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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1579 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1579 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 230, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Annals of Human Genetics
  [SJR: 1.191]   [H-I: 67]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4800 - ISSN (Online) 1469-1809
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Choledochal Cyst with 17q12 Chromosomal Duplication
    • Authors: Radana Kotalova; Petra Dusatkova, Jana Drabova, Lenka Elblova, Tomas Dedic, Ondrej Cinek, Jan Lebl, Stepanka Pruhova
      Abstract: The 17q12 chromosomal region carries the HNF1B gene, mutations of which cause various conditions. When searching for HNF1B/17q12 rearrangements among children with biliary atresia and/or choledochal cysts, we identified a male proband carrying a 17q12 duplication spanning 1698 kb that included 24 genes from TBC1D3C to HNF1B. The boy presented with cholestatic jaundice at the age of 2 weeks due to a choledochal cyst sized 15 ×12 mm (type Ia according to the Todani classification). He underwent a shunt surgery consisting of a hepaticojejunostomy using Roux-en-Y loop at the age of 2 months, which led to a permanent relief of cholestasis. Perioperative liver histology revealed significant hepatic fibrosis and bile ductular proliferation. At 17 years, he has a mildly enlarged liver with decreased elasticity, an upper-normal–sized spleen, normal biochemistry values, and no renal or hepatic cysts. We report the first hepatobiliary phenotype in a patient with an HNF1B overdosage.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T05:05:59.229467-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12221
  • Single-center experience of N-linked Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation
           with a Summary of Molecularly Characterized Cases in Arabs
    • Authors: Fatma Bastaki; Sami Bizzari, Sana Hamici, Pratibha Nair, Madiha Mohamed, Fatima Saif, Ethar Mustafa Malik, Mahmoud Taleb Al-Ali, Abdul Rezzak Hamzeh
      Abstract: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) represent an expanding group of conditions that result from defects in protein and lipid glycosylation. Different subgroups of CDG display considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity due to the highly complex nature of cellular glycosylation. This is further complicated by ethno-geographic differences in the mutational landscape of each of these subgroups. Ten Arab CDG patients from Latifa Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, were assessed using biochemical (glycosylation status of transferrin) and molecular approaches (next-generation sequencing [NGS] and Sanger sequencing). In silico tools including CADD and PolyPhen-2 were used to predict the functional consequences of uncovered mutations. In our sample of patients, five novel mutations were uncovered in the genes: MPDU1, PMM2, MAN1B1, and RFT1. In total, 9 mutations were harbored by the 10 patients in 7 genes. These are missense and nonsense mutations with deleterious functional consequences. This article integrates a single-center experience within a list of reported CDG mutations in the Arab world, accompanied by full molecular and clinical details pertaining to the studied cases. It also sheds light on potential ethnic differences that were not noted before in regards to CDG in the Arab world.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T23:40:37.438416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12220
  • Construction of an Exome-Wide Risk Score for Schizophrenia Based on a
           Weighted Burden Test
    • Authors: David Curtis
      Abstract: Polygenic risk scores obtained as a weighted sum of associated variants can be used to explore association in additional data sets and to assign risk scores to individuals. The methods used to derive polygenic risk scores from common SNPs are not suitable for variants detected in whole exome sequencing studies. Rare variants, which may have major effects, are seen too infrequently to judge whether they are associated and may not be shared between training and test subjects. A method is proposed whereby variants are weighted according to their frequency, their annotations and the genes they affect. A weighted sum across all variants provides an individual risk score. Scores constructed in this way are used in a weighted burden test and are shown to be significantly different between schizophrenia cases and controls using a five-way cross-validation procedure. This approach represents a first attempt to summarise exome sequence variation into a summary risk score, which could be combined with risk scores from common variants and from environmental factors. It is hoped that the method could be developed further.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T23:51:03.916618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12212
  • Evaluation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP) Alpha (CEBPA) and
           Runt-Related Transcription Factor 1 (RUNX1) Expression in Patients with De
           Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    • Authors: Fatemeh Salarpour; Kourosh Goudarzipour, Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh, Sara Faraahi, Mehdi Allahbakhshian Farsani
