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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 369 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 493, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover European Journal of Public Health
  [SJR: 1.284]   [H-I: 64]   [22 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1101-1262 - ISSN (Online) 1464-360X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Sharing the burden: a new European Burden of Disease Network is formed
    • Authors: Stein C; Newton J.
      Abstract: Measuring a problem is a good first step towards addressing it. Consider the work of John Snow, Florence Nightingale or Rudolf Virchow as examples of that principle in action. The Burden of Disease (BoD) approach takes this concept to another level by attempting to measure (or more correctly to estimate) multiple problems in multiple settings simultaneously. This extraordinary breadth of approach is both a huge strength in terms of relevance and impact, but also a significant methodological challenge.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
       
  • IANPHI—10 years of collaboration for institutional public health
    • Authors: Pekka P; Jeffrey KP.
      Abstract: In modern societies health issues have become increasingly complicated. Strong evidence and expert support are needed for health policy. Modern challenges include, in addition to infectious and non-communicable diseases, such areas as environmental health, mental health, occupational health, injuries, preparedness for emergencies and strengthening of public health services—not to mention social determinants of health.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
       
  • Hans Rosling
    • Authors: Ekström A; Schreeb J, Forsberg B, et al.
      Abstract: Hans Rosling, professor of international health at Karolinska Institutet sadly passed away on 7 February 2017 at the age of 68 years.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
       
  • Is written informed consent outdated?
    • Authors: Tassé A; Kirby E.
      Abstract: In both law and bioethics, personal integrity is considered an essential component of human dignity, and is enacted as a fundamental right. This right to personal integrity implies that without his or her free consent, no one shall be subject to physical or mental intervention, experimentation or harm, thereby crystallizing the principles of self-determination and autonomy. In this perspective, informed consent is far from being a meaningless mantra, but rather a mean to ensure the respect of personal integrity and dignity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
       
  • European Public Health News
    • Authors: Zeegers Paget D.
      Abstract: In this European public health news, the main themes are the importance of data/research and the dedication to work together to further public health in Europe. Our president, Azzopardi Muscat describes that dedication and clear objectives are an incentive to commit to public health. Zeegers Paget displays the ‘positive energy’ at meetings of dedicated public health professionals as a motor to further public health. Jakab emphasizes the need for knowledge as the basis for all decision-making and Andriukaitis highlights the work of the European Commission on setting up European Reference Networks to gather data throughout the region. The positive energy, being together and importance of data/research all come together in the upcoming European Public Health conference in Stockholm.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
       
  • Effectiveness of interventions to improve lifestyle behaviors among
           socially disadvantaged children in Europe
    • Authors: Wijtzes AI; van de Gaar VM, van Grieken A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and childhood overweight are more common among children from families with a low socioeconomic position and ethnic minority children (referred to as social disadvantaged children). Aims: This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aimed to improve lifestyle behaviours and/or prevent overweight among socially disadvantaged children in Europe. Methods: Six major databases were searched for studies reporting intervention effects on adiposity measures, sedentary behaviours, physical activity behaviours or dietary behaviours. Studies were included when the study sample consisted of at least 50% socially disadvantaged children or when results were presented for subgroups of socially disadvantaged children separately. Methodological quality assessment was based on Cochrane criteria. Results: In total, 11 studies reporting on eight interventions (one among infants 0–2 years, one among preschoolers 2–6 years, six among school-aged children 6–12 years) were identified. Of these eight interventions, five interventions primarily aimed to improve at least one adiposity measure and three primarily aimed to improve a specific lifestyle behaviour. In general, modest positive effects were found but interventions were limited by a short follow-up duration. Conclusions: Despite an urgent need for effective interventions to improve lifestyle behaviours and prevent overweight among socially disadvantaged children, research on the effectiveness of interventions in Europe is still scarce. Those interventions that have been evaluated show modest effects on lifestyle behaviours and adiposity measures, but long-term follow-up is needed to establish whether these effects are sustained over a longer period of time.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
       
  • Johannes Siegrist and Morten Wahrendorf (eds). Work Stress and Health in a
           Globalized Economy. The Model of Effort-Reward Imbalance
    • Authors: Pikhart H.
      Abstract: SiegristJohannes and WahrendorfMorten (eds). Work Stress and Health in a Globalized Economy. The Model of Effort-Reward Imbalance. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2016. ISBN 978-3-319-32935-2, number of pages: XIX, 378
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
       
  • Preventing vitamin D deficiency (VDD): a systematic review of economic
           evaluations
    • Authors: Aguiar M; Andronis L, Pallan M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a public health concern worldwide. If untreated, it can lead to reduced quality of life and escalated costs brought about by ill-health. Preventive programmes to improve population vitamin D status exist but little is known about their cost-effectiveness. This information is vital so that decision-makers adopt efficient strategies and optimise use of public resources. Aims: Systematically review and critically appraise economic evaluations of population strategies to prevent VDD. Methods: The databases reviewed were MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, NHS EED, CEA, and RepEc. All full economic evaluations of VDD prevention strategies were included. Interventions considered were food fortification, supplementation and public health campaigns. Data extracted included type of evaluation, population, setting, measure of benefit and main results. Results: Of the 2492 records screened, 14 studies were included. The majority of studies focused on supplementation within at-risk groups with the primary objective of either preventing fractures or falls in older adults. There was insufficient economic evidence to draw conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of population strategies. No study was identified that offered a direct comparison of the two main alternative population strategies: food fortification vs. supplementation. Conclusions: Whilst there is a growing body of evidence on the cost-effectiveness of micro nutrient programmes, there is a paucity of data on vitamin D fortification and how fortification programmes compare to population supplementation programmes. We highlight research gaps, and offer suggestions of what is required to undertake population-based cost-effectiveness analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
       
