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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 397 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 600, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
European Journal of Public Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.36
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 20  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1101-1262 - ISSN (Online) 1464-360X
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [397 journals]
  • Social media, bots and research performance
    • Authors: Leidl R.
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Both in the promotion and in the analysis of public health, the social context is a key issue to consider. Over the last years, social media have revolutionized our social contexts by adding new forms of networking. The network characteristic is a powerful factor contributing to the rapid expansion of social media: beneficial or malignant impacts of networks tend to increase dramatically with the number of network users. For commercial network markets, this dynamic power is known to reinforce the strong players in the market and thus, to lead to highly concentrated markets, e.g. in mobile communication. In the political arena, politicians, parties and voters are carefully observing social media network activities, suspecting these might be used to gain critical mass in political opinion and in turn, political power.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky123
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2019)
  • European Public Health News
    • Authors: Zeegers Paget D; Azzopardi Muscat N, Zeegers Paget D, et al.
      Pages: 191 - 194
      Abstract: In this first European public health (EPH) news in 2019, all authors are both reflecting on lessons learned last year as well as looking at future activities. All authors agree that intersectoral collaboration is essential for successful public health interventions. Both Azzopardi-Muscat and Zeegers describe that thinking outside-of-the-box, working together and sharing capacity is a must in the field of public health. As Azzopardi states: ‘We will either all arrive altogether or nobody will arrive at all’. Jakab describes the WHO resolution on Digital health and urges an ongoing and active public health debate to establish sufficient understanding and public trust in the use of digital solutions. Andriukaitis presents the Health at a Glance 2018 report that indicates that it is important to stay dedicated to the Health in all Policies approach. Charpak presents the Marseille 2019 EPH conference that focuses on building bridges for solidarity and public health, including interprofessional bridges.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky271
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2019)
  • Thank you
    • Authors: Allebeck P; Delnoij D, Leyland A, et al.
      Pages: 195 - 198
      Abstract: A scientific journal exists only because of the good will and assistance of its reviewers. We can only publish approximately a fifth of the papers we receive and, in order to publish really high-quality papers, we depend on the expertise of many people. During 2018 a total of 600 reviewers have helped us to decide about the papers that we should publish. Their names are listed below and we would like to take this opportunity to thank them. The list refers to reviewers completing their task until 1 of December 2018.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckz001
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2019)
  • Unexplained variations in general practitioners’ perceptions and
           practices regarding vaccination in France
    • Authors: Collange F; Zaytseva A, Pulcini C, et al.
      Pages: 2 - 8
      Abstract: BackgroundGiven geographical disparities in vaccination coverage (VC) and the crucial role general practitioners (GPs) play in vaccination in France, we sought to: 1) determine the existence of geographical variations in GPs' perceptions of vaccines, their trust in information sources, and the frequency of their recommendations to patients by comparing data from southeast (SE), central-west (CW), northwest (NW), and the rest of France; and 2) identify individual and contextual factors associated with regional variations in GPs' recommendations.MethodsThis cross-sectional observational study in 2014 collected data from a panel of 2586 French GPs in private practice: 3 specific regional samples and a fourth sample for the rest of France. We calculated a composite score summarizing GPs' vaccine recommendation frequency for 6 vaccine situations and used a five-step hierarchical linear regression to study the score's links with practice location and individual and contextual factors.ResultsGPs' vaccine recommendation frequency score was highest in NW France and lowest in the SE. The low SE score was explained by GPs' greater doubts about vaccine utility and risks and lower trust in information sources. The high NW score was partially explained by greater adherence to guidelines by GPs there. The contextual factors studied did not explain regional differences.ConclusionThe geographical variations in GPs' vaccination-related attitudes and practices suggest that vaccine hesitancy among GPs differs in prevalence between regions. These variations coincide with north/south trends in population VC. Intervention strategies to restore confidence in vaccines should target GPs and must be adapted to each regional context.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky146
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recommendations for design and analysis of health examination surveys
           under selective non-participation
    • Authors: Karvanen J; Härkänen T, Reinikainen J, et al.
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: BackgroundThe decreasing participation rates and selective non-participation peril the representativeness of health examination surveys (HESs).MethodsFinnish HESs conducted in 1972–2012 are used to demonstrate that survey participation rates can be enhanced with well-planned recruitment procedures and auxiliary information about survey non-participants can be used to reduce selection bias.ResultsExperiments incorporated to pilot surveys and experience from previously conducted surveys lead to practical improvements. For example, SMS reminders were taken as a routine procedure to the Finnish HESs after testing their effect on a pilot study and finding them as a cost-effective way to increase participation rate especially among younger age groups. Auxiliary information about survey non-participants can be obtained from many sources: sampling frames, previous measurements in longitudinal setting, re-contacts and non-response questionnaires, and record linkage to administrative data sources. These data can be used in statistical modelling to adjust the population level estimates for the selection bias. Information on the characteristics of non-participants also helps to improve targeting the recruitment in the future.ConclusionAll methods discussed and recommended are relatively easy to incorporate to any national HES in Europe except the record linkage of survey data from administrative data sources. This is not feasible in all European countries because of non-existence of registries, lack of an identifier needed for record linkage, or national data protection legislation which restricts the data use.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky161
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • The impact of generic labels on the consumption of and adherence to
           medication: a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Goldszmidt R; Buttendorf A, Schuldt Filho G, et al.
