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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 585, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
European Journal of Public Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.36
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 20  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1101-1262 - ISSN (Online) 1464-360X
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Reflecting on Alma Ata 1978: forty years on
    • Authors: Davletov K; Nurgozhin T, McKee M.
      Pages: 587 - 587
      Abstract: The Alma Ata declaration was a product of its time. It came about from a recognition that, in an increasingly prosperous world, many people were being left behind. In the world’s poorest countries, tens of thousands of people were dying every year from entirely avoidable conditions, lacking access to even the most basic health services. At the same time, those in the richest countries were benefiting from pharmaceutical and technological advances that would have been undreamed of even a decade earlier.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky094
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Russia: thirty years in transition
    • Authors: Vlassov V.
      Pages: 588 - 589
      Abstract: Thirty years ago, in 1988, the Communist Party of the USSR held its 19th Conference, declaring a turn from the totalitarian past to a democratic future, to life built upon common human values. The country entered a deep transformation, ‘perestroika’. The year 1988 ended with Gorbachev meeting Reagan. In 3 years Russia would declare independence from the greater USSR. The Soviet Union had outlived its vitality and usefulness and voluntarily imploded. A useful comparator is Europe, 1945, ruined in the Great War. The next 30 years Europe saw flourishing of technology, trade, governance and prosperity. Though 30 years have elapsed since the Soviet fall, Russia remains in a churning transition of doubtful accomplishment unleavened by the passage of time. Indeed, since 1988, Russia has forfeited any real chance of improving the nation’s health and health care system.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky097
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Socioeconomic multi-domain health inequalities in Dutch primary school
    • Authors: Vermeiren A; Willeboordse M, Oosterhoff M, et al.
      Pages: 610 - 616
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThis study assesses socio-economic health inequalities (SEHI) over primary school-age (4- to 12-years old) across 13 outcomes (i.e. body-mass index [BMI], handgrip strength, cardiovascular fitness, current physical conditions, moderate to vigorous physical activity, sleep duration, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast, exposure to smoking, mental strengths and difficulties, self-efficacy, school absenteeism and learning disabilities), covering four health domains (i.e. physical health, health behaviour, mental health and academic health).MethodsMultilevel mixed effect (linear and logistic) regression analyses were applied to cross-sectional data of a Dutch quasi-experimental study that included 1403 pupils from nine primary schools. Socioeconomic background (high-middle-low) was indicated by maternal education (n = 976) and parental material deprivation (n = 784).ResultsPupils with higher educated mothers had lower BMIs, higher handgrip strength and higher cardiovascular fitness; their parents reported more daily fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast and less exposure to smoking. Furthermore these pupils showed less mental difficulties and less school absenteeism compared with pupils whose mothers had a lower education level. When using parental material deprivation as socio-economic indicator, similar results were found for BMI, cardiovascular fitness, sleep duration, exposure to smoking and mental strengths and difficulties. Socio-economic differences in handgrip strength, cardiovascular fitness and sleep duration were larger in older than in younger pupils.ConclusionsChildhood SEHI are clearly found across multiple domains, and some are larger in older than in younger pupils. Interventions aiming to tackle SEHI may therefore need a comprehensive and perhaps more fundamental approach.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky055
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • International trends in ‘bottom-end’ inequality in adolescent physical
           activity and nutrition: HBSC study 2002–2014
    • Authors: Chzhen Y; Moor I, Pickett W, et al.
      Pages: 624 - 630
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIn spite of many positive trends that have emerged in the health of young people, adolescents from more affluent groups continue to experience more favourable health outcomes. There are no groups that are more vulnerable than those who report very poor (‘bottom-end’) indicators of health behaviour. The present study investigated the role of socio-economic factors as potential determinants of bottom-end health behaviours pertaining to physical activity and diet.MethodsOur analysis incorporated health data for some 700 000 15-year-old adolescents in 34 countries. The data source was four cycles of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (2001/2002, 2005/2006, 2009/2010 and 2013/2014). As per UNICEF precedents, adolescents whose health behaviour scores were below the mean of the lower half of the distribution fell into the ‘bottom-end’ on this indicator.ResultsAdolescents from less affluent families were much more likely to report being in the bottom-end of the distribution of these health indicators. Large, persistent and widespread socio-economic gradients existed for physical activity and healthy eating, while the findings were mixed for unhealthy eating. Such socio-economic inequalities were largely stable or widened for physical activity and healthy eating, while inequalities in unhealthy eating narrowed.ConclusionAlthough it is important to continue monitoring average levels of adolescent health, national and international policies need to pay attention to the concentration of poor health outcomes among adolescents from less affluent families and to redress social inequalities in adolescent health behaviour.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx237
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Associations between physical fitness and adherence to the Mediterranean
           diet with health-related quality of life in adolescents: results from the
           LabMed Physical Activity Study
    • Authors: Evaristo O; Moreira C, Lopes L, et al.