  • Social class variation, the effect of the economic recession and childhood
           obesity at 3 years of age in Ireland
    • Authors: Jabakhanji S; Pavlova M, Groot W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Many studies have reported a social class gradient within overweight prevalence (1–4). Additionally, cross-country comparisons report high overweight trends and a change in food consumption patterns in countries affected by an economic crisis (5–11). The aim of this study was to assess the association between social class and recession on obesity levels in 3-year-old Irish children. Methods: The population-based infant cohort of the national Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study was used. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were calculated and logistic regression models, adjusting for confounders, were used to examine the relationship between social class, effects of the recession and childhood obesity. Results: In 2008, 19.5% of 9-month-olds were obese and 19.4% overweight increasing to 22.7% and 20.4%, respectively by 2011 when the infants were 3 years old (World Health Organization (WHO) criteria). The prevalence of obesity increased by 2.3% to 10.1% for various social classes (unadjusted). However, adjusting for confounders, there was no evidence of a difference in obesity of 3-year-old children across social classes. There was evidence that obesity was 22–27% higher for families who perceived a very significant crisis effect on their family, compared with those significantly affected. Conclusion: Increases in obesity were found to be significantly associated with perceived recession effects on the family, but not with social class. Policy makers should be aware that in times of economic downturn, public health efforts to promote healthy weight are needed at a population level rather than for specific social classes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
       
  • Nutrition modification aimed at enhancing dietary iron and folic acid
           intake: an application of health belief model in practice
    • Authors: Araban M; Baharzadeh K, Karimy M.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The amount of calories and nutrients required for woman increase during pregnancy and Intake adequate amounts of nutrients is essential for the health of mother and foetal. This study was designed to investigate the effect of nutrition education based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on calories, iron and folic acid intake for pregnant women. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 76 pregnant women referring to four urban health centres of Khuzestan at 2015. Two education sessions were held covering items on nutrition during pregnancy. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire, HBM questionnaire (CVI= 0.89, CVI = 0.83 and Cronbach's alpha = 0.84) and 3-day food record form. Data collection tool was valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire based on the HBM. Data analysis was done applying Chi-squared t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test using SPSS 15. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the mean of calories, iron and folic acid intake in both groups. But after intervention, it was significant (P 0.05), but the difference was significant after intervention (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Educational intervention strategies based on HBM can improve dietary iron and folic acid intake in pregnant women in primary health care setting. Since anaemia is one of the leading indirect causes of maternal mortality and it is easily preventable, our findings have critical public health implications and perhaps might be used in evidence-based decision making by authority bodies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05
       
  • Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay
           between economic, social and cultural capital
    • Authors: De Clercq B; Abel T, Moor I, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Methods: Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12–18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. Results: The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices (P < 0.05), and were consequently reduced when adolescents reported to have a high number of books at home (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A combination of selected resources in the form of economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system.
      PubDate: 2016-12-31
       
  • The economic burden of a Salmonella Thompson outbreak caused by smoked
           salmon in the Netherlands, 2012–2013
    • Authors: Suijkerbuijk AM; Bouwknegt M, Mangen MJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: In 2012, the Netherlands experienced the most extensive food-related outbreak of Salmonella ever recorded. It was caused by smoked salmon contaminated with Salmonella Thompson during processing. In total, 1149 cases of salmonellosis were laboratory confirmed and reported to RIVM. Twenty percent of cases was hospitalised and four cases were reported to be fatal. The purpose of this study was to estimate total costs of the Salmonella Thompson outbreak. Methods: Data from a case–control study were used to estimate the cost-of-illness of reported cases (i.e. healthcare costs, patient costs and production losses). Outbreak control costs were estimated based on interviews with staff from health authorities. Using the Dutch foodborne disease burden and cost-of-illness model, we estimated the number of underestimated cases and the associated cost-of-illness. Results: The estimated number of cases, including reported and underestimated cases was 21 123. Adjusted for underestimation, the total cost-of-illness would be €6.8 million (95% CI €2.5–€16.7 million) with productivity losses being the main cost driver. Adding outbreak control costs, the total outbreak costs are estimated at €7.5 million. Conclusion: In the Netherlands, measures are taken to reduce salmonella concentrations in food, but detection of contamination during food processing remains difficult. As shown, Salmonella outbreaks have the potential for a relatively high disease and economic burden for society. Early warning and close cooperation between the industry, health authorities and laboratories is essential for rapid detection, control of outbreaks, and to reduce disease and economic burden.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08
       
  • Written informed consent in health research is outdated
    • Authors: Broekstra RR; Maeckelberghe EM, Stolk RP.
      Abstract: Reference to the Declaration of Helsinki as assurance for ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects has become a meaningless mantra. The participants’ relationship with researchers has been distrusted-based with Written Informed Consent (WIC) hereinafter referred to as WIC) placed as an important barrier to protect participants’ autonomy. Today the mantra is dictated by many details in consent forms and ever more strict regulations. Globally, especially in Europe as well the USA, establishment of privacy and protection of research subject regulations reveal similar obstacles and critiques, for example in the recently accepted European General Data Protection Regulation and the proposed changes to the Common Rule from September 2015. In a digital revolution ethical principles need to be reassured in a novel way, especially for the increasing use of data collected outside traditional clinical trial research such as patient records and biobank/cohort studies linked with other data sources (‘Big Data in Healthcare’). WIC as used in research in medical sciences are static and not appropriate for the use of untraditional and innovative research methods. We will argue that dynamic, continuous, and interactive methods of informing do more justice to the underlying principles of informed consent. This by honouring rights of participants and to facilitate them in their decision to participate based on a qualified presumed consent, while being more transparent.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03
       
