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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 590, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover European Journal of Public Health
  [SJR: 1.284]   [H-I: 64]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1101-1262 - ISSN (Online) 1464-360X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Challenges for prevention research
    • Authors: Alla F.
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Most of the burden of disease is linked to factors accessible to prevention.1 On this subject, in many European countries, there is a contrast between the quality of health systems and the weakness of prevention policies. For example, the WHO European Region has the highest rates of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking in the world.2 It is thus satisfactory to observe that a political awareness of this issue is emerging in Europe. In France, for example, the new President and the Minister of Health have announced prevention as a priority of the new health policy.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx117
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2018)
  • Moving towards compulsory vaccination: the Italian experience
    • Authors: Ricciardi W; Boccia S, Siliquini R.
      Pages: 2 - 3
      Abstract: Vaccine hesitancy is a phenomenon that has increased widely in the last few years, in the Europe and in the USA, giving its consequences on vaccine coverage rates. The decrease in those rates caused an enormous spread of preventable infections that were quite rare in the past years, or, at least, presented mild consequences. Since immunization is an issue of coverage rates, the European Council prompted the National Health Authorities to face the challenge of reaching the target of 95% of the population, set by European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), through the implementation of effective vaccination policies.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx214
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2018)
  • Gypsy, Roma and Traveller access to and engagement with health services: a
           systematic review
    • Authors: McFadden A; Siebelt L, Gavine A, et al.
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: BackgroundGypsy, Roma and Traveller people represent the most disadvantaged minority groups in Europe, having the poorest health outcomes. This systematic review addressed the question of how Gypsy, Roma and Traveller people access healthcare and what are the best ways to enhance their engagement with health services.MethodsSearches were conducted in 21 electronic databases complemented by a focussed Google search. Studies were included if they had sufficient focus on Gypsy, Roma or Traveller populations; reported data pertinent to healthcare service use or engagement and were published in English from 2000 to 2015. Study findings were analyzed thematically and a narrative synthesis reported.ResultsNinety-nine studies from 32 countries were included, covering a range of health services. Nearly one-half of the presented findings related to primary healthcare services. Reported barriers to health service usage related to organisation of health systems, discrimination, culture and language, health literacy, service-user attributes and economic barriers. Promising engagement strategies included specialist roles, outreach services, dedicated services, raising health awareness, handheld records, training for staff and collaborative working.ConclusionThis review provides evidence that Gypsy, Roma and Traveller populations across Europe struggle to exercise their right to healthcare on account of multiple barriers; and related to other determinants of disadvantage such as low literacy levels and experiences of discrimination. Some promising strategies to overcome barriers were reported but the evidence is weak; therefore, rigorous evaluations of interventions to improve access to and engagement with health services for Gypsy, Roma and Traveller people are needed.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx226
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2018)
  • European Public Health News
    • Authors: Zeegers Paget D.
      Pages: 199 - 202
      Abstract: In this first European public health news in 2018, Azzopardi Muscat is reflecting on the different opportunities in 2018, including the 10 th anniversary of the Charter on health systems for health and wealth (Tallinn Charter) and the 40 th anniversary of the Alma Ata Declaration on primary health care. Jakab calls for actions today to achieve sustainable development for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Europe.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx218
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2018)
  • Thank you
    • Authors: Allebeck P; Delnoij D, Leyland A, et al.
      Pages: 203 - 205
      Abstract: A scientific journal exists only because of the good will and assistance of its reviewers. We can only publish approximately a fifth of the papers we receive and, in order to publish really high-quality papers, we depend on the expertise of many people. During 2017 a total of 527 reviewers have helped us to decide about the papers that we should publish. Their names are listed below and we would like to take this opportunity to thank them. The list refers to reviewers completing their task until 1 of December 2017.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx229
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2018)
  • Shifting determinants of health inequalities in unstable times: Portugal
           as a case study
    • Authors: Campos-Matos I; Russo G, Gonçalves L.
      Pages: 4 - 9
      Abstract: BackgroundWe explore how health inequalities (HI) changed in Portugal over the last decade, considering it is one of the most unequal European countries and has gone through major economic changes. We describe how inequalities in limitations changed considering different socioeconomic determinants, in order to understand what drove changes in HI.MethodsWe used cross-sectional waves from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions database to determine how inequalities in health limitations changed between 2004 and 2014 in Portugal in residents aged 16 years and over. We calculated prevalence estimates of limitations and differences between income terciles, the concentration index for each year and its decomposition and multiple logistic regressions to estimate the association between socioeconomic determinants and limitations.ResultsThe prevalence of health limitations increased in Portugal since 2004, especially after 2010, from 35 to 47%. But the difference between top and bottom income terciles decreased from 23 to 10 percentage points, as richer people experienced a steeper increase. This was driven by an increase in prevalence among economically active people, who, from 2011 onwards, had more limitations (OR and 95% CI were 2.42 [2.13–2.75] in 2004 and 0.71 [0.65–0.78] in 2014).ConclusionThese results suggest worsening health in Portugal in the last decade, possibly connected to periods of economic instability. However, absolute HI decreased considerably in the same period. We discuss the possible role of diverse adaptation capacity of socioeconomic groups, and of high emigration rates of young, healthier people, reflecting another side of the ‘migrant health effect’.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx080
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effects of a counselling intervention to improve contraception in deprived
           neighbourhoods: a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Díez E; López M, Marí-Dell’Olmo M, et al.
