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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1589 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1589 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 419, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 247, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 2.389]   [H-I: 189]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0077-8923 - ISSN (Online) 1749-6632
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Gut microbiota and probiotics: novel immune system modulators in
           myasthenia gravis'
    • Authors: Elena Rinaldi; Alessandra Consonni, Elena Guidesi, Marina Elli, Renato Mantegazza, Fulvio Baggi
      Abstract: Gut microorganisms (microbiota) live in symbiosis with the host and influence human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune development and function. The microbiota prevents pathogen infection to the host, and in turn the host provides a niche for survival. The alteration of gut bacteria composition (dysbiosis) could contribute to the development of immune-mediated diseases by influencing the immune system activation and driving the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in order to promote or counteract immune reactions. Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms able to interact with the gut microbiota and provide health benefits; their use has recently been exploited to dampen immunological response in several experimental models of autoimmune diseases. Here, we focus on the relationships among commensal bacteria, probiotics, and the gut, describing the main interactions occurring with the immune system and recent data supporting the clinical efficacy of probiotic administration in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis (MG) animal models. The encouraging results suggest that selected strains of probiotics should be evaluated in clinical trials as adjuvant therapy to restore the disrupted tolerance in myasthenia gravis.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T01:15:31.773349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13567
  • Clinical and research strategies for limb-girdle congenital myasthenic
    • Authors: Emily O'Connor; Ana Töpf, René Zahedi, Sally Spendiff, Daniel Cox, Andreas Roos, Hanns Lochmüller
      Abstract: Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of rare disorders that cause fatigable muscle weakness due to defective signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction, a specialized synapse between peripheral motor neurons and their target muscle fibers. There are now over 30 causative genes that have been reported for CMS. Of these, there are 10 that are associated with a limb-girdle pattern of muscle weakness and are thus classed as LG-CMS. Next-generation sequencing and advanced methods of data sharing are likely to uncover further genes that are associated with similar clinical phenotypes, contributing to better diagnosis and effective treatment of LG-CMS patients. This review highlights clinical and pathological hallmarks of LG-CMS in relation to the underlying genetic defects and pathways. Tailored animal and cell models are essential to elucidate the exact function and pathomechanisms at the neuromuscular synapse that underlie LG-CMS. The integration of genomics and proteomics data derived from these models and patients reveals new and often unexpected insights that are relevant beyond the rare genetic disorder of LG-CMS and may extend to the functioning of mammalian synapses in health and disease more generally.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05T07:57:41.43318-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13520
  • Age-related changes in the structure and function of mammalian
           neuromuscular junctions
    • Authors: Silvia Willadt; Mark Nash, Clarke Slater
      Abstract: As mammals age, their neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) change their form, with an increasingly complex system of axonal branches innervating increasingly fragmented regions of postsynaptic differentiation. It has been suggested that this remodeling is associated with impairment of neuromuscular transmission and that this contributes to age-related muscle weakness in mammals, including humans. Here, we review previous work on NMJ aging, most of which has focused on either structure or function, as well as a new study aimed at seeking correlation between the structure and function of individual NMJs. While it is clear that extensive structural changes occur as part of the aging process, it is much less certain how, if at all, these are correlated with an impairment of function. This leaves open the question of whether loss of NMJ function is a significant cause of age-related muscle weakness.
      PubDate: 2017-12-31T22:26:22.706064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13521
  • Efficient long-term depletion of CD20+ B cells by rituximab does not
           affect gut-resident plasma cells
    • Authors: Mathieu Uzzan; Huaibin M. Ko, Adam K. Rosenstein, Kamron Pourmand, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Saurabh Mehandru
      Abstract: The vast majority of antibody-producing B cells are located within the gastrointestinal tract and are key players in maintaining homeostasis. The failure of rituximab, a potent B cell–depleting agent, to ameliorate ulcerative colitis in a single clinical trial has dampened enthusiasm to study B cells in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, several lines of evidence suggest that intestinal B cells may be affected in IBD. Additionally, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying rituximab's lack of efficacy in IBD remain unclear. Here, on the basis of detailed immunophenotyping of a patient who underwent a colonoscopy 6 months after the end of rituximab-based therapy, we observed that rituximab did not deplete colon-resident plasma cells (PCs) while ablating all CD20+ B cells in tissues and in the circulation. On the basis of these observations, we propose that one factor underlying the lack of efficacy of rituximab relates to the fact that it does not affect the entire B cell compartment in tissues, sparing the intestinal-resident PCs while effectively depleting CD20+ B cell populations. Thus, we contend that, despite the results of the Rituximab study, there is a need for more intensive B cell–oriented research in inflammatory disorders, including IBD.
      PubDate: 2017-12-31T22:26:01.27768-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13577
  • AIRE: a missing link to explain female susceptibility to autoimmune
    • Authors: Sonia Berrih-Aknin; Rozen Le Panse, Nadine Dragin
      Abstract: Women are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases than men. Autoimmunity results from tolerance breakdown toward self-components. Recently, three transcription modulators were identified in medullary thymic epithelial cells that orchestrate immune central tolerance processes: the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), FEZ family zinc finger 2 (FEZF2 or FEZ1), and PR domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1). Interestingly, these three transcription modulators regulate nonredundant tissue-specific antigen subsets and thus cover broad antigen diversity. Recent data from different groups demonstrated that sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone) are involved in the regulation of thymic AIRE expression in humans and mice through direct transcriptional modulation and epigenetic changes. As a consequence, AIRE displays gender-biased thymic expression, with females showing a lower expression compared with males, a finding that could explain the female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. So far, FEZF2 has not been related to an increased gender bias in autoimmune disease. PRDM1 expression has not been shown to display gender-differential thymic expression, but its expression level and its gene polymorphisms are associated with female-dependent autoimmune disease risk. Altogether, various studies have demonstrated that increased female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is in part a consequence of hormone-driven reduced thymic AIRE expression.
