators; therefore, knowing risk factors of malnutrition in population subgroups is important for planners in country because it helps the future studies concentrate on the most determining ones.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx043
  • Increase in vaccination coverage between subsequent generations of
           orthodox Protestants in The Netherlands
    • Authors: Spaan D; Ruijs WM, Hautvast JA, et al.
      First page: 582
      Abstract: In Table 2 of this article (
      DOI :, published on 23 January 2017, the following numbers in the second column need to be corrected:
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
  • Nutrition modification aimed at enhancing dietary iron and folic acid
           intake: an application of health belief model in practice
    • Authors: Araban M; Baharzadeh K, Karimy M.
      First page: 582
      Abstract: The author affiliation for Marzieh Araban in this article (
      DOI :, published on 5 January 2017, is incorrectly displayed as ‘Research Center, Health Education and Health Promotion Department, Public Health School, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran’. It should be ‘Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Education and Health Promotion Department, Public Health School, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran’. The publisher apologizes for this error.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
  • 9th European Public Health Conference All for Health, Health for All
           Vienna, Austria 9–12 November 2016
    • First page: 582
      Abstract: Volume 26, Issue suppl_1
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx007
  • European Public Health News
    • Authors: Zeegers Paget D.
      First page: 583
      Abstract: This European public health news celebrates the successes of collaboration in public health in Europe. Andriukaitis celebrates 60 years of treaty of Rome, reaffirming the early involvement in public health issues and the need for more action in the area of public health at international level. Jakab also highlights the strengthening of activities in the field of public health: a new coalition of champion member states, sponsors and leaders of the international public health community has been formed and is further developing to support member states.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx050
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