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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 579, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover Plant and Cell Physiology
  [SJR: 2.301]   [H-I: 114]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0032-0781 - ISSN (Online) 1471-9053
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Plant Acclimation to Six Different
           Long-Term Environmental Changes
    • Authors: Carrera D; Oddsson S, Grossmann J, et al.
      Abstract: The above article was published in Plant Cell Physiol. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcx206.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling
           Maize Inflorescence Architecture
    • Authors: Li M; Zhong W, Yang F, et al.
      Abstract: The establishment of inflorescence architecture is critical for the reproduction of flowering plant species. The maize plant generates two types of inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and their architectures have a large effect on grain yield and yield-related traits that are genetically controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Since ear and tassel architecture are deeply affected by the activity of inflorescence meristems, key QTLs and genes regulating meristematic activity have important impacts on inflorescence development and show great potential for optimizing grain yield. Isolation of yield trait-related QTLs is challenging, but these QTLs have direct application in maize breeding. Additionally, characterization and functional dissection of QTLs can provide genetic and molecular knowledge of quantitative variation in inflorescence architecture. In this review, we summarize currently identified QTLs responsible for the establishment of ear and tassel architecture and discuss the potential genetic control of four ear-related and four tassel-related traits. In recent years, several inflorescence architecture-related QTLs have been characterized at the gene level. We review the mechanisms of these characterized QTLs.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Membrane Lipid Oscillation: An Emerging System of Molecular Dynamics in
           the Plant Membrane
    • Authors: Nakamura Y.
      Abstract: Biological rhythm represents a major biological process of living organisms. However, rhythmic oscillation of membrane lipid content is poorly described in plants. The development of lipidomic technology has led to the illustration of precise molecular profiles of membrane lipids under various growth conditions. Compared with conventional lipid signaling, which produces unpredictable lipid changes in response to ever-changing environmental conditions, lipid oscillation generates a fairly predictable lipid profile, adding a new layer of biological function to the membrane system and possible cross-talk with the other chronobiological processes. This mini review covers recent studies elucidating membrane lipid oscillation in plants.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • TFL1-Like Proteins in Rice Antagonize Rice FT-Like Protein in
           Inflorescence Development by Competition for Complex Formation with 14-3-3
           and FD
    • Authors: Kaneko-Suzuki M; Kurihara-Ishikawa R, Okushita-Terakawa C, et al.
      Abstract: Hd3a, a rice homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), is a florigen that induces flowering. Hd3a forms a ternary ‘florigen activation complex’ (FAC) with 14-3-3 protein and OsFD1 transcription factor, a rice homolog of FD that induces transcription of OsMADS15, a rice homolog of APETALA1 (AP1), which leads to flowering. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) represses flowering and controls inflorescence architecture. However, the molecular basis for floral repression by TFL1 remains poorly understood. Here we show that RICE CENTRORADIALIS (RCN), rice TFL1-like proteins, compete with Hd3a for 14-3-3 binding. All four RCN genes are predominantly expressed in the vasculature, and RCN proteins are transported to the shoot apex to antagonize florigen activity and regulate inflorescence development. The antagonistic function of RCN to Hd3a is dependent on its 14-3-3 binding activity. Our results suggest a molecular basis for regulation of the balance between florigen FT and anti-florigen TFL1.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Gatekeeper Residue of ClpS1 from Arabidopsis thaliana Chloroplasts
           Determines its Affinity Towards Substrates of the Bacterial N-End Rule
    • Authors: Colombo C; Rosano G, Mogk A, et al.