      PubDate: 2017-12-31T22:25:28.625471-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13529
  • Myasthenia gravis: the role of complement at the neuromuscular junction
    • Authors: James F. Howard
      Abstract: Generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness caused by disrupted neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Approximately 74–88% of patients with gMG have acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies. Complement plays an important role in innate and antibody-mediated immunity, and activation and amplification of complement results in the formation of membrane attack complexes (MACs), lipophilic proteins that damage cell membranes. The role of complement in gMG has been demonstrated in animal models and patients. Studies in animals lacking specific complement proteins have confirmed that MAC formation is required to induce experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) and NMJ damage. Complement inhibition in EAMG models can prevent disease induction and reverse its progression. Patients with anti-AChR+ MG have autoantibodies and MACs present at NMJs. Damaged NMJs are associated with more severe disease, fewer AChRs, and MACs in synaptic debris. Current MG therapies do not target complement directly. Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits cleavage of complement protein C5, preventing MAC formation. Eculizumab treatment improved symptoms compared with placebo in a phase II study in patients with refractory gMG. Direct complement inhibition could preserve NMJ physiology and muscle function in patients with anti-AChR+ gMG.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T07:35:47.779327-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13522
  • CYP21A2 genetic profile in 14 Egyptian children with suspected congenital
           adrenal hyperplasia: a diagnostic challenge
    • Authors: Fatma Elmougy; Sahar Sharaf, Mona Hafez, Ahmed Khattab, Hazem Abou-Yousef, Marwa Elsharkawy, Heba Baz, Sherif Ekladious, Balsam Sherif, Noha Musa, Yasmin Elshiwy, Alaa Afif, Mona Abdullatif, Ghada Thabet, Normeen Rady, Amany Ibrahim, Hend Soliman
      Abstract: CYP21A2 genotyping remains an important element in the diagnosis and management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and establishing accurate genotype–phenotype correlations has facillitated adequate genetic counseling and prenatal management for at-risk families. Despite extensive efforts to establish a clear genotype–phenotype correlation, some discordance remains. Establishing a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia on the basis of biochemical and clinical data is occasionally challenging, and the identification of CYP21A2 mutations may help confirm the diagnosis. We review the diagnostic challenges despite an extensive genetic evaluation for 14 patients with a suspected clinical and biochemical diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Other diagnostic entities should be considered in the absence of convincing genetic data.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T04:13:07.504032-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13540
  • Myasthenia gravis with antibodies to MuSK: an update
    • Authors: Amelia Evoli; Paolo E. Alboini, Valentina Damato, Raffaele Iorio, Carlo Provenzano, Emanuela Bartoccioni, Mariapaola Marino
      Abstract: Myasthenia gravis with antibodies to the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK+ MG) is a rare disease with distinctive pathogenic mechanisms and clinical features. An acute onset and predominant bulbar muscle weakness are very common and highly suggestive of the disease. On the other hand, a more indolent course, atypical ocular presentation, and signs of cholinergic hyperactivity may complicate the diagnosis. Though MuSK+ MG is still a severe disease, over the years we have observed a steady reduction in the rate of respiratory crisis and a significant improvement in the clinical outcome, both likely related to earlier diagnosis and timely treatment. Despite the improved management, MuSK+ MG patients tend to remain dependent on long-term immunosuppressive treatment and may develop permanent disabling weakness. In uncontrolled studies, B cell depletion with rituximab proved effective in most patients with refractory disease, inducing prolonged clinical responses associated with a sustained reduction of serum antibody levels. Promising results from experimental studies and case reports suggest that both 3,4-diaminopyridine and albuterol may be effective as symptomatic agents.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T04:12:29.680311-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13518
  • Evolution on the bright side of life: microorganisms and the evolution of
    • Authors: Kristina Linnea Hillesland
      Abstract: Mutualistic interactions, where two interacting species have a net beneficial effect on each other's fitness, play a crucial role in the survival and evolution of many species. Despite substantial empirical and theoretical work in past decades, the impact of these interactions on natural selection is not fully understood. In addition, mutualisms between microorganisms have been largely ignored, even though they are ecologically important and can be used as tools to bridge the gap between theory and empirical work. Here, I describe two problems with our current understanding of natural selection in mutualism and highlight the properties of microbial mutualisms that could help solve them. One problem is that bias and methodological problems have limited our understanding of the variety of mechanisms by which species may adapt to mutualism. Another problem is that it is rare for experiments testing coevolution in mutualism to address whether each species has adapted to evolutionary changes in its partner. These problems can be addressed with genome resequencing and time-shift experiments, techniques that are easier to perform in microorganisms. In addition, microbial mutualisms may inspire novel insights and hypotheses about natural selection in mutualism.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T05:06:15.067569-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13515
  • Safety of folic acid
    • Authors: Martha S. Field; Patrick J. Stover
      Abstract: There is a large body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of maternal folic acid intake in preventing birth defects, as well as investigations into potential adverse consequences of consuming folic acid above the upper intake level (UL). Recently, two authoritative bodies convened expert panels to assess risks from high intakes of folic acid: the U.S. National Toxicology Program and the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Overall, the totality of the evidence examined by these panels, as well as studies published since the release of their reports, have not established risks for adverse consequences resulting from existing mandatory folic acid fortification programs that have been implemented in many countries. Current folic acid fortification programs have been shown to support public health in populations, and the exposure levels are informed by and adherent to the precautionary principle. Additional research is needed to assess the health effects of folic acid supplement use when the current upper limit for folic acid is exceeded.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T10:20:49.927508-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13499
  • Mouse models to evaluate the role of estrogen receptor α in skeletal
           maintenance and adaptation
    • Authors: Amanda M. Rooney; Marjolein C.H. der Meulen
      Abstract: Estrogen signaling and mechanical loading have individual and combined effects on skeletal maintenance and adaptation. Previous work investigating estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo using global estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene knockout mouse models has provided information regarding the role of ERα in regulating bone mass and adaptation to mechanical stimulation. However, these models have inherent limitations that confound interpretation of the data. Therefore, recent studies have focused on mice with targeted deletion of ERα from specific bone cells and their precursors. Cell stage, tissue type, and mouse sex all influence the effects of ERα gene deletion. Lack of ERα in osteoblast progenitor and precursor cells generally affects the periosteum of female and male mice. The absence of ERα in differentiated osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in mice generally resulted in reduced cancellous bone mass, with differing reports of the effect by animal sex and greater deficiencies in bone mass typically occurring in cancellous bone in female mice. Limited data exist for the role of bone cell–specific ERα in skeletal adaptation in vivo. Cell-specific ERα gene knockout mice provide an excellent platform for investigating the function of ERα in regulating skeletal phenotype and response to mechanical loading by sex and age.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T06:55:27.257869-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13523
  • Folate status in women of reproductive age as basis of neural tube defect
           risk assessment
