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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Animal Science Journal
  [SJR: 0.569]   [H-I: 24]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1344-3941 - ISSN (Online) 1740-0929
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Resveratrol beneficially affects meat quality of heat-stressed broilers
           which is associated with changes in muscle antioxidant status
    • Authors: Cheng Zhang; Xiaohui Zhao, Li Wang, Lei Yang, Xingyong Chen, Zhaoyu Geng
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation on serum parameters, meat quality and muscle antioxidant status of broilers under heat stress (HS). A total of 270 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to three treatment groups with six replicates of 15 birds each. The three treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which birds were reared at 22 ± 1°C, and the HS and HS + Res (400 mg/kg) groups, in which birds were reared at 33 ± 1°C for 10 h (08.00–18.00 h) and 22 ± 1°C for the rest of the time. Compared with birds in the control group, birds in the HS group exhibited increased serum corticosterone (CORT) and triacylglycerol contents, L*, drip loss and muscle malondialdehyde content, and decreased serum glucose content, pH24 h, muscle total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T05:15:27.639147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12812
       
  • The effect of crate height on the behavior of female turkeys during
           commercial pre-slaughter transportation
    • Authors: Guido Di Martino; Katia Capello, Anna Lisa Stefani, Luca Tripepi, Angelica Garbo, Marina Speri, Matteo Trolese, Michele Brichese, Stefano Marangon, Lebana Bonfanti
      Abstract: Limited information is available on suitable height of transport crates for turkeys. We compared behaviors and physiological indicators of four groups of 10 female turkeys each confined in either conventional (38.5 cm height) or experimental (77 cm height) crates during six commercial pre-slaughter transportations for 86 km (76 ± 4 min) along two tracts with one-lane streets, crossroads, bends, roundabouts (S1 and S2) and a highway tract (H) between S1 and S2. Only 36% of birds in the higher crates maintained a standing position. In conventional versus experimental crates, the frequency of rising attempts was five/bird/hour versus less than one/bird/hour, while wing flapping was seven/bird/hour versus 20/bird/hour, and balance loss was one versus four/bird/hour. The behaviors of both groups differed significantly according to the route tract, with a lower frequency of stress-related behaviors at H. No scratches, fractures or hematomas were detected in any birds after transportation. Crate height had no significant effect on hemato-biochemical markers. These results suggest that crates enabling a standing position may increase potentially dangerous behaviors. Moreover, busy and curvy routes should be avoided, as they may contribute to increasing the frequency of stress-related behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T04:25:26.088912-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12823
       
  • Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol
           levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same
           barn
    • Authors: Natsumi Endo; Reimi Kuroki, Tomomi Tanaka
      Abstract: The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T04:20:39.092988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12828
       
  • A rapid analytical method of major milk proteins by reversed-phase
           high-performance liquid chromatography
    • Authors: Lu Ma; Yongxin Yang, Jingting Chen, Jiaqi Wang, Dengpan Bu
      Abstract: A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with rapid and automated analysis, good separation, high resolution, high accuracy and reproducible results was successfully developed and used to separate and quantify the major cow milk proteins within 30 min analytical time. Standard solutions of single purified cow milk proteins were used to develop calibration equations. The RP-HPLC method was validated with respect to intra-day repeatability, inter-day precision, linearity, accuracy and limit of detection (LOD). The recoveries of the RP-HPLC analyses of major milk proteins from cows ranged 71.0–114%, the inter-day precision was expressed as the relative standard deviation, and the ranged from 1.51 to 4.60% and the LOD ranged from 0.08 g/L to 0.28 g/L. Major proteins in cow were quantified according to the chromatographic profiles. Results showed that a rapid RP-HPLC method for quantifying the major cow milk proteins was developed, which could be used to determine milk protein contents in the dairy industry.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T03:55:32.681144-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12804
       
  • Effect of probiotic supplementation and genotype on growth performance,
           carcass traits, hematological parameters and immunity of growing rabbits
           under hot environmental conditions
    • Authors: Moataz Fathi; Magdy Abdelsalam, Ibrahim Al-Homidan, Tarek Ebeid, Mohamed El-Zarei, Osama Abou-Emera
      Abstract: The effect of dietary inclusion of probiotics and genetic groups on rabbit performance under hot environmental conditions was studied. A total of 80 rabbits aged 8 weeks were distributed into a completely randomized design in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, including four genetic groups and three concentrations of dietary probiotic (0, 200 and 400 g/t feed). The utilized probiotic contained 4 × 109 colony-forming units/g of Bacillus subtilis. Jabali local breed (J), imported Spanish V-line (V) and their crossbreds (¼J¾V and ¾J¼V) were included in the current study. Final weight and body weight gain were not significantly affected by dietary probiotic levels or genetic group. The feed conversion ratio was better for purebreds than that of crossbreds. A significant improvement in percentage of dressed carcass, mid and hind parts was recorded for rabbits fed a diet containing 400 g probiotic/t feed compared with those fed a basal diet or low probiotic level. Probiotic supplementation had a significant decrease in serum cholesterol. Rabbits given 400 g probiotic/t feed had higher hemoglobin, red blood cells and platelets. Adding 400 g probiotic/t feed to rabbit's diet significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved cell-mediated immunity compared to the other treatments 48 h post-injection.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T02:40:24.61714-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12811
       
  • Evaluation of dietary methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks
           for 3 weeks post-hatching
    • Authors: Jaehong Yoo; Young-Joo Yi, Samiru S. Wickramasuriya, Eunjoo Kim, Taeg Kyun Shin, Nu Ri Kim, Jung Min Heo
      Abstract: A total of 336 1-day-old male Korean native ducks (KND) were used in a completely randomized design with seven dietary methionine levels (0.30–0.90% with 0.1% increment) to determine the methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks for 3 weeks after hatching. Each dietary treatment had six replicates with eight ducklings per pen. One duckling from each pen (n = 6) was sacrificed to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the end of the experiment. Final body weight and weight gain of 3 weeks old KND were increased with increasing dietary methionine levels up to 0.4%, and then decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T05:47:06.685041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12833
       
  • Control of Pseudomonas mastitis on a large dairy farm by using slightly
           acidic electrolyzed water
    • Authors: Kazuhiro Kawai; Yasunori Shinozuka, Ikuo Uchida, Kazuhiko Hirose, Takashi Mitamura, Aiko Watanabe, Kana Kuruhara, Reiko Yuasa, Reiichiro Sato, Ken Onda, Hajime Nagahata
      Abstract: The disinfection effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) use in a farm where Pseudomonas mastitis has spread was evaluated. Despite the application of antibiotic therapy and complete cessation of milking infected quarters, numerous new and recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical mastitis infections (5.8–7.1% of clinical mastitis cases) occurred on the farm from 2003 to 2005. Procedural changes and equipment modifications did not improve environmental contamination or the incidence of Pseudomonas mastitis. To more thoroughly decontaminate the milking parlor, an SAEW system was installed in 2006. All milking equipment and the parlor environment were sterilized with SAEW (pH 5–6.5, available chlorine 12 parts per million) before and during milking time. After adopting the SAEW system, the incidence of clinical and subclinical Pseudomonas mastitis cases decreased significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T02:35:46.546812-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12815
       
  • Thirty years of interferon-tau research; Past, present and future
           perspective
    • Authors: Kazuhiko Imakawa; Rulan Bai, Keigo Nakamura, Kazuya Kusama
      Abstract: The year 2017 marks the 30th year since the discovery was made of amino acid and complementary DNA sequences of ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1), later renamed as interferon-tau (IFNτ). Ovine TP-1 was originally found as a secretory product of sheep conceptuses that rescues maternal corpus luteum (CL) and in fact, the uterine infusion of oTP-1 extended inter-estrous intervals. Finding this signaling molecule as an IFN-like sequence was surprising to the scientific community in reproduction because a homologous molecule in humans possesses anti-viral and anti-prolific activity and is often used in human medicines. However, since its discovery was made, large efforts have been made in the elucidation of transcriptional regulation and functions of bovine and ovine IFNτs, more importantly, the improvement of pregnancy rates in sheep and cattle, most of which resulted in unsuccessful outcomes. In this review, physiological, cellular and molecular events associated with continued secretion of progesterone, maternal recognition of pregnancy, identification, transcriptional regulation and function of IFNτ, and its future perspectives will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T05:56:26.150853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12807
       