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough generic drugs are pharmacologically equivalent to their brand-name counterparts, prejudices against them remain strong. We assess the extent to which generic (versus brand-name) labels affect patients’ consumption of and adherence to medication.MethodsOne hundred one patients who received dental implants agreed to participate in a study. In a pre-surgery survey, most patients reported a positive view about generic drugs. After dental surgery, the patients were prescribed a once-daily analgesic regimen (50 mg tramadol hydrochloride) for up to 7 days. All the patients received at no cost the same brand-name medication with either a brand-name label (n = 51) or a generic label (n = 50) and were informed of the retail prices associated with both labels. Telephone follow-up was conducted 24 hours, four days, and seven days after surgery to assess the number of prescribed pills consumed and when their use was discontinued, the number of non-prescribed pills consumed, pain levels throughout the follow-up period, the perceived efficacy of the analgesic, and the willingness to recommend it to a friend.ResultsThe label manipulation impacted the participants’ behaviour and subjective assessments. Discontinuation before the end of the 7-day period was more frequent under the generic (vs. brand-name) label condition. The patients in the generic label group were also more likely to consume non-prescribed pills (non-adherence). Additionally, the patients in the generic label group reported higher levels of pain.ConclusionGeneric labels may negatively affect adherence to treatment even if patients report ex ante positive evaluations of the quality of generics drugs.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky183
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Community pharmacies offer a potential high-yield and convenient arena for
           total cholesterol and CVD risk screening
    • Authors: Svendsen K; Jacobs Jr D, Røyseth I, et al.
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: BackgroundModerately elevated blood total cholesterol (TC), blood glucose (BG) and blood pressure (BP) are rarely symptomatic and as such many individuals remain untreated. We studied the yield of an in-pharmacy screening for identifying undetected high TC and strategies to reach those with absence of prior measurement of TC, BG and BP.MethodsA cross-sectional TC screening study with complementary TC measurements and self-administered questionnaire was conducted for 1 week in each of 2012 and 2014 in 148 and 149 BootsTM Norge AS community pharmacies nationwide in Norway.ResultsNon-medicated adults (n = 21 090) with mean age 54.5 ± 16.0 were included. The study population resembled the Norwegian population in regards to body mass index, educational level, smokers and physical inactivity level, but with an overrepresentation of middle-aged women. Of 20 743 with available data, 11% (n = 2337) were unaware of their high TC ≥7.0 mmol/L, and an additional 8% were unaware of TC ≥6.2 mmol/L. More than 40% of the study sample had not measured TC or BG before. In order for future screenings to reach those who are less likely to have previously measured TC and BG, our results suggest that young, low-educated, overweight men and women should be targeted for TC measurement, whereas normal weigh men in all ages should be targeted for BG measurement.ConclusionsIn total 19% in an in-pharmacy screening were unaware of their elevated TC of ≥6.2 mmol/L. We also identified characteristics that could be used reach those who are less likely to have measured TC and BG.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky190
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Health policy analysis of the non-implementation of HPV vaccination
           coverage in the pay for performance scheme in France
    • Authors: Ohannessian R; Constantinou P, Chauvin F.
      Pages: 23 - 27
      Abstract: BackgroundThe French National Cancer Control Plan (NCCP) launched in 2014 set the objective to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage (VC). The NCCP included a measure to integrate a VC indicator in the pay for performance (P4P) scheme for general practitioners (GPs), which was not implemented. The objective of the study was to analyse the reasons for non-implementation of this measure, using the health policy analysis framework.MethodsThe policy from proposal to non-implementation of the HPV VC indicator into the P4P scheme was analysed through the actors involved, the content of the measure, the contextual factors and the processes of policy-making.ResultsThe actors were the Ministry of Health (MOH) and National Cancer Institute as policy-makers, the public health insurance as an indirect target, and GPs as direct targets. The content of the policy was not evidence-informed and was not included into the NCCP preparation report. The context included vaccine hesitancy and ethical concerns from GPs in opposition with MOH. The process involved a diversity of stakeholders with a complex governance and no strict monitoring of the measure.ConclusionsComplex vaccination policy governance associated with a non-evidence-informed policy content and an unfavourable context may have been the reasons for the policy failure.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky173
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • The increased trend of non-drinking alcohol among adolescents: what role
           do internet activities have'
    • Authors: Larm P; Raninen J, Åslund C, et al.
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: BackgroundRecently, an increased trend toward non-drinking among adolescents has been observed in several countries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a common suggestion in literature, that adolescents do not drink alcohol because they spend more time on the internet, monitored at home, by examining associations between internet activities (social media/chatting and computer gaming) and non-drinking.MethodsA health questionnaire was distributed to all 9th graders (15–16 years) in a mid-sized Swedish county in 2008, 2010 and 2012. In total, 7089 students returned the questionnaire.ResultsIn contrast to the suggestion, no association was found between total time spent on computers and non-drinking. Social media/chatting was robustly associated with a decreased probability of non-drinking across the three survey years. On the other hand, computer gaming during weekends only (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.13–2.69) or both on weekdays and weekends increased the probability of non-drinking (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.31–2.54) in 2012 only. However, neither social media/chatting nor computer gaming was associated with the increased trend of non-drinking from 2008 to 2012.ConclusionsInternet activities were in general not associated with non-drinking among adolescents aged 15–16 years in Sweden. Although, a weak positive association between computer gaming and non-drinking was found in 2012, this effect benefited the vast majority of the boys. The larger alcohol use among those with extensive social media use/chatting may indicate that these online platforms are arenas where adolescents are exposed for positive alcohol preferences and alcohol advertising without parental supervision.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky168
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Child maltreatment prevention: a content analysis of European national
    • Authors: Ramiro-Gonzalez M; Dobermann D, Metilka D, et al.
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: BackgroundChild maltreatment is a major public health concern, which worsens inequalities and perpetuates social injustice through its far—reaching impacts on the health and development of children affected. The aim of this article was to provide a content analysis of the national policies presently used to address child maltreatment and provide an overview of prevention practices being employed in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. This analysis will aid in identifying, which policy areas still require further work to prevent child maltreatment.MethodsThree search methods were employed to identify national policies on child maltreatment. A framework based on WHO guidelines for the development of policies was used to conduct a policy analysis of the identified national policies.ResultsTwo hundred and seventy-eight national policies were identified; of these, 68 met the inclusion criteria for further analysis representing 75% of the WHO Europe Region Member States. Whereas the majority of policies fulfilled most of the WHO criteria for effective policy-making, only 34% had a budget and 6% had quantified objectives. Plans to implement proven child maltreatment prevention interventions were high, with the exception of some countries where the health sector is in the lead.ConclusionsThe key policy areas requiring improvement were quantifiable objectives and allocated defined budgets. Hospital-based and home-based child maltreatment interventions were also not widely planned for implementation. Encouraging progress is being made on national policy development to prevent child maltreatment. There are as of yet, several key areas, which warrant increased attention in future policy-making.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky176
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Sex, drugs, risk and resilience: analysis of data from the Canadian Health
           Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study
    • Authors: Phillips S; King N, Michaelson V, et al.