    • Authors: Lynn B. Bailey; Dorothy B. Hausman
      Abstract: Reliable folate status data for women of reproductive age (WRA) to assess global risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) are needed. We focus on a recent recommendation by the World Health Organization that a specific “optimal” red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration be used as the sole indicator of NTD risk within a population and discuss how to best apply this guidance to reach the goal of assessing NTD risk globally. We also emphasize the importance of using the microbiologic assay (MBA) as the most reliable assay for obtaining comparable results for RBC folate concentration across time and countries, the need for harmonization of the MBA through use of consistent key reagents and procedures within laboratories, and the requirement to apply assay-matched cutoffs for folate deficiency and insufficiency. To estimate NTD risk globally, the ideal scenario would be to have country-specific population-based surveys of RBC folate in WRA determined utilizing a harmonized MBA, as was done in recent studies in Guatemala and Belize. We conclude with guidance on next steps to best navigate the road map toward the goal of generating reliable folate status data on which to assess NTD risk in WRA in low- and middle-income countries.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T03:25:29.46023-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13511
  • The impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on serum retinol in
           women 16–35 years of age: SANHANES-1
    • Authors: Whadi-ah Parker; Zandile J. Mchiza, Ronel Sewpaul, Nophiwe Job, Lumbwe Chola, Moses Sithole, Demetre Labadarios
      Abstract: To determine the current vitamin A status of a nationally representative sample of women aged 16–35 years, compare it with previous national data, and determine the impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on vitamin A status, we performed secondary analysis of data on South African women who participated in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). Vitamin A status was assessed by serum retinol, and the findings are reported as means and prevalences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall, the age-standardized vitamin A deficiency prevalence was 11.7%, a decrease from previous national data, but serum retinol levels remained lower than in other developing countries. Overall, unweighted, multilevel, multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin A deficiency was influenced by race only (odds ratio (OR) = 1.89, P = 0.031), while weighted multiple logistic regression for 16- to 18-year-olds showed that vitamin A deficiency was influenced by locality (OR = 9.83, P = 0.005) and household income (intermediate (OR = 0.2, P = 0.022) and upper (OR = 0.25, P = 0.049)). Despite the decreased prevalence, vitamin A deficiency remains a moderate public health problem in the country. Opportunities for targeted interventions have been identified.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:46:54.417715-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13504
  • Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome: mouse passive-transfer model
           illuminates disease pathology and facilitates testing therapeutic leads
    • Authors: Stephen D. Meriney; Tyler B. Tarr, Kristine S. Ojala, Man Wu, Yizhi Li, David Lacomis, Adolfo Garcia-Ocaña, Mary Liang, Guillermo Valdomir, Peter Wipf
      Abstract: Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies directed against the voltage-gated calcium channels that provide the calcium ion flux that triggers acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. To study the pathophysiology of LEMS and test candidate therapeutic strategies, a passive-transfer animal model has been developed in mice, which can be created by daily intraperitoneal injections of LEMS patient serum or IgG into mice for 2–4 weeks. Results from studies of the mouse neuromuscular junction have revealed that each synapse has hundreds of transmitter release sites but that the probability for release at each one is likely to be low. LEMS further reduces this low probability such that transmission is no longer effective at triggering a muscle contraction. The LEMS-mediated attack reduces the number of presynaptic calcium channels, disorganizes transmitter release sites, and results in the homeostatic upregulation of other calcium channel types. Symptomatic treatment is focused on increasing the probability of release from dysfunctional release sites. Current treatment uses the potassium channel blocker 3,4-diaminopyridine (DAP) to broaden the presynaptic action potential, providing more time for calcium channels to open. Current research is focused on testing new calcium channel gating modifiers that work synergistically with DAP.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:46:27.047924-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13512
  • Exosomes: biology, therapeutic potential, and emerging role in
           musculoskeletal repair and regeneration
    • Authors: Neil J. Cobelli; Daniel J. Leong, Hui B. Sun
      Abstract: Exosomes are nanovesicles secreted from cells that play key roles in intercellular communication. They carry unique content derived from parental cells and are capable of transferring this cargo between cells. The role and function of exosomes largely depends on the origin and functional status of the parental cells. Emerging evidence indicates that exosomes are associated with biological processes and pathogenesis of certain diseases. These nanovesicles offer great potential as biomarkers, enabling the monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases in a noninvasive manner. Furthermore, as an efficient vehicle of biomolecular intercellular transfer, exosomes are under intensive investigation for their potential for drug delivery and carriers for gene therapy. Here, we first summarize the basic biology and function of exosomes, followed by a discussion of their clinical potential, including the use of exosomes for disease diagnosis, treatment, and drug delivery. The review will highlight the potential of exosomes derived from stem cells in regenerative medicine, with a focus on musculoskeletal tissues. We conclude by sharing our views on the challenges, opportunities, and future directions for the use of exosomes as a therapeutic treatment for the repair and regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:46:08.857522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13469
  • Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers in myasthenia gravis
    • Authors: Anna Rostedt Punga; Tanel Punga
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that bind to specific mRNA targets and regulate a wide range of important biological processes within cells. Circulating miRNAs are released into the extracellular space and can be measured in most biofluids, including blood serum and plasma. Recently, circulating miRNAs have emerged as easily accessible markers in various body fluids with different profiles and quantities specific for different human disorders, including autoimmune diseases. In myasthenia gravis (MG), diagnostic tests such as titers of serum autoantibodies specific for either the acetylcholine receptor (AChR+) or muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK+) do not necessarily reflect disease progression, and there is a great need for reliable objective biomarkers to monitor the disease course and therapeutic response. Recent studies in AChR+ MG revealed elevated levels of the immuno-miRNAs miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p. Of particular importance, levels of miR-150-5p were lower in immunosuppressed patients and in patients with clinical improvement following thymectomy. In MuSK+ MG, another profile of circulating miRNAs was found, including upregulation of the let-7 family of miRNAs. Here, we summarize the potential role of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers in general and in MG, and highlight important considerations for the analysis of circulating miRNA.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:45:56.782179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13510
  • Thymus involvement in early-onset myasthenia gravis
    • Authors: Mélanie A. Cron; Solène Maillard, José Villegas, Frédérique Truffault, Muriel Sudres, Nadine Dragin, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Panse
      Abstract: It has long been established that the thymus plays a central role in autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) because of either thymoma or thymic hyperplasia of lymphoproliferative origin. In this review, we discuss thymic changes associated with thymic hyperplasia and their implications in the development of an autoimmune response against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR).The hyperplastic MG thymus displays all the characteristics of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs): neoangiogenic processes with high endothelial venule and lymphatic vessel development, chemokine overexpression favoring peripheral cell recruitment, and ectopic germinal center development. As thymic epithelial cells or myoid cells express AChR, a specific antigen presentation can easily occur within the thymus in the presence of recruited peripheral cells, such as B cells and T follicular helper cells. How the thymus turns into a TLO is not known, but local inflammation seems mandatory. Interferon (IFN)-β is overexpressed in MG thymus and could orchestrate thymic changes associated with MG. Knowledge about how IFN-β is induced in MG thymus and why its expression is sustained even long after disease onset would be of interest in the future to better understand the etiological and physiopathological mechanisms involved in autoimmune MG.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:45:52.11519-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13519