      Pages: 10 - 15
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study aims to evaluate the effects of a community-based counselling intervention to improve contraception use among immigrant and native residents in deprived neighbourhoods.MethodsRandomized controlled trial. Women aged 14–49 years and men aged 14–39 years from two low-income neighbourhoods with high proportion of immigration in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who had not undergone irreversible contraception and were not planning a pregnancy were recruited (2011–13). A culturally developed and theoretically based brief counselling intervention was delivered in community settings. The primary outcome was the consistent use of effective contraceptive methods (optimal use). Secondary outcomes were the incorrect use of effective methods and the use of less effective methods stratified by sex and migrant status. Differences within subgroups from baseline to the 3-month follow-up were analysed by intention to treat and per protocol. The effects were assessed with adjusted robust Poisson regressions.ResultsThe study enrolled and randomized 746 eligible participants. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in demographic characteristics. Optimal use significantly increased in men, women, immigrants and natives in the intervention group, with no changes in the control group. In the intervention group, inconsistent use of effective methods decreased by 54.9% and that of less effective methods by 47.2%. The overall adjusted prevalence ratio of optimal use in the intervention group versus the control group was 1.138 (95% CI: 1.010–1.284).ConclusionThis brief counselling intervention increased the consistent use of effective contraception in low-income neighbourhoods with a high proportion of immigration.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx046
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Loneliness and objectively measured physical capability in middle-aged
    • Authors: Lund R; Laban J, Petersen G, et al.
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: BackgroundLoneliness is associated with poor functional ability in older people. Little is known about this association in the middle-aged. The aim is to investigate if perceived loneliness is associated with lower physical capability among middle-aged men and women and if the associations of loneliness with physical capability interact with socioeconomic position and cohabitation status.Methods5224 participants from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) aged 49–62 years (mean age 54) were included. Handgrip strength (measured by a dynamometer) and maximal number of chair rises in 30 s was recorded. Multivariate linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, occupational social class, cohabitation status, morbidity and personality traits.ResultsNo association was found between loneliness and physical capability. For example estimates for handgrip strength in ‘often’ lonely men and women compared with the ‘not lonely’ were 1.2 kg (95% CI − 0.5;2.9)/1.0 kg (−0.7;2.6). Low occupational social class was associated with poorer physical capability, and living alone was associated with poorer handgrip strength in men [−2.4 kg (95% CI − 3.2;−1.5)] and poorer chair rise test in women [−0.8 rises (95% CI − 1.6;−0.1)]. There was no support for interactions.ConclusionIn contrast to earlier studies among older people, no association between loneliness and physical capability was found in this cohort of middle-aged men and women. Loneliness may not yet have resulted in detectable differences in physical capability in this age group. Further research is needed to clarify if, and at what point in the life course loneliness begins to affect physical capability.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx069
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Resident participation in neighbourhood audit tools — a scoping
    • Authors: Hofland A; Devilee J, van Kempen E, et al.
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: BackgroundHealthy urban environments require careful planning and a testing of environmental quality that goes beyond statutory requirements. Moreover, it requires the inclusion of resident views, perceptions and experiences that help deepen the understanding of local (public health) problems. To facilitate this, neighbourhoods should be mapped in a way that is relevant to them. One way to do this is participative neighbourhood auditing. This paper provides an insight into availability and characteristics of participatory neighbourhood audit instruments.MethodsA scoping review in scientific and grey literature, consisting of the following steps: literature search, identification and selection of relevant audit instruments, data extraction and data charting (including a work meeting to discuss outputs), reporting.ResultsIn total, 13 participatory instruments were identified. The role of residents in most instruments was as ‘data collectors’; only few instruments included residents in other audit activities like problem definition or analysis of data. The instruments identified focus mainly on physical, not social, neighbourhood characteristics. Paper forms containing closed-ended questions or scales were the most often applied registration method.ConclusionsThe results show that neighbourhood auditing could be improved by including social aspects in the audit tools. They also show that the role of residents in neighbourhood auditing is limited; however, little is known about how their engagement takes place in practice. Developers of new instruments need to balance not only social and physical aspects, but also resident engagement and scientific robustness. Technologies like mobile applications pose new opportunities for participative approaches in neighbourhood auditing.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx075
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Ethnicity and place: the geography of diabetes inequalities under a strong
           welfare state
    • Authors: Nosrati E; Jenum A, Tran A, et al.
      Pages: 30 - 34
      Abstract: BackgroundThe Nordic ‘health paradox’ designates the seemingly puzzling empirical reality in which, despite the presence of strong welfare policies targeting structural inequalities, distinct health disparities persist in Scandinavian societies. In Norway, previous research has shown that inequalities in diabetes prevalence are particularly salient, notably between ethnic groups. These have often been attributed to lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, or genetics. No previous research has sought to investigate the sociospatial mediation of diabetes inequities.MethodsIn this article, we examine the social geography of diabetes in Oslo to examine whether the link between ethnicity and diabetes is confounded by place. We use data from the 2002 Oslo Health Study (n = 17 325) to fit logistic regression models, assessing whether contextual factors, such as the concentration of fast food outlets, predict self-reported diabetes outcomes after controlling for relevant individual level covariates. We also test for spatial autocorrelation in the geographical distribution of diabetes.ResultsThe findings suggest that the organisation of urban space and the spatial distribution of health-related resources exert an independent effect on diabetes prevalence, controlling for ethnicity and other covariates. Living on the east side of Oslo increases the odds of suffering from diabetes by almost 60%, whilst living in a neighbourhood characterized by a relative concentration of fast food and relative absence of healthy food shops and physical exercise facilities increases the odds by 30%.ConclusionSpatial context and toxic environments contribute to diabetes inequalities in Oslo, Norway. Future research and policy-making should take the geography of health disparities into account.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx119
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies and programmes targeting
           adolescents: a systematic review
    • Authors: Leão T; Kunst A, Perelman J.
