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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 525, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover European Journal of Public Health
  [SJR: 1.284]   [H-I: 64]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1101-1262 - ISSN (Online) 1464-360X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Contextual effects on health inequalities: a research agenda
    • Authors: Sauzet O; Leyland AH.
      Pages: 587 - 588
      Abstract: The neighbourhood context in which we live can affect our health in many ways. Some are obvious: pollution incurred by living close to a motorway can impact on our respiratory health; or the lack of local possibilities for walking affects how much we exercise, potentially leading to weight gain or cardiovascular problems. Some contextual effects are less direct; mean neighbourhood income can influence the availability of goods, services and facilities in an area and, since these are available to everyone, affect the health of high- and low-income residents.1 This is an example of the importance of distinguishing individual and contextual effects. Another example of a contextual effect would be neighbourhoods prone to crime and anti-social behaviour being a source of stress and thus increasing, among other things, the risk of mental illness among all of the residents. But then social capital at the neighbourhood level can be a modifying factor, providing resources which then affect social behaviours, leading to healthier lifestyles for all.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx038
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Sleep and cardiovascular diseases: time for action and new methods
    • Authors: Lallukka T; Kronholm EE.
      Pages: 588 - 589
      Abstract: The importance of good sleep to health has been highlighted in numerous studies during previous decades. Consequently, dimensions of sleep are emerging as new and indisputable risk factors of many key public health problems, including cardiovascular diseases. The role of classical risk factors such as smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and obesity is well established in cardiovascular health,1 but public health research nor practice and recommendations can no longer ignore sleep alongside other risk factors to prevent and assess cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, it has been suggested that poor sleep could be included in the list of leading 10 potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.1
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx089
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Migrant health: the economic argument
    • Authors: Trummer U; Krasnik A.
      Pages: 590 - 591
      Abstract: The right to health care is acknowledged in many international declarations—however, often with unclear statements regarding the population groups that should actually be provided with this right and the extent of services that should be included. National legislations of the European countries on the provision of health care are generally restricting entitlements to certain population groups. As a consequence, many migrants enjoy entitlements which are not comparable to those of the citizens of the country—depending of their formal status in the country.1 Besides, the full enjoyment of health care requires not only formal entitlements, but also the existence of inclusive health services that are able to ensure quality of care when access has actually been obtained. An accumulating body of evidence in the field of health and migration concludes that the specific health needs of migrants and ethnic minorities are often poorly understood, communication between many health care providers and migrant patients remains poor and health systems are not fully equipped to respond adequately. Despite these facts, only a few countries have adopted national policies on migrant and ethnic minority health to meet the challenges. It is also pointed out that the research fields concerned with equity in health, human rights and health and migration are insufficiently connected to each other and therefore miss synergies to support policy change.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx087
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Migrant health: putting the economic argument into the context of
           deservingness debates
    • Authors: Gottlieb N; Davidovitch N.
      Pages: 591 - 592
      Abstract: The main arguments for improving access to health care for marginalised groups, including migrants and ethnic minorities, have mostly been based on public health considerations, human rights claims and ethical principles of equity. However, the respective political debates often focus on economic arguments such as moral hazard, (presumed) health expenses, and the need to safeguard scarce resources. Acknowledging the role of economic arguments in political decision-making processes, researchers and activists have begun to pay more attention to the fiscal implications of limiting migrants’ access to care. As yet, however, empirical evidence on the economic implications of different policy responses to migration is scarce. As pointed out by Trummer and Krasnik,1 the ‘right to health care is acknowledged in many international declarations—however… only a few countries have adopted national policies on migrant and ethnic minority health to meet the challenges.’ They also cite several recent studies indicating that restricting access to care for those groups does not help save costs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx088
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Restricted access to health care for asylum-seekers: applying a human
           rights lens to the argument of resource constraints
    • Authors: Bozorgmehr K; Wenner J, Razum O.
      Pages: 592 - 593
      Abstract: Granting health care to vulnerable groups of the population including asylum seekers is often regarded as a ‘benevolent handout (…) by state or third parties to ameliorate suffering of passive recipients of assistance’.1 As opposed to this, the notion of health as part of human rights obliges states—legally and morally—to protect, respect and fulfill their right to health. This includes the right to health care2 and the obligation of the signatory states with regard to the non-discriminatory realization of this right by refraining ‘from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, including prisoners or detainees, minorities, asylum seekers and illegal immigrants, to preventive, curative and palliative health services’ (General Comment No. 14, emphasis not in original).3
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx086
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • The differentiated effects of health on political participation
    • Authors: Couture J; Breux S.
      Pages: 599 - 604
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Several studies have shown that an individual’s state of health can significantly affect their decision to vote, but analysis is often only done on a single level of government; the national level. However, prior research has shown that the determining factors for voting can differ according to the level of government being considered. Our analysis is the first attempt to take a comprehensive look at the magnitude of health and political participation in a same country on different levels. Methods: Based on Canadian General Social Survey—Social Identity (2013; N = 27 695), we examined both the direct and indirect effect of self-rated health and self-rated mental health on (1) national voter turnout; (2) local voter turnout and (3) other forms of political participation. Results: The results show that health has a different effect on turnout depending the level of government. While health certainly affects participation on both levels of government, general health significantly affects national electoral participation levels while mental health more significantly affects electoral participation on the municipal level. Additionally, people who consider their mental health to be poorer, are more likely to sign an online petition. Conclusions: These elements highlight the necessity of questioning the cost of voting according to the level of government, and that further research into the potential offered by Internet and remote voting, is worthwhile—despite the opinions of critics who eschew these means of voting.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw245
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • An evaluation of a public–private partnership to reduce artificial trans
           fatty acids in England, 2011–16
    • Authors: Knai CC; James LL, Petticrew MM, et al.