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: BackgroundRisk-taking behaviour among adolescents, particularly those experiencing childhood adversities, can predispose to injury, unwanted pregnancy, long-term morbidity and death. Resilience, i.e. adapting to threats and thriving, has rarely been examined as a protective factor for adolescent risk-taking. We studied whether the malleable traits of empathy, confidence, self-control and optimism, all markers of resilience, align with decreased risk-taking despite adversity, among 11–15 year olds.MethodsFrom responses of 22 643 Canadian youth to the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (2014) survey we validated a five-item resilience scale. Using regression analyses, this scale and a single measure of self-control were considered as potential protective factors for a composite measure of risk-taking behaviour and of initiation of sexual activity before age 14.ResultsThere was a dose-dependent association between greater resilience and diminished risk-taking for boys and, even more so, among girls. This relationship remained significant after controlling for family and social support, implying that greater resilience may override the detrimental impact of childhood adversity on risk-taking. The least resilient youth were most likely to report early sexual activity, although this relationship was not linear. Generally, the impact of self-control on risk-taking was not statistically significant, perhaps because of shortcomings of the self-control indicator.ConclusionBrief screening protocols can identify assets that protect against risk-taking behaviours among adolescents. The malleable nature of these traits offers primary care providers and public health personnel a novel and effective route to decreasing adolescent risk-taking and fostering future health.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky169
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Low schoolwork engagement and schoolwork difficulties predict smoking in
    • Authors: Minkkinen J; Kinnunen J, Karvonen S, et al.
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: BackgroundLow academic achievement has been associated with smoking but factors behind this association are poorly known. Such factors could include schoolwork disengagement and schoolwork difficulties. To assess the extent to which they contribute to the explanation of how health inequalities emerge, we study in a longitudinal design whether these have an independent effect on smoking or whether their effect is mediated through academic achievement.MethodsLongitudinal data were collected in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland in 2011 and 2014. Participants were seventh-graders (12 − 13 years, N=9497). In the follow-up, 6534 students reported their smoking status in the ninth grade (15 − 16 years). Smoking, schoolwork behavioural engagement, i.e. participation in academic activities, and disengagement, schoolwork difficulties and cognitive competence were self-reported by adolescents. Academic achievement was obtained from the Finnish national application register on upper secondary education. A mediation analysis was executed with bootstrapped confidence intervals.ResultsHigher schoolwork behavioural engagement and cognitive competence in the seventh grade predicted that adolescents were more likely not to smoke in the ninth grade (all P<0.001) while higher schoolwork disengagement and schoolwork difficulties predicted adolescents’ smoking (all P<0.001). The effects were mediated through academic achievement.ConclusionsStudents’ behavioural disengagement with schoolwork and schoolwork difficulties are risks for smoking initiation. Their effect is mediated through poor school achievement. As smoking often continues in adulthood and poor school performance typically leads to lower education, schoolwork disengagement and difficulties in adolescence constitute potential pathways to inequalities in health.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky179
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and disability trajectories in older
           men and women: a European cohort study
    • Authors: Landös A; von Arx M, Cheval B, et al.
      Pages: 50 - 58
      Abstract: BackgroundWe observed a lack of population-based longitudinal research examining the association of disadvantaged childhood socioeconomic circumstances (CSC) and disability [activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)] in older age, and whether socioeconomic attainments in adulthood can compensate for a poor socioeconomic start in life.MethodsData on 24 440 persons aged 50–96 in 14 European countries (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) were used to measure the associations between CSC and limitations with ADL and with IADL, using mixed-effects logistic regression models. Models stratified by gender were adjusted for education during young adulthood, main occupation during middle age, ability to make ends meet during old age and potential confounding and control variables.ResultsRisks of ADL and IADL limitations increased with age and were different between women and men. For women, a gradient across CSC strata was observed, showing that the more disadvantaged the CSC, the higher the risk of ADL and IADL limitations in old age, even after adjustment for adult socioeconomic indicators. For men, the association between CSC and disability was mediated by the main occupation in middle age and the ability to make ends meet at older age.ConclusionWomen who grew up in socioeconomically disadvantaged households were at higher risk of disability in older age and this disadvantage was not attenuated by favourable adult socioeconomic conditions. Men were more likely to make up for a disadvantaged start in adulthood.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky166
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • The prevalence of elder abuse in institutional settings: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Yon Y; Ramiro-Gonzalez M, Mikton C, et al.
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: BackgroundA recent study has shown that close to one in six older adults have experienced elder abuse in a community setting in the past year. It is thought that abuse in institutions is just as prevalent. Few systematic evidence of the scale of the problem exists in elder care facilities. The aim of this review is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the problem in institutional settings and to provide estimates of the prevalence of elder abuse in the past 12 months.MethodsFourteen academic databases and other online platforms were systematically searched for studies on elder abuse. Additionally, 26 experts in the field were consulted to identify further studies. All studies were screened for inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted, and meta-analysis was conducted. Self-reported data from older residents and staff were considered separately.ResultsNine studies met the inclusion criteria from an initial of 55 studies identified for review. Overall abuse estimates, based on staff reports, suggest that 64.2% of staff admitted to elder abuse in the past year. There were insufficient studies to calculate an overall prevalence estimate based on self-reported data from older residents. Prevalence estimates for abuse subtypes reported by older residents were highest for psychological abuse (33.4%), followed by physical (14.1%), financial (13.8%), neglect (11.6%), and sexual abuse (1.9%).ConclusionsThe prevalence of elder abuse in institutions is high. Global action to improve surveillance and monitoring of institutional elder abuse is vital to inform policy action to prevent elder abuse.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky093
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Factors associated with older people’s emergency department attendance
           towards the end of life: a systematic review
    • Authors: Bone A; Evans C, Etkind S, et al.