      Abstract: The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) alpha (CEBPA) and Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) genes have been traditionally regarded as two essential genes involved in normal myeloid maturation. Although the link between mutations in these genes and the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been extensively documented, the ramifications of gene expression dysregulations of CEBPA and RUNX1 has drawn less attention. The present study investigated CEBPA and RUNX1 gene expression levels in 96 primary AML specimens against a normal control group by way of real-time RT-PCR. Our results reveal that CEBPA and RUNX1 gene expression levels were unexpectedly and significantly higher in patients with AML when compared to the levels detected in the normal control group (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the correlation between CEBPA and RUNX1 was significant and positive (P-value: 0.011, r: 0.257).Our data contradicts the widely established role of CEBPA and RUNX1 in myeloid differentiation, as we saw lower levels of CEBPA and RUNX1 expression to be exhibited in patients with AML. Likely, our data demonstrates that higher levels of CEBPA and RUNX1 expression were closely correlated with reduced myeloid maturation, but this idea needs to approved. It suggests that despite the current established functions of genes involved in cell differentiation, the leukemogenesis process has the capability to transform normal hematopoietic precursors in a manner that may employ the differentiation related gene at the service of malignancy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T23:41:02.331505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12210
  • Ancestry Informative Marker Panel to Estimate Population Stratification
           Using Genome-wide Human Array
    • Authors: Fernanda B. Barbosa; Natalia F. Cagnin, Milena Simioni, Allysson A. Farias, Fábio R. Torres, Miriam C. Molck, Tânia K. Araujo, Vera L. Gil-Da-Silva-Lopes, Eduardo A. Donadi, Aguinaldo L. Simões
      Abstract: Case-control studies are a powerful strategy to identify candidate genes in complex diseases. In admixed populations, association studies can be affected by population stratification, leading to spurious genetic associations. Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can be used to minimise this effect. The aim of this work was to select a set of AIMs to estimate population stratification in a Brazilian case-control study performed using a genome-wide array. A total of 345 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) AIMs, selected from the Cytoscan HD array and based on previously reported panels, was used to discriminate between European, African, and Amerindian populations. These SNP-AIMs were used to infer ancestry in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (n  =  23) and in healthy subjects (n  =  110). Moderate population substructure was observed between SLE and control groups (Fst  =  0.0113). Although patients and controls have shown a major European genomic contribution, significant differences in the European (P  =  6.47 × 10−5) and African (P  =  1.14 × 10−3) ancestries were detected between the two groups. We performed a two-step validation of the 345 SNP-AIMs panel estimating the ancestral contributions using a panel of 12 AIMs and approximately 70K SNPs from the array. Evaluation of population substructure in case-control studies, avoiding spurious genetic associations, can be performed using our panel of 345 SNP-AIMs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T23:36:07.531236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12208
  • Evaluation of a Role for NPY and NPY2R in the Pathogenesis of Obesity by
           Mutation and Copy Number Variation Analysis in Obese Children and
    • Authors: Evi Aerts; Ellen Geets, Laure Sorber, Sigri Beckers, An Verrijken, Guy Massa, Kim Hoorenbeeck, Stijn L Verhulst, Luc F Gaal, Wim Hul
      Abstract: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its G protein–coupled NPY Y2 Receptor (NPY2R) are highly expressed in orexigenic NPY/Agouti-related peptide neurons within the arcuate nucleus, a major integrator of appetite control in the hypothalamus. As NPY and NPY2R are interesting candidate genes for obesity, we hypothesized that a genetic variation in these genes might be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity.In the first part of this study, we performed a mutation analysis of the coding region of NPY and NPY2R with high-resolution melting curve analysis. For the highly conserved NPY gene, an extended population of 436 obese children and adolescents was screened, while for NPY2R, a smaller subset of 306 patients was used. A control population of 300 healthy individuals was screened for NPY2R to determine the general prevalence of the variants found among patients. Direct sequencing was performed for samples with melting patterns deviating from wild-type.In the second part of this study, Multiplex Amplicon Quantification (MAQ) analysis was performed in 308 obese children and adolescents to detect copy number variation (CNV) in the NPY2R region.Mutation analysis of the NPY gene led to the identification of one common missense variant (L7P; MAF 0.04), while the screening of the NPY2R gene resulted in the identification of one rare missense variant F87I in the patient population.In our CNV analysis, we could not identify copy number variation in the NPY2R region among obese children and adolescents.In summary, this study clearly indicates that genetic variation in NPY and NPY2R is at low frequency and thus does not make a major contribution to the obese phenotype in the general population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T05:10:26.047151-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12211
  • Interaction Between Val158Met Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Polymorphism