      Pages: 631 - 635
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPhysical fitness (PF) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet are important indicators of healthy lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the independent and combined associations between PF and adherence to Mediterranean diet with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional analysis with 956 Portuguese adolescents aged 12–18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Kidscreen-10 questionnaire. PF was assessed with the ALPHA health-related fitness battery. The 20-m shuttle run test was used for the estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness; handgrip strength and standing long jump tests were applied for the assessment of muscular fitness and the 4 × 10 m shuttle run test for the assessment of motor fitness (speed and agility). The results of the PF tests (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and motor fitness) were transformed into standardized values (Z-scores) by age and sex. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with the KIDMED index. Regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed.ResultsPF (B = 0.228; P < 0.05) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (B = 0.259; P < 0.05) were positively associated with HRQoL, after controlling for several variables. Participants classified as high PF and high adherence to Mediterranean diet had on average the highest HRQoL score compared with those with low PF and low adherence to Mediterranean diet (F(3, 939) = 4.270; P = 0.005), after adjustments for potential confounders.ConclusionsThe combination of high PF levels and optimal adherence to Mediterranean diet is positively associated with HRQoL.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky043
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Universal school lunch programme closes a socioeconomic gap in fruit and
           vegetable intakes among school children in Japan
    • Authors: Yamaguchi M; Kondo N, Hashimoto H.
      Pages: 636 - 641
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundUniversal school lunch programmes are expected to cover all children equally, compared with selective programmes that may stigmatize socially vulnerable children. However, the effectiveness of universal programmes in closing dietary disparity has not been empirically proven. We evaluated whether Japan’s universal school lunch programmes contribute to a reduction in the socioeconomic status (SES)-related gradient in fruit and vegetable intakes.MethodsWe analyzed data for 719 school children aged 6–12 years in a population-based survey conducted in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area. We measured dietary intakes using a validated self-administered brief diet history questionnaire for young children (BDHQ-10 y). We assessed parental education, annual household income and maternal employment status as SES indicators of children. We used multiple regression to estimate mean fruit and vegetable intakes by parental education and household income, and the contribution of school lunch to reducing the SES-related gradient in fruit and vegetable intakes.ResultsCompared with children with high maternal education (>15 years), those with low maternal education (<13 years) had less vegetable intake by 22.3 g/1000 kcal (95% confidence interval = 12.5, 32.2) and less fruit intake by 7.5 g/1000 kcal (95% confidence interval = −2.4, 17.3). However, fruit and vegetable intakes from school lunch did not vary by SES, indicating that school lunch intake alleviated the SES-related gradient of total vegetable intake by 9.9% and that of fruit intake by 3.4%.ConclusionsUniversal school lunch programmes can partially contribute to a reduction in the SES-related gradient in dietary intakes.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky041
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Infant abuse diagnosis associated with abusive head trauma criteria:
           incidence increase due to overdiagnosis'
    • Authors: Högberg U; Lampa E, Högberg G, et al.
      Pages: 641 - 646
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe hypothesis of this study is that the diagnosis of infant abuse is associated with criteria for shaken baby syndrome (SBS)/abusive head trauma (AHT), and that that changes in incidence of abuse diagnosis in infants may be due to increased awareness of SBS/AHT criteria.MethodsThis was a population-based register study. Setting: Register study using the Swedish Patient Register, Medical Birth Register, and Cause of Death Register. The diagnosis of infant abuse was based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th revision. Participants: All children born in Sweden during 1987–2014 with a follow-up until 1 year of age (N = 2 868 933). SBS/AHT criteria: subdural haemorrhage, cerebral contusion, skull fracture, convulsions, retinal haemorrhage, fractures rib and long bones. Outcomes: Incidence, rate ratios, aetiologic fractions and Probit regression analysis.ResultsDiagnosis of infant abuse was strongly associated with SBS/AHT criteria, but not risk exposure as region, foreign-born mother, being born preterm, multiple birth and small for gestational age. The incidence of infant abuse has increased tenfold in Sweden since the 1990s and has doubled since 2008, from 12.0 per 100 000 infants during 1997–2007 to 26.5/100 000 during 2008–2014, with pronounced regional disparities.ConclusionsDiagnosis of infant abuse is related to SBS/AHT criteria. The increase in incidence coincides with increased medical preparedness to make a diagnosis of SBS/AHT. Hidden statistics and a real increase in abuse are less plausible. Whether the increase is due to overdiagnosis cannot be answered with certainty, but the possibility raises ethical and medico-legal concerns.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky062
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Daily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation'
    • Authors: Berchtold A; Akre C, Barrense-Dias Y, et al.
