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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1582 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 2.389]   [H-I: 189]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0077-8923 - ISSN (Online) 1749-6632
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1582 journals]
  • Isolation, structure, and bioactivities of polysaccharides from Cyclocarya
           paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja
    • Authors: Qiqiong Li; Jielun Hu, Jianhua Xie, Shaoping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
      Abstract: Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja, a well-known edible and medicinal plant, has been widely used in China as a traditional medicine for treating hypertension and diabetes. C. paliurus possesses various bioactivities, such as antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, anticancer, antifatigue, antioxidation, antimicrobial, colon health–promoting, and immunological activities. Polysaccharides, as natural macromolecules with various biological activities, are considered to be the main effective components in C. paliurus. Here, we summarize studies of polysaccharides from C. paliurus over the past 20 years, including extraction and purification processes, structure, and bioactivities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T16:40:26.435784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13357
  • Claudin peptidomimetics modulate tissue barriers for enhanced drug
    • Authors: Sophie Dithmer; Christian Staat, Carolin Müller, Min-Chi Ku, Andreas Pohlmann, Thoralf Niendorf, Nora Gehne, Petra Fallier-Becker, Ágnes Kittel, Fruzsina R. Walter, Szilvia Veszelka, Maria A. Deli, Rosel Blasig, Reiner F. Haseloff, Ingolf E. Blasig, Lars Winkler
      Abstract: The blood–brain barrier (BBB) formed by the microvascular endothelium limits cerebral drug delivery. The paraendothelial cleft is sealed by tight junctions (TJs) with a major contribution from claudin-5, which we selected as a target to modulate BBB permeability. For this purpose, drug-enhancer peptides were designed based on the first extracellular loop (ECL) of claudin-5 to allow transient BBB permeabilization. Peptidomimetics (C5C2 and derivatives, nanomolar affinity to claudin-5) size-selectively (≤40 kDa) and reversibly (12–48 h) increased the permeability of brain endothelial and claudin-5–transfected epithelial cell monolayers. Upon peptide uptake, the number of TJ strand particles diminished, claudin-5 was downregulated and redistributed from cell–cell contacts to the cytosol, and the cell shape was altered. Cellular permeability of doxorubicin (cytostatic drug, 580 Da) was enhanced after peptide administration. Mouse studies (3.5 μmol/kg i.v.) confirmed that, for both C5C2 and a d-amino acid derivative, brain uptake of Gd–diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (547 Da) was enhanced within 4 h of treatment. On the basis of our functional data, circular dichroism measurements, molecular modeling, and docking experiments, we suggest an association model between β-sheets flanked by α-helices, formed by claudin-5 ECLs, and the peptides. In conclusion, we identified claudin-5 peptidomimetics that improve drug delivery through endothelial and epithelial barriers expressing claudin-5.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T14:25:38.954777-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13359
  • Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and
           metabolic syndrome: a review
    • Authors: Jing Wang; Weixin Ke, Rui Bao, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
      Abstract: In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T12:10:27.161838-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13375
  • The bicellular tensile force sorts the localization of LSRs in bicellular
           and tricellular junctions
    • Authors: Takayuki Kohno; Shin Kikuchi, Takafumi Ninomiya, Takashi Kojima
      Abstract: Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptors (LSRs) localize to tricellular tight junctions. Recent studies have shown that changes in the localization and expression profiles of LSRs are associated with malignancy of endometrial carcinomas, although the precise mechanisms by which malignant progression induces changes in the localization of LSRs are still unknown. In this study, we found that changes in cell tension correlated with alterations in the junctional localization of LSRs in endometrial cancer Sawano cells. At high cell densities, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) localized to bicellular junctions, whereas activated myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MRLC2) was dislocated from these regions, suggesting that circumferential tensile forces decreased at high cell densities. Under these conditions, LSRs localized to tricellular junctions. In contrast, a phosphorylated form of MRLC2 localized to bicellular regions, while MYPT1 was excluded from these regions, suggesting that tensile forces formed along the circumferential edge at low cell densities. It is noteworthy that, when cells were cultured under these conditions, LSRs localized to bicellular regions. Upon treatment with a myosin inhibitor, LSR localization in bicellular junctions decreased at low cell densities. Overall, our results indicate that the modulation of cellular tension was involved in the translocation of LSRs from bicellular to tricellular tight junctions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T14:25:48.825116-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13362
  • Intestinal epithelial claudins: expression and regulation in homeostasis
           and inflammation
    • Authors: Vicky Garcia-Hernandez; Miguel Quiros, Asma Nusrat