           and Social Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia: Pilot Study
    • Authors: Aneta Tylec; Witold Jeleniewicz, Ann Mortimer, Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Katarzyna Kucharska
      Abstract: The Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functional polymorphism may influence social cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia.Aspects of social cognition were evaluated with the Facial Expression Recognition Test, the Voice Emotion Recognition Test, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. The Short Recognition Memory Test for Faces was used as a control measure. The Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Schedule for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, and Beck Depression Inventory were used to rate of patient symptoms.There were 100 patients with the following genotypes: Val/Val (21), Met/Met (30), and Val/Met (49). The genotype distribution of polymorphism of Val158Met COMT did not differ between the patient and control groups. Schizophrenia carriers of the Val/Val genotype performed worse in social cognitive measures, in comparison with the other groups. No statistically significant correlations were recorded between age at schizophrenia onset and polymorphism of Val158Met COMT. There was an influence of genotype in the control group: the Met homozygotes performing better.Schizophrenia patients homozygous for the Val allele showed significant disadvantages over patients homozygous or heterozygous for the Met allele in social cognitive processes. The COMT genotype may not, however, contribute to the age of onset of schizophrenia.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T01:20:33.646983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12209
  • Prevalence of Mutations in Deafness-Causing Genes in Cochlear Implanted
           Patients with Profound Nonsyndromic Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Shandong
           Province, China
    • Authors: Jianfen Luo; Xiaohui Bai, Fengguo Zhang, Yun Xiao, Lintao Gu, Yuechen Han, Zhaomin Fan, Jianfeng Li, Lei Xu, Haibo Wang
      Abstract: The mutations of GJB2, SLC26A4, and mtDNA12SrRNA are the most common inherited causes of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL) in China, yet previous genetic screenings were mainly carried on patients with moderate-to-profound impairment. We aimed to detect the mutation frequencies in NSHL population within a more specified range of severity. Patients with profound NSHL who had undergone cochlear implantation in the Shandong Provincial Hospital (Shandong, China) were recruited. The majority (n  =  472) were between 0.7 and 6 years old, and the remaining (n  =  63) were between 6 and 70 years old. In total, 115 mutation alleles of the three genes were screened with SNP scan assay. Of the patients, 19.44% (104/535) were found to have GJB2 mutations, and the most common allele was c.235delC, followed by c.299_300delAT and c.109G>A. SLC26A4 mutations were detected in 13.46% patients (72/535), and the most common allele was c.919-2A>G (IVS7-2A>G), followed by c.1174A>T and c.2168A>G. Seven patients (1.31%) carried mutations in mtDNA12SrRNA, with the alleles of m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T. We found the allele frequency of c.109G>A (GJB2) was relatively lower in the profound NSHL population in comparison to the moderate-to-profound ones, and the c.1174A>T (SLC26A4) relatively higher. It suggests those mutations may be connected with the degree of deafness, which needs more observations and analyses to support.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T01:15:38.254619-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12207
  • High Y-chromosomal Differentiation Among Ethnic Groups of Dir and Swat
           Districts, Pakistan
    • Authors: Inam Ullah; Jill K. Olofsson, Ashot Margaryan, Melissa Ilardo, Habib Ahmad, Martin Sikora, Anders J. Hansen, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Numan Fazal, Murad Ali, Anders Buchard, Brian E. Hemphill, Eske Willerslev, Morten E. Allentoft
      Abstract: The ethnic groups that inhabit the mountainous Dir and Swat districts of northern Pakistan are marked by high levels of cultural and phenotypic diversity. To obtain knowledge of the extent of genetic diversity in this region, we investigated Y-chromosomal diversity in five population samples representing the three main ethnic groups residing within these districts, including Gujars, Pashtuns and Kohistanis. A total of 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and 331 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) were investigated. In the Y-STRs, we observed very high and significant levels of genetic differentiation in nine of the 10 pairwise between-group comparisons (RST 0.179–0.746), and the differences were mirrored in the Y-SNP haplogroup frequency distribution. No genetic differences were found between the two Pashtun subethnic groups Tarklanis and Yusafzais (RST = 0.000). Utmankhels, also considered Pashtuns culturally, were not closely related to any of the other population samples (RST 0.451–0.746). Thus, our findings provide examples of both associations and dissociations between cultural and genetic legacies. When analyzed within a larger continental-scale context, these five ethnic groups fall mostly outside the previously characterized Y-chromosomal gene pools of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent. Male founder effects, coupled with culturally and topographically based constraints upon marriage and movement, are likely responsible for the high degree of genetic structure in this region.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T01:51:14.790077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12204
