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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 399, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Annals of Applied Biology
  [SJR: 0.816]   [H-I: 56]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4746 - ISSN (Online) 1744-7348
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Novel phytoplasma strains of X-disease group unveil genetic markers that
           distinguish North American and South American geographic lineages within
           subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U
    • Authors: E. Pérez-López; W. Wei, J. Wang, R.E. Davis, M. Luna-Rodríguez, Y. Zhao
      Abstract: Phytoplasmas in the X-disease group (16SrIII) are highly diverse in terms of geographic distributions, vectorship and plant host specificity. Such biological and ecological diversity is often correlated with distinctive genetic markers present in evolutionarily conserved genes. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers in the 16S rRNA gene sequences, 29 subgroups have been delineated, with most of them being found in the Americas. However, it has been unknown whether distinct geographic lineages are present within a given subgroup. Prior to this study, phytoplasmas belonging to subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U were reported only in countries located in South America. In the present study, we identified new phytoplasmas strains closely related to the reference strains of the two subgroups in Mexico, a North American country. These newly identified Mexican strains possess unique RFLP, single nucleotide polymorphism, and fragmental deletion markers in 16S rRNA- and/or ribosomal protein-encoding genes. Since these markers consistently distinguished the Mexican strains from their South American counterparts, they may represent emerging or previously unknown North American geographic lineages of the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U.Phytoplasmas in the X-disease group (16SrIII) are highly diverse in terms of geographic distributions, vectorship, and plant host specificity. Such biological and ecological diversity is often correlated with distinctive genetic markers present in evolutionarily conserved genes. In the present study, we identified new phytoplasmas strains based on unique RFLP and SNP markers in 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein-encoding genes. These new phytoplasmas were discovered from periwinkle plants growing in Mexico; they may represent North American lineages of the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T23:55:47.415983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12383
  • Relative importance of natural enemies and abiotic factors as sources of
           regulation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian coffee
    • Authors: N. Rodrigues-Silva; S. Oliveira Campos, E. Sá Farias, T.C. Souza, J.C. Martins, M.C. Picanço
      Abstract: In the present study, we determined the critical stages and the key factors of mortality for Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian coffee plantations using a life table to understand the role of natural biological control on its population. Predators, parasitoids, rainfall, sunlight, physiological disturbances and fungal diseases were collectively responsible for 98.79% in the total mortality of P. citri. Predators belonging to the Chrysopidae, Syrphidae, Dolichopodidae and Coccinellidae families were the most important mortality factors in the early developmental stages of P. citri (i.e. eggs and 1st and 2nd instar nymphs), whereas predators belonging to the Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae families were the most important mortality factors for the last instars (i.e. 3rd instars and adults) for P. citri. The generalist predators Harmonia axyridis, Chrysoperla genanigra and Chrysoperla externa were the key mortality factors for P. citri. The third nymph stage was considered the critical life stage (i.e. the life stage that most influences population size). Our results show that generalist predators and climatic factors are important sources of natural mortality of P. citri governing the population dynamics of this pest in the field.In this study, we determined the critical stages and the key factors of mortality for Planococcus citri using a life table to understand the role of natural biological control on its population. Predators, parasitoids, rainfall, sunlight, physiological disturbances and fungal diseases were collectively responsible for 98.79% in the total mortality of P. citri. The generalist predators Harmonia axyridis, Chrysoperla genanigra and C. externa were the key mortality factors for P. citri. The third nymph stage was considered the critical mortality stage. Our results show that these generalist predators are important natural control agents of P. citri in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T01:55:27.770284-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12373
  • Microbe-mediated control of Aspergillus flavus in stored rice grains with
           a focus on aflatoxin inhibition and biodegradation
    • Authors: M. Mannaa; J.Y. Oh, K.D. Kim