      Abstract: The intestinal epithelium forms a highly dynamic and selective barrier that controls absorption of fluid and solutes while restricting pathogen access to underlying tissues. Barrier properties are achieved by intercellular junctions that include an apical tight junction (TJ) and subjacent adherens junctions and desmosomes. The TJ tetraspan claudin proteins form pores between epithelial cells to control paracellular fluid and ion movement. In addition to regulation of barrier function, claudin family members control epithelial homeostasis and are expressed in a spatiotemporal manner in the intestinal crypt–luminal axis. This delicate balance of physiologic differential claudin protein expression is altered during mucosal inflammation. Inflammatory mediators influence transcriptional regulation, as well as endocytic trafficking, targeting, and retention of claudins in the TJ. Increased expression of intestinal epithelial claudin-1, -2, and -18 with downregulation of claudin-3, -4, -5, -7, -8, and -12 has been observed in intestinal inflammatory disorders. Such changes in claudin proteins modify the epithelial barrier function in addition to influencing epithelial and mucosal homeostasis. An improved understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that control epithelial claudin proteins will provide strategies to strengthen the epithelial barrier function and restore mucosal homeostasis in inflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T14:25:42.066154-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13360
  • Progress toward openness, transparency, and reproducibility in cognitive
    • Authors: Rick O. Gilmore; Michele T. Diaz, Brad A. Wyble, Tal Yarkoni
      Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that many findings in psychological science and cognitive neuroscience may prove difficult to reproduce; statistical power in brain imaging studies is low and has not improved recently; software errors in analysis tools are common and can go undetected for many years; and, a few large-scale studies notwithstanding, open sharing of data, code, and materials remain the rare exception. At the same time, there is a renewed focus on reproducibility, transparency, and openness as essential core values in cognitive neuroscience. The emergence and rapid growth of data archives, meta-analytic tools, software pipelines, and research groups devoted to improved methodology reflect this new sensibility. We review evidence that the field has begun to embrace new open research practices and illustrate how these can begin to address problems of reproducibility, statistical power, and transparency in ways that will ultimately accelerate discovery.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T16:55:29.505648-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13325
  • A network engineering perspective on probing and perturbing cognition with
    • Authors: Danielle S. Bassett; Ankit N. Khambhati
      Abstract: Network science and engineering provide a flexible and generalizable tool set to describe and manipulate complex systems characterized by heterogeneous interaction patterns among component parts. While classically applied to social systems, these tools have recently proven to be particularly useful in the study of the brain. In this review, we describe the nascent use of these tools to understand human cognition, and we discuss their utility in informing the meaningful and predictable perturbation of cognition in combination with the emerging capabilities of neurofeedback. To blend these disparate strands of research, we build on emerging conceptualizations of how the brain functions (as a complex network) and how we can develop and target interventions or modulations (as a form of network control). We close with an outline of current frontiers that bridge neurofeedback, connectomics, and network control theory to better understand human cognition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T12:10:49.406841-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13338
  • C-type starches and their derivatives: structure and function
    • Authors: Zebin Guo; Xiangze Jia, Beibei Zhao, Shaoxiao Zeng, Jianbo Xiao, Baodong Zheng
      Abstract: The C-type starches are widely distributed in seeds or rhizomes of various legumes, medicinal plants, and crops. These carbohydrate polymers directly affect the application of starchy plant resources. The structural and crystal properties of starches are crucial parameters of starch granules, which significantly influence their physicochemical and mechanical properties. The unique crystal structure consisting of both A- and B-type polymorphs endows C-type starches with specific crystal adjustability. Furthermore, large proportions of resistant starches and slowly digestible starches are C-type starches, which contribute to benign glycemic response and proliferation of gut microflora. Here, we review the distribution of C-type starches in various plant sources, the structural models and crystal properties of C-type starches, and the behavior and functionality relevant to modified C-type starches. We outline recent advances, potential applications, and limitations of C-type starches in industry, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for further research and to broaden the prospects of its applications.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T12:10:42.707076-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13351
  • Two common human CLDN5 alleles encode different open reading frames but
           produce one protein isoform
    • Authors: Ronald M. Cornely; Barbara Schlingmann, Whitney S. Shepherd, Joshua D. Chandler, David C. Neujahr, Michael Koval
      Abstract: Claudins provide tight junction barrier selectivity. The human CLDN5 gene contains a high-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs885985), where the G allele codes for glutamine (Q) and the A allele codes for an amber stop codon. Thus, these different CLDN5 alleles define nested open reading frames (ORFs) encoding claudin-5 proteins that are 303 or 218 amino acids in length. Interestingly, human claudin-16 and claudin-23 also have long ORFs. The long form of claudin-5 contrasts with the majority of claudin-5 proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information protein database, which are less than 220 amino acids in length. Screening of genotyped human lung tissue by immunoblot revealed only the 218 amino acid form of claudin-5 protein; the long-form claudin-5 protein was not detected. Moreover, when forcibly expressed in transfected cells, the long form of human claudin-5 was retained in intracellular compartments and did not localize to the plasma membrane, in contrast to the 218 amino acid form, which localized to intercellular junctions. This suggests that the 303 amino acid claudin-5 protein is rarely expressed, and, if so, is predicted to adversely affect cell function. Potential roles for upstream ORFs in regulating claudin-5 expression are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T12:10:38.445033-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13342
  • Equivalence of complex drug products: advances in and challenges for
           current regulatory frameworks
