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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Annals of Applied Biology
  [SJR: 0.816]   [H-I: 56]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4746 - ISSN (Online) 1744-7348
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Phenological growth stages of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
           according to the extended BBCH scale
    • Authors: Kundan Kishore
      Abstract: Jackfruit, the largest known edible fruit bearing tree, is one of the important fruit crops of India. It exhibits wide range of diversity with respect to fruit character and bulb quality. It is an important component of homestead garden because of its multifarious uses (dessert, vegetable and pickle) and high nutritive value. In spite of high food value and market potential, jackfruit is one of the poorly researched crops and there is a dearth of information about its phenology. The present study defines phenological stages of jackfruit according to the extended BBCH (Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie) scale using three-digit numerical system. Eight principal growth stages, namely bud development (stage 0), shoot development (stage 1), leaf development (stage 3), specialised reproductive shoot development (stage 4), reproductive development (stage 5), flowering (stage 6), fruit development (stage 7) and fruit maturation (stage 8) have been described. A total of 42 secondary growth stages have been described and defined. In this study, bearing and non-bearing footstalks as well as male and female phases have been defined separately. The study will act as an effective tool for providing a consensual unified approach for standardisation of phenophases, as well as for efficient orchard management for ensuring higher yield and fruit quality. The scale may also be effectively used for characterisation and adaptation of germplasm and assessment of climatic impact on crop phenology.Phenological growth stages of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) according to the extended BBCH scale.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15T01:01:15.541946-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12427
  • Development and application of a simple, rapid and sensitive method for
           detecting moderately carbendazim-resistant isolates in Botrytis cinerea
    • Authors: Y.B. Duan; Y. Yang, M.X. Li, T. Li, B.A. Fraaije, M.G. Zhou
      Abstract: Sustainable disease management depends on the ability to monitor the development of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. A point mutation resulting in an alteration (F200Y) at codon 200 of the target protein β-tubulin leads to a moderate level of resistance to carbendazim in Botrytis cinerea. Although traditional methods remain a cornerstone in detection of fungicide resistance, molecular methods that do not require the isolation of pathogens, can detect the presence of resistance alleles at low frequencies, and require less time and labour than traditional methods. In this study, we present an efficient, rapid, and highly specific method for detecting the moderately carbendazim-resistant isolates in B. cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). By using specific LAMP primers, we detected the resistance-conferring mutation underlying β-tubulin F200Y. The concentrations of LAMP components and LAMP parameters were optimised, resulting in reaction temperatures and times of 61–65°C and 45 min, respectively. The feasibility of the LAMP assay was verified by assaying the diseased samples with artificial inoculation in the different hosts. The LAMP assay developed in the current study was specific, stable, repeatable and sensitive, and was successfully applied for detection of moderately carbendazim-resistant isolates of B. cinerea in plant samples.A point mutation resulting in an alteration (F200Y) at codon 200 of the target protein β-tubulin leads to a moderate level of resistance to carbendazim in Botrytis cinerea. We developed a novel molecular technique for detecting the moderately carbendazim-resistant isolates in B. cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). This LAMP assay was specific, stable, repeatable, and sensitive and was successfully applied for detection of moderately carbendazim resistant isolates of B. cinerea in plant samples.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13T04:26:13.929646-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12426
  • Growth, development, and biomass partitioning of the perennial grain crop
           Thinopyrum intermedium
    • Authors: J.M. Jungers; C.S. Frahm, N.E. Tautges, N.J. Ehlke, M.S. Wells, D.L. Wyse, C.C. Sheaffer
      Abstract: Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) is a perennial grass that is being domesticated and improved for use as a grain crop. As a perennial grain crop, intermediate wheatgrass has the potential to produce economically viable, food-grade grain while providing environmental benefits such as reduced erosion and nitrate leaching. To guide agronomic activities for this new crop, more information on intermediate wheatgrass growth and development is needed. We sampled plants every 3–5 days throughout the growing season at three environments to measure growth and development in response to accumulating growing degree days (GDD). A numerical growth index was used to quantify morphological development. Growth index, plant height, biomass, height of the tallest node, and biomass partitioning to leaf, stem, and inflorescence were modelled as a function of GDD. We predicted dates (in GDD and day of the year) for critical morphological events as they relate to grain crop production using model equations. The fraction of total biomass allocated to leaves decreased and stems increased in response to GDD, and both components represented equal proportions of aboveground biomass at plant maturity. Growth and development was similar across environments, but variation in yield components (e.g., 50 seed weight, seed mass inflorescence−1) was observed. Our results provide the first quantification of growth and development of intermediate wheatgrass, and have application to growers seeking to determine optimal timing of agronomic practices, as well as crop modellers working to integrate new crops into simulation models. As intermediate wheatgrass expands as a perennial grain crop, growth and development should be measured in a broader range of temperature and precipitation conditions.Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG; Thinopyrum intermedium) is a perennial grass that is being domesticated and improved for use as a grain crop. We measured IWG throughout the growing season and developed models to estimate growth, biomass allocation to aboveground structures, and seed moisture in response to accumulating growing degree days. A numerical growth index was used to quantify morphological development.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12T04:10:34.418478-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12425
  • Rhizobacteria improve sugarcane growth and photosynthesis under
           well-watered conditions
    • Authors: P.E. Rampazzo; F.C.C. Marcos, M.A.P. Cipriano, P.E.R. Marchiori, S.S. Freitas, E.C. Machado, L.C. Nascimento, M. Brocchi, R.V. Ribeiro
      Abstract: Morpho-physiological changes caused by particular plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria were evaluated in sugarcane plants under varying water availability. Under well-watered conditions, we have found one rhizobacteria isolate (IAC-RBcr5) able to enhance root dry matter and photosynthesis of sugarcane plants. The IAC-RBcr5 genome was sequenced and high similarity was found with Pseudomonas putida GB-1. Based on increased root system size of inoculated plants, we hypothesised that sugarcane plants inoculated with IAC-RBcr5 would have improved performance under water deficit. Although IAC-RBcr5 had improved plant leaf CO2 assimilation under water shortage, inoculation caused reduction of biomass accumulation in sugarcane. The negative influence of water deficit on shoot growth rate and root traits such as volume, area, diameter, length and specific root area was higher in plants treated with IAC-RBcr5 as compared to non-inoculated ones. However, rhizobacteria-induced improvements in leaf and root proline contents would represent a strategy for storing carbon and nitrogen during low water availability and helping both organisms to resume their metabolism after rehydration. In conclusion, we found and identified a rhizobacterium able to improve growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane plants. Such benefit for plant growth was lost under low water availability as a likely consequence of increased carbon-energy demand by rhizobacteria and their sensitivity to drought.Sugarcane photosynthesis was improved when IAC-RBcr5 was inoculated in root substrate. Further analyses revealed high similarity between IAC-RBcr5 and Pseudomonas putida GB-1.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:27:02.779031-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12421
  • Dryland management regimes alter forest habitats and understory arthropod
    • Authors: S.N. Johnson; G. Lopaticki, T.J. Aslam, K. Barnett, A. Frew, S.E. Hartley, I. Hiltpold, U.N. Nielsen, J.M.W. Ryalls
      Abstract: Dryland forests, those characterised as having low precipitation and soil nutrients, account for over a quarter of forests globally. Increasing their productivity often relies on irrigation and fertilisation, but the impacts on the wider habitat are largely unknown. Understory invertebrates, in particular, play key roles in forest systems (e.g. nutrient cycling), but their responses to dryland forest management practices are untested. We investigated the impacts of irrigation, fertilisation and a combination of both on soil chemistry, understory vegetation, tree growth and understory arthropod communities in a Eucalyptus plantation to establish linkages between dryland management and ecosystem responses. Fertilisation increased all soil nutrients (N, NO3N, P and K) with similar effects on the chemical composition of understory grasses. Fertilisation also caused declines in foliar silicon concentrations, an important herbivore defence in grasses. Irrigation increased growth of both understory plants (+90%) and trees (+68%). Irrigation increased the abundance of ground-dwelling arthropods by over 480% relative to control plots, but depressed higher level taxon arthropod diversity by 15%, declining by a further 7% (−22%) in combined treatment plots. Irrigation also caused a surge in the abundance of Collembola (+1300%) and Isopoda (+323%). Fertilisation drove increases in the abundance of Isopoda (+196%) and Diptera (+63%), whereas fertilisation combined with irrigation increased populations of Thysanoptera (+166%) and Acarina (+328%). Airborne arthropods were less affected, but fertilisation increased the abundance of Apocrita (+95%) and depressed populations of Thysanoptera (−77%). Diptera abundance was positively related to understory vegetation growth, whereas the abundance of other groups (Collembola, Isopoda, Thysanoptera and Acarina) correlated positively with tree growth. We proposed that the large increases in populations of key detritivores, Collembola and Isopoda, were linked to increased leaf litter from enhanced tree growth in irrigated and combined treatment plots. Our findings suggest that dryland management can increase both plant productivity and abundance of arthropods, but cause arthropod diversity at the higher taxon level to decline overall.Summary of habitat and arthropod profiles of woodland exposed to (B) fertilisation, (C) irrigation and (D) both treatments. Invertebrates scaled to reflect abundance.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23T02:35:47.522286-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12419