      Abstract: Biological control of mycotoxigenic fungi using antagonistic microbes is a promising alternative to agricultural chemicals for postharvest storage. In this study, we evaluated rice-derived bacterial strains to identify biocontrol agents to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in stored rice grains. Consequently, we obtained three potential biocontrol strains (Microbacterium testaceum KU313, Bacillus megaterium KU143 and Pseudomonas protegens AS15) from 26 tested strains that were prescreened from the 460 strains isolated from rice grains. The three selected strains proved to be effective biocontrol agents showing antifungal activity against A. flavus and good colonisation ability on rice grains, along with inhibition of the fungal growth and aflatoxin production. In particular, P. protegens AS15 greatly inhibited the aflatoxins produced by A. flavus on rice grains to 8.68 (percent aflatoxin reduction relative to control = 82.9%) and 18.05 (68.3 %) ng g−1 dry weight of rice grains, compared with the 50.89 and 56.97 ng g−1 dry weight of rice grains of the MgSO4 control at 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation, respectively. In addition, strain AS15 had a significant ability to not only degrade aflatoxin B1 (the most harmful aflatoxin), but also utilise the toxin for bacterial growth in a nutrient-deficient medium. Therefore, the selected bacterial strains could be environmentally sound alternatives for the management of A. flavus and aflatoxin production by reducing the fungal damage to stored rice grains. This would also reduce the human and animal health hazards associated with the consumption of fungus-contaminated rice grains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the potential of the bacterial species M. testaceum and P. protegens as biocontrol agents for controlling aflatoxigenic A. flavus on stored rice grains.(A) Aflatoxin degradation by bacterial strain AS15, strain KU408 (negative control), and MgSO4 (untreated control) in various diluted nutrient broth supplemented with aflatoxin B1 at 3 days after inoculation; (B) bacterial populations of the treatments in the diluted medium with or without aflatoxin B1.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T00:30:34.668151-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12381
  • The role of invertebrates in seedling establishment in a heterocarpic
           plant, Atriplex sagittata
    • Authors: A. Honek; Z. Martinkova, S. Koprdova, P. Saska
      Abstract: Seed heteromorphism is a marked character of many Chenopodioideae (Amaranthaceae). Seed morphs differ in dormancy, germination and seedling biology, but differences in their predation have not yet been studied. Atriplex sagittata produces small black dormant and large brown non-dormant seeds. In this study, the timing of seed release and seedling establishment were ascertained, and their consumption by invertebrates (carabids, isopods and slugs) was studied. Seeds dispersed in the autumn passed the winter on the ground surface, protected from invertebrate predation by low temperatures. In the following vegetative season, ungerminated black seeds exposed to predation on ground surface were preferred by a large carabid species, Pseudoophonus rufipes. Some black and all brown seeds escaped predation by germinating in early spring. The seedlings were little endangered by carabids and isopods but were preferred by an invasive slug, Arion vulgaris, the feeding of which can exterminate seedlings at places in which slugs are abundant. Invertebrate predation is important factor of seed and seedling mortality of A. sagittata and seed heteromorphism modifies its intensity and timing.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:35:46.702817-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12372
  • Recent advances and prospects in Prunus virology
    • Authors: M. Rubio; P. Martínez-Gómez, A. Marais, J.A. Sánchez-Navarro, V. Pallás, T. Candresse
      Abstract: The stone fruit genus Prunus, within the family Rosaceae, comprises more than 230 species, some of which have great importance or value as ornamental or fruit crops. Prunus are affected by numerous viruses and viroids linked to the vegetative propagation practices in many of the cultivated species. To date, 44 viruses and three viroids have been described in the 9 main cultivated Prunus species. Seven of these viruses and one viroid have been identified in Prunus hosts within the last 5 years. This work addresses recent advances and prospects in the study of viruses and viroids affecting Prunus species, mostly concerning the detection and characterisation of the agents involved, pathogenesis analysis and the search for new control tools. New sequencing technologies are quickly reshaping the way we can identify and characterise new plant viruses and isolates. Specific efforts aimed at virus identification or data mining of high-throughput sequencing data generated for plant genomics-oriented purposes can efficiently reveal the presence of known or novel viruses. These technologies have also been used to gain a deeper knowledge of the pathogenesis mechanisms at the gene and miRNA