      Pages: 605 - 608
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) is a public–private partnership in England involving voluntary pledges between government, and business and other public organizations to improve public health. One such voluntary pledge refers to the reduction of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the food supply in England by either pledging not to use artificial TFAs or pledging artificial TFA removal. This paper evaluates the RD’s effectiveness at encouraging signatory organizations to remove artificially produced TFAs from their products. Methods: We analysed publically available data submitted by RD signatory organizations. We analysed their plans and progress towards achieving the TFAs pledge, comparing 2015 progress reports against their delivery plans. We also assessed the extent to which TFAs reductions beyond pre-2011 levels could be attributed to the RD. Results: Voluntary reformulation via the RD has had limited added value, because the first part of the trans fat pledge simply requires organizations to confirm that they do not use TFAs and the second part, that has the potential to reduce use, has failed to attract the participation of food producers, particularly those producing fast foods and takeaways, where most remaining use of artificial TFAs is located. Conclusions: The contribution of the RD TFAs pledges in reducing artificial TFAs from England’s food supply beyond pre-2011 levels appears to be negligible. This research has wider implications for the growing international evidence base voluntary food policy, and offers insights for other countries currently undertaking work to remove TFAs from their food supply.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx002
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Health assessments for health governance—concepts and methodologies
    • Authors: Fehr R; Alexanderson K, Favaretti C, et al.
      Pages: 609 - 616
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: For better supporting the science-governance interface, the potential of health assessments appears underrated. Aims: To identify what various types of health assessment have in common; how they differ; which assessment(s) to apply for which purpose; and what needs and options there are for future joint development. Methods: This review is based on five types of health assessment: monitoring/surveillance/reporting, assessment of health impact, of health technology, of health systems performance, health-related economic assessment. The approach is exploratory and includes: applying an agreed set of comparative criteria; circulating and supplementing synoptic tables; and interpreting the results. Results: Two of the assessments deal with the question ‘Where do we stand'’, two others with variants of ‘What if’ questions. Economic Assessment can take place in combination with any of the others. The assessments involve both overall ‘procedures’ and a variety of ‘methods’ which inescapably reflect some subjective assumptions and decisions, e.g. on issue framing. Resources and assistance exist for all these assessments. The paper indicates which type of assessment is appropriate for what purpose. Conclusions: Although scientific soundness of health assessments is not trivial to secure, existing types of health assessment can be interpreted as a useful ‘toolkit’ for supporting governance. If current traces of ‘silo’ thinking can be overcome, the attainability of a more unified culture of health assessments increases and such assessments might more widely be recognized as a prime, ‘tried and tested’ way to voice Public Health knowledge and to support rational governance and policy-making.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx062
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Association between unmet healthcare needs and health-related quality of
           life: a longitudinal study
    • Authors: Ju Y; Kim T, Han K, et al.
      Pages: 631 - 637
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: As life expectancy has increased overall, health-related quality of life is now more important than ever. This is especially relevant in countries such as South Korea that are concerned about unmet healthcare needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Thus, we investigated the relationship between unmet healthcare needs and HRQoL in the general population. Methods: We used data from the 2011 to 2013 Korea Health Panel Survey, which included data from 8150 baseline participants of 19 years of age or older. We measured HRQoL using the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS indices. In addition, we used generalized estimating equations to perform a longitudinal regression analysis. Results: Approximately 13.1% of the participants (n = 1068) experienced unmet healthcare needs. Individuals with unmet healthcare needs due to economic hardship tended to have lower values than those without unmet healthcare needs for EQ-5D and EQ-VAS indices (EQ-5D: –2.688, P < 0.0001; EQ-VAS: –5.256, P < 0.0001). Additionally, when stratified by gender, both male and female subjects who had unmet healthcare needs and low economic status had a drastic decrease in HRQoL regardless of the reasons for their unmet healthcare needs. Conclusions: Unmet healthcare needs influences HRQoL, which was more pronounced in economically vulnerable groups. Thus, interventions to address HRQoL problems should focus on implementing a guarantee of healthcare services for economically vulnerable groups.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw264
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Health care on equal terms' Assessing horizontal equity in health care
           use in Northern Sweden
    • Authors: San Sebastián M; Mosquera PA, Ng N, et al.