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of long term care facility and general
           practice urine samples in patients 65 years and older: an observational
           study
    • Authors: Fleming A; Barry L, Byrne S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Antimicrobial resistance in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) poses a risk to elderly residents. The aim of this observational study was to investigate recent patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in urine samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Cork University Hospital (CUH) from LTCFs in the greater Cork region. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of LTCF and General Practitioner (GP) urine samples sent to CUH, for patients aged over 65 years of age, were compared. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of urine samples submitted to the microbiology laboratory at CUH in quarter one of 2011–2014 was conducted. LTCF and GP urine sample susceptibilities, for patients over 65 years of age, were compared using Chi square statistics. Results: Overall, the LTCF urine samples were less susceptible than GP urine samples to the antimicrobials recommended in the national urinary tract infection guidelines; trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, cephalexin, co-amoxiclav, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin (P < 0.001). Important trends in antimicrobial susceptibility over the time period were noted. A significant reduction in susceptibility to co-amoxiclav was found between Q1 2011 and Q1 2014 in both settings (GP P = 0.013, LTCF P = 0.005). Conclusion: This study provides important information which will contribute to the revision of antimicrobial prescribing guidelines in the future. This study highlights the need for continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility trends in LTCFs. Antimicrobial stewardship strategies are urgently required to address antimicrobial resistance and appropriate antimicrobial prescribing in the LTCF setting.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24
       
  • Social inequalities in self-rated health in Ukraine in 2007: the role of
           psychosocial, material and behavioural factors
    • Authors: Platts LG; Gerry CJ.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Despite Ukraine’s large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Methods: Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. Results: In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55–64% in men and 35–47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27–30% in men and 19–27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68–84% in men and 43–60% in women. Conclusions: The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
       
  • Effect of glass markings on drinking rate in social alcohol drinkers
    • Authors: Troy DM; Attwood AS, Maynard OM, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The main aim of these studies was to explore the influence of volume information on glassware on the time taken to consume an alcoholic beverage. Methods: In Study 1, male and female social alcohol consumers (n = 159) were randomised to drink 12 fl oz of either low or standard strength lager, from either a curved glass marked with yellow tape at the midpoint or an unmarked curved glass, in a between-subjects design. In Study 2, male and female social alcohol consumers (n = 160) were randomised to drink 12 fl oz of standard strength lager from either a curved glass marked with ¼, ½ and ¾ volume points or an unmarked curved glass, in a between-subjects design. The primary outcome measure for both studies was total drinking time of an alcoholic beverage. Results: In Study 1, after removing outliers, total drinking time was slower from the glass with midpoint volume marking [mean drinking times (min): 9.98 (marked) vs. 9.55 (unmarked), mean difference = 0.42, 95% CI: −0.90, 1.44]. In Study 2, after removing outliers, total drinking time was slower from the glass with multiple volume marks [mean drinking times: 10.34 (marked) vs. 9.11 (unmarked), mean difference = 1.24, 95% CI: −0.11, 2.59]. However, in both studies confidence intervals were wide and also consistent with faster consumption from marked glasses. Conclusion: Consumption of an alcoholic beverage may be slower when served in glasses with volume information. Replication in larger studies is warranted.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
       
  • Factors affecting the quality of life of chronic dialysis patients
    • Authors: Jankowska-Polańska B; Uchmanowicz I, Wysocka A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Patients on hemodialysis must adjust their life plans to the treatment. They are aware of losing their health and independence. Therefore, acceptance of illness (AI) is important and allows the patient to adjust to new situation and alleviates negative emotions Methods: The aim of study was to assess the impact of AI and other socioclinical variables on hemodialysis patients' quality of life (QoL).The study included 100 patients aged 20–85 (M = 57), treated with hemodialysis for at least 2 years. Two validated instruments were used: the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Results: High, moderate and low level of AI was found for 15, 61 and 24 patients, respectively. The QoL increased with the AI score. In physical domain, it reached 69.8 ± 12.4 in the high AIS group, 54.2 ± 15.3 in the moderate AIS group and 42.7 ± 12.3 in the low AIS group (P < 0.001). The psychological domain scores were 70.3 ± 12.8, 57.2 ± 15.0 and 49.7 ± 11.8 (P < 0.001), respectively. The environmental domain scores were 68.8 ± 13.3,59.0 ± 12.6 and 53.0 ± 11.6 (P < 0.001), respectively. AIS scores were positively correlated with QoL in three domains: physical (r = 0.549; P < 0.0001), psychological (r = 0.505; P < 0.0001) and environmental (r = 0.444; P < 0.0001). In multiple-factor analysis, AI was independent predictors in physical domains (β = +0.210), psychological domain (β = +0.402) and environmental domain (β = +0.204). No correlation or predictive value was found for the social relationship domain, however. Conclusions: Patients on dialysis have moderate-to-low AI. AI is an independent predictor positively correlated with QoL in all domains except for social relationships. The social and psychological support for dialyzed patient might improve their HRQoL and illness acceptance.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19
       