      Pages: 39 - 43
      Abstract: BackgroundConsistent evidence shows the importance of preventing smoking at young ages, when health behaviours are formed, with long-term consequences on health and survival. Although tobacco control policies and programmes targeting adolescents are widely promoted, the cost-effectiveness of such interventions has not been systematically documented. We performed a systematic review on the cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes preventing tobacco consumption targeting adolescents.MethodsWe systematically reviewed literature on the (i) cost and effectiveness of (ii) prevention policies targeting (iii) smoking by (iv) adolescents. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CEA-TUFTS, Health Economic Evaluations, Wiley Online Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Database, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and Google Scholar databases were used, and Google search engine was used for other grey literature review.ResultsWe obtained 793 full-text papers and 19 grey literature documents, from which 16 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, only one was published in the last 5 years, and 15 were performed in high-income countries. Eight analyzed the cost-effectiveness of school-based programmes, five focused on media campaigns and three on legal bans. Policies and programmes were found to be cost-effective in all studies, and both effective and cost-saving in about half of the studies.ConclusionsEvidence is scarce and relatively obsolete, and rarely focused on the evaluation of legal bans. Moreover, no comparisons have been made between different interventions or across different contexts and implementation levels. However, all studies conclude that smoking prevention policies and programmes amongst adolescents are greatly worth their costs.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx215
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Quality of and access to green space in relation to psychological
           distress: results from a population-based cross-sectional study as part of
           the EURO-URHIS 2 project
    • Authors: Pope D; Tisdall R, Middleton J, et al.
      Pages: 39 - 39
      Abstract: This is a correction notice for article ckv094 (
      DOI :, published on 15 July 2015. The authors regret to inform that Alexis Macherianakis was not credited as an author of this article. His name should have been listed after C. Birt and his affiliation should have been given as “Sandwell Primary Care Trust, Birmingham, UK.” The funding statement should also have read as follows: “This research project was co-funded by EU Commission, under the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) as part of the EUROURHIS 2 project (grant agreement no. 223711), Sandwell Primary Care Trust Public Health team and the project beneficiaries.” These errors have now been corrected online.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools:
           a mixed-method study
    • Authors: Rozema A; Mathijssen J, Jansen M, et al.
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools.MethodsA mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data.ResultsLevel of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment).ConclusionsInternationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become ‘normal’ practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx099
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Migrant women living with HIV in Europe: are they facing inequalities in
           the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV'The European
           Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in
    • Authors: Favarato G; Bailey H, Burns F, et al.
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: BackgroundIn pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care.MethodsFour cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002–12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions. We compared three suboptimal PMTCT interventions (HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy in women undiagnosed at conception, late anti-retroviral therapy (ART) start in women diagnosed but untreated at conception and detectable viral load (VL) at delivery in women on antenatal ART) in native and migrant women using multivariable logistic regression models.ResultsData included 9421 (79.9%) migrant women, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); 4134 migrant women were diagnosed in the current pregnancy, often (48.6%) presenting with CD4 count <350 cells/µl. Being a migrant was associated with HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy [OR for SSA vs. native women, 2.12 (95% CI 1.67, 2.69)] but not with late ART start if diagnosed but not on ART at conception, or with detectable VL at delivery once on ART.ConclusionsMigrant women were more likely to be diagnosed in late pregnancy but once on ART virological response was good. Good access to antenatal care enables the implementation of PMTCT protocols and optimises both maternal and children health outcomes generally.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx048
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • International migrants’ use of emergency departments in Europe compared
           with non-migrants’ use: a systematic review
    • Authors: Credé S; Such E, Mason S.
      Pages: 61 - 73
      Abstract: BackgroundInternational migration across Europe is increasing. High rates of net migration may be expected to increase pressure on healthcare services, including emergency services. However, the extent to which immigration creates additional pressure on emergency departments (EDs) is widely debated. This review synthesizes the evidence relating to international migrants’ use of EDs in European Economic Area (EEA) countries as compared with that of non-migrants.MethodsMEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and The Web of Science were searched for the years 2000–16. Studies reporting on ED service utilization by international immigrants, as compared with non-migrants, were eligible for inclusion. Included studies were restricted to those conducted in EEA countries and English language publications only.ResultsTwenty-two articles (from six host countries) were included. Thirteen of 18 articles reported higher volume of ED service use by immigrants, or some immigrant sub-groups. Migrants were seen to be significantly more likely to present to the ED during unsocial hours and more likely than non-migrants to use the ED for low-acuity presentations. Differences in presenting conditions were seen in 4/7 articles; notably a higher rate of obstetric and gynaecology presentations among migrant women.ConclusionsThe principal finding of this review is that migrants utilize the ED more, and differently, to the native populations in EEA countries. The higher use of the ED for low-acuity presentations and the use of the ED during unsocial hours suggest that barriers to primary healthcare may be driving the higher use of these emergency services although further research is needed.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx057
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Primary care for refugees and newly arrived migrants in Europe: a
           qualitative study on health needs, barriers and wishes
    • Authors: van Loenen T; van den Muijsenbergh M, Hofmeester M, et al.