expression level that underlie the interactions between Prunus spp. and their main viruses and viroids. New biotechnological control tools include the transfer of resistance by grafting, the use of new sources of resistance and the development of gene silencing strategies using genetic transformation. In addition, the application of next generation sequencing and genome editing techniques will contribute to improving our knowledge of virus–host interactions and the mechanisms of resistance. This should be of great interest in the search to obtain new Prunus cultivars capable of dealing both with known viruses and viroids and with those that are yet to be discovered in the uncertain scenario of climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T00:55:58.015283-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12371
  • Brazilian melon landraces resistant to Podosphaera xanthii are unique
           germplasm resources
    • Authors: E.W.L.P. Nunes; C. Esteras, A.O. Ricarte, E.M. Martínez, M.L. Gómez-Guillamón, G.H.S. Nunes, M.B. Picó
      Abstract: Podosphaera xanthii is the most important causal agent of powdery mildew in melon, a crop ranked within the most economically important species worldwide. The best strategy to face this fungus disease, which causes important production losses, is the development of genetically resistant cultivars. Genetic breeding programmes require sources of resistance, and a few ones have been reported in melon, mostly in Momordica and Acidulus horticultural groups. However, the existence of many races that reduces the durability of the resistance makes necessary to find new resistant genotypes with different genetic backgrounds.In this work, Brazilian germplasm, together with a set of Indian landraces, and the COMAV's (Institute for the Conservation and Breeding of Agricultural Biodiversity) melon core collection, representing the whole variability of the species, were assessed for resistance against some common races in Spain and Brazil and genotyped with a 123-SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) genotyping platform to study the molecular relationships of the resistant accessions. In the first experiment, carried out in Valencia (Spain) in 2013, seventy-nine melon accessions were evaluated using artificial inoculation. Five accessions selected as resistant were also evaluated against races 1, 3, and 5 in Mossoró (Brazil, 2015) and against race 3.5 in Valencia (2016) under greenhouse conditions, and under four field conditions in Brazil. The accessions, AL-1, BA-3, CE-3, and RN-2, within the Brazilian collection, presented resistance against all the races of P. xanthii assayed in all conditions tested. AL-1, CE-3 and RN-2 were molecularly more similar to wild agrestis and Acidulus melons from Asia and Africa, while BA-3 grouped with Momordica types. Molecular analysis also confirmed that these new Brazilian sources of resistance differ from those previously reported, constituting interesting materials to encourage genetic breeding programmes, especially in Brazil and Spain.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T00:55:24.093169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12370
  • Detection of Southern tomato virus by molecular hybridisation
    • Authors: A.V. Puchades; C. Carpino, A. Alfaro-Fernandez, M.I. Font-San-Ambrosio, S. Davino, J. Guerri, L. Rubio, L. Galipienso
      Abstract: Southern tomato virus (STV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus belonging to the genus Amalgavirus from the family Amalgamaviridae. STV has been detected in tomato plants showing symptoms of stunting, fruit discoloration and size reduction, although its role on symptom development is unclear. Also, little is known about the incidence and epidemiology of this virus and how it spreads in tomato crops. In this work, we developed a molecular hybridisation method by using a digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe based on the nucleotide sequence of the STV putative coat protein which was tested with different procedures for preparation of plant material. This technique was sensitive enough to detect STV from sap extracts (obtained just by grinding in buffer) from different plant tissues such as leaves, fruits, roots and seeds. This procedure is suitable for field surveys since it allows a cheap and quick processing of a high number of samples. Surveys performed in three important tomato production areas (Peninsular Spain, the Canary Islands and Sicily) showed that STV is widely spread, with incidences ranging from 18% to 74% in different local and commercial tomato varieties.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T21:35:29.78246-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12367
  • A chitinase from Euphorbia characias latex is a novel and powerful
           plant-based pesticide against Drosophila suzukii
    • Authors: S. Martos; D. Spanò, N. Agustí, C. Poschenrieder, F. Pintus, L. Moles, R. Medda