  • Evaluation of the thermal property of bovine intramuscular adipose tissue
           using differential scanning calorimetry
    • Authors: Noriyuki Kimura; Nana Nishimura, Nagako Iwama, Yoshito Aihara, Yasuki Ogawa, Yuji Miyaguchi
      Abstract: The thermal property of bovine intramuscular adipose tissue (IAT) was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compared with the melting point temperature (MP) of the fat extract of IAT, which was measured using the slip point method. The beef samples were classified according to the beef marbling score (BMS). Beef with a high BMS contained less protein than that with middle or low BMS. Beef with a high BMS contained significantly more fat than that with a low BMS (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T21:45:30.157541-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12806
       
  • Effect of grape pomace on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of
           sweet sorghum silage
    • Authors: Ping Li; Yixin Shen, Minghong You, Yu Zhang, Jiajun Yan, Daxue Li, Shiqie Bai
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape pomace (GP) with different adding levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, fresh matter basis), alone (GP-LAB) or in combine with an inoculant LAB (GP+LAB), on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. After 90 days of ensiling in vacuumized mini-silos, silages were subject to a 7-day aerobic stability test, in which chemical, microbial and polyphenol composition were measured. In the GP-LAB group, adding GP decreased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T21:45:27.316986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12791
       
  • Assessment of the usage of biodegradable polymeric matrix in vaginal
           devices to sustain progesterone release in cows
    • Authors: José Rodrigo Valim Pimentel; Milton Maturana Filho, Lucio Cardozo-Filho, José Augusto M. Agnelli, Jefter Nascimento, Ed Hoffmann Madureira
      Abstract: The usage of timed artificial insemination (TAI) at a low cost leading to better reproductive rates has been the aim of several research groups in the field. Usually during TAI protocols, sustained progesterone (P4) release devices are employed. Most devices are constituted of a nylon skeleton covered with a silicon layer with P4. A device based on biopolymers was developed in order to reduce costs and decrease its environmental impact. In this study, we compared the kinetics of sustained progesterone release among devices manufactured with a polymeric blend made of polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate (PHBV) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) (DISP) which were compared with DIB® (Internal Bovine Device) used as the control. In the in vitro and in vivo progesterone release tests, two types of biopolymer-based devices with a superficial area of 147 cm2 were used: DISP8 (46% PHBV, 46% PCL and 8% P4; n = 4), DISP10 (45% PHBV, 45% PCL, 10% P4; n = 4) and DIB® (1 g P4, 120 cm2 area; n = 3). The in vitro tests were carried out according to USP XXIII specifications and were performed in a dissolutor sink using an alcohol/water mixture (60/40 v/v) as a release media and samples were collected at 2 min, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h. P4 concentrations were measured through spectrophotometry in a 244 nm long wave. Three to 3 comparisons of angular coefficients of the straight lines obtained by regression analysis of accumulated P4 concentrations as a function of square root of time were carried out. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient values of P4 were also determined for DISP8 and DISP10. The results showed that the concentrations of P4 were higher in the DISP10 (774.63 ± 45.26 μg/cm2/t1/2) compared to DISP8 (566.17 ± 3.68 μg/cm2/t1/2) (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T21:40:38.78211-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12755
       
  • Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and harvesting stage on photosynthetic
           pigments and phytol contents of Italian ryegrass silage
    • Authors: Renlong Lv; Mabrouk EL-Sabagh, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino, Yuzo Kurokawa, Kensuke Kawamura
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and harvesting stage on the contents of chlorophyll, phytol and carotenoids (β-carotene and lutein) in Italian ryegrass herbage before and after ensiling, and the extent of phytol preservation after ensiling. Three rates of N fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha) were applied by top-dressing as an additional fertilizer. The herbage harvested at booting stage (27 weeks of age) or heading stage (29 weeks of age) were wilted for 1 day, then ensiled for 60 days using a small-scale pouch system. In the pre-ensiled herbages, increasing N fertilizer application increased the contents of crude protein and photosynthetic pigments, and these contents were also higher at the booting stage compared with the heading stage. In the silage, increasing N fertilizer application also increased the contents of crude protein, the photosynthetic pigments and their derivatives (pheophytin and pheophorbide), while harvesting stage did not affect the contents of β-carotene, chlorophylls or pheophorbide. Nitrogen fertilizer application and early harvesting of herbage increased lutein and phytol contents in Italian ryegrass silage. Lutein and phytol in Italian ryegrass herbage are indicated to be well preserved during ensiling.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:20:50.785372-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12810
       
  • Social defeat models in animal science: What we have learned from rodent
           models
    • Authors: Atsushi Toyoda
      Abstract: Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders. Recently, we have focused on behavior, nutrition and metabolism in rodent models of social defeat to elucidate how social stresses affect animals. In this review, recent significant progress in studies related to animal social defeat models are described. In the field of animal science, these stress models may contribute to advances in the development of functional foods and in the management of animal welfare.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:16:42.911115-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12809
       
  • Control mechanisms for producing antimicrobial factors in ruminant mammary
           gland
    • Authors: Naoki Isobe
      Abstract: Mastitis, a symptom of inflammation in mammary tissue by infection with various kinds of bacteria, causes huge economic losses in the milk industry. One of the popular methods for treatment of mastitis is antibiotics, although this prohibits milk shipping and sometimes causes resistant microbes. Therefore, a new strategy to treat mastitis without antibiotics is eagerly required around the world. Antimicrobial factors belong to innate immunity and can start their function extremely early after bacterial stimulation. These factors have antimicrobial activity for a broad spectrum of bacteria. Elucidation of causal mechanisms and functions of antimicrobial factors in the mammary gland is thought to result in suitable methods for prevention and treatment of mastitis. Therefore, this review introduces traits of some antimicrobial factors and the mechanisms for expressing, producing and secreting them in the mammary gland. For antimicrobial factors, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), S100A7, cathelicidin and lactoferrin are controlled in different sites and different time courses, suggesting that antimicrobial factors play different roles for local defense against bacterial infection in the mammary gland. These findings will contribute to the development of prevention and treatment methods for mastitis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:05:49.48794-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12808
       
  • Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders
    • Authors: Iwona Janczarek; Izabela Wilk
      Abstract: Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:25:39.032975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12800
       
  • Comparative analysis of the merino sheep and Iberian red deer abomasum
           during prenatal development
    • Authors: Antonio Franco; Javier Masot, Eloy Redondo
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the abomasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of the sheep and 50 red deer from the first prenatal stages until birth. To compare similar periods of gestation in both species, we calculate the percentages of gestation. The appearance of the abomasum was earlier in the red deer (22% gestation) than in the sheep (25% gestation). Throughout development the epithelium happened sequentially, being of the types pseudostratified to simple cylindrical. This important modification was earlier in the red deer than the sheep. At 46% gestation in red deer and 50% in sheep, gastric pits were observed on the surface of abomasal folds. Our studies suggest a close link between the initial formation of these pseudoglandular structures and the clear separation of lamina propria and submucosa separated by de muscularis mucosae. At 54% gestation in red deer and at 60% in sheep, in the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands were distinguishable. Finally, the presence of neuroendocrine and glial cells were detected in deer at earlier stages than in sheep.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:16:12.323403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12783
       