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: BackgroundIn order to provide effective primary care for refugees and to develop interventions tailored to them, we must know their needs. Little is known of the health needs and experiences of recently arrived refugees and other migrants throughout their journey through Europe. We aimed to gain insight into their health needs, barriers in access and wishes regarding primary health care.MethodsIn the spring of 2016, we conducted a qualitative, comparative case study in seven EU countries in a centre of first arrival, two transit centres, two intermediate-stay centres and two longer-stay centres using a Participatory Learning and Action research methodology. A total of 98 refugees and 25 healthcare workers participated in 43 sessions. Transcripts and sessions reports were coded and thematically analyzed by local researchers using the same format at all sites; data were synthesized and further analyzed by two other researchers independently.ResultsThe main health problems of the participants related to war and to their harsh journey like common infections and psychological distress. They encountered important barriers in accessing healthcare: time pressure, linguistic and cultural differences and lack of continuity of care. They wish for compassionate, culturally sensitive healthcare workers and for more information on procedures and health promotion.ConclusionHealth of refugees on the move in Europe is jeopardized by their bad living circumstances and barriers in access to healthcare. To address their needs, healthcare workers have to be trained in providing integrated, compassionate and cultural competent healthcare.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx210
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • The impact of greenspace and condition of the neighbourhood on child
    • Authors: Schalkwijk A; van der Zwaard B, Nijpels G, et al.
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: BackgroundChildhood overweight/obesity has been associated with environmental, parenting and socioeconomic status (SES) factors. This paper assesses the influence of the amount of green space, accessibility to a garden and neighbourhood condition on being overweight/obese. It investigates whether parental behaviours moderate or mediate this influence and evaluates the interaction of SES with environmental context.Methods6467 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study living in England were analysed. We estimated logistic regressions to examine the initial association between environment and overweight. Subsequently, parenting determinants comprising: food consumption, physical activity, rules and regularity were evaluated as moderators or mediators. Lastly SES related variables were tested as moderators or mediators of the associations.ResultsStatistically significant associations were found between low levels of green space, no access to a garden, run down area and childhood overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] respectively: 1.14 (1.02–1.27), 1.35 (1.16–1.58), 1.22 (1.05–1.42)]. None of the parental constructs mediated or moderated the relationships between environment and childhood overweight/obesity. Including SES, parental education moderated the effect of environmental context. Specifically, among lower educated households lack of garden access and less green space was associated with overweight/obesity; and among higher educated households poor neighbourhood condition influenced the probability of overweight/obesity respectively: 1.38 (1.12–1.70) OR 1.38, 95% CI (1.21–1.70).ConclusionsThis study suggests that limits on access to outdoor space are associated with future childhood overweight/obesity although the ways in which this occurs are moderated by parental education level.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx037
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Community-level football injury epidemiology: traumatic injuries treated
           at Swedish emergency medical facilities
    • Authors: Timpka T; Schyllander J, Stark Ekman D, et al.
      Pages: 94 - 99
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite the popularity of the sport, few studies have investigated community-level football injury patterns. This study examines football injuries treated at emergency medical facilities using data from three Swedish counties.MethodsAn open-cohort design was used based on residents aged 0–59 years in three Swedish counties (pop. 645 520). Data were collected from emergency medical facilities in the study counties between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2010. Injury frequencies and proportions for age groups stratified by sex were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and displayed per diagnostic group and body location.ResultsEach year, more than 1/200 person aged 0–59 years sustained at least one injury during football play that required emergency medical care. The highest injury incidence was observed among adolescent boys [2009 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1914–2108)] and adolescent girls [1413 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1333–1498)]. For female adolescents and adults, knee joint/ligament injury was the outstanding injury type (20% in ages 13–17 years and 34% in ages 18–29 years). For children aged 7–12 years, more than half of the treated injuries involved the upper extremity; fractures constituted about one-third of these injuries.ConclusionsOne of every 200 residents aged 0–59 years in typical Swedish counties each year sustained a traumatic football injury that required treatment in emergency healthcare. Further research on community-level patterns of overuse syndromes sustained by participation in football play is warranted.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx053
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Exploring the interrelationship between sport, health and social outcomes
           in the UK: implications for health policy
    • Authors: Downward P; Hallmann K, Rasciute S.