    • Authors: Leonie Hussaarts; Stefan Mühlebach, Vinod P. Shah, Scott McNeil, Gerrit Borchard, Beat Flühmann, Vera Weinstein, Sesha Neervannan, Elwyn Griffiths, Wenlei Jiang, Elena Wolff-Holz, Daan J.A. Crommelin, Jon S.B. Vlieger
      Abstract: Biotechnology and nanotechnology provide a growing number of innovator-driven complex drug products and their copy versions. Biologics exemplify one category of complex drugs, but there are also nonbiological complex drug products, including many nanomedicines, such as iron–carbohydrate complexes, drug-carrying liposomes or emulsions, and glatiramoids. In this white paper, which stems from a 1-day conference at the New York Academy of Sciences, we discuss regulatory frameworks in use worldwide (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, the World Health Organization) to approve these complex drug products and their follow-on versions. One of the key questions remains how to assess equivalence of these complex products. We identify a number of points for which consensus was found among the stakeholders who were present: scientists from innovator and generic/follow-on companies, academia, and regulatory bodies from different parts of the world. A number of topics requiring follow-up were identified: (1) assessment of critical attributes to establish equivalence for follow-on versions, (2) the need to publish scientific findings in the public domain to further progress in the field, (3) the necessity to develop worldwide consensus regarding nomenclature and labeling of these complex products, and (4) regulatory actions when substandard complex drug products are identified.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T12:10:34.962138-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13347
  • Porcine milk induces a strengthening of barrier function in porcine
           jejunal epithelium in vitro
    • Authors: Judith Radloff; Silke S. Zakrzewski, Robert Pieper, Alexander G. Markov, Salah Amasheh
      Abstract: Milk contains a variety of components that have been shown to affect the expression and localization of epithelial tight junction proteins and therefore the intestinal barrier. Thus, we hypothesized that milk would have an effect on intestinal barrier properties, owing to effects on the tight junction in an intraspecies porcine intestinal in vitro model. Jejunal samples of piglets derived from different age groups were analyzed. Transepithelial electrical resistance was recorded employing the Ussing chamber technique. Porcine milk or predigested milk in buffer solution was added to the apical side, and effects were compared to untreated controls. Unidirectional paracellular flux measurements were performed using sodium fluorescein. Tight junction protein expression and localization were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Incubation with milk or predigested milk led to an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance, while paracellular permeability for sodium fluorescein did not result in significant changes. Densitometric analysis of immunoblot signals did not show significant alterations in claudin expression, but a reduction of claudin signals in apicolateral membrane compartments in both approaches became apparent via immunohistology. The functional effect might reflect a physiological protective mechanism, when offspring exclusively rely on their mother's milk and are exposed to a plethora of potentially barrier-perturbing factors.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T12:10:32.104058-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13340
  • Irisin and musculoskeletal health
    • Authors: Graziana Colaianni; Saverio Cinti, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano
      Abstract: Irisin is a hormone-like myokine produced in abundance by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, both in mice and humans. Once released into the circulation, irisin acts on white adipocytes to induce the browning response and subsequently activates nonshivering thermogenesis. We have examined the premise that irisin produced during exercise may subserve further functions in the musculoskeletal system. We review evidence for its possible skeletal effects, including the central role that irisin plays in the control of bone mass, with positive effects on cortical mineral density and geometry in mice. We also review the autocrine effects of irisin in skeletal muscle, in which it upregulates the expression of its precursor (FNDC5). Since loss of bone and muscle mass occurs with aging, immobility, and several metabolic diseases, future studies exploring the efficacy of irisin in restoring bone and reversing muscle wasting could be important to establishing irisin as a molecule that combines beneficial effects for treating osteoporosis and muscular atrophy. If the results from mice were confirmed in human studies, an irisin-based therapy could be developed for physically disabled or bedridden patients.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T12:56:03.388678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13345
  • Structure, bioactivity, and synthesis of methylated flavonoids
    • Authors: Lingrong Wen; Yueming Jiang, Jiali Yang, Yupeng Zhao, Miaomiao Tian, Bao Yang
      Abstract: Methylated flavonoids are an important type of natural flavonoid derivative with potentially multiple health benefits; among other things, they have improved bioavailability compared with flavonoid precursors. Flavonoids have been documented to have broad bioactivities, such as anticancer, immunomodulation, and antioxidant activities, that can be elevated, to a certain extent, by methylation. Understanding the structure, bioactivity, and bioavailability of methylated flavonoids, therefore, is an interesting topic with broad potential applications. Though methylated flavonoids are widely present in plants, their levels are usually low. Because developing efficient techniques to produce these chemicals would likely be beneficial, we provide an overview of their chemical and biological synthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:06:07.420361-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13350
  • Zonulin transgenic mice show altered gut permeability and increased
           morbidity/mortality in the DSS colitis model
    • Authors: Craig Sturgeon; Jinggang Lan, Alessio Fasano