  • Furosemide loading test in a case of homozygous solute carrier family 12,
           member 1 (SLC12A1) mutation (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) in Japanese Black
           cattle
    • Authors: Kiyotoshi Hasegawa; Shinji Sasaki, Yoichi Sakamoto, Akifumi Takano, Megumi Takayama, Tomoko Higashi, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Yasuaki Yasuda
      Abstract: Hydrallantois is the excessive accumulation of fluid in the allantoic cavity in a pregnant animal and is associated with fetal death. We recently identified a recessive missense mutation in the solute carrier family 12, member 1 (SLC12A1) gene (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) that is associated with hydrallantois in Japanese Black cattle. Unexpectedly, we found a case of the homozygous risk-allele for SLC12A1 in a calf, using a PCR-based direct DNA sequencing test. The homozygote was outwardly healthy up to 3 months of age and the mother did not exhibit any clinical symptoms of hydrallantois. In order to validate these observations, we performed confirmation tests for the genotype and a diuretic loading test using furosemide, which inhibits the transporter activity of the SLC12A1 protein. The results showed that the calf was really homozygous for the risk-allele. In the homozygous calf, administration of furosemide did not alter urinary Na+ or Cl− levels, in contrast to the heterozygote and wild-type calves in which these were significantly increased. These results demonstrate that the SLC12A1 (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) is a hypomorphic or loss-of-function mutation and the hydrallantois with this mutation shows incomplete penetrance in Japanese Black cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:38.645997-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12789
       
  • Screening and investigation Lactobacillius spp. to improve Secale cereale
           silage quality
    • Authors: Hye Sun Kim; Ouk Kyu Han, Sam Churl Kim, Min Jung Kim, Youn-Sig Kwak
      Abstract: Silage is a high-moisture-content forage that is used to feed livestock. Using silage as feed is economically feasible and suitable for cattle management. Secale cereale is considered as a high-quality forage plant. After the heading stage the biomass of S. cereale increases by up to 30%; however, lignification in the cell wall causes low fermentation efficiency and coefficient digestibility, and it may also be contaminated by mycotoxin-producing fungi and can impair the quality of the silage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen beneficial Lactobacillius spp. for S. cereale silage to reduce fungi contamination and to increase fibrinolytic ability in the silage. Up to 100 days fermentation period and total 180 lactic acid bacteria were isolated and only a single isolate, R4-26, showed strong acidification ability and antifungal activities against mycotoxin-producing fungus. According to quantitative RT-PCR results, the mycotoxin-producing fungal contamination was significantly reduced in the S. cereale silage containing the R4-26 isolate. In enzymatic assays, only a single isolate, R48-27 demonstrated cellulase, xylanase, chitinase and esterase activities. In conclusion, the beneficial Lactobacillius spp. strains have the ability to reduce mycotoxigenic fungi contamination and increase fibrinolytic activity to improve quality of the S. cereale silage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:36.628464-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12781
       
  • Effects of aflatoxin B1 on mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and
           apoptosis in broiler cardiomyocytes
    • Authors: Wen-Jun Wang; Zhi-Liang Xu, Cheng Yu, Xiao-Hong Xu
      Abstract: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) develops various toxic effects in the liver by impairing mitochondrial function, inducing cell apoptosis. However, little is focused on its toxicity to broiler cardiomyocytes (BCMs). Here, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) location, apoptosis induced by AFB1, and antioxidative genes were investigated in BCMs. It was found that AFB1 evoked intracellular ROS generation, and induced apoptosis in BCMs. AFB1 treatment resulted in increased percentage of apoptotic cells, increased location range of cTnT in cytoplasm, upregulated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and downregulated mRNA expressions of Mn-superoxide dismutase in BCMs. These findings suggested AFB1 treatment caused significant cardiomyocyte damage and cardiotoxicity, impairment of mitochondrial functions, activated ROS generation, and induced apoptosis, and probably was involved in the Nrf2 signal pathway in BCMs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:25.9591-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12796
       
  • Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of stylo prepared with lactic
           acid bacteria and cellulase
    • Authors: Mao Li; Hanlin Zhou, Xuejuan Zi, Yimin Cai
      Abstract: In order to improve the silage fermentation of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) in tropical areas, stylo silages were prepared with commercial additives Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso-1 (CH1), L. rhamnasus Snow Lact L (SN), Acremonium cellulase (CE) and their combination as SN+CE or CH1 + CE, and the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of these silages were studied. Stylo silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or cellulase, the pH value and NH3-N ⁄ total-N were significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:22.522753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12795
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc
           sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc
           transporters in young pigs
    • Authors: Bo Deng; Xihong Zhou, Jie Wu, Ciming Long, Yajun Yao, Hongxing Peng, Dan Wan, Xin Wu
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:21.310334-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12788
       
  • Advanced treatment technique for swine wastewater using two agents:
           Thermally polymerized amorphous silica and hydrated lime for color and
           phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal
    • Authors: Teruaki Hasegawa; Yohei Kurose, Yasuo Tanaka
      Abstract: The efficacy of advanced treatment of swine wastewater using thermally polymerized, modified amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal was examined with a demonstration-scale treatment plant. The color removal rate was approximately 78% at M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.055 wt/v%. The PO43−-P removal rate exceeded 99.9% with > 0.023 wt/v%. pH of the effluent from the M-CSH-lime reactor increased with the addition rate till a maximum value of 12.7, which was effective in disinfection. The recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as a phosphorus fertilizer because the total P2O5 content was approximately 10%. The nitrogen oxide (NOx-N) removal rate by sulfur denitrification increased to approximately 80% when the NOx-N loading rate was around 0.1 kg-N/ton-S/day. It was suggested that the combination of the two processes would be effective in the advanced treatment of swine wastewater.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:18.384827-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12803
       
  • Influence of riders’ skill on plasma cortisol levels of horses walking
           on forest and field trekking courses
    • Authors: Ayaka Ono; Akihiro Matsuura, Yumi Yamazaki, Wakako Sakai, Kentaro Watanabe, Toshihiko Nakanowatari, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Mami Irimajiri, Koichi Hodate
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rider's skill on the plasma cortisol levels of trekking horses on two courses, walking on field and forest courses (about 4.5 to 5.1 km each). Three riders of different skills did horse trekking (HT) in a tandem line under a fixed order: advanced-leading, beginner-second and intermediate-last. A total of six horses were used and they experienced all positions in both courses; a total of 12 experiments were done. Blood samples were obtained before HT, immediately after and 2 h after HT. As a control, additional blood samples were obtained from the same horses on non-riding days. Irrespective of the course and the rider's skill, the cortisol level before HT was higher than that of control (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:15.420063-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12801
       
  • Genetic relationships between temperament of calves at auction and carcass
           traits in Japanese Black cattle
    • Authors: Kazuya Takeda; Hiroshi Uchida, Keiichi Inoue
      Abstract: Correlations of calves’ temperament with carcass traits were estimated to clarify the genetic relationships between them in Japanese Black cattle. The temperament records for 3128 calves during auction at a calf market were scored on a scale of 1 (calm) to 5 (nervous) as temperament score (TS), and the TS were divided into two groups (TSG): TS 1 and 2 comprised TSG 1, and 3 to 5 constituted TSG 2. Carcass data were obtained from 33 552 fattened cattle. A threshold animal model was used for analyzing the underlying liability for TSG, whereas a linear one was used for TS and carcass traits. The heritability estimates for TS and TSG were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively. On the other hand, moderate to high heritability estimates were obtained for carcass traits (0.40 to 0.68). The temperament scores were negatively correlated with carcass weight, rib thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness (−0.13 to −0.59). In contrast, weak to moderate positive correlations were found between the temperament scores and rib eye area or yield estimate (0.16 to 0.45). The temperament scores and beef marbling score had no correlation. These results showed that it is possible to improve temperament and carcass traits simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:21:04.733181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12787
       
  • Studies on supplementary desalted mother liquor on digestibility of
           nutrients, ruminal fermentation, and energy and nitrogen balance in Thai
           native cattle
    • Authors: Takashi Sakai; Wanna Angthong, Motoharu Takeda, Kazato Oishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Hajime Kumagai
      Abstract: Four Thai native steers were used to determine the adequate levels of supplementary desalted mother liquor (DML) for energy and nitrogen balances and ruminal fermentation. The crude protein and sodium chloride contents of DML were 25.5% and 60.3% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. A 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted by adding different amounts of DML to three experimental diets (T1: 1.1%, T2: 2.2%, T3: 3.4% sodium chloride concentration with supplementary DML on a DM basis) and comparing their effects with those of a control diet (C) containing 1.0% commercial salt on a DM basis. The animals were given the experimental diets and rice straw daily at 1.2% and 0.8% of body weight, respectively, on a DM basis. No significant differences in the apparent digestibility of nutrients were observed among treatments. T3 achieved the lowest nitrogen retention (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:20:46.323618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12790
       