  • The Impact of FOXP3 Polymorphism on the Risk of Allergic Rhinitis: A
    • Authors: Guimin Zhang; Di Zhang, Wenjie Shi, Peiyong Sun, Peng Lin
      Abstract: Polymorphisms of several genes were reported to be associated with the risk of allergic rhinitis. Here, we first conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the potential genetic association between the polymorphisms of the FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3) gene and the susceptibility to allergic rhinitis. A total of 2671 relevant articles were initially retrieved from the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, WANFANG/CNKI and Scopus, and six eligible case-control studies were finally enrolled in our meta-analysis, according to our strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Based on the extracted data, Mantel–Haenszel statistic, Cochrane's Q statistic, I2 test, subgroup meta-analysis, Begg's test, Egger's test and sensitivity analysis were performed via Stata/SE 12.0 software. The results of the Mantel–Haenszel statistic regarding rs3761548 showed that no significant difference was observed in the allergic rhinitis case and population-based control group under the genetic models of A versus C, AA versus CC, CA+AA versus CC, AA versus CC+CA and carrier A versus C (all P-value of Association Test, PA > 0.05), apart from CA versus CC (PA  =  0.020). The similar results were obtained in the subgroup analysis of Asian. In addition, we did not obtain the positive result in the meta-analysis of rs2232365 (all PA > 0.05). We also excluded the presence of large publication bias through Begg's test and Egger's test, and we confirmed the stability of data by sensitivity analysis. In summary, no significant association between rs3761548, rs2232365 polymorphisms of the FOXP3 gene, and an increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis was identified based on the published data; however, this conclusion should be confirmed by more studies with increased sample sizes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T01:56:14.251677-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12205
  • Disease-Causing Variants in the ATL1 Gene Are a Rare Cause of Hereditary
           Spastic Paraplegia among Czech Patients
    • Authors: Anna Uhrová Mészárosová; Dagmar Grečmalová, Michaela Brázdilová, Nina Dvořáčková, Zdeněk Kalina, Marie Čermáková, Dagmar Vávrová, Irena Smetanová, David Staněk, Pavel Seeman
      Abstract: Variants in the ATL1 gene have been repeatedly described as the second most frequent cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a motor neuron disease manifested by progressive lower limb spasticity and weakness. Variants in ATL1 have been described mainly in patients with early onset HSP. We performed Sanger sequencing of all coding exons and adjacent intron regions of the ALT1 gene in 111 Czech patients with pure form of HSP and additional Multiplex-Ligation Probe Analysis (MLPA) testing targeting the ATL1 gene in 56 of them. All patients except seven were previously tested by Sanger sequencing of the SPAST gene with negative results. ATL1 diagnostic testing revealed only five missense variants in the ATL1 gene. Four of them are novel, but we suppose only two of them to be pathogenic and causal. The remaining variants are assumed to be benign. MLPA testing in 56 of sequence variant negative patients revealed no gross deletion in the ATL1 gene. Variants in the ATL1 gene are more frequent in patients with early onset HSP, but in general the occurrence of pathogenic variants in the ATL1 gene is low in our cohort, less than 4.5% and less than 11.1% in patients with onset before the age of ten. Variants in the ATL1 gene are a less frequent cause of HSP among Czech patients than has been previously reported among other populations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-23T23:30:34.538609-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12206
  • Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Failure in
           Beta-Thalassemia: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Niki L. Dimou; Katerina G. Pantavou, Pantelis G. Bagos
      Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is potentially a genetic risk factor for the development of left ventricular failure (LVF), the main cause of death in beta-thalassemia homozygotes. In the present study, we synthesize the results of independent studies examining the effect of ApoE on LVF development in thalassemic patients through a meta-analytic approach. However, all studies report more than one outcome, as patients are classified into three groups according to the severity of the symptoms and the genetic polymorphism. Thus, a multivariate meta-analytic method that addresses simultaneously multiple exposures and multiple comparison groups was developed. Four individual studies were included in the meta-analysis involving 613 beta-thalassemic patients and 664 controls. The proposed method that takes into account the correlation of log odds ratios (log(ORs)), revealed a statistically significant overall association (P-value  =  0.009), mainly attributed to the contrast of E4 versus E3 allele for patients with evidence (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.53) or patients with clinical and echocardiographic findings (OR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.78, 6.26) of LVF. This study suggests that E4 is a genetic risk factor for LVF in beta-thalassemia major. The presented multivariate approach can be applied in several fields of research.
