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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 262, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Animal Science Journal
  [SJR: 0.569]   [H-I: 24]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1344-3941 - ISSN (Online) 1740-0929
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Determination of net energy content of soybean oil fed to growing pigs
           using indirect calorimetry
    • Authors: Enkai Li; Zhiqian LV, Hu Liu, Ling Liu, Yakui Li, Zhongchao Li, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
      Abstract: The objectives of this experiment were: (i) to determine the net energy (NE) of soybean oil (SBO) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC); and (ii) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on heat production, oxidative status and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows were allotted to three diets based on completely randomized design with six replicate pigs (period) per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two test diets containing 5% or 10% SBO at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 14 days, including 7 days to adapt to feed, metabolism crate and environmental conditions. On day 8, pigs were transferred to the open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of daily O2 consumption and CO2 and CH4 production. During this time, pigs were fed one of the three diets at 2.4 MJ metabolizable energy/kg body weight (BW)0.6/day. Total feces and urine were collected and daily total heat production (THP) was measured from days 9 to 13 and fasted on day 14 to evaluate their fasting heat production (FHP). The results show that trends of decreased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (linear, P = 0.09) and acid detergent fiber (linear, P = 0.07) were observed as the content of dietary lipids increased. The average THP for the three diets were 1326, 1208 and 1193 kJ/kg BW0.6/day, respectively. The FHP of pigs averaged 843 kJ/kg BW0.6/day and was not affected by diet characteristics. A reduction of the respiratory quotients in the fed state as the inclusion level of SBO increased was observed. In conclusion, the NE values of SBO we determined by indirect calorimetry were 33.45 and 34.05 MJ/kg dry matter under two inclusion levels. THP could be largely reduced when SBO is added in the feed, but the THP of SBO included at 5% in a corn-soybean meal diet is not different from the THP of SBO included at 10%.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T04:02:26.858553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12888
  • Effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculation on fermentation quality and
           fatty acid profile of barley silage
    • Authors: Dong Hyeon Kim; Sadar M. Amanullah, Hyuk Jun Lee, Young Ho Joo, Ouk Kyu Han, Adegbola T. Adesogan, Sam Churl Kim
      Abstract: This study estimated the effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculant on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silages. Yuyeon (Silkless) and Youngyang (Silking) barley hybrids were harvested at 24.9 and 27.1% dry matter, respectively, and chopped to 10 cm lengths. Each hybrid was treated with or without an inoculant (2 × 104 colony-forming units/g of Lactobacillus plantarum). A total of 48 silos were prepared in an experiment with a 2 × 2 (hybrid × inoculant) treatment arrangement with four replications and three ensiling durations (2, 7 and 100 days). After 100 days of ensiling, Yuyeon silage had higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T03:45:44.240701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12923
  • Relationships between mineral concentrations and physicochemical
           characteristics in the Longissimus thoracis muscle of Japanese Black
    • Authors: Takashi Kitagawa; Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
      Abstract: The relationship between mineral concentrations, and the relationship of mineral concentrations with physicochemical characteristics in muscles were investigated using the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 44 Japanese Black steers. We determined moisture content, fat content, meat color, fatty acid composition and mineral concentrations in the LT muscle. Magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) concentrations had negative correlations with fat content, but sodium (Na), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations were not correlated with fat content. The concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn largely and positively contributed to the first principal component of mineral concentrations. Because the red muscle was rich in these minerals compared to the white muscle, the variation of these minerals probably results from the abundance of red fibers in the LT muscle. The concentration of K was positively correlated with moisture content but Na concentration was not related to moisture content, suggesting that the intracellular fluid volume can largely affect moisture content. The results of the present experiment suggest that mineral concentrations reflect some traits such as not only fat content but also the composition of myofiber type and the intracellular fluid volume in the LT muscle of Japanese Black cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T03:30:25.204539-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12919
  • Effect of negative dietary cation-anion differences on carcass
           characteristics and beef tenderness of Japanese Black steers
    • Authors: Kyohei Ishida; Kazuo Hirano
      Abstract: Lowering dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD) can enhance responsiveness to Ca-homeostatic hormones and increase Ca availability, which might have potential to activate a Ca-dependent protease, calpain, and to enhance postmortem myofibrillar proteolysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of DCAD manipulation on calpain activity and beef tenderness in Japanese Black cattle which are characterized by their high marbling. Thirty-six Japanese Black steers were allotted to one of two treatments: (i) control (CON; DCAD +6.09 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM)) or (ii) negative DCAD (NEGD; DCAD −8.27 mEq/100 g DM) for 70 days before slaughter. Lowering DCAD decreased DM and energy intake (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T03:10:51.399678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12918
  • Nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass and stylo mixed
    • Authors: Juliana S. Silva; Karina G. Ribeiro, Odilon G. Pereira, Hilário C. Mantovani, Paulo R. Cecon, Rosana C. Pereira, Janaina de L. Silva
      Abstract: The nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes) and stylo (Stylosanthes capitata × S. macrocephala cv. Campo Grande) mixed silages were evaluated. The experiment was analyzed in a factorial scheme (5 × 2) in a completely randomized design using increasing levels of stylo (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on a fresh matter basis) on palisadegrass silages, with and without microbial inoculants (MI). With the increased ratio of stylo in mixed silages, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin content increased in silages. The presence of MI promoted lower DM content, and higher neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ADF and lignin content. The acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content and the lactic acid bacteria populations were not affected by treatments. The in vitroDM digestibility was affected by the interaction of levels of the stylo and MI. The pH, NH3-N/total nitrogen and butyric acid concentrations decreased with increasing levels of stylo. Better nutritive value and quality of fermentation was found in the silage containing higher proportions of this stylo mixed with palisadegrass. The microbial inoculant evaluated did not alter the nutritive value or quality of the fermentation of the silages in this experiment.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T02:39:10.956058-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12854
  • Exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells in milk on bovine mastitis
           caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with bacterial load
    • Authors: Yuya Nagasawa; Yoshio Kiku, Kazue Sugawara, Fuyuko Tanabe, Tomohito Hayashi
      Abstract: The exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in milk is affected by physiological, breeding and environmental factors. Little is known about the relationship between the MEC exfoliation into milk and mammary-infected Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) load on bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between S. aureus load and the proportion of MEC exfoliation in milk using five substantial bovine mastitis models. In 64 randomly extracted milk samples from udders at 3–21 days after S. aureus infusion, there were various samples with different numbers of S. aureus counts and somatic cell counts. No significant correlations were found between the S. aureus counts and somatic cell count (r = 0.338). In contrast, a significant correlation was noted between S. aureus counts and the proportion of cytokeratin-positive cells in the milk from the infused udders (r = 0.734, P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:50:32.295415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12886
  • Dietary cation and anion difference: Effects on milk production and body
           fluid distribution in lactating dairy goats under tropical conditions
    • Authors: Thiet Nguyen; Narongsak Chaiyabutr, Somchai Chanpongsang, Sumpun Thammacharoen
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) on milk production and body fluid distribution in lactating dairy goats. Ten dairy goats were selected and divided into two groups, five animals each. Animals received either control DCAD (control, 22.81 mEq/100 g dry matter (DM)) or high DCAD (DCAD, 39.08 mEq/100 g DM). The results indicated that rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rate, milk yield and compositions did not differ between groups. But the percentage change of Tr from the DCAD group was lower than the control group between 09.00 and 13.00 hours. DM intake tended to increase in the DCAD group. Dairy goats in the DCAD group drank more water, but urinary excretion and plasma antidiuretic hormone concentration remained unchanged. Apparent water balance was higher from the DCAD group over 24 h. There was no effect of DCAD on plasma and blood volumes, but tended to increase in extracellular fluid and thereby increased total body water. The present results indicate that animals supplemented with high DCAD increase their total body water and apparent water balance. These results have contributed to the process of adaptation for evaporative cooling and would be useful in slowing down the elevation in Tr.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T03:10:31.744253-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12897
  • Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the feces of dairy cows fed
           whole crop maize silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the
    • Authors: Hongyan Han; Chao Wang, Yanbing Li, Zhu Yu, Qingfang Xu, Guangpeng Li, Tang Thuy Minh, Naoki Nishino
      Abstract: In order to assess the survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in whole crop maize silage in the gut of dairy cows, one representative silage sample and three different feces samples were collected from dairy cows on three dairy farms in Hua Bei, China and three dairy farms in Kyushu, Japan. The composition of the bacterial community was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lactobacillus acetotolerans was detected in all bunker-made maize silage samples, regardless of the dairy farm or sampling region from which they were sourced. A total of eight LAB species were detected in the maize silage samples, of which three (L. acetotolerans, L. pontis and L. casei) appeared to survive digestion. The populations of L. acetotolerans in silage and feces were 106–7 and 103–4 copies/g, respectively, indicating that, even for the LAB species showing potential survival in the gut, competition in this niche may be harsh and the population may substantially decrease during the digestion process. It may be difficult for silage LAB to survive in the gut of silage-fed dairy cows, because marked decrease in population can take place during the digestion process, even for surviving species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T02:55:35.620904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12896
  • Identification of sialyl oligosaccharides including an oligosaccharide
           nucleotide in colostrum of an addax (Addax nasomaculatus) (Subfamily
    • Authors: Khuukhenbaatar Ganzorig; Takuya Asakawa, Masashi Sasaki, Tadao Saito, Isao Suzuki, Kenji Fukuda, Tadasu Urashima
      Abstract: Mammalian milk/colostrum usually contains milk oligosaccharides along with the predominant lactose. Although milk oligosaccharides of a variety of Bovidae species including cow, sheep and goat have been characterized, those of the addax, an Antelopinae species of the Bovidae, have not as yet been clarified. In this study, several sialyl oligosaccharides were purified from a sample of addax colostrum and characterized as follows: Neu5Ac(α2-8)Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Gc(α2-8)Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc, Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Gc(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Gc(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc. In addition, an oligosaccharide nucleotide Neu5Gc(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAcα1-UDP was characterized. Molecular species of a variety of sialyl oligosaccharides found in milk and colostrum of these Bovidae were compared.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T03:00:21.394224-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12899
