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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1584 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1584 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Animal Science Journal
  [SJR: 0.569]   [H-I: 24]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1344-3941 - ISSN (Online) 1740-0929
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1584 journals]
  • Different thermotolerances in in vitro-produced embryos derived from
           different maternal and paternal genetic backgrounds
    • Authors: Miki Sakatani; Kenichi Yamanaka, Ahmed Zaky Balboula, Masashi Takahashi
      Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of genetic backgrounds on the developmental competence and thermotolerance of bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. First, Holstein (Hol) and Japanese Black (JB) oocytes were fertilized with sperm from Hol, JB and a thermotolerant breed (Brahman), and in vitro development was evaluated when the embryos were exposed to heat shock on Day 2 (Day 0 = day of fertilization). Sperm genetic backgrounds affected the developmental competence in controls (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:35:31.040194-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12875
  • Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diverse
           barley cultivars fed to growing pigs
    • Authors: Hongliang Wang; Xiaokang Ma, Xiao Xu, Meng Shi, Xiangshu Piao
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of barley varieties and to develop equations to predict the AA digestibility based on the chemical characteristics of individual barley. A wide selection of nine barley varieties in the main growing regions of China was used in the experiment. Ten crossbred pigs (30.9 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 6 × 10 Youden Square. The treatments included a nitrogen-free diet and nine barley test diets. Considerable variation was observed in the content of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein (CP) and all AAs among the barley samples. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable AAs with the exception of arginine, phenylalanine and threonine were different (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:25:32.027647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12857
  • Fiber characteristics of pork muscle exhibiting different levels of drip
    • Authors: Nunyarat Koomkrong; Nirat Gongruttananun, Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Jatuporn Noosud, Sirin Theerawatanasirikul, Autchara Kayan
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the fiber characteristics of pork muscle exhibiting different levels of drip loss during storage. The samples were taken from Longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate drip loss (n = 100). Fifteen muscles per group (low and high drip loss) were selected to evaluate the histological characteristics at 0 and 72 h of storage time. The statistical analysis revealed that a high drip loss group had greater endomysium thickness than a low drip loss group at 0 h of storage time (P  0.05). At 72 h of storage time, a high drip loss was evident in higher total number of fibers (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:15:28.098909-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12859
  • Investigation of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a Japanese native
           horse breed for suggestions on its conservation
    • Authors: Akio Onogi; Kouichi Shirai, Tomoko Amano
      Abstract: Because native breeds can serve as genetic resources for adapting to environment changes, their conservation is important for future agroecosystems. Using pedigree analysis, we investigated genetic diversity and inbreeding in Japanese Hokkaido native horses, which have adapted to a cold climate and roughage diet. Genetic diversity was measured as the number of founders and the effective number of founders, ancestors and genomes. All metrics imply a decrease in genetic diversity. A comparison of these metrics suggested that pedigree bottlenecks contributed more than did random gene losses to the reduction of genetic diversity. Estimates of marginal contributions of ancestors suggest that the bottlenecks arose mainly because related stallions had been used for breeding. A tendency for an increase in inbreeding coefficients was observed. F-statistics revealed that a small effective population size majorly contributed to this increase, although non-random mating in particular regions also contributed. Because the bottlenecks are thought to have reduced the effective population size, our results imply that mitigation of bottlenecks is important for conservation. To this end, breeding should involve genetically diverse stallions. In addition, to prevent non-random mating observed in particular regions, efforts should be made to plan mating with consideration of kinships.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T01:40:31.383587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12867
  • Relationships among muscle fiber type composition, fiber diameter and MRF
           gene expression in different skeletal muscles of naturally grazing
           Wuzhumuqin sheep during postnatal development
    • Authors: Qimuge Siqin; Tadayuki Nishiumi, Takahisa Yamada, Shuiqing Wang, Wenjun Liu, Rihan Wu, Gerelt Borjigin
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among muscle fiber-type composition, fiber diameter, and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene expression in different skeletal muscles during development in naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep. Three major muscles (i.e. the Longissimus dorsi (LD), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were obtained from 20 Wuzhumuqin sheep and 20 castrated rams at each of the following ages: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. Muscle fiber-type composition and fiber diameter were measured using histochemistry and morphological analysis, and MRF gene expression levels were determined using real-time PCR. In the LD muscle, changes in the proportion of each of different types of fiber (I, IIA and IIB) were relatively small. In the BF muscle, a higher proportion of type I and a 6.19-fold lower proportion of type IIA fibers were observed (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T23:51:01.939131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12848
  • Supplementation of protease, alone and in combination with
           fructooligosaccharide to low protein diet for finishing pigs
    • Authors: Xin Jian Lei; Jin Young Cheong, Jae Hong Park, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Effects of adding protease with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) to low protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal noxious gas emission were evaluated in 160 finishing pigs (57.70 ± 1.16 kg) in a 9-week study. Pigs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, PC: positive control diet (15.97% crude protein (CP)); NC: negative control diet (12.94% CP); PRO: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease; PROFOS: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease and 0.1% FOS. During weeks 4–9 and weeks 0–9, gain : feed ratio was impaired (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T21:45:31.099246-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12849
  • Digestibility of common reed (Pharagmites communis Trin.) silage as
           ruminant feed and effects of inclusion levels in the diet of breeding cows
           on feed intake, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites
    • Authors: Keigo Asano; Takahiro Ishikawa, Motohiko Ishida
      Abstract: To examine the digestibility of common reed (Pharagmites communis Trin.) silage and effects of inclusion levels in the diet of breeding cows on nutrient intakes, ruminal fermentation and nutrient status, two digestion trials using four sheep and cows, respectively, at the maintenance stage were conducted. In the trial using sheep, common reed silage contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 50% total digestible nutrients (TDN) on a dry matter basis. In the trial using cows, treatments were the control (92.4% Sudangrass hay and 7.6% soybean meal) and CS25, CS50 and CS80 (replacing 25%, 50%, and 80% of the control with silage, respectively). The intake and sufficiency rate of CP increased by increasing the silage level in the diet (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T06:50:26.710076-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12843
  • Ultrastructure changes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes before and
           after maturation in vitro with sericin
    • Authors: Sri Gustina; Hasbi Hasbi, Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja, Mohamad Agus Setiadi, Iman Supriatna
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to identify the changes in the cytoplasmic ultrastructure of immature and matured oocytes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Oocytes were matured in vitro in tissue culture medium−199 with and without sericin, and then analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The experiment result showed that the nuclear maturation rate of buffalo oocytes was significantly higher in the presence of sericin (80.6%) than without sericin (68.1%) (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T05:13:13.41785-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12839
  • Combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy for nutritional
           evaluation of feed ingredients and non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase
           complex on performance of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Roberto Montanhini Neto; Eric N'Guetta, Cecile Gady, Maria Francesch, Aurélie Preynat
      Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and the addition of non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex (NSP enzymes) on the growth performance of broilers fed diets produced with low-quality wheat and soybean meal. A 2 × 2 trial design was performed, with seven replicates of 40 male Ross 308 broilers per treatment, evaluating the effect of the addition of NSP enzymes and the ingredients’ nutritional matrix based on table values or NIRS values. Diets without added enzymes were formulated to reach nutritional requirements, whereas diets with enzymes were reformulated, reducing the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) by 85 kcal/kg. In the overall period (days 0–35), broilers fed diets formulated using NIRS values had higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T03:20:22.786416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12822
  • Dietary rice improves growth performance, mucosal enzyme activities and
           plasma urea nitrogen in weaning piglets
    • Authors: Kazuki Yagami; Ryozo Takada
      Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the nutritional functions of rice for weaning piglets. Sixteen weaning piglets with an average initial weight of 7.2 kg were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and the other was fed a rice-soybean meal based diet, containing 50% corn and rice, respectively. A 2 weeks growth trial was conducted and growth performance, intestinal mucosal enzyme activities and plasma urea nitrogen were measured. The average daily gain in rice-fed piglets was significantly higher than that in corn-fed piglets and the average daily feed intake tended to be higher in rice-fed piglets than in corn-fed piglets. Maltase and aminopeptidase activities (mol/g tissue) in the jejunum in rice-fed piglets were significantly higher than those in corn-fed piglets, although these enzyme activities were not different in the duodenum. Sucrase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities in the two groups were not different in either the duodenum or jejunum. Although the feed (nitrogen) intake was higher in rice-fed piglets, the plasma urea nitrogen in rice-fed piglets was significantly lower (P = 0.006) than that in corn-fed piglets. These results indicate that rice is a good alternative feedstuff for the diet of weaning piglets.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T03:07:21.589804-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12874
  • Effect of long-distance transportation on serum metabolic profiles of
           steer calves
    • Authors: Satoshi Takemoto; Shozo Tomonaga, Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
      Abstract: Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Transportation affected 38 metabolites in the serum. A pathway analysis suggested that 26, 10, and 10 pathways were affected immediately after transportation, and 3 and 7 days after transportation, respectively. Some pathways were disturbed only immediately after transportation, likely because of feed and water withdrawal during transit. Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and citric acid cycle were affected for 3 days after transportation, whereas propionate metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism were affected throughout the experiment. Four pathways were not affected immediately after transportation, but were altered thereafter. These results suggested that many metabolic pathways had marked perturbations during transportation. Metabolites such as citric acid, propionate, tyrosine and niacin can be candidate supplements for mitigating transportation-induced adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:50:27.966312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12870
  • Correlation between the proportion of stained eggs and the number of mites
           (Dermanyssus gallinae) monitored using a ‘non-parallel board trap’
    • Authors: Makiko Odaka; Kazumasa Ogino, Michitaka Shikada, Kenichi Asada, Syoujirou Kasa, Takahiro Inoue, Ken Maeda
      Abstract: The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is a serious problem for the poultry industry worldwide. However, the relationship between the mite population and the damage that they cause is still unclear. In this study, the mite population in poultry houses was examined using an established trap method, and the risk of blood-stained eggs caused by the mites was assessed. Traps were placed once a week outside the egg channels and/or on the floor in two poultry farms in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, from April 2012 to July 2014. The numbers of blood-stained eggs and total eggs were counted at weekly intervals. The results showed that the number of mites increased from April to May, and reached a peak around the beginning of June when the average temperature and humidity were>24°C and 70–90%, respectively. In the segmented model, the correlation between the proportion of blood-stained eggs and the number of mites or temperature was positive over a threshold. In conclusion, our established trap method is useful for monitoring mites and can be used to predict when poultry farms should be treated to prevent appearance of blood-stained eggs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T04:51:24.540937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12860
  • Effect of ginkgo extract supplementation on in vitro rumen fermentation
           and bacterial profiles under different dietary conditions
    • Authors: Seongjin Oh; Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
      Abstract: Ginkgo extract was applied to a batch culture study and evaluated for its potential as a feed additive for ruminant animals under different forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratios (1:9, 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1). Rumen fluid was mixed with respective diet and incubated at 39°C for 24 h with and without ginkgo extract (1.6% fruit equivalent in culture). Methane production was significantly decreased by ginkgo extract, with the greatest reductions found in the 5:5 (41.9%) followed by the 7:3 ratios (36.7%). Total short chain fatty acid and ammonia levels were not affected by ginkgo extract supplementation in any of the five different diets. However, ginkgo extract increased propionate proportion and decreased acetate proportion in all dietary conditions tested. The levels of total bacteria, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes were decreased by ginkgo extract. The levels of Selenomonas ruminantium, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens and Megasphaera elsdenii were increased by ginkgo extract supplementation, possibly contributing to the higher propionate production. These results suggest that rumen modulation by ginkgo extract can be achieved at a wide range of F:C ratios with no adverse impact on feed digestion. Moreover, F:C ratios of 5:5 and 7:3 may be optimal when methane mitigation is expected.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:15:23.754704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12877
  • Cytokeratin-positive folliculo-stellate cells in chicken adenohypophysis
    • Authors: Shotaro Nishimura; Miyu Yamashita, Takane Kaneko, Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata
      Abstract: Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are non-endocrine cells found in the adenohypophysis and are identified in many animals by the S100 protein marker. Although keratin is another FS marker in several animals, there is no information on localization of keratin in the avian adenohypophysis. In this study, localization of cytokeratin in chicken adenohypophyseal cells was investigated immunohistochemically. Basic cytokeratin (bCK)-positive cells were arranged radially in the cell cords with their cytoplasmic processes reaching the basal lamina. The cell bodies encircled a follicle in the center of the cell cord. Furthermore, the bCK-positive cells were also S100B-positive. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and luteinizing hormone β-subunit did not co-localize with the bCK-positive cells. In addition, the bCK-positive cells had a laminin-positive area in their cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy observed agranular cells equipped with several microvilli that encircled a follicle. These results indicate that bCK-positive cells in the chicken adenohypophysis may be a predominant FS cell population and produce laminin. It is suggested that they function as sustentacular cells to sustain the adjacent endocrine cells and the structure of the cell cords in the chicken adenohypophysis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:50:57.03911-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12866
  • Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen
           quality during liquid preservation at 17°C
    • Authors: Hao Li; Xiao-Gang Zhang, Qian Fang, Qi Liu, Ren-Rang Du, Gong-She Yang, Li-Qiang Wang, Jian-Hong Hu
      Abstract: Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:40:43.153246-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12865
  • Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness on
           silage quality at low temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Siran Wang; Xianjun Yuan, Zhihao Dong, Junfeng Li, Tao Shao
      Abstract: Four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from straw silages on the Tibetan Plateau were characterized, and their effects on the fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at different temperatures (10°C, 15°C and 25°C) were studied. These LAB isolates were evaluated using the acids production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All the isolates (M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9) could grow at 5-20°C, pH 3.5-7.0 and NaCl (3.0%, 6.5%). Strains M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. coryniformis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and P. acidilactici, respectively, by sequencing 16S ribosomal DNA. The four isolates were added to Italian ryegrass for ensiling for 30 days at various temperatures. Compared with the corresponding control, inoculating with isolates M1, LM8 and LO7 could improve the silage quality of Italian ryegrass at low temperatures, indicated by significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:50:36.201628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12852