  • The ecophysiology of apple snails in rice: implications for crop
           management and policy
    • Authors: F.G. Horgan
      Abstract: This review relates the ecology and physiology of apple snails (Ampullariidae) to their impact on rice-production systems. Two species in particular, Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata, have been introduced to several rice-growing regions. Flooded rice systems represent a high-quality habitat for these apple snails because of similarities in the environmental conditions (water temperature, salinity, pH, water flow velocity) necessary for both rice production and for snail survival and development. Furthermore, amphibious respiration, a capacity to aestivate during dry periods, as well as cold acclimation and tolerance (particularly in P. canaliculata), increases the resilience of apple snails to rice farming practices, including agrochemical applications, intermittent drainage and crop rotations – under a wide range of climatic conditions. Risks to regional rice production depend on four principal factors: these are (a) regional climate, (b) regional rice-production systems, (c) prevailing production practices, and (4) the presence/absence of invasive, non-native apple snails. Based on these criteria, lowland irrigated rice in tropical and subtropical regions that is wet-direct seeded is most vulnerable to damage from both native and non-native apple snails (albeit with greater losses from non-native snails because of normally higher densities). Adequate quarantine regulations, particularly in vulnerable tropical regions that are adjacent to centres of recent outbreaks (e.g. India and Bangladesh adjacent to Myanmar, Peru and Colombia adjacent to Ecuador) and attention to the preparedness of farming systems could reduce potential impacts as these highly invasive snails continue to spread. The urgent development of labour-saving crop-establishment methods that reduce dependencies on chemical molluscicides is necessary to achieve sustainable rice production in regions at risk from non-native apple snails.Apple snail damage potential under varying conditions
      PubDate: 2018-02-23T02:28:55.764558-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12424
  • Reflectance and biochemical responses of maize plants to drought and
           re-watering cycles
    • Authors: C.X. Sun; C.C. Li, C.Y. Zhang, L.Y. Hao, M. Song, W. Liu, Y.L. Zhang
      Abstract: The ability to recover from drought stress after re-watering is an important feature that will enable plants to cope with the predicted increase in episodic drought. The effects of pre-drought and re-watering conditions on leaf spectral properties and their relationships with the biochemical processes that underlie the recovery from pre-drought conditions should be better understood. The reflectance spectra, 10 spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) and biochemical characteristics of maize (Zea mays) leaves were monitored 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the initiation of soil drought stress during two successive cycles of drought and re-watering periods. The leaf reflectance of the two inbred maize lines increased under the drought stress, especially in the visible spectral range. In addition, an obvious recovery of the leaf reflectance was only observed in the first re-watering period, and its value remained higher than that of the control plants during the second recovery period. A recovery lag in the pigment contents was also observed during the second cycle. The recovery variations in the pattern and magnitude of the SRIs and the total contents of C, N and P that were measured in response to the re-watering during both cycles were diverse and complex; both full and partial recoveries were observed. The SRIs representing different physiological attributes of plant growth, including the water index, red edge position, photochemical reflectance index and near-infrared reflectance at 800 nm, showed strong linear relationships (P 
      PubDate: 2018-02-22T04:30:43.696601-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12423
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:13.496939-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12391
  • Intraguild interactions between two biological control agents in citrus
           fruit: implications for biological control of medfly
    • Authors: J. Tormos; F. Beitia, J.D. Asís, L. de Pedro
