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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 525, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover European Journal of Orthodontics
  [SJR: 1.09]   [H-I: 60]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0141-5387 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2210
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • ROC surface assessment of the ANB angle and Wits appraisal’s diagnostic
           performance with a statistically derived ‘gold standard’: does
           normalizing measurements have any merit'
    • Authors: Wellens H; BeGole E, Kuijpers-Jagtman A.
      First page: 358
      Abstract: SummaryObjectiveTo assess the ANB angle’s and Wits appraisal’s diagnostic performance using an extended version of Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, which renders ROC surfaces. These were calculated for both the conventional and normalized cephalometric tests (calculated by exchanging the patient’s reference landmarks with those of the Procrustes superimposed sample mean shape).The required ‘gold standard’ was derived statistically, by applying generalized Procrustes superimposition (GPS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to the digitized landmarks, and ordering patients based upon their PC2 scores.MethodsDigitized landmarks of 200 lateral cephalograms (107 males, mean age: 12.8 years, SD: 2.2, 93 females, mean age: 13.2 years, SD: 1.7) were subjected to GPS and PCA. Upon calculating the conventional and normalized ANB and Wits values, ROC surfaces were constructed by varying not just the cephalometric test’s cut-off value within each ROC curve, but also the gold standard cut-off value over different ROC curves in 220 steps between -2 and 2 standard deviations along PC2. The volume under the resulting ROC surfaces (VUS) served as a measure of overall diagnostic performance. The statistical significance of the volume differences was determined using permutation tests (1000 rounds, with replacement).ResultsThe diagnostic performance of the conventional ANB and Wits was remarkably similar for both Class I/II (81.1 and 80.75% VUS, respectively, P > 0.05). Normalizing the measurements improved all VUS highly significantly (91 and 87.2 per cent, respectively, P < 0.001).ConclusionThe conventional ANB and Wits do not differ in their diagnostic performance. Normalizing the measurements does seem to have some merit.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjx002
       
  • Validity and reliability of three-dimensional palatal superimposition of
           digital dental models
    • Authors: Talaat S; Kaboudan A, Bourauel C, et al.
      First page: 365
      Abstract: SummaryObjectiveTo evaluate the validity and reliability of three-dimensional (3D) landmark-based palatal superimposition of digital dental models using Ortho Mechanics Sequential Analyzer (OMSA).MethodsThe sample consisted of pre- and post-treatment digital maxillary dental models of 20 orthodontic cases. For each case, the pre- and post-treatment digital models were superimposed using surface-based methods utilizing 3dMD Vultus and Invivo 5 software as well as a landmark-based method utilizing OMSA. The same set of parameters were measured on the superimposed 3D data by the three softwares for comparison. Agreement in the superimposition outcomes among the three superimposition methods was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland-Altman plots, and repeated measures ANOVA. A P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsRepeatability was acceptable for all methods based on the ICCs. Agreement as measured by the ICCs and repeated measures ANOVA was high among the three methods.ConclusionThe results indicate that OMSA offers a valid and reliable tool for 3D landmark-based digital dental models superimposition using 3 points marked along the midpalatal raphe as reference.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjx008
       
  • Morphometric covariation between palatal shape and skeletal pattern in
           Class II growing subjects
    • Authors: Paoloni V; Lione R, Farisco F, et al.
      First page: 371
      Abstract: SummaryObjectivesTo evaluate the patterns of covariation between palatal and craniofacial morphology in Class II subjects in the early mixed dentition by means of geometric morphometrics.MethodsA cross-sectional sample of 85 Class II subjects (44 females, 41 males; mean age 8.7 years ± 0.8) was collected retrospectively according to the following inclusion criteria: European ancestry (white), Class II skeletal relationship, Class II division 1 dental relationship, early mixed dentition, and prepubertal skeletal maturation. Pre-treatment digital 3D maxillary dental casts and lateral cephalograms were available. Landmarks and semilandmarks were digitized (239 on the palate and 121 on the cephalogram) and geometric morphometric methods (GMM) were applied. Procrustes analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to reveal the main patterns of palatal shape and craniofacial skeletal shape variation. Two-block partial least squares analysis (PLS) assessed patterns of covariation between palatal morphology and craniofacial morphology.ResultsFor the morphology of the palate, the first principal component (PC1) described variation in all three dimensions. For the morphology of the craniofacial complex, PC1 showed shape variation mainly in the vertical direction. Palatal shape and craniofacial shape covaried significantly (RV coefficient: 0.199). PLS1 accounted for more than 64 per cent of total covariation and related divergence of the craniofacial complex to palatal height and width. The more a Class II subject tended towards high-angle divergence, the narrower and higher was the palate.ConclusionsClass II high-angle patients tended to have narrower and higher palates, while Class II low-angle patients were related to wider and more shallow palates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjx014
       