  • The mouse passive-transfer model of MuSK myasthenia gravis: disrupted MuSK
           signaling causes synapse failure
    • Authors: Nazanin Ghazanfari; Sofie Trajanovska, Marco Morsch, Simon X. Liang, Stephen W. Reddel, William D. Phillips
      Abstract: While the majority of myasthenia gravis patients express antibodies targeting the acetylcholine receptor, the second most common cohort instead displays autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase found in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. During development, MuSK serves as a signaling hub, coordinating the alignment of the pre- and postsynaptic components of the synapse. Adult mice that received repeated daily injections of IgG from anti-MuSK+ myasthenia gravis patients developed muscle weakness, associated with neuromuscular transmission failure. MuSK autoantibodies are predominantly of the IgG4 type. They suppress the kinase activity of MuSK and the phosphorylation of target proteins in the postsynaptic membrane. Loss of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors is the primary cause of neuromuscular transmission failure. MuSK autoantibodies also disrupt the capacity of the motor nerve terminal to adaptively increase acetylcholine release in response to the reduced postsynaptic responsiveness to acetylcholine. The passive IgG transfer model of MuSK myasthenia gravis has been used to test candidate treatments. Pyridostigmine, a first-line cholinesterase inhibitor drug, exacerbated the disease process, while 3,4-diaminopyridine and albuterol were found to be beneficial in this mouse model.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:45:29.887844-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13513
  • The Association of British Neurologists' myasthenia gravis guidelines
    • Authors: Jon Sussman; Maria E. Farrugia, Paul Maddison, Marguerite Hill, M. Isabel Leite, David Hilton-Jones
      Abstract: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction for which many therapies were developed before the era of evidence-based medicine. Despite the basic principles of treatment being well known, patients continue to receive suboptimal treatment. A myasthenia gravis guidelines group was therefore established under the aegis of the Association of British Neurologists. These guidelines attempt to steer a path between evidence-based practice where available and established best practice where evidence is unavailable. It is not possible to consider all the potential decisions in managing MG without resorting to opinion rather than evidence. Where there is insufficient evidence or a choice of options, the guidelines invite the clinician to seek the opinion of a myasthenia expert. The guidelines support clinicians in using the right treatments in the right order and in optimizing the use of well-known therapeutic agents. Clinical practice can be audited against these guidelines.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:00:05.149348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13503
  • Investigating metabolic regulation using targeted neuromodulation
    • Authors: Kavya Devarakonda; Sarah Stanley
      Abstract: The central nervous system (CNS) plays a vital role in regulating energy balance and metabolism. Over the last 50 years, studies in animal models have allowed us to identify critical CNS regions involved in these processes and even crucial cell populations. Now, techniques for genetically and anatomically targeted manipulation of specific neural populations using light (optogenetic), ligands (chemogenetic), or magnetic fields (radiogenetic/magnetogenetic) allow detailed investigation of circuits involved in metabolic regulation. In this review, we provide a brief overview of recent studies using light- and magnetic field–regulated neural activity to investigate the neural circuits contributing to metabolic control.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T09:27:31.933063-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13468
  • The molecular cross talk of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex
    • Authors: Marta Gawor; Tomasz J. Prószyński
      Abstract: The proper function of skeletal muscles relies on their ability to process signals derived from motor neurons, transmit stimuli along the muscle fibers, contract, and regenerate efficiently after injury. The dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC; also called the dystrophin-associated protein complex) plays a central role in all of these processes. It acts as a transmembrane platform that anchors the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the intracellular cytoskeleton and makes muscle fibers more resistant to injury. The DGC also contributes to the transmission of contraction-evoked force from the sarcomere to the ECM. The dysfunction of DGC-associated proteins can lead to myopathies, including Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, manifested by progressive muscle damage and impairments in regeneration. The DGC also plays a pivotal role in the organization of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), where it stabilizes postsynaptic machinery, including receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChRs). Here, we focus on the role of the DGC complex in NMJ and skeletal muscle physiology and discuss the novel components that are associated with the complex.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T10:26:12.740152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13500
  • Neuromuscular synapse electrophysiology in myasthenia gravis animal models
    • Authors: Jaap J. Plomp; Maartje G.M. Huijbers, Jan J.G.M. Verschuuren
      Abstract: The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms the synaptic connection between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber. In order to achieve a sustained muscle contraction, this synapse has to reliably transmit motor neuronal action potentials onto the muscle fiber. To guarantee successful transmission even during intense activation of the NMJ, a safety factor of neuromuscular transmission exists. In the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis (MG), autoantibodies are directed against acetylcholine receptors or, in the rarer variants, against other postsynaptic NMJ proteins. This causes loss of functional acetylcholine receptors, which compromises the safety factor of neuromuscular transmission, leading to the typical fatigable muscle weakness of MG. With intracellular microelectrode measurement of (miniature) endplate potentials at NMJs in ex vivo nerve–muscle preparations from MG animal models, these functional synaptic defects have been determined in much detail. Here, we describe the electrophysiological events at the normal NMJ and the pathoelectrophysiology at NMJs of animal models for MG.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T10:26:04.763093-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13507
  • Diagnostic utility of cortactin antibodies in myasthenia gravis
    • Authors: Isabel Illa; Elena Cortés-Vicente, María Ángeles Martínez, Eduard Gallardo
      Abstract: Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) without antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) have been classified as having double-seronegative myasthenia gravis (dSNMG). We used the sera from six dSNMG patients with positive immunohistochemistry assays in a protein array to screen reactivity with 9000 human proteins. We identified cortactin, an intracellular protein that interacts with agrin/MuSK favoring AChR aggregation, as a new antigen in dSNMG. We then designed an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a screening assay and confirmed these results by western blot. We found that 19.7% of dSNMG patients had anti-cortactin antibodies. In contrast, patients with AChR+ MG or other autoimmune disorders and healthy controls were positive at significantly lower rates. Five percent of healthy controls were positive. In a recent study, we screened sera from 250 patients (AChR+ MG, MuSK+ MG, dSNMG) and 29 healthy controls. Cortactin antibodies were identified in 23.7% of dSNMG and 9.5% AChR+ MG patients (P = 0.02). None of the MuSK+ MG patients, patients with other autoimmune disorders, or healthy controls had antibodies against cortactin. Patients with dSNMG cortactin+ MG were negative for anti-striated muscle and anti-LRP4 antibodies. Patients with dSNMG cortactin+ MG presented ocular or mild generalized MG without bulbar symptoms. We conclude that cortactin autoantibodies are biomarkers of MG that, when present, suggest that the disease will be mild.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T10:25:58.312979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13502