      PubDate: 2017-07-02T23:00:30.593939-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12203
  • Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Gene Promotor Polymorphism Is
           Associated with Increased Fibrosis in Biliary Atresia Patients, but Not
           with Disease Susceptibility
    • Authors: Khaled H. Sadek; Sameera Ezzat, Samira A. Abdel-Aziz, Hanaa Alaraby, Asmaa Mosbeh, Mohamed H. Abdel-Rahman
      Abstract: Two polymorphisms, rs755622 and rs5844572, in the promoter region of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene influence the basal and/or induced transcriptional activity and have been linked to several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between these two polymorphisms and disease susceptibility in patients with biliary atresia (BA). Allele frequencies of rs755622 and rs5844572 were assessed in 60 Egyptian infants with a confirmed diagnosis of BA. DNA was extracted from archival material. For the rs755622, samples were tested using Taqman real-time PCR, and for the rs5844572, samples were tested using fluorescence-based genotyping. The allele frequency in the general population was assessed in 141 healthy adults from the same geographical location. No statistical differences were observed in the allele frequencies of either rs755622 or rs5844572 between BA patients and controls. The homozygous and heterozygous short repeats (5/5, or 5/X) of rs5844572 were observed more frequently (16/28, 57.1%) in BA patients with mild to moderate fibrosis compared with those with marked fibrosis (10/32, 31.3%). The difference was statistically significant (P  =  0.032). In conclusion, we observed no association between MIF rs755622 and rs5844572 polymorphisms and susceptibility to BA; however, the rs5844572 could be linked to the rate of progression of the disease and extent of fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T06:35:28.154925-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12199
  • Studies on N-Acetyltransferase (NAT2) Genotype Relationships in Emiratis:
           Confirmation of the Existence of Phenotype Variation among Slow
    • Authors: Mohammad M. Al-Ahmad; Naheed Amir, Subramanian Dhanasekaran, Anne John, Yousef M. Abdulrazzaq, Bassam R. Ali, Salim Bastaki
      Abstract: Background and purposeIndividuals with slow N-acetylation phenotype often experience toxicity from drugs such as isoniazid, sulfonamides, procainamide, and hydralazine, whereas rapid acetylators may not respond to these medications. The highly polymorphic N-acetyltransferase 2 enzyme encoded by the NAT2 gene is one of the N-acetylators in humans with a clear impact on the metabolism of a significant number of important drugs. However, there are limited studies on N-acetylation phenotypes and NAT2 genotypes among Emiratis, and thus this study was carried out to fill this gap.MethodsFive hundred seventy-six Emirati subjects were asked to consume a soft drink containing caffeine (a nontoxic and reliable probe for predicting the acetylation phenotype) and then provide a buccal swab along with a spot urine sample. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the genotype of each individual. Phenotyping was carried out by analyzing the caffeine metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.ResultsWe found that 78.5%, 19.1%, and 2.4% of the Emirati subjects were slow, intermediate, and rapid acetylators, respectively. In addition, we found that 77.4% of the subjects were homozygous or heterozygous for two nonreference alleles, whereas 18.4% and 4.2% were heterozygous or homozygous for the reference allele (NAT2*4), respectively. The most common genotypes found were NAT2*5B/*7B, NAT2*5B/*6A, NAT2*7B/*14B, and NAT2*4/*5B, with frequencies of 0.255, 0.135, 0.105, and 0.09, respectively. The degree of phenotype/genotype concordance was 96.2%. The NAT2*6A/*6A, NAT2*6A/*7B, NAT2*7B/*7B, and NAT2*5A/*5B genotypes were found to be associated with the lowest 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil/1-methylxanthine (AFMU/1X) ratios.ConclusionsThere is a high percentage of slow acetylators among Emiratis, which correlates with the presence of nonreference alleles for the NAT2 gene. Individuals who carried NAT2*6A/*6A, NAT2*6A/*7B, NAT2*7B/*7B, or NAT2*5A/*5B genotypes might be at higher risk of toxicity with some drugs and some diseases compared to others, as these genotypes are associated with the slowest acetylation status.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T05:47:38.667718-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12198
  • Differentiating the Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Pearson's χ2
           Test: Location and Dispersion
    • Authors: Zhengyang Zhou; Hung-Chih Ku, Zhipeng Huang, Guan Xing, Chao Xing