      Pages: 67 - 74
      Abstract: BackgroundEmergency department (ED) attendance for older people towards the end of life is common and increasing, despite most preferring home-based care. We aimed to review the factors associated with older people’s ED attendance towards the end of life. MethodsSystematic review using Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science from inception to March 2017. Included studies quantitatively examined factors associated with ED attendance for people aged ≥65 years within the last year of life. We assessed study quality using the QualSyst tool and determined evidence strength based on quality, quantity and consistency. We narratively synthesized the quantitative findings. ResultsOf 3824 publications identified, 21 were included, combining data from 1 565 187 participants. 17/21 studies were from the USA and 19/21 used routinely collected data. We identified 47 factors and 21 were included in the final model. We found high strength evidence for associations between ED attendance and palliative/hospice care (adjusted effect estimate range: 0.1–0.94); non-white ethnicity (1.03–2.16); male gender (1.04–1.83, except 0.70 in one sub-sample) and rural areas (0.98–1.79). The final model included socio-demographic, illness and service factors, with largest effect sizes for service factors. ConclusionsIn this synthesis, receiving palliative care was associated with lower ED attendance in the last year of life for older adults. This has implications for service models for older people nearing the end of life. However, there is limited evidence from European countries and none from low or middle-income countries, which warrants further research.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky241
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Opioid, antipsychotic and hypnotic use in end of life in long-term care
           facilities in six European countries: results of PACE
    • Authors: Tanghe M; Van Den Noortgate N, Pivodic L, et al.
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: BackgroundOpioids, antipsychotics and hypnotics are recommended for comfort care in dying. We studied their prescription during the last 3 days in residents deceased in the long-term care facility (LTCF).MethodsIn a retrospective, cross-sectional survey in Belgium, England, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland, LTCFs, selected by proportional stratified random sampling, reported all deaths over the previous 3 months. The nurse most involved in the residents’ care reviewed the chart for opioid, antipsychotic and hypnotic prescription, cause of death and comorbidities. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for resident characteristics.ResultsResponse rate was 81.6%. We included 1079 deceased residents in 322 LCTFs. Opioid prescription ranged from 18.5% (95% CI: 13.0–25.8) of residents in Poland to 77.9% (95% CI: 69.5–84.5) in the Netherlands, antipsychotic prescription from 4.8% (95% CI: 2.4–9.1) in Finland to 22.4% (95% CI: 14.7–32.4) in Italy, hypnotic prescription from 7.8% (95% CI: 4.6–12.8) in Finland to 47.9% (95% CI: 38.5–57.3) in the Netherlands. Differences in opioid, antipsychotic and hypnotic prescription between countries remained significant (P < 0.001) when controlling for age, gender, length of stay, cognitive status, cause of death in multilevel, multivariable analyses. Dying from cancer showed higher odds for receiving opioids (OR 3.51; P < 0.001) and hypnotics (OR 2.10; P = 0.010).ConclusionsOpioid, antipsychotic and hypnotic prescription in the dying phase differed significantly between six European countries. Further research should determine the appropriateness of their prescription and refine guidelines especially for LTCF residents dying of non-cancer diseases.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky196
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Gender differences in cognitive performance and health status in the
           Faroese Septuagenarians cohort
    • Authors: Petersen M; Debes F, Grandjean P, et al.
      Pages: 79 - 81
      Abstract: The aim was to determine cognitive performance and health status in the Faroese Septuagenarians cohort in relation to gender differences. In this cross-sectional study of 713 Faroese septuagenarians who underwent a clinical, neurophysiological and neuropsychological examinations and questionnaire, women performed better on tests covering the memory domain, while there was no gender difference in other cognitive domains. Men suffered more frequently from cardiovascular events while women more frequently suffered from arthrosis, hypothyroidism and muscle pain. We observed a considerable heterogeneity and gender difference in some cognitive domains and health in Faroese septuagenarians.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky133
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Contribution of chronic conditions to gender disparities in health
           expectancies in Belgium, 2001, 2004 and 2008
    • Authors: Yokota R; Nusselder W, Robine J, et al.
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: BackgroundWe aimed to investigate the contribution of chronic conditions to gender differences in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and life expectancy with disability (LED) in Belgium in 2001, 2004 and 2008.MethodsData on disability and chronic conditions from participants of the 2001, 2004 and 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used to estimate disability prevalence by cause using the attribution method. Disability prevalence was applied to life tables to estimate DFLE and LED using the Sullivan method. Decomposition techniques were used to assess the contribution of mortality and disability and further of causes of death and disability to gender disparities in DFLE and LED.ResultsHigher LE, DFLE and LED were observed for women compared with men in all years studied. A decrease in the gender gap in LE (2001: 5.9; 2004: 5.6; 2008: 5.3) was observed in our cross-sectional approach followed by a decrease in gender differences in DFLE (2001: 1.9; 2004: 1.3; 2008: 0.5) and increase in LED (2001: 4.0; 2004: 4.4; 2008: 4.8). The higher LED in women was attributed to their lower mortality due to lung/larynx/trachea cancer, ischaemic heart diseases, and external causes (2001 and 2004) and higher disability prevalence due to musculoskeletal conditions (2008). Higher DFLE was observed in women owing to their lower mortality from lung/larynx/trachea cancer, ischaemic heart diseases, digestive cancer and chronic respiratory diseases.ConclusionTo promote healthy ageing of populations, priority should be given to reduce the LED disadvantage in women by targeting non-fatal diseases, such as musculoskeletal conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky105
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Selective prevention of cardiometabolic diseases: activities and attitudes
           of general practitioners across Europe
    • Authors: de Waard A; Hollander M, Korevaar J, et al.