  • Expression level of the cytochrome P450c21 (CYP21) protein correlating to
           drip loss in pigs
    • Authors: Aungsuma Kaewkot; Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Jatuporn Noosud, Autchara Kayan
      Abstract: Drip loss is an important meat quality trait of fresh meat affecting economic losses. The cytochrome P450c21 (CYP21) protein has a role on cortisol production and depends on stress. This might affect meat quality. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of CYP21 protein in correlation with drip loss. The samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate drip loss (n = 300). Five muscles per group (low and high drip loss) were selected to evaluate CYP21 protein expression levels. Statistical analysis revealed that CYP21 protein expression levels were significantly difference between the drip loss groups. The high drip loss group had higher CYP21 protein expression levels than the low drip loss group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:35:22.172049-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12863
  • Improving effect of dietary soybean phospholipids supplement on hepatic
           and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying
    • Authors: Fei Yang; Jiming Ruan, Tiancheng Wang, Junrong Luo, Huabin Cao, Yalu Song, Jianzhen Huang, Guoliang Hu
      Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of dietary soybean phospholipid supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in layers, 135 300-day-old Hyline Brown layers were randomly divided into three groups (control, pathology and prevention), and each group had 45 layers with three replicates. Birds in the three groups were respectively fed the control diet, high-energy low-protein diet and high-energy high-protein diet affixed with 3% soybean phospholipid instead of maize. Results showed in the 30th day, birds’ livers in the pathology group became yellowish, enlarged in size and had hemorrhagic spots, while the prevention and control groups’ layers did not have such pathological changes. Contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein – cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde in serum or liver homogenate in prevention and control groups were remarkably lower than those in the pathology group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:30:43.983724-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12832
  • Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase
           concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows
    • Authors: Wenming Huang; Yujia Tian, Shengli Li, Zhaohai Wu, Zhijun Cao
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL/kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL/kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:12:49.495988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12835
  • Myosin substitution rate is affected by the amount of cytosolic myosin in
           cultured muscle cells
    • Authors: Koichi Ojima; Emi Ichimura, Yuya Yasukawa, Mika Oe, Susumu Muroya, Takahiro Suzuki, Jun-ichi Wakamatsu, Takanori Nishimura
      Abstract: In striated muscles, approximately 300 myosin molecules form a single thick filament in myofibrils. Each myosin is continuously displaced by another myosin to maintain the thick filament structure. Our previous study using a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique showed that the myosin replacement rate is decreased by inhibition of protein synthesis, but myosin is still exchangeable. This result prompted us to examine whether myosin in the cytoplasm is involved in myosin replacement in myofibrils. To address this, FRAP was measured in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin heavy chain 3 (Myh3) expressing myotubes that were treated with streptolysin-O (SLO), which forms pores specifically in the plasma membrane to induce leakage of cytoplasmic proteins. Our biochemical data demonstrated that the cytoplasmic myosin content was reduced in SLO-permeabilized semi-intact myotubes. Furthermore, FRAP experiments showed a sluggish substitution rate of GFP-Myh3 in SLO-permeabilized myotubes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the myosin substitution rate is significantly reduced by a decreased amount of myosin in the cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic myosin contributes to myosin replacement in myofibrils.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T21:26:03.192556-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12826
  • Evaluation of the genetic structure of sika deer (Cervus Nippon) in
    • Authors: Sayaka Konishi; Shoko Hata, Sayumi Matsuda, Kazushi Arai, Yasushi Mizoguchi
      Abstract: The browsing habits of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan have caused serious ecological problems. Appropriate management of sika deer populations requires understanding the different genetic structures of local populations. In the present study, we used 10 microsatellite polymorphisms to explore the genetic structures of sika deer populations (162 individuals) living in the Kanto region. The expected heterozygosity of the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I) was lower than that of the populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II). Our results suggest that moderate gene flow has occurred between the sika deer populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II), but not to or from the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I). Also, genetic structure analysis showed that the Tanzawa population was separated from the other populations. This is probably attributable to a genetic bottleneck that developed in the Tanzawa sika deer population in the 1950s. However, we found that the Tanzawa population has since recovered from the bottleneck situation and now exhibits good genetic diversity. Our results show that it is essential to periodically evaluate the genetic structures of deer populations to develop conservation strategies appropriate to the specific structures of individual populations at any given time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T21:00:46.86138-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12844
  • Survival of spray-dried and free-cells of potential probiotic
           Lactobacillus plantarum 564 in soft goat cheese
    • Authors: Zorica Radulović; Jelena Miočinović, Nemanja Mirković, Milica Mirković, Dušanka Paunović, Marina Ivanović, Sanja Seratlić
      Abstract: A high viability of probiotics in food product, with a living cells threshold of 107/cfu/g (colony-forming units/g) is a challenge to achieve in food production. Spray drying is an efficient and economic industrial method for probiotic bacterial preservation and its application in food products. In this study, the survival of free and spray-dried cells of potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 564 after production and during 8 weeks of storage of soft acid coagulated goat cheese was investigated, as well as compositional and sensory quality of cheese. Total bacterial count of spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells were maintained at the high level of 8.82 log/cfu/g in cheese after 8 weeks of storage, while free-cell number decreased to 6.9 log/cfu/g. However, the chemical composition, pH values and sensory evaluation between control cheese (C1 sample made with commercial starter culture) and treated cheese samples (C2 and C3, made with the same starter, with the addition of free and spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells, respectively) did not significantly differ. High viability of potential probiotic bacteria and acceptable sensory properties indicate that spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 strain could be successfully used in the production of soft acid coagulated goat cheeses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T20:50:39.117733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12802
  • Influence of dietary fat source on sow and litter performance, colostrum
           and milk fatty acid profile in late gestation and lactation
    • Authors: Chao Jin; Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Caimei Wu, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various fat sources (3.8–3.9% of diet) during late pregnancy and lactation on the reproductive performance, fatty acids profile in colostrum, milk and serum of sow progeny. A total of 80 multiparous sows were randomly fed a control (adding no oil), palm oil (PO), fish oil (FO) or soybean oil (SO) supplemented diet from 90 days of pregnancy to weaning. Supplementation of FO increased litter size of weak piglets, compared with the control-fed sows (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:52.497199-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12836
  • The IGF-1/Akt/S6 pathway and expressions of glycolytic myosin heavy chain
           isoforms are upregulated in chicken skeletal muscle during the first week
           after hatching
    • Authors: Takaoki Saneyasu; Tatsuya Tsuchihashi, Ayana Kitashiro, Nami Tsuchii, Sayaka Kimura, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle mass is an important trait in the animal industry. We previously reported an age-dependent downregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt/S6 pathway, major protein synthesis pathway, in chicken breast muscle after 1 week of age, despite a continuous increase of breast muscle weight. Myosin heavy chain (HC), a major protein in muscle fiber, has several isoforms depending on chicken skeletal muscle types. HC I (fast-twitch glycolytic type) is known to be expressed in adult chicken breast muscle. However, little is known about the changes in the expression levels of protein synthesis-related factors and HC isoforms in perihatching chicken muscle. In the present study, protein synthesis-related factors, such as IGF-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, phosphorylation of Akt, and phosphorylated S6 content, increased in an age-dependent manner after post-hatch day (D) 0. The mRNA levels of HC I, III and V (fast-twitch glycolytic type) dramatically increased after D0. The increase ratio of breast muscle weight was approximately 1100% from D0 to D7. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first evidence that upregulation of protein synthesis pathway and transcription of fast twitch glycolytic HC isoforms play critical roles in the increase of chicken breast muscle weight during the first week after hatching.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:43.080747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12847
  • Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on
           reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of
           gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets
    • Authors: Jia Yin; Kwang Yong Lee, Jong Keun Kim, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:35.373233-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12819
  • Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal
           energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks
    • Authors: Shuangshuang Guo; Rui Duan, Lei Wang, Yongqing Hou, Linglin Tan, Qiang Cheng, Man Liao, Binying Ding
      Abstract: α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:32.666777-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12824
  • Extension of the culture period for the in vitro growth of bovine oocytes
           in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-4 increases oocyte diameter,
           but impairs subsequent developmental competence
    • Authors: Yinghua Yang; Chihiro Kanno, Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Masashi Nagano
      Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) inhibits luteinization of granulosa cells during in vitro growth (IVG) culture of bovine oocytes; however, oocytes derived from a 12 day IVG were less competent for development than in vivo-grown oocytes. We herein investigated whether an extended IVG culture with BMP-4 improves oocyte growth and development to blastocysts after in vitro fertilization. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were cultured for 14 or 16 days with BMP-4 (10 ng/mL), while a 12 day culture with BMP-4 served as the in vitro control. OGC viability was maintained for the 16 day culture with BMP-4 (83.2%), but was significantly lower without BMP-4 (58.9%) than the control (83.0%). Prolong-cultured oocytes at 16 days had statistically greater diameter (114.6 μm) than the control (111.7 μm). IVG oocytes with BMP-4 for the 16 day culture had a similar nuclear maturation rate to the control (approximately 67%); however, blastocyst rates in BMP-4 treated oocytes of 14 (1.8%) and 16 day (0%) IVG were statistically lower than that of 12 day IVG (9.0%). In conclusion, BMP-4 maintained OGC viability and promoted oocyte growth in a prolonged culture, but impaired the developmental competence of oocytes. Prolonged culture may not be an appropriate strategy for enhancing the developmental competence of IVG oocytes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:06:14.074755-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12841
  • Dynamics of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells
           of indigenous and exotic breeds of pigs in India
    • Authors: Perumalraja Kirthika; Mohammad Ayub Ali, Parthasarathi Behera, Prasant Kumar Subudhi, Thingujam Chaa Tolenkhomba, Jagan Mohanarao Gali
      Abstract: To incorporate immune competence traits in swine breeding programs, association between immune responsiveness and susceptibility to specific infectious diseases must be established. In order to understand the differences in immune competence between indigenous (Zovawk) and exotic (Large White Yorkshire: LWY) pigs reared in India, we carried out a time course expression analysis of immune-regulating key cytokine genes (interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4 and IL-10) in the phytohemagglutinin-P stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The IL-2 transcript levels in PBMCs increased several thousand-fold when compared to unstimulated cells in both the breeds, albeit the response in that of Zovawk was remarkably higher. Higher and earlier IFN-γ and IL-4 expression levels in Zovawk pigs suggest that both TH1 and TH2 immune responsiveness of this indigenous breed affords better preparedness for danger signals. Moreover, the low expression levels of IL-10 depict a regulated adaptive immune responsiveness. Remarkable difference between the two breeds of the pigs is evident showing a clear advantage of the Zovawk over LWY in terms of a shorter lag period of adaptive immune response. These findings provide a lead for understanding the genetic differences with respect to immune competence levels of indigenous pigs compared to exotic counterparts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T00:56:05.494808-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12827
  • The effects of l-DOPA and sulpiride on growth hormone secretion at
           different injection times in Holstein steers
    • Authors: Etsuko Kasuya; Madoka Sutoh, Ken-ichi Yayou
      Abstract: The effects of l-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine (DA), and sulpiride, a D2-type DA receptor blocker, on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion were investigated in steers. Eight Holstein steers (212.8 ± 7.8 kg body weight) were used. Lighting conditions were 12:12 L:D (lights on: 06.00–18.00 hours). Blood samplings were performed during the daytime (11.00–15.00 hours) and nighttime (23.00–03.00 hours). Intravenous injections of drugs or saline were performed at 12.00 hour for the daytime and 00.00 hour for the nighttime, respectively. Plasma GH and PRL concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. l-DOPA did not alter the GH secretion when it was injected at 12.00 hour (spontaneous GH level at its peak). On the other hand, l-DOPA increased GH secretion at 00.00 hour (GH level at its trough). Injection of sulpiride suppressed GH secretion at 12.00 hour but did not affect GH levels at 00.00 hour. l-DOPA inhibited and sulpiride stimulated PRL release during both periods. These results suggest that dopaminergic neurons have stimulatory action on GH secretion and inhibitory action on PRL secretion in cattle. In addition, injection time should be considered to evaluate the exact effects on GH secretion due to its ultradian rhythm of GH secretion in cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T06:45:27.999422-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12850
  • Effects of transforming growth factor-β1 treatment on muscle regeneration
           and adipogenesis in glycerol-injured muscle
    • Authors: Mohamed A. A. Mahdy; Katsuhiko Warita, Yoshinao Z. Hosaka
      Abstract: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is associated with fibrosis in many organs. Recent studies demonstrated that delivery of TGF-β1 into chemically injured muscle enhances fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous TGF-β1 on muscle regeneration and adipogenesis in glycerol-injured muscle of normal mice. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were injured by glycerol injection. TGF-β1 was either co-injected with glycerol, as an ‘early treatment’ group, or injected at day 4 after glycerol, as a ‘late treatment’ group and the TA muscles were collected at day 7 after initial injury. Myotube density was significantly lower in the early treatment group than in the glycerol-injured group (without TGF-β1 treatment). Moreover, the Oil red O-positive area was significantly smaller in the early treatment group than in the late treatment group and glycerol-injured group. Furthermore, TGF-β1 treatment increased endomysial fibrosis and induced immunostaining of α-smooth muscle actin. The greater inhibitory effects of early TGF-β1 treatment than that of late TGF-β1 treatment during regeneration in glycerol-injured muscle suggest a more potent effect of TGF-β1 on the initial stage of muscle regeneration and adipogenesis. Combination of TGF-β1 with glycerol might be an alternative to enhance muscle fibrosis for future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T06:30:26.004068-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12845
  • Proper reprogramming of imprinted and non-imprinted genes in cloned cattle
    • Authors: Masahiro Kaneda; Shinya Watanabe, Satoshi Akagi, Yasushi Inaba, Masaya Geshi, Takashi Nagai
      Abstract: Epigenetic abnormalities in cloned animals are caused by incomplete reprogramming of the donor nucleus during the nuclear transfer step (first reprogramming). However, during the second reprogramming step that occurs only in the germline cells, epigenetic errors not corrected during the first step are repaired. Consequently, epigenetic abnormalities in the somatic cells of cloned animals should be erased in their spermatozoa or oocytes. This is supported by the fact that offspring from cloned animals do not exhibit defects at birth or during postnatal development. To test this hypothesis in cloned cattle, we compared the DNA methylation level of two imprinted genes (H19 and PEG3) and three non-imprinted genes (XIST, OCT4 and NANOG) and two repetitive elements (Satellite I and Satellite II) in blood and sperm DNAs from cloned and non-cloned bulls. We found no differences between cloned and non-cloned bulls. We also analyzed the DNA methylation levels of four repetitive elements (Satellite I, Satellite II, Alpha-satellite and Art2) in oocytes recovered from cloned and non-cloned cows. Again, no significant differences were observed between clones and non-clones. These results suggested that imprinted and non-imprinted genes and repetitive elements were properly reprogramed during gametogenesis in cloned cattle; therefore, they contributed to the soundness of cloned cattle offspring.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T07:55:29.114298-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12846
  • Estradiol inhibits hepatic stellate cell area and collagen synthesis in
           the chicken liver
    • Authors: Shotaro Nishimura; Akifumi Teshima, Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata
      Abstract: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver. The HSC area and amount of collagen fibers are different between male and female chickens. This study was performed to confirm the effect of estradiol on collagen synthesis in the growing chicken liver. Blood estradiol levels in chicks were compared at 4 and 8 weeks of age, and the collagen fibril network in liver tissue was observed at 8 weeks by scanning electron microscopy. Intraperitoneal administrations of estradiol and tamoxifen to male and female chicks, respectively, were performed daily from 5 to 8 weeks of age. The areas of HSCs and collagen contents were measured in the liver tissue. The blood estradiol level was higher in females than in males, and the collagen fibril network was denser in males than in females at 8 weeks of age. Estradiol administration in males induced decreases in the HSC area and collagen content of the liver. Conversely, tamoxifen administration in females induced an increase in the HSC area but did not facilitate collagen synthesis. Based on these results, estradiol inhibits the area and collagen synthesis of HSCs in the growing chicken liver under normal physiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T07:40:35.963226-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12830
  • Reproductive performance and expression of imprinted genes in somatic cell
           cloned boars
    • Authors: Tatsuo Kawarasaki; Satoko Enya, Masayoshi Otake, Masatoshi Shibata, Satoshi Mikawa
      Abstract: To assess the performance of boars derived by somatic cell cloning, we analyzed various aspects of their reproductive characteristics and the expression of two imprinted genes. Cloned boars (cloned Duroc × Jinhua) were analyzed for birth weight, growth rate, age at first ejaculation, semen characteristics and fertility, in comparison with naturally bred control boars of the same strain. The expression of imprinted genes was analyzed using the microsatellite marker SWC9 for the paternally expressed gene insulin-like growth factor -2 (IGF2) and with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the gene maternally expressed 3 (MEG3). The cloned boars had high production of semen and were nearly equal in level of fertility to conventional pigs; they showed similar characteristics as naturally bred boars of the same strains. The expression of IGF2 was partially disturbed, but this disturbed expression was not linked to a change in developmental fate or reproductive performance. These results indicate that use of cloned boars could be highly effective for proliferation of pigs with desirable characteristics, preservation of genetic resources and risk reduction against epidemic diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease, through storage of somatic cells as a precautionary measure for use in regenerating pig populations after a future pandemic.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T00:30:26.321582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12838
  • Effect of soybean husk supplementation on the fecal fermentation
           metabolites and microbiota of dogs
    • Authors: Htun Myint; Yu Iwahashi, Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
      Abstract: In vitro fermentation and in vivo feeding experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of soybean (Glycine max) husk on the fecal fermentation metabolites and microbiota of dogs. An in vitro fermentation study using feces from three Toy Poodle dogs (6.5 ± 3.5 months in age and 2.9 ± 0.4 kg in body weight) revealed that the fecal inoculum was able to ferment soybean husk (supplemented at 0.01 g/mL culture) and increased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and Bifidobacterium, irrespective of pre-digestion of the husk by pepsin and pancreatin. In a feeding experiment, four Shiba dogs (7–48 months in age and 7.5 ± 1.7 kg in body weight) fed a commercial diet supplemented with 5.6% soybean husk showed an increase in SCFA, such as acetate and butyrate, and lactate, and a decrease in indole and skatole in the feces compared to those fed a 5.6% cellulose diet. Real-time PCR assay showed that soybean husk supplementation stimulated the growth of lactobacilli, Clostridium cluster IV including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium cluster XIVa, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group but inhibited the growth of Clostridium cluster XI. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that soybean husk supplementation improves gastrointestinal health through optimization of beneficial organic acid production and increase of beneficial bacteria. Therefore, soybean husk is suggested to be applicable as a functional fiber in the formulation of canine diets.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T00:00:02.624521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12817
  • Silage preparation and fermentation quality of kudzu, sugarcane top and
           their mixture treated with lactic acid bacteria, molasses and cellulase
    • Authors: Xinzhu Chen; Wenyang Li, Chengfang Gao, Xiaopei Zhang, Boqi Weng, Yimin Cai
      Abstract: We studied silage fermentation of kudzu (KZ), sugarcane top (ST) and their mixtures treated with additives to be able to effectively use available local feed resources. The silages were prepared using KZ, ST, KZ 90% + ST 10%, KZ 80% + ST 20%, KZ 70% + ST 30% and KZ 60% + ST 40%, based on fresh matter (FM). These silages were treated with 108 colony-forming units/g epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 5% molasses and 0.02% cellulase of FM. The KZ contained higher crude protein (CP; 14.52%) content and lower levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 62.15%) than those of ST (6.84% CP and 64.93% NDF) based on dry matter (DM). The KZ 60% + ST 40% silage fermented well with a higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T22:15:34.992389-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12840
  • The intrinsic cause of color fading in sliced cooked cured beef during
           chilled storage
    • Authors: Jing Ma; Chensha Yu, Juanjuan Guo, Mengting Wu, Yunqiang Xu, Hongchao Yi, Weiqing Sun
      Abstract: The relationship between color change and other physical and chemical characteristics of sliced cooked cured beef (SCCB) during chilled storage were investigated using principal components analysis (PCA) to determine the color fading causes. Samples were prepared and stored at 8°C for up to 35 days in a vacuum package to simulate a supermarket storage environment; related indicators were measured periodically every week. The results showed that the first PC explained 59.82% of the total variation, and the second explained 22.28%. PC1 was a concentrated reflection of color changes of SCCB during storage and PC2 was an environment factor causing the change of color. The change in apparent redness is mainly caused by redox reaction of the nitroso hemochromogen (NH) (eigenvectors of a*, C and NH in PC1 were all the maximum value of 0.28); a* was correlated with NH (0.96), free sulfhydryls (0.98), carbonyl derivatives (−0.95) formed during protein oxidation, and malondialdehyde (−0.98) and dienes (−0.92) formed by lipid oxidation. Color fading was significantly correlated with oxidizing and reducing power, existing forms of nitrogen and with the pH of the meat matrix. Changes in the internal environment of the sample initially influenced L* and b* values, and subsequently a*.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T22:10:25.941608-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12813
  • Generation of recombinant bovine interferon tau in the human embryonic
           kidney cell line and its biological activity
    • Authors: Toru Takahashi; Ryosuke Sakumoto, Ken-Go Hayashi, Misa Hosoe, Junsuke Shirai, Kazuyoshi Hashizume
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to generate recombinant bovine interferon tau (rbIFNT) in mammalian hosts. The complementary DNA encoding bovine IFNT2 was cloned for the construction of pRcRSV-bIFNT2 expression vector. The expression vector was transfected to 293 cells. Transfected cells harboring expression vector were selected with G418. Highly expressing clonal line was adapted to serum-free suspension culture in a spinner flask. The recombinant protein had 24 kDa apparent molecular mass, suggesting being expressed as a glycoprotein, and was purified from serum-free conditioned medium by the combination of Diethylaminoethanol Sepharose ion exchange and Sephacryl S-200 HR gel filtration. A total of 7.3 mg rbIFNT was obtained from 13.5 L conditioned medium. Generated rbIFNT was biologically active in terms of antiviral activity measured by the plaque inhibition assay with Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells and the vesicular stomatitis virus. The recombinant protein was also utilized for immunization to raise antibodies in the rabbit. The generated antibody was capable of use in both Western blotting and the binding assay. The results in the present study suggest that a certain amount of rbIFNT is raised in mammalian hosts by using conventional plasmid vector and its antibody provides useful tools for studies in the biology of bovine IFNT.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T18:40:24.461531-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12820
  • Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose
           transport in the small intestine
    • Authors: Yo Tsuchiya; Koichi Kawamata
      Abstract: Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T04:00:25.715147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12829
  • Genomic evaluation using SNP- and haplotype-based genomic relationship
           matrices in a closed line of Duroc pigs
    • Authors: Yoshinobu Uemoto; Shuji Sato, Takashi Kikuchi, Sachiko Egawa, Kimiko Kohira, Hironori Sakuma, Satoshi Miyashita, Shinji Arata, Takatoshi Kojima, Keiichi Suzuki