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii attacks on developing soft fruits have recently caused important economic losses in Europe. This study explores the effectiveness of a new control strategy against this insect pest that is based on a plant chitinase extracted from the latex of the Mediterranean spurge, Euphorbia characias. The ability of the purified Euphorbia latex chitinase (ELC) to degrade the chitin exoskeleton of D. suzukii was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. ELC treatment caused reduced larval growth, higher mortality and notable degradation of external insect structures. Therefore, the chitinase may induce a double effect on the D. suzukii larvae, a direct injury on the larval bodies and an action as antifeedant. The effects of the ELC treatment were also tested on leaves of the insect's host plants, Fragaria × ananassa and Rubus idaeus, using physiological parameters (chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf gas exchange and water potential) and defence gene expression (FaPGIP, FaChi2_1 and FaChi2_2) as stress indicators. ELC at concentrations effective against D. suzukii did not damage the host plants. Only plant defence gene expression was somewhat enhanced during the early hours after ELC application. In conclusion, ELC, a natural product, proved to be an effective tool for use in the development of an environmentally friendly integrated management strategy against D. suzukii, a pest whose control by conventional chemical insecticides is problematic.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T20:33:01.624411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12369
  • The role of domestication and maternal effects on seed traits of
           crop–wild sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus)
    • Authors: F. Hernández; L.I. Lindström, E. Parodi, M. Poverene, A. Presotto
      Abstract: Hybridisation between crops and their wild relatives may promote the evolution of weeds. Seed germination and dormancy are the earliest life-history traits and are highly influenced by the maternal parent. However, the ecological role of the maternal effect on seed traits in the evolution of crop–wild hybrids has received little attention. In this study, we test the relative importance of maternal and hybridisation effects on seed traits of the first generation of crop–wild sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus). Seed germination was tested in two wild populations with contrasting dormancy, two cultivated materials and their reciprocal crosses at four different times after harvest and three different temperatures. Seed germination at each of the four times, after ripening response and secondary dormancy were recorded along with four morphological traits. Additionally, the pericarp anatomy was analysed with light and scanning electron microscopy. We observed strong maternal effects on all seed traits. Seed germination, morphology and pericarp anatomy differed largely between the crop and wild seeds and these traits in the crop–wild hybrids resembled their female parent. Slight but significant hybridisation effects were observed in germination, mainly in seeds produced on wild plants. Crop hybridisation changed seed germination, the after ripening response and secondary dormancy in the crop direction. Morphological and anatomical traits associated with domestication strongly correlated with the observed differences in seed germination and dormancy in crop–wild sunflower hybrids. The large maternal effects along with the evolutionary divergence in seed traits were responsible for the large phenotypic differences observed in crop–wild hybrids with the same genetic composition. Wild-like seed traits of hybrids suggest that there are no barriers to crop gene introgression at the seed level whereas crop-like seed traits could be strongly selected against, conditioning the selection of traits expressed later in the life cycle and in the next generations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T00:35:35.230304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12368
  • Seed treatment with selected plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria
           increases maize yield in the field
    • Authors: G. Breedt; N. Labuschagne, T.A. Coutinho
      Abstract: Maize, Zea mays is the most important grain crop in South Africa and is a staple food in many African countries. The beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on crop growth and yield have been well documented, but obtaining reproducible results under field conditions is often difficult. In the current study, five selected rhizobacterial strains that showed plant growth-promoting activities in pilot studies were evaluated for potential enhancement of maize yield under field conditions. The five strains together with a commercial standard were assessed as seed treatments of maize over three seasons in four different soil types. The strains were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing as Lysinibacillus sphaericus (T19), Paenibacillus alvei (T29), Bacillus safensis (S7) Bacillus pumilus (A26) and Brevundimonas vesicularis (A40). The best yield increases in maize were obtained during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons in the Shortlands ecotope with the rhizobacterial strains T19, T29 and S7, resulting in yield increases ranging from 