      Pages: 88 - 93
      Abstract: BackgroundCardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) are the number one cause of death. Selective prevention of CMDs by general practitioners (GPs) could help reduce the burden of CMDs. This measure would entail the identification of individuals at high risk of CMDs—but currently asymptomatic—followed by interventions to reduce their risk. No data were available on the attitude and the extent to which European GPs have incorporated selective CMD prevention into daily practice.MethodsA survey among 575 GPs from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Greece, the Netherlands and Sweden was conducted between September 2016 and January 2017, within the framework of the SPIMEU-project.ResultsOn average, 71% of GPs invited their patients to attend for CMD risk assessment. Some used an active approach (47%) while others used an opportunistic approach (53%), but these values differed between countries. Most GPs considered selective CMD prevention as useful (82%) and saw it as part of their normal duties (84%). GPs who did find selective prevention useful were more likely to actively invite individuals compared with their counterparts who did not find prevention useful. Most GPs had a disease management programme for individuals with risk factor(s) for cardiovascular disease (71%) or diabetes (86%).ConclusionsAlthough most GPs considered selective CMD prevention as useful, it was not universally implemented. The biggest challenge was the process of inviting individuals for risk assessment. It is important to tailor the implementation of selective CMD prevention in primary care to the national context, involving stakeholders at different levels.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky112
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Societal participation of individuals aged 55–64 years with and
           without chronic disease
    • Authors: Scharn M; van der Beek A, Suanet B, et al.
      Pages: 93 - 98
      Abstract: BackgroundIt is unknown whether an increase in societal participation is important for individuals with a chronic disease. This study explores whether having paid work, volunteer activities or informal care giving differs for individuals with a chronic disease and those without.MethodsRespondents (n = 1779) aged 55–64 years who participated in the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam in 2002/2003 or 2012/2013 were included. We tested differences in (combinations of) performing paid work, volunteer activities or informal care giving between participants with and without a chronic disease by regression analyses, while taking into account sociodemographic confounders and effect modification by year.ResultsHaving a chronic disease was associated with having paid work in 2002/2003 (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 04–0.7), but not in 2012/2013 (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4–1.1). Work participation of participants with (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.2) and without a chronic disease (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–3.9) increased in 2012/2013. Participants with a chronic disease are more likely to participate in volunteer activities than paid work. No statistically significant associations were found between having a chronic disease and informal care giving.ConclusionParticipation in paid work differs between individuals aged 55–64 years with a chronic disease and those without, but participation in informal care giving did not. Individuals with a chronic disease are more likely to participate in volunteer activities than paid work. Future research should focus on differences in societal participation within heterogeneous group of individuals with a chronic disease, since differences may be present in subgroups with specific chronic diseases.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky122
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Contribution of chronic conditions to disability in men and women in
    • Authors: Nusselder W; Wapperom D, Looman C, et al.
      Pages: 99 - 104
      Abstract: BackgroundWomen report more disability than men perhaps due to gender differences in the prevalence of diseases and/or in their disabling impact. We compare the contribution of chronic diseases to disability in men and women in France, using a disability survey conducted in both private households and institutions, and we also examine the effect of excluding the institutionalized population.MethodsData comprised 17 549 individuals age 50+, who participated in the 2008–09 French Disability Health Survey including people living in institutions. Disability was defined by limitations in activities people usually do due to health problems (global activity limitation indicator). Additive regression models were fitted separately by gender to estimate the contribution of conditions to disability taking into account multi-morbidity.ResultsMusculoskeletal diseases caused most disability for both men (10.1%, CI: 8.1–12.0) and women (16.0%, CI 13.6–18.2). The second contributor for men was heart diseases (5.7%, CI: 4.5–6.9%), and for women anxiety-depression (4.0, CI 3.1–5.0%) closely followed by heart diseases (3.8%, CI 2.9–4.7%). Women’s higher contribution of musculoskeletal diseases reflected their higher prevalence and disabling impact; women’s higher contribution of anxiety-depression and lower contributions of heart diseases reflected gender differences in prevalence. Excluding the institutionalized population did not change the overall conclusions.ConclusionsThe largest contributors to the higher disability of women than men are moderately disabling conditions with a high prevalence. Whereas traditional disabling conditions such as musculoskeletal diseases are more prevalent and disabling in women, fatal diseases such as cardiovascular disease are also important contributors in women and men.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky138
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Socioeconomic inequality in non-communicable diseases in Europe between
           2004 and 2015: evidence from the SHARE survey
    • Authors: Bono F; Matranga D.
      Pages: 105 - 110
      Abstract: BackgroundThe scope of this work was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities among European adults aged 50 or older in chronic diseases and behavioural risk factors for these diseases, namely, smoking habits, obesity and physical inactivity, between 2004 and 2015.MethodsData for this study were drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE) in Europe, which is a panel database of microdata on health, socioeconomic status and social and family networks of people aged 50 years or older, covering most of the European Union. The predicted number of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) was used to estimate the concentration index and to find the contributions of determinants to socioeconomic inequalities in chronic diseases.ResultsThe inequality disfavoured the poor in both years, but the effect was stable from 2004 (C = −0.071) to 2015 (C = −0.081). Inequality was shown to be attributed mostly to physical inactivity and obesity and this contribution increased during the study period. Among socioeconomic status (SES) determinants, education and marital status were the most concentrated in both years, while physical inactivity and obesity were the most concentrated behavioural risk factors in both years.ConclusionsTo prevent chronic diseases, health policy should aim not only to improve individual health behaviours in the population, but also to reduce socioeconomic inequality. Our study suggests promoting a healthy lifestyle in the most disadvantaged socioeconomic classes as a strategy to improve the health conditions of the whole population.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky165
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS among women in Nigeria: a
           cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Yaya S; Ghose B, Udenigwe O, et al.
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: BackgroundThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is one of the world’s most serious public health and social problems. Promoting knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS is a key strategy to control the prevalence of this growing epidemic. This study aimed to measure knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS along with the factors of association Nigerian women.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study based on data from the 2013 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted among community dwelling women in Nigeria. A set of 13 questions was identified relevant to knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS. Each correct answer was scored as 1 and wrong answer as ‘0’. Normality of the variables was examined using Shapiro–Wilks tests. The socioeconomic and community factors associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude were examined by linear regression with dummy variables model.ResultsMeans score (SD) on knowledge of transmission was 6.4 (2.0) and that for attitude was 2.1 (1.2). In the regression models, knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS were positively associated with survey years and respondents’ age; geographical region was significantly associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude; rural respondents had significant reduction in knowledge [Exp(B)=0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.83–0.89] and positive attitude to HIV/AIDS [Exp(B)=0.91; 95% CI=0.89–0.93] compared with the urban counterpart, respectively.ConclusionFindings of the present study suggested that women’s knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS in Nigeria needs more attention to attain the global target to end its epidemics and other communicable diseases by 2030.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky131
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Content and source analysis of popular tweets following a recent case of
           diphtheria in Spain
    • Authors: Porat T; Garaizar P, Ferrero M, et al.