  • Living alone and unplanned hospitalizations among older adults: a
           population-based longitudinal study
    • Authors: Pimouguet C; Rizzuto D, Lagergren M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: The association of living alone with hospitalization among the general elderly population has been rarely investigated, and the influence of common disorders on this association remains unknown. Methods: We used data on participants in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (n = 3130). Risk and number of unplanned hospitalizations and length of hospital stays were studied over a period of 2 years. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hospitalization and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models adjusted for potential confounders to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) of the number of hospitalizations and total length of stay associated with living alone. Results: A total of 1768 participants (56.5%) lived alone. Five hundred and sixty-one (31.7%) of those who lived alone had at least one unplanned hospitalization. In the multivariate analyses, living alone was significantly associated with the risk of unplanned hospitalization (HR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.45) and the number of hospitalizations (IRR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.76) but not with the length of hospital stays. In stratified analyses, the association between living alone and unplanned hospitalizations remained statistically significant only among men (HR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.17–1.99). Conclusions: Living alone is associated with higher risks of unplanned hospitalization in elderly, especially for men.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15
       
  • Associations between lifestyle factors and an unhealthy diet
    • Authors: Fransen HP; Boer JA, Beulens JJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with other unhealthy lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical inactivity. Whether these associations are similar in high- and low-educated individuals is currently unknown. Methods: We used information of the EPIC-NL cohort, a prospective cohort of 39 393 men and women, aged 20–70 years at recruitment. A lifestyle questionnaire and a validated food frequency questionnaire were administered at recruitment (1993–97). Low adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was used to determine an unhealthy dietary pattern. Lifestyle-related factors included body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, physical activity level, dietary supplement use and daily breakfast consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the total population and by strata of educational level. Results: In total 30% of the study population had an unhealthy dietary pattern: 39% in the lowest educated group and 20% in the highest educated group. Physical inactivity, a large waist circumference, no dietary supplement use and skipping breakfast were associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern in both low and high educated participants. Among low educated participants, current smokers had a greater odds of an unhealthy diet compared with never smokers: OR 1.42 (95% CI: 1.25; 1.61). This association was not observed in the high educated group. Conclusions: Most associations between lifestyle-related factors and unhealthy diet were consistent across educational levels, except for smoking. Only among low educated participants, current smokers reported an unhealthier dietary pattern in comparison to never smokers. These results can be used in the development of targeted health promotion strategies.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
       
  • Are health inequalities rooted in the past? Income inequalities in
           metabolic syndrome decomposed by childhood conditions
    • Authors: Mosquera PA; San Sebastian M, Ivarsson A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. Methods: The sample (N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010. Measures from health examinations were used to operationalize metabolic syndrome, which was linked to register data including socioeconomic conditions at age 40–50 years, as well as childhood conditions at participant age 10–12 years. Income inequality in metabolic syndrome in middle age was estimated by the concentration index and decomposed by childhood and current socioeconomic conditions using decomposition analysis. Results: Childhood conditions jointed explained 7% (men) to 10% (women) of health inequalities in middle age. Adding mid-adulthood sociodemographic factors showed a dominant contribution of chiefly current income and educational level in both gender. In women, the addition of current factors slightly attenuated the contribution of childhood conditions, but with paternal income and education still contributing. In contrast, the corresponding addition in men removed all explanation attributable to childhood conditions. Conclusions: Despite that the influence of early life conditions to adult health inequalities was considerably smaller than that of concurrent conditions, the study suggests that early interventions against social inequalities potentially could reduce health inequalities in the adult population for decades to come.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
       
  • Successful nutrition policy: improvement of vitamin D intake and status in
           Finnish adults over the last decade
    • Authors: Raulio S; Erlund I, Männistö S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Due to vitamin D intake below recommendation (10 µg/day) and low (
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
  • The effectiveness of ID readers and remote age verification in enhancing
           compliance with the legal age limit for alcohol
    • Authors: Van Hoof JJ.
      Abstract: AbstractCurrently, two different age verification systems (AVS) are implemented to enhance compliance with legal age limits for the sale of alcohol in the Netherlands. In this study, we tested the operational procedures and effectiveness of ID readers and remote age verification technology in supermarkets during the sale of alcohol. Following a trained alcohol purchase protocol, eight mystery shoppers (both underage and in the branch’s reference age) conducted 132 alcohol purchase attempts in stores that were equipped with ID readers or remote age verification or were part of a control group. In stores equipped with an ID reader, 34% of the purchases were conducted without any mistakes (full compliance). In stores with remote age verification, full compliance was achieved in 87% of the cases. The control group reached 57% compliance, which is in line with the national average. Stores with ID readers perform worse than stores with remote age verification, and also worse than stores without any AVS. For both systems, in addition to effectiveness, public support and user friendliness need to be investigated. This study shows that remote age verification technology is a promising intervention that increases vendor compliance during the sales of age restricted products.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
  • Cost analysis of a peer support programme for patients with type 2
           diabetes: a secondary analysis of a controlled trial
    • Authors: Johansson T; Keller S, Sönnichsen AC, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: This study aimed to explore if group-based peer support as an additional component to a disease management programme (DMP) in type 2 diabetes can reduce the number of prescribed drugs; hospital admissions; and length of hospital stay and therefore be a cost-effective model. Methods: Controlled study based on a secondary data analysis of a cluster randomized trial. Our study population was general practitioners and patients in the province of Salzburg. The 24-months intervention consisted of regular group meetings facilitated by trained peer supporters. The groups exercised together, discussed diabetes related topics, and received support by professionals. Data was anonymously collected on clusters through the statutory health insurance. Results: Data were available of 118 (82.5%,17 clusters of the patients in the original randomized trial) participants in the intervention and 143 (77.3%,19 clusters) in the control groups. The length of hospital stay was shorter in the intervention groups compared with controls. The mean difference during the 24-month study period was −40.13 days (95% CI − 78.54 to − 1.71, P = 0.041) in favour of the intervention groups. No differences were seen in the number of prescribed drugs and hospital admission. Estimated yearly savings by reducing the length of hospital stay was €1660.60 per patient. Conclusion: A group-based peer support programme as an additional component of a DMP in type 2 diabetes is a promising approach to optimize diabetes care and to enhance lifestyle interventions in primary care. Peer support seems to reduce length of hospital stay and could therefore be a cost-effective model.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30
       