      Pages: 637 - 643
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The Swedish health care system has successively moved toward increased market-orientation, which has raised concerns as to whether Sweden still offers health on equal terms. To explore this issue, this study aimed (i) to assess if the principles of horizontal equity (equal access for equal need regardless of socio-economic factors) are met in Northern Sweden 2006–14; and (ii) to explore the contribution of different factors to the inequalities in access along the same period. Methods: Data came from cross sectional surveys known in 2006, 2010 and 2014 targeting 16–84-year-old residents in the four northern-most counties in Sweden. The horizontal inequity index was calculated based on variables representing (i) the individual socioeconomic status, (ii) the health care needs, (iii) non-need factors as well as (iv) health care utilization: general practitioner (GP), specialist doctors, hospitalization. Decomposition analysis of the concentration index for need-standardized health care utilization was applied. Results: Adjusting for needs, there was a higher use of GP services by rich people during the two last surveys, a roughly equal use of specialists, and hospitalization concentrated among the poor but with a clear time trend toward equality. The pro-rich inequalities in GP use were to a large part explained by the income gap. Conclusion: While health care utilization can be considered equitable regarding specialist and hospital use, the increasing pro-rich trend in the use of GP is a concern. Further studies are required to investigate the reasons and a constant monitoring of socioeconomic differences in health care access is recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx031
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Occupations and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: are jobs exposed to the
           general public at higher risk'
    • Authors: D’Ovidio FF; d’Errico AA, Calvo AA, et al.
      Pages: 643 - 647
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Aim of this study was to assess whether previous employment in certain occupations could be a risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) incidence. This topic has been explored by several studies, but no risk factor has been firmly identified. Methods: The study population consisted of all subjects over 30 years old resident in Turin in 1996 who worked or were unemployed at 1991 Italian census (n = 284 406), followed up for ALS occurrence from 1996 to 2014. The risk of ALS was estimated in relation to the occupation held in 1991, using the Italian classification of occupations at the greatest detail. The association between occupations and ALS risk was estimated through Huber-White sandwich multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, education and marital status. Results: During the follow-up, 208 subjects developed ALS. ALS risk was significantly associated with previous employment as bank teller (IRR = 7.33), general practitioner (IRR = 4.61) and sales representative (IRR = 3.06). Categorizing all occupations as exposed or unexposed to direct contact with general public, it was found that previous employment in this group of occupations increased significantly ALS risk (IRR = 1.51), mainly driven by occupations in direct contact with customers (IRR = 1.79). Conclusions: The study results indicate that ALS risk may be increased by previous employment in occupations implying direct contact with the general public, in particular customers. A possible explanation of this finding, partly supported by the literature, is that workers in contact with the public could be more exposed to certain infections, which would increase their ALS risk.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx006
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • The impact of the 2008 recession on the health of older workers: data from
           13 European countries
    • Authors: Axelrad H; Sabbath EL, Hawkins S.
      Pages: 647 - 652
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn influence the health conditions of older workers. This study examined whether overall economic shifts during the 2008 recession was associated with four health indicators among older workers. Method: Data came from 4917 respondents (16 090 contacts) aged 50–70 in 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland) participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Health and employment assessments from 2004–13 were linked to annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, life expectancy and unemployment rates for each country. Using fixed effects models, we assessed the recession’s implications on four individual health outcomes: body mass index (BMI), drinking alcohol, depression and general health, while isolating cyclical variation within countries and individual changes over time. Results: Overall economic shifts had an effect on older workers: decreases in GDP were associated with a decline in average BMI, consumption of alcohol and deterioration in self-rated health; country-level unemployment rate had no effect on health outcomes, while life expectancy at birth was significant but not consistently across models. Being employed or retired were associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better self-rated health. Conclusions: Overall economic shifts during recessions affect certain health outcomes of older workers, and better health conditions together with being employed or retired may limit the negative health consequences of a recession.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx011
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Temporal changes in health within 5 years before and after disability
           pension–the HUNT Study
    • Authors: Vie G; Pape K, Krokstad S, et al.
      Pages: 653 - 659
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Health status has been reported to change before, during and after disability pension receipt. These associations might be subject to temporal changes according to changes in policy, incidence of disability pensions and other contextual factors. We compared the perceived health around time of disability retirement among persons receiving disability pension in the 1990 s and 2000 s in Norway. Methods: We linked data from two consecutive cross-sectional population based Norwegian health surveys, HUNT2 (1995–97) and HUNT3 (2006–08), to national registries, identifying those who received disability pension within 5 years before or after participation in the survey (HUNT2: n = 5362, HUNT3: n = 4649). We used logistic regression to assess associations of time from receiving a disability pension with self-rated health, insomnia, depression and anxiety symptoms and subsequently estimated adjusted prevalence over time. Results: Prevalence of poor self-rated health peaked around time of receiving disability pension in both decades. For those aged 50+, prevalence the year before disability pension was slightly lower in 2006–08 (74%, 95% CI 70–79%) than in 1995–97 (83%, 95% CI 79–87%), whereas peak prevalence was similar between surveys for those younger than 50. Depression symptoms peaked more pronouncedly in 1995–97 than in 2006–08, whereas prevalence of anxiety symptoms was similar at time of receiving disability pension between surveys. Conclusions: We found no strong evidence of differences in health selection to disability pension in the 2000 s compared to the 1990 s. However, we found indication of less depression symptoms around time of disability pension in the 2000 s compared to the 1990 s.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx082
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Night work as a risk factor of future disability pension due to
           musculoskeletal diagnoses: a prospective cohort study of Swedish twins
    • Authors: Kärkkäinen S; Ropponen A, Narusyte J, et al.