  • Interactions of bovine oocytes with follicular elements with respect to
           lipid metabolism
    • Authors: Ewelina Warzych; Piotr Pawlak, Marcin Pszczola, Adam Cieslak, Zofia E. Madeja, Dorota Lechniak
      Abstract: Among many factors, lipid metabolism within the follicular environment emerges as an important indicator of oocyte quality. In the literature a crucial significance is described concerning follicular fluid (FF) composition as well as messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in follicular cells. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between oocyte, FF and follicular cells with regard to lipid metabolism. The set of data originating from individual follicles comprised: lipid droplets (LD) number in oocytes (BODIPY staining), mRNA expression of seven genes in cumulus and granulosa cells (SCD, FADS2, ELOVL2, ELOVL5, GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT8; real time polymerase chain reaction) and fatty acid (FA) composition in FF (gas chromatography). Obtained results demonstrate significant correlation between oocyte lipid droplets number and FA composition in FF. However, gene expression studies show significant correlation between LD number and GLUT1 gene only. Moreover, the present experiment revealed correlations between FA content in FF and expression of several genes (SCD, FADS2, ELOVL5, GLUT8) in granulosa cells, whereas only the SCD gene in cumulus cells. We suggest that the results of our experiment indicate the importance of glucose : lipid metabolism balance, which contributes to better understanding of energy metabolism conversion between oocytes and the maternal environment.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T05:20:40.161061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12799
       
  • Genome-wide association studies reveal additional related loci for fatty
           acid composition in a Duroc pig multigenerational population
    • Authors: Shuji Sato; Yoshinobu Uemoto, Takashi Kikuchi, Sachiko Egawa, Kimiko Kohira, Tomomi Saito, Hironori Sakuma, Satoshi Miyashita, Shinji Arata, Keiichi Suzuki
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci affecting fatty acid composition in back fat and intramuscular fat in a Duroc pig population comprising seventh-generation pedigrees using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In total, 305 animals were genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array and five selected SNPs from regions containing known candidate genes related to fatty acid synthesis or metabolism. In total, 24 genome-wide significant SNP regions were detected in 12 traits, and 76 genome-wide suggestive SNP regions were detected in 33 traits. The Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 7 at 10.3 Mb was significantly associated with C17:0 in intramuscular fat, while the SSC9 at 13.6 Mb was significantly associated with C14:0 in intramuscular fat. The SSC12 at 1.0 Mb was significantly associated with C14:0 in back fat and the SSC14 at 121.0 Mb was significantly associated with C18:0 in intramuscular fat. These regions not only replicated previously reported loci containing some candidate genes involved in fatty acid composition (fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) but also included several additional related loci.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T04:10:30.34487-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12793
       
  • Temporal changes in liver tissue metabolome of lambs fed low-quality
           roughage
    • Authors: Wenbin Xu; Naoto Okayama, Atsushi Iwasawa, Masato Yayota
      Abstract: Early experience with low-quality roughage may induce adaptations in ruminants’ metabolism. This study was conducted to explore the variation in the hepatic metabolomes of lambs fed low-quality roughage beginning early in life. Five lambs were fed Sudan grass hay (crude protein (CP): 4.6% of the dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber, 68.5% of DM) for 6 months during time periods P1, P2 and P3, which consisted of 2 months each. The metabolizable energy (ME) and CP intake satisfied lambs’ maintenance requirements in P1 and P2, but the ME intake was 78.5% of the maintenance ME requirement in P3. Liver metabolomics was carried out in P2 and P3 by the capillary electrophoresis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry system. Eight amino acids and six amino acid metabolism-related metabolites were altered between P2 and P3. Several intermediates of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis decreased, while nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate increased in P3. Taurocholic acid and taurine increased, while glycocholic acid decreased in P3. The results suggested that amino acid utilization and the efficiency of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis might be adjusted to accommodate the low-quality roughage fed to the lambs during early stages of life. The composition of bile acids might also be optimized to promote the efficiency of lipid absorption.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T19:45:26.160128-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12792
       
  • Effects of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration
           pH, ruminal fermentation and performance of growing Holstein-Zebu cross
           steers
    • Authors: Watcharawit Meenongyai; Virote Pattarajinda, Alexander M. Stelzleni, Jutarat Sethakul, Monchai Duangjinda
      Abstract: Our objective was to determine the effect of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and animal performance. Thirty Holstein-Zebu cross steers were allotted to feeding treatments for 188 days in a randomized complete block design including: fresh grass-total mixed ration (GTMR; pH 4.7), grass silage-TMR (STMR; pH 4.0) and fermented-TMR (FTMR; pH 3.5). Average daily gain for STMR was greatest during the first 3 months period; however, that for FTMR tended to be greater than GTMR during the second 3 months period (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T21:35:21.955193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12797
       
  • Effect of supplemental β-carotene compared to retinyl palmitate on fatty
           acid profile and expression of mRNA from genes involved in vitamin A
           metabolism in beef feedlot cattle
    • Authors: Kaitlin N. Condron; Jolena N. Waddell, Matt C. Claeys, Ronald P. Lemenager, Jon P. Schoonmaker
      Abstract: To examine the effects of dietary β-carotene (βC) or retinyl palmitate (RP) on fatty acid (FA) profile and mRNA expression, samples were collected from 24 Angus-cross calves that were allotted to four treatments consisting of RP supplemented at 2200 IU/kg, and synthetic β-carotene (SβC) supplemented at one, five or 10 times RP. Longissimus muscle (LM) cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid was greater in RP compared to SβC1X (P = 0.04). The polyunsaturated:saturated FA increased linearly (P = 0.04) in the LM as dietary SβC increased. Expression of βC oxygenase 2 (βCO2), an enzyme that cleaves β-carotene, was greater in the LM for SβC1X compared to RP and decreased linearly as SβC increased (P ≤ 0.02). Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the LM increased in SβC1X compared to RP (P = 0.03); however, PPARγ and retinoic acid X receptor α (RXRα) expression decreased linearly (P = 0.02) in the LM with increasing SβC. Retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) expression tended (P = 0.10) to decrease linearly in the LM with increased SβC. In conclusion, SβC supplementation increased mRNA expression of some lipogenic genes in the LM, but increasing dietary SβC inhibited their expression and tended to increase polyunsaturated FA.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T21:30:29.470018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12794
       
  • Effect of radiation on chemical composition and protein quality of
           cottonseed meal
    • Authors: Zohreh Bahraini; Somayyeh Salari, Mohsen Sari, Jamal Fayazi, Mehdi Behgar
      Abstract: This study was conducted to compare the effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) irradiation treatments at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy on chemical composition, protein quality and protein digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). GR irradiation in all doses significantly decreased the crude fiber of samples compared to raw CSM. Free and total gossypol content of CSM was decreased significantly by utilizing both types of irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Also, EB irradiation caused decrease in free and total gossypol content more than that of GR irradiation. GR irradiation at doses of 20 and 30 kGy, and EB irradiation at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy can significantly decrease protein solubility of CSM compared to that of a raw sample. GR irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy significantly increased apparent digestibility of protein compared to raw and EB irradiation of CSM at a dose of 10 kGy in Leghorn cockerels. Maximum increase in protein digestibility of CSM was observed in GR irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy. In conclusion, the present study showed that EB and GR irradiation reduced gossypol and crude fiber and increased protein digestibility of CSM but had no effect on protein quality of CSM.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T19:55:23.893608-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12784
       