      Abstract: The parasitoid wasp Spalangia cameroni and the predatory beetle Pseudoophonus rufipes have long been studied for use as biological control agents against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, particularly in citrus fruit orchards. Nevertheless, these two species of natural enemies, when competing for a common resource, may experience intraguild predation (IGP) interactions. These possible interactions, affecting parasitism and predation, have been evaluated in the present work, under laboratory conditions, through potential changes in functional response. Regarding host/prey density, both natural enemies, when acting alone, showed a type II functional response. Nevertheless, due to IGP, S. cameroni, in the presence of P. rufipes, showed a higher fertility rate and a type III functional response. The parasitism behaviour of S. cameroni was affected by the presence of the predator, reducing the host handling time. Conversely, the parasitism rate of S. cameroni did not vary in the presence of P. rufipes but the degree of superparasitism decreased and led to an increased fertility rate and an increasingly female-biased sex ratio. Meanwhile, the predatory efficiency of P. rufipes was not affected by the presence of S. cameroni but discrimination between parasitised and unparasitised pupae of C. capitata, with a preference for the latter, was reported for this predator species. Our results suggest that in biological control programmes, the use of only one of these species is recommended at low infestation levels, whilst at high densities of the pest, the combination of both natural enemies seems to be the most appropriate strategy.Functional response curve fit by non-linear least-squares regression of fertilised Spalangia cameroni females infesting Ceratitis capitata pupae and sharing the experimental unit with Pseudoophonus rufipes adults predating C. capitata pupae (type III). Host density: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 20, 30 or 40 pupae per fertilised S. cameroni female (one or three) and P. rufipes adult (one or three) (both natural enemies exposed together in the same experimental unit) and day. For host densities above 40, values are shown in grey as they are an extrapolation beyond recorded data.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:04:44.976194-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12422
  • A nodule endophytic Bacillus megaterium strain isolated from Medicago
           polymorpha enhances growth, promotes nodulation by Ensifer medicae and
           alleviates salt stress in alfalfa plants
    • Authors: A. Chinnaswamy; T. Coba de la Peña, A. Stoll, D. de la Peña Rojo, J. Bravo, A. Rincón, M.M. Lucas, J.J. Pueyo
      Abstract: A Gram-positive, fast-growing, endophytic bacterium was isolated from root nodules of Medicago polymorpha and identified as Bacillus megaterium. The isolate, named NMp082, co-inhabited nodules with the symbiotic rhizobium Ensifer medicae. B. megaterium NMp082 contained nifH and nodD genes that were 100% identical to those of Ensifer meliloti, an unusual event that suggested previous lateral gene transfer from a different rhizobial species. Despite the presence of nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes, the endophyte was not able to form effective nodules; however, it induced nodule-like unorganised structures in alfalfa roots. Axenic inoculation promoted plant growth in M. polymorpha, Medicago lupulina, Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa, and co-inoculation with E. medicae enhanced growth and nodulation of Medicago spp. plants compared with inoculation with either bacterium alone. B. megaterium NMp082 also induced tolerance to salt stress in alfalfa and Arabidopsis plants. The ability to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity displayed by the endophyte in vitro might explain the observed plant growth promotion and salt stress alleviation. The isolate was also highly tolerant to salt stress, water deficit and to the presence of different heavy metals. The newly characterised endophytic bacterium possessed specific characteristics that point at potential applications to sustain plant growth and nodulation under abiotic stress.A Gram-positive, fast-growing, endophytic bacterium was isolated from root nodules of Medicago polymorpha and identified as Bacillus megaterium. Despite the presence of nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes, the endophyte was not able to form effective nodules, but it induced nodule-like unorganized structures in alfalfa roots. The isolate was highly tolerant to salt stress, water deficit and heavy metals, and displayed plant growth-promoting activities. Inoculation with the endophyte enhanced growth, promoted nodulation by Ensifer medicae and alleviated salt stress in alfalfa plants, pointing at potential applications to sustain plant growth and nodulation under abiotic stress.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:01:56.924456-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12420
  • Identification and characterisation of antixenosis and antibiosis to pea
           aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in Pisum spp. germplasm
    • Authors: T. Aznar-Fernández; D. Rubiales
      Abstract: Acyrthosiphon pisum is a polyphagous aphid of major importance on the pea crop to which few resistant cultivars are available. In this study, we screened a germplasm collection of Pisum spp. under field conditions over two seasons yielding the identification of a number of accessions with intermediate levels of resistance. Selected accessions were further studied under semi-controlled and controlled conditions in no choice and choice assays to validate the responses, and to further characterise the mechanisms of resistance operative. Results elucidated the valuable resistance of accession P40 (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum) and P665 (P. sativum ssp. syriacum), with the combination of both antixenosis, by reducing aphid preference, and antibiosis, by diminishing aphid proliferation.Acyrthosiphum pisum is a polyphagous aphid of major importance on pea crop to which little resistant cultivars are available. A germplasm collection of Pisum spp. was screened under field conditions over two seasons. Selected accessions were further studied under controlled and semi-controlled conditions in dual choice and no choice assays corroborating field data and elucidating the combination of antixenosis (no preference) and antibiosis (hamper aphid reproduction) mechanism in two accessions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14T02:42:47.021616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12417
  • Phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose Mediterranean shrub
           (Cistus monspeliensis): codification and description according to the BBCH
    • Authors: A. Piga; P. Duce, C. Cesaraccio
      Abstract: Shrubland species are important vegetation component resulting from the degradation of Mediterranean forests due to anthropic activities, and constitute the first step of soil covering process subsequent to disturbances such as fire, grazing and deforestation. They represent interesting case studies for their adaptability to challenging climate and soil conditions, and for their potential use in the protection and enhancement of biodiversity. Montpelier Rock-Rose (Cistus monspeliensis) is a shrubland species growing widespread around the Mediterranean Basin. It is a drought semi-deciduous species well adapted to cope to the particularly severe climate conditions of this area. The BBCH scale is widely adopted throughout the world for the description of growth developmental stages of several economically important crops but a detailed description of the phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose has never been developed. In this work, the description of the phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose according to the BBCH scale was provided. The description is supplemented by images of principal phenological stages. This work might contribute to a better understanding of the life cycles of Mediterranean shrubland species, providing a useful tool for supporting studies on the responses of shrubs to the seasonal changes due to climate warming.Phenological diagram and illustration of the main phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose according to BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie) scale system, based on phenological stages observed during two growing seasons (2010–12) at Capo Caccia site (Italy). Shrubland species are important vegetation component of Mediterranean Basin representing interesting case studies for their adaptability to challenging climate and soil conditions. Montpelier Rock-Rose (Cistus monspeliensis L.) is a drought semi-deciduous species well adapted to cope to the particularly severe climate conditions of this area. In this work, the description of the phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose according to the BBCH scale was provided. This work might contribute to a better understanding of the life cycles of Mediterranean shrubland species, supporting studies on their responses to the seasonal changes due to climate warming.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14T02:36:17.211332-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12418
  • Growth promotion and root colonisation in pepper plants by
           phosphate-solubilising Chryseobacterium sp. strain ISE14 that suppresses
           Phytophthora blight
    • Authors: M.K. Sang; J.-J. Jeong, J. Kim, K.D. Kim
      Abstract: Previously, we selected bacterial strain ISE14 through a sequential selection procedure that included radicle, seedling, and in planta assays and field tests. This strain not only suppressed a destructive soilborne disease, Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici but also increased fruit yields of pepper plants in the fields. This study was conducted to identify strain ISE14 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and to characterise biocontrol and plant growth promotion activities of the strain in pepper plants. Strain ISE14, identified as Chryseobacterium sp., significantly reduced disease severity in plants inoculated with Ph. capsici and promoted plant growth (lengths and dry weights of shoots and roots) compared with those in plants treated with Escherichia coli DH5α (negative control) or MgSO4 solution (untreated control). This strain effectively colonised pepper plant roots as assessed by bacterial population analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy; it enhanced soil microbial activity and biofilm formation, but not the production of indole acetic acid. Strain ISE14 also solubilised organic or inorganic phosphate by production of acid and alkaline phosphatases or reduction in pH, resulting in enhanced pepper plant growth. This strain exhibited similar or greater activity in disease control and plant growth promotion tests compared with positive control strains Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (biocontrol) and Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 (plant growth). Therefore, Chryseobacterium sp. ISE14 may be a phosphate-solubilising and plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) strain that suppresses Phytophthora blight of pepper. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphate-solubilising PGPR strain of Chryseobacterium sp. that suppresses the pepper disease.Confocal laser scanning micrographs of pepper (cv. ‘Nockwang’) roots colonised by gfp-tagged bacterial strains: (a) Escherichia coli DH5α (negative control); (b) Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 (positive control for plant growth); (c) Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (positive control for biocontrol); and (d) Chryseobacterium sp. ISE14 at 0, 3 and 7 days after treatment (DAT) in a gnotobiotic system. No green fluorescence was observed in roots treated with 10 mM MgSO4 solution (untreated control).