      Pages: 647 - 651
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundSince 2001, a recommendation of no more than 2 h per day of screen time for children 2 years of age or older was adopted in many countries. However, this recommendation was rarely examined empirically. The goal of the present study was to question this recommendation in today’s connected world.MethodsWe used data from the survey (spring 2012), a representative sample of 8th graders in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland (n = 2942, 50.6% female). Internet use, health outcomes, substance use, well-being and socio-demographic characteristics were considered. Bi-variate statistical analyses were performed.ResultsAll outcomes were significantly associated with the time spent on internet, more time being associated with a higher prevalence of adverse consequences. Youth spending on average one more hour on Internet per day than the reference category (1.5–2.5 h) did not differ in terms of adverse health outcomes. Differences began to appear on sleeping problems, tobacco use, alcohol misuse, cannabis use and sport inactivity with youth spending between 3.5 h and 4.5 h per day on internet.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates the absence of justification for setting a limit to only 2 h of screen time per day. Significant effects on health seem to appear only beyond 4 h per day and there may be benefits for those who spend less than an hour and a half on internet.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky054
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Using electronic maternity records to estimate female genital mutilation
           in Lothian from 2010 to 2013
    • Authors: Ford C; Darlow K, Massie A, et al.
      Pages: 657 - 661
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundFemale genital mutilation (FGM) is most commonly encountered in Africa and the Middle East, with migration from FGM-practicing countries meaning it is increasingly seen in Europe. Addressing FGM requires accurate information on who is affected but ascertainment is notoriously difficult. This study estimated FGM prevalence in women presenting for maternity care in the Lothian region of Scotland and compared this with that expected by extrapolation of survey data from women’s country of birth.MethodsElectronic clinical records were linked to birth registration data to estimate FGM in the obstetric patients in Lothian from 2010 to 2013.ResultsAmong all, 107 women affected by FGM were detected, at a rate of 2.8/1000 pregnancies. Of 487 women from UNICEF-recognized FGM-practicing countries who accessed care, 87 (18%) had documented evidence of FGM (three quarters of whom came from Nigeria, Sudan or The Gambia). The prevalence was 54% of the level expected from the extrapolation method. Country of birth had a sensitivity of 81% for FGM.ConclusionWomen from FGM-practicing countries commonly access maternity care in Lothian. This confirms the need for ongoing training and investment in identifying and managing FGM. Matching electronic clinical records with birth registration data was a useful methodology in estimating the level of FGM in the maternity population. In a European country like Scotland with modest migrant numbers, asking country of birth during pregnancy and making sensitive enquiries could detect 81% of women with FGM. Extrapolation from maternal country of birth surveys grossly overestimates the true prevalence.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky045
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Is food insecurity associated with maternal health among UK ethnic
           groups' An exploration of women in the BiB cohort
    • Authors: Power M; Small N, Doherty B, et al.
      Pages: 661 - 663
      Abstract: AbstractFood insecurity is a determinant of maternal health; however, research on the health impact of food insecurity among mothers of varying ethnicities is under-developed. We assessed the association of food insecurity and health among white British and Pakistani mothers. Data from the Born in Bradford cohort were matched with data on food insecurity and self-reported health from the nested BiB1000 study (N = 1280). Food insecurity was associated with elevated odds of fair/poor health among white British mothers but not Pakistani mothers. Adjusting for financial security, the association between food insecurity and poor health was not significant among either white British or Pakistani mothers.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky042
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Alcohol industry corporate social responsibility initiatives and harmful
           drinking: a systematic review
    • Authors: Mialon M; McCambridge J.
      Pages: 664 - 673
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThere is growing awareness of the detrimental effects of alcohol industry commercial activities, and concern about possible adverse impacts of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, on public health. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and examine what is known about CSR initiatives undertaken by alcohol industry actors in respect of harmful drinking globally.MethodsWe searched for peer-reviewed studies published since 1980 of alcohol industry CSR initiatives in seven electronic databases. The basic search strategy was organized around the three constructs of ‘alcohol’, ‘industry’ and ‘corporate social responsibility’. We performed the searches on 21 July 2017. Data from included studies were analyzed inductively, according to the extent to which they addressed specified research objectives.ResultsA total of 21 studies were included. We identified five types of CSR initiatives relevant to the reduction of harmful drinking: alcohol information and education provision; drink driving prevention; research involvement; policy involvement and the creation of social aspects organizations. Individual companies appear to undertake different CSR initiatives than do industry-funded social aspects organizations. There is no robust evidence that alcohol industry CSR initiatives reduce harmful drinking. There is good evidence, however, that CSR initiatives are used to influence the framing of the nature of alcohol-related issues in line with industry interests.ConclusionsThis research literature is at an early stage of development. Alcohol policy measures to reduce harmful drinking are needed, and the alcohol industry CSR initiatives studied so far do not contribute to the attainment of this goal.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky065
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Alcohol, tobacco and health care costs: a population-wide cohort study (n
           = 606 947 patients) of current drinkers based on medical and
           administrative health records from Catalonia
    • Authors: Miquel L; Rehm J, Shield K, et al.