      Abstract: Increased small intestinal permeability (IP) has been proposed to be an integral element, along with genetic makeup and environmental triggers, in the pathogenies of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs). We identified zonulin as a master regular of intercellular tight junctions linked to the development of several CIDs. We aim to study the role of zonulin-mediated IP in the pathogenesis of CIDs. Zonulin transgenic Hp2 mice (Ztm) were subjected to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 7 days, followed by 4–7 days' recovery and compared to C57Bl/6 (wild-type (WT)) mice. IP was measured in vivo and ex vivo, and weight, histology, and survival were monitored. To mechanistically link zonulin-dependent impairment of small intestinal barrier function with clinical outcome, Ztm were treated with the zonulin inhibitor AT1001 added to drinking water in addition to DSS. We observed increased morbidity (more pronounced weight loss and colitis) and mortality (40–70% compared with 0% in WT) at 11 days post-DSS treatment in Ztm compared with WT mice. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements showed an increased IP at baseline in Ztm compared to WT mice, which was exacerbated by DSS treatment and was associated with upregulation of zonulin gene expression (fourfold in the duodenum, sixfold in the jejunum). Treatment with AT1001 prevented the DSS-induced increased IP both in vivo and ex vivo without changing zonulin gene expression and completely reverted morbidity and mortality in Ztm. Our data show that zonulin-dependent small intestinal barrier impairment is an early step leading to the break of tolerance with subsequent development of CIDs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:17:58.453693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13343
  • Cytoprotective effects of dietary flavonoids against cadmium-induced
    • Authors: Xia Li; Xinwei Jiang, Jianxia Sun, Cuijuan Zhu, Xiaoling Li, Lingmin Tian, Liu Liu, Weibin Bai
      Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) damages the liver, kidney, bones, reproductive system, and other organs. Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are commonly found in plant foods, have shown protective effects against Cd-induced damage. The cytoprotective effects of flavonoids against Cd-induced diseases are mainly attributable to three mechanisms. First, flavonoids clear reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing lipid peroxide production and improving the activity of antioxidation enzymes. Second, flavonoids chelate Cd, thus reducing the accumulation of Cd and altering the levels of other essential metal ions in vivo. Third, flavonoids reduce DNA damage and inhibit apoptosis. In addition, flavonoids were found to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis and improve glycometabolism and the secretion of reproductive hormones. We introduce the daily dosage and absorption rate of flavonoids and then focus on their bioactive effects against Cd-induced toxicity and reveal the underlying metabolic pathway, which provides a basis for further study of the nutritional prevention of Cd-induced injury. In particular, a better understanding is needed of the structure–activity relationship of flavonoids against Cd toxicity, which has not yet been reported.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:17:49.54283-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13344
  • Neural correlates of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals
    • Authors: John G. Grundy; John A.E. Anderson, Ellen Bialystok
      Abstract: Here, we review the neural correlates of cognitive control associated with bilingualism. We demonstrate that lifelong practice managing two languages orchestrates global changes to both the structure and function of the brain. Compared with monolinguals, bilinguals generally show greater gray matter volume, especially in perceptual/motor regions, greater white matter integrity, and greater functional connectivity between gray matter regions. These changes complement electroencephalography findings showing that bilinguals devote neural resources earlier than monolinguals. Parallel functional findings emerge from the functional magnetic resonance imaging literature: bilinguals show reduced frontal activity, suggesting that they do not need to rely on top-down mechanisms to the same extent as monolinguals. This shift for bilinguals to rely more on subcortical/posterior regions, which we term the bilingual anterior-to-posterior and subcortical shift (BAPSS), fits with results from cognitive aging studies and helps to explain why bilinguals experience cognitive decline at later stages of development than monolinguals.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:55:50.788881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13333
  • Claudin-targeted drug development using anti-claudin monoclonal antibodies
           to treat hepatitis and cancer
    • Authors: Yosuke Hashimoto; Masayoshi Fukasawa, Hiroki Kuniyasu, Kiyohito Yagi, Masuo Kondoh
      Abstract: The 27-member family of tetraspan membrane proteins known as claudins (CLDNs) is a major component of tight junctions. A series of studies elucidating the relationship between CLDNs and various pathological conditions has provided new insights into drug development. For instance, CLDN-1 may be a potent target for epidermal absorption of drugs and for treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. CLDN-4 may be a target for treating cancer. Because CLDNs are also expressed in various normal tissues, safety and efficacy evaluations are critical for translational research. We previously developed several anti-CLDN antibodies and have established proof of concept for CLDN-targeted drug development using these reagents. Here, we provide an overview of CLDN-1 as a target for improving epidermal drug absorption and preventing HCV infection and of CLDN-4 as a target for anticancer therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:55:47.551903-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13337
  • Polar and charged extracellular residues conserved among barrier-forming
           claudins contribute to tight junction strand formation
    • Authors: Anna Piontek; Jan Rossa, Jonas Protze, Hartwig Wolburg, Caroline Hempel, Dorothee Günzel, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek
      Abstract: Claudins (Cldn) form the backbone of tight junction (TJ) strands and thereby regulate paracellular permeability for solutes and water. Polymeric strands are formed by homo- and heterophilic cis- and trans-interactions between claudin protomers. Crystal structures of some claudins have been resolved; however, the mechanism by which claudins assemble into TJ strands remains unclear. To elucidate strand architecture, TJ-like strands were reconstituted in HEK293 cells by claudin transfection. Determinants of prototypic, classic barrier-forming claudins (Cldn1, -3, and -5) involved in strand formation were analyzed by mutagenesis. The capability of claudin constructs to interact in trans and to form strands was investigated by cell contact–enrichment assays and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Residues in extracellular loops 1 and 2 of the claudins affecting strand formation were identified. Using homology modeling and molecular docking, we tested working concepts for the arrangement of claudin protomers within TJ strands. We show that the charge of Lys65 in Cldn1 and Glu158 in Cldn3, but not of Arg30 or Asp145 in Cldn3, and the polarity of Gln56 and Gln62 in Cldn3 and of Gln57 in Cldn5 are necessary for TJ strand formation. These residues are all conserved among barrier-forming classic claudins. The results contribute to mechanistic understanding of claudin-based regulation of paracellular permeability.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:55:39.975411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13341
  • ZO-2, a tight junction protein involved in gene expression, proliferation,
           apoptosis, and cell size regulation
    • Authors: Lorenza González-Mariscal; Jael Miranda, Arturo Raya-Sandino, Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Francisco Cuellar-Perez
      Abstract: ZO-2 is a peripheral tight junction protein that belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family. Here, we explain the modular and supramodular organization of ZO-2 that allows it to interact with a wide variety of molecules, including cell–cell adhesion proteins, cytoskeletal components, and nuclear factors. We also describe how ZO proteins evolved through metazoan evolution and analyze the intracellular traffic of ZO-2, as well as the roles played by ZO-2 at the plasma membrane and nucleus that translate into the regulation of proliferation, cell size, and apoptosis. In addition, we focus on the impact of ZO-2 expression on male fertility and on maladies like cancer, cholestasis, and hearing loss.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:55:32.094512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13334
  • Annona species (Annonaceae): a rich source of potential antitumor
    • Authors: Rosa Tundis; Jianbo Xiao, Monica R Loizzo
      Abstract: Plants have provided the basis of traditional medicine systems throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to yield molecules for new remedies. We analyzed studies published from 2009 to 2016 on the Annona species (Annonaceae), including A. coriacea, A. crassifolia, A. hypoglauca, A. muricata, A. squamosa, A. sylvatica, and A. vepretorum, as sources of potential antitumor agents. Here, we report and discuss the mechanisms of action and structure–activity relationships of the most active Annona constituents. Annonaceous acetogenins are one of the most promising classes of natural products, owing to their potential antitumor activity. However, their neurotoxicity should not be underestimated.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:55:28.375605-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13339
  • Endocytosis of tight junction proteins and the regulation of degradation
           and recycling
    • Authors: Svetlana M. Stamatovic; Allison M. Johnson, Nikola Sladojevic, Richard F. Keep, Anuska V. Andjelkovic
      Abstract: Internalization of tight junction (TJ) proteins from the plasma membrane is a pivotal mechanism regulating TJ plasticity and function in both epithelial and endothelial barrier tissues. Once internalized, the TJ proteins enter complex vesicular machinery, where further trafficking is directly dependent on the initiating stimulus and downstream signaling pathways that regulate the sorting and destiny of TJ proteins, as well as on cell and barrier responses. The destiny of internalized TJ proteins is recycling to the plasma membrane or sorting to late endosomes and degradation. This review highlights recent advances in our knowledge of endocytosis and vesicular trafficking of TJ proteins in both epithelial and endothelial cells. A greater understanding of these processes may allow for the development of methods to modulate barrier permeability for drug delivery or prevent barrier dysfunction in disease states.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:55:25.667873-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13346
  • The neuroscience of people watching: how the human brain makes sense of
           other people's encounters
    • Authors: Susanne Quadflieg; Kami Koldewyn
      Abstract: Neuroscientific investigations interested in questions of person perception and impression formation have traditionally asked their participants to observe and evaluate isolated individuals. In recent years, however, there has been a surge of studies presenting third-party encounters between two (or more) individuals as stimuli. Owing to this subtle methodological change, the brain's capacity to understand other people's interactions and relationships from limited visual information––also known as people watching––has become a distinct topic of inquiry. Though initial evidence indicates that this capacity relies on several well-known networks of the social brain (including the person-perception network, the action-observation network, and the mentalizing network), a comprehensive framework of people watching must overcome three major challenges. First, it must develop a taxonomy of judgments that people habitually make when witnessing the encounters of others. Second, it must clarify which visual cues give rise to these encounter-based judgments. Third, it must elucidate how and why several brain networks work together to accomplish these judgments. To advance all three lines of research, we summarize what is currently known as well as what remains to be studied about the neuroscience of people watching.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T15:28:20.634947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13331
  • Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and
           nature-based protection for coastal communities
    • Authors: Katie K. Arkema; Robert Griffin, Sergio Maldonado, Jessica Silver, Jenny Suckale, Anne D. Guerry