      Pages: 659 - 664
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: This study investigated the associations between night work, sleep and disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), while controlling for several confounding factors including both genetic factors and shared family background. Methods: The study sample consisted of 27 165 Swedish twin individuals born in 1935–58 with comprehensive survey data on sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors. Night work was assessed as years of working hours at night at least every now and then, and categorized into ‘not at all, 1–10 years and over 10 years’. Data on DP with MSD (ICD-diagnoses M00–M99) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency. Follow-up was from the time of the interview in 1998–2003 until 2013. Information on the length and quality of sleep was available for a sub-sample of twins (n = 1684). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: During the follow-up, 1338 (5%) participants were granted DP due to MSD. Both 1–10 years (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.17–1.53) and over 10 years of night work (HR 1.39 95% CI 1.18–1.64) increased the risk of future DP. The associations were not affected by health, lifestyle or sleep factors. In the discordant twin pair analysis, the associations between night work and DP due to MSD attenuated. Conclusions: Night work was associated with increased risk of DP due to MSD independently from health and lifestyle factors. Familial confounding could not be ruled out.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx084
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Long-term care is increasingly concentrated in the last years of life: a
           change from 2000 to 2011
    • Authors: Forma L; Aaltonen M, Pulkki J, et al.
      Pages: 665 - 669
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The use of long-term care (LTC) is common in very old age and in the last years of life. It is not known how the use pattern is changing as death is being postponed to increasingly old age. The aim is to analyze the association between the use of LTC and approaching death among old people and the change in this association from 2000 to 2011. Methods: The data were derived from national registers. The study population consists of 315 458 case-control pairs. Cases (decedents) were those who died between 2000 and 2011 at the age of 70 years or over in Finland. The matched controls (survivors) lived at least 2 years longer. Use of LTC was studied for the last 730 days for decedents and for the same calendar days for survivors. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to test the association of LTC use with decedent status and year. Results: The difference in LTC use between decedents and survivors was smallest among the oldest (OR 9.91 among youngest, 4.96 among oldest). The difference widened from 2000 to 2011 (OR of interaction of LTC use and year increased): use increased or held steady among decedents, but decreased among survivors. Conclusions: The use of LTC became increasingly concentrated in the last years of life during the study period. The use of LTC is also common among the oldest survivors. As more people live to very old age, the demand for LTC will increase.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw260
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Economic evaluation of health promotion and primary prevention actions for
           older people—a systematic review
    • Authors: Dubas-Jakóbczyk K; Kocot E, Kissimova-Skarbek K, et al.
      Pages: 670 - 679
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Healthy ageing and health promotion (HP) actions for older people have become an important health sector priority. At the same time, the application of economic evaluation methods in the field of health interventions in order to support allocative decision processes is of growing importance. The aims of the review were to analyze what the existing evidence is on cost-effectiveness of HP and/or primary prevention (PP) programmes for older people whilst providing deeper insight into methodological aspects of such studies, their overall quality and issues related to practical implementation of results. Methods: Systematic review of contemporary evidence (2000–15). Studies’ eligibility criteria included target population 65 years old or older; interventions classified as HP or PP; a full economic evaluation conducted. The search strategy included five electronic databases and Internet websites of institutions or projects related to the topic. Quality assessment of the studies was based on the ‘Drummond checklist’. Results: After screening 6450 records, 29 papers were included, the vast majority of which (22) focus on fall prevention strategies. In this area, there are examples of good and moderate quality studies which confirm the cost-effectiveness of diverse physical activity interventions in fall prevention. The existing studies are characterized by huge differences in the methods applied as well as overall quality which limits the comparability and generalizability of the results. Conclusions: There is a need for development and implementation of economically driven studies, with methods adjusted to particular character of HP and/or PP strategies for older population.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx030
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • A baseline assessment by healthcare professionals of Dutch
           pharmacotherapeutic care for the elderly with polypharmacy
    • Authors: Bakker L; Kemper PF, Wagner C, et al.
      Pages: 679 - 686
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Polypharmacy is common in the elderly population and is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events. To diminish this risk, the guideline ‘Polypharmacy in the Elderly’ has been developed in 2012. This study examines, to what extent Dutch pharmacotherapeutic practice amongst elderly with polypharmacy mirrors the best practice described in this guideline and which barriers threaten it. Methods: An observational study was conducted in 2013/14 using a questionnaire distributed amongst Dutch healthcare professionals and elderly patients with polypharmacy. Healthcare professionals were asked about their current practice and the presence of five significant barriers, selected through a literature review and from expert opinion. These barriers are: inadequate transfer of patient records; insufficient documentation of prescribed drugs; a lack of collaboration between professionals; a failure to take a full control of the medication and insufficient involvement of the patient. The patients were asked about their experience with pharmacotherapeutic care. Results: No more than 26% of the healthcare professionals indicated that they use the guideline. The five barriers threatening the pharmacotherapeutic care were found to be present. Forty-three percent of the patients mentioned that their medication was assessed last year. Conclusion: The guideline is not used frequently by the healthcare professionals, but there is a will to improve the care by following this guideline. However, the presence of the five barriers hampers its implementation. Good management of those barriers is necessary in order to improve the collaboration between primary and secondary care and to enhance the documentation of prescribed drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx076
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study
           from seven European countries
    • Authors: Eslami B; Di Rosa M, Barros H, et al.