      Pages: 674 - 680
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundMost cost of illness studies are based on models where information on exposure is combined with risk information from meta-analyses, and the resulting attributable fractions are applied to the number of cases.MethodsThis study presents data on alcohol and tobacco use for 2011 and 2012 obtained from a routine medical practice in Catalonia of 606 947 patients, 18 years of age and older, as compared with health care costs for 2013 (all costs from the public health care system: primary health care visits, hospital admissions, laboratory and medical tests, outpatient visits to specialists, emergency department visits and pharmacy expenses). Quasi-Poisson regressions were used to assess the association between alcohol consumption and smoking status and health care costs (adjusted for age and socio-economic status).ResultsResulting health care costs per person per year amounted to 1290 Euros in 2013, and were 20.1% higher for men than for women. Sex, alcohol consumption, tobacco use and socio-economic status were all associated with health care costs. In particular, alcohol consumption had a positive dose–response association with health care costs. Similarly, both smokers and former smokers had higher health care costs than did people who never smoked.ConclusionsAlcohol and tobacco use had modest and large impacts respectively on health care costs, confirming the results of previous ecological modelling analyses. Reductions of alcohol consumption and smoking through public policies and via early identification and brief interventions would likely be associated with reductions in health care costs.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx236
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Frequently used drug types and alcohol involvement in intentional drug
           overdoses in Ireland: a national registry study
    • Authors: Daly C; Griffin E, Ashcroft D, et al.
      Pages: 681 - 686
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIntentional drug overdose (IDO) is the most common form of hospital-treated self-harm, yet no national study has systematically classified the range of drugs involved using a validated system. We aimed to determine the profile of patients engaging in overdose, to identify drugs frequently used and to quantify the contributions of multiple drug use and alcohol involvement.MethodsBetween 2012 and 2014, the National Self-Harm Registry, Ireland recorded 18 329 presentations of non-fatal IDO to Irish emergency departments. Information on demographic and overdose characteristics were obtained. Drugs were categorized using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system.ResultsAnalgesics (32.4%), antidepressants (21.9%), anxiolytics (21.2%) and hypnotics and sedatives (21.0%) were the most frequently used drugs types involved in overdose. Presentations involving analgesic and antidepressant medication were more common for females whereas males more often took illegal, anxiolytic and hypnotic and sedative drugs. Overdoses with drugs other than those which affect the nervous system were identified, including musculoskeletal drugs, taken in 12.0% of presentations. Paracetamol was the most frequently used drug, particularly among females (32.0%) and persons under 25 years (36.2%). Alcohol was most often present in overdoses involving anxiolytics and illegal drugs. Multiple drug use was a factor in almost half (47.1%) of presentations.ConclusionsPeople who engage in IDO frequently take prescription only or sales restricted drugs, often involving alcohol and/or multiple drug use. These findings highlight the importance of addressing drug and alcohol misuse, potential inappropriate prescribing and the enforcement of legislation restricting specific drug sales.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky031
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Alcohol and gender gaps in life expectancy in eight Central and Eastern
           European countries
    • Authors: Trias-Llimós S; Janssen F.
      Pages: 687 - 692
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundGender differences in life expectancy (LE) have been traditionally large in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), and alcohol has been hypothesized to be one of its main determinants. We examined the role of alcohol in gender differences in LE in Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia and Ukraine, and changes in this role from 1965 until 2012.MethodsWe decomposed the gender differences in LE at birth into alcohol- and non-alcohol-related mortality. We examined causes of death wholly attributable to alcohol over the whole period, and estimated from 1990 onwards additional alcohol-attributable mortality by using alcohol-attributable fractions from the Global Burden of Disease study.ResultsIn the eight CEE countries, women’s advantage in LE relative to men increased from 7.3 years on average in 1965 to 10.0 years on average in 2012. All alcohol-attributable mortality contributed 1.9 years on average (uncertainty intervals (UI): 1.2–2.5; 18.8%) to the gender differences from 1990 to 2012. Its relative contribution increased in most countries until around 2005, and declined thereafter, resulting in a contribution of at least 15% in 2012. The absolute contribution of alcohol to the LE gender gap was strongly correlated with the overall LE gender differences (Pearson’s r > 0.75), except in Poland and Estonia.ConclusionsDespite recent declines, the contribution of sex differences in excessive alcohol consumption to the LE gender gap is substantial, and should not be neglected. Tackling gender differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable mortality would contribute to further progress in reducing mortality.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky057
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Potential health impact of strong tobacco control policies in 11 South
           Eastern WHO European Region countries
    • Authors: Levy D; Wijnhoven T, Levy J, et al.