  • Low vaccination coverage of Greek Roma children amid economic crisis:
           national survey using stratified cluster sampling
    • Authors: Papamichail D; Petraki I, Arkoudis C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Research on Roma health is fragmentary as major methodological obstacles often exist. Reliable estimates on vaccination coverage of Roma children at a national level and identification of risk factors for low coverage could play an instrumental role in developing evidence-based policies to promote vaccination in this marginalized population group. Methods: We carried out a national vaccination coverage survey of Roma children. Thirty Roma settlements, stratified by geographical region and settlement type, were included; 7–10 children aged 24–77 months were selected from each settlement using systematic sampling. Information on children’s vaccination coverage was collected from multiple sources. In the analysis we applied weights for each stratum, identified through a consensus process. Results: A total of 251 Roma children participated in the study. A vaccination document was presented for the large majority (86%). We found very low vaccination coverage for all vaccines. In 35–39% of children ‘minimum vaccination’ (DTP3 and IPV2 and MMR1) was administered, while 34–38% had received HepB3 and 31–35% Hib3; no child was vaccinated against tuberculosis in the first year of life. Better living conditions and primary care services close to Roma settlements were associated with higher vaccination indices. Conclusions: Our study showed inadequate vaccination coverage of Roma children in Greece, much lower than that of the non-minority child population. This serious public health challenge should be systematically addressed, or, amid continuing economic recession, the gap may widen. Valid national estimates on important characteristics of the Roma population can contribute to planning inclusion policies.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30
       
  • The mediating role of social capital in the association between
           neighbourhood income inequality and body mass index
    • Authors: Mackenbach JD; Lakerveld J, van Oostveen Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Neighbourhood income inequality may contribute to differences in body weight. We explored whether neighbourhood social capital mediated the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual body mass index (BMI). Methods: A total of 4126 adult participants from 48 neighbourhoods in France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK provided information on their levels of income, perceptions of neighbourhood social capital and BMI. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. Neighbourhood income inequality was defined as the ratio of the amount of income earned by the top 20% and the bottom 20% in a given neighbourhood. Two single mediation analyses—using multilevel linear regression analyses—with neighbourhood social networks and neighbourhood social cohesion as possible mediators—were conducted using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients method, adjusted for age, gender, education and absolute household income. Results: Higher neighbourhood income inequality was associated with elevated levels of BMI and lower levels of neighbourhood social networks and neighbourhood social cohesion. High levels of neighbourhood social networks were associated with lower BMI. Results stratified by country demonstrate that social networks fully explained the association between income inequality and BMI in France and the Netherlands. Social cohesion was only a significant mediating variable for Dutch participants. Conclusion: The results suggest that in some European urban regions, neighbourhood social capital plays a large role in the association between neighbourhood income inequality and individual BMI.
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
       
  • Socio-demographic factors predicting HIV test seeking behaviour among MSM
           in 6 EU cities
    • Authors: Mirandola M; Gios L, Joanna Davis R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: HIV testing is generally accepted as being the lynchpin of a prevention strategy to tackle the HIV epidemic among MSM. However, few studies have analysed in detail the factors that influence HIV test seeking behaviour. Methods: The objective of this article is to analyse the relationship between HIV test seeking behaviour and individual, social and demographic factors in a sample of MSM recruited though a multi-centre bio-behavioural cross-sectional study. A multi-level analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with HIV test seeking behaviour. Results: A total of 2400 men were included in the sample. Age, self-reported sexual orientation, residence, household composition, educational status and perceived homonegativity all seem to impact on test seeking behaviour. Conclusions: The results suggest the need for more targeted testing promotion strategies among MSM that take structural and environmental factors into consideration, as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to address the HIV epidemic.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
       