  • Effects of supplementation of iodixanol to semen extender on quality and
           fertilization ability of frozen–thawed Thai native bull sperm
    • Authors: Phirawit Chuawongboon; Saksiri Sirisathien, Jatuporn Pongpeng, Denpong Sakhong, Takashi Nagai, Thevin Vongpralub
      Abstract: This study investigates the effects of iodixanol supplementation in varied concentrations to Tris egg yolk (TEY) extender on the quality and fertilization ability of frozen–thawed sperm of Thai native bulls. Each ejaculate was divided into four different groups, as follows: sperm were treated with TEY extender (control group) and TEY extender supplemented with three different concentrations of iodixanol (1.25%, 2.50% and 5.00%). Semen straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. After thawing, sperm motility characteristics, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were determined. Also, frozen–thawed spermatozoa from all groups were used for in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination (AI) in natural estrus Thai native cows. The results showed that the post-thaw quality of the 2.50% iodixanol group was superior to the other iodixanol groups (P  0.05). It can be concluded that the supplementation of 2.50% iodixanol extender significantly improves the progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity of cryopreserved semen from Thai native bulls, but it has no beneficial effect on in vitro fertilization ability and pregnancy rate after AI.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T19:25:24.559212-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12798
       
  • Effects of melatonin on maturation, histone acetylation, autophagy of
           porcine oocytes and subsequent embryonic development
    • Authors: Zhen Chen; Xiaoyuan Zuo, Hui Li, Renyun Hong, Biao Ding, Chengxue Liu, Di Gao, Hui Shang, Zubing Cao, Weiping Huang, Xiaorong Zhang, Yunhai Zhang
      Abstract: Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone with roles in animal germ cell development. However, the effect of MLT on porcine oocyte maturation and its underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous MLT on oocyte maturation, histone acetylation, autophagy and subsequent embryonic development. We found that 1 nmol/L MLT supplemented in maturation medium was the optimal concentration to promote porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent developmental competence and quality of parthenogenetic embryos. Interestingly, the beneficial effects of 1 nmol/L MLT treatment on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development were mainly attributed to the first half period of in vitro maturation. Simultaneously, MLT treatment could also improve maturation of small follicle-derived oocytes, morphologically poor (cumulus cell layer ≤1) and even artificially denuded oocytes and their subsequent embryo development. Furthermore, MLT treatment not only could decrease the levels of H3K27ac and H4K16ac in metaphase II (MII) oocytes, but also could increase the expression abundances of genes associated with cumulus cell expansion, meiotic maturation, histone acetylation and autophagy in cumulus cells or MII oocytes. These results indicate that MLT treatment can facilitate porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development probably, through improvements in histone acetylation and autophagy in oocytes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T22:55:37.884023-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12779
       
  • Effects of a protected inclusion of organic acids and essential oils as
           antibiotic growth promoter alternative on growth performance, intestinal
           morphology and gut microflora in broilers
    • Authors: Yanli Liu; Xin Yang, Hongliang Xin, Si Chen, Chengbo Yang, Yulan Duan, Xiaojun Yang
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of protected essential oils and organic acids mixture on poultry feeding. A total of 450 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three treatments with six replicates. Birds were offered a basal diet (C), basal diet with 0.15 g/kg enramycin premix (A) and basal diet with 0.30 g/kg protected essential oils and organic acids mixture product (P). The results showed that protected essential oils and organic acids mixture supplementation reduced average daily feed intake and ratio of feed to gain (F/G) at 22–42 days of age, and F/G during 1–42 days of age also declined (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:46:03.822921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12782
       
  • Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in various inorganic
           phosphates fed to growing pigs
    • Authors: Woong Bi Kwon; Beob Gyun Kim
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus (P) in five sources of inorganic phosphate fed to growing pigs, including dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and monosodium phosphate (MSP, reagent grade). Six barrows (42.4 ± 1.1 kg) individually housed in metabolism crates were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with six dietary treatments and six periods. Each experimental period consisted of a 4 day adaptation period and a 5 day collection period. The five experimental diets contained 0.24 to 0.34% of P from each inorganic phosphate as a sole source of P. A P-free diet was also prepared to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. The STTD of P in MSP (94.9%) was not different from the STTD of P in MCP (93.0%), but was greater (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:41:37.210922-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12785
       
  • Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal
           noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet
    • Authors: Ruixia Lan; Tianshui Li, Inho Kim
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T19:55:28.132292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12771
       
  • Fatty acid composition, fat deposition, lipogenic gene expression and
           performance of broiler fed diet supplemented with different sources of oil
           
    • Authors: Jannatara Khatun; Teck Chwen Loh, Henny Akit, Hooi Ling Foo, Rosfarizan Mohamad
      Abstract: The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T04:35:46.055241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12775
       
  • Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response
           to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets
    • Authors: Wisitiporn Suksombat; Atitthan Nanon, Chayapol Meeprom, Pipat Lounglawan
      Abstract: The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T23:55:31.049565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12778
       
  • Feeding corn distillers grains as an energy source to gestating and
           lactating beef heifers: Impact of excess protein on feedlot performance,
           glucose tolerance, carcass characteristics and Longissimus muscle fatty
           acid profile of steer progeny
    • Authors: Patrick J. Gunn; Glen A. Bridges, Ronald P. Lemenager, Jon P. Schoonmaker
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the impact of dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from 192 days of gestation through 118 days of lactation on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, Longissimus muscle (LM) fatty acids and glucose tolerance of male progeny (n = 36). Angus-Simmental heifer dams were fed diets that contained either DDGS (DG) or not (CON) formulated to provide similar daily net energy for gain but differing crude protein. In the feedlot, male progeny were fed a diet devoid of DDGS. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed on a subset of 20 steers prior to harvest. Steers were harvested at a common 12th rib fat depth. Data were analyzed with the GLIMMIX and MIXED procedures of SAS. Performance (P ≥ 0.11) and glucose and insulin concentrations during IVGTT (P ≥ 0.24) did not differ between treatments. Dressing percentage tended to be greater (P = 0.09) in DG than CON progeny, but all other carcass characteristics did not differ (P ≥ 0.18). Progeny from DG dams had greater LM 16:2, 18:0, and 20:1 n-9 concentrations than progeny from CON dams (P ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, DDGS are a viable option for gestating and lactating beef cows.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T20:01:16.649756-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12780
       
  • Long non-coding RNA analysis of muscular responses to testosterone
           deficiency in Huainan male pigs
    • Authors: Baosong Xing; Xianxiao Bai, Hongxia Guo, Junfeng Chen, Liushuai Hua, Jiaqing Zhang, Qiang Ma, Qiaoling Ren, Huashuai Wang, Jing Wang
      Abstract: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participated in growth and development of skeletal muscle; however, little is known about their response to testosterone deficiency in porcine skeletal muscle. We compared lean mass related carcass traits and lncRNAs expression files in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle between intact and castrated Huainan male pigs. The results showed that castration significantly reduced eye muscle area and lean meat percentage (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:55:25.694094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12777
       
  • Genetic correlations between male reproductive traits and growth traits in
           growth performance tested Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breed boars
    • Authors: Hsiu-Luan Chang; Yung-Yu Lai, Ming-Che Wu, Osamu Sasaki
      Abstract: Male-related traits at 180–225 days of age for 6464 grow-finish performance tested boars were measured from 2000 to 2016. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations among average daily gain, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, teat counts, mounting libido, leg locomotion, penile length, sperm motility, sperm concentration and total sperm counts were estimated by VCE software using a multiple traits animal model in each breed. Growth-tested boars had heritability estimates of male reproductive traits in 0.34–0.56 of teat counts, 0.12–0.20 of libido, 0.08–0.12 of locomotion, 0.17–0.58 of penile length, 0.04–0.21 of sperm motility and concentration, 0.17–0.30 of total sperm counts. Total sperm counts were genetically positively correlated with penile length in all breeds. Boars with higher total sperm counts had genetically better libido and locomotion. Genetic correlation between feed efficiency and sperm motility and feed efficiency and sperm concentration were positive in Duroc and negative in Landrace and Yorkshire. Sperm motility and concentration were genetically negatively correlated with average daily gain in Yorkshire. Male reproductive traits of imported breeds could be improved with care in the change of growth traits, especially in Yorkshire.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:50:27.866497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12776
       