      Pages: 693 - 701
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundWhile some WHO European Region countries are global tobacco control leaders, the South Eastern region of Europe has the highest tobacco smoking prevalence globally and a relatively low level of overall implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). An abridged version of SimSmoke has been developed to project the health impact of implementing tobacco control policies in line with the WHO FCTC.MethodsData on population size, smoking prevalence, policy-specific effect sizes and formulas were applied in 11 South Eastern WHO European Region countries [Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska), Bulgaria, Croatia, Israel, Montenegro, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia] to project the relative reduction in smoking prevalence, number of smokers and number of smoking-attributable deaths resulting from implementing individual and/or combined six WHO FCTC measures.ResultsFor all countries, an increase in excise cigarette taxes to 75% of price yields the largest relative reduction in smoking prevalence (range 8–28%). The projections show that within 15 years smoking prevalence can be reduced by at least 30% in all countries when all six tobacco control measures are fully implemented in line with the WHO FCTC.ConclusionThe projections show that large health effects can be achieved and the results can be used as an advocacy tool towards acceleration of the enforcement of tobacco control laws in WHO European Region countries.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky028
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Observed smoking and tobacco pack display in Australian outdoor cafés 2
           years after implementation of plain packaging
    • Authors: Brennan E; Bayly M, Scollo M, et al.
      Pages: 702 - 707
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundImplementation of tobacco plain packaging (PP) in Australia in December 2012 was associated with significant reductions in the percentage of patrons at outdoor cafés observed to be displaying tobacco packs and actively smoking, immediately post-implementation and 1 year later. This study examines whether these positive effects were sustained through to 2 years post-PP.MethodsAn observational study conducted at cafés, restaurants and bars with outdoor seating in Melbourne, Australia documented the number of: patrons; patrons actively smoking; tobacco packs on display; orientation and type of displayed packs and whether or not children were present. Data were collected pre-PP (2012), early post-PP (2013), 1 year post-PP (2014) and 2 years post-PP (2015). Multilevel Poisson regressions analyzed changes in each outcome, adjusting for important covariates.ResultsOverall, positive effects of PP implementation on tobacco pack display and active smoking were not fully sustained through to 2 years post-PP for the total sample. Interactions between phase and the presence of children indicated that pack display and active smoking were lower in all post-implementation phases (compared with pre-PP) at venues where children were present but not at venues where children were not present.ConclusionsChildren at outdoor cafés were still being exposed to less tobacco packaging and active smoking, 2 years after implementation of the packaging changes. More regular refreshment of graphic health warnings is likely to be required to sustain these effects, and to reduce pack display behaviour at venues with no children.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky051
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Cancers attributable to tobacco smoking in France in 2015
    • Authors: Cao B; Hill C, Bonaldi C, et al.
      Pages: 707 - 712
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe evidence on the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoking has been well established. An assessment of the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer due to smoking is needed for France, given its high smoking prevalence.MethodsWe extracted age- and sex-specific national estimates of population and cancer incidence for France, and incidence rates of lung cancer among never smokers and relative risk (RR) estimates of smoking for various cancers from the American Cancer Prevention Study (CPS II). For active smoking, we applied a modified indirect method to estimate the PAF for lung and other tobacco smoking-related cancer sites. Using the RR estimates for second-hand smoking, the proportion of never smokers living with an ever-smoking partner derived from survey, and marital status data, we then estimated the PAF for lung cancer attributable to domestic passive smoking.ResultsOverall in France in 2015, 54 142 and 12 008 cancer cases in males and females, respectively, were attributable to active smoking, accounting for 28 and 8% of all cancer cases observed among adult (30+ years) males and females. Additionally, 36 and 142 lung cancer cases, respectively among male and female never smokers, were attributable to second-hand smoke resulting from their partner’s active smoking, corresponding to 4.2 and 6.7% of lung cancer cases which occurred in never smoker males and females, respectively.ConclusionsTobacco smoking is responsible for a significant number of potentially avoidable cancer cases in France in 2015. More effective tobacco control programmes are critical to reduce this cancer burden.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky077
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Change in parental knowledge, attitudes and practice of antibiotic use
           after a national intervention programme
    • Authors: Ivanovska V; Angelovska B, van Dijk L, et al.