  • Exploratory and descriptive study on nutritional characteristics and
           quality of eggs from Chilean partridge (Nothoprocta perdicaria)
    • Authors: José Luis Arias; Alberto Matthei, Carolina Valenzuela
      Abstract: This work aims to contribute more information on tinamou eggs by performing an exploratory and descriptive study of some of their nutritional and quality characteristics. The chemical composition of tinamou egg showed a high protein content in white (85% dry basis) and high lipid concentration in yolk (52% db). The iron (Fe) content in white was higher than hen egg (0.47 mg/100 g) and this could be associated with the observed pinkish color of the white. As in the hen egg, the major fatty acids in tinamou yolk were: oleic (39%), linoleic (23%) and palmitic (20%). The cholesterol content of tinamou was 21.2 mg/g of yolk, and 100 g of whole egg provides 589 mg of cholesterol. As in the hen egg, tinamou egg white showed high levels of lysine, sulfur-containing amino acids, threonine and valine with respect to the recommended allowance for an adult man. All essential amino acids with the exception of histidine cover the adult requirements. The shell inorganic composition of these eggs is calcium carbonate and the morphology was similar to other avian eggs. Tinamou egg is small and elongated, with a dark brown color. The eggshell is thinner and experiences more deformation but less breaking strength than hen eggshell.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T02:40:34.181304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12900
  • Glucocorticoid receptor is involved in the differential expression of
           hepatic 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase between barrows and boars at
           finishing stage
    • Authors: Xian Li; Rihua Cong, Wen Yao, Yimin Jia, Runsheng Li, Zhiyuan Sun, Xi Li, Ruqian Zhao
      Abstract: The enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) plays an important role in androstenone metabolism in pig liver, and its defective expression is related to the development of boar taint. Early age castration is a common practice in many countries to avoid boar taint, yet whether and how castration affects porcine hepatic 3β-HSD expression are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the expression of 3β-HSD between intact (boars) and castrated (barrows) male pigs, and to explore the potential factors regulating 3β-HSD transcription. Compared to barrows, boars showed worse carcass quality. Boars had significantly higher levels of serum androstenone (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:56:05.847376-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12853
  • Effects of correcting missing daily feed intake values on the genetic
           parameters and estimated breeding values for feeding traits in pigs
    • Authors: Tetsuya Ito; Kazuo Fukawa, Mai Kamikawa, Satoshi Nikaidou, Masaaki Taniguchi, Aisaku Arakawa, Genki Tanaka, Satoshi Mikawa, Tsutomu Furukawa, Kensuke Hirose
      Abstract: Daily feed intake (DFI) is an important consideration for improving feed efficiency, but measurements using electronic feeder systems contain many missing and incorrect values. Therefore, we evaluated three methods for correcting missing DFI data (quadratic, orthogonal polynomial, and locally weighted (Loess) regression equations) and assessed the effects of these missing values on the genetic parameters and the estimated breeding values (EBV) for feeding traits. DFI records were obtained from 1622 Duroc pigs, comprising 902 individuals without missing DFI and 720 individuals with missing DFI. The Loess equation was the most suitable method for correcting the missing DFI values in 5–50% randomly deleted datasets among the three equations. Both variance components and heritability for the average DFI (ADFI) did not change because of the missing DFI proportion and Loess correction. In terms of rank correlation and information criteria, Loess correction improved the accuracy of EBV for ADFI compared to randomly deleted cases. These findings indicate that the Loess equation is useful for correcting missing DFI values for individual pigs and that the correction of missing DFI values could be effective for the estimation of breeding values and genetic improvement using EBV for feeding traits.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T02:26:32.45254-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12891
  • Survival and developmental competence of bovine embryos at different
           developmental stages and separated blastomeres after vitrification in
           different solutions
    • Authors: Theesit Juanpanich; Tayita Suttirojpattana, Mari Takayama, Yuanyuan Liang, Osamu Dochi, Rangsun Parnpai, Kei Imai
      Abstract: Generating techniques to enhance the success of blastomere separation is important for bovine economy, because it increases the number of transferable embryos. This study aimed to identify the optimum cryoprotectants for the vitrification of bovine embryos and the separation of blastomeres at different stages. In experiment 1, expanded blastocysts were vitrified in two different vitrification solutions, either (1) ethylene glycol (EG) + propylene glycol (PG) or (2) EG. The survival rate of blastocysts in the EG + PG was higher than that of the EG. In experiment 2, intact two-cell and eight-cell stage embryos were vitrified in the same solutions used in experiment 1. The EG + PG produced more dead embryos than the EG (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T02:01:01.980733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12890
  • Meat and nutritional quality comparison of purebred and crossbred pigs
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Jie Chai, Zonggang Luo, Hang He, Lei Chen, Xueqin Liu, Qinfei Zhou
      Abstract: Crossbreeding is an effective method of improving the efficiency and profit of production in commercial pig operations. To understand the effect of crossbreeding on meat and nutrient quality, a combination including three purebred (Duroc, D; Landrace, L; Yorkshire, Y) and two crossbred pig lines (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY; Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), DLY) frequently used internationally were studied. The results showed that meat from the LY and DLY crosses had lower values for lightness L24h∗, shear force and epinephrine and higher values for drip loss, C18:1, insulin, glucagon and monounsaturated fatty acids than D, L and Y pigs. Moreover, LY had higher values for post mortem pH and lower values for a* and b* than the purebreds. In contrast, DLY had lower values for pH and higher values for a* and b* than the purebreds. Meat quality-related gene analysis showed that the CAST, IGF2 and MC4R gene expression levels in the LY and DLY pigs were significantly higher than those in the D, L and Y pigs. These results indicate that crossbreeding can alter the meat quality, nutritive value, energy metabolism and gene expression of pigs. Future research should focus on microRNA expression and DNA methylation that regulate gene expression and thus affect the meat quality.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T01:30:32.103006-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12878
  • Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure
           and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat
    • Authors: Wanwisa Chumngoen; Chih-Feng Chen, Fa-Jui Tan
      Abstract: This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T04:03:02.443271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12864
  • Influence of luteinizing hormone support on granulosa cells transcriptome
           in cattle
    • Authors: Anne-Laure Nivet; Christian Vigneault, Patrick Blondin, Marc-Andre Sirard
      Abstract: In cows, the use of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to stimulate follicular growth followed by a short period of FSH withdrawal has been shown to be beneficial for oocyte developmental competence. Although this treatment represents a useful optimization to generate highly competent oocytes, the underlying physiological process is not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of luteinizing hormone (LH) action during FSH withdrawal before ovulation. To accomplish this, LH release was pharmacologically inhibited during the coasting period with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. Granulosa cells samples were obtained from cows stimulated with FSH during 3 days followed by a coasting period of 68 h and treated with a GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix group) or not (control). A significant reduction in the number of follicles at>10 mm diameter was observed with the cetrorelix group and gene expression of granulosa cells reveals that 747 transcripts are potentially regulated by LH. Further analysis indicates how the absence of LH may trigger early atresia, the upregulation of atretic agent as tumor protein P53 and transforming growth factor β1 and the inhibition of growth support. This work allows identification of genes that are associated with maintained follicular growth and conversely the ones leading to atresia in dominant pre-ovulatory follicles.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T03:45:25.621643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12856
  • Maximum permissible load for Kiso horses trotting over a short, straight
    • Authors: Akihiro Matsuura; Sota Inoue, Mami Irimajiri, Koichi Hodate
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the load-bearing capacity of trotting Kiso horses using gait analysis. Ten Kiso horses with a height at withers of 128 cm were included. Their riders were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) recorded by two digital DVD cameras while trotting along a short, straight course. In total, eight tests were performed for each horse: the first with a 70 kg load; six with randomly loaded weights ranging 80–130 kg; and then a final test again with a 70 kg load. Three-dimensional movement of the marker was analyzed using a motion capture system. The time series of vertical displacement of the marker underwent spectrum analysis by the maximum entropy method, and the autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. The first two peaks of the autocorrelation were defined as symmetry and regularity, and their sum was defined as stability. Regularity in the 120 kg test (0.54) was lower than that in the first 70 kg test (0.61), and stability in the 120 kg test (1.31) was lower than that in the first 70 kg test (1.42). We concluded that the maximum permissible load for a trotting Kiso horse is
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T03:41:22.548557-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12893
  • Non-invasive assessment of culture media from goat cloned embryos
           associated with subjective morphology by gas chromatography – mass
           spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis
    • Authors: Yan-Li Zhang; Guo-Min Zhang, Ruo-Xin Jia, Yong-Jie Wan, Hua Yang, Ling-Wei Sun, Le Han, Feng Wang
      Abstract: Pre-implantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the development potential of embryos. We aim to determine if metabolic differences correlate with embryo morphology. In this study, gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)-based metabolomics was used to assess the culture media of goat cloned embryos collected from high-quality (HQ) and low-quality (LQ) groups based on morphology. Expression levels of amino acid transport genes were further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the HQ group presented higher percentages of blastocysts compared with the LQ counterparts (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T03:51:17.079948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12885
  • Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia
    • Authors: Tserenpurev Bat-Oyun; Takehiko Y Ito, Yadamjav Purevdorj, Masato Shinoda, Satomi Ishii, Hoshino Buho, Yuki Morinaga
      Abstract: Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T03:35:41.274167-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12842
  • Proteomic analysis to unravel the effect of heat stress on gene expression
           and milk synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells
    • Authors: Lian Li; Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Genlin Wang
      Abstract: Heat stress can play a negative effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli; these alveolar mammary epithelial cells reflect the milk producing ability of dairy cows. In this study, we exposed bovine mammary epithelial cells to heat stress and compared them to a control group using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with a control group, 104 differentially elevated proteins (>1.3-fold) and 167 decreased proteins (
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T03:36:05.270746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12880
  • Effects of (−)-hydroxycitric acid on lipid droplet accumulation in
           chicken embryos
    • Authors: Mengling Peng; Longlong Li, Lei Yu, Chongyang Ge, Haitian Ma
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the impact of (−)-hydroxycitric acid ((−)-HCA) on biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters in chicken embryos. Two hundred and forty fertilized eggs were divided into six groups and injected with (−)-HCA at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10.0 and 50 mg/kg (n = 40). After 19 days of incubation, serum and liver were collected for analysis of biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters. Results showed no significant differences on serum biochemical indices: 1–50 mg/kg (−)-HCA significantly increased serum glucose and hepatic glycogen contents (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T03:21:46.447064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12887