      Abstract: A simulation analysis and real phenotype analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of three different relationship matrices on heritability estimation and prediction accuracy in a closed-line breeding of Duroc pigs. The numerator relationship matrix (NRM), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genomic relationship matrix (GRM) (GS), and haplotype-based GRM (GH) were applied in this study. We used PorcineSNP60 genotype array data (38 114 SNPs) of 831 Duroc pigs with four selection traits. In both heritability estimation and prediction accuracy, the accuracy depended on the number of animals with records. For heritability estimation, a large difference in the results among three relationship matrices was not shown, but the trend of the estimated heritabilities between GRMs, that is GS 
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:55:25.137002-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12805
  • Effect of increasing monensin sodium levels in diets with virginiamycin on
           the finishing of Nellore cattle
    • Authors: João Marcos B. Benatti; João Alexandrino Alves Neto, Ivanna M. Oliveira, Flávio D. Resende, Gustavo R. Siqueira
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of increasing levels of monensin sodium (MON) in diets with virginiamycin (VM) on the finishing of feedlot cattle. Two hundred and eighty intact male Nellore cattle (348 ± 32 kg body weight, 22 months) received one of the following five diets: control diet (without additives); diet containing VM (25 mg per kg dry matter) combined with 0 (MON0), 10 (MON10), 20 (MON20) or 30 (MON30) mg MON per kg dry matter. During adaptation (28 days), the MON0 diet increased dietary net energy for maintenance and gain compared to the control diet (P = 0.04). The combination of additives linearly reduced dry matter intake, body weight and average daily gain (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:41:23.573295-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12831
  • Delicate changes of bioapatite mineral in pig femur with addition of
           dietary xylooligosaccharide: Evidences from Raman spectroscopy and ICP
    • Authors: Shujie Wang; Penghao Zhang, Xiangfeng Kong, Shengda Xie, Qiao Li, Zhen Li, Zhenlei Zhou
      Abstract: Bone mineral is strongly correlated with performance and health of animal bodies. The mineral bioapatite (BAp) is the dominant component in bone tissue. This study investigated mineralogical changes of BAp in pig femur by Raman spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The pigs had been raised with various xylooligosaccharide (XOS) additions at two stages of growth (growing and fattening periods). The results show that XOS can decrease the degree of carbonate substitution for PO4 in BAp mineral and improve the mineral's crystallinity. ICP data is consistent with the Raman results, that is the low solubility of bone BAp for pigs fed with XOS. Additionally, the effect of XOS is much better in the growing period (before 65 kg) than in the fattening period (after 65 kg). Moreover, the high addition of XOS (within the range of 0.1–0.5 g/kg) would be appropriate to improve the crystallinity of bone BAp. This study sheds light on applying Raman and ICP techniques to investigate the delicate changes of mineral in pig bones undergoing different managements.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:21:03.700561-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12837
  • Hypothalamic dopamine is required for salsolinol-induced prolactin
           secretion in goats
    • Authors: Tsutomu Hashizume; Ryunosuke Watanabe, Yuki Inaba, Ken Sawai, Ferenc Fülöp, György Miklos Nagy
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and salsolinol (SAL) for the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in goats. SAL or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was intravenously injected into female goats treated with or without the D2 DA receptor antagonist haloperidol (Hal), which crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the PRL-releasing response to SAL was compared with that to TRH. PRL-releasing responses to SAL, Hal, and Hal plus SAL were also examined after a pretreatment to augment central DA using carbidopa (Carbi) and L-dopa. The PRL-releasing response to Hal alone was greater than that to SAL or TRH alone. The PRL-releasing response to Hal plus SAL was similar to that of Hal alone. In contrast, the PRL-releasing response to Hal plus TRH was greater than that to TRH or Hal alone. The treatment with Carbi plus L-dopa inhibited SAL- and Hal-induced PRL secretion. The inhibition of the PRL-releasing response to SAL disappeared when SAL was injected with Hal. These results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the SAL-induced PRL response differ from those of TRH, and suggest that hypothalamic DA and its synthesis is associated in part with SAL-induced PRL secretion in goats.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T03:40:36.898917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12816
  • Resveratrol beneficially affects meat quality of heat-stressed broilers
           which is associated with changes in muscle antioxidant status
    • Authors: Cheng Zhang; Xiaohui Zhao, Li Wang, Lei Yang, Xingyong Chen, Zhaoyu Geng
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation on serum parameters, meat quality and muscle antioxidant status of broilers under heat stress (HS). A total of 270 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to three treatment groups with six replicates of 15 birds each. The three treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which birds were reared at 22 ± 1°C, and the HS and HS + Res (400 mg/kg) groups, in which birds were reared at 33 ± 1°C for 10 h (08.00–18.00 h) and 22 ± 1°C for the rest of the time. Compared with birds in the control group, birds in the HS group exhibited increased serum corticosterone (CORT) and triacylglycerol contents, L*, drip loss and muscle malondialdehyde content, and decreased serum glucose content, pH24 h, muscle total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T05:15:27.639147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12812
  • The effect of crate height on the behavior of female turkeys during
           commercial pre-slaughter transportation
    • Authors: Guido Di Martino; Katia Capello, Anna Lisa Stefani, Luca Tripepi, Angelica Garbo, Marina Speri, Matteo Trolese, Michele Brichese, Stefano Marangon, Lebana Bonfanti
      Abstract: Limited information is available on suitable height of transport crates for turkeys. We compared behaviors and physiological indicators of four groups of 10 female turkeys each confined in either conventional (38.5 cm height) or experimental (77 cm height) crates during six commercial pre-slaughter transportations for 86 km (76 ± 4 min) along two tracts with one-lane streets, crossroads, bends, roundabouts (S1 and S2) and a highway tract (H) between S1 and S2. Only 36% of birds in the higher crates maintained a standing position. In conventional versus experimental crates, the frequency of rising attempts was five/bird/hour versus less than one/bird/hour, while wing flapping was seven/bird/hour versus 20/bird/hour, and balance loss was one versus four/bird/hour. The behaviors of both groups differed significantly according to the route tract, with a lower frequency of stress-related behaviors at H. No scratches, fractures or hematomas were detected in any birds after transportation. Crate height had no significant effect on hemato-biochemical markers. These results suggest that crates enabling a standing position may increase potentially dangerous behaviors. Moreover, busy and curvy routes should be avoided, as they may contribute to increasing the frequency of stress-related behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T04:25:26.088912-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12823
  • Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol
           levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same
    • Authors: Natsumi Endo; Reimi Kuroki, Tomomi Tanaka
      Abstract: The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T04:20:39.092988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12828
  • A rapid analytical method of major milk proteins by reversed-phase
           high-performance liquid chromatography
    • Authors: Lu Ma; Yongxin Yang, Jingting Chen, Jiaqi Wang, Dengpan Bu
      Abstract: A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with rapid and automated analysis, good separation, high resolution, high accuracy and reproducible results was successfully developed and used to separate and quantify the major cow milk proteins within 30 min analytical time. Standard solutions of single purified cow milk proteins were used to develop calibration equations. The RP-HPLC method was validated with respect to intra-day repeatability, inter-day precision, linearity, accuracy and limit of detection (LOD). The recoveries of the RP-HPLC analyses of major milk proteins from cows ranged 71.0–114%, the inter-day precision was expressed as the relative standard deviation, and the ranged from 1.51 to 4.60% and the LOD ranged from 0.08 g/L to 0.28 g/L. Major proteins in cow were quantified according to the chromatographic profiles. Results showed that a rapid RP-HPLC method for quantifying the major cow milk proteins was developed, which could be used to determine milk protein contents in the dairy industry.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T03:55:32.681144-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12804
  • Effect of probiotic supplementation and genotype on growth performance,
           carcass traits, hematological parameters and immunity of growing rabbits
           under hot environmental conditions
    • Authors: Moataz Fathi; Magdy Abdelsalam, Ibrahim Al-Homidan, Tarek Ebeid, Mohamed El-Zarei, Osama Abou-Emera