  • Understanding interactions among cephalometrics variables during growth in
           untreated Class III subjects
    • Authors: Auconi P; Scazzocchio M, Caldarelli G, et al.
      First page: 395
      Abstract: SummaryObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to apply a computational method commonly used in data mining discipline, classification trees (CTs), to evaluate the growth features in untreated Class III subjects.Materials and methodsCT was applied to data from 91 untreated Class III subjects (48 females and 43 males) and compared with the results of discriminant analysis (DA). For all subjects, lateral cephalograms were available at T1 (mean age 10.4 ± 2.0 years) and at T2 (mean age 15.4 ± 1.9 years). A cephalometric analysis comprising 11 variables was performed. The subjects were divided into two subgroups, unfavourable (‘Bad’) and favourable (‘Good’) growers, according to the quality of the skeletal growth rate in comparison with the normal craniofacial growth.ResultsCTs showed that the most informative attribute for the prediction of favourable/unfavourable skeletal growth was the SNA angle. Subjects with SNA values lower than 79.1 degrees showed a risk of 94 per cent of growing unfavourably. DA was able to select palatal plane to mandibular plane angle as predictors. DA, however, showed a statistically significant higher rate of misclassification when compared with CTs (40.7 per cent versus 12.1 per cent, binomial exact test: odds ratio = 6.20; P < 0.0001).ConclusionsCTs provided a valid measure of elucidating the effective contribution of craniofacial characteristics in predicting favourable/unfavourable growth in untreated Class III subjects.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw084
       
  • Comparison of the force levels among labial and lingual self-ligating and
           conventional brackets in simulated misaligned teeth
    • Authors: Alobeid A; El-Bialy T, Khawatmi S, et al.
      First page: 419
      Abstract: SummaryBackground/objectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate force levels exerted by levelling arch wires with labial and lingual conventional and self-ligating brackets.Materials/methodsThe tested orthodontic brackets were of the 0.022-in slot size for labial and 0.018-in for lingual brackets and were as follows: 1. Labial brackets: (i) conventional bracket (GAC-Twin, Dentsply), (ii) passive self-ligating (SL) brackets (Damon-Q®, ORMCO; Ortho classic H4™, Orthoclassic; FLI®SL, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics) and (iii) active SL brackets (GAC In-Ovation®C, DENTSPLY and SPEED™, Strite). 2. Lingual brackets: (i) conventional brackets (Incognito, 3M and Joy™, Adenta); (ii) passive SL bracket (GAC In-Ovation®LM™, Dentsply and (iii) active SL bracket (Evolution SLT, Adenta). Thermalloy-NiTi 0.013-in and 0.014-in arch wires (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics) were used with all brackets. The simulated malocclusion represented a maxillary central incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis).ResultsLingual bracket systems showed higher force levels (2.4 ± 0.2 to 3.8 ± 0.2 N) compared to labial bracket systems (from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.4 N). However, the differences between SL and conventional bracket systems were minor and not consistent (labial brackets: 1.2 ± 0.1 N for the GAC Twin and 1.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.1 N for the SL brackets with 0.013-in thermalloy; lingual brackets: 2.5 ± 0.2 to 3.5 ± 0.1 N for the conventional and 2.7 ± 0.3 to 3.4 ± 0.1 N for the SL brackets with 0.013-in Thermalloy).LimitationsThis is an in vitro study with different slot sizes in the labial and lingual bracket systems, results should be interpreted with caution.Conclusions/implicationsLingual bracket systems showed higher forces compared to labial bracket systems that might be of clinical concern. We recommend highly flexible nickel titanium arch wires lower than 0.013-in for the initial levelling and alignment especially with lingual appliances.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw082
       