  • Adolescent mothers’ anthropometrics and grandmothers’ schooling
           predict infant anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam
    • Authors: Whitney Schott; Elisabetta Aurino, Mary E. Penny, Jere R. Behrman
      Abstract: We investigated intergenerational associations of adolescent mothers’ and grandmothers’ anthropometrics and schooling with adolescent mothers’ offspring's anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We examined birthweight (n = 283), birthweight Z-score (BWZ), conditional growth in weight-for-age Z-score (cWAZ, residuals from a regression of WAZ at last survey round on BWZ, sex, and age), and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) of children born to older cohort adolescent girls in the Young Lives study. Our key independent variables were adolescent mothers’ body size: HAZ and body-mass-index-for-age Z-score (BMIZ) at age 8, conditional HAZ (cHAZ, residuals from a regression of HAZ at the end of a growth period on prior HAZ, age, and sex), conditional BMIZ growth (cBMIZ, calculated analogously), and grandmaternal BMIZ, HAZ, and schooling. We adjusted for child, maternal, and household characteristics. Adolescent mothers’ cHAZ (ages 8–15) predicted birthweight (β = 130 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) 31–228), BWZ (β = 0.31, CI 0.09–0.53), and cWAZ (β = 0.28, CI 0.04–0.51). Adolescent mothers’ BMIZ at age 8 predicted birthweight (β = 79 g, CI 16–43) and BWZ (β = 0.22, CI 0.08–0.36). Adolescent mothers’ cBMIZ (ages 12–15) predicted child cWAZ and HAZ. Grandmothers’ schooling predicted grandchild birthweight (β = 22 g, CI 1–44) and BWZ (β = 0.05, CI 0.01–0.10).
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T10:25:08.121351-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13455
  • Learning from the past: reflections on recently completed myasthenia
           gravis trials
    • Authors: Michael Benatar; James F. Howard, Richard Barohn, Gil I. Wolfe, Gary Cutter
      Abstract: Recently competed clinical trials of therapeutics for myasthenia gravis have varied widely in design, but also perhaps in less explicit ways. We explore ways in which these design characteristics may have influenced recruitment and results, as well as the implications for forthcoming studies. Trial eligibility criteria may inadvertently select for incident versus prevalent cases or patients with relatively mild versus more severe disease. Trial enrichment with patients who have relatively mild disease may limit the sensitivity of the trial to detect a therapeutic effect. Enrichment for patients with more severe disease may introduce confounds caused by regression toward the mean. Overly narrow eligibility may limit the generalizability of results. An exclusive focus on incident cases may hamper recruitment, as may many other factors, such as access to the experimental therapeutic treatment outside of the trial or following completion of the double-blind treatment period. We illustrate how other design characteristics (e.g., treatment duration, strategy for steroid tapering, selection of the primary outcome, and principal analytic approach) may affect the sensitivity of a trial to demonstrate therapeutic effects. Finally, we consider the importance of placebo effects, being careful to differentiate these from therapeutic effects observed in the placebo group, and discuss how the use of combined outcome measures may minimize placebo effects.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T10:15:55.528092-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13501
  • Nutrient sensing in pancreatic islets: lessons from congenital
           hyperinsulinism and monogenic diabetes
    • Authors: Ming Lu; Changhong Li
      Abstract: Pancreatic beta cells sense changes in nutrients during the cycles of fasting and feeding and release insulin accordingly to maintain glucose homeostasis. Abnormal beta cell nutrient sensing resulting from gene mutations leads to hypoglycemia or diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in beta cell glucose sensing. As one form of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), activating mutations of GCK result in a decreased threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hypoglycemia. In contrast, inactivating mutations of GCK result in diabetes, including a mild form (MODY2) and a severe form (permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM)). Mutations of beta cell ion channels involved in insulin secretion regulation also alter glucose sensing. Activating or inactivating mutations of ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channel genes result in severe but completely opposite clinical phenotypes, including PNDM and CHI. Mutations of the other ion channels, including voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv7.1) and voltage-gated calcium channels, also lead to abnormal glucose sensing and CHI. Furthermore, amino acids can stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-independent manner in some forms of CHI, including activating mutations of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene, HDAH deficiency, and inactivating mutations of KATP channel genes. These genetic defects have provided insight into a better understanding of the complicated nature of beta cell fuel-sensing mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T22:55:46.198406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13448
  • Adolescent pregnancy and nutrition: a subgroup analysis from the
           Mamachiponde study in Malawi
    • Authors: Alyssa Friebert; Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Peggy C. Papathakis, Mark J. Manary
      Abstract: Young age at childbearing (≤19 years) is common and associated with poor birth outcomes. A trial among Malawian pregnant women with moderate malnutrition was used to determine outcomes of young adolescents (≤18 years), older adolescents (18–20 years), and adults (>20 years). Women received one of three supplementary foods that provided ∼900 kcal/day and 33–36 g protein/day and returned every 2 weeks. Newborn/maternal measurements were taken at delivery and after 6 and 12 weeks. Upon enrollment, adolescents had greater body mass index than adults (19.9 ± 1.3 versus 19.5 ± 1.4 kg/m2, P < 0.001). Young adolescents received more rations of food and enrolled and delivered with a lower fundal height than adults (21.7 ± 5.2 versus 23.0 ± 5.6, P = 0.00 enrollment; 30.2 ± 3.1 versus 31.0 ± 2.8, P < 0.001 delivery). Among newborns, length for age was lowest in young adolescents, greater in older adolescents, and greatest in adults (Z-scores –1.7 ± 1.2, –1.4 ± 1.2, and –1.1 ± 1.1, respectively; P < 0.001). These differences persisted in length for age at 6 and 12 weeks of age for infants. Adolescents enrolled earlier in pregnancy and appeared more nutritionally adequate than adults; adolescent outcomes were inferior to those of adults, suggesting that they were subject to more physiologic stressors and/or different nutritional needs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T22:55:30.528897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13465
  • Disordered eating and obesity: associations between binge-eating disorder,
           night-eating syndrome, and weight-related comorbidities
    • Authors: Courtney McCuen-Wurst; Madelyn Ruggieri, Kelly C. Allison
      Abstract: Binge-eating disorder (BED) and night-eating syndrome (NES) are two forms of disordered eating associated with overweight and obesity. While these disorders also occur in nonobese persons, they seem to be associated with weight gain over time and higher risk of diabetes and other metabolic dysfunction. BED and NES are also associated with higher risk of psychopathology, including mood, anxiety, and sleep problems, than those of similar weight status without disordered eating. Treatments are available, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy, lisdexamfetamine, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for BED; and CBT, SSRIs, progressive muscle relaxation, and bright light therapy for NES.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T10:56:29.777838-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13467
  • Host–microbiota interplay in mediating immune disorders
    • Authors: Krysta M. Felix; Shekha Tahsin, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu
      Abstract: To maintain health, the immune system must maintain a delicate balance between eliminating invading pathogens and avoiding immune disorders such as autoimmunity and allergies. The gut microbiota provide essential health benefits to the host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis, an alteration and imbalance of the gut microbiota, is associated with the development of several autoimmune diseases in both mice and humans. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding how certain factors, such as age and gender, affect the gut microbiota, which in turn can influence the development of autoimmune diseases. The age factor in microbiota-dependent immune disorders indicates a window of opportunity for future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We also discuss unique commensal bacteria with strong immunomodulatory activity. Finally, we provide an overview of the potential molecular mechanisms whereby gut microbiota induce autoimmunity, as well as the evidence that gut microbiota trigger extraintestinal diseases by inducing the migration of gut-derived immune cells. Elucidating the interaction of gut microbiota and the host immune system will help us understand the pathogenesis of immune disorders, and provide us with new foundations to develop novel immuno- or microbe-targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T07:00:42.101307-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13508