      Abstract: Proteins that are to be eliminated must be proficiently recognized by proteolytic systems so that inadvertent elimination of useful proteins is avoided. One mechanism to ensure proper recognition is the presence of N-terminal degradation signals (N-degrons) that are targeted by adaptor proteins (N-recognins). The members of the caseinolytic protease S (ClpS) family of N-recognins identify targets bearing an N-terminal phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan or leucine residue, and then present them to a protease system. This process is known as the ‘bacterial N-end rule’. The presence of a ClpS protein in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts (AtClpS1) prompted the hypothesis that the bacterial N-end rule exists in this organelle. However, the specificity of AtClpS1 is unknown. Here we show that AtClpS1 has the ability to recognize bacterial N-degrons, albeit with low affinity. Recognition was assessed by the effect of purified AtClpS1 on the degradation of fluorescent variants bearing bacterial N-degrons. In many bacterial ClpS proteins, a methionine residue acts as a ‘gatekeeper’ residue, fine-tuning the specificity of the N-recognin. In plants, the amino acid at that position is an arginine. Replacement of this arginine for methionine in recombinant AtClpS1 allows for high-affinity binding to classical N-degrons of the bacterial N-end rule, suggesting that the arginine residue in the substrate-binding site may also act as a gatekeeper for plant substrates.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Respiratory Rates in Mature Leaves
           of Two Rice Cultivars Grown at a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Site and Analyses
           of the Underlying Mechanisms
    • Authors: Noguchi K; Tsunoda T, Miyagi A, et al.
      Abstract: Respiratory CO2 efflux and O2 uptake rates in leaves change in response to the growth CO2 concentration ([CO2]). The degrees of change vary depending on the responses of cellular processes such as nitrogen (N) assimilation and accumulation of organic acids to growth [CO2]. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the respiratory characteristics of mature leaves of two rice varieties with different yield capacities at different growth stages under ambient and elevated [CO2] conditions at a free-air CO2 enrichment site. We also examined the effect of increased water temperature on leaf respiration. We measured the rates of CO2 efflux and O2 uptake, and determined N contents, primary metabolite contents and maximal activities of respiratory enzymes. The leaf CO2 efflux rates decreased in plants grown at elevated [CO2] in both varieties, and were higher in high-yielding Takanari than in Koshihikari. The leaf O2 uptake rates showed little change with respect to growth [CO2] and variety. The increased water temperature did not significantly affect the CO2 efflux and O2 uptake rates. The N and amino acid contents were significantly higher in Takanari than in Koshihikari. The enhanced N assimilation in Takanari may have consumed more respiratory NADH, leading to higher CO2 efflux rates. In Koshihikari, the ratio of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates changed and maximal activities of enzymes in the TCA cycle decreased at elevated [CO2]. Therefore, the decreased rates of CO2 efflux in Koshihikari may be due to the decreased activities of TCA cycle enzymes at elevated [CO2].
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The S-Type Anion Channel ZmSLAC1 Plays Essential Roles in Stomatal Closure
           by Mediating Nitrate Efflux in Maize
    • Authors: Qi G; Yao F, Ren H, et al.
      Abstract: Diverse stimuli induce stomatal closure by triggering the efflux of osmotic anions, which is mainly mediated by the main anion channel SLAC1 in plants, and the anion permeability and selectivity of SLAC1 channels from several plant species have been reported to be variable. However, the genetic identity as well as the anion permeability and selectivity of the main S-type anion channel ZmSLAC1 in maize are still unknown. In this study, we identified GRMZM2G106921 as the gene encoding ZmSLAC1 in maize, and the maize mutants zmslac1-1 and zmslac1-2 harboring a mutator (Mu) transposon in ZmSLAC1 exhibited strong insensitive phenotypes of stomatal closure in response to diverse stimuli. We further found that ZmSLAC1 functions as a nitrate-selective anion channel without obvious permeability to chloride, sulfate and malate, clearly different from SLAC1 channels of Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis and Solanum lycopersicum L. Further experimental data show that the expression of ZmSLAC1 successfully rescued the stomatal movement phenotypes of the Arabidopsis double mutant atslac1-3atslah3-2 by mainly restoring nitrate-carried anion channel currents of guard cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that ZmSLAC1 is involved in stomatal closure mainly by mediating the efflux of nitrate in maize.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • BES1 and BZR1 Redundantly Promote Phloem and Xylem Differentiation
    • Authors: Saito M; Kondo Y, Fukuda H.