      Pages: 686 - 692
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Being a victim of abuse during one’s life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. Methods: A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60–84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Conclusions: Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx047
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Binge drinking and well-being in European older adults: do gender and
           region matter'
    • Authors: Fuentes S; Bilal U, Galán I, et al.
      Pages: 692 - 699
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: We aimed to describe gender and region differences in the prevalence of binge drinking and in the association between binge drinking and well-being, among older adult Europeans. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) wave 4, conducted between 2011 and 2012, including 58 489 individuals aged 50 years or older. Sixteen European countries were grouped in four drinking culture regions: South, Central, North and East. We categorized drinking patterns as: never, former, no-binge and binge drinkers. We used the CASP-12 questionnaire to measure well-being. To assess the association between binge drinking and well-being, we fitted two-level mixed effects linear models. Results: The highest percentage of binge drinkers was found in Central Europe (17.25% in men and 5.05% in women) and the lowest in Southern Europe (9.74% in men and 2.34% in women). Former, never and binge drinkers had a significant negative association with well-being as compared with no-binge drinkers. There was a significant interaction in this association by gender and region. Overall, associations were generally stronger in women and in Southern and Eastern Europe. The negative association of binge drinking with well-being was especially strong in Southern European women (β = −3.80, 95% CI: −5.16 to − 2.44, P value <0.001). Conclusion: In Southern and Eastern European countries the association between binge drinking and well-being is stronger, especially in women, compared with Northern and Central Europe. Cultural factors (such as tolerance to drunkenness) should be further explored.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw246
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • The effectiveness of current French health warnings displayed on alcohol
           advertisements and alcoholic beverages
    • Authors: Dossou G; Gallopel-Morvan K, Diouf J.
      Pages: 699 - 704
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Many countries use health warnings in an attempt to regulate alcohol consumption. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in the research on alcohol warnings to support decision-making on effective health policies. This study explores the effectiveness of two mandatory warnings introduced in France in 1991 and 2007: the first (Alcohol abuse is harmful) is displayed on alcohol advertisements; the second (a pictogram) on bottles. Given that advertising content regulations have been implemented in some countries to reduce the attractiveness of alcohol marketing (e.g. the Evin law in France), this research also aims to explore whether such regulations can improve the effectiveness of warnings. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 French people aged 15–29 years. The effectiveness of health warnings was assessed in terms of recall, noticeability, credibility, comprehension, responsiveness, and ability to encourage moderate drinking and abstinence during pregnancy. Participants were shown alcohol advertisements and bottles that either followed or challenged content regulations. The data were analyzed using double manual coding and NVivo software. Results: While both warnings suffered from a lack of visibility and noticeability due to their size, location, and outdatedness and because of competition from marketing design elements, the warning on the advertisement that followed content regulations was most visible. Both warnings were considered to be informationally vague, lacking in credibility and ineffective in terms of making participants feel concerned and influencing consumption habits. Conclusions: Current French warnings are ineffective and require modification. Improvements are suggested regarding the design and content of warnings to help increase their effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw263
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Alcohol and cancer: risk perception and risk denial beliefs among the
           French general population
    • Authors: Bocquier A; Fressard L, Verger P, et al.
      Pages: 705 - 710
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Worldwide, millions of deaths each year are attributed to alcohol. We sought to examine French people’s beliefs about the risks of alcohol, their correlates, and their associations with alcohol use. Methods: Data came from the 2010 Baromètre Cancer survey, a random cross-sectional telephone survey of the French general population (n = 3359 individuals aged 15–75 years). Using principal component analysis of seven beliefs about alcohol risks, we built two scores (one assessing risk denial based on self-confidence and the other risk relativization). Two multiple linear regressions explored these scores’ socio-demographic and perceived information level correlates. Multiple logistic regressions tested the associations of these scores with daily drinking and with heavy episodic drinking (HED). Results: About 60% of the respondents acknowledged that alcohol increases the risk of cancer, and 89% felt well-informed about the risks of alcohol. Beliefs that may promote risk denial were frequent (e.g. 72% agreed that soda and hamburgers are as bad as alcohol for your health). Both risk denial and risk relativization scores were higher among men, older respondents and those of low socioeconomic status. The probability of daily drinking increased with the risk relativization score and that of HED with both scores. Conclusions: Beliefs that can help people to deny the cancer risks due to alcohol use are common in France and may exist in many other countries where alcoholic beverages have been an integral part of the culture. These results can be used to redesign public information campaigns about the risks of alcohol.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx024
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Changes in alcohol consumption in the 50- to 64-year-old European
           economically active population during an economic crisis
    • Authors: Bosque-Prous M; Kunst AE, Brugal M, et al.