      Pages: 99 - 104
      Abstract: BackgroundPolicy agencies are now re-visiting early aspirations that sport, as a form of physical activity, can be an instrument to foster general health and also subjective well-being (SWB). Both of these concepts capture physical and mental health states. SWB also encompasses broader psychological and life satisfaction as well as mood and affect. Past and current policies also identify a link between sport, social capital and SWB.MethodsStructural Equation Modelling (SEM) is undertaken on data from the UK’s Taking Part survey to investigate the interrelationships between sport, general health, social capital and SWB.ResultsThe SEM shows a simultaneous relationship between sport and SWB. The effect is mediated through general health. The results also show that there is no relationship between social capital and sport but a clear relationship between SWB and social capital.ConclusionsFrom a health policy perspective there should be an emphasis on encouraging greater sport participation, despite the difficulties that this poses, because there is a potential ‘multiplier’ effect on SWB and on general health through mediation. The multiplier effect occurs because once someone engages in sport and has their general health and SWB enhanced, then even further sport participation becomes likely, and subsequent general health and SWB, which would comprise both physical and mental health benefits. To target traditional non participants the research suggests that physical activity should be promoted for enjoyment, with health benefits subsequently following.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx063
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Policy determinants of physical activity across the life course: a
           ‘DEDIPAC’ umbrella systematic literature review
    • Authors: Puggina A; Aleksovska K, Buck C, et al.
      Pages: 105 - 118
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite the large number of studies and reviews available, the evidence regarding the policy determinants of physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. This umbrella systematic literature review (SLR) summarizes the current evidence on the policy determinants of PA across the life course, by pooling the results of the available SLRs and meta-analyses (MAs).MethodsA systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases up to April 2016. SLRs and MAs of observational studies investigating the association between policy determinants of PA and having PA as outcome were considered eligible. The extracted data were assessed based on the importance of the determinants, the strength of evidence and the methodological quality.ResultsFourteen reviews on 27 policy determinants of PA were eligible for this umbrella SLR. The majority of the reviews were of moderate quality. Among children, a clear association between time spent outdoors and PA emerged. Among adults, working hours were negatively associated with PA, though evidence was limited. At the population level, community- and street-scale urban design and land use policies were found to positively support PA levels, but levels of evidences were low.ConclusionsWith this umbrella SLR the policy determinants of PA at individual-level and population-level have been summarized and assessed. None of the investigated policy determinants had a convincing level of evidence, and very few had a probable level of evidence. Further research is needed, preferably by using prospective study designs, standardized definitions of PA and objective measurement of PA.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx174
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Mumps clinical diagnostic uncertainty
    • Authors: Magurano F; Baggieri M, Marchi A, et al.
      Pages: 119 - 123
      Abstract: BackgroundDuring recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among populations vaccinated for mumps worldwide. In Italy, improving routine coverage with two doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the key strategies to eliminate measles and rubella. To monitor the effect of the vaccination programme on the population, the surveillance of these vaccine-preventable diseases has been implemented. This provided the opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of those diseases, including mumps. In fact, vaccinated children may develop a variety of diseases caused by a series of different viruses [Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), parainfluenza virus types 1–3, adenoviruses, herpes virus and parvovirus B19] whose symptoms (i.e. swelling of parotid glands) may mimic mumps. For this reason, laboratory diagnosis is essential to confirm clinical suspicion.MethodsThe accuracy of clinical diagnosis of mumps was evaluated by differential diagnosis on EBV in Italy, a country at low incidence of mumps. This retrospective study investigated whether the etiology of 131 suspected mumps cases with a negative molecular/serological result for mumps virus, obtained from 2007 to 2016, were due to EBV, in order to establish a diagnosis.ResultsDifferential diagnosis revealed a EBV positivity rate of 19.8% and all cases were caused by EBV type 1.ConclusionsThis study confirms the importance of a lab based differential diagnosis that can discriminate between different infectious diseases presenting with symptoms suggestive of mumps and, in particular, emphasize the importance to discriminate between mumps and EBV-related mononucleosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx067
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Disability weights for infectious diseases in four European countries:
           comparison between countries and across respondent characteristics
    • Authors: Maertens de Noordhout C; Devleesschauwer B, Salomon J, et al.
      Pages: 124 - 133
      Abstract: BackgroundIn 2015, new disability weights (DWs) for infectious diseases were constructed based on data from four European countries. In this paper, we evaluated if country, age, sex, disease experience status, income and educational levels have an impact on these DWs.MethodsWe analyzed paired comparison responses of the European DW study by participants’ characteristics with separate probit regression models. To evaluate the effect of participants’ characteristics, we performed correlation analyses between countries and within country by respondent characteristics and constructed seven probit regression models, including a null model and six models containing participants’ characteristics. We compared these seven models using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC).ResultsAccording to AIC, the probit model including country as covariate was the best model. We found a lower correlation of the probit coefficients between countries and income levels (range rs: 0.97–0.99, P < 0.01) than between age groups (range rs: 0.98–0.99, P < 0.01), educational level (range rs: 0.98–0.99, P < 0.01), sex (rs = 0.99, P < 0.01) and disease status (rs = 0.99, P < 0.01). Within country the lowest correlations of the probit coefficients were between low and high income level (range rs = 0.89–0.94, P < 0.01).ConclusionsWe observed variations in health valuation across countries and within country between income levels. These observations should be further explored in a systematic way, also in non-European countries. We recommend future researches studying the effect of other characteristics of respondents on health assessment.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx090
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Socioeconomic status and infectious intestinal disease in the community: a
           longitudinal study (IID2 study)
    • Authors: Adams N; Rose T, Hawker J, et al.