      Abstract: Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecting property. We operationalize the concept of natural and nature-based solutions for coastal protection by adopting an ecosystem services framework that propagates the outcome of a management action through ecosystems to societal benefits. We review the literature on the basis of the steps in this framework, considering not only the supply of coastal protection provided by ecosystems but also the demand for protective services from beneficiaries. We recommend further attention to (1) biophysical processes beyond wave attenuation, (2) the combined effects of multiple habitat types (e.g., reefs, vegetation), (3) marginal values and expected damage functions, and, in particular, (4) community dependence on ecosystems for coastal protection and co-benefits. We apply our approach to two case studies to illustrate how estimates of multiple benefits and losses can inform restoration and development decisions. Finally, we discuss frontiers for linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based solutions to coastal protection.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T13:55:33.240848-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13322
  • The ecology of human microbiota: dynamics and diversity in health and
    • Authors: Antti Karkman; Jenni Lehtimäki, Lasse Ruokolainen
      Abstract: Social welfare, better health care, and urbanization have greatly improved human health and well-being. On the other hand, Western societies suffer from the downsides of the elevated standard of living. Among other factors, the Western diet (poor in dietary fiber), lack of contact with natural biodiversity, and excessive antibiotic use are known to be associated with the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders. Limited exposure to microbial biodiversity, in combination with severe lifestyle-related disturbances to commensal microbial communities, especially during early life, is changing the diversity and composition of human microbiota. In this review, we try to promote and apply ecological theory to understand the dynamics and diversity of human commensal microbiota. In this context, we explore the changes in the microbiota that are relevant to human health, especially in light of the rise of chronic inflammatory disorders. We try to elucidate the underlying ecological mechanisms behind these disorders and provide potential solutions for their avoidance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T14:15:38.297848-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13326
  • Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention
    • Authors: Francesca C. Fortenbaugh; Joseph DeGutis, Michael Esterman
      Abstract: Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention and has highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models explaining why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T01:50:46.133976-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13318
  • Preparatory attention in visual cortex
    • Authors: Elisa Battistoni; Timo Stein, Marius V. Peelen
      Abstract: Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T14:05:28.76245-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13320
  • Human capital gaps in vaccine development: an issue for global vaccine
           development and global health
    • Authors: Andrea Cawein; Emilio Emini, Michael Watson, Joanna Dailey, John Donnelly, Dina Tresnan, Tom Evans, Stanley Plotkin, William Gruber
      Abstract: Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T00:01:06.821986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13316
  • Recent advances in exploring the neural underpinnings of auditory scene
    • Authors: Joel S. Snyder; Mounya Elhilali
      Abstract: Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds—and conventional behavioral techniques—to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays. The current review focuses on neural and computational studies of auditory scene perception published in the last few years. Following the progress that has been made in these studies, we describe (1) theoretical advances in our understanding of the most well-studied aspects of auditory scene perception, namely segregation of sequential patterns of sounds and concurrently presented sounds; (2) the diversification of topics and paradigms that have been investigated; and (3) how new neuroscience techniques (including invasive neurophysiology in awake humans, genotyping, and brain stimulation) have been used in this field.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T10:30:37.827703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13317
  • Zika and chikungunya: mosquito-borne viruses in a changing world
    • Authors: Talya Shragai; Blanka Tesla, Courtney Murdock, Laura C. Harrington
      Abstract: The reemergence and growing burden of mosquito-borne virus infections have incited public fear and growing research efforts to understand the mechanisms of infection-associated health outcomes and to provide better approaches for mosquito vector control. While efforts to develop therapeutics, vaccines, and novel genetic mosquito-control technologies are underway, many important underlying ecological questions remain that could significantly enhance our understanding and ability to predict and prevent transmission. Here, we review the current knowledge about the transmission ecology of two recent arbovirus invaders, the chikungunya and Zika viruses. We introduce the viruses and mosquito vectors, highlighting viral biology, historical routes of transmission, and viral mechanisms facilitating rapid global invasion. In addition, we review factors contributing to vector global invasiveness and transmission efficiency. We conclude with a discussion of how human-induced biotic and abiotic environmental changes facilitate mosquito-borne virus transmission, emphasizing critical gaps in understanding. These knowledge gaps are tremendous; much of our data on basic mosquito ecology in the field predate 1960, and the mosquitoes themselves, as well as the world they live in, have substantially changed. A concerted investment in understanding the basic ecology of these vectors, which serve as the main drivers of pathogen transmission in both wildlife and human populations, is now more important than ever.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T14:05:38.051947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13306
  • Catheter-based high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging is a
           powerful tool to study esophageal dysmotility patients