      Pages: 711 - 716
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The aim was to compare alcohol drinking patterns in economically active people aged 50–64 years before the last economic crisis (2006) and during the crisis (2013). Methods: Cross-sectional study with data from 25 479 economically active people aged 50–64 years resident in 11 European countries who participated in wave 2 or wave 5 of the SHARE project (2006 and 2013). The outcome variables were hazardous drinking, abstention in previous 3 months and the weekly average number of drinks per drinker. The prevalence ratios of hazardous drinking and abstention, comparing the prevalence in 2013 vs. 2006, were estimated with Poisson regression models with robust variance, and the changes in the number of drinks per week with Poisson regression models. Results: The prevalence of hazardous drinking decreased among both men (PR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.63–0.92) and women (PR = 0.91; 95%CI = 0.72–1.15), although the latter decrease was smaller and not statistically significant. The proportion of abstainers increased among both men (PR = 1.11; 95%CI = 0.99–1.29) and women (PR = 1.18; 95%CI = 1.07–1.30), although the former increase was smaller and not statistically significant. The weekly average number of drinks per drinker decreased in men and women. The decreases in consumption were larger in Italy and Spain. Conclusion: From 2006 to 2013, the amount of alcohol consumed by late working age drinkers decreased in Europe, with more pronounced declines in the countries hardest hit by the economic crisis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx044
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Quit attempts and smoking cessation in Italian adults (25–64 years):
           factors associated with attempts and successes
    • Authors: Coppo A; Baldissera S, Migliardi A, et al.
      Pages: 717 - 722
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Over the past 50 years there was a substantial decrease in the prevalence of smoking in Italy. The objective of this work is to describe attempts to quit and cessation success in Italian smokers. Methods: A surveillance on health-related behaviors (PASSI) was conducted in 2007–13 on a sample of 203 610 Italian adults 25–64 years of age. An analysis of smokers' characteristics and behaviors was performed, focusing on attempts to quit and quit success. Data from national surveys (ISTAT) from 1983 to 2013 (Italian adults, 25–64 years of age, 1983: 46 634; 1987: 40 915; 1990: 36 622; 2000: 77 531; 2005: 71 032; 2013: 64 205) were used to explore if a cessation trend in Italy exists. Results: Smokers who quit in the previous year and were still abstinent when interviewed increased from 1990 to 2013. In the years 2011–13, 38% of people who had smoked in the last 12 months reported at least a quit attempt during the same period and 7% were still abstinent when interviewed. An association of successful recent quit attempts with higher educational level, absence of economic difficulties and younger age was found. In the years 2007–13, the great majority tried to stop unaided. Having received assistance from a cessation program did not increase the probability of enduring abstinence. Conclusions: In Italy interventions to drive more smokers to quit should be focused in particular on disadvantaged groups. Initiatives have to be studied not only to incentive more smokers to try to quit, but also to maintain abstinence over time.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw262
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Parental separation in childhood and adult smoking in the 1958 British
           birth cohort
    • Authors: Martindale SE; Lacey RE.
      Pages: 723 - 728
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Parental separation or divorce is a known risk factor for poorer adult health. One mechanism may operate through the uptake of risky health behaviours, such as smoking. This study investigated the association between parental separation and adult smoking in a large British birth cohort and also examined potential socioeconomic, relational and psychosocial mediators. Differences by gender and timing of parental separation were also assessed. Methods: Multiply imputed data on 11 375 participants of the National Child Development Study (the 1958 British birth cohort) were used. A series of multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to investigate the association between parental separation (0–16 years) and adult smoking status (age 42), and the role of potential socioeconomic, relational and psychosocial mediators. Results: Parental separation in childhood was associated with an increased risk of being a current (RRR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.77, 2.60) or ex-smoker (RRR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.85) at age 42. This association remained after consideration of potential socioeconomic, psychosocial and relational mediators. Relational (parent–child relationship quality, parental involvement and adult partnership status) and socioeconomic factors (overcrowding, financial hardship, housing tenure, household amenities, free school meal receipt and educational attainment) appeared to be the most important of the groups of mediators investigated. No differences by gender or the timing of parental separation were observed. Conclusion: Parental separation experienced in childhood was associated with increased risk of smoking. Families undergoing separation should be further supported in order to prevent the uptake of smoking and to prevent later health problems.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw265
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Restrictions on the use of e-cigarettes in public and private
           places—current practice and support among adults in Great Britain
    • Authors: Brose LS; McNeill A, Arnott D, et al.
      Pages: 729 - 736
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Debates around policies regulating e-cigarette use make it important to obtain an overview of current practice, people’s attitudes and correlates of policy support. Aims were to assess (i) current practices for e-cigarette use in homes and workplaces; (ii) characteristics associated with allowing e-cigarette use in the home; and (iii) level of, and characteristics associated with, support for extending smoke-free legislation to include e-cigarettes. Methods: Online survey in 2016, n = 11 389 adults in Great Britain. Descriptives for all measures; multivariable logistic regressions assessed correlates of allowing e-cigarette use and support for extension of legislation. Results: Most (79%) reporting on workplace policies reported some level of restrictions on e-cigarette use. Small majorities would not allow e-cigarette use in their home (58%) and supported an extension of smoke-free legislation (52%; 21% opposed). Allowing use was less likely and supporting an extension more likely among men, respondents from a higher socio-economic status, ex-smokers, never-smokers, non-users of e-cigarettes and respondents with increased perceived harm of e-cigarettes or nicotine (all P < 0.001). Older respondents were less likely to allow use and to support an extension and Labour voters more likely to allow use. Conclusions: In Great Britain, the majority of workplaces has policies restricting e-cigarette use. Over half of adults would not allow use of e-cigarettes in their home and support prohibiting the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free places. Adjusting for socio-demographics, more restrictive attitudes are more common among never-smokers, never-users and those with increased perception of relative harms of e-cigarettes or nicotine as cause of smoking-related illness.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw268
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Burden of smoking in Lithuania: attributable mortality and years of
           potential life lost
    • Authors: Liutkutė V; Veryga A, Štelemėkas M, et al.