      Abstract: Vascular development is a good model for studying cell differentiation in plants. Two conductive tissues, the xylem and phloem, are derived from common stem cells known as procambial/cambial cells. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 proteins (GSK3s) play crucial roles in maintaining procambial/cambial cells by suppressing their differentiation into xylem or phloem cells. We previously designed an in vitro culture system for analyzing vascular cell differentiation named VISUAL (Vascular cell Induction culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves). Using this system, we found that the transcription factor BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1) functions as a downstream target of GSK3s during xylem differentiation. However, the function of BES1 in vascular development remains largely unknown. Here, we found that, in addition to xylem differentiation, BES1 positively regulates phloem differentiation downstream of GSK3s. Transcriptome analysis using VISUAL confirmed that BES1 promotes bi-directional differentiation of procambial cells into xylem and phloem cells. Genetic analysis of loss-of-function mutants newly generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) system revealed that BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1), the closest homolog of BES1, functions in vascular development redundantly with BES1. Notably, BZR1 has a weaker impact on vascular cell differentiation than BES1, suggesting that they contribute differentially to this process. In conclusion, our findings indicate that BES1 and BZR1 are key regulators of both xylem and phloem cell differentiation from vascular stem cells.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase Isozymes Play Redundant Roles in Ammonium
           Assimilation Under Low-Ammonium Conditions in Roots of Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Konishi N; Saito M, Imagawa F, et al.
      Abstract: Ammonium is a major nitrogen source for plants; it is assimilated into glutamine via a reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthetase (GLN). Arabidopsis expresses four cytosolic GLN genes, GLN1; 1, GLN1; 2, GLN1; 3 and GLN1; 4, in roots. However, the function and organization of these GLN1 isozymes in ammonium assimilation in roots remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize the four GLN1 isozymes. The levels of growth of the wild type and gln1 single and multiple knockout lines were compared in a hydroponic culture at ammonium concentrations of 0.1 and 3 mM. Under the low-ammonium concentration, in single mutants for each GLN1 gene, there was little effect on growth, whereas the triple mutant for GLN1; 1, GLN1; 2 and GLN1; 3 grew slowly and accumulated ammonium. Under the high-ammonium concentration, the single mutant for GLN1; 2 showed 50% decreases in fresh weight and glutamine, whereas the other gln1 single mutants did not show notable changes in the phenotype. The double mutant for GLN1; 1 and GLN1; 2 showed less growth and a lower glutamine concentration than the single mutant for GLN1; 2. Promoter analysis indicated an overlapping expression of GLN1; 1 with GLN1; 2 in the surface layers of the roots. We thus concluded that: (i) at a low concentration, ammonium was assimilated by GLN1; 1, GLN1; 2 and GLN1; 3, and they were redundant; (ii) low-affinity GLN1; 2 could contribute to ammonium assimilation at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3 mM; and (iii) GLN1; 1 supported GLN1; 2 within the outer cell layers of the root.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Negative Regulator in Response to Salinity in Rice: Oryza sativa Salt-,
           ABA- and Drought-Induced RING Finger Protein 1 (OsSADR1)
    • Authors: Park Y; Chapagain S, Jang C.
      Abstract: RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger proteins play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. We report the RING finger E3 ligase gene, an Oryza sativa salt, ABA and drought stress-induced RING finger protein 1 gene (OsSADR1). We demonstrated that although OsSAR1 possesses E3 ligase activity, a single amino acid substitution (OsSADR1C168A) in the RING domain resulted in no E3 ligase activity, suggesting that the activity of most E3s is specified by the RING domain. Additional assays substantiated that OsSADR1 interacts with three substrates—no E3 ligase acti and OsPIRIN, and mediates their proteolysis via the 26S proteasome pathway. For OsSADR1, approximately 62% of the transient signals were in the cytosol and 38% in the nucleus. However, transiently expressed OsSADR1 was primarily expressed in the nucleus (70%) in 200 mM salt-treated rice protoplasts. The two nucleus-localized proteins (OsSNAC2 and OsGRAS44) interacted with OsSADR1 in the cytosol and nucleus. Heterogeneous overexpression of OsSADR1 in Arabidopsis resulted in sensitive phenotypes for salt- and mannitol-responsive seed germination and seedling growth. With ABA, OsSADR1 overexpression in plants produced highly tolerant phenotypes, with morphological changes in root length and stomatal closure. The ABA-tolerant transgenic plants also showed hypersensitivity phenotypes under severe water deficit conditions. Taken together, OsSADR1 may act as a regulator in abiotic stress responses by modulating target protein levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Metabolic Flux Engineering of Cembratrien-ol Production in Both the
           Glandular Trichome and Leaf Mesophyll in Nicotiana tabacum
    • Authors: Zhang H; Zhang S, Yang Y, et al.