    • Authors: Cecilio Santander; Elena Perea, María Caldas, Pere Clave
      Abstract: High-resolution manometry (HRM) is currently the most important diagnostic test for esophageal motility disorders, providing information on the contraction pattern of the circular muscle layer, which helps classify these esophageal motor diseases. However, with the increasing development of ultrasound, other techniques, such as high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS), have gained importance. This technique uses a flexible shaft with a central wire integrated into a standard endoscope, which facilitates real-time sonography. Its main utility is to provide anatomical information on the structure of the esophageal wall, including both the circular and longitudinal layers that constitute the esophageal muscularis propria. Increasing knowledge about these motility disorders has led to the hypothesis that, in addition to an abnormal contraction pattern of the circular muscle, an overall increased muscle thickness and an abnormal longitudinal muscle contraction could be added as pathophysiological factors. The increase in muscle thickness could be an important indicator of the severity of diseases, such as achalasia, distal esophageal spasm, or hypercontractile esophagus. More studies are required before definitive conclusions can be reached, but HFIUS employed simultaneously with HRM could provide a more complete and precise evaluation of these esophageal motor disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T11:57:14.152721-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13313
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T15:15:56.20961-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13239
  • The science behind One Health: at the interface of humans, animals, and
           the environment
    • Authors: Michael P. Murtaugh; Clifford J. Steer, Srinand Sreevatsan, Ned Patterson, Shaun Kennedy, P. Sriramarao
      Pages: 12 - 32
      Abstract: Humans face a grand quality-of-life challenge as growing demands for resources for an ever-expanding population threaten the existence of wildlife populations, degrade land, and pollute air and water. Public investment and policy decisions that will shape future interactions of humans, animals, and the environment need scientific input to help find common ground for durable and sustainable success. The Second International Conference on One Medicine One Science brought together a broad range of scientists, trainees, regulatory authorities, and health experts from 34 countries to inform and discuss the human impacts of air quality; the complexities of water quality, access, and conflicts; the opportunities and uncertainties in precision medicine; and the role of science communication in health policy formulation. Workshops focused on the roles and development of physician–scientists and multidisciplinary teams in complex problem solving, Big Data tools for analysis and visualization, international policy development processes, and health models that benefit animals and humans. Key realizations were that local and regional health challenges at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment are variations of the same overarching conflicts and that international gatherings provide new opportunities for investigation and policy development that are broadly applicable.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T15:15:56.313683-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13355
  • The roles of valuation and reward processing in cognitive function and
           psychiatric disorders
    • Authors: Sébastien Hélie; Farzin Shamloo, Keisha Novak, Dan Foti
      First page: 33
      Abstract: In neuroeconomics, valuation refers to the process of assigning values to states and actions on the basis of the animal's current representation of the environment, while reward processing corresponds to processing the feedback received from the environment to update the values of states and actions. In this article, we review the brain circuits associated with valuation and reward processing and argue that these are fundamental processes critical to many cognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on the role of valuation and reward processing in attention, memory, decision making, and learning. Next, the extant neuroimaging literature on a number of psychiatric disorders is reviewed (i.e., addiction, pathological gambling, schizophrenia, and mood disorders), and an argument is made that associated deficits in cognitive functions can be explained in terms of abnormal valuation and reward processing. The review concludes with the impact of this framework in clinical settings and prescriptions for future research, in particular with regard to the conversions of qualitatively different valuation systems into a system of common currency.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:55:42.716479-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13327
  • Dietary and nutritional change in India: implications for strategies,
           policies, and interventions
    • Authors: Bhavani Shankar; Sutapa Agrawal, Amy R. Beaudreault, Laxmaiah Avula, Reynaldo Martorell, Saskia Osendarp, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mireille Seneclauze Mclean
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking. The discussion focuses on a review of trends in malnutrition and dietary intakes in India in the context of economic change over the past four decades, identification of household dynamics affecting food choices and their consequences for family nutritional status in India, and effective malnutrition prevention and treatment interventions and programs in India and associated policy challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:35:38.203959-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13324
  • Quality of governance and effectiveness of protected areas: crucial
           concepts for conservation planning
    • Authors: Johanna Eklund; Mar Cabeza
      Abstract: Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic. We present a conceptual framework linking the underlying mechanisms by which the quality of governance affects conservation outcomes in PAs and how this relates to conservation planning. We show that it is crucial to separate pressure and response and how these together will lead to the observed conservation outcomes. We urge for more focused attention on governance factors and in particular more empirical research on how to address causality and how to account for the quality of governance when prioritizing actions. Our framework is linked to the classic concepts of systematic conservation planning and clarifies the strategies available to achieve a comprehensive and effective network of PAs.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05T16:20:38.190784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13284