      Pages: 117 - 122
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite major progress in global vaccination coverage, immunization rates are falling, resulting in outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. This study analyses content and source of the most popular tweets related to a recent case in Spain where an unvaccinated child contracted and later died from diphtheria. Understanding the characteristics of these tweets in the context of vaccination could inform efforts by health promotion professionals to increase their reach and impact.MethodsWe extracted tweets containing keywords related to the diphtheria case (from 1 May to 15 July 2015). We explored the prevalence of terms relating to policy and misinformation and manually coded the 194 most popular tweets (retweeted 100 or more times) with regard to source, topic, tone and sentiment.ResultsA total of 722 974 tweets were collected. Prevalence of terms relating to policy and misinformation increased at the onset of the case and after the death of the child. Popular tweets (194) were either pro-vaccination (58%) or neutral, with none classified as anti-vaccination. Popular topics included criticism towards anti-vaccination groups (35%) and effectiveness of immunization (22%). Popular tweets were informative (47%) or opinions (53%), which mainly expressed frustration (24%) or humour/sarcasm (23%). Popular Twitter accounts were newspaper and TV channels (15%), as well as individual journalists and authors of popular science (13.4%).ConclusionsHealthcare organizations could collaborate with popular journalists or news outlets and employ authors of popular science to disseminate health information on social media, while addressing public concerns and misinformation in accessible ways.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky144
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Austerity, measles and mandatory vaccination: cross-regional analysis of
           vaccination in Italy 2000–14
    • Authors: Toffolutti V; McKee M, Melegaro A, et al.
      Pages: 123 - 127
      Abstract: BackgroundItaly has experienced a resurgence in measles since 2015. Although much emphasis has been placed on the role of individuals opting out of vaccination, here we test the hypothesis that large budget reductions in public health spending were also a contributing factor.MethodsMulti-variate statistical models were used to assess the relationship between measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) coverage and real public health expenditure per-capita across Italy’s 20 regions covering the period 2000–14.ResultsBetween 2010 and 2014 Italy’s public health expenditure fell by over 2%, although varying among regions. Fixed effects models estimate that each 1% reduction in per-capita public health expenditure was associated with a decrease of 0.5 percentage points (95% CI: 0.36–0.65 percentage points) in MMR coverage, after adjusting for time and regional-specific time trends. The consequences can be illustrated by comparing two regions, Lazio, where public health spending fell by 5% and MMR coverage by over 3 percentage points, and Sardinia, a historically deprived region, where public health spending partly rose and MMR rates remained approximately steady.ConclusionAdoption of austerity policies in the Italian health system was found to be significantly associated with declining vaccination rates for MMR. However, the recent introduction of mandatory vaccination for Italian children may help counteract this trend.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky178
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Shift work, chronotype and the risk of cardiometabolic risk factors
    • Authors: Hulsegge G; Picavet H, van der Beek A, et al.
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: BackgroundThe relation between shift work and a large variety of cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear. Also, the role of chronotype is understudied. We examined relations between shift work and cardiometabolic risk factors, and explored these relations in different chronotypes.MethodsCardiometabolic risk factors (anthropometry, blood pressure, lipids, diabetes, γ-glutamyltransferase, C-reactive protein, uric acid and estimated glomerular filtration rate) were assessed among 1334 adults in 1987–91, with repeated measurements every 5 years. Using shift work history data collected in 2013–15, we identified shift work status 1 year prior to all six waves. Linear mixed models and logistic generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the longitudinal relations between shift work and risk factors 1 year later.ResultsShift work was not significantly related with cardiometabolic risk factors (P ≥ 0.05), except for overweight/body mass index. Shift workers had more often overweight (OR: 1.44, 95% CI 1.06–1.95) and a higher body mass index (BMI) (β: 0.56 kg m−2, 95% CI 0.10–1.03) than day workers. A significant difference in BMI between day and shift workers was observed among evening chronotypes (β: 0.97 kg m−2, 95% CI 0.21–1.73), but not among morning chronotypes (β: 0.04 kg m−2, 95% CI −0.85 to 0.93). No differences by frequency of night shifts and duration of shift work were observed.ConclusionShift workers did not have an increased risk of cardiometabolic risk factors compared with day workers, but, in particular shift working evening chronotypes, had an increased risk of overweight. More research is needed to verify our results, and establish whether tailored interventions by chronotype are wanted.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky092
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • The impact of depressive symptoms on exit from paid employment in Europe:
           a longitudinal study with 4 years follow-up
    • Authors: Porru F; Burdorf A, Robroek S.
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: BackgroundMental health problems are a risk factor for loss of paid employment. This study investigates (i) the relation between depressive symptoms and different involuntary pathways of labour force exit and (ii) explores gender and geographical differences in this relation.MethodsThe study population consisted of 5263 individuals in paid employment aged between 50 years and the country-specific retirement age from 11 European countries participating in the longitudinal Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Self-reported depressive symptoms at baseline were assessed using the EURO-D. Employment status was derived from interviews after 2 and 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and labour force exit via disability benefit and unemployment. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to estimate the contribution of depressive symptoms to these pathways of labour force exit.ResultsBoth men and women with a EURO-D score ≥4 had a >2-fold increased risk of a disability benefit (HR: 2.46, 95%CI 1.68–3.60) after adjustment for demographics and work-related characteristics. Among men depressive symptoms elevated the risk of becoming unemployed at follow-up (HR 1.55; 95%CI: 0.94–2.57). The PAF was 0.18 for disability benefit and 0.04 for unemployment, and varied across European regions.ConclusionsIndividuals with depressive symptoms are at increased risk of losing paid employment, which in turn may aggravate their symptoms. Targeting depressive symptoms with public health and occupational policies should be considered to reduce the burden of mental diseases in Europe.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky136
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Inequalities in the control of the occupational exposure in France to
           carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic chemicals
    • Authors: Havet N; Penot A, Plantier M, et al.