  • Effects of Armillariella tabescens mycelia on the growth performance and
           intestinal immune response and microflora of early-weaned pigs
    • Authors: Wen-Bin Chen; Mao-Ji Cheng, Yun-Bo Tian, Qin-Hua Wang, Bing Wang, Mei-Jun Li, Re-Jun Fang
      Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate effects of Armillariella tabescens (A. tabescens) on the growth performance and intestinal immune response and microflora in early-weaned pigs when used as feed additive. A. tabescens mycelia were added to basal diets at concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.9% (w/w). A total of 144 commercial cross-bred piglets were randomly allocated to one of these four diets and fed for 30 days. The growth performance of early-weaned piglets displayed improvement with diets containing 0.1% and 0.3% dried mycelia powder from A. tabescens. Supplementing with 0.1% or 0.3% A. tabescens mycelia induced a 2.6- and three-fold increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) content in the jejunal mucosa, respectively, but had only a marginal effect on sIgA in the ileal mucosa. Expression of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the jejunal mucosa were elevated with A. tabescens mycelia administration. Increased amounts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the jejunum, and decreased amounts of Escherichia coli in the jejunum and ileum were observed with the administration of A. tabescens-containing diets. This study demonstrated that A. tabescens had beneficial effects on the growth performance and intestinal microflora of early-weaned pigs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:35:26.318868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12765
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus on
           gastrointestinal tract development in calves
    • Authors: Zhiwei Kong; Hongdong Jie, Chuanshe Zhou, Lianyu Yang, Zhiliang Tan, Wenyan Yang
      Abstract: Twenty-four newborn Holstein dairy male calves (with initial body weight of 38 ± 3.0 kg) were used in a randomized block design experiment to determine effects of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) on gastrointestinal tract development. Calves were fed milk (10%/body weight) three times at 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 hours daily with one to four treatments during the experimental periods (4 to 28 days): no supplementation of AS (control group, CG); 1.0 g/L•time of micro-powder AS (MP); 1.0 g/L•time of superfine powder AS (SP); or 1.0 g/L•time of coarse powder AS (CP). On days 7, 14, 21 and 28, 20 mL blood samples were collected at 06.00 hours before the morning feeding. At the end of the trial (28 days), all calves were euthanized, and tissue samples were taken and placed in 4% buffered formaldehyde for analyses. In the rumen of MP treatment, compared with the CG treatment, wall thickness and papillae diameter was both significantly lower (P
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T19:05:52.553156-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12764
       
  • Purification and quantification of heavy-chain antibodies from the milk of
           bactrian camels
    • Authors: Hongqiang Yao; Min Zhang, Yi Li, Jirimutu Yao, He Meng, Siriguleng Yu
      Abstract: Camel milk has a unique composition with naturally occurring heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs), which exert rehabilitating potencies in infection and immunity. To characterize HCAb in camel milk, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was isolated from the milk of Camelus bactrianus by a combination of affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to purify and size-fractionate protein A and protein G, which were further identified by Western blotting, and were quantified by bicinchoninic acid (BCA) and ELISA. The results indicated that IgG1 fraction contains molecules of 50 kDa heavy chains and 36 kDa light chains. The HCAbs (IgG2 and IgG3 fractions) devoid of light chains, contain heavy chains of 45 kDa and 43 kDa, respectively, the amounts of which were significantly higher than that of the IgG1 in the milk of bactrian camels. Above all, we revealed the considerable amounts of HCAbs in the milk of bactrian camels, and developed a novel method for their purification and quantification. These findings provide the basis for developing potential effects of camel milk and its interface with the dairy industry, as well as future investigations of HCAb and its roles in human health and diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T06:35:31.254406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12772
       
  • Effect of quality of colostrum on health, growth and immunoglobulin G
           concentration in Holstein calves in a hot environment
    • Authors: Miguel Mellado; Edir Torres, Francisco G. Veliz, Angeles Santiago, Ulises Macias-Cruz, Jose E. Garcia
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ingestion of pasteurized and subsequently frozen–thawed pooled colostrum (≥50 mg Ig/mL) with different bacterial counts and immunoglobulin concentration (IgC) on the occurrence of diarrhea and pneumonia in 306 neonatal Holstein calves in a hot environment. Calves were assigned to be fed colostrum with total bacterial counts (TBC) lower or greater than 100 000 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, total coliform counts (TCC) greater or lower than 10 000 cfu/mL, and IgC lower or higher than 85 mg Ig/mL. Calves fed colostrum with TBC ≥100 000 cfu/mL were more likely (risk ratio 1.34, confidence interval 1.05–1.71; P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T02:56:22.441203-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12773
       
  • Improved porcine model for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
           infection by deprivation of colostrum feeding in newborn piglets
    • Authors: Toshio Sato; Takashi Hamabata, Eiji Takita, Takeshi Matsui, Kazutoshi Sawada, Taishi Imaoka, Nobuo Nakanishi, Keizo Nakayama, Takamitsu Tsukahara
      Abstract: Porcine edema disease (ED) is a toxemia caused by enteric infection with Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). ED occurs most frequently during the weaning period and is manifested as emaciation associated with high mortality. In our experimental infection with a specific STEC strain, we failed to cause the suppression of weight gain in piglets, which is a typical symptom of ED, in two consecutive experiments. Therefore, we examined the effects of deprivation of colostrum on the sensitivity of newborn piglets to STEC infection. Neonatal pigs were categorized into two groups: one fed artificial milk instead of colostrum in the first 24 h after birth and then returned to the care of their mother, the other breastfed by a surrogate mother until weaning. The oral challenge with 1011 colony-forming units of virulent STEC strain on days 25, 26 and 27 caused suppression of weight gain and other ED symptoms in both groups, suggesting that colostrum deprivation from piglets was effective in enhancing susceptibility to STEC. Two successive STEC infection experiments using colostrum-deprived piglets reproduced this result, leading us to conclude that this improved ED piglet model is more sensitive to STEC infection than the previously established models.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T01:35:32.47025-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12769
       
  • Incorporating rosemary diterpenes in lamb diet to improve microbial
           quality of meat packed in different environments
    • Authors: Jordi Ortuño; Rafael Serrano, Sancho Bañón
      Abstract: The dietary use of phytochemicals may contribute to improving lamb meat preservation under different packing atmospheres. The objective was to test the preservative potential of a dietary rosemary extract (RE) containing carnosic acid and carnosol (at 1:1 w:w) in chilled lamb patties packed in air, vacuum and 70/30 O2/CO2 modified atmosphere. Three experimental diets, (C) control, (RE) C plus 600 mg RE/kg feed and (E) C plus 600 mg vitamin E/kg, were given to fattening lambs. Unlike the C- and E-diets, the RE-diet had a double antimicrobial and antioxidant effect on the lamb patties packed in all the environments studied. The RE-diet inhibited total viable and lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, but not Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp. and also improved oxidative stability (measured as CIE Lab color and thiobarbituric reagent substances), appearance and odor. The E-diet had a better antioxidant effect than the RE-diet but had no antimicrobial effects. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected. The dietary use of RE was most suitable for preserving vacuum-packed meat, which is more exposed to spoilage by anaerobic bacteria, while the use of dietary vitamin E allowed better control of oxidation in the meat packed in a bacteriostatic and oxidizing environment.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T04:30:53.095261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12768
       
  • The expression of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 proteins regulating endometrial
           remodeling in the porcine endometrial tissues during follicular and luteal
           phase
    • Authors: Seunghyung Lee; Sang-Hee Lee, Boo-Keun Yang, Choon-Keun Park
      Abstract: Endometrial remodeling is important for successful embryo development and implantation in pigs. Therefore, this study investigated change of proteins regulating endometrial remodeling on follicular and luteal phase in porcine endometrial tissues. The endometrial tissue samples were collected from porcine uterus during follicular and luteal phase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), myoglobin and cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) proteins were expressed by immnofluorescence, immunoblotting, and determined by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS. We found that VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 were strongly localized in endometrial tissues during luteal phase, but not follicular phase. The protein levels of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 in endometrial tissues were higher than luteal phase (P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T04:30:51.602224-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12774
       