      Pages: 724 - 729
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundNation-wide multifaceted interventions to improve antibiotic use were undertaken in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in September 2014. This study aimed to assess the parental knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics, and self-medication practices in children, and evaluate the impact of interventions on these parameters.MethodsPre–post-intervention surveys were conducted in May 2014–16 in three administrative regions in the country. Data were collected by interviewing parents of children younger than 15 years of age through a questionnaire. The analysis of knowledge, attitudes and antibiotic use involved descriptive quantitative statistics. The effects of interventions were assessed by a logistic and linear regression analysis.ResultsData from 1203 interviewees showed that 80% of parents knew that antibiotics could kill bacteria, while 40% believed antibiotics could kill viruses. One third of parents expressed potential dissatisfaction with doctors who would not agree with them on antibiotic use. More parents received information about not taking antibiotics unnecessarily after the interventions, but the rates decreased one year later. At baseline, 20% of the parents and 10% of the children who received antibiotics in previous year, took them without prescriptions. Parental self-medication rates did not change over time, while children rates decreased only in 2015.ConclusionThe insignificant and short-term changes in knowledge, attitudes and self-medication demonstrate that interventions need to be implemented for a longer period of time, at a large scale, with active health providers’ engagement, and accompanied by inspections to promote appropriate use of antibiotics and discourage self-medication.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx240
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Good practices and challenges in addressing poliomyelitis and measles in
           the European Union
    • Authors: Kinsman J; Stöven S, Elgh F, et al.
      Pages: 730 - 734
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundAll European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Member States have pledged to ensure political commitment towards sustaining the region’s poliomyelitis-free status and eliminating measles. However, there remain significant gaps between policy and practice in many countries. This article reports on an assessment conducted for the European Commission that aimed to support improvements in preparedness and response to poliomyelitis and measles in Europe.MethodsA documentary review was complemented by qualitative interviews with professionals working in International and EU agencies, and in at-risk or recently affected EU/EEA Member States (six each for poliomyelitis and measles). Twenty-six interviews were conducted on poliomyelitis and 24 on measles; the data were subjected to thematic analysis. Preliminary findings were then discussed at a Consensus Workshop with 22 of the interviewees and eight other experts.ResultsGeneric or disease-specific plans exist in the participating countries and cross-border communications during outbreaks were generally reported as satisfactory. However, surveillance systems are of uneven quality, and clinical expertise for the two diseases is limited by a lack of experience. Serious breaches of protocol have recently been reported from companies producing poliomyelitis vaccines, and vaccine coverage rates for both diseases were also sub-optimal. A set of suggested good practices to address these and other challenges is presented.ConclusionsPoliomyelitis and measles should be brought fully onto the policy agendas of all EU/EEA Member States, and adequate resources provided to address them. Each country must abide by the relevant commitments that they have already made.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky056
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • The efficacy of social cognitive theory-based self-care intervention for
           rational antibiotic use: a randomized trial
    • Authors: Mohebbi B; Tol A, Sadeghi R, et al.
      Pages: 735 - 739
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundMisuse of antibiotics can be described as a failure to complete treatment, skipping of the doses and reuse of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. Health education interventions are expected to enhance awareness and general belief on rational antibiotics use. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the efficacy of social cognitive theory (SCT)-based self-care intervention for rational antibiotic use.MethodsThis randomized trial was conducted in a sample of 260 adults. The study participants were randomly assigned as the intervention (n=130) and a control (n=130) groups. The intervention group received self-care educational intervention of four sessions lasting 45–60 min augmented with the text messages and the control groups attended usual education program in health centers. The study participants were invited to complete questionnaires at the baseline and end of the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Chi-square (X2), independent t-test and covariance analysis were used for data analysis. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsAfter the intervention, all SCT constructs revealed significant differences in the intervention group compared with control groups (P<0.001). Awareness and general beliefs of rational antibiotic use showed a significant difference in intervention group before and after six months (P<0.001) whereas in control group no significant differences (P>0.05).ConclusionThe study suggested that tailored appropriate educational programs based on SCT constructs can reflect a positive impact on appropriate antibiotics use. Therefore, a tailored health promotion intervention should be provided to enhance the awareness and general beliefs of the target groups.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky082
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Association between vaccination coverage decline and influenza incidence
           rise among Italian elderly
    • Authors: Manzoli L; Gabutti G, Siliquini R, et al.