  • Suicide attempts and self-harm during a dramatic national economic
           transition: a population-based study in Iceland
    • Authors: Ásgeirsdóttir HG; Ásgeirsdóttir TL, Nyberg U, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Macroeconomic downturns have been associated with increased suicide rates. This study examined potential changes in suicide attempts and self-harm in Iceland during a period of major economic transition (2003–12). Methods: Data were retrieved from the National University Hospital in Reykjavik (population size: 204.725), containing all ICD-10 diagnoses connected to potential suicidal behaviour. Poisson regression models were used to compare attendance rates before and after the 2008 economic collapse. Results: During the study period, a total of 4537 attendances of 2816 individuals were recorded due to suicide attempts or self-harm. We noted a significant change in total attendance rates among men, characterized by an annual increase in attendance rate pre-collapse of 1.83 per 100.000 inhabitants and a decrease of 3.06 per 100.000 inhabitants post-collapse (P = 0.0067). Such pattern was not observed among women. When restricting to first attendances only, we found a reduced incidence post-crisis among both men (RR: 0.85; 0.76–0.96) and women (RR: 0.86; 0.79–0.92). We further found 1% increase in unemployment rate and balance of trade to be associated with reduced attendance rates among men (RR: 0.84; 0.76–0.93 and RR: 0.81; 0.75–0.88, respectively) but not among women. Conclusion: These data suggest no overall increase in attendance rates due to suicide attempts or self-harm following the 2008 Icelandic economic collapse. In fact, a high-point in self-harm and suicide attempts was observed among men at the height of the economic boom and a decrease in new attendances among both men and women after the economic collapse.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31
       
  • Living in stressful neighbourhoods during pregnancy: an observational
           study of crime rates and birth outcomes
    • Authors: Clemens T; Dibben C.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Patterns of adverse birth outcomes vary spatially and there is evidence that this may relate to features of the physical environment such as air pollution. However, other social characteristics of the environment such as levels of crime are relatively understudied. This study examines the association between crime rates and birth weight and prematurity. Methods: Maternity inpatient data recorded at birth, including residential postcode, was linked to a representative 5% sample of Scottish Census data and small area crime rates from Scottish Police forces. Coefficients associated with crime were reported from crude and confounder adjusted models predicting low birth weight (< 2500 g), mean birthweight, small for gestational age and prematurity for all singleton live births. Results: Total crime rates were associated with strong and significant reductions in mean birth weight and increases in the risks of both a small for gestational age baby and premature birth. These effects, with the exception of prematurity, were robust to adjustment for individual characteristics including smoking, ethnicity and other socio-economic variables as well as area based confounders including air pollution. Mean birth weight was robust to additional adjustment for neighbourhood income deprivation. Conclusion: The level of crime in a mother’s area of residence, which may be a proxy for the degree of threat felt and therefore stress experienced, appears to be an important determinant of the risk of adverse birth outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29
       
  • Estimating the cost-effectiveness of brief interventions for heavy
           drinking in primary health care across Europe
    • Authors: Angus C; Thomas C, Anderson P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Screening and Brief Interventions for alcohol are an effective public health measure to tackle alcohol-related harm, however relatively few countries across the European Union (EU) have implemented them widely. This may be due to a lack of understanding of the specific financial implications of such policies within each country. Methods: A novel ‘meta-modelling’ approach was developed based on previous SBI cost-effectiveness models for four EU countries. Data were collected on the key factors which drive cost-effectiveness for all 28 EU countries (mean per capita alcohol consumption, proportion of the population to be screened over a 10-year SBI programme; per capita alcohol-attributable mortality; per capita alcohol-attributable morbidity; mean cost of an alcohol-related hospitalisation and mean SBI-delivery staff cost). Regression analysis was used to fit two meta-models estimating net programme costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) gained, to calculate cost-effectiveness estimates specific to each EU country. Results: Costs are dependent upon the proportion of the population covered by the screening programme, the country-specific per capita mortality and morbidity rate and the country-specific costs of GP care and hospitalisation. QALYs depend on the proportion of the population screened and per capita alcohol consumption. Despite large inter-country variability in factor values, SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective in 24 out of 28 EU countries and cost-saving in 50% of countries. Conclusion: Implementing national programmes of SBI in primary health care would be a cost-effective means of reducing alcohol-attributable morbidity and deaths in almost all countries of the EU.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24
       
  • Searching for sustainability within public health policy: insights from an
           injury prevention perspective
    • Authors: Errington G; Evans C, Watson MC.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground Sustaining public health programmes in the long-term is key to ensuring full manifestation of their intended benefits. Although an increasing interest in sustainability is apparent within the global literature, empirical studies from within the European setting are few. The factors that influence sustainability are generally conceptualized at three levels: programme level, the immediate context and the wider environment. To-date attention has focused primarily on the former two. Using a community-based child injury prevention programme in England as an exemplar, this paper explores the concept of sustainability within the wider policy environment, and considers the impact of this on local programmes. Methods A content review of global and UK national public health policies (1981–2014) relevant to child safety was undertaken. Interviews were held with senior representatives of global and UK agencies involved in developing child safety policy. Results Forty-nine policies were reviewed. The term ‘sustain’, or its derivatives, featured in 36 (73%) of these. Its’ use however, related primarily to conservation of resources rather than continued programme operation. Potential mechanisms for supporting programme sustainability featured within some documents; however, the approach to sustainability was inconsistent between policies and over time. Policy stakeholders identified programme sustainability as relevant to their core business, but its’ conceptualization varied according to individual interpretation. Conclusions Programme sustainability is poorly addressed within global and UK-based public health policy. Strengthening a national and international policy focus on sustainability and incorporating sustainability into public health planning frameworks may create a more supportive environment for local programmes.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
       