      Pages: 736 - 741
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: High mortality rates from smoking related diseases are a significant public health issue in Lithuania. Study aims to estimate the number of smoking attributable deaths (SADs) and years of potential life lost in Lithuania in 2013. Methods: Gender, age and disease specific mortality was calculated by applying the smoking attributable fractions (SAFs) to prevalence estimates of current and former smokers among Lithuanian adults aged ≥35 years that are based on the 2005 Lithuanian Health Interview Survey. Mortality data were obtained from the Institute of Hygiene Health Information Centre. Eight years lag was assumed between smoking rates and subsequent mortality. Sensitivity analysis was used to calculate SAFs applying smoking impact ratio method. Results: In 2013, 13.9% of total mortality or 5771 deaths in Lithuania were attributable to smoking (5181 men and 590 women). The two leading causes of SADs were ischaemic heart disease (2861) and lung cancer (1054) that accounted for 67.8% of the smoking attributable mortality. In the same year, smoking accounted for 39 279 years of potential life lost (34 663 years for men and 4615 years for women). Conclusions: Smoking causes a considerable mortality burden in Lithuania, killing nine times more males than females. Therefore reduction of smoking prevalence is an urgent public health need, which calls for implementation of effective and comprehensive tobacco control measures consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Articles and Protocols and The Tobacco Products Directive.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx035
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • The association of context-specific sitting time and physical activity
           intensity to working memory capacity and academic achievement in young
    • Authors: Felez-Nobrega M; Hillman CH, Cirera E, et al.
      Pages: 741 - 746
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: To examine combined associations between self-reported context-specific sitting time (ST) and physical activity (PA) with working memory capacity (WMC) and academic achievement in a sample of Spanish adults. Design: Undergraduate students (n = 371; 21 years ± 3 years, 44% female) were recruited from University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia. Methods: Participants completed a 54-item survey that assessed socio-demographic variables (e.g. age, gender, academic year), min/week of light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) intensity PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), min/day of domain-specific ST (Last 7 days sedentary behavior questionnaire) and academic performance (grade point average). WMC was assessed through a multiple complex span task that included: Operation Span, Symmetry Span and Rotation Span. These tasks interleave a processing task with a short list of to-be-remembered items. General linear models—adjusted by PA, ST and gender—assessed combined associations between ST and PA with WMC and academic achievement. Results: Performing more than 3 h/week of MPA was related to increases in WMC (P < 0.001). However, PA was not associated with academic performance. More than 3 h seated on a weekend day while performing non-screen leisure activities were related to reduced WMC after adjusting for PA (P = 0.012). Similarly, >3 h/weekday spent seated in these sedentary activities or in leisure-forms of screen time were inversely associated with academic performance regardless of PA (P = 0.033; P = 0.048). Conclusions: MPA may benefit working memory; however, specific domains of leisure-time sedentary behavior may have an unfavorable influence on working memory and academic performance regardless of time spent in PA.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx021
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and
           sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study
    • Authors: Bel-Serrat S; Huybrechts I, Thumann BF, et al.
      Pages: 747 - 755
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an inventory of currently existing surveillance systems assessing diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Europe as a tool to assist in the identification of gaps and needs and to contribute to the roadmap for an integrated pan-European surveillance system. Methods: An inventory questionnaire was completed by representatives of eleven European countries. Eligible surveillance systems were required to meet specific inclusion criteria. First, pre-screening of available surveillance systems in each country was conducted. Second, an in-depth appraisal of the retained surveillance systems complying with the pre-defined requirements was performed. Results: Fifty surveillance systems met the inclusion criteria: six multinational European surveys and forty-four national surveys. Dietary intake and physical activity are the domains predominantly assessed and adults are the most frequently studied age group. Conclusions: Many on-going activities were identified at the national level focussing on adults, but fewer surveillance systems involving vulnerable groups such as infants and pre-school children. Assessment of sedentary and dietary behaviours should be more frequently considered. There is a need for harmonization of surveillance methodologies, indicators and target populations for between-country and over time comparisons. This inventory will serve to feed future discussions within the DEDIPAC-JPI major framework on how to optimize design and identify priorities within surveillance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx023
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Self-rated health literacy is associated with exercise frequency among
           adults aged 50+ in Ireland
    • Authors: Gibney SS; Doyle GG.
      Pages: 755 - 761
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-rated health literacy and self-reported exercise frequency among people aged 50+ in Ireland. Methods: Data were from the European Health Literacy Survey (2011) a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of adults aged 15+ from eight countries. Health literacy was measured using composite indices (0–50, low to high) in three domains: healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. Participants reported how often they exercised for 30 min or longer in the month prior to survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between exercise frequency (almost daily activity vs. weekly or less) and health literacy among participants aged 50+ in Ireland (n = 389). All models were fully adjusted for age, gender, employment status, marital status, social status, education, financial deprivation and having a physically limiting illness. Results: An increased odds of exercising almost daily was associated with understanding disease prevention (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.03–1.35) and health promotion information (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.01–1.32) and accessing (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.00–1.29) and evaluating health promotion information (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.00–1.26) with ease. Conclusions: Public health approaches to promoting exercise often include providing information about the benefits of regular exercise, promoting affordable options and enhancing the accessibility of the built environment. Public health policy should also consider measures to improve interactive health literacy skills in order to achieve positive behavioural change.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx028
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • The link between perceived characteristics of neighbourhood green spaces
           and adults’ physical activity in UK cities: analysis of the EURO-URHIS 2
    • Authors: Ali O; Di Nardo F, Harrison A, et al.