      Pages: 134 - 138
      Abstract: BackgroundInfectious intestinal diseases (IID) are common, affecting around 25% of people in UK each year at an estimated annual cost to the economy, individuals and the NHS of £1.5 billion. While there is evidence of higher IID hospital admissions in more disadvantaged groups, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of IID remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the relationship between SES and IID in a large community cohort.MethodsLongitudinal analysis of a prospective community cohort in the UK following 6836 participants of all ages was undertaken. Hazard ratios for IID by SES were estimated using Cox proportional hazard, adjusting for follow-up time and potential confounding factors.ResultsIn the fully adjusted analysis, hazard ratio of IID was significantly lower among routine/manual occupations compared with managerial/professional occupations (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61–0.90).ConclusionIn this large community cohort, lower SES was associated with lower IID risk. This may be partially explained by the low response rate which varied by SES. However, it may be related to differences in exposure or recognition of IID symptoms by SES. Higher hospital admissions associated with lower SES observed in some studies could relate to more severe consequences, rather than increased infection risk.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx091
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Perceptions of Zika virus risk in Germany in 2016
    • Authors: Obenauer J; Rübsamen N, Castell S, et al.
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: BackgroundRisks associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in the Americas have been discussed widely in the media as several European athletes declined to participate in the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Since risk perceptions of individuals in unaffected areas are unknown, we assessed the risk perceptions of ZIKV and related behaviour in Lower Saxony, Germany, with a specific focus on pregnant women and their partners.MethodsIn May 2016, we surveyed 1,037 participants aged 15-69 years of an online panel (addressing hygiene and preventive behaviour regarding infections) in Lower Saxony with respect to their risk perceptions related to ZIKV. We additionally included 26 expectant parents who were recruited at antenatal preparation courses in Braunschweig and Hannover between May and July 2016.ResultsSix hundred fifty-five (69.1%) of the panel participants had ever heard about ZIKV. About 8% of the study participants reported to be concerned about ZIKV. Pregnant women had the highest odds of reporting concern about ZIKV (OR: 6.24; 95% CI: 2.94–13.26, reference: non-pregnant women). The vast majority of participants (79%) would travel to the Olympics if they won a free trip; this proportion was lower in currently pregnant women (46%). Risk perceptions towards ZIKV were considerably lower than those towards Ebola during the 2014 epidemic.ConclusionThis study showed that fear of contracting ZIKV is not a major deterrent for travelling to high-risk areas. Pregnant women are appropriately concerned about the risk of ZIKV. Studies modelling the further spread of ZIKV need to account for these results.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx092
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • HIV-care access among people with incarceration experience in St.
           Petersburg, Russia
    • Authors: Ruiz M; Heimer R, Levina O, et al.
      Pages: 145 - 149
      Abstract: BackgroundLittle is known about the clinical care experiences of HIV-infected persons in St. Petersburg who have experience with incarceration. To address this question, we conducted a capture-recapture study to identify individuals who had been diagnosed with HIV infection while incarcerated and who subsequently presented for medical care in St. Petersburg, Russia following release from prison.MethodsWe matched 292 HIV-positive prisoners tested by the prison system in 2010 to the medical records at the St. Petersburg AIDS Center in the following 4 years.ResultsThe data analysis shows that as many as half of HIV+ prisoners fail to seek treatment in the community upon release. Of those who had sought care post-release, only 36% were receiving HAART. Of the 109 individuals for whom tuberculosis testing was indicated post-release, 36.7% were found to be reactive.ConclusionDespite the limitations of the data, this study is the first of its kind to review records documenting HIV care among prisoners in Russia post-incarceration. In addition to providing important descriptive information about this marginalized population, the findings from this study highlight areas where HIV control efforts could be improved in order to address the HIV epidemic in the Russian Federation.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx122
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Smoking may increase the risk of influenza hospitalization and reduce
           influenza vaccine effectiveness in the elderly
    • Authors: Godoy P; Castilla J, Soldevila N, et al.
      Pages: 150 - 155
      Abstract: BackgroundThrough its effects on the immune system, smoking may facilitate influenza virus infection, its severity and its most frequent complications. The objective was to investigate the smoking history as a risk factor for influenza hospitalization and influenza vaccine effectiveness in elderly smokers/ex-smokers and non-smokers.MethodsWe carried out a multicenter case–control study in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 influenza seasons. Cases aged ≥65 years and age-, sex-matched controls were selected from 20 Spanish hospitals. We collected epidemiological variables, comorbidities, vaccination history and the smoking history. The risk of hospitalization due to smoking (current smokers and ex-smokers) was determined using the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with conditional logistic regression models. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated using the formula: VE = (1 – aOR) × 100.ResultsWe studied 728 cases and 1826 controls. Cases had a higher frequency of smoking (47.4% vs 42.1%). Smoking was associated with an increased risk of influenza hospitalization (aOR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04–1.68). Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalization was 21% (95% CI: -2 to 39) in current/ex-smokers and 39% in non-smokers (95% CI: 22–52).ConclusionsA history of smoking may increase the risk of hospitalization in smokers and ex-smokers. Preventing smoking could reduce hospitalizations due to influenza. Smokers and ex-smokers should be informed of the risk of hospitalization due to influenza infection, and encouraged to stop smoking. Smokers should be considered an at-risk group to be aggressively targeted for routine influenza vaccination.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx130
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/evening preference on
           cardiovascular risk factors
    • Authors: Patterson F; Malone S, Grandner M, et al.