  • Variations in death certification practices distort international
           comparisons of mortality from diabetes
    • Authors: Zucker I; Shohat T.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Israel is ranked second among OECD countries in diabetes mortality despite good performance on diabetes care measures. This study assessed whether variations in death certification practices could explain differences in diabetes mortality rates between countries, using a comparison between the USA and Israel as an example. Methods: Multiple cause mortality data for Israel and the USA were analyzed. The proportions of cases with diabetes coded as the underlying cause of death (UCOD), of all certificates with diabetes listed as one of the multiple causes of death (MCOD), were calculated by age-group, and compared between the USA and Israel, with emphasis on cases in which cardiovascular events were reported in part I of the certificate. Results: The diabetes UCOD/MCOD ratio was higher in Israel for all age groups. The differences in proportions were larger when cardiovascular events were reported in part I. Diabetes mortality rate ratio between the countries would be 49% lower if the UCOD/MCOD ratios in US data were applied to the Israeli data. Conclusions: Half of the difference in the reported diabetes mortality rate between the USA and Israel is explained by different coding practices. International comparisons could be improved by using multiple cause data or by clarifying guidelines regarding certification of diabetes deaths.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
       
  • Limited access to hepatitis B/C treatment among vulnerable risk
           populations: an expert survey in six European countries
    • Authors: Falla AM; Veldhuijzen IK, Ahmad AA, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: To investigate access to treatment for chronic hepatitis B/C among six vulnerable patient/population groups at-risk of infection: undocumented migrants, asylum seekers, people without health insurance, people with state insurance, people who inject drugs (PWID) and people abusing alcohol. Methods: An online survey among experts in gastroenterology, hepatology and infectious diseases in 2012 in six EU countries: Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK. A four-point ordinal scale measured access to treatment (no, some, significant or complete restriction). Results: From 235 recipients, 64 responses were received (27%). Differences in access between and within countries were reported for all groups except people with state insurance. Most professionals, other than in Spain and Hungary, reported no or few restrictions for PWID. Significant/complete treatment restriction was reported for all groups by the majority in Hungary and Spain, while Italian respondents reported no/few restrictions. Significant/complete restriction was reported for undocumented migrants and people without health insurance in the UK and Spain. Opinion about undocumented migrants in Germany and the Netherlands was divergent. Conclusions: Although effective chronic hepatitis B/C treatment exists, limited access among vulnerable patient populations was seen in all study countries. Discordance of opinion about restrictions within countries is seen, especially for groups for whom the health care system determines treatment access, such as undocumented migrants, asylum seekers and people without health insurance. This suggests low awareness, or lack, of entitlement guidance among clinicians. Expanding treatment access among risk groups will contribute to reducing chronic viral hepatitis-associated avoidable morbidity and mortality.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
       
  • The role of three lifestyle risk factors in reducing educational
           differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality in Europe
    • Authors: Kulhánová I; Menvielle G, Hoffmann R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with a higher risk of dying among people with a lower socioeconomic status. We investigated the potential for reducing educational differences in IHD mortality in 21 European populations based on two counterfactual scenarios—the upward levelling scenario and the more realistic best practice country scenario. Methods: We used a method based on the population attributable fraction to estimate the impact of a modified educational distribution of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity on educational inequalities in IHD mortality among people aged 30–79. Risk factor prevalence was collected around the year 2000 and mortality data covered the early 2000s. Results: The potential reduction of educational inequalities in IHD mortality differed by country, sex, risk factor and scenario. Smoking was the most important risk factor among men in Nordic and eastern European populations, whereas overweight and obesity was the most important risk factor among women in the South of Europe. The effect of physical inactivity on the reduction of inequalities in IHD mortality was smaller compared with smoking and overweight/obesity. Although the reduction in inequalities in IHD mortality may seem modest, substantial reduction in IHD mortality among the least educated can be achieved under the scenarios investigated. Conclusion: Population wide strategies to reduce the prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, and overweight/obesity targeted at the lower socioeconomic groups are likely to substantially contribute to the reduction of IHD mortality and inequalities in IHD mortality in Europe.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12
       
  • Non-fatal injuries treated outside a hospital in Hunan, China: results
           from a household interview survey
    • Authors: Wu Y; Zhang W, Zhang L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Injury morbidity data are collected through hospital-based surveillance in many countries. We assessed the extent of non-fatal injures treated outside a hospital. Methods: Data from the first provincial health household interview survey of Hunan, China, conducted in 2013, were used. Injury events were identified and included as medically significant when any of the following circumstances occurred in the prior 14 days: (i) receiving medical treatment from a doctor at a hospital following an injury; (ii) receiving medical treatment by self or others outside a hospital following an injury (e.g. taking medications, or receiving massage or hot compress); and/or (iii) being off work or school, or in bed for more than 1 day, following an injury. The 2-week prevalence of non-fatal injuries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We calculated the proportion of injury events treated outside a hospital and the reasons for not visiting a hospital for injury events occurring during the previous 2 weeks. Results: We captured 56 injury events during the previous 2 weeks. The weighted injury prevalence was 4.9 per 1000 persons during the last 2 weeks (95% confidence interval: 2.9–6.9 per 1000 persons). Of the 56 events, 14 (weighted proportion 41.2%) were treated outside a hospital. Primary explanations for skipping hospital visits included perceiving injuries were too minor and economic limitations to travel to hospitals or seek treatment. Conclusion: Results imply the burden of non-fatal injury may be underestimated by hospital-based surveillance systems such as that used in China.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04
       