  • The effect of headgear on upper third molars: a retrospective longitudinal
           study
    • Authors: Miclotte A; Grommen B, Lauwereins S, et al.
      First page: 426
      Abstract: SummaryObjectivesTo investigate the effects of orthodontic non-extraction treatment with or without headgear on the position of and the space available for upper third molars in growing children with class II malocclusions.Materials and methodsThe sample consisted of pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 294 class II orthodontic patients; 160 were treated with headgear and 134 were treated without headgear. The space available for the upper third molar was measured on the lateral cephalogram as the distance from pterygoid vertical (PTV) to the distal surface of the upper first molar crown (PTV-M1). Angulation, vertical position and tooth development stage of the upper third molars were evaluated on panoramic radiographs. All measurements were evaluated statistically.ResultsIn both groups PTV-M1 increased, but the increase in PTV-M1 was significantly higher for patients treated without headgear. A linear model for repeated measures revealed that this difference was still significant after correction for age, gender and molar occlusion. Further, there is no evidence that the change in angulation, vertical position and development stage of the upper third molars during orthodontic treatment is influenced by headgear therapy.ConclusionThis study indicates that the use of headgear in growing patients significantly affects the space available for upper third molars. However, orthodontic treatment with headgear does not influence the angulation, vertical position and development stage of upper third molars. It is therefore important to always take into account third molars during treatment planning.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw090
       
  • Acceptability comparison between Hawley retainers and vacuum-formed
           retainers in orthodontic adult patients: a single-centre, randomized
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Saleh M; Hajeer M, Muessig D.
      First page: 453
      Abstract: SummaryBackgroundHawley retainers (HRs) and vacuum formed retainers (VFRs) are the most commonly used removable retainers in the orthodontic practice. Patients’ cooperation in wearing these appliances is affected by the levels of discomfort and oral impairment. The evidence regarding their acceptably among orthodontic patients is limited.AimsTo compare the acceptability of HRs and VFRs over a 6-month period in a group of fixed orthodontic patients.Trial DesignTwo-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial.MethodsPatients being treated at the Orthodontic Department of Saudi Swiss Consultant Dental Centre, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Inclusion criteria were treatment only with fixed appliances, no lateral expansion treatment, no hypodontia, no cleft lip and palate, no surgical corrections, no extraction-based plans, 18 years old or greater, and willingness to wear maxillary and mandibular removable retainers. Participants were distributed randomly using concealed envelopes into two groups: HR group and VFR group. A pilot-tested questionnaire was filled at three times: 1 week after fitting of the retainer (T1), 3 months and 6 months following appliance fitting (T2 and T3, respectively). Ten questions were given on biting, fitting of the appliance, speech, appearance, oral hygiene, durability, gingival irritation, swallowing, self-confidence, and comfort. Responses were given on a visual analogue scale. Blinding was employed during data analysis.ResultsNinety-four patients were included primarily. Six patients in the Hawley group and two patients in the VFR group failed to complete the study. Therefore, 86 patients were included the analysis (HR group: 41; VFR group: 45). No significant differences were found between the two groups in biting, fitting of the appliance, and hygiene perception, whereas significant differences were detected in speech (P < 0.05), appearance (P < 0.001), gingival irritation (P < 0.001), durability (P < 0.001), swallowing (P < 0.001), self-confidence, and comfort (P < 0.001). No harm to any patient was noticed during the trial.ConclusionsOver a 6-month period of retention, VFR was significantly more acceptable than HR in speech, appearance, gingival irritation, swallowing, self-confidence, and comfort. Subjects in the HR group believed that their retainers were significantly more durable than those in the VFR group at the final assessment. Both retainers were equal regarding fitting of the appliance, biting, and hygiene perception.RegistrationNot registered.ProtocolThe protocol was not published before trial commencement.FundingThis trial was funded by the Saudi Swiss Consultant Dental Centre.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjx024
       