      Abstract: Cembratrien-ol synthase (CBTS) catalyzes the first step in cembranoid biosynthesis, producing cembratrien-ols in plant trichomes. In our previous study, microarray transcriptomes between leaves with trichomes and leaves without trichomes showed that an NtCBTS2 gene was expressed exclusively and abundantly in trichomes. Here, two NtCBTS2 isogenes (NtCBTS2a and NtCBTS2b), derived from a diploid genome donor, Nicotiana sylvestris, were identified from N. tabacum. Both genes were expressed primarily in trichomes, with relatively decreased transcription in flowers and stems, and faint expression in roots, and no expression was detected in leaves lacking trichomes. To demonstrate the feasibility of producing natural product cembratrien-ols in tobacco mesophylls, the mesophylls of 35S:NtCBTS2b transgenic tobacco plants were used in the analysis, suggesting that constitutive expression of NtCBTS2b led to the cembratrien-ol production in mesophylls. Overexpression of NtCBTS2b using either Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S or trichome-specific Cyt P450 oxygenase (CYP) promoters greatly increased aphid resistance by promoting the accumulation of CBT-ols, increased the secretory cell growth in glandular trichomes and increased the levels of various physiological measures, including sugar esters, gibberellins, and cembranoid production. Meanwhile, specifically overexpressing NtCBTS2b in glandular trichomes could most efficiently promote aphid resistance in tobacco plants. Notably, our results indicate the feasibility of utilizing bio-engineering to produce large amounts of CBT-ols, and modify significantly the composition of naturally produced CBT-ols and CBT-diols, thereby promoting aphid resistance in plants.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Three Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductases, BdFAR1, BdFAR2 and BdFAR3, are
           Involved in Cuticular Wax Primary Alcohol Biosynthesis in Brachypodium
    • Authors: Wang Y; Sun Y, You Q, et al.
      Abstract: Plant cuticular wax is a heterogeneous mixture of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Primary alcohols are the dominant wax components throughout leaf development of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). However, the genes involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis have not been investigated and their exact biological function remains unclear in Brachypodium to date. Here, we monitored the leaf wax profile and crystal morphology during Brachypodium leaf morphogenesis, and isolated three Brachypodium fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) genes, named BdFAR1, BdFAR2 and BdFAR3, then analyzed their biochemical activities, substrate specificities, expression patterns, subcellular localization and stress induction. Transgenic expression of BdFAR genes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brachypodium increased the production of primary alcohols. The three BdFAR genes were preferentially expressed in Brachypodium aerial tissues, consistent with known sites of wax primary alcohol deposition, and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Finally, expression of the BdFAR genes was induced by drought, cold and ABA treatments, and drought stress significantly increased cuticular wax accumulation in Brachypodium. Taken together, these results indicate that the three BdFAR genes encode active FARs involved in the biosynthesis of Brachypodium wax primary alcohols and respond to abiotic stresses.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Strigolactone Biosynthesis Genes of Rice are Required for the Punctual
           Entry of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi into the Roots
    • Authors: Kobae Y; Kameoka H, Sugimura Y, et al.
      Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant’s nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the pre-symbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17. Interestingly, most of the colonization process is normal, i.e. AM fungal hyphae approach the roots and cling around them, and epidermal penetration, arbuscule size, arbuscule number per hyphopodium and metabolic activity of the intraradical mycelium are not affected in d10 and d17 mutants. In contrast, hyphopodium formation is severely attenuated. Our observations establish the requirement for SL biosynthesis genes for efficient hyphopodium formation, suggesting that SLs are required in this process. Efficient hyphopodium formation is required for the punctual internalization of hyphae into roots and maintaining the expansion of colonization.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Novel Rice Xylosyltransferase Catalyzes the Addition of 2-O-Xylosyl Side
           Chains onto the Xylan Backbone
    • Authors: Zhong R; Cui D, Phillips D, et al.