      Abstract: In genetic case-control association studies, a standard practice is to perform the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test with 1 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) under the assumption of an additive model. However, when the true genetic model is recessive or near recessive, it is outperformed by Pearson's χ2 test with 2 d.f. In this article, we analytically reveal the statistical basis that leads to the phenomenon. First, we show that the CA trend test examines the location shift between the case and control groups, whereas Pearson's χ2 test examines both the location and dispersion shifts between the two groups. Second, we show that under the additive model, the effect of location deviation outweighs that of the dispersion deviation and vice versa under a near recessive model. Therefore, Pearson's χ2 test is a more robust test than the CA trend test, and it outperforms the latter when the mode of inheritance evolves to the recessive end.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T00:03:40.839292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12202
  • Molecular Characterisation of α- and β-Thalassaemia among Indigenous
           Senoi Orang Asli Communities in Peninsular Malaysia
    • Authors: Danny Xuan Rong Koh; Raja Zahratul Azma Raja Sabudin, Malisa Mohd Yusoff, Noor Hamidah Hussin, Rahimah Ahmad, Ainoon Othman, Endom Ismail
      Abstract: Thalassaemia is a public health problem in Malaysia, with each ethnic group having their own common mutations. However, there is a lack on data on the prevalence and common mutations among the indigenous people. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the common mutations of α- and β-thalassaemia among the subethnic groups of Senoi, the largest Orang Asli group in Peninsular Malaysia. Blood samples collected from six Senoi subethnic groups were analysed for full blood count and haemoglobin analysis (HbAn). Samples with abnormal findings were then screened for α- and β-globin gene mutations. Out of the 752 samples collected, 255 showed abnormal HbAn results, and 122 cases showing abnormal red cell indices with normal HbAn findings were subjected to molecular screening. DNA analysis revealed a mixture of α- and β-globin gene mutations with 25 concomitant cases. The types of gene abnormalities detected for α-thalassaemia were termination codon (T>C) Hb CS (αCSα), Cd59 (G>A) haemoglobin Adana (Hb Adana) (αCd59α), initiation codon (ATG>A-G) (αIniCdα), two-gene deletion (–SEA), and single-gene 3.7-kb deletion (-α3.7). For β-thalassaemia, there were Cd26 (G>A) Hb E (βE), Cd19 (A>G) Haemoglobin Malay (Hb Malay) (βCd19), and IVS 1–5 (G>C) (βIVS 1–5).
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T03:05:27.456779-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12201
  • A Complete Association of an intronic SNP rs6798742 with Origin of
           Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7-CAG Expansion Loci in the Indian and Mexican
    • Authors: Mohammed Faruq; Jonathan J. Magaña, Varun Suroliya, Ankita Narang, Nadia M. Murillo-Melo, Oscar Hernández-Hernández, Achal K. Srivastava, Mitali Mukerji
      Abstract: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a rare neurogenetic disorder caused by highly unstable CAG repeat expansion mutation in coding region of SCA7. We aimed to understand the effect of diverse ATXN7 cis-element in correlation with CAG expansion mutation of SCA7. We initially performed an analysis to identify the haplotype background of CAG expanded alleles using eight bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) flanking an ATXN7-CAG expansion in 32 individuals from nine unrelated Indian SCA7 families and 88 healthy controls. Subsequent validation of the findings was performed in 89 ATXN7-CAG mutation carriers and in 119 unrelated healthy controls of Mexican ancestry. The haplotype analyses showed a shared haplotype background and C allele of SNP rs6798742 (approximately 6 kb from the 3′-end of CAG repeats) is in complete association with expanded, premutation, intermediate, and the majority of large normal (≥12) CAG allele. The C allele (ancestral/chimp allele) association was validated in SCA7 subjects and healthy controls from Mexico, suggesting its substantial association with CAG expanded and expansion-prone chromosomes. Analysis of rs6798742 and other neighboring functional SNPs within 6 kb in experimental datasets (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements; ENCODE) shows functional marks that could affect transcription as well as histone methylation. An allelic association of the CAG region to an intronic SNP in two different ethnic and geographical populations suggests a -cis factor-dependent mechanism in ATXN7 CAG-region expansion.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T05:31:33.027945-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ahg.12200
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