24% to 34%. Strain T19 rendered the most consistent yield increases during the three successive field trials amounting to 33% and 24% in Shortlands ecotope and 12% in Clovalley ecotope, respectively. During 2013/2014 a consortium of three strains, viz. T19, S7 and A26 gave a 32% yield increase in Clovalley ecotope. All the rhizobacterial strains solubilised phosphate in vitro except T19. Strain T29 showed the best nitrogen-fixing activity in vitro, proliferating on a nitrogen-free substrate and also producing ammonia. All the strains tested positive for indole acetic acid production. The current study demonstrates the ability of rhizobacterial strains T19, T29, S7 and A26 applied as seed treatments to significantly enhance maize yield in the field, making development and commercialisation of these strains a viable option.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T00:35:21.83683-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12366
  • A discussion on disease severity index values. Part I: warning on inherent
           errors and suggestions to maximise accuracy
    • Authors: K.S. Chiang; H.I. Liu, C.H. Bock
      Abstract: A special type of ordinal scale comprising a number of intervals of known numeric ranges can be used when estimating severity of a plant disease. The interval ranges are most often based on the percent area with symptoms [e.g. the Horsfall–Barratt (H–B) scale]. Studies in plant pathology and plant breeding often use this type of ordinal scale. The disease severity is estimated by a rater as a value on the scale and has been used to determine a disease severity index (DSI) on a percentage basis, where DSI (%) = [sum (class frequency × score of rating class)]/[(total number of plants) × (maximal disease index)] × 100. However, very few studies have investigated the effects of different scales on accuracy of the DSI. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the process of calculating a DSI on a percentage basis from ordinal scale data, and to use simulation approaches to explore the effect of using different methods for calculation of the interval range and the nature of the ordinal scales used on the DSI estimates (%). We found that the DSI is particularly prone to overestimation when using the above formula if the midpoint values of the rating class are not considered. Moreover, the results of the simulation studies show that, if rater estimates are unbiased, compared with other methods tested in this study, the most accurate method for estimation of a DSI is to use the midpoint of the severity range for each class with an amended 10% ordinal scale (an ordinal scale based on a 10% linear scale emphasising severities ≤50% disease, with additional grades at low severities). As for biased conditions, the accuracy for calculating DSI estimates (%) will depend mainly on the degree and direction of the rater bias relative to the actual mean value.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T03:20:39.04349-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12362
  • Persistence of transgenes in wild rice populations depends on the
           interaction between genetic background of recipients and environmental
    • Authors: S.S. Dong; M.Q. Xiao, D.X. Ouyang, J. Rong, B.-R. Lu, J. Su, F. Wang, J.K. Chen, Z.-P. Song
      Abstract: The persistence of transgenes in wild populations may cause unintended ecological consequences, and the possibility of transgenes' persistence and introgression is dependent on fitness performance of transgenic crop–wild hybrids. To investigate the effects of transgene and genotype × environment on the fitness of crop–wild rice hybrids, a total of 11 cross-combination progenies between insect-resistant transgene (CpTI and Bt/CpTI) rice lines and wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were evaluated at different sites with contrasting insect treatments. The results showed that fitness performance varied between transgenic hybrids having different wild parents and under different environmental conditions, indicating that fitness effects of transgenes on hybrid progenies depend heavily on the genetic background of recipient plants and growing environment. Significant fitness advantages conferred by transgenes were found only in some hybrids under high insect pressure condition, demonstrating that the level of target insects in the field environment influences the persistence and spread of insect-resistant transgenes in wild rice populations. These findings suggest that evolutionary fate of escaped transgenes is different in wild populations with diverse genetic backgrounds under various environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T02:50:28.325977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12365
  • Probability distributions for marketable pods and white mould on snap bean
    • Authors: D.A. Shah; H.R. Dillard, S.J. Pethybridge