  • Utilization of porcine in vitro-produced parthenogenetic embryos for
           co-transfer with vitrified and warmed embryos
    • Authors: Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Kazuhiro Kikuchi
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using in vitro-produced parthenogenetic (PA) embryos for co-transfer with morulae that had been collected in vivo and cryopreserved. The proportion of PA blastocysts (20.5%) was higher than that of their in vitro fertilization (IVF) counterparts (16.6%). Although there were no differences in morphology or diameter between the two groups, the number of cells in early PA blastocysts after in vitro culture for 6 days was lower than for IVF blastocysts (25.7 and 30.4 cells, respectively), and the number in recovered PA blastocysts was also smaller than that in recovered IVF blastocysts (37.4 and 50.2 cells, respectively). When 10 morulae warmed after vitrification were co-transferred with 10 PA blastocysts (total 20 embryos) to the uterus of five recipients, the rates of pregnancy and farrowing did not differ, but the average period until spontaneous abortion tended to be longer relative to the control (when 20 morulae were transferred). These data suggest that in vitro-produced PA embryos offer the possibility of assisted pregnancy for cryopreserved embryos; further experiments will be needed to confirm the beneficial effect of this approach on piglet production.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T22:10:52.416587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12869
  • Questionnaire investigation to clarify the occurrence rate and
           characteristics of maternal rejection behavior in Japanese black cattle
           (Bos taurus)
    • Authors: Daisuke Kohari; Azusa Takakura
      Abstract: We conducted a questionnaire investigation among breeding farmers to clarify the actual conditions of maternal rejection in Japanese Black cattle. We asked keeping experience of maternal rejective cows and compared occurrence patterns, rejective behavior manners, birth assistance methods, colostrum feeding method for calves, parity and rearing conditions of the cows. We found that 24% of the farms had kept rejective cows and 6% of the cows in these farms indicated maternal rejections. The most common occurrence pattern was ‘Occurred from the first birth (65.6%)’ and behavior manner was performing no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior (75%). Almost all the farmers assisted in each parturition (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T22:00:37.311229-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12858
  • Autonomous xenogenic cell fusion of murine and chick skeletal muscle
    • Authors: Tomohide Takaya; Yuma Nihashi, Shotaro Kojima, Tamao Ono, Hiroshi Kagami
      Abstract: Cell-cell fusion has been a great technology to generate valuable hybrid cells and organisms such as hybridomas. In this study, skeletal muscle myoblasts were utilized to establish a novel method for autonomous xenogenic cell fusion. Myoblasts are mononuclear myogenic precursor cells and fuse mutually to form multinuclear myotubes. We generated murine myoblasts (mMBs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) termed mMB-GFP, and the chick myoblasts (chMBs) expressing Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) termed chMB-DsRed. mMB-GFP and chMB-DsRed were cocultured and induced to differentiate. After 24 h, the multinuclear myotubes expressing both GFP and DsRed were observed, indicating that mMBs and chMBs interspecifically fuse. These GFP+/DsRed+ hybrid myotubes were able to survive and grew to hyper-multinucleated mature form. We also found that undifferentiated mMB-GFP efficiently fuse to the chMB-DsRed-derived myotubes. This is the first evidence for the autonomous xenogenic fusion of mammalian and avian cells. Myoblast-based fusogenic technique will open up an alternative direction to create novel hybrid products.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T03:00:58.818649-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12884
  • Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on the development and proliferation
           of testicular cells in prepubertal rats
    • Authors: Mohamed Babo Fadlalla; Quanwei Wei, Jaafar Sulieman Fedail, Asif Mehfooz, Dagan Mao, Fangxiong Shi
      Abstract: Thyroid hormones are important in the development and regulation of testes. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on testicular development in prepubertal rats aged 20–70 days. Weaning male rats (20 days old) until day 70 age were randomly divided into four groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper-T), hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hypothyroid treated with thyroxine (T4) (hypo-T+T4). The results indicated that thyroid hormones caused a significant effect in body and testis weights, and food and water consumption. In addition there were changes in serum concentrations of tri-iodothyronine, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone. Histomorphology showed a significant decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter in hyper-T compared to the other groups. Leydig cell numbers showed a significant elevation in hyper-T but not in hypo-T groups. Immunostaining indicated that TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptors α/β (TRαβ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have the roles in testicular development. Our findings suggest that hyper- and hypo-thyroidism regulate testicular cell proliferation and spermatogenesis in prepubertal rats, indicating that expression of TSHR, TRαβ and PCNA may be regulated by thyroid hormones that are involved in testicular development; and that the administration of T4 to the hypo-T+T4 group leads to an improvement in the testicular condition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T02:41:34.56801-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12883
  • Dietary methionine source and level affect hepatic sulfur amino acid
           metabolism of broiler breeder hens
    • Authors: Jianmei Wan; Xuemei Ding, Jianping Wang, Shiping Bai, Huanwei Peng, Yuheng Luo, Zhuowei Su, Yue Xuan, Keying Zhang
      Abstract: A study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary methionine source and level on plasma free amino acids patterns and the expression of genes involved in hepatic methionine metabolism in broiler breeders. A total of 2184 broiler breeders were assigned to 13 dietary treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. The 13 treatments included one control group and 12 additional treatments employing two sources and six levels (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 1.00%). Higher plasma methionine concentration was measured for DL-methionine (DLM) treated hens. Plasma alanine concentration was linearly increased as DLM or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) supplementation level increased. There was a linear increase in concentrations of tyrosine, valine, glycine and serine as dietary DLM supplementation level increased. Hens treated with DLM had higher relative expression of ADA than those fed HMTBA. The expression of MS, ADA, SAHH and MAT2A changed quadratically as HMTBA supplementation level increased, while the expression of GNMT and SAHH changed quadratically as DLM supplementation level increased. In conclusion, the effects of HMTBA on plasma free amino acid patterns and the expression of hepatic genes involved with methionine are different from DLM.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T03:10:29.474016-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12882
  • Changes in some blood parameters, milk composition and yield of buffaloes
           (Bubalus bubalis) during the transition period
    • Authors: Enrico Fiore; Sonia Giambelluca, Massimo Morgante, Barbara Contiero, Elisa Mazzotta, Domenico Vecchio, Irene Vazzana, Pasquale Rossi, Francesca Arfuso, Giuseppe Piccione, Matteo Gianesella
      Abstract: In this study changes in hematochemical parameters, milk composition and yield were investigated in buffaloes during the transition period. A total of 93 buffaloes 113.9 ± 8.03 months old and 535 ± 50 kg average body weight were used. Parity was recorded, blood samples were collected from 80 days pre-partum until 70 days post-partum; milk samples were collected from 5 days to 70 days post-partum. On serum samples, the values of non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea, total proteins were evaluated. On milk, percentage of fat, protein and lactose, along with the somatic cell count (SCC), milk yield and daily milk production (DMP) were assessed. The peripartum period significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all studied parameters with the exception of glucose. Milk fat percentage showed decreasing trend from 10 until 40 days post-partum; DMP significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased from 1 day post-partum until 40 days post-partum. Milk yield significantly (P ≤ 0.01) decreased in animals over the sixth lactation. Our results confirmed the importance of transit period in buffaloes. Blood parameters and milk composition alterations are crucial to predict the energy balance status of buffaloes in order to improve their management and feed intake during the transition period.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T02:41:56.317984-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12872
  • The quality after culture in vitro or in vivo of porcine oocytes matured
           and fertilized in vitro and their ability to develop to term
    • Authors: Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Sigeyuki Tajima, Kazuhiro Kikuchi
      Abstract: The quality of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro is poor in comparison with those that develop in vivo. We examined the quality of in vitro-matured and fertilized (IVM/IVF) oocytes, their abilities to develop to blastocysts under in vivo and in vitro conditions, and the potential of the embryos to develop to term after transfer. IVM/IVF oocytes were either transferred and the embryos recovered on Days 5 and 6 (100% and 87.5%, respectively) (‘ET-vivo’ embryos), or cultured in vitro for 5 or 6 days (‘IVC’ embryos). The proportion of blastocysts differed significantly between the two groups on Day 5 (20.6% and 8.0%, respectively), but not on Day 6 (23.8% and 21.2%, respectively). The mean number of cells in ET-vivo blastocysts on Days 5 or 6 was significantly higher (72.8 and 78.7, respectively) than that in IVC blastocysts (22.1 and 39.7, respectively). When IVM/IVF oocytes and IVC blastocysts on Day 6 were transferred, all (three and three, respectively) developed to piglets (16 and 16, respectively), without any difference in the rates of development to term (2.1% and 2.6%, respectively). These data suggest that, although blastocyst production differs between the two culture conditions, IVM/IVF oocytes possess the same ability to develop to term.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T02:26:09.572676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12855
  • A method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood
           using urine samples
    • Authors: Itaru Sato; Ryoma Yamagishi, Jun Sasaki, Hiroshi Satoh, Kiyoshi Miura, Kaoru Kikuchi, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada
      Abstract: In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the ‘difficult-to-return zone’. Urine 137Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood 137Cs were tested. The average error rate of the estimation was 54.2% without correction. Correcting for urine creatinine, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, or potassium improved the precision of the estimation. Correcting for specific gravity using the following formula gave the most precise estimate (average error rate = 16.9%): [blood 137Cs] = [urinary 137Cs]/([specific gravity] − 1)/329. Urine samples are faster to measure than blood samples because urine can be obtained in larger quantities and has a higher 137Cs concentration than blood. These advantages of urine and the estimation precision demonstrated in our study, indicate that estimation of blood 137Cs using urine samples is a practical means of monitoring radioactive contamination in live cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T02:16:04.646599-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12879
  • Pathological findings of Japanese Black Cattle living in the restricted
           area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, 2013–2016
    • Authors: Jun Sasaki; Kayoko Hiratani, Itaru Sato, Hiroshi Satoh, Yoshitaka Deguchi, Hiroyuki Chida, Masahiro Natsuhori, Takahisa Murata, Kenji Ochiai, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada, Nobuhiko Ito
      Abstract: Fifty-one Japanese black cattle from four farms in the evacuation zone of the Fukushima nuclear accident were examined pathologically during the period, 2013–2016. We found no evidence of a radiation effect on pathological findings in any of these autopsy cases, although nine cases (3.7%) of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and three cases (1.2%) of goiter were diagnosed. Estimated integrating dose of external exposure in EBL cases ranged from a maximum of 1200 mSv to a minimum of 72 mSv. Clinically, five cases showed wobble, dysstasia or paralysis. Exophthalmos was observed in three cases. Macroscopically, enlarged lymph nodes, multiple irregular masses of intra-abdominal and intrapelvic adipose tissue, diffuse thickening of the abomasal submucosa with ulceration, and numerous white nodules of myocardium were observed. Histologically, neoplastic lymphoid cells were extensively proliferated and infiltrated in the lesions. Lymphoid tumor cells showed mature or large lymphoblastic appearance. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for BLA-36, CD20 and CD5, and negative for CD3. Three cases showed diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland with no mass or nodule lesion. Histologically, diffuse proliferation of follicular epithelium was observed with preservation of normal structures. There were no malignant findings such as cellular atypia or invasion to capsule.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T01:56:09.727082-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12873
  • Effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight in PIC pigs
    • Authors: Jieping Huang; Mingming Zhang, Runqing Ye, Yun Ma, Chuzhao Lei
      Abstract: Variation of the vertebral number is associated with carcass traits in pigs. However, results from different populations do not match well with others, especially for carcass weight. Therefore, effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight were investigated by analyzing the relationship between two loci multi-vertebra causal loci (NR6A1 g.748 C> T and VRTN g.20311_20312ins291) and carcass weight in PIC pigs. Results from the association study between vertebral number and carcass weight showed that increased thoracic number had negative effects on carcass weight, but the results were not statistically significant. Further, VRTN Ins/Ins genotype increased more than one thoracic than that of Wt/Wt genotype on average in this PIC population. Meanwhile, there was a significant negative effect of VRTN Ins on carcass weight (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T01:35:41.919895-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12881
  • Retort beef aroma that gives preferable properties to canned beef products
           and its aroma components
    • Authors: Koshiro Migita; Takao Iiduka, Kie Tsukamoto, Sayuri Sugiura, Genichiro Tanaka, Gousuke Sakamaki, Yasufumi Yamamoto, Yusuke Takeshige, Toshio Miyazawa, Ayako Kojima, Tomoko Nakatake, Akihiro Okitani, Masanori Matsuishi
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to identify the properties and responsible compounds for the aromatic roast odor (retort beef aroma) that commonly occurs in canned beef products and could contribute to their palatability. The optimal temperature for generating retort beef aroma was 121°C. An untrained panel evaluated both uncured corned beef and canned yamato-ni beef and found that they had an aroma that was significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T01:21:42.526965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12876
  • Transcriptome profiling reveals the immune response of goose T cells under
           selenium stimuli
    • Authors: Nan Cao; Wanyan Li, Bingxin Li, Yunbo Tian, Danning Xu
      Abstract: The goose is an economically important poultry species and a principal natural host of avian viruses. This study aimed to determine the effects of selenium on the immune response of geese. Under selenium stimulation, gene expression profiling was investigated using transcriptome sequencing. The selenoproteins were promoted by selenium stimulation, while the heat shock proteins, interleukin and interferons were mainly down-regulated. After comparison, 2228 differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in immune and environmental response, and infectious disease and genetic information processing related pathways were identified. Specifically, the enzymes of the lysosomes which acted as a safeguard in preventing pathogens were mostly up-regulated and six randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the most proportional increased transcription factor family basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) located in the 5′ flank of selenoprotein P-like protein for selenium metabolism was identified by response to the selenium stimulation in this study. These analyses show that selenium can promote immune function by activating selenoproteins, transcript factors and lysosome pathway related genes, while weakening cytokine content genes in geese.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T04:05:40.848831-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12861
  • Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of
           photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding
           affecting body condition of mares
    • Authors: Juan Carranza; Washington A. Yoong, Concha Mateos, Belén Caño Vergara, Chian L. Gómez, Verónica Macías
      Abstract: Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares’ conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares’ conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares’ conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares’ conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T01:50:33.049908-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12818
  • Whole genome detection of signature of positive selection in African
           cattle reveals selection for thermotolerance
    • Authors: Mengistie Taye; Wonseok Lee, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Tadelle Dessie, Olivier Hanotte, Okeyo Ally Mwai, Stephen Kemp, Seoae Cho, Sung Jong Oh, Hak-Kyo Lee, Heebal Kim
      Abstract: As African indigenous cattle evolved in a hot tropical climate, they have developed an inherent thermotolerance; survival mechanisms include a light-colored and shiny coat, increased sweating, and cellular and molecular mechanisms to cope with high environmental temperature. Here, we report the positive selection signature of genes in African cattle breeds which contribute for their heat tolerance mechanisms. We compared the genomes of five indigenous African cattle breeds with the genomes of four commercial cattle breeds using cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) statistical methods. We identified 296 (XP-EHH) and 327 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes. Gene ontology analysis resulted in 41 biological process terms and six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Several genes and pathways were found to be involved in oxidative stress response, osmotic stress response, heat shock response, hair and skin properties, sweat gland development and sweating, feed intake and metabolism, and reproduction functions. The genes and pathways identified directly or indirectly contribute to the superior heat tolerance mechanisms in African cattle populations. The result will improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms of heat tolerance in African cattle breeds and opens an avenue for further study.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T01:25:34.599202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12851
  • Fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration silages
           based on desert wormwood (Artemisia desertorum Spreng.) combining with
           early stage corn
    • Authors: Guomei Yin; Chunsheng Bai, Juanjuan Sun, Lin Sun, Yanlin Xue, Yuanyuan Zhang, Heping Zhao, Zhu Yu, Sibo Liu, Kewei Zhang
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on desert wormwood (DW) combined with early stage corn (ESC) as forage and determine an optimum formula. Desert wormwood and ESC were harvested, chopped, and mixed with other ingredients according to a formula, packed into laboratory silos at densities of 500–550 g/L, and stored in the dark for 60 days. The DW proportions in the forage of TMR were 1, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0, based on fresh weight. As the proportion of DW decreased, the pH also decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T03:51:44.569583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12862
  • Different thermotolerances in in vitro-produced embryos derived from
           different maternal and paternal genetic backgrounds
    • Authors: Miki Sakatani; Kenichi Yamanaka, Ahmed Zaky Balboula, Masashi Takahashi
      Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of genetic backgrounds on the developmental competence and thermotolerance of bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. First, Holstein (Hol) and Japanese Black (JB) oocytes were fertilized with sperm from Hol, JB and a thermotolerant breed (Brahman), and in vitro development was evaluated when the embryos were exposed to heat shock on Day 2 (Day 0 = day of fertilization). Sperm genetic backgrounds affected the developmental competence in controls (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:35:31.040194-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12875
  • Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diverse
           barley cultivars fed to growing pigs
    • Authors: Hongliang Wang; Xiaokang Ma, Xiao Xu, Meng Shi, Xiangshu Piao
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of barley varieties and to develop equations to predict the AA digestibility based on the chemical characteristics of individual barley. A wide selection of nine barley varieties in the main growing regions of China was used in the experiment. Ten crossbred pigs (30.9 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 6 × 10 Youden Square. The treatments included a nitrogen-free diet and nine barley test diets. Considerable variation was observed in the content of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein (CP) and all AAs among the barley samples. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable AAs with the exception of arginine, phenylalanine and threonine were different (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:25:32.027647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12857
  • Fiber characteristics of pork muscle exhibiting different levels of drip
    • Authors: Nunyarat Koomkrong; Nirat Gongruttananun, Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Jatuporn Noosud, Sirin Theerawatanasirikul, Autchara Kayan
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the fiber characteristics of pork muscle exhibiting different levels of drip loss during storage. The samples were taken from Longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate drip loss (n = 100). Fifteen muscles per group (low and high drip loss) were selected to evaluate the histological characteristics at 0 and 72 h of storage time. The statistical analysis revealed that a high drip loss group had greater endomysium thickness than a low drip loss group at 0 h of storage time (P  0.05). At 72 h of storage time, a high drip loss was evident in higher total number of fibers (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T02:15:28.098909-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12859
  • Investigation of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a Japanese native
           horse breed for suggestions on its conservation
    • Authors: Akio Onogi; Kouichi Shirai, Tomoko Amano
      Abstract: Because native breeds can serve as genetic resources for adapting to environment changes, their conservation is important for future agroecosystems. Using pedigree analysis, we investigated genetic diversity and inbreeding in Japanese Hokkaido native horses, which have adapted to a cold climate and roughage diet. Genetic diversity was measured as the number of founders and the effective number of founders, ancestors and genomes. All metrics imply a decrease in genetic diversity. A comparison of these metrics suggested that pedigree bottlenecks contributed more than did random gene losses to the reduction of genetic diversity. Estimates of marginal contributions of ancestors suggest that the bottlenecks arose mainly because related stallions had been used for breeding. A tendency for an increase in inbreeding coefficients was observed. F-statistics revealed that a small effective population size majorly contributed to this increase, although non-random mating in particular regions also contributed. Because the bottlenecks are thought to have reduced the effective population size, our results imply that mitigation of bottlenecks is important for conservation. To this end, breeding should involve genetically diverse stallions. In addition, to prevent non-random mating observed in particular regions, efforts should be made to plan mating with consideration of kinships.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T01:40:31.383587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12867
  • Relationships among muscle fiber type composition, fiber diameter and MRF
           gene expression in different skeletal muscles of naturally grazing
           Wuzhumuqin sheep during postnatal development
    • Authors: Qimuge Siqin; Tadayuki Nishiumi, Takahisa Yamada, Shuiqing Wang, Wenjun Liu, Rihan Wu, Gerelt Borjigin
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among muscle fiber-type composition, fiber diameter, and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene expression in different skeletal muscles during development in naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep. Three major muscles (i.e. the Longissimus dorsi (LD), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were obtained from 20 Wuzhumuqin sheep and 20 castrated rams at each of the following ages: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. Muscle fiber-type composition and fiber diameter were measured using histochemistry and morphological analysis, and MRF gene expression levels were determined using real-time PCR. In the LD muscle, changes in the proportion of each of different types of fiber (I, IIA and IIB) were relatively small. In the BF muscle, a higher proportion of type I and a 6.19-fold lower proportion of type IIA fibers were observed (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T23:51:01.939131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12848
  • Supplementation of protease, alone and in combination with