  • Effect of supplements during the cold season on the reproductive system in
           prepubertal Tibetan sheep ewes
    • Authors: Xiaoping Jing; Quanhui Peng, Rui Hu, Hongze Wang, Xiaoqiang Yu, Allan Degen, Huawei Zou, Shanke Bao, Suonan Zhao, Zhisheng Wang
      Abstract: We examined the development of the reproductive system in prepubertal Tibetan sheep ewes when fed only oat hay (CON) or supplemented with either lick blocks (BS) or concentrate feed (CS) during the cold season. The average daily gain of the CS ewes was greater than that of the BS ewes (P  CON. Serum concentrations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteotrophic hormone, estradiol and progesterone in the CS and BS groups were higher than in the CON group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T04:26:51.268032-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12762
       
  • Hampered cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes by
           excessive presence of alpha2-macroglobulin is likely mediated via
           inhibition of zinc-dependent metalloproteases
    • Authors: Ruth Appeltant; Josine Beek, Dominiek Maes, Jo Bijttebier, Katleen Van Steendam, Hans Nauwynck, Ann Van Soom
      Abstract: In vitro maturation (IVM) in serum causes hampered expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) due to excessive alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M). This study investigated two hypotheses that could explain the effect of A2M: (i) binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to A2M, followed by its decreased availability; and (ii) inhibition of zinc-dependent metalloproteases. Cumulus expansion was evaluated based on the diameter of the COCs, the proportion of COCs participating in a floating cloud and the proportion of COCs with loss of cumulus cells. The first hypothesis of decreased EGF availability was tested by increasing the EGF concentration (20 and 50 ng/mL vs. 10 ng/mL), but was not confirmed because cumulus expansion did not improve. To verify the second hypothesis of inhibited zinc-dependent metalloproteases, the effect of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-3 (TIMP-3) on cumulus expansion during IVM with and without A2M was investigated. To immuno-neutralize A2M, serum was pre-incubated with A2M antibodies. Impaired cumulus expansion because of TIMP-3 could only be observed during IVM in 10% of serum with A2M antibodies. No effect of TIMP-3 was observed in medium without A2M antibodies. These results indicate that A2M and TIMP-3 share a common target, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. Future research is directed toward the identification of the protease involved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T04:20:33.541098-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12767
       
  • Characterization of the cathelicidin cluster in the Japanese quail
           (Coturnix japonica)
    • Authors: Taichiro Ishige; Hiromi Hara, Takashi Hirano, Tomohiro Kono, Kei Hanzawa
      Abstract: The Japanese quail has several advantages as a low-fat meat bird with high immunity against diseases. Cathelicidins (CATHs) are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immunity. The aim of this study was to characterize the CATH cluster in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The Japanese quail CATH (CjCATH) cluster, contains four CATH genes, as in the chicken. The coding sequences of CjCATHs exhibited>85.3% identity to chicken CATHs. The predicted amino acid sequences of the four CjCATH genes contained the cathelin-like domain characteristic of CATH proteins. Polymorphisms were detected in the open reading frames (ORFs) of all CjCATH sequences. Two amino acid substitutions were observed in the antimicrobial region of the mature peptide of CjCATH2, and predicted to influence peptide function. CjCATH1 is expressed in lung, heart, bone marrow and bursa of Fabricius (BF). CjCATH2 is expressed in bone marrow. CjCATH3 is expressed in lung, heart, bone marrow, BF, tongue and duodenum. CjCATHB1 is expressed in bone marrow and BF. This study is the first to characterize CATH genes in the Japanese quail, and identifies novel antimicrobial peptide sequences belonging to the cathelicidin family, which may play a role in immunity in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T20:40:27.494217-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12752
       
  • Birth of puppies of predetermined sex after artificial insemination with a
           
    • Authors: Yun-Fang Wei; Fang-Liang Chen, Shu-Sheng Tang, Ai-Guo Mao, Li-Guang Li, Lu-Guang Cheng, Chao Chen, Fei-Xiang Li, Bin Wang, Tao Xu, Yue-Jun Zhang, Jing Li, Jiu-Sheng Wan
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sex ratios after artificial insemination in dogs under field conditions. Semen was cryopreserved as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a cell sorter. Sixty female dogs were inseminated with frozen–thawed spermatozoa of 100 × 106 unsorted (a dose in practice) and 4 × 106 sorted (X and Y group, respectively). A total of 20 dogs became pregnant and 126 puppies were born from the three groups. The percentage of parturition was similar for the X (5/20; 25.0%) and Y (4/20; 20.0%) group (P > 0.05), but lower than controls (11/20; 55.0%) (P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T21:35:25.936802-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12763
       
  • Effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. on growth performance
           and some blood parameters of broilers exposed to heat stress
    • Authors: Xiaoli Wan; Luyi Jiang, Haoran Zhong, Yufang Lu, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
      Abstract: To evaluate the effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) on growth performance and some blood parameters of broilers exposed to heat stress (HS), 320 22-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1°C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA0.75, HS-EA1.00 and HS-EA1.25 groups were reared under HS (34 ± 1°C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1°C for 16 h/day), and fed basal diet with 0, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively. The experiment ended at 42 days. Dietary 1.00 and 1.25 g/kg EA decreased blood pH and elevated body weight gain, feed intake and carcass yield compared to the HS group. Broilers fed EA diets had lower serum concentrations of malondialdehyde and corticosterone and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and higher serum total superoxide dismutase activity, tri-iodothyronine concentration and tri-iodothyronine/thyroxine than the HS group. Serum catalase activity in HS-EA1.00 and HS-EA1.25 groups and activity to inhibit hydroxyl in the HS-EA1.00 group were higher than the HS group. In conclusion, dietary 0.75–1.25 g/kg EA addition alleviated HS induced impairments in broilers.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T00:50:33.563899-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12766
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 721 - 722
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T05:05:36.896535-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12708
       
  • Behavior of sheep fed babassu cake (Orbygnia speciosa) as a substitution
           for elephant grass silage
    • Authors: Ernestina Ribeiro dos Santos Neta; Kaliandra Souza Alves, Rafael Mezzomo, Daiany Íris Gomes, Luis Rennan Sampaio Oliveira, Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho, Janaina Barros Luz, Natália Gomes Lacerda, Venucia de Diniella dos Santos Bourdon
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of sheep fed babassu cake as a substitution for elephant grass silage. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia (Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia - UFRA), Brazil, using 45 sheep housed in individual stalls, with unlimited access to feed and distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% inclusion of babassu cake) and nine replications. All of the treatments contained a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. No differences were observed in the time spent feeding (P > 0.05), regardless of the source of roughage used. However, there was a reduction in the time spent in rumination (P 
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T19:40:23.33647-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12744
       
  • In vitro fermentative capacity of swine large intestine: comparison
           between native Lantang and commercial Duroc breeds
    • Authors: Peng Hui Cheng; Juan Boo Liang, Yin Bao Wu, Yan Wang, Vincenzo Tufarelli, Vito Laudadio, Xin Di Liao
      Abstract: Native Lantang and commercial Duroc pigs were used as animal models to evaluate the differences existing in dietary fiber utilization ability between breeds. Animals were fed the same diet from weaning (4 weeks) to 4 months of age. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from wheat bran (as substrate) and fecal samples from the two breeds (as inoculum) were used in an in vitro gas production trial. Results showed that cumulative and maximum gas productions were higher in inocula from Lantang than those from the Duroc breed (P 
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:20:43.5195-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12723
       
  • Transcriptomic gene profiling of porcine muscle tissue depending on
           histological properties
    • Authors: Katarzyna Ropka-Molik; Anna Bereta, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Piórkowska, Artur Gurgul, Grzegorz Żak
      Abstract: In pig, the histological profile of muscle tissue, especially the proportion of individual fiber types, is one of the main factors affecting meat quality properties. In the present research, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) by using next generation sequencing method was applied to estimate the whole gene expression profile of Longissimus lumborum muscle of pigs (Large White breed) differing in the percentage of two fiber types (slow-twitch (type I) fibers and fast-twitch glycolytic (type IIB) fibers). The RNA-seq approach allowed us to identify 355 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated as significant (false discovery rate-adjusted P 
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:20:29.689976-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12751
       