      Pages: 155 - 161
      Abstract: BackgroundSleep duration and morningness/eveningness (circadian preference) have separately been associated with cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. tobacco use, physical inactivity). Interactive effects are plausible, resulting from combinations of sleep homeostatic and circadian influences. These have not been examined in a population sample.MethodsMultivariable regression models were used to test the associations between combinations of sleep duration (short [≤6 h], adequate [7–8 h], long [≥9 h]) and morning/evening preference (morning, somewhat morning, somewhat evening, evening) with the cardiovascular risk factors of tobacco use, physical inactivity, high sedentary behaviour, obesity/overweight and eating fewer than 5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables, in a cross-sectional sample of 439 933 adults enrolled in the United Kingdom Biobank project.ResultsParticipants were 56% female, 95% white and mean age was 56.5 (SD = 8.1) years. Compared with adequate sleep with morning preference (referent group), long sleep with evening preference had a relative odds of 3.23 for tobacco use, a 2.02-fold relative odds of not meeting physical activity recommendations, a 2.19-fold relative odds of high screen-based sedentary behaviour, a 1.47-fold relative odds of being obese/overweight and a 1.62-fold relative odds of <5 fruit and vegetable daily servings. Adequate sleep with either morning or somewhat morning preference was associated with a lower prevalence and odds for all cardiovascular risk behaviours except fruit and vegetable intake.ConclusionsLong sleepers with evening preference may be a sleep phenotype at high cardiovascular risk. Further work is needed to examine these relationships longitudinally and to assess the effects of chronotherapeutic interventions on cardiovascular risk behaviours.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx029
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Dietary inflammatory index and acute myocardial infarction in a large
           Italian case–control study
    • Authors: Shivappa N; Tavani A, Hébert J, et al.
      Pages: 161 - 166
      Abstract: BackgroundDiet and inflammation have been implicated to play a role in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).MethodsIn this Italian case–control study conducted between 1995 and 2003, we explored the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DIITM) and AMI. Cases were 760 patients, below age 79 years, with a first episode of nonfatal AMI and controls were 682 patients admitted to hospital for acute conditions unrelated to diet. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a reproducible and validated 78-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated through logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco, body mass index, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and other recognized confounding factors.ResultsHigher DII scores (i.e., indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet) were associated with increased likelihood of AMI when expressed both as continuous (ORcontinuous=1.14, 95% confidence interval, CI:1.05, 1.24; one-unit increase in DII score corresponding to ≈9% of the range of DII) and as quartiles (ORQuartile4vs1= 1.60, 95%, CI 1.06, 2.41; P-trend = 0.02). Stratified analyses produced slightly stronger associations between DII and AMI among women, ≥60 years, never smokers, subjects with history of hypertension and subjects with no family history of AMI, however, in the absence of heterogeneity across strata.ConclusionA pro-inflammatory diet as indicated by higher DII scores is associated with increased likelihood of AMI.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx058
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Association between dietary inflammatory index, and cause-specific
           mortality in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study
    • Authors: Shivappa N; Schneider A, Hébert J, et al.
      Pages: 167 - 172
      Abstract: BackgroundChronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are well-established causes of disability and premature death. Dietary components have been implicated in the etiology of these chronic diseases.MethodsWe examined the ability of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DIITM) to predict all-cause, coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD and cancer mortality and incident CHD in the MONICA-KORA Cohort Studies. DII scores were computed from baseline 7-day dietary records in this cohort of 1297 men, who were aged 45–64 years when enrolled. During the follow-up period, 551 total (155 CHD, 244 CVD and 175 cancer-related deaths) and 213 validated incident CHD events were identified through mortality record linkage and active follow-up. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between DII scores and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the endpoints described above.ResultsDII scores were significantly positively correlated with CRP (P value <0.0001). Positive associations were noted between DII and all-cause mortality (HRQ4vsQ1: 1.41; 95%CI 1.04–1.90; P-trend = 0.007) and incident CHD (HRQ4vsQ1: 1.83; 95%CI 1.12–3.01; P-trend = 0.008). These associations were attenuated after further adjustment for smoking status, but remained significant for all-cause mortality. When stratified by smoking status, DII was associated with all-cause and cancer mortality among ex-smokers, in the absence of significant heterogeneity.ConclusionThese results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet as expressed by higher DII scores is associated with all-cause mortality. This association was more pronounced among ex-smokers in whom a significant association with cancer mortality was observed.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx060
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • The effect of cardiorespiratory fitness assessment in preventive health
           checks: a randomised controlled trial
    • Authors: Høj K; Vinther Skriver M, Terkildsen Maindal H, et al.