      Pages: 740 - 742
      Abstract: AbstractAfter a peak of 68.3% during the 2005–06 season, influenza vaccine coverage among Italian elderly showed an unprecedented, prolonged decline. According to the National surveillance network, the vaccination coverage was ≤50% during two of the last three seasons (2014–17). In parallel, influenza-like illness (ILI) rates increased from 2.71% in the triennium 2005–08, to 4.24% in the last triennium. A significant association was found between ILI rise and vaccine coverage decline (P = 0.036), and according to a conservative estimation, each 1% increase in coverage may prevent ≥2690 ILI cases among the elderly. A reinforcement of influenza immunization policies is strongly needed in Italy.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky053
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Current and future cardiovascular disease risk assessment in the European
           Union: an international comparative study
    • Authors: Mossakowska T; Saunders C, Corbett J, et al.
      Pages: 748 - 754
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundRisk assessment is central to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there remains a need to better understand the use of evidence-based interventions in practice. This study examines: (i) the policies and guidelines for risk assessment in Europe, (ii) the use of risk assessment tools in clinical practice and (iii) the barriers to, and facilitators of, risk assessment.MethodsData were collected from academics, clinicians and policymakers in an online questionnaire targeted at experts from all European Union member states, and in 8 in-depth country case studies that were developed from a targeted literature review and 36 interviews.ResultsThe European Society of Cardiology (ESC) produces European guidelines for CVD risk assessment and recommends the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation tool, which is the most widely used risk assessment tool in Europe. The use of risk assessment tools is variable. Lack of time and resources are important barriers. Integrating risk assessment tools into clinical systems and providing financial incentives to carry out risk assessments could increase implementation. Novel biomarkers would need to be supported by evidence of their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to be introduced in clinical practice. These findings were consistent across Europe.ConclusionsEfforts to improve the assessment of CVD risk in clinical practice should be carried out by or in collaboration with, the ESC. Increasing the use of existing risk assessment tools is likely to offer greater gains in primary prevention than the development of novel biomarkers.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx216
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Public health monitoring of hypertension, diabetes and elevated
           cholesterol: comparison of different data sources
    • Authors: Paalanen L; Koponen P, Laatikainen T, et al.
      Pages: 754 - 765
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThree data sources are generally used in monitoring health on the population level. Health interview surveys (HISs) are based on participants’ self-report. Health examination surveys (HESs) yield more objective data, and also persons who are unaware of their elevated risks can be detected. Medical records (MRs) and other administrative registers also provide objective data, but their availability, coverage and quality vary between countries. We summarized studies comparing self-reported data with (i) measured data from HESs or (ii) MRs. We aimed to describe differences in feasibility and comparability of different data sources for monitoring (i) elevated blood pressure or hypertension (ii) elevated blood glucose or diabetes and (iii) elevated total cholesterol.MethodsWe conducted a literature search to identify studies, which validated self-reported measures against objective measures. We found 30 studies published since the year 2000 fulfilling our inclusion criteria (targeted to adults and comparing prevalence among the same persons).ResultsHypertension and elevated total cholesterol were prone to be under-estimated in HISs. The under-estimate was more pronounced, when the HIS data were compared with HES data, and lower when compared with MRs. For diabetes, the HISs and the objective methods resulted in fairly similar prevalence rates.ConclusionThe three data sources measure different manifestations of the risk factors and cannot be expected to yield similar prevalence rates. Using HIS data only may lead to under-estimation of elevated risk factor levels or disease prevalence. Whenever possible, information from the three data sources should be evaluated and combined.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky020
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Cardiovascular health metrics, muscle mass and function among Italian
           community-dwellers: the Lookup 7+ project
    • Authors: Landi F; Calvani R, Picca A, et al.
      Pages: 766 - 772
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPrimordial prevention is essential for promoting cardiovascular health and longevity through the so-called seven cardiovascular health metrics (CHMs) (i.e. smoking, body mass index, diet, physical activity, blood pressure, blood glucose and total cholesterol). Measures of muscle mass and function are recognized as powerful predictors of health-related events and survival. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and distribution of the seven CHMs and measures of muscle mass and function in an unselected cohort of community-dwellers.MethodsThe Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+) project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g. exhibitions, malls and health promotion campaigns) across Italy. CHMs are assessed through a brief questionnaire and by measurement of standing height, body weight, blood glucose, blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Muscle mass is estimated from calf circumference, whereas muscle strength and function are measured via handgrip strength and chair-stand testing, respectively.Results Analyses were conducted in 6323 community-living adults (mean age: 54 ± 15 years, 57% women) recruited between 1 June 2015 and 30 June 2017. Participants presented on average 4.3 ± 1.3 ideal CHMs, which decreased with age. Only 19.5% of participants met >5 ideal metrics, while 8.3% met <3. All seven ideal metrics were met by 4.7% of enrollees. Muscle mass, strength and function declined progressively with age, starting at 45–50 years.Conclusion Our population showed suboptimal CHMs scores, with very low prevalence of all ideal metrics. The number of ideal metrics decreased progressively with age and so did muscle mass and function.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky034
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Burden of disease studies in the WHO European Region—a mapping
    • Authors: O’Donovan M; Gapp C, Stein C.