      PubDate: 2018-02-09T02:51:00.429839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12413
  • Grafting influence on the weight and quality of tomato fruit under salt
    • Authors: I. Koleška; D. Hasanagić, V. Todorović, S. Murtić, I. Maksimović
      Abstract: Two commercial tomato cultivars were used to determine whether grafting could prevent decrease of fruit weight and quality under salt stress conditions. The cultivars Buran F1 and Berberana F1 were grafted onto rootstock ‘Maxifort’ and grown under three levels of elevated soil salinity (EC 3.80 dS m−1, 6.95 dS m−1 and 9.12 dS m−1). Fruit weight reduction of grafted plants was lower (about 20–30%) in comparison with non-grafted ones. Salt stress at the second salinity level (EC 6.95 dS m−1) induced the highest alteration of examined growth and quality parameters. The total increase of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate and lycopene content in the fruits of both grafted and non-grafted plants for both cultivars had a similar trend and intensity, though some inter-cultivar variation was observed. The possibility of grafting tomato plants to improve salt tolerance without fruit quality loss is discussed.Grafting influence on the weight and quality of tomato fruitunder salt stress.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T01:15:29.327534-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12411
  • Pecan phenology in Southeastern China
    • Authors: M. Han; F. Peng, P. Marshall
      Abstract: Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is heterodicogamous, which often leads to unstable yield of its nut crops. Relating pecan orchard management to the phenological stage of the trees is the key to increasing yields; however, describing morphology alone does not lead to an orchard management system that is simple and practical. In this work, we extend the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie) coding method to describe the morphology of the protogynous Mahan pecan cultivar over two consecutive years in southern China. Eight main growth stages, from vegetative bud dormancy to fruit harvest, were described and each phenological period was photographed. Pecan orchard management activities were listed for each stage in pecan BBCH scale to allow orchard managers to better manage their trees. This codification will facilitate breeding, conservation of genetic resources and general orchard management of this commercial crop. As well, recording the dates of various morphological stages over time will allow the influence of global climate change on pecan development to be tracked.Progression of pecan principal growth stages (PGS) and average monthly temperatures and monthly rainfall related to the BBCH scale in southern China.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T02:41:51.426083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12408
  • Input data needed for a risk model for the entry, establishment and spread
           of a pathogen (Phomopsis vaccinii) of blueberries and cranberries in the
    • Authors: A.H.C. van Bruggen; J.S. West, W. van der Werf, R.P.J. Potting, C. Gardi, I. Koufakis, V.V. Zelenev, H. Narouei-Khandan, A. Schilder, P. Harmon
      Pages: 126 - 147
      Abstract: International trade in live plant materials has increased worldwide over the last four decades. This has led to a dramatic increase in the introduction, establishment and spread of non-native plant pathogens. Regulatory authorities need advice on measures that may mitigate these adverse consequences of trade. Risk models may be used to underpin such advice. In this review, we give a systematic overview of the data needed for a quantitative risk model for Phomopsis vaccinii, which causes stem and fruit infections on Vaccinium species, and sometimes death, potentially also on native wild Vaccinium species in the EU. P. vaccinii is a quarantine organism worldwide, except for North America, where it is endemic. Despite extensive knowledge of the aetiology of the diseases caused by this pathogen and its taxonomy, quantitative data on transportation and detection of infected plants for planting and berries are scarce, and quantitative assessment of the future introduction, establishment and spread of P. vaccinii is difficult. Estimation of the potential impact of this pathogen in production fields and wild Vaccinium stands is even more difficult. P. vaccinii is not unique in this respect, and this review indicates the need for more and better quantitative data for assessment of the risks posed by newly introduced plant pathogens in areas where they are not endemic.Overview of assessment for Diaporthe vaccinii.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:13.661013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12414
  • Identification and characterisation of RNA editing sites in chloroplast
           transcripts of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum)
    • Authors: F. Kumbhar; X. Nie, G. Xing, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, S. Wang, S. Weining
      Pages: 197 - 207
      Abstract: RNA editing is a biological process that the RNA molecule occurred base change or modification to result in the change of genetic information at the post-transcription level, which played the vital roles in plant growth and development as well as in response to diverse stresses. To understand the composition and characteristic of chloroplast RNA editing patterns in einkorn wheat, the progenitor of wheat A subgenome, we systematically predicted and identified the RNA editing sites in plastome of three einkorn wheat species using bioinformatics analysis combined with RT-PCR method. A total of 33 sites distributed in 15 genes, 34 in 15 genes and 33 in 14 genes were predicted in Triticum urartu, Triticum boeoticum and Triticum monococcum, respectively, all of which were C to U conversion and most of them could be validated by RNA-seq data. Furthermore, all of the predicted editing sites were validated experimentally in T. urartu. Totally, 24 sites were found to be consistent with the prediction. The secondary structure and transmembrane domains of these five transcripts