      Abstract: The effect of dietary inclusion of probiotics and genetic groups on rabbit performance under hot environmental conditions was studied. A total of 80 rabbits aged 8 weeks were distributed into a completely randomized design in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, including four genetic groups and three concentrations of dietary probiotic (0, 200 and 400 g/t feed). The utilized probiotic contained 4 × 109 colony-forming units/g of Bacillus subtilis. Jabali local breed (J), imported Spanish V-line (V) and their crossbreds (¼J¾V and ¾J¼V) were included in the current study. Final weight and body weight gain were not significantly affected by dietary probiotic levels or genetic group. The feed conversion ratio was better for purebreds than that of crossbreds. A significant improvement in percentage of dressed carcass, mid and hind parts was recorded for rabbits fed a diet containing 400 g probiotic/t feed compared with those fed a basal diet or low probiotic level. Probiotic supplementation had a significant decrease in serum cholesterol. Rabbits given 400 g probiotic/t feed had higher hemoglobin, red blood cells and platelets. Adding 400 g probiotic/t feed to rabbit's diet significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved cell-mediated immunity compared to the other treatments 48 h post-injection.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T02:40:24.61714-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12811
  • Evaluation of dietary methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks
           for 3 weeks post-hatching
    • Authors: Jaehong Yoo; Young-Joo Yi, Samiru S. Wickramasuriya, Eunjoo Kim, Taeg Kyun Shin, Nu Ri Kim, Jung Min Heo
      Abstract: A total of 336 1-day-old male Korean native ducks (KND) were used in a completely randomized design with seven dietary methionine levels (0.30–0.90% with 0.1% increment) to determine the methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks for 3 weeks after hatching. Each dietary treatment had six replicates with eight ducklings per pen. One duckling from each pen (n = 6) was sacrificed to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the end of the experiment. Final body weight and weight gain of 3 weeks old KND were increased with increasing dietary methionine levels up to 0.4%, and then decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T05:47:06.685041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12833
  • Control of Pseudomonas mastitis on a large dairy farm by using slightly
           acidic electrolyzed water
    • Authors: Kazuhiro Kawai; Yasunori Shinozuka, Ikuo Uchida, Kazuhiko Hirose, Takashi Mitamura, Aiko Watanabe, Kana Kuruhara, Reiko Yuasa, Reiichiro Sato, Ken Onda, Hajime Nagahata
      Abstract: The disinfection effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) use in a farm where Pseudomonas mastitis has spread was evaluated. Despite the application of antibiotic therapy and complete cessation of milking infected quarters, numerous new and recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical mastitis infections (5.8–7.1% of clinical mastitis cases) occurred on the farm from 2003 to 2005. Procedural changes and equipment modifications did not improve environmental contamination or the incidence of Pseudomonas mastitis. To more thoroughly decontaminate the milking parlor, an SAEW system was installed in 2006. All milking equipment and the parlor environment were sterilized with SAEW (pH 5–6.5, available chlorine 12 parts per million) before and during milking time. After adopting the SAEW system, the incidence of clinical and subclinical Pseudomonas mastitis cases decreased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T02:35:46.546812-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12815
  • Thirty years of interferon-tau research; Past, present and future
    • Authors: Kazuhiko Imakawa; Rulan Bai, Keigo Nakamura, Kazuya Kusama
      Abstract: The year 2017 marks the 30th year since the discovery was made of amino acid and complementary DNA sequences of ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1), later renamed as interferon-tau (IFNτ). Ovine TP-1 was originally found as a secretory product of sheep conceptuses that rescues maternal corpus luteum (CL) and in fact, the uterine infusion of oTP-1 extended inter-estrous intervals. Finding this signaling molecule as an IFN-like sequence was surprising to the scientific community in reproduction because a homologous molecule in humans possesses anti-viral and anti-prolific activity and is often used in human medicines. However, since its discovery was made, large efforts have been made in the elucidation of transcriptional regulation and functions of bovine and ovine IFNτs, more importantly, the improvement of pregnancy rates in sheep and cattle, most of which resulted in unsuccessful outcomes. In this review, physiological, cellular and molecular events associated with continued secretion of progesterone, maternal recognition of pregnancy, identification, transcriptional regulation and function of IFNτ, and its future perspectives will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T05:56:26.150853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12807
  • Evaluation of the thermal property of bovine intramuscular adipose tissue
           using differential scanning calorimetry
    • Authors: Noriyuki Kimura; Nana Nishimura, Nagako Iwama, Yoshito Aihara, Yasuki Ogawa, Yuji Miyaguchi
      Abstract: The thermal property of bovine intramuscular adipose tissue (IAT) was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compared with the melting point temperature (MP) of the fat extract of IAT, which was measured using the slip point method. The beef samples were classified according to the beef marbling score (BMS). Beef with a high BMS contained less protein than that with middle or low BMS. Beef with a high BMS contained significantly more fat than that with a low BMS (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T21:45:30.157541-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12806
  • Effect of grape pomace on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of
           sweet sorghum silage
    • Authors: Ping Li; Yixin Shen, Minghong You, Yu Zhang, Jiajun Yan, Daxue Li, Shiqie Bai
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape pomace (GP) with different adding levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, fresh matter basis), alone (GP-LAB) or in combine with an inoculant LAB (GP+LAB), on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. After 90 days of ensiling in vacuumized mini-silos, silages were subject to a 7-day aerobic stability test, in which chemical, microbial and polyphenol composition were measured. In the GP-LAB group, adding GP decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T21:45:27.316986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12791
  • Assessment of the usage of biodegradable polymeric matrix in vaginal
           devices to sustain progesterone release in cows
    • Authors: José Rodrigo Valim Pimentel; Milton Maturana Filho, Lucio Cardozo-Filho, José Augusto M. Agnelli, Jefter Nascimento, Ed Hoffmann Madureira
      Abstract: The usage of timed artificial insemination (TAI) at a low cost leading to better reproductive rates has been the aim of several research groups in the field. Usually during TAI protocols, sustained progesterone (P4) release devices are employed. Most devices are constituted of a nylon skeleton covered with a silicon layer with P4. A device based on biopolymers was developed in order to reduce costs and decrease its environmental impact. In this study, we compared the kinetics of sustained progesterone release among devices manufactured with a polymeric blend made of polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate (PHBV) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) (DISP) which were compared with DIB® (Internal Bovine Device) used as the control. In the in vitro and in vivo progesterone release tests, two types of biopolymer-based devices with a superficial area of 147 cm2 were used: DISP8 (46% PHBV, 46% PCL and 8% P4; n = 4), DISP10 (45% PHBV, 45% PCL, 10% P4; n = 4) and DIB® (1 g P4, 120 cm2 area; n = 3). The in vitro tests were carried out according to USP XXIII specifications and were performed in a dissolutor sink using an alcohol/water mixture (60/40 v/v) as a release media and samples were collected at 2 min, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h. P4 concentrations were measured through spectrophotometry in a 244 nm long wave. Three to 3 comparisons of angular coefficients of the straight lines obtained by regression analysis of accumulated P4 concentrations as a function of square root of time were carried out. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient values of P4 were also determined for DISP8 and DISP10. The results showed that the concentrations of P4 were higher in the DISP10 (774.63 ± 45.26 μg/cm2/t1/2) compared to DISP8 (566.17 ± 3.68 μg/cm2/t1/2) (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T21:40:38.78211-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12755
  • Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and harvesting stage on photosynthetic
           pigments and phytol contents of Italian ryegrass silage
    • Authors: Renlong Lv; Mabrouk EL-Sabagh, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino, Yuzo Kurokawa, Kensuke Kawamura
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and harvesting stage on the contents of chlorophyll, phytol and carotenoids (β-carotene and lutein) in Italian ryegrass herbage before and after ensiling, and the extent of phytol preservation after ensiling. Three rates of N fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha) were applied by top-dressing as an additional fertilizer. The herbage harvested at booting stage (27 weeks of age) or heading stage (29 weeks of age) were wilted for 1 day, then ensiled for 60 days using a small-scale pouch system. In the pre-ensiled herbages, increasing N fertilizer application increased the contents of crude protein and photosynthetic pigments, and these contents were also higher at the booting stage compared with the heading stage. In the silage, increasing N fertilizer application also increased the contents of crude protein, the photosynthetic pigments and their derivatives (pheophytin and pheophorbide), while harvesting stage did not affect the contents of β-carotene, chlorophylls or pheophorbide. Nitrogen fertilizer application and early harvesting of herbage increased lutein and phytol contents in Italian ryegrass silage. Lutein and phytol in Italian ryegrass herbage are indicated to be well preserved during ensiling.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:20:50.785372-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12810