      Pages: 773 - 778
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe World Health Organization (WHO) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) have produced numerous global burden of disease (GBD) estimates since the 1990s, using disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Here we attempt to identify studies that have either independent DALY estimates or build on the work of WHO and IHME, for the WHO European Region, categorize them by scope of disease analysis and geographic coverage, and briefly compare their methodology (age weighting, discounting and disability weights).MethodsGoogle and Google Scholar were used with the search terms ‘DALY’, ‘national burden of disease’, Member State names and researcher’s names, covering all years. Studies were categorized as: ‘specific’ (fewer than five disease categories or just risk factors for a single country), ‘specific, multicountry’ (fewer than five disease categories or just risk factors for more than one country), ‘extensive’ (covering five or more but not all disease categories for one country), ‘full, sub country’ (covering all relevant disease categories for part of one country) and ‘full, country’ (covering all relevant disease categories for one country).ResultsA total of 198 studies were identified: 143 ‘specific’, 26 ‘specific, multicountry’, 7 ‘extensive’, 10 ‘full, sub country’ and 12 ‘full, country’ [England (1), Estonia (2), France (1), Romania (1), Serbia (1), Spain (3), Sweden (2) and Turkey (1)]. About 5 (20%) of the 25 examinable ‘extensive’, ‘full, sub country’ and ‘full, country’ studies calculated DALYs using GBD 2010 methodology.ConclusionsIndependent burden of diseases studies in Europe have been located, and categorized by scope of disease analysis and geographic coverage. Methodological choices varied between independent ‘full, country’ studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky060
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Physical activity, weight and functional limitations in elderly Spanish
           people: the National Health Survey (2009–2014)
    • Authors: Latorre-Román P; Laredo-Aguilera J, García-Pinillos F, et al.
      Pages: 778 - 783
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe purpose of this study was to analyze physical activity (PA), functional limitations, weight status, self-perceived health status and disease or chronic health problems in older people aged 65 and over using the European Health Survey in Spain (EHSS) conducted one in 2009 and one in 2014.MethodsThis study included 12,546 older people, 6026 [2330 men and 3696 women; age (Mean, SD) =75.61 ± 7.11 years old] in 2009 and 6520 [2624 men and 3896 women; age (Mean, SD) =75.90 ± 7.59 years old] in 2014. The sample was divided into three age groups: 65–74 years old, 75–84 years old and ≥85 years old.ResultsIn 2014, participants exhibited lower values for moderate PA, and self-perceived health status compared to 2009. Moreover, in 2014 more people with disease or chronic health problems, and severe difficulty walking 500 m without assistance were found and severe difficulty going up and down 12 stairs than people in 2009. In relation to weight status there were no significant differences between older people in 2009 and 2014.ConclusionsFrom 2009 to 2014, the PA levels of Spanish older people have decreased, while the BMI has not increased. That fact is in consonance with a worst perception of health status in 2014 and with an increase of their disease levels. The current data highlight the importance of incorporating exercise programmes at an early stage of ageing in order to preserve physical performance, and to prevent the negative consequences of ageing.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx219
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • European Public Health News
    • Authors: Zeegers Paget D; Azzopardi Muscat N, Zeegers Paget D, et al.
      Pages: 784 - 786
      Abstract: In this European Public Health news, I am pleased to see that all authors formulate a strong call for European collaboration. Azzopardi Muscat warns for ‘letting our guard down’ as new challenges and new factors influencing public health emphasize the need for European collaboration in public health research, advocacy and action. Jakab proudly presents the setting up of a joint monitoring framework (JMF) at European level, aimed to ensure that harmonized, integrated health information systems work in tandem with health-research systems to inform policy-makers and the public with the best available information and evidence from local and global sources. Andriukaitis highlights the European Commission’s proposed action plan to joint action with EU countries to help stop the spread of vaccine preventable diseases. Zeegers Paget highlights that it all starts with a few committed and engaged public health professionals to set things in motion, taking the recent First World Congress on Migration, ethnicity, race and health as an example. Erzen highlights the joint effort of many public health professionals and organizations to ensure the high scientific quality of the programme in Ljubljana. Just remember, it takes one (wo)man to start, it takes us all to engage.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky108
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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