           fructooligosaccharide to low protein diet for finishing pigs
    • Authors: Xin Jian Lei; Jin Young Cheong, Jae Hong Park, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Effects of adding protease with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) to low protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal noxious gas emission were evaluated in 160 finishing pigs (57.70 ± 1.16 kg) in a 9-week study. Pigs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, PC: positive control diet (15.97% crude protein (CP)); NC: negative control diet (12.94% CP); PRO: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease; PROFOS: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease and 0.1% FOS. During weeks 4–9 and weeks 0–9, gain : feed ratio was impaired (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T21:45:31.099246-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12849
  • Digestibility of common reed (Pharagmites communis Trin.) silage as
           ruminant feed and effects of inclusion levels in the diet of breeding cows
           on feed intake, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites
    • Authors: Keigo Asano; Takahiro Ishikawa, Motohiko Ishida
      Abstract: To examine the digestibility of common reed (Pharagmites communis Trin.) silage and effects of inclusion levels in the diet of breeding cows on nutrient intakes, ruminal fermentation and nutrient status, two digestion trials using four sheep and cows, respectively, at the maintenance stage were conducted. In the trial using sheep, common reed silage contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 50% total digestible nutrients (TDN) on a dry matter basis. In the trial using cows, treatments were the control (92.4% Sudangrass hay and 7.6% soybean meal) and CS25, CS50 and CS80 (replacing 25%, 50%, and 80% of the control with silage, respectively). The intake and sufficiency rate of CP increased by increasing the silage level in the diet (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T06:50:26.710076-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12843
  • Ultrastructure changes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes before and
           after maturation in vitro with sericin
    • Authors: Sri Gustina; Hasbi Hasbi, Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja, Mohamad Agus Setiadi, Iman Supriatna
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to identify the changes in the cytoplasmic ultrastructure of immature and matured oocytes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Oocytes were matured in vitro in tissue culture medium−199 with and without sericin, and then analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The experiment result showed that the nuclear maturation rate of buffalo oocytes was significantly higher in the presence of sericin (80.6%) than without sericin (68.1%) (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T05:13:13.41785-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12839
  • Combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy for nutritional
           evaluation of feed ingredients and non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase
           complex on performance of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Roberto Montanhini Neto; Eric N'Guetta, Cecile Gady, Maria Francesch, Aurélie Preynat
      Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and the addition of non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex (NSP enzymes) on the growth performance of broilers fed diets produced with low-quality wheat and soybean meal. A 2 × 2 trial design was performed, with seven replicates of 40 male Ross 308 broilers per treatment, evaluating the effect of the addition of NSP enzymes and the ingredients’ nutritional matrix based on table values or NIRS values. Diets without added enzymes were formulated to reach nutritional requirements, whereas diets with enzymes were reformulated, reducing the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) by 85 kcal/kg. In the overall period (days 0–35), broilers fed diets formulated using NIRS values had higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T03:20:22.786416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12822
  • Dietary rice improves growth performance, mucosal enzyme activities and
           plasma urea nitrogen in weaning piglets
    • Authors: Kazuki Yagami; Ryozo Takada
      Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the nutritional functions of rice for weaning piglets. Sixteen weaning piglets with an average initial weight of 7.2 kg were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and the other was fed a rice-soybean meal based diet, containing 50% corn and rice, respectively. A 2 weeks growth trial was conducted and growth performance, intestinal mucosal enzyme activities and plasma urea nitrogen were measured. The average daily gain in rice-fed piglets was significantly higher than that in corn-fed piglets and the average daily feed intake tended to be higher in rice-fed piglets than in corn-fed piglets. Maltase and aminopeptidase activities (mol/g tissue) in the jejunum in rice-fed piglets were significantly higher than those in corn-fed piglets, although these enzyme activities were not different in the duodenum. Sucrase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities in the two groups were not different in either the duodenum or jejunum. Although the feed (nitrogen) intake was higher in rice-fed piglets, the plasma urea nitrogen in rice-fed piglets was significantly lower (P = 0.006) than that in corn-fed piglets. These results indicate that rice is a good alternative feedstuff for the diet of weaning piglets.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T03:07:21.589804-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12874
  • Effect of long-distance transportation on serum metabolic profiles of
           steer calves
    • Authors: Satoshi Takemoto; Shozo Tomonaga, Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
      Abstract: Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Transportation affected 38 metabolites in the serum. A pathway analysis suggested that 26, 10, and 10 pathways were affected immediately after transportation, and 3 and 7 days after transportation, respectively. Some pathways were disturbed only immediately after transportation, likely because of feed and water withdrawal during transit. Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and citric acid cycle were affected for 3 days after transportation, whereas propionate metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism were affected throughout the experiment. Four pathways were not affected immediately after transportation, but were altered thereafter. These results suggested that many metabolic pathways had marked perturbations during transportation. Metabolites such as citric acid, propionate, tyrosine and niacin can be candidate supplements for mitigating transportation-induced adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:50:27.966312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12870
  • The membrane-type estrogen receptor G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor
           suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 6 via inhibition of
           nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in murine macrophage cells
    • Authors: Mariko Okamoto; Takuto Suzuki, Yoichi Mizukami, Teruo Ikeda
      Abstract: The female sex hormone estrogen exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been recently identified as a novel membrane-type estrogen receptor that can mediate non-genomic estrogenic effects on many cell types. We previously demonstrated that GPER inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) through repression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) promoter activity using human breast cancer cells. Although several reports have indicated that GPER suppresses Toll-like receptor-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition of cytokine production via GPER remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined GPER-mediated inhibition of IL-6 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in a mouse macrophage cell line. We found that the GPER agonist G-1 inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 expression in macrophage cells, and this inhibition was due to the repression of NF-κB promoter activity by GPER. G-1 treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinases. Among the mitogen-activated protein kinases, the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was increased by G-1. These findings delineate the novel mechanism of the inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 through GPER-activated JNK-mediated negative regulation of the NF-κB pathway in murine macrophage cells, which links anti-inflammatory effects to estrogen.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T22:25:31.162007-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12868
  • Correlation between the proportion of stained eggs and the number of mites
           (Dermanyssus gallinae) monitored using a ‘non-parallel board trap’
    • Authors: Makiko Odaka; Kazumasa Ogino, Michitaka Shikada, Kenichi Asada, Syoujirou Kasa, Takahiro Inoue, Ken Maeda
      Abstract: The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is a serious problem for the poultry industry worldwide. However, the relationship between the mite population and the damage that they cause is still unclear. In this study, the mite population in poultry houses was examined using an established trap method, and the risk of blood-stained eggs caused by the mites was assessed. Traps were placed once a week outside the egg channels and/or on the floor in two poultry farms in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, from April 2012 to July 2014. The numbers of blood-stained eggs and total eggs were counted at weekly intervals. The results showed that the number of mites increased from April to May, and reached a peak around the beginning of June when the average temperature and humidity were>24°C and 70–90%, respectively. In the segmented model, the correlation between the proportion of blood-stained eggs and the number of mites or temperature was positive over a threshold. In conclusion, our established trap method is useful for monitoring mites and can be used to predict when poultry farms should be treated to prevent appearance of blood-stained eggs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T04:51:24.540937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12860
  • Effect of ginkgo extract supplementation on in vitro rumen fermentation
           and bacterial profiles under different dietary conditions
    • Authors: Seongjin Oh; Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
      Abstract: Ginkgo extract was applied to a batch culture study and evaluated for its potential as a feed additive for ruminant animals under different forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratios (1:9, 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1). Rumen fluid was mixed with respective diet and incubated at 39°C for 24 h with and without ginkgo extract (1.6% fruit equivalent in culture). Methane production was significantly decreased by ginkgo extract, with the greatest reductions found in the 5:5 (41.9%) followed by the 7:3 ratios (36.7%). Total short chain fatty acid and ammonia levels were not affected by ginkgo extract supplementation in any of the five different diets. However, ginkgo extract increased propionate proportion and decreased acetate proportion in all dietary conditions tested. The levels of total bacteria, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes were decreased by ginkgo extract. The levels of Selenomonas ruminantium, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens and Megasphaera elsdenii were increased by ginkgo extract supplementation, possibly contributing to the higher propionate production. These results suggest that rumen modulation by ginkgo extract can be achieved at a wide range of F:C ratios with no adverse impact on feed digestion. Moreover, F:C ratios of 5:5 and 7:3 may be optimal when methane mitigation is expected.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:15:23.754704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12877
  • Cytokeratin-positive folliculo-stellate cells in chicken adenohypophysis
    • Authors: Shotaro Nishimura; Miyu Yamashita, Takane Kaneko, Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata
      Abstract: Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are non-endocrine cells found in the adenohypophysis and are identified in many animals by the S100 protein marker. Although keratin is another FS marker in several animals, there is no information on localization of keratin in the avian adenohypophysis. In this study, localization of cytokeratin in chicken adenohypophyseal cells was investigated immunohistochemically. Basic cytokeratin (bCK)-positive cells were arranged radially in the cell cords with their cytoplasmic processes reaching the basal lamina. The cell bodies encircled a follicle in the center of the cell cord. Furthermore, the bCK-positive cells were also S100B-positive. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and luteinizing hormone β-subunit did not co-localize with the bCK-positive cells. In addition, the bCK-positive cells had a laminin-positive area in their cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy observed agranular cells equipped with several microvilli that encircled a follicle. These results indicate that bCK-positive cells in the chicken adenohypophysis may be a predominant FS cell population and produce laminin. It is suggested that they function as sustentacular cells to sustain the adjacent endocrine cells and the structure of the cell cords in the chicken adenohypophysis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:50:57.03911-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12866
  • Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen
           quality during liquid preservation at 17°C
    • Authors: Hao Li; Xiao-Gang Zhang, Qian Fang, Qi Liu, Ren-Rang Du, Gong-She Yang, Li-Qiang Wang, Jian-Hong Hu
      Abstract: Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:40:43.153246-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12865
  • Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness on
           silage quality at low temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Siran Wang; Xianjun Yuan, Zhihao Dong, Junfeng Li, Tao Shao
      Abstract: Four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from straw silages on the Tibetan Plateau were characterized, and their effects on the fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at different temperatures (10°C, 15°C and 25°C) were studied. These LAB isolates were evaluated using the acids production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All the isolates (M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9) could grow at 5-20°C, pH 3.5-7.0 and NaCl (3.0%, 6.5%). Strains M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. coryniformis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and P. acidilactici, respectively, by sequencing 16S ribosomal DNA. The four isolates were added to Italian ryegrass for ensiling for 30 days at various temperatures. Compared with the corresponding control, inoculating with isolates M1, LM8 and LO7 could improve the silage quality of Italian ryegrass at low temperatures, indicated by significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:50:36.201628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12852
  • Expression level of the cytochrome P450c21 (CYP21) protein correlating to
           drip loss in pigs
    • Authors: Aungsuma Kaewkot; Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Jatuporn Noosud, Autchara Kayan
      Abstract: Drip loss is an important meat quality trait of fresh meat affecting economic losses. The cytochrome P450c21 (CYP21) protein has a role on cortisol production and depends on stress. This might affect meat quality. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of CYP21 protein in correlation with drip loss. The samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate drip loss (n = 300). Five muscles per group (low and high drip loss) were selected to evaluate CYP21 protein expression levels. Statistical analysis revealed that CYP21 protein expression levels were significantly difference between the drip loss groups. The high drip loss group had higher CYP21 protein expression levels than the low drip loss group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:35:22.172049-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12863
  • Improving effect of dietary soybean phospholipids supplement on hepatic
           and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying
    • Authors: Fei Yang; Jiming Ruan, Tiancheng Wang, Junrong Luo, Huabin Cao, Yalu Song, Jianzhen Huang, Guoliang Hu
      Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of dietary soybean phospholipid supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in layers, 135 300-day-old Hyline Brown layers were randomly divided into three groups (control, pathology and prevention), and each group had 45 layers with three replicates. Birds in the three groups were respectively fed the control diet, high-energy low-protein diet and high-energy high-protein diet affixed with 3% soybean phospholipid instead of maize. Results showed in the 30th day, birds’ livers in the pathology group became yellowish, enlarged in size and had hemorrhagic spots, while the prevention and control groups’ layers did not have such pathological changes. Contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein – cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde in serum or liver homogenate in prevention and control groups were remarkably lower than those in the pathology group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:30:43.983724-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12832
  • Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase
           concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows
    • Authors: Wenming Huang; Yujia Tian, Shengli Li, Zhaohai Wu, Zhijun Cao
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL/kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL/kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:12:49.495988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12835
  • Myosin substitution rate is affected by the amount of cytosolic myosin in
           cultured muscle cells
    • Authors: Koichi Ojima; Emi Ichimura, Yuya Yasukawa, Mika Oe, Susumu Muroya, Takahiro Suzuki, Jun-ichi Wakamatsu, Takanori Nishimura
      Abstract: In striated muscles, approximately 300 myosin molecules form a single thick filament in myofibrils. Each myosin is continuously displaced by another myosin to maintain the thick filament structure. Our previous study using a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique showed that the myosin replacement rate is decreased by inhibition of protein synthesis, but myosin is still exchangeable. This result prompted us to examine whether myosin in the cytoplasm is involved in myosin replacement in myofibrils. To address this, FRAP was measured in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin heavy chain 3 (Myh3) expressing myotubes that were treated with streptolysin-O (SLO), which forms pores specifically in the plasma membrane to induce leakage of cytoplasmic proteins. Our biochemical data demonstrated that the cytoplasmic myosin content was reduced in SLO-permeabilized semi-intact myotubes. Furthermore, FRAP experiments showed a sluggish substitution rate of GFP-Myh3 in SLO-permeabilized myotubes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the myosin substitution rate is significantly reduced by a decreased amount of myosin in the cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic myosin contributes to myosin replacement in myofibrils.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T21:26:03.192556-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12826
  • Evaluation of the genetic structure of sika deer (Cervus Nippon) in
    • Authors: Sayaka Konishi; Shoko Hata, Sayumi Matsuda, Kazushi Arai, Yasushi Mizoguchi
      Abstract: The browsing habits of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan have caused serious ecological problems. Appropriate management of sika deer populations requires understanding the different genetic structures of local populations. In the present study, we used 10 microsatellite polymorphisms to explore the genetic structures of sika deer populations (162 individuals) living in the Kanto region. The expected heterozygosity of the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I) was lower than that of the populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II). Our results suggest that moderate gene flow has occurred between the sika deer populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II), but not to or from the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I). Also, genetic structure analysis showed that the Tanzawa population was separated from the other populations. This is probably attributable to a genetic bottleneck that developed in the Tanzawa sika deer population in the 1950s. However, we found that the Tanzawa population has since recovered from the bottleneck situation and now exhibits good genetic diversity. Our results show that it is essential to periodically evaluate the genetic structures of deer populations to develop conservation strategies appropriate to the specific structures of individual populations at any given time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T21:00:46.86138-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12844
  • Survival of spray-dried and free-cells of potential probiotic
           Lactobacillus plantarum 564 in soft goat cheese
    • Authors: Zorica Radulović; Jelena Miočinović, Nemanja Mirković, Milica Mirković, Dušanka Paunović, Marina Ivanović, Sanja Seratlić
      Abstract: A high viability of probiotics in food product, with a living cells threshold of 107/cfu/g (colony-forming units/g) is a challenge to achieve in food production. Spray drying is an efficient and economic industrial method for probiotic bacterial preservation and its application in food products. In this study, the survival of free and spray-dried cells of potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 564 after production and during 8 weeks of storage of soft acid coagulated goat cheese was investigated, as well as compositional and sensory quality of cheese. Total bacterial count of spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells were maintained at the high level of 8.82 log/cfu/g in cheese after 8 weeks of storage, while free-cell number decreased to 6.9 log/cfu/g. However, the chemical composition, pH values and sensory evaluation between control cheese (C1 sample made with commercial starter culture) and treated cheese samples (C2 and C3, made with the same starter, with the addition of free and spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells, respectively) did not significantly differ. High viability of potential probiotic bacteria and acceptable sensory properties indicate that spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 strain could be successfully used in the production of soft acid coagulated goat cheeses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T20:50:39.117733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12802
  • Influence of dietary fat source on sow and litter performance, colostrum
           and milk fatty acid profile in late gestation and lactation
    • Authors: Chao Jin; Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Caimei Wu, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various fat sources (3.8–3.9% of diet) during late pregnancy and lactation on the reproductive performance, fatty acids profile in colostrum, milk and serum of sow progeny. A total of 80 multiparous sows were randomly fed a control (adding no oil), palm oil (PO), fish oil (FO) or soybean oil (SO) supplemented diet from 90 days of pregnancy to weaning. Supplementation of FO increased litter size of weak piglets, compared with the control-fed sows (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:52.497199-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12836
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1247 - 1248
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T00:48:59.559402-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12712
  • Characterization of the cathelicidin cluster in the Japanese quail
           (Coturnix japonica)
    • Authors: Taichiro Ishige; Hiromi Hara, Takashi Hirano, Tomohiro Kono, Kei Hanzawa
      Pages: 1249 - 1257
      Abstract: The Japanese quail has several advantages as a low-fat meat bird with high immunity against diseases. Cathelicidins (CATHs) are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immunity. The aim of this study was to characterize the CATH cluster in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The Japanese quail CATH (CjCATH) cluster, contains four CATH genes, as in the chicken. The coding sequences of CjCATHs exhibited>85.3% identity to chicken CATHs. The predicted amino acid sequences of the four CjCATH genes contained the cathelin-like domain characteristic of CATH proteins. Polymorphisms were detected in the open reading frames (ORFs) of all CjCATH sequences. Two amino acid substitutions were observed in the antimicrobial region of the mature peptide of CjCATH2, and predicted to influence peptide function. CjCATH1 is expressed in lung, heart, bone marrow and bursa of Fabricius (BF). CjCATH2 is expressed in bone marrow. CjCATH3 is expressed in lung, heart, bone marrow, BF, tongue and duodenum. CjCATHB1 is expressed in bone marrow and BF. This study is the first to characterize CATH genes in the Japanese quail, and identifies novel antimicrobial peptide sequences belonging to the cathelicidin family, which may play a role in immunity in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T20:40:27.494217-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12752
  • Genetic correlations between male reproductive traits and growth traits in
           growth performance tested Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breed boars
    • Authors: Hsiu-Luan Chang; Yung-Yu Lai, Ming-Che Wu, Osamu Sasaki
      Pages: 1258 - 1268
      Abstract: Male-related traits at 180–225 days of age for 6464 grow-finish performance tested boars were measured from 2000 to 2016. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations among average daily gain, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, teat counts, mounting libido, leg locomotion, penile length, sperm motility, sperm concentration and total sperm counts were estimated by VCE software using a multiple traits animal model in each breed. Growth-tested boars had heritability estimates of male reproductive traits in 0.34–0.56 of teat counts, 0.12–0.20 of libido, 0.08–0.12 of locomotion, 0.17–0.58 of penile length, 0.04–0.21 of sperm motility and concentration, 0.17–0.30 of total sperm counts. Total sperm counts were genetically positively correlated with penile length in all breeds. Boars with higher total sperm counts had genetically better libido and locomotion. Genetic correlation between feed efficiency and sperm motility and feed efficiency and sperm concentration were positive in Duroc and negative in Landrace and Yorkshire. Sperm motility and concentration were genetically negatively correlated with average daily gain in Yorkshire. Male reproductive traits of imported breeds could be improved with care in the change of growth traits, especially in Yorkshire.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:50:27.866497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12776