      Abstract: White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most recalcitrant diseases of snap bean. Probability distributions suitable for describing the total number of marketable pods (hereafter simply referred to as pods) per plant, as well as for the number of pods and stems with white mould per plant, have not been identified. The total number of pods and the number of pods and stems with white mould were measured on a per plant basis in plots of processing snap bean (var. Hystyle) in New York. The total number of pods per plant ranged from 0 to 29, and was best described by the Pólya-Aeppli distribution. The number of pods and the number of stems with white mould per plant were well-described by the negative binomial (NB) distribution. A Sarmanov bivariate distribution with NB marginals was derived and fitted to the joint data on the number of pods and stems with white mould per plant, accounting for correlation between pods and stems with white mould on the same plant. The bivariate distribution was used to formulate an empirical equation for the incidence of plants with white mould as a function of the average number of pods and stems with white mould per plant. The results represented a more complete understanding of the distributional properties of white mould in snap bean.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:11:24.960644-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12363
  • Ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid mitigates salt-stress damages in
           strawberry by interfering with effects on the plant ionome
    • Authors: R. Aslantas; I. Angin, M. Kose, N. Bernstein
      Abstract: This study evaluated the hypothesis that the organic chelant ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS) mitigates plant damage under salinity, and that this is accomplished by EDDS-induced effects on cation uptake. Damaging effects of salinity on plants often involve inhibited uptake of nutritional cations, such as K and Ca, and excessive accumulation of Na. Therefore, mechanisms that improve uptake of K and Ca, or reduce Na uptake, have a potential for ameliorating salinity damages. Organic chelants increase heavy-metal cation availability at the site of uptake and increase their uptake by the roots or in planta transport. Although organic chelants are routinely used in agriculture to enhance uptake of heavy-metal cations into plants, and for soil bioremediation, their effect on uptake of cation-macronutrients is not known, and neither is their impact on plant function under salinity. In this study, we evaluated the response of strawberry plants to EDDS application (0, 1, 3 and 5 mmol kg soil−1), under six levels of NaCl (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 mmol L−1). EDDS application under salinity improved vegetative development, as well as reproductive growth and chlorophyll content, with statistically significant interaction between chelant dosage and level of salinity. The mitigation of salinity damage by EDDS occurred at high salinity treatments (from 9 mM NaCl). Application rates of 1–3 mmol EDDS kg−1 were optimal for mitigating salinity effects on reproductive development, but in accordance with the extent of chelant-induced accumulation of the macronutrients K, Ca and P in the leaves, higher application rates (3–5 mmol EDDS kg−1) were required for optimal improvement of vegetative development. These results suggest that EDDS improves plant function under mild salinities by interfering with salinity effects on the plant ionome.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T03:40:29.654703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12364
  • Effects of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 on the physiology in
           asymptomatic plants of Vitis vinifera
    • Authors: R. Montero; H. El aou ouad, D. Pacifico, C. Marzachì, N. Castillo, E. García, N.F. Del Saz, I. Florez-Sarasa, J. Flexas, J. Bota
      Abstract: Grapevine leafroll disease is one of the most important viral diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is the most predominant virus species causing this disease. Therefore, it is important to identify GLRaV-3 effects, especially in plants which do not systematically show visual symptoms. In this study, effects of GLRaV-3 on grapevine physiology were evaluated in asymptomatic plants of Malvasía de Banyalbufar and Cabernet Sauvignon cvs. Absolute virus quantification was performed in order to determine the level of infection of the treatment. The net carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation (AN) and electron transport rate (Jflux) were the main parameters affected by the virus. The AN reduction in infected plants was attributed to restrictions in CO2 diffusion caused by anatomical leaf changes and a reduction of Rubisco activity. Those effects were more evident in Malvasia de Banyalbufar plants. The reduction of AN leads to a decrease in the total oxygen uptake rate by the activity of the cytochrome oxidase pathway, producing slight differences in plant growth. Therefore, even though no symptoms were expressed in the plants, the effects of the virus compromised the plant vital processes, showing the importance of early detection of the virus in order to fight against the infection.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T03:41:11.103456-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12356
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