      Pages: 761 - 765
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Urban dwellers represent half the world’s population and are increasing worldwide. Their health and behaviours are affected by the built environment and green areas may play a major role in promoting physical activity, thus decreasing the burden of chronic diseases, overweight and inactivity. However, the availability of green areas may not guarantee healthy levels of physical activity among the urban dwellers. It is therefore necessary to study how the perceived characteristics of green areas affect physical activity. Methods: Data from the EURO-URHIS 2 survey of residents of 13 cities across the UK were analyzed and a multivariable model was created in order to assess the association between their perceptions of the green areas in their neighbourhood and their engagement in physical activity. Results were adjusted for age, gender and other potential confounders. Results: Those who felt unable to engage in active recreational activities in their local green spaces were significantly less likely to carry out moderate physical exercise for at least 60 min per week (adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% 0.37–0.68). Availability of green areas within walking distance did not affect engagement in physical activity. Other characteristics such as accessibility and safety may play an important role. Conclusion: This study showed that the presence of green space may not itself encourage the necessary preventative health behaviours to tackle physical inactivity in urban populations. Development of more appropriate green spaces may be required. Further research is needed to shed light on the types green spaces that are most effective.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx033
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Changes in leisure-time physical activity and subsequent common mental
           disorders among ageing employees
    • Authors: Lahti J; Lahelma E, Rahkonen O.
      Pages: 765 - 767
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this study was to examine whether changes in leisure-time physical activity are associated with subsequent common mental disorders. Follow-up survey data were collected from 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, at three time points: 2000–2002 (rr 67%), 2007 (rr 83%) and 2012 (rr 79%). We excluded those with common mental disorders at phase 1 (n = 1162) and in total 4681 respondents (81% women) were available for the analyses. Compared with those persistently active, those persistently inactive had an increased risk of subsequent common mental disorders. Promoting leisure-time physical activity may prove useful for preventing common mental disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx020
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Inequalities in obesity in Portugal: regional and gender differences
    • Authors: Alves L; Stringhini S, Barros H, et al.
      Pages: 775 - 780
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Obesity levels vary considerably according to geographical region and socio-economic status. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity by education and occupational position across seven Portuguese regions. Relative and absolute inequalities in obesity were also assessed. Methods: Data was drawn from the Portuguese Health Survey 2005/6 (26 674 adults, 46.6% women). Education was categorized as ≤4, 5–11 and ≥12 complete years of education. Occupational position was grouped as upper white collar, lower white collar and blue collar. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) were used to quantify relative and absolute inequalities in obesity, respectively. Results: In women, prevalence of obesity ranged between 10.0% (Algarve) and 20.3% (Azores); in men, it ranged between 13.3% (Algarve) and 16.4% (Lisbon). In women, the educational RII (95% confidence interval) ranged between 2.4 (1.1 to 5.1) in the Centre and 6.6 (3.0 to 14.2) in Alentejo, and the SII (95% CI) between 9.7 (−1.3 to 20.7) and 33.0 (26.0 to 40.0), respectively. In men, the RII ranged between 0.8 (0.4 to 1.5) in Madeira and 1.9 (1.0 to 4.5) in the Centre, and the SII between −8.3 (−19.0 to 2.5) and 9.5 (−0.1 to 19.1), respectively. Occupational RIIs were similar to those for education, although somewhat lower. Conclusion: In Portugal, large educational and occupational inequalities in obesity are observed, but they vary considerably by region and are larger among women than men.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx041
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • Whether people believe that overweight is unhealthy depends on their BMI
    • Authors: Dohle S; Bucher T.
      Pages: 781 - 783
      Abstract: AbstractAn online experiment with 536 participants was conducted to investigate how people who differ in body weight perceive scientific information on body weight and mortality. The results showed that individuals who were aware that they are overweight were more inclined to trust a study that showed that overweight reduces mortality (P < 0.001). This finding is relevant as the BMI-mortality association remains a matter of scientific and public debate and people’s risk perceptions influences their willingness to change behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx042
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
  • European Public Health News
    • Authors: Paget D.
      Pages: 784 - 787
      Abstract: In this European Public Health News, all authors are reflecting on the involvement and rights of the consumers. Muscat highlights e-health and the new ways of communication that change the roles for patients to interact with their health systems. Zeegers continues by emphasizing the need to put the public back in health research, reflecting on the discussions during the second annual forum of the Scientific Panel on Health Research. Jakab emphasises the importance of including the right to health for migrants and equitable access to people-centred and migrant/refugee sensitive health systems. Andriukaitis presents the European Pillar on Social Rights, a new tool that the European Commission hopes will become a reference framework, including health policy and the delivery of health services. Finally, Forsberg presents the attention given to resilience and health in action at community level, where direct interaction between health and social systems with the individual takes place. All in all, the involvement and rights of Europeans is clearly a starting point for all our work as public health community.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx097
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2017)
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