  • Beni Solow award 2016
    • First page: 462
      Abstract: Mantas Šidlauskas
      PubDate: 2017-06-10
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjx018
       
  • Craniofacial shape differs in patients with tooth agenesis: geometric
           morphometric analysis
    • Authors: Cocos A; Halazonetis D.
      First page: 345
      Abstract: SummaryAim: To evaluate the shape of the craniofacial complex in patients with tooth agenesis and compare it to matched controls.Subjects and methods: The sample comprised 456 patients that were allocated to three groups: the agenesis group of 100 patients with at least one missing tooth, excluding third molars, the third molar agenesis group (3dMAG; one to four missing third molars) of 52 patients and the control group (CG) of 304 patients with no missing teeth. The main craniofacial structures depicted on lateral cephalograms were digitized and traced with 15 curves and 127 landmarks. These landmarks were subjected to Procrustes superimposition and principal component analysis in order to describe shape variability of the cranial base, maxilla and mandible, as well as of the whole craniofacial complex. For statistical analysis, permutation tests were used (10 000 permutations without replacement).Results: Approximately half of the sample’s variability was described by the first three principal components. Comparisons within the whole sample revealed sexual dimorphism of the craniofacial complex and its structures (P < 0.01). Differences between the agenesis group and matched controls were found in the shape of all craniofacial structures except for the cranial base (P < 0.05). Specifically, patients with agenesis presented with Class III tendency and hypodivergent skeletal pattern. However, the comparison between the 3dMAG and matched CG revealed no differences.Conclusion: The shape of the craniofacial complex differs in patients with tooth agenesis suggesting that common factors are implicated in tooth development and craniofacial morphology.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw049
       
  • Diagnostic concordance between skeletal cephalometrics, radiograph-based
           soft-tissue cephalometrics, and photograph-based soft-tissue
           cephalometrics
    • Authors: Nucera R; Lo Giudice A, Bellocchio M, et al.
      First page: 352
      Abstract: SummaryObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the diagnostic concordance between skeletal cephalometrics and soft-tissue cephalometrics in identifying facial lower third characteristics.Materials and methodsWe compared a skeletal cephalometric analysis (SCA) to a soft-tissue analysis performed on cephalometric radiographs (rSTCA) and to one performed on profile photograph (pSTCA). Ninety-six pre-treatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs and 96 digital profile photographs were randomly selected for this study (patients’ mean age: 18.33, SD: 3.38, age range: 14–29). Inclusion criteria were as follows: no skeletal asymmetry, well-aligned upper and lower dental arches, no history of orthodontic treatment, prosthodontic treatment, facial surgery and trauma, patient’s age between 14 and 30 years, high-resolution images, exams taken with natural head position. Kruskas–Wallis and post hoc pairwise comparisons tests were used to find differences among the considered cephalometric methods. The diagnostic performance of the three methods was also assessed using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.ResultsSignificant differences were found between SCA and rSTCA and between SCA and pSTCA in defining sagittal and vertical facial lower third characteristics (P < 0.05). No differences were found between rSTCA and pSTCA (P > 0.05) for the same facial characteristics. For each parameters investigated, pSTCA showed an area under the curve much closer to the perfect value of 1.00.ConclusionPoor diagnostic concordance was found between SCA and rSTCA and between SCA and pSTCA. pSTCA is a reliable method for evaluating the soft-tissue profile characteristics compared to that performed on cephalograms.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw072
       