      Pages: 140 - 147
      Abstract: BackgroundOur study examined the social disparities that exist in the implementation of protection measures for occupational exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic agents in France, and its aim was to identify which types of employees/jobs require priority action.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 2010 French national cross-sectional survey of occupational hazards. The availability of the various collective and individual protections was explored. The associations of job and company characteristics with protective measures were studied by multilevel regressions.ResultsEffective collective protection measures were implemented in 25% of the exposure situations. Managers and intellectual professionals, who accumulated lower CMR exposure prevalences, durations, and intensities than blue-collar workers, benefited the most from effective collective protections. The availability of effective collective protection measures was not influenced by the size of the company. The presence of a Committee for health, safety, and work conditions, as well as intervention of occupational health and safety officers in the past 12 months were associated with a lower exposure intensity, but not with the implementation of more protection measures. Longer exposure durations were associated with more effective collective protection.ConclusionSubstantial discrepancies were observed in exposure levels and protection measures as a function of the characteristics of employees’ jobs and the companies that they work for. The main priority in regard to prevention should be a focus on unskilled workers, since their collective protection still appears to be insufficient, while their exposure lengths and intensities were the most substantial.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky130
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness
           absence: a prospective Swedish twin study
    • Authors: Helgadóttir B; Svedberg P, Mather L, et al.
      Pages: 147 - 153
      Abstract: BackgroundSickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.MethodsThis is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959–85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsTemporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04–1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74–0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62–0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73–0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47–0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03–1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01–2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02–1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64–0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.ConclusionsEmployment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky145
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Emotional salience of the image component facilitates recall of the text
           of cigarette warning labels
    • Authors: Wang A; Shi Z, Fairchild V, et al.
      Pages: 153 - 158
      Abstract: BackgroundGraphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packages, that combine textual warnings with emotionally salient images depicting the adverse health consequences of smoking, have been adopted in most European countries. In the US, the courts deemed the evidence justifying the inclusion of emotionally salient images in GWLs insufficient and put the implementation on hold. We conducted a controlled experimental study examining the effect of emotional salience of GWL’s images on the recall of their text component. MethodsSeventy-three non-treatment-seeking daily smokers received cigarette packs carrying GWLs for a period of 4 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to receive packs with GWLs previously rated as eliciting high or low level of emotional reaction (ER). The two conditions differed in respect to images but used the same textual warning statements. Participants’ recognition of GWL images and statements were tested separately at baseline and again after the 4-week repetitive exposure. ResultsTextual warning statements were recognized more accurately when paired with high ER images than when paired with low ER images, both at baseline and after daily exposure to GWLs over a 4-week period. ConclusionThe results suggest that emotional salience of GWLs facilitates cognitive processing of the textual warnings, resulting in better remembering of the information about the health hazards of smoking. Thus, high emotional salience of the pictorial component of GWLs is essential for their overall effectiveness.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky059
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Smoking in bars in eight European countries in 2010 and 2016: an
           observational comparative study
    • Authors: van Beek K; Kuipers M, Lignac O, et al.
      Pages: 159 - 163
      Abstract: BackgroundMost European countries established laws against smoking in public places. We aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking in bars in 2010 and 2016 in eight European countries and to characterise those bars in which smoking still occurred in 2016.MethodsSmoking in bars was studied in 16 cities in 8 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Germany and the Netherlands). In 2010, 96 bars were visited. In 2016, 51 bars were revisited and 45 new bars were visited. Smoking indoors and characteristics of bars, terrace and customers were observed using a standard observation template. Associations between bar characteristics and smoking were analyzed using logistic regression.ResultsOverall prevalence of in-bar smoking was 39.6% in 2010 and 34.4% in 2016. Prevalence in bars covered by smoke-free legislation decreased from 24.2 to 13.0% between 2010 and 2016 whereas prevalence in bars where smoking was legally allowed increased from 73.3 to 88.9%. In-bar smoking almost exclusively occurred in countries with partial smoke-free legislation compared with more comprehensive legislation. Smoking was more prevalent in bars for locals, with a counter for drinks, slot-machines, no outside seating and no food service. Size of the bar, comfort of the terrace and the presence of cigarette vending machines were not associated with in-bar smoking.ConclusionsWhereas comprehensive smoke-free legislation resulted in high compliance, smoking increased in bars in countries with partial or no smoke-free legislation. This study confirms that comprehensive smoke-free legislation is needed to protect customers and personnel against second-hand-smoke exposure in all bars.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky111
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • A long way to go: 20-year trends from multiple surveillance systems show a
           still huge use of tobacco in minors in Italy
    • Authors: Gorini G; Gallus S, Carreras G, et al.
      Pages: 164 - 169
      Abstract: BackgroundMain aim was to describe youth smoking prevalence in Italy over the last two decades, and to provide recent trends in knowledge, attitudes towards smoking, awareness of anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and access to cigarettes.MethodsFigures from three surveillance systems, with 12 representative cross-sectional surveys (about 43 000 participants): European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, 15–16-year-old students, 1995–2015; Health Behaviour in School-aged Children, 11-, 13-, 15-year-old students, 2002–14 and Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 13–15-year-old students, 2010, 2014.ResultsAmong 11- and 13-year-old students, daily and non-daily smokers decreased by 30–50% from 2002 to 2014. Among 15–16-year-old adolescents, ever smokers significantly decreased by 10% in the period 1995–2015, whereas current and daily smokers have been stalling or even increased. Appeal of smoking increased in 2014 compared to 2010, perception of SHS as harmful, and awareness of recent anti-tobacco mass media campaigns decreased. Moreover, a significant 30% reduction in reporting retailers did not refuse to sell cigarettes to adolescents and a decrease in reporting to buy cigarettes were reported.ConclusionsPolicies enforced in Italy over the last 20 years slightly reduced ever smokers, but did not decrease current and daily smokers in 15–16-year-old adolescents, and determined an impact among younger adolescents. Stricter rules on youth tobacco access reduced ease of access to cigarettes, but did not affect adolescents’ tobacco use. Stronger tobacco control measures are urgently needed in order to determine a steeper decline in smoking prevalence in adolescents.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky132
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Feasibility of recruitment to a behavioural smoking cessation intervention
           combined with ongoing online support
    • Authors: Reynolds C; Egan B, O’Malley E, et al.