  • A unique subphenotype of myasthenia gravis
    • Authors: Jeannine M. Heckmann; Melissa Nel
      Abstract: While extraocular muscles (EOMs) are affected early in generalized myasthenia gravis (MG), and their treatment responsiveness is similar to nonocular muscles, we have identified an ophthalmoplegic (OP) subphenotype that remains resistant to treatment. This subphenotype of ophthalmoplegic MG (OP-MG) most commonly affects acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive cases with juvenile-onset MG and African genetic ancestry. However, a few OP-MG cases have been found with MuSK antibodies and triple-seronegative MG. In a proportion of OP-MG cases, the EOM treatment resistance manifests from treatment initiation, while in others the EOMs may initially respond until a critical trigger, such as treatment interruption or crisis. The management of OP-MG is an unmet need. Managing the visual disability may require a surgical or nonsurgical solution. The ideal case selection for surgery and the timing of surgery should be carefully considered. The pathogenesis of OP-MG remains unknown. A genetic study, using extended whole-exome sequencing and an “extreme” phenotype sample of OP-MG versus control MG cases differing only by their EOM responsivity to therapy, discovered several potentially functional OP-MG risk variants. These variants implicate myogenesis and gangliosphingolipid biosynthesis pathways at the EOM endplates in OP-MG.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:01:12.97326-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13471
  • Evolutionary ecology of telomeres: a review
    • Authors: Mats Olsson; Erik Wapstra, Christopher R. Friesen
      Abstract: Telomere-induced selection could take place if telomere-associated disease risk shortens reproductive life span and differently reduces relative fitness among individuals. Some of these diseases first appear before reproductive senescence and could thus influence ongoing selection. We ask whether we can estimate the components of the breeder's equation for telomeres, in which the response to selection (R, by definition “evolution”) is the product of ongoing selection (S) and heritability (h2). However, telomere inheritance is a conundrum: in quantitative genetics, traits can usually be allocated to categories with relatively high or low heritability, depending on their association with relative fitness. Telomere traits, however, show wide variation in heritability from zero to one, across taxa, gender, ethnicity, age, and disease status. In spite of this, there is divergence in telomere length among populations, supporting past and ongoing telomere evolution. Rates of telomere attrition and elongation vary among taxa with some, but not complete, taxonomic coherence. For example, telomerase is commonly referred to as “restricted to the germ line in mammals,” but inbred mice and beavers have telomerase upregulation in somatic tissue, as do many ectotherms. These observations provoke a simplistic understanding of telomere evolutionary biology—clearly much is yet to be discovered.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:00:58.125129-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13443
  • Homeostatic synaptic plasticity at the neuromuscular junction in
           myasthenia gravis
    • Authors: Xueyong Wang; Mark M. Rich
      Abstract: A number of studies in the past 20 years have shown that perturbation of activity of the nervous system leads to compensatory changes in synaptic strength that serve to return network activity to its original level. This response has been termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Despite the intense interest in homeostatic synaptic plasticity, little attention has been paid to its role in the prototypic synaptic disease, myasthenia gravis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms that have been shown to mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity at the mammalian neuromuscular junction. A subset of these mechanisms have been shown to occur in myasthenia gravis. The homeostatic changes occurring in myasthenia gravis appear to involve the presynaptic nerve terminal and may even involve changes in the excitability of motor neurons within the spinal cord. The finding of presynaptic homeostatic synaptic plasticity in myasthenia gravis leads us to propose that changes in the motor unit in myasthenia gravis may be more widespread than previously appreciated.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T11:50:22.429901-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13472
  • Birth weight and prepubertal body size predict menarcheal age in India,
           Peru, and Vietnam
    • Authors: Elisabetta Aurino; Whitney Schott, Mary E. Penny, Jere R. Behrman
      Abstract: Evidence on the associations of birth weight and prepubertal nutritional status with menarcheal age for low- and middle-income countries is limited. We investigated these relationships using the Young Lives younger cohort for 2001 Indian, Peruvian, and Vietnamese girls born in 2001–2002. Girls were followed at approximately ages 1, 5, 8, and 12 years. Weibull survival models estimated hazards of earlier menarche on the basis of birth weight Z-scores (BWZ), and age-8 BMI-for-age Z-scores (BMIZ) and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). Estimates controlled for potential individual-, mother-, and household-level confounders and for changes in anthropometry between 1 and 8 years. In adjusted models, BWZ predicted later age at menarche (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83–0.97). Conversely, HAZ (HR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.5–1.83) and BMIZ at 8 years (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.38) predicted earlier menarche. Changes in HAZ and BMIZ between 1 and 8 years were not associated with earlier menarche. Associations were consistent across countries, though with variation in estimated magnitudes. Maternal height and age were associated with later menarche. This evidence points to consistently robust and opposite associations of birth weight versus prepubertal attained height and body mass index with menarcheal age in three diverse settings with regard to nutrition, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:50:24.257943-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13445
  • Endoluminal weight loss and metabolic therapies: current and future
    • Authors: Christine Hill; Mouen A. Khashab, Anthony N. Kalloo, Vivek Kumbhari
      Abstract: Obesity is a public health epidemic associated with a number of comorbidities, most notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, as well as elevated all-cause mortality. The treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities has most recently expanded into the field of bariatric endoscopy. This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Because of its minimally invasive nature, bariatric endoscopic therapy has the potential to appeal to the large sector of the obese population that resists surgery, as well as those early in the onset of obesity. To date, five endoscopic devices have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, and many more are in development, undergoing clinical trials, or being used around the world. Here, we present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in terms of weight loss, improvement in metabolic profile, and reduction in comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:25:38.629325-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13441
  • Mechanisms of weight loss and improved metabolism following bariatric
    • Authors: Christopher M. Mulla; Roeland J.W. Middelbeek, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
      Abstract: Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to help patients achieve significant and sustained weight loss, as well as improved metabolic and overall health. Unfortunately, the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which bariatric surgery achieves weight loss have not been fully elucidated, yet are critical to understanding the central role of the intestinal tract in whole-body metabolism and to developing novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this review, we provide an overview of potential mechanisms contributing to weight loss, including effects on regulation of energy balance and both central and peripheral nervous system regulation of appetite and metabolism. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in bile acid physiology, secretion of intestinally derived hormones, and the microbiome, as a potent mediator of improved metabolism in postbariatric patients.