  • The ubiquitous self: what the properties of self-bias tell us about the
    • Authors: Jie Sui; Glyn W. Humphreys
      Abstract: People show systematic biases in perception, memory, and attention to favor information related to themselves over information related to other people. Researchers have examined these biases in order to throw light on the nature of the self. We review this evidence in memory, face recognition, and simple perceptual matching tasks through objective measures of self-biases. We argue that the self serves as a stable anchor across different forms of judgment and that referring a stimulus to ourselves enhances the binding of stimulus features at different stages of processing (e.g., in perception and in memory) and also the binding between processing stages. There is neural evidence that self-biases reflect an underlying neural network that interacts with but is independent of attentional control networks in the brain, and that damage to the self-related network disrupts the bias effects. We discuss the implications for understanding the nature of the self.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05T16:20:30.627733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13197
  • The emergence of the IL-36 cytokine family as novel targets for
           inflammatory diseases
    • Authors: Patrick T. Walsh; Padraic G. Fallon
      Abstract: The recently discovered interleukin (IL)-36 family of cytokines form part of the broader IL-1 family and are emerging as important mediators of inflammatory disease. The IL-36 subfamily consists of three ligands—IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ—and the natural antagonist IL-36Ra. The cytokines exert their effects through a specific IL-36 receptor consisting of IL-36R and IL-1RAcP chains. IL-36 cytokines can direct both innate and adaptive immune responses by acting on parenchymal, stromal, and specific immune cell subsets. In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene encoding the IL-36R antagonist, which lead to unregulated IL-36R signaling, lead to an autoinflammatory condition termed deficiency of the IL-36R antagonist, which primarily manifests as a severe form of pustular psoriasis. While such discoveries have prompted deeper mechanistic studies highlighting the important role of IL-36 cytokines in psoriatic skin inflammation, it is now evident that IL-36 cytokines can also play important roles in inflammatory disorders in other organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. Given these emerging roles, strategies to specifically target the expression and activity of the IL-36 family have the potential to uncover novel therapeutic approaches aimed at treating inflammatory diseases in humans.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T13:45:25.858055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13280
  • Understanding local-scale drivers of biodiversity outcomes in terrestrial
           protected areas
    • Authors: Megan D. Barnes; Ian D. Craigie, Nigel Dudley, Marc Hockings
      Abstract: Conservation relies heavily on protected areas (PAs) maintaining their key biodiversity features to meet global biodiversity conservation goals. However, PAs have had variable success, with many failing to fully maintain their biodiversity features. The current literature concerning what drives variability in PA performance is rapidly expanding but unclear, sometimes contradictory, and spread across multiple disciplines. A clear understanding of the drivers of successful biodiversity conservation in PAs is necessary to make them fully effective. Here, we conduct a comprehensive assessment of the current state of knowledge concerning the drivers of biological outcomes within PAs, focusing on those that can be addressed at local scales. We evaluate evidence in support of potential drivers to identify those that enable more successful outcomes and those that impede success and provide a synthetic review. Interactions are discussed where they are known, and we highlight gaps in understanding. We find that elements of PA design, management, and local and national governance challenges, species and system ecology, and sociopolitical context can all influence outcomes. Adjusting PA management to focus on actions and policies that influence the key drivers identified here could improve global biodiversity outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02T14:25:26.838917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13154
  • From IPEX syndrome to FOXP3 mutation: a lesson on immune dysregulation
    • Authors: Rosa Bacchetta; Federica Barzaghi, Maria-Grazia Roncarolo
      Abstract: Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare disorder that increasingly has gained attention as a model of genetic autoimmunity. Numerous papers documenting the key clinical and molecular characteristics of IPEX have provided a detailed understanding of this devastating disease. IPEX is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene FOXP3, which encodes an essential transcription factor required for maintenance of thymus-derived regulatory T (tTreg) cells. tTreg cell dysfunction is the main pathogenic event leading to multiorgan autoimmunity in IPEX. In addition to the traditional clinical presentation (i.e., severe enteropathy, type 1 diabetes, and eczema), IPEX may encompass other variable and distinct clinical manifestations. As IPEX awareness and characterization have increased, so has identification of FOXP3 mutations, with at least 70 to date. Thus, while FOXP3 is the unifying gene, IPEX is a complex and diverse clinical continuum of disorders. Despite understanding IPEX pathogenesis, new treatment options have remained elusive, although early diagnosis led to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppression treatment and improved patient outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge about IPEX syndrome and highlight findings that could lead to novel targeted treatments.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T16:10:02.306901-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13011
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