      Pages: 170 - 172
      Abstract: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether a behavioural intervention in pregnancy supported by online information would improve smoking cessation rates. However, due to a number of challenges, recruitment to this trial was reluctantly halted. We aimed to recruit 220 maternal smokers within 2 years and after screening 1995 women, just 22 enrolled over a 8-month period. Only three women accessed the online element of the intervention and, at follow up, no women reported quitting. We report our findings as they may inform the design and powering of future smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky162
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • The impact of a sugar-sweetened beverages tax on oral health and costs of
           dental care in Australia
    • Authors: Sowa P; Keller E, Stormon N, et al.
      Pages: 173 - 177
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite a clear causal link between frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental disease, little is known about the implications of a tax on SSBs in the context of oral health. The aim of our study was to estimate the impacts of a SSB tax on the Australian population in the context of oral health outcomes, dental care utilisation and associated costs.MethodsWe designed a cohort model that accounted for the consequences of the tax through the mechanisms of consumer response to price increase, the effect on oral health due to change in sugar intake, and the implications for dental care use.ResultsOur results indicate that in the adult population an ad valorem tax of 20% would lead to a reduction in decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) by 3.9 million units over 10 years, resulting in cost savings of A$666 million. Scenario analyses show that the outcomes are sensitive to the choice of the time horizon, tax rate, price elasticity of demand for SSBs, and the definition of target population.ConclusionWe found that the total and per-person consequences of SSB tax were considerable, both in terms of dental caries (tooth decay) averted and dental care avoided. These results have to be compounded with the implications of SSB tax for other aspects of health and health care, especially in the context of chronic diseases. On the other hand, the improved outcomes have to be weighted against a welfare loss associated with introducing a tax.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky087
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Predictive risk model for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 in a
           follow-up study 15 years on: PRODI2 Study
    • Authors: Moreno L; Vergara J, Alarcón R.
      Pages: 178 - 182
      Abstract: BackgroundThe prevalence and mortality related to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) have increased consistently for decades. Identifying adults at high risk of diabetes incidence is important for the execution of intervention.MethodsThe participants in the PRODI2 study (n=273), who come from the southeast of Spain and did not have diabetes at the start of the study, were followed for 15 years (1999–2014), and their risk parameters were measured, from which a predictive model was obtained which indicates the level of influence of each factor in the development of DM2. The expected risk of diabetes was calculated by binary logistic regression.ResultsThose participants whose father has suffered an acute myocardial infarction are 3.9 times more likely to develop DM2 (confidence interval 95%: 1.498, 10.339); those with at least one parent who has a history of diabetes are 2.7 times more at risk (confidence interval 95%: 1.224, 6.101); the risk of being diabetic was 1.13 times higher for every extra unit on the waist–hip ratio (confidence interval 95%: 1.073, 1.195), and for the hip perimeter an OR of 0.93 was obtained (confidence interval 95%: 0.876, 0.982). Statistically significant differences were observed in all cases (P<0.05).ConclusionThis study shows that the risk of being diabetic rises in patients whose father has suffered an acute myocardial infarction, in those whose mother or father is diabetic and in patients with a high waist perimeter.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky107
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Defining and measuring multimorbidity: a systematic review of systematic
    • Authors: Johnston M; Crilly M, Black C, et al.
      Pages: 182 - 189
      Abstract: BackgroundMultimorbidity, the coexistence of multiple health conditions, is a growing public health challenge. Research and intervention development are hampered by the lack of consensus regarding defining and measuring multimorbidity. The aim of this systematic review was to pool the findings of systematic reviews examining definitions and measures of multimorbidity.MethodsMedline, Embase, PubMed and Cochrane were searched from database inception to February 2017. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts and extracted data from the included papers. Disagreements were resolved with a third author. Reviews were quality assessed.ResultsOf six reviews, two focussed on definitions and four on measures. Multimorbidity was commonly defined as the presence of multiple diseases or conditions, often with a cut-off of two or more. One review developed a holistic definition including biopsychosocial and somatic factors as well as disease. Reviews recommended using measures validated for the outcome of interest. Disease counts are an alternative if no validated measure exists.ConclusionsTo enable comparison between studies and settings, researchers and practitioners should be explicit about their choice of definition and measure. Using a cut-off of two or more conditions as part of the definition is widely adopted. Measure selection should be based on tools validated for the outcome being considered. Where there is no validated measure, or where multiple outcomes or populations are being considered, disease counts are appropriate.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky098
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
  • Morbidity and housing status 10 years after shelter use—follow-up of
           homeless men in Helsinki, Finland
    • Authors: Stenius-Ayoade A; Haaramo P, Kautiainen H, et al.
      Pages: 190 - 190
      Abstract: This is a correction notice for article cky038 (
      DOI :, published on 23 March 2018. The publisher regrets to inform that there was an error in the ‘Results’ section of the . The final sentence erroneously read as follows: ‘Being married (OR We noticed that in the text we had reported the results from the multivariate analysis and in the abstract those from the univariate analysis. For uniformity we suggest that we in the abstract also report the multivariate results and the numbers would be replaced to: 8.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 23.2) and having less than four shelter nights in year 2004 (OR 9.1, 95% CI 2.7 to 30.8) strongly predicted being independently housed 10 years later’. The final sentence should instead have read as follows: ‘Being married (OR 8.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 23.2) and having less than four shelter nights in year 2004 (OR 9.1, 95% CI 2.7 to 30.8) strongly predicted being independently housed 10 years later’. This has now been corrected in the published article. The publisher apologizes for this error.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2018)
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