      Pages: 173 - 179
      Abstract: BackgroundPoor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases morbidity and mortality risks. Routine CRF assessment in clinical practice has thus been advocated, but little is known about the effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of CRF assessment on CRF in a preventive health check programme.MethodsWe used a randomised design, in which we invited 4153 middle-aged adults and included 2201 participants who received a preventive health check with CRF assessment (intervention) or without CRF assessment (control). After 1 year, participants were examined. The primary outcomes were adjusted absolute (l/min), relative (ml/kg/min), and poor (%) CRF assessed by the Astrand-Ryhming test. We adjusted for baseline physical activity and intra-cluster correlation within general practices.ResultsA total of 901 attended the 1-year follow-up. In the intervention group, absolute CRF, relative CRF, and poor CRF were 2.7 l/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6; 2.8), 34.5 ml/kg/min (95% CI: 33.5; 35.4), and 31.0% (95% CI: 26.8; 35.2). In the control group, the corresponding figures were 2.8 l/min (95% CI: 2.7; 2.9), 35.2 ml/kg/min (95% CI: 34.2; 36.1), and 25.9% (95% CI: 21.8; 30.0). Adjusted absolute CRF was lower in the intervention group (−0.1 l/min [95% CI: −0.2; −0.01]). Adjusted relative CRF (−0.7 ml/kg/min [95% CI: −2.0; 0.6]) and poor CRF (5.0% [95% CI: −0.002; 10.1]) did not differ between groups. No differences were found when adjusting for potential confounding factors.ConclusionPreventive health checks with CRF assessment did not provide higher CRF levels at 1-year follow-up than preventive health checks without CRF assessment.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx108
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Drinking water contamination from perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): an
           ecological mortality study in the Veneto Region, Italy
    • Authors: Mastrantonio M; Bai E, Uccelli R, et al.
      Pages: 180 - 185
      Abstract: BackgroundPerfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964.MethodsThe present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980–2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS). Sex-specific number, standardized mortality rates and rate ratios (RR) for PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated areas were computed for each cause of death through the ENEA epidemiological database.ResultsIn both sexes, statistically significant RRs were detected for all causes mortality, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease. In females, RRs significantly higher than 1.0 were also observed for kidney and breast cancer, and Parkinson’s disease. Increased risk, although not statistically significant, was observed for bladder cancer in both sexes, and for testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukemia in males only.ConclusionsHigher mortality levels for some causes of death, possibly associated with PFAS exposure, were detected in contaminated municipalities in comparison with uncontaminated ones with similar socioeconomic status and smoking habits. These results warrant further individual level analytic studies to delineate casual associations.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx066
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • The role of healthcare and education systems in co-occurrence of health
           risk behaviours in 27 European countries
    • Authors: Kino S; Bernabé E, Sabbah W.
      Pages: 186 - 192
      Abstract: BackgroundContextual factors play an important role in health and related behaviours. This study aims to examine the association of co-occurrence of five health-risk behaviours with healthcare and education contextual factors using nationally representative samples from 27 European countries.MethodsData were from Eurobarometer 72.3, 2009. The outcome was a count variable ranging from 0 to 5 indicating co-occurrence of five health-risk behaviours, namely smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, non-frequent fresh fruit consumption, physical inactivity and non-dental check-ups. Public expenditures on healthcare and education as a percentage of GDP and quality of healthcare and education at a country-level were used as contextual factors. A set of multilevel Poisson regression models were conducted to examine the associations between co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours and each of the contextual factors considering age, gender, marital status, urbanisation, individual socioeconomic positions (education, subjective social status or difficulty in paying bills) and GDP per capita.ResultsThe total population was 23 842. Greater expenditures on healthcare and education, and better quality of healthcare systems had negative associations with co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours in the model adjusted for all individual demographic indicators. However, statistical significance disappeared after adjusting for socioeconomic indicators and GDP per capita.ConclusionWhile the study highlights the importance of developing high-quality healthcare and education systems generously supported by public fund in relation to co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours, the influence of contextual factors in adopting health-related behaviours is probably attenuated by individual socioeconomic factors.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx071
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
  • Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders using
           medication data in Flanders, Belgium
    • Authors: Vaes B; Ruelens C, Saikali S, et al.
      Pages: 193 - 198
      Abstract: BackgroundVarious methods exist to estimate disease prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine whether dispensed, self-reported and prescribed medication data could be used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders. Second, these pharmaco-epidemiological estimates were compared with prevalences based on self-reported diagnoses and doctor-registered diagnoses.MethodsData on medication for diabetes and thyroid disorders were obtained from three different sources in Flanders (Belgium) for 2008: a purely administrative database containing data on dispensed medication, the Belgian National Health Interview Survey for self-reported medication and diagnoses, and a patient record database for prescribed medication and doctor-registered diagnoses. Prevalences were estimated based on medication data and compared with each other. Cross-tabulations of dispensed medication and self-reported diagnoses, and prescribed medication and doctor-registered diagnoses, were investigated.ResultsPrevalences based on dispensed medication were the highest (4.39 and 2.98% for diabetes and thyroid disorders, respectively). The lowest prevalences were found using prescribed medication (2.39 and 1.72%, respectively). Cross-tabulating dispensed medication and self-reported diagnoses yielded a moderate to high sensitivity for diabetes (90.4%) and thyroid disorders (77.5%), while prescribed medication showed a low sensitivity for doctor-registered diagnoses (56.5 and 43.6%, respectively). The specificity remained above 99% in all cases.ConclusionsThis study was the first to perform cross-tabulations for disease prevalence estimates between different databases and within (sub)populations. Purely administrative database was shown to be a reliable source to estimate disease prevalence based on dispensed medication. Prevalence estimates based on prescribed or self-reported medication were shown to have important limitations.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx106
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2017)
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