  • Social defeat models in animal science: What we have learned from rodent
    • Authors: Atsushi Toyoda
      Abstract: Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders. Recently, we have focused on behavior, nutrition and metabolism in rodent models of social defeat to elucidate how social stresses affect animals. In this review, recent significant progress in studies related to animal social defeat models are described. In the field of animal science, these stress models may contribute to advances in the development of functional foods and in the management of animal welfare.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:16:42.911115-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12809
  • Control mechanisms for producing antimicrobial factors in ruminant mammary
    • Authors: Naoki Isobe
      Abstract: Mastitis, a symptom of inflammation in mammary tissue by infection with various kinds of bacteria, causes huge economic losses in the milk industry. One of the popular methods for treatment of mastitis is antibiotics, although this prohibits milk shipping and sometimes causes resistant microbes. Therefore, a new strategy to treat mastitis without antibiotics is eagerly required around the world. Antimicrobial factors belong to innate immunity and can start their function extremely early after bacterial stimulation. These factors have antimicrobial activity for a broad spectrum of bacteria. Elucidation of causal mechanisms and functions of antimicrobial factors in the mammary gland is thought to result in suitable methods for prevention and treatment of mastitis. Therefore, this review introduces traits of some antimicrobial factors and the mechanisms for expressing, producing and secreting them in the mammary gland. For antimicrobial factors, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), S100A7, cathelicidin and lactoferrin are controlled in different sites and different time courses, suggesting that antimicrobial factors play different roles for local defense against bacterial infection in the mammary gland. These findings will contribute to the development of prevention and treatment methods for mastitis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:05:49.48794-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12808
  • Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders
    • Authors: Iwona Janczarek; Izabela Wilk
      Abstract: Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:25:39.032975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12800
  • Comparative analysis of the merino sheep and Iberian red deer abomasum
           during prenatal development
    • Authors: Antonio Franco; Javier Masot, Eloy Redondo
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the abomasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of the sheep and 50 red deer from the first prenatal stages until birth. To compare similar periods of gestation in both species, we calculate the percentages of gestation. The appearance of the abomasum was earlier in the red deer (22% gestation) than in the sheep (25% gestation). Throughout development the epithelium happened sequentially, being of the types pseudostratified to simple cylindrical. This important modification was earlier in the red deer than the sheep. At 46% gestation in red deer and 50% in sheep, gastric pits were observed on the surface of abomasal folds. Our studies suggest a close link between the initial formation of these pseudoglandular structures and the clear separation of lamina propria and submucosa separated by de muscularis mucosae. At 54% gestation in red deer and at 60% in sheep, in the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands were distinguishable. Finally, the presence of neuroendocrine and glial cells were detected in deer at earlier stages than in sheep.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:16:12.323403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12783
  • Furosemide loading test in a case of homozygous solute carrier family 12,
           member 1 (SLC12A1) mutation (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) in Japanese Black
    • Authors: Kiyotoshi Hasegawa; Shinji Sasaki, Yoichi Sakamoto, Akifumi Takano, Megumi Takayama, Tomoko Higashi, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Yasuaki Yasuda
      Abstract: Hydrallantois is the excessive accumulation of fluid in the allantoic cavity in a pregnant animal and is associated with fetal death. We recently identified a recessive missense mutation in the solute carrier family 12, member 1 (SLC12A1) gene (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) that is associated with hydrallantois in Japanese Black cattle. Unexpectedly, we found a case of the homozygous risk-allele for SLC12A1 in a calf, using a PCR-based direct DNA sequencing test. The homozygote was outwardly healthy up to 3 months of age and the mother did not exhibit any clinical symptoms of hydrallantois. In order to validate these observations, we performed confirmation tests for the genotype and a diuretic loading test using furosemide, which inhibits the transporter activity of the SLC12A1 protein. The results showed that the calf was really homozygous for the risk-allele. In the homozygous calf, administration of furosemide did not alter urinary Na+ or Cl− levels, in contrast to the heterozygote and wild-type calves in which these were significantly increased. These results demonstrate that the SLC12A1 (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) is a hypomorphic or loss-of-function mutation and the hydrallantois with this mutation shows incomplete penetrance in Japanese Black cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:38.645997-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12789
  • Screening and investigation Lactobacillius spp. to improve Secale cereale
           silage quality
    • Authors: Hye Sun Kim; Ouk Kyu Han, Sam Churl Kim, Min Jung Kim, Youn-Sig Kwak
      Abstract: Silage is a high-moisture-content forage that is used to feed livestock. Using silage as feed is economically feasible and suitable for cattle management. Secale cereale is considered as a high-quality forage plant. After the heading stage the biomass of S. cereale increases by up to 30%; however, lignification in the cell wall causes low fermentation efficiency and coefficient digestibility, and it may also be contaminated by mycotoxin-producing fungi and can impair the quality of the silage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen beneficial Lactobacillius spp. for S. cereale silage to reduce fungi contamination and to increase fibrinolytic ability in the silage. Up to 100 days fermentation period and total 180 lactic acid bacteria were isolated and only a single isolate, R4-26, showed strong acidification ability and antifungal activities against mycotoxin-producing fungus. According to quantitative RT-PCR results, the mycotoxin-producing fungal contamination was significantly reduced in the S. cereale silage containing the R4-26 isolate. In enzymatic assays, only a single isolate, R48-27 demonstrated cellulase, xylanase, chitinase and esterase activities. In conclusion, the beneficial Lactobacillius spp. strains have the ability to reduce mycotoxigenic fungi contamination and increase fibrinolytic activity to improve quality of the S. cereale silage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:36.628464-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12781
  • Effects of aflatoxin B1 on mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and
           apoptosis in broiler cardiomyocytes
    • Authors: Wen-Jun Wang; Zhi-Liang Xu, Cheng Yu, Xiao-Hong Xu
      Abstract: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) develops various toxic effects in the liver by impairing mitochondrial function, inducing cell apoptosis. However, little is focused on its toxicity to broiler cardiomyocytes (BCMs). Here, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) location, apoptosis induced by AFB1, and antioxidative genes were investigated in BCMs. It was found that AFB1 evoked intracellular ROS generation, and induced apoptosis in BCMs. AFB1 treatment resulted in increased percentage of apoptotic cells, increased location range of cTnT in cytoplasm, upregulated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and downregulated mRNA expressions of Mn-superoxide dismutase in BCMs. These findings suggested AFB1 treatment caused significant cardiomyocyte damage and cardiotoxicity, impairment of mitochondrial functions, activated ROS generation, and induced apoptosis, and probably was involved in the Nrf2 signal pathway in BCMs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:25.9591-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12796
  • Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of stylo prepared with lactic
           acid bacteria and cellulase
    • Authors: Mao Li; Hanlin Zhou, Xuejuan Zi, Yimin Cai
      Abstract: In order to improve the silage fermentation of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) in tropical areas, stylo silages were prepared with commercial additives Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso-1 (CH1), L. rhamnasus Snow Lact L (SN), Acremonium cellulase (CE) and their combination as SN+CE or CH1 + CE, and the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of these silages were studied. Stylo silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or cellulase, the pH value and NH3-N ⁄ total-N were significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:22.522753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12795
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 925 - 926
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:11:44.584875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12710
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