  • Morphometric covariation between palatal shape and skeletal pattern in
           children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Parcha E; Bitsanis E, Halazonetis D.
      First page: 377
      Abstract: SummaryObjectiveTo assess shape covariation of the palate and craniofacial complex (CFC) in children and adolescents.MethodsPre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and corresponding maxillary casts of 100 children (8–10 years) and 100 adolescents (15–20 years) were digitized. Exclusion criteria were previous orthodontic treatment, craniofacial syndromes, mouth breathing, finger sucking, crossbite, tooth agenesis, and tooth impaction. Palatal shape was described with 239 surface and curve semilandmarks and craniofacial shape with 10 fixed landmarks and 117 curve semilandmarks. Procrustes superimposition and principal component analysis were applied for evaluation of shape variability. Shape covariation between palate and CFC was assessed with partial least squares analysis.ResultsThe first five principal components explained 77 per cent (palate) and 60 per cent (CFC) of total shape variability. The palate varied mainly in height (adolescent group) and width–length (both groups), whereas the CFC varied mainly in the vertical dimension. Significant covariation was found between the craniofacial and palatal components (RV coefficient: 0.27, children; RV: 0.23, adolescents). Variation of the CFC in the vertical and anteroposterior direction was mainly related to variation in the height–width and the width–length ratio of the palate, respectively.LimitationsThe use of lateral cephalometric radiographs eliminated the transverse dimension from the craniofacial shape analysis. The study was cross-sectional, so the observed intergroup differences should be interpreted with caution.ConclusionsCovariation strength and pattern were similar in children and adolescents. The closer a subject was to the high-angle end of the variability spectrum, the higher and narrower was the palate, and conversely.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw063
       
  • Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial growth between the ages of
           12 and 14 in normal humans
    • Authors: Katsadouris A; Halazonetis D.
      First page: 386
      Abstract: SummaryAimThere is great variation of growth among individuals. The question whether patients with different skeletal discrepancies grow differently is biologically interesting but also important in designing clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether growth direction depends on the initial craniofacial pattern.Subjects and methodThe sample consisted of 350 lateral cephalograms of 175 subjects (91 females and 84 males) followed during normal growth without any orthodontic treatment. The examined ages were 12 (T1) and 14 (T2) years. The cephalograms were obtained from the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection (Burlington, Fels, Iowa, and Oregon growth studies). We digitally traced 15 curves on each cephalogram, comprehensively covering the craniofacial skeleton, and located 127 points on the curves, 117 of which were sliding semilandmarks and 10 fixed. Procrustes alignment, principal component analysis and two-block partial least squares analysis were performed, after sliding the semilandmarks to minimize bending energy.ResultsThe first 10 principal components (PCs) described approximately 71 per cent of the total shape variance. PC1 was related to shape variance in the vertical direction (low/high angle skeletal pattern) and PC2 was mainly related to shape variance in the anteroposterior direction (Class II/Class III pattern). PC3 was mainly related to the shape variance of the mandibular angle. All subjects shared a similar growth trajectory in shape space. We did not find any correlation between the initial shape and the magnitude of shape change between T1 and T2, but males showed a greater shape change than females. The direction of shape change was moderately correlated to the initial shape (RV coefficient: 0.14, P < 0.001).ConclusionsThe initial shape of the craniofacial complex covaried weakly with the direction of shape change during growth.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw070
       