      Abstract: Xylan is a major hemicellulose in both primary and secondary walls of grass species. It consists of a linear backbone of β-1,4-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with monosaccharides and disaccharides. Xylosyl substitutions directly on the xylan backbone have not been reported in grass species, and genes responsible for xylan substitutions in grass species have not been well elucidated. Here, we report functional characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) GT61 glycosyltransferase, XYXT1 (xylan xylosyltransferase1), for its role in xylan substitutions. XYXT1 was found to be ubiquitously expressed in different rice organs and its encoded protein was targeted to the Golgi, the site for xylan biosynthesis. When expressed in the Arabidopsis gux1/2/3 triple mutant, in which xylan was completely devoid of sugar substitutions, XYXT1 was able to add xylosyl side chains onto xylan. Glycosyl linkage analysis and comprehensive structural characterization of xylooligomers generated by xylanase digestion of xylan from transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing XYXT1 revealed that the side chain xylosyl residues were directly attached to the xylan backbone at O-2, a substituent not present in wild-type Arabidopsis xylan. XYXT1 was unable to add xylosyl residues onto the arabinosyl side chains of xylan when it was co-expressed with OsXAT2 (Oryza sativa xylan arabinosyltransferase2) in the gux1/2/3 triple mutant. Furthermore, we showed that recombinant XYXT1 possessed an activity transferring xylosyl side chains onto xylooligomer acceptors, whereas recombinant OsXAT2 catalyzed the addition of arabinosyl side chains onto xylooligomer acceptors. Our findings from both an in vivo gain-of-function study and an in vitro recombinant protein activity assay demonstrate that XYXT1 is a novel β-1,2-xylosyltransferase mediating the addition of xylosyl side chains onto xylan.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Plant Acclimation to Six Different
           Long-Term Environmental Changes
    • Authors: Carrera D; Oddsson S, Grossmann J, et al.
      Abstract: Plants are constantly challenged in their natural environment by a range of changing conditions. We investigated the acclimation processes and adaptive plant responses to various long-term mild changes and compared them directly within one experimental set-up. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were grown in hydroponic culture for 10 d under controlled abiotic stress (15°C, 25°C, salt and osmotic) and in nutrient deficiency (nitrate and phosphate). Plant growth was monitored and proteomic experiments were performed. Resource allocation between tissues altered during the plants’ response. The growth patterns and induced changes of the proteomes indicated that the underlying mechanisms of the adaptation processes are highly specific to the respective environmental condition. Our results indicated differential regulation of response to salt and osmotic treatment, while the proteins in the changed temperature regime showed an inverse, temperature-sensitive control. There was a high correlation of protein level between the nutrient-deficient treatments, but the enriched pathways varied greatly. The proteomic analysis also revealed new insights into the regulation of proteins specific to the shoot and the root. Our investigation revealed unique strategies of plant acclimation to the different applied treatments on a physiological and proteome level, and these strategies are quite distinct in tissues below and above ground.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Arabidopsis Phospholipase C3 is Involved in Lateral Root Initiation and
           ABA Responses in Seed Germination and Stomatal Closure
    • Authors: Zhang Q; van Wijk R, Shahbaz M, et al.
      Abstract: Phospholipase C (PLC) is well known for its role in animal signaling, where it generates the second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), by hydrolyzing the minor phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), upon receptor stimulation. In plants, PLC’s role is still unclear, especially because the primary targets of both second messengers are lacking, i.e. the ligand-gated Ca2+ channel and protein kinase C, and because PIP2 levels are extremely low. Nonetheless, the Arabidopsis genome encodes nine PLCs. We used a reversed-genetic approach to explore PLC’s function in Arabidopsis, and report here that PLC3 is required for proper root development, seed germination and stomatal opening. Two independent knock-down mutants, plc3-2 and plc3-3, were found to exhibit reduced lateral root densities by 10–20%. Mutant seeds germinated more slowly but were less sensitive to ABA to prevent germination. Guard cells of plc3 were also compromised in ABA-dependent stomatal closure. Promoter–β-glucuronidase (GUS) analyses confirmed PLC3 expression in guard cells and germinating seeds, and revealed that the majority is expressed in vascular tissue, most probably phloem companion cells, in roots, leaves and flowers. In vivo 32Pi labeling revealed that ABA stimulated the formation of PIP2 in germinating seeds and guard cell-enriched leaf peels, which was significantly reduced in plc3 mutants. Overexpression of PLC3 had no effect on root system architecture or seed germination, but increased the plant’s tolerance to drought. Our results provide genetic evidence for PLC’s involvement in plant development and ABA signaling, and confirm earlier observations that overexpression increases drought tolerance. Potential molecular mechanisms for the above observations are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mutation of the OsSAC1 Gene, which Encodes an Endoplasmic Reticulum
           Protein with an Unknown Function, Causes Sugar Accumulation in Rice Leaves
    • Authors: Zhu X; Shen W, Huang J, et al.