with the most abundant editing sites were further investigated. The results showed that the secondary structures of all five genes were changed, together with the transmembrane domains of ndhB were also altered as the result of editing, suggesting that RNA editing could have impact on the biological function of target genes. Finally, comparative analysis of the RNA editing patterns among Triticum species was performed to identify the conserved and species-specific editing sites. This study reported the chloroplast RNA editing in einkorn wheat, which laid the foundation for further study on the biological function of chloroplast RNA editing in wheat, and also provided the important information to reveal the origin and evolution of wheat from the perspective of RNA editing.RNA editing sites in chloroplast transcript of three einkorn wheat species were identified using bioinformatics analysis and experimental method. RNA editing altered the secondary structures of the target protein to result in biological effect. The conserved and species-specific editing sites were found through comparative analysis of einkorn wheat and other Triticum species.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:15.22369-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12412
  • Removal of early fruit branches triggered regulations in senescence, boll
           attributes and yield of Bt cotton genotypes
    • Authors: M.F. Saleem; M. Shahid, A. Shakoor, M.A. Wahid, S.A. Anjum, M. Awais
      Pages: 224 - 235
      Abstract: Premature senescence, unopened and rotted bolls are the primary constrictions hampering the accomplishment of yield potential in Bt cotton. An experiment was conducted with the objectives to delay senescence, enhance boll opening and reduce the boll rotting. The experiment was conducted at two randomly selected sites of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2015 and repeated in 2016. Each experiment was laid out in randomised complete block design with two by two factorial arrangement structure and replicated five times. Treatments were comprised of R0 = no fruit removal; R1 = removal of early fruit branches (REFB) and two genotypes, viz. V1 = FH-142 and V2 = MNH-886. Genotypes were selected on the basis of abiotic stress tolerance (FH-142) and susceptibility (MNH-886). Nodes above cracked bolls, monopodial branches, opened bolls per plant and seed cotton yield were enhanced by 23, 12, 13 and 17%, respectively, under the influence of REFB over no fruit branch removal, while the REFB-mediated decrease in boll rotting was 27%. Moreover, the response of MNH-886 was more remarkable than FH-142 for all studied variables. Conclusively, REFB increased the number of nodes above a cracked boll, monopodial branches, opened bolls per plant and seed cotton yield while decreased rotted bolls per plant in both genotypes.Bad boll opening owing to early senescence and rotted bolls are chief hindrances to accomplish yield potential in cotton. The present study was aimed to delay the senescence and thus enhance the number of opened bolls and decrease the number of rotted bolls in cotton genotypes using removal of early fruit branches (REFB) as potential regulator of boll opening. Removal of two early fruit branches enhanced number of opened bolls, decreased rotted bolls, delayed the senescence and ultimately improved seed cotton yield in varying cotton genotypes compared to control.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:14.289019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12415
  • Biochemical response between insects and plants: an investigation of
           enzyme activity in the digestive system of Leucoptera coffeella
           (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) and leaves of Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) after
    • Authors: Y. Meriño-Cabrera; J.C. Zanuncio, R.S. da Silva, M. Solis-Vargas, G. Cordeiro, F.R. Rainha, W.G. Campos, M.C. Picanço, M.G. de Almeida Oliveira
      Pages: 236 - 243
      Abstract: Plant defence mechanisms can reduce the digestive enzyme activity of insect pests. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the production of proteinase inhibitors, lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase activity in Coffea arabica (Catuai IAC 15) plants, and the digestive enzyme activity in the pest Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) after feeding on the plant. The production of proteinase inhibitors was evaluated with L-BApNA as a substrate. We studied lipoxygenase activity with linoleic acid and polyphenol oxidase activity with catechol substrates, in coffee plants damaged (T1) and not damaged (T2) by L. coffeella. L. coffeella digestive enzyme activity was verified by trypsin-like (substrate l-BApNA and l-TAME), chymotrypsin-like (BTpNA and ATEE), cysteine proteases (l-BApNA) and total protease (azocasein). Proteinase inhibitor production and lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase activity in C. arabica increases (P ≤ 0.05) with L. coffeella damage. Our results provide important information that these enzymatic activities may play a role in plant defence processes in C. arabica. Trypsin-like activity increases, whereas chymotrypsin-like and cysteine protease activity decrease in the midgut of L. coffeella, which acts as a defence mechanism.Protease inhibitor production, PPO and LOX activity in C. arabica plants, have no effect on reducing the proteolytic activity in L. coffeella. An increase in essential protease trypsin-like activity and a decrease of secondary ones such as chymotrypsin-like activity was founded in the digestive system of L. coffeella, in response to these plant defence mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:13.169754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12416
  • Roles of bacteria in the bark beetle holobiont – how do they shape
           this forest pest'
    • Authors: P. García-Fraile