  • Three questionnaires to assess the perception of fixed orthodontic therapy
           before, during and after treatment: validity and reliability
    • Authors: Yassir Y; McIntyre G, Bearn D.
      First page: 402
      Abstract: SummaryBackground/objectiveTo assess the validity and reliability of a series of three questionnaires for the quantification of patient perception of fixed appliance orthodontic treatment.Subjects and methodsThe study was carried out at the University of Dundee with content and face validity being assessed using proformas. Initially ten experts (Orthodontic Specialists) assessed content validity with 11 professionals (seven Orthodontic Specialists and four Postgraduates) and 20 patients assessing face validity. Content validity was determined according to the values of item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and scale-level CVI (S-CVI/Ave), while specially designed feedback forms were used for face validation. Internal consistency determined the reliability of the questionnaires according to the value of Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient test. The three questionnaires were then modified according to the recommendations of professionals and patients with seven experts reassessing content validity and ten newly selected patients assessing face validity.ResultsThe first round of content validity revealed that around half of the items in the questionnaires were not valid. Therefore, the questionnaires were not valid as a whole (S-CVI/Ave = 0.60). After modifying the questionnaires and removing the non-valid items, the new versions of the Pre-treatment, Orthodontic Experience, and Post-treatment Questionnaires showed high levels of face validity, content validity (S-CVI/Ave: 0.99, 0.97, and 0.99, respectively) and good levels of internal consistency (α = 0.86, 0.78, and 0.88, respectively).LimitationThe patient sample was collected from a single university clinic and from one city within the UK and this could affect the generalizability of the results.ConclusionThree content valid and reliable questionnaires have been developed and validated for the evaluation of patient perception of fixed appliance orthodontic treatment.ImplicationsUnlike other tools that assess oral health-related quality of life, this series of three questionnaires assess the perception of fixed appliance orthodontic treatment before, during and after treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw076
       
  • Torque differences according to tooth morphology and bracket placement: a
           finite element study
    • Authors: Papageorgiou S; Sifakakis I, Keilig L, et al.
      First page: 411
      Abstract: SummaryIntroductionTorque of the maxillary incisors is essential in esthetics and proper occlusion, while torque expression is influenced by many factors. The aim of this finite element study was to assess the relative effect of tooth morphology, bracket prescription, and bracket positioning on tooth displacement and developed stresses/strains after torque application.MethodsA three-dimensional upper right central incisor with its periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolus was modelled. The tooth varied in the crown–root angle (CRA) between 156°, 170°, and 184°. An 0.018-inch slot discovery® (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) bracket with a rectangular 0.018 × 0.025-inch β-titanium wire was modelled. Bracket torque prescription varied between 0°, 12°, and 22°, with bracket placement at the centre of the middle, gingival or incisal third of the crown. A total of 27 models were generated and a buccal root torque of 30° was applied. Afterwards, crown and apex displacement, strains in the PDL, and stresses in the bracket were calculated and analysed statistically.ResultsThe palatal crown displacement was significantly affected by bracket positioning (up to 94 per cent), while the buccal apex displacement was significantly affected by bracket prescription (up to 42 per cent) and bracket positioning (up to 23 per cent). Strains in the PDL were affected mainly by CRA (up to 54 per cent), followed by bracket positioning (up to 45 per cent). Finally, bracket prescription considerably affected the stresses in the bracket (up to 144 per cent).LimitationsThese in silico results need to be validated in vivo before they can be clinically extrapolated.ConclusionTooth anatomy and the characteristics of the orthodontic appliance should be considered during torque application.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw074
       
  • Asymmetric molars’ mesial rotation and mesialization in unilateral
           functional posterior crossbite and implications for interceptive treatment
           in the mixed dentition
    • Authors: Tonni I; Iannazzi A, Piancino M, et al.
      First page: 433
      Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: Symmetric transverse expansion is the main outcome of the early treatment in subjects with unilateral functional posterior crossbite. The aim of this study was to analyse mesial rotation and mesialization of upper first molars as sagittal parameters to be corrected in the treatment of these patients during the mixed dentition.Methods: Digital dental cast measurements (rotation and mesialization) were performed in a sample of 48 subjects with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB; 19 males and 29 females, mean age 10.2 ± 1.2 years) and in a control group of 35 subjects with normal Class I occlusion (17 males and 18 females, mean age 9.9 ± 1.3 years). An independent sample t-test, the Mann–Whitney test, Fisher’s exact test, and Pearson correlation were used for statistical comparison.Results: The amount of upper molar rotation was significantly greater in the experimental group when compared with the control group. A clinically significant ‘upper molar rotation’ (UMR) was present in 66.7 per cent of the subjects with UPXB versus 5.7 per cent of the control group. The UMR group presented also a significant mesialization of upper first molars when compared with the control group. In the experimental group, there was a significant difference between rotation and mesialization in the right and left side and a correlation has been found between these two variables and the amount of Class II molar relationship at the crossbite side.Limitations: This is an epidemiological case–control study and the discussed effects of an early correction of the asymmetric upper molars’ migration are only speculations based on an association relationship.Conclusions: The findings of this study show an asymmetric upper first molars’ migration (rotation and mesialization) in unilateral functional posterior crossbite versus a control group. An early evaluation and correction of the molars’ migration during the mixed dentition should be considered in order to obtain a correct inter-occlusal sagittal molar relationship, space for an adequate eruption of permanent teeth, and perhaps reduce the need of a following fixed appliance treatment in the permanent dentition.
      PubDate: 2016-12-31
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw067
       