      PubDate: 2017-09-03T23:26:21.948511-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13409
  • Insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis
    • Authors: Maximilian Hatting; Clint D.J. Tavares, Kfir Sharabi, Amy K. Rines, Pere Puigserver
      Abstract: The coordinated regulation between cellular glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production is indispensable for the maintenance of constant blood glucose concentrations. The liver contributes significantly to this process by altering the levels of hepatic glucose release, through controlling the processes of de novo glucose production (gluconeogenesis) and glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis). Various nutritional and hormonal stimuli signal to alter hepatic gluconeogenic flux, and suppression of this metabolic pathway during the postprandial state can, to a significant extent, be attributed to insulin. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms through which insulin modulates hepatic gluconeogenesis, thus controlling glucose production by the liver to ultimately maintain normoglycemia. Various signaling pathways governed by insulin converge at the level of transcriptional regulation of the key hepatic gluconeogenic genes PCK1 and G6PC, highlighting this as one of the focal mechanisms through which gluconeogenesis is modulated. In individuals with compromised insulin signaling, such as insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, insulin fails to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis, even in the fed state; hence, an insight into these insulin-moderated pathways is critical for therapeutic purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-03T23:25:25.423126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13435
  • Recent developments in understanding the role of the gut microbiota in
           brain health and disease
    • Authors: Eoin Sherwin; Timothy G. Dinan, John F. Cryan
      Abstract: There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health. Indeed, roles for the bacterial commensals in various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression, autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, are emerging. Microbiota dysregulation has been documented in all of these conditions or in animal models thereof. Moreover, depletion or modulation of the gut microbiota can affect the severity of the central pathology or behavioral deficits observed in a variety of brain disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying such effects are only slowly being unraveled. Additionally, recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that targeting the microbiota through prebiotic, probiotic, or dietary interventions may be an effective “psychobiotic” strategy for treating symptoms in mood, neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T17:26:36.916386-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13416
  • Deciphering adipose tissue heterogeneity
    • Authors: Matthew D. Lynes; Yu-Hua Tseng
      Abstract: Obesity is an excess accumulation of adipose tissue mass, and, together with its sequelae, in particular type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome, obesity presents a major health crisis. Although obesity is simply caused by increased adipose mass, the heterogeneity of adipose tissue in humans means that the response to increased energy balance is highly complex. Individual subjects with similar phenotypes may respond very differently to the same treatments; therefore, obesity may benefit from a personalized precision medicine approach. The variability in the development of obesity is indeed driven by differences in sex, genetics, and environment, but also by the various types of adipose tissue as well as the different cell types that compose it. By describing the distinct cell populations that reside in different fat depots, we can interpret the complex effect of these various players in the maintenance of whole-body energy homeostasis. To further understand adipose tissue, adipogenic differentiation and the transcriptional program of lipid accumulation must be investigated. As the cell- and depot-specific functions are described, they can be placed in the context of energy excess to understand how the heterogeneity of adipose tissue shapes individual metabolic status and condition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T16:26:02.143338-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13398
  • Mesenchymal stem cells and their immunosuppressive role in transplantation
    • Authors: Pamina Contreras-Kallens; Claudia Terraza, Karina Oyarce, Tania Gajardo, Mauricio Campos-Mora, María Teresa Barroilhet, Carla Álvarez, Ricardo Fuentes, Fernando Figueroa, Maroun Khoury, Karina Pino-Lagos
      Abstract: Since they were first described, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to have important effector mechanisms and the potential for use in cell therapy. A great deal of research has been focused on unveiling how MSCs contribute to anti-inflammatory responses, including describing several cell populations involved and identifying soluble and other effector molecules. In this review, we discuss some of the contemporary evidence for use of MSCs in the field of immune tolerance, with a special emphasis on transplantation. Although considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the biological function of MSCs, additional resources are required to clarify the mechanisms of their induction of immune tolerance, which will undoubtedly lead to improved clinical outcomes for MSC-based therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T12:55:29.241734-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13364
  • Genomics of antibiotic-resistance prediction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Authors: Julie Jeukens; Luca Freschi, Irena Kukavica-Ibrulj, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Nicholas P. Tucker, Roger C. Levesque
      Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health issue spreading quickly among human and animal pathogens, as well as environmental bacteria. Misuse of antibiotics has an impact on the selection of resistant bacteria, thus contributing to an increase in the occurrence of resistant genotypes that emerge via spontaneous mutation or are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. There is a specific and urgent need not only to detect antimicrobial resistance but also to predict antibiotic resistance in silico. We now have the capability to sequence hundreds of bacterial genomes per week, including assembly and annotation. Novel and forthcoming bioinformatics tools can predict the resistome and the mobilome with a level of sophistication not previously possible. Coupled with bacterial strain collections and databases containing strain metadata, prediction of antibiotic resistance and the potential for virulence are moving rapidly toward a novel approach in molecular epidemiology. Here, we present a model system in antibiotic-resistance prediction, along with its promises and limitations. As it is commonly multidrug resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are often difficult to eradicate. We review novel approaches for genotype prediction of antibiotic resistance. We discuss the generation of microbial sequence data for real-time patient management and the prediction of antimicrobial resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T08:00:46.444097-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13358
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:16:42.340101-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13254
  • Designing the stem cell microenvironment for guided connective tissue
    • Authors: Danielle R. Bogdanowicz; Helen H. Lu
      Pages: 3 - 25
      Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine because of their ability to self-renew and their capacity for multilineage differentiation and tissue regeneration. For connective tissues, such as ligaments or tendons, MSCs are vital to the modulation of the inflammatory response following acute injury while also interacting with resident fibroblasts to promote cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. To date, MSC injection for connective tissue repair has yielded mixed results in vivo, likely due to a lack of appropriate environmental cues to effectively control MSC response and promote tissue healing instead of scar formation. In healthy tissues, stem cells reside within a complex microenvironment comprising cellular, structural, and signaling cues that collectively maintain stemness and modulate tissue homeostasis. Changes to the microenvironment following injury regulate stem cell differentiation, trophic signaling, and tissue healing. Here, we focus on models of the stem cell microenvironment that are used to elucidate the mechanisms of stem cell regulation and inspire functional approaches to tissue regeneration. Recent studies in this frontier area are highlighted, focusing on how microenvironmental cues modulate MSC response following connective tissue injury and, more importantly, how this unique cell environment can be programmed for stem cell–guided tissue regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:16:43.938545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13553
  • Current perspectives on biological approaches for osteoarthritis
    • Authors: Kaitlyn E. Whitney; Andrea Liebowitz, Ioanna K. Bolia, Jorge Chahla, Sudheer Ravuri, Thos A. Evans, Marc J. Philippon, Johnny Huard
      Pages: 26 - 43
      Abstract: Musculoskeletal injuries that disrupt the structure and function of diarthrodial joints can cause permanent biomechanical alterations and lead to a more severe, chronic condition. Despite advancements that have been made to restore tissue function and delay the need for joint replacement, there are currently no disease-modifying therapies for osteoarthritis (OA). To reduce the risk of OA, innovative preventive medicine approaches have been developed over the last decade to treat the underlying pathology. Several biological approaches are promising treatment modalities for various stages of OA owing to their minimally invasive nature and actively dynamic physiological mechanisms that attenuate tissue degradation and inflammatory responses. Individualized growth factor and cytokine therapies, tissue-engineered biomaterials, and cell-based therapies have revolutionary potential for orthopedic applications; however, the paucity of standardization and categorization of biological components and their counterparts has made it difficult to determine their clinical and biological efficacy. Cell-based therapies and tissue-engineered biologics have become lucrative in sports medicine and orthopedics; nonetheless, there is a continued effort to produce a biological treatment modality tailored to target intra-articular structures that recapitulates tissue function. Advanced development of these biological treatment modalities will potentially optimize tissue healing, regeneration, and joint preservation strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review current concepts on several biological treatment approaches for OA.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:16:42.487461-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13554
  • Tissue-specific endothelial cells: a promising approach for augmentation
           of soft tissue repair in orthopedics
    • Authors: Amir Lebaschi; Yusuke Nakagawa, Susumu Wada, Guang-Ting Cong, Scott A. Rodeo
      Pages: 44 - 56
      Abstract: Biologics are playing an increasingly significant role in the practice of modern medicine and surgery in general and orthopedics in particular. Cell-based approaches are among the most important and widely used modalities in orthopedic biologics, with mesenchymal stem cells and other multi/pluripotent cells undergoing evaluation in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. On the other hand, fully differentiated endothelial cells (ECs) have been found to perform critical roles in homeostasis of visceral tissues through production of an adaptive panel of so-called “angiocrine factors.” This newly discovered function of ECs renders them excellent candidates for novel approaches in cell-based biologics. Here, we present a review of the role of ECs and angiocrine factors in some visceral tissues, followed by an overview of current cell-based approaches and a discussion of the potential applications of ECs in soft tissue repair.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:16:41.911042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13575
  • Inflammatory biomarkers of low back pain and disc degeneration: a review
    • Authors: Aysha N. Khan; Hayley E. Jacobsen, Jansher Khan, Christopher G. Filippi, Mitchell Levine, Ronald A. Lehman, K. Daniel Riew, Lawrence G. Lenke, Nadeen O. Chahine
      Pages: 68 - 84
      Abstract: Biomarkers are biological characteristics that can be used to indicate health or disease. This paper reviews studies on biomarkers of low back pain (LBP) in human subjects. LBP is the leading cause of disability, caused by various spine-related disorders, including intervertebral disc degeneration, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and facet arthritis. The focus of these studies is inflammatory mediators, because inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of disc degeneration and associated pain mechanisms. Increasingly, studies suggest that the presence of inflammatory mediators can be measured systemically in the blood. These biomarkers may serve as novel tools for directing patient care. Currently, patient response to treatment is unpredictable with a significant rate of recurrence, and, while surgical treatments may provide anatomical correction and pain relief, they are invasive and costly. The review covers studies performed on populations with specific diagnoses and undefined origins of LBP. Since the natural history of LBP is progressive, the temporal nature of studies is categorized by duration of symptomology/disease. Related studies on changes in biomarkers with treatment are also reviewed. Ultimately, diagnostic biomarkers of LBP and spinal degeneration have the potential to shepherd an era of individualized spine medicine for personalized therapeutics in the treatment of LBP.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:16:43.111871-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13551
  • Bone quality changes associated with aging and disease: a review
    • Authors: Adele L. Boskey; Laurianne Imbert
      Pages: 93 - 106
      Abstract: Bone quality encompasses all the characteristics of bone that, in addition to density, contribute to its resistance to fracture. In this review, we consider changes in architecture, porosity, and composition, including collagen structure, mineral composition, and crystal size. These factors all are known to vary with tissue and animal ages, and health status. Bone morphology and presence of microcracks, which also contribute to bone quality, will not be discussed in this review. Correlations with mechanical performance for collagen cross-linking, crystallinity, and carbonate content are contrasted with mineral content. Age-dependent changes in humans and rodents are discussed in relation to rodent models of disease. Examples are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), and osteopetrosis in both humans and animal models. Each of these conditions, along with aging, is associated with increased fracture risk for distinct reasons.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:16:41.514151-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13572
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