  • Effect of supplements during the cold season on the reproductive system in
           prepubertal Tibetan sheep ewes
    • Authors: Xiaoping Jing; Quanhui Peng, Rui Hu, Hongze Wang, Xiaoqiang Yu, Allan Degen, Huawei Zou, Shanke Bao, Suonan Zhao, Zhisheng Wang
      Pages: 1269 - 1278
      Abstract: We examined the development of the reproductive system in prepubertal Tibetan sheep ewes when fed only oat hay (CON) or supplemented with either lick blocks (BS) or concentrate feed (CS) during the cold season. The average daily gain of the CS ewes was greater than that of the BS ewes (P  CON. Serum concentrations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteotrophic hormone, estradiol and progesterone in the CS and BS groups were higher than in the CON group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T04:26:51.268032-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12762
  • Hampered cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes by
           excessive presence of alpha2-macroglobulin is likely mediated via
           inhibition of zinc-dependent metalloproteases
    • Authors: Ruth Appeltant; Josine Beek, Dominiek Maes, Jo Bijttebier, Katleen Van Steendam, Hans Nauwynck, Ann Van Soom
      Pages: 1279 - 1290
      Abstract: In vitro maturation (IVM) in serum causes hampered expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) due to excessive alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M). This study investigated two hypotheses that could explain the effect of A2M: (i) binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to A2M, followed by its decreased availability; and (ii) inhibition of zinc-dependent metalloproteases. Cumulus expansion was evaluated based on the diameter of the COCs, the proportion of COCs participating in a floating cloud and the proportion of COCs with loss of cumulus cells. The first hypothesis of decreased EGF availability was tested by increasing the EGF concentration (20 and 50 ng/mL vs. 10 ng/mL), but was not confirmed because cumulus expansion did not improve. To verify the second hypothesis of inhibited zinc-dependent metalloproteases, the effect of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-3 (TIMP-3) on cumulus expansion during IVM with and without A2M was investigated. To immuno-neutralize A2M, serum was pre-incubated with A2M antibodies. Impaired cumulus expansion because of TIMP-3 could only be observed during IVM in 10% of serum with A2M antibodies. No effect of TIMP-3 was observed in medium without A2M antibodies. These results indicate that A2M and TIMP-3 share a common target, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. Future research is directed toward the identification of the protease involved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T04:20:33.541098-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12767
  • The expression of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 proteins regulating endometrial
           remodeling in the porcine endometrial tissues during follicular and luteal
    • Authors: Seunghyung Lee; Sang-Hee Lee, Boo-Keun Yang, Choon-Keun Park
      Pages: 1291 - 1297
      Abstract: Endometrial remodeling is important for successful embryo development and implantation in pigs. Therefore, this study investigated change of proteins regulating endometrial remodeling on follicular and luteal phase in porcine endometrial tissues. The endometrial tissue samples were collected from porcine uterus during follicular and luteal phase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), myoglobin and cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) proteins were expressed by immnofluorescence, immunoblotting, and determined by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS. We found that VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 were strongly localized in endometrial tissues during luteal phase, but not follicular phase. The protein levels of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 in endometrial tissues were higher than luteal phase (P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T04:30:51.602224-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12774
  • Effects of melatonin on maturation, histone acetylation, autophagy of
           porcine oocytes and subsequent embryonic development
    • Authors: Zhen Chen; Xiaoyuan Zuo, Hui Li, Renyun Hong, Biao Ding, Chengxue Liu, Di Gao, Hui Shang, Zubing Cao, Weiping Huang, Xiaorong Zhang, Yunhai Zhang
      Pages: 1298 - 1310
      Abstract: Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone with roles in animal germ cell development. However, the effect of MLT on porcine oocyte maturation and its underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous MLT on oocyte maturation, histone acetylation, autophagy and subsequent embryonic development. We found that 1 nmol/L MLT supplemented in maturation medium was the optimal concentration to promote porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent developmental competence and quality of parthenogenetic embryos. Interestingly, the beneficial effects of 1 nmol/L MLT treatment on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development were mainly attributed to the first half period of in vitro maturation. Simultaneously, MLT treatment could also improve maturation of small follicle-derived oocytes, morphologically poor (cumulus cell layer ≤1) and even artificially denuded oocytes and their subsequent embryo development. Furthermore, MLT treatment not only could decrease the levels of H3K27ac and H4K16ac in metaphase II (MII) oocytes, but also could increase the expression abundances of genes associated with cumulus cell expansion, meiotic maturation, histone acetylation and autophagy in cumulus cells or MII oocytes. These results indicate that MLT treatment can facilitate porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development probably, through improvements in histone acetylation and autophagy in oocytes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T22:55:37.884023-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12779
  • Effects of supplementation of iodixanol to semen extender on quality and
           fertilization ability of frozen–thawed Thai native bull sperm
    • Authors: Phirawit Chuawongboon; Saksiri Sirisathien, Jatuporn Pongpeng, Denpong Sakhong, Takashi Nagai, Thevin Vongpralub
      Pages: 1311 - 1320
      Abstract: This study investigates the effects of iodixanol supplementation in varied concentrations to Tris egg yolk (TEY) extender on the quality and fertilization ability of frozen–thawed sperm of Thai native bulls. Each ejaculate was divided into four different groups, as follows: sperm were treated with TEY extender (control group) and TEY extender supplemented with three different concentrations of iodixanol (1.25%, 2.50% and 5.00%). Semen straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. After thawing, sperm motility characteristics, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were determined. Also, frozen–thawed spermatozoa from all groups were used for in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination (AI) in natural estrus Thai native cows. The results showed that the post-thaw quality of the 2.50% iodixanol group was superior to the other iodixanol groups (P  0.05). It can be concluded that the supplementation of 2.50% iodixanol extender significantly improves the progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity of cryopreserved semen from Thai native bulls, but it has no beneficial effect on in vitro fertilization ability and pregnancy rate after AI.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T19:25:24.559212-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12798
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus on
           gastrointestinal tract development in calves
    • Authors: Zhiwei Kong; Hongdong Jie, Chuanshe Zhou, Lianyu Yang, Zhiliang Tan, Wenyan Yang
      Pages: 1321 - 1326
      Abstract: Twenty-four newborn Holstein dairy male calves (with initial body weight of 38 ± 3.0 kg) were used in a randomized block design experiment to determine effects of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) on gastrointestinal tract development. Calves were fed milk (10%/body weight) three times at 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 hours daily with one to four treatments during the experimental periods (4 to 28 days): no supplementation of AS (control group, CG); 1.0 g/L•time of micro-powder AS (MP); 1.0 g/L•time of superfine powder AS (SP); or 1.0 g/L•time of coarse powder AS (CP). On days 7, 14, 21 and 28, 20 mL blood samples were collected at 06.00 hours before the morning feeding. At the end of the trial (28 days), all calves were euthanized, and tissue samples were taken and placed in 4% buffered formaldehyde for analyses. In the rumen of MP treatment, compared with the CG treatment, wall thickness and papillae diameter was both significantly lower (P
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:05:52.553156-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12764
  • Effect of quality of colostrum on health, growth and immunoglobulin G
           concentration in Holstein calves in a hot environment
    • Authors: Miguel Mellado; Edir Torres, Francisco G. Veliz, Angeles Santiago, Ulises Macias-Cruz, Jose E. Garcia
      Pages: 1327 - 1336
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ingestion of pasteurized and subsequently frozen–thawed pooled colostrum (≥50 mg Ig/mL) with different bacterial counts and immunoglobulin concentration (IgC) on the occurrence of diarrhea and pneumonia in 306 neonatal Holstein calves in a hot environment. Calves were assigned to be fed colostrum with total bacterial counts (TBC) lower or greater than 100 000 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, total coliform counts (TCC) greater or lower than 10 000 cfu/mL, and IgC lower or higher than 85 mg Ig/mL. Calves fed colostrum with TBC ≥100 000 cfu/mL were more likely (risk ratio 1.34, confidence interval 1.05–1.71; P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T02:56:22.441203-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12773
  • Studies on supplementary desalted mother liquor on digestibility of
           nutrients, ruminal fermentation, and energy and nitrogen balance in Thai
           native cattle
    • Authors: Takashi Sakai; Wanna Angthong, Motoharu Takeda, Kazato Oishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Hajime Kumagai
      Pages: 1337 - 1345
      Abstract: Four Thai native steers were used to determine the adequate levels of supplementary desalted mother liquor (DML) for energy and nitrogen balances and ruminal fermentation. The crude protein and sodium chloride contents of DML were 25.5% and 60.3% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. A 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted by adding different amounts of DML to three experimental diets (T1: 1.1%, T2: 2.2%, T3: 3.4% sodium chloride concentration with supplementary DML on a DM basis) and comparing their effects with those of a control diet (C) containing 1.0% commercial salt on a DM basis. The animals were given the experimental diets and rice straw daily at 1.2% and 0.8% of body weight, respectively, on a DM basis. No significant differences in the apparent digestibility of nutrients were observed among treatments. T3 achieved the lowest nitrogen retention (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:20:46.323618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12790
  • Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response
           to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets
    • Authors: Wisitiporn Suksombat; Atitthan Nanon, Chayapol Meeprom, Pipat Lounglawan
      Pages: 1346 - 1351
      Abstract: The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T23:55:31.049565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12778
  • Temporal changes in liver tissue metabolome of lambs fed low-quality
    • Authors: Wenbin Xu; Naoto Okayama, Atsushi Iwasawa, Masato Yayota
      Pages: 1352 - 1363
      Abstract: Early experience with low-quality roughage may induce adaptations in ruminants’ metabolism. This study was conducted to explore the variation in the hepatic metabolomes of lambs fed low-quality roughage beginning early in life. Five lambs were fed Sudan grass hay (crude protein (CP): 4.6% of the dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber, 68.5% of DM) for 6 months during time periods P1, P2 and P3, which consisted of 2 months each. The metabolizable energy (ME) and CP intake satisfied lambs’ maintenance requirements in P1 and P2, but the ME intake was 78.5% of the maintenance ME requirement in P3. Liver metabolomics was carried out in P2 and P3 by the capillary electrophoresis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry system. Eight amino acids and six amino acid metabolism-related metabolites were altered between P2 and P3. Several intermediates of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis decreased, while nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate increased in P3. Taurocholic acid and taurine increased, while glycocholic acid decreased in P3. The results suggested that amino acid utilization and the efficiency of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis might be adjusted to accommodate the low-quality roughage fed to the lambs during early stages of life. The composition of bile acids might also be optimized to promote the efficiency of lipid absorption.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T19:45:26.160128-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12792
  • Feeding corn distillers grains as an energy source to gestating and