      Abstract: Sugars are the most abundant organic compounds produced by plants, and can be used to build carbon skeletons and generate energy. The sugar accumulation 1 (OsSAC1) gene encodes a protein with an unknown function that exhibits four N-terminal transmembrane regions and two conserved domains of unknown function, DUF4220 and DUF594. OsSAC1 was found to be poorly and specifically expressed at the bottoms of young leaves and in the developing leaf sheaths. Subcellular location results showed that OsSAC1 was co-localized with ER:mCherry and targeted the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). OsSAC1 has been found to affect sugar partitioning in rice (Oryza sativa). I2/KI starch staining, ultrastructure observations and starch content measurements indicated that more and larger starch granules accumulated in ossac1 source leaves than in wild-type (WT) source leaves. Additionally, higher sucrose and glucose concentrations accumulated in the ossac1 source leaves than in WT source leaves, whereas lower sucrose and glucose concentrations were observed in the ossac1 young leaves and developing leaf sheaths than in those of the WT. Much greater expression of OsAGPL1 and OsAGPS1 (responsible for starch synthesis) and significantly less expression of OscFBP1, OscFBP2, OsSPS1 and OsSPS11 (responsible for sucrose synthesis) and OsSWEET11, OsSWEET14 and OsSUT1 (responsible for sucrose loading) occurred in ossac1 source leaves than in WT source leaves. A greater amount of the rice plasmodesmatal negative regulator OsGSD1 was detected in ossac1 young leaves and developing leaf sheaths than in those of the WT. These results suggest that ER-targeted OsSAC1 may indirectly regulate sugar partitioning in carbon-demanding young leaves and developing leaf sheaths.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Identification of C-terminal Regions in Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochelatin
           Synthase 1 Specifically Involved in Activation by Arsenite
    • Authors: Uraguchi S; Sone Y, Ohta Y, et al.
      Abstract: Phytochelatins (PCs) are major chelators of toxic elements including inorganic arsenic (As) in plant cells. Their synthesis confers tolerance and influences within-plant mobility. Previous studies had shown that various metal/metalloid ions differentially activate PC synthesis. Here we identified C-terminal parts involved in arsenite- [As(III)] dependent activation of AtPCS1, the primary Arabidopsis PC synthase. The T-DNA insertion in the AtPCS1 mutant cad1-6 causes a truncation in the C-terminal regulatory domain that differentially affects activation by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). Comparisons of cad1-6 with the AtPCS1 null mutant cad1-3 and the double mutant of tonoplast PC transporters abcc1/2 revealed As(III) hypersensitivity of cad1-6 equal to that of cad1-3. Both cad1-6 and cad1-3 showed increased As distribution to shoots compared with Col-0, whereas Zn accumulation in shoots was equally lower in cad1-6 and cad1-3. Supporting these phenotypes of cad1-6, PC accumulation in the As(III)-exposed plants were at trace level in both cad1-6 and cad1-3, suggesting that the truncated AtPCS1 of cad1-6 is defective in PCS activity in response to As(III). Analysis of a C-terminal deletion series of AtPCS1 using the PCS-deficient mutant of fission yeast suggested important regions within the C-terminal domain for As(III)-dependent PC synthesis, which were different from the regions previously suggested for Cd- or Zn-dependent activation. Interestingly, we identified a truncated variant more strongly activated than the wild-type protein. This variant could potentially be used as a tool to better restrict As mobility in plants.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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