  • Factors for successful implementation of population-based expanded carrier
           screening: learning from existing initiatives
    • Authors: Holtkamp KA; Mathijssen IB, Lakeman P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Carrier screening for autosomal recessive disorders aims to facilitate reproductive decision-making by identifying couples with a 1-in-4 risk in every pregnancy of having an affected child. Except for a few countries or regions, carrier screening is not widely offered and is mostly ancestry-based. Technological advances enable carrier screening for multiple diseases simultaneously allowing universal screening regardless of ancestry (population-based expanded carrier screening). It is important to study how this can be successfully implemented. This study therefore aims to identify critical factors involved in successful implementation, from a user perspective, by learning from already implemented initiatives. Methods: Factors associated with successful implementation were identified by: (i) a literature review and (ii) two case studies; studying experiences with carrier screening in two high-risk communities (a Dutch founder population and the Ashkenazi Jewish population), including a survey among community members. Results: Factors identified were familiarity with (specific) genetic diseases and its availability, high perceived benefits of screening (e.g. screening avoids much suffering), acceptance of reproductive options, perceived risk of being a carrier and low perceived social barriers (e.g. stigmatization). In contrast to the Jewish community, the initial demand for screening in the Dutch founder population did not entirely come from the community itself. However, the large social cohesion of the community facilitated the implementation process. Conclusion: To ensure successful implementation of population-based expanded carrier screening, efforts should be made to increase knowledge about genetic diseases, create awareness and address personal benefits of screening in a non-directive way.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
       
  • Anxious and depressive symptoms in the French Asbestos-Related Diseases
           Cohort: risk factors and self-perception of risk
    • Authors: Mounchetrou Njoya I; Paris C, Dinet J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Asbestos is known to be an independent risk factor for lung and pleural cancers. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the psychological effects of asbestos exposure among exposed subjects. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms among >2000 French participants of the Asbestos-Related Diseases Cohort (ARDCO), 6 years after their inclusion, to identify the risk factors associated with those anxious and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the impact of the asbestos-risk perception. Methods: The ARDCO was constituted in four regions of France between October 2003 and December 2005, by including former asbestos workers. Between 2011 and 2012, participants of the ARDCO program were invited to undergo another chest CT scan 6 years after the previous scan. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires including asbestos exposure assessment, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), asbestos-risk perception and self-perception of asbestos-related diseases. Results: Among the 2225 participants, 2210 fully completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed. The prevalence of symptoms of probable anxiety and probable depression was 19.7% and 9.9%, respectively. The risk of anxious and depressive symptoms was independently associated with self-perception of the intensity of asbestos exposure, asbestos-risk perception and self-perception of asbestos-related diseases. Conclusion: The results obtained in this large study confirm that previously asbestos-exposed subjects are likely to develop anxious and depressive symptoms. Finally, implications related to the prevention of anxiety and depression among asbestos-exposed workers is discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-21
       
  • The health of UK civilians deployed to Iraq
    • Authors: Fear NT; Meek D, Cawkill P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Modern military operations have incorporated deployed civilians in a variety of roles (e.g. diplomats, private security staff). Many of these roles expose individuals to potentially dangerous or traumatic events. Evidence has shown that such exposures can cause psychological health problems in military personnel. It is likely that the same would be seen among civilians working in such environments. There is however limited research into the health of civilians deployed to war zones. This study compared health outcomes and related behaviours among UK regular and reserve Army personnel with UK civilian personnel deployed in direct support of the UK military in Iraq. Methods: The study sample comprised of 159 Ministry of Defence civilians, 1542 Army regulars and 408 Army reservists, all of whom served in non-combat roles. Data were gathered by questionnaires which asked about deployment experiences, lifestyle factors and health outcomes [i.e. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general health, multiple physical symptoms and alcohol use]. Results: Fewer deployed UK civilians smoked than regular Army personnel (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.70–0.98). UK civilians had better overall health and were less likely to report multiple physical symptoms compared with reservists (adjusted ORs 0.64 95% CI 0.44–0.93 and 0.60 95% CI 0.39–0.93, respectively). Conclusions: Overall, the psychological health of deployed civilians appears to be better than that of Army personnel deployed in non-combat roles. Civilians are also less likely to engage in some risky behaviours.
      PubDate: 2016-07-21
       
  • Determinants of subjective well-being in representative samples of nations
    • Authors: Ngamaba K.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Maximising the happiness and life satisfaction [i.e. subjective well-being (SWB)] of citizens is a fundamental goal of international governmental organizations’ policies. In order to decide what policies should be pursued in order to improve SWB there is a need to identify what the key drivers of SWB are. However, to date most studies have been conducted in unrepresentative samples of largely ‘developed’ nations. Methods: Data from the latest World Value Survey (2010–14) and gathered 85 070 respondents from 59 countries (Age 1–99 years, Mean = 42, SD = 16.54; 52.29% females) were pooled for the analysis. A cross-sectional multilevel random effects model was performed where respondents were nested by country. Results: The average levels of SWB varied across countries and geographical regions. Among the lowest 10 SWB countries are nations from: Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union and Middle East and North Africa. Factors driving SWB include state of health, financial satisfaction, freedom of choice, GDP per capita, income scale, importance of friends, leisure, being females, weekly religious attendance, unemployment and income inequality. Nevertheless, according to Cohen’s rules of thumb, most of these factors have ‘small’ effect sizes. Thus, the main factors that possibly will improve the SWB of people across the globe are: state of health, household’s financial satisfaction and freedom of choice. Conclusions: To maximize the well-being of the population, policy makers may focus on health status, household’s financial satisfaction and emancipative values. The levels of prosperity and political stability appear to positively improve the SWB of people.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
       
 
 
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