  • Comparing the effects of Essix and Hawley retainers on the acoustics of
           speech
    • Authors: Atik E; Esen Aydınlı F, Kulak Kayıkçı M, et al.
      First page: 440
      Abstract: SummaryObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the effects of two retainer types (Essix and Hawley) on speech performance.Subjects and methodsThe speech articulation of 30 patients was evaluated prospectively. Five patients did not appear during the follow-up periods. The patients were randomly divided into retention groups by treatment allocation cards as Essix and Hawley. The Essix group included 13 participants with a mean age of 15.3±2.4 years; the Hawley group included 12 participants with a mean age of 16.3±2.56 years. Speech sound assessments were performed on the first day and 1 week, 4 weeks, and 3 months later. On the first day, the assessments were conducted prior to inserting the retainers, immediately after maxillary and mandibular retainer application, individually, and with both retainers applied. The acoustic analyses were obtained using spectral and temporal parameters.ResultsStatistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS for Windows, version 20. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The most apparent changes were found in the [a] vowel in the Hawley group, the [e] vowel in the Essix group, and the [u] vowel in both groups (P < 0.05). While the number of affected consonant–vowel couples in the Essix group was low, alterations were common in the Hawley group. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in voice onset time of the [d] sound between the groups.LimitationsThe trial had a small sample size and a short follow-up period.ConclusionsThe Hawley retainer affected articulatory movements in consonant–vowel combinations more prominently than the Essix retainer did. Voice onset time of the consonant [d] in the Hawley group was shorter than normal, indicating rapid articulatory movement in the alveolar region.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw050
       
  • Gingival condition associated with two types of orthodontic fixed
           retainers: a meta-analysis
    • Authors: Buzatta L; Shimizu R, Shimizu I, et al.
      First page: 446
      Abstract: SummaryBackgroundThe maintenance of gingival health around orthodontic fixed retainers (FRs) is difficult and different designs have been proposed.ObjectiveThe goal of this systematic review was to analyse whether FR designs that allow unobstructed interproximal flossing, compared with the ones that do not, improve gingival parameters.Search methodsDetailed individual database search strategies for Cochrane Library, ‘Latin’ American and ‘Caribbean’ Health Sciences Literature, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were developed. Grey literature was also considered.Selection criteriaClinical trials and cross-sectional studies that compared two types of FRs (plain and waved) were included and evaluated.Data collection and analysisStudy selection, data extraction, and risk of bias (RoB) assessment were performed individually and in duplicate. The methodology quality was assessed using the MAStARI RoB tool.ResultsFour studies met the inclusion criteria, and all presented moderate RoB. While two of those studies found a statistically significant difference in gingival parameters, the other two did not report differences. A meta-analysis was conducted based on two of the selected studies, which performed evaluations of plaque index (PI) and calculus index (CI). The results revealed no differences on PI between wave FR and plain FR of 0.46 (0.24 to 0.69) and no differences on CI of 0.12 (−0.10 to 0.33). Regarding comfort, no clear differences were identified.ConclusionsThere is not enough scientific evidence to support or not an association between FR design and gingival health, flossing frequency, or patient comfort.RegistrationPROSPERO – CRD42016030059.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13
      DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw057
       
 
 
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