           lactating beef heifers: Impact of excess protein on feedlot performance,
           glucose tolerance, carcass characteristics and Longissimus muscle fatty
           acid profile of steer progeny
    • Authors: Patrick J. Gunn; Glen A. Bridges, Ronald P. Lemenager, Jon P. Schoonmaker
      Pages: 1364 - 1371
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the impact of dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from 192 days of gestation through 118 days of lactation on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, Longissimus muscle (LM) fatty acids and glucose tolerance of male progeny (n = 36). Angus-Simmental heifer dams were fed diets that contained either DDGS (DG) or not (CON) formulated to provide similar daily net energy for gain but differing crude protein. In the feedlot, male progeny were fed a diet devoid of DDGS. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed on a subset of 20 steers prior to harvest. Steers were harvested at a common 12th rib fat depth. Data were analyzed with the GLIMMIX and MIXED procedures of SAS. Performance (P ≥ 0.11) and glucose and insulin concentrations during IVGTT (P ≥ 0.24) did not differ between treatments. Dressing percentage tended to be greater (P = 0.09) in DG than CON progeny, but all other carcass characteristics did not differ (P ≥ 0.18). Progeny from DG dams had greater LM 16:2, 18:0, and 20:1 n-9 concentrations than progeny from CON dams (P ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, DDGS are a viable option for gestating and lactating beef cows.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T20:01:16.649756-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12780
  • Effects of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration
           pH, ruminal fermentation and performance of growing Holstein-Zebu cross
    • Authors: Watcharawit Meenongyai; Virote Pattarajinda, Alexander M. Stelzleni, Jutarat Sethakul, Monchai Duangjinda
      Pages: 1372 - 1379
      Abstract: Our objective was to determine the effect of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and animal performance. Thirty Holstein-Zebu cross steers were allotted to feeding treatments for 188 days in a randomized complete block design including: fresh grass-total mixed ration (GTMR; pH 4.7), grass silage-TMR (STMR; pH 4.0) and fermented-TMR (FTMR; pH 3.5). Average daily gain for STMR was greatest during the first 3 months period; however, that for FTMR tended to be greater than GTMR during the second 3 months period (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T21:35:21.955193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12797
  • Effect of supplemental β-carotene compared to retinyl palmitate on fatty
           acid profile and expression of mRNA from genes involved in vitamin A
           metabolism in beef feedlot cattle
    • Authors: Kaitlin N. Condron; Jolena N. Waddell, Matt C. Claeys, Ronald P. Lemenager, Jon P. Schoonmaker
      Pages: 1380 - 1387
      Abstract: To examine the effects of dietary β-carotene (βC) or retinyl palmitate (RP) on fatty acid (FA) profile and mRNA expression, samples were collected from 24 Angus-cross calves that were allotted to four treatments consisting of RP supplemented at 2200 IU/kg, and synthetic β-carotene (SβC) supplemented at one, five or 10 times RP. Longissimus muscle (LM) cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid was greater in RP compared to SβC1X (P = 0.04). The polyunsaturated:saturated FA increased linearly (P = 0.04) in the LM as dietary SβC increased. Expression of βC oxygenase 2 (βCO2), an enzyme that cleaves β-carotene, was greater in the LM for SβC1X compared to RP and decreased linearly as SβC increased (P ≤ 0.02). Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the LM increased in SβC1X compared to RP (P = 0.03); however, PPARγ and retinoic acid X receptor α (RXRα) expression decreased linearly (P = 0.02) in the LM with increasing SβC. Retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) expression tended (P = 0.10) to decrease linearly in the LM with increased SβC. In conclusion, SβC supplementation increased mRNA expression of some lipogenic genes in the LM, but increasing dietary SβC inhibited their expression and tended to increase polyunsaturated FA.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T21:30:29.470018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12794
  • Effects of Armillariella tabescens mycelia on the growth performance and
           intestinal immune response and microflora of early-weaned pigs
    • Authors: Wen-Bin Chen; Mao-Ji Cheng, Yun-Bo Tian, Qin-Hua Wang, Bing Wang, Mei-Jun Li, Re-Jun Fang
      Pages: 1388 - 1397
      Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate effects of Armillariella tabescens (A. tabescens) on the growth performance and intestinal immune response and microflora in early-weaned pigs when used as feed additive. A. tabescens mycelia were added to basal diets at concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.9% (w/w). A total of 144 commercial cross-bred piglets were randomly allocated to one of these four diets and fed for 30 days. The growth performance of early-weaned piglets displayed improvement with diets containing 0.1% and 0.3% dried mycelia powder from A. tabescens. Supplementing with 0.1% or 0.3% A. tabescens mycelia induced a 2.6- and three-fold increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) content in the jejunal mucosa, respectively, but had only a marginal effect on sIgA in the ileal mucosa. Expression of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the jejunal mucosa were elevated with A. tabescens mycelia administration. Increased amounts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the jejunum, and decreased amounts of Escherichia coli in the jejunum and ileum were observed with the administration of A. tabescens-containing diets. This study demonstrated that A. tabescens had beneficial effects on the growth performance and intestinal microflora of early-weaned pigs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:35:26.318868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12765
  • Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal
           noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet
    • Authors: Ruixia Lan; Tianshui Li, Inho Kim
      Pages: 1398 - 1405
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T19:55:28.132292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12771
  • Fatty acid composition, fat deposition, lipogenic gene expression and
           performance of broiler fed diet supplemented with different sources of oil
    • Authors: Jannatara Khatun; Teck Chwen Loh, Henny Akit, Hooi Ling Foo, Rosfarizan Mohamad
      Pages: 1406 - 1413
      Abstract: The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T04:35:46.055241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12775
  • Effects of a protected inclusion of organic acids and essential oils as
           antibiotic growth promoter alternative on growth performance, intestinal
           morphology and gut microflora in broilers
    • Authors: Yanli Liu; Xin Yang, Hongliang Xin, Si Chen, Chengbo Yang, Yulan Duan, Xiaojun Yang
      Pages: 1414 - 1424
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of protected essential oils and organic acids mixture on poultry feeding. A total of 450 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three treatments with six replicates. Birds were offered a basal diet (C), basal diet with 0.15 g/kg enramycin premix (A) and basal diet with 0.30 g/kg protected essential oils and organic acids mixture product (P). The results showed that protected essential oils and organic acids mixture supplementation reduced average daily feed intake and ratio of feed to gain (F/G) at 22–42 days of age, and F/G during 1–42 days of age also declined (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:46:03.822921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12782
  • Effect of radiation on chemical composition and protein quality of
           cottonseed meal
    • Authors: Zohreh Bahraini; Somayyeh Salari, Mohsen Sari, Jamal Fayazi, Mehdi Behgar
      Pages: 1425 - 1435
      Abstract: This study was conducted to compare the effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) irradiation treatments at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy on chemical composition, protein quality and protein digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). GR irradiation in all doses significantly decreased the crude fiber of samples compared to raw CSM. Free and total gossypol content of CSM was decreased significantly by utilizing both types of irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Also, EB irradiation caused decrease in free and total gossypol content more than that of GR irradiation. GR irradiation at doses of 20 and 30 kGy, and EB irradiation at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy can significantly decrease protein solubility of CSM compared to that of a raw sample. GR irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy significantly increased apparent digestibility of protein compared to raw and EB irradiation of CSM at a dose of 10 kGy in Leghorn cockerels. Maximum increase in protein digestibility of CSM was observed in GR irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy. In conclusion, the present study showed that EB and GR irradiation reduced gossypol and crude fiber and increased protein digestibility of CSM but had no effect on protein quality of CSM.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T19:55:23.893608-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12784
  • Incorporating rosemary diterpenes in lamb diet to improve microbial
           quality of meat packed in different environments
    • Authors: Jordi Ortuño; Rafael Serrano, Sancho Bañón
      Pages: 1436 - 1445
      Abstract: The dietary use of phytochemicals may contribute to improving lamb meat preservation under different packing atmospheres. The objective was to test the preservative potential of a dietary rosemary extract (RE) containing carnosic acid and carnosol (at 1:1 w:w) in chilled lamb patties packed in air, vacuum and 70/30 O2/CO2 modified atmosphere. Three experimental diets, (C) control, (RE) C plus 600 mg RE/kg feed and (E) C plus 600 mg vitamin E/kg, were given to fattening lambs. Unlike the C- and E-diets, the RE-diet had a double antimicrobial and antioxidant effect on the lamb patties packed in all the environments studied. The RE-diet inhibited total viable and lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, but not Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp. and also improved oxidative stability (measured as CIE Lab color and thiobarbituric reagent substances), appearance and odor. The E-diet had a better antioxidant effect than the RE-diet but had no antimicrobial effects. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected. The dietary use of RE was most suitable for preserving vacuum-packed meat, which is more exposed to spoilage by anaerobic bacteria, while the use of dietary vitamin E allowed better control of oxidation in the meat packed in a bacteriostatic and oxidizing environment.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T04:30:53.095261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12768
  • Purification and quantification of heavy-chain antibodies from the milk of
           bactrian camels
    • Authors: Hongqiang Yao; Min Zhang, Yi Li, Jirimutu Yao, He Meng, Siriguleng Yu
      Pages: 1446 - 1450
      Abstract: Camel milk has a unique composition with naturally occurring heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs), which exert rehabilitating potencies in infection and immunity. To characterize HCAb in camel milk, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was isolated from the milk of Camelus bactrianus by a combination of affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to purify and size-fractionate protein A and protein G, which were further identified by Western blotting, and were quantified by bicinchoninic acid (BCA) and ELISA. The results indicated that IgG1 fraction contains molecules of 50 kDa heavy chains and 36 kDa light chains. The HCAbs (IgG2 and IgG3 fractions) devoid of light chains, contain heavy chains of 45 kDa and 43 kDa, respectively, the amounts of which were significantly higher than that of the IgG1 in the milk of bactrian camels. Above all, we revealed the considerable amounts of HCAbs in the milk of bactrian camels, and developed a novel method for their purification and quantification. These findings provide the basis for developing potential effects of camel milk and its interface with the dairy industry, as well as future investigations of HCAb and its roles in human health and diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T06:35:31.254406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12772
  • Long non-coding RNA analysis of muscular responses to testosterone
           deficiency in Huainan male pigs
    • Authors: Baosong Xing; Xianxiao Bai, Hongxia Guo, Junfeng Chen, Liushuai Hua, Jiaqing Zhang, Qiang Ma, Qiaoling Ren, Huashuai Wang, Jing Wang
      Pages: 1451 - 1456
      Abstract: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participated in growth and development of skeletal muscle; however, little is known about their response to testosterone deficiency in porcine skeletal muscle. We compared lean mass related carcass traits and lncRNAs expression files in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle between intact and castrated Huainan male pigs. The results showed that castration significantly reduced eye muscle area and lean meat percentage (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:55:25.694094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12777
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