      Abstract: Bark beetles are well-known forest pests, some species inducing massive attacks on trees, resulting in the devastation of entire woodlands. Bark beetles are associated with microorganisms, forming an entity known as ‘holobiont’. Beetles and fungi are the best-studied members of this multipartite symbiosis. However, recent studies have shown that bacteria may play important roles in the bark beetle holobiont, such as providing certain nutrients, promoting the growth of beneficial fungi, detoxifying the environment by lowering the levels of phenolic compounds synthesised by the host tree or by inhibiting the growth of antagonistic fungi whereas some bacterial symbionts have the potential to kill beetles under certain conditions. Therefore, bacteria probably greatly affect the life cycle of bark beetles; hence, more research is needed to clarify the extent to which a bacterial associate is implicated in a bacterial bark beetle symbiosis and how much it determines host's performance. This review summarises all of the known activities of bacteria present in the bark beetle holobiont, indicates some important gaps in the knowledge of this symbiosis and provides some guidance for overcoming the difficulties in investigating this relationship in future studies.Relationship between bacteria and all the other different members in the bark beetle holobiont and ecology of this multi-species organism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T23:31:31.767516-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12406
  • Responses of radish (Raphanus sativus) to drought stress
    • Authors: F. Stagnari; A. Galieni, S. D'Egidio, G. Pagnani, M. Pisante
      Abstract: With this study the effects of water deficit on radish growth, dry mass production and partitioning, source–sink relations, physiological responses and accumulation of secondary metabolites in storage roots and leaves have been investigated. Three water stress treatments were applied: (Control) 100% of water holding capacity (WHC), (WS50) 50% of WHC, (WS30) 30% of WHC. Water stress was effectively acquired starting from 287 growing degree days (GDD) as demonstrated by the lower values of relative water content (RWC), higher leaf temperature and NIR-based water indices values in water stressed conditions. Water stress reduced storage root dry weight by 27% at WS50 and 53% at WS30 as well as leaf dry matter accumulation (by 23% and 31% in WS50 and WS30, respectively), expansion (by 28% and 45% in WS50 and WS30, respectively) and specific leaf area (by 7% and 20% in WS50 and WS30, respectively) at 403 GDD. The increasing of leaf-to-root mass (L/R) and leaf area-to-root mass (LA/R) ratios indicated less dry matter allocation into storage organs under water stress conditions. Besides, water shortage increased leaf greenness as estimated by the higher soil–plant analysis development (SPAD) values (+14% and +20% on average for WS50 and WS30, respectively); other reflectance indices only partially confirmed SPAD readings. Substantially, water limitation did not significantly influence total anthocyanin content, ABTS-radical scavenging activity and total free phenolic compounds in storage roots, as well as the total free phenolic compounds in leaves. Radish showed a strong plasticity in its adaptation to drought thanks to avoidance mechanisms such as constrained leaf development, increased leaf thickness and adjusted source–sink relationships.Radish showed important drought avoidance mechanisms as reduced dry matter partitioning to storage organs and expansion of photosynthetic apparatus. The selected water indices were all sensitive to radish water status, showing also a negative linear relationship with RWC. Noticeable differences in terms of total free fraction of phenolic compounds TAC and ABTS in storage roots, or accumulation of phenolic compounds in leaves were not detected.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:01:01.928108-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12409
  • Intercropping hampers the nocturnal biological control of aphids
    • Authors: L.M. Gontijo; A.V. Saldanha, D.R. Souza, R.S. Viana, B.C. Bordin, A.C. Antonio
      Abstract: Increasing plant diversity in agroecosystems (i.e. intercropping) has been widely accepted as a means of promoting conservation biological control of mites and insect pests. Nevertheless, the contribution from underlying mechanisms such as the provision of non-prey alternative food (i.e. pollen and nectar) and shelter have not been properly disentangled; and additionally, it remains unexplored whether the performance of nocturnal and diurnal natural enemies is improved when provided with diverse plant communities. Using open field experiments and a greenhouse microcosm, we investigated whether intercropping collards with parsley could create shelter for natural enemies in the lower stratum (parsley), and whether or not nocturnal and diurnal natural enemies would carry out aphid biological control equally well in this increased plant diversity scenario (intercropping). The results showed that the shelter alone provided by the lower stratum/companion plants (parsley) mediated an increase in the abundance of natural enemies without involving the provision of non-prey alternative food. However, the biological control of aphids exerted by nocturnal predators was negatively affected by intercropping. The lower stratum (parsley) appeared to hamper the ability of nocturnal predators to reach aphids more quickly on the collard host plants (higher stratum). In total, our findings indicate that intercropping non-flowering companion plants is likely enough to mediate an increase of natural enemies via shelter provision. In addition, the results suggest that nocturnal predators, or non-flying predators for that matter, are hampered by complex lower stratum vegetation. Thus, considering natural enemy behaviour and plant characteristics when designing polyculture systems are vital for attaining conservation biological control success.Impact of intercropping green collards with parsley on the nocturnal and diurnal biological control of aphids (the wider the arrow the stronger/faster the biological control).
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T03:26:06.651829-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12407
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