  • Identification of serum protein markers for early diagnosis of pregnancy
           in buffalo
    • Authors: Lukumoni Buragohain; Trilok Nanda, Arnab Ghosh, Mayukh Ghosh, Rajesh Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Sambhu Sharan Gupta, Arpita Bharali, Ashok K. Mohanty, Inderjeet Singh, Ashok Kumar Balhara
      Abstract: Improper or delayed pregnancy diagnosis has significant impact over animal production, particularly in buffaloes which inherently suffer from several reproductive inefficiencies. Thus the present study has undertaken to identify serum protein markers pertaining to early pregnancy diagnosis in buffaloes. Serum samples were collected from 10 pregnant Murrah Buffalo heifers at weekly intervals from days 0-35 post-artificial insemination and from 12 inseminated non-pregnant cyclic buffalo heifers on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and densitometric analysis revealed the presence of five protein spots showing average density fold change of ≥4 during early pregnancy. Mass spectrometry analysis identified these up-regulated proteins as anti-testosterone antibody light chain, apolipoprotein A-II precursor, serum amyloid A, cytokeratin type II, component IV isoform 1, which are have established roles in embryogenesis, but over-expression of the fifth identified protein immunoglobulin lambda light chain in pregnancy has been elucidated as a novel finding in the current study. Further, with bioinformatics analysis, potential antigenic B-cell epitopes were predicted for all these five proteins. An antibody cocktail-based approach involving antibodies against all these five up-regulated entire proteins or their epitopes could be developed for early detection of pregnancy in buffaloes. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T08:15:41.746737-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12754
       
  • Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for weights in
           Murrah buffaloes
    • Authors: Flavia Rita Ferreira; Francisco Ribeiro Araujo Neto, Henrique Barbosa Borges, Rusbel Raul Aspilcueta-Borquis, Naudim Alejandro Hurtado-Lugo, Henrique Nunes Oliveira, Lucia Galvão Albuquerque, Humberto Tonhati
      Abstract: This article reports genetic analysis of the weight at different ages of Murrah water buffaloes, using random regression models (RRM). Models ranging from third to sixth order polynomial were used to describe direct genetic and animal permanent environmental effects. Contemporary group was included as a fixed effect, and a cubic polynomial was used to model the mean curve of the population. The residual was modeled considering a log-linear function. Two models were selected for study of genetic parameters. The first model included third and sixth order polynomials for direct genetic and animal permanent environmental effects (M36). The second model included sixth order polynomials for all random effects (M66). The estimates of heritability varied from 0.16 + 0.04 (44 days) to 0.38 + 0.04 (568 days) for model M36 and from 0.16 + 0.05 (33 days) to 0.42 + 0.05 (600 days) for model M66. Regarding estimates of the correlation for all effects, the magnitude tended to decline with the increase of the time span between measurements. These results indicate that the species has potential for genetic selection based on weight at different ages, since we found favorable genetic variability within the herd, with selection likely to be more efficient at ages near 600 days.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T05:40:30.565681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12758
       
  • Effect of nutrient levels during the far-off period on postpartum
           productivity in dairy cows
    • Authors: Haruhi Hirabayashi; Kenji Kawashima, Tomoko Okimura, Ayane Tateno, Akitsu Suzuki, Sadaki Asakuma, Naoki Isobe, Taketo Obitsu, Shiro Kushibiki, Toshihisa Sugino
      Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the effects of differing nutrient levels during the far-off period on postpartum metabolism and milk production in lactating cows. Twenty-six multiparous cows were assigned to three dietary treatments in the far-off period: a low-energy diet (L, n = 9, 80% intake of the total digestible nutrients requirement), a moderate-energy diet (M, n = 8, 105%) and a high-energy diet (H, n = 9, 130%). During the close-up period, all cows were provided with 105% intake. After parturition, all cows were fed a lactation diet. The BCS recovery was slow, and low milk yield was found in the H group. In the L group, BCS recovery was favorable after parturition, and lactation persistence was increased. The L group had low rumen endotoxin activity and a high initial ovulation rate after parturition. These findings indicate that a high-energy diet during the far-off period has a deleterious effect on milk production. In contrast, the restricted diet in the far-off period increased adaptability with respect to peri-parturition metabolic changes, improved the post-parturition nutritional state, and increased milk production. Furthermore, it suggests that the nutrient levels in the far-off period affect rumen endotoxin activity and reproductive function after parturition.
      PubDate: 2016-12-12T23:15:24.225942-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12743
       
  • Health and mineral nutrition status of yaks in southern Mustang, Nepal
    • Authors: Hajime Kumagai; Mitsumi Nakajima, Hiroki Anzai, Takashi Sakai, Kazato Oishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Manoj Kumar Shah
      Abstract: Biochemical values and mineral concentrations in blood plasma were investigated to evaluate the statuses of health and mineral nutrition among yaks in Mustang District, Nepal. In total, 118 plasma samples of female yaks collected in April and September/October of 2013–2015 were offered. Seventy-four percent of yaks showed lower plasma total-cholesterol concentrations than the lowest limit of reference range (100 mg/dL) and the values in spring (83.41 mg/dL) were lower (P 
      PubDate: 2016-12-12T23:05:26.216978-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12742
       
  • Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance,
           antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed
           broilers
    • Authors: Min Lu; Jie Bai, Fengxian Wei, Bin Xu, Quanyou Sun, Jie Li, Gaili Wang, Xiangfang Tang, Hongfu Zhang, Qingqiang Yin, Shaoyu Li
      Abstract: In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P 
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T07:32:49.703989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12759
       
  • Genetic associations between milk fat-to-protein ratio, milk production
           and fertility in the first two lactations of Thai Holsteins dairy cattle
    • Authors: Somsook Puangdee; Monchai Duangjinda, Wuttigrai Boonkum, Suporn Katawatin, Sayan Buaban, Mongkol Thepparat
      Pages: 723 - 730
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to estimate, simultaneously, the genetic parameters of test-day milk fat-to-protein ratio (FPR), test-day milk yield (MY), and days-open (DO) in the first two lactations of Thai Holsteins. A total of 76 194 test-day production records collected from 8874 cows with 8674 DO records between 2001 and 2011 from different lactations were treated as separated traits. The estimates of heritability for test-day FPR in the first lactation showed an increasing trend, whereas the estimates in the second lactation showed a U-shape trend. Genetic correlations for FPR-DO and MY-DO showed a decreasing trend along days in milk (DIM) in both lactations, whereas genetic correlations for FPR-MY increased along DIM in the first lactation but decreased in the second lactation. Genetic correlations of FPR between consecutive DIM were moderate to high, which showed the effectiveness of simultaneous analyses. Selection of FPR in the early stage has no adverse effect on MY and DO for the first lactation but has a negative effect on MY and positive effect on DO for the second lactation. This study showed that genetic improvement of the energy balance using FPR, MY and DO with multi-trait test day model could be applied in a Thailand dairy cattle breeding program.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T05:56:39.476216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12685
       
  • Effects of fatty acid transport protein 1 on proliferation and
           differentiation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes
    • Authors: Xiaoling Chen; Yanliu Luo, Ruisheng Wang, Bo Zhou, Zhiqing Huang, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Guangmang Liu
      Pages: 731 - 738
      Abstract: Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) plays an important role in the fatty acid transmembrane transport and fat deposition. However, its role in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of pFATP1 on porcine intramuscular preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation. Overexpression of pFATP1 in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes significantly promoted the proliferation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes, and also significantly upregulated the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthetase and perilipin 1. Moreover, overexpression of pFATP1 in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes significantly increased fat accumulation and downregulated β-catenin protein expression. Overall, our results indicated that pFATP1 played an important role in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation, and it might promote adipogenesis in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes by repressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T02:22:55.850934-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12701
       
  • Low mitochondrial DNA diversity of Japanese Polled and Kuchinoshima feral
           cattle
    • Authors: Hideyuki Mannen; Riku Yonesaka, Aoi Noda, Takeshi Shimogiri, Ichiro Oshima, Kiyomi Katahira, Misao Kanemaki, Tetsuo Kunieda, Yousuke Inayoshi, Fumio Mukai, Shinji Sasazaki
      Pages: 739 - 744
      Abstract: This study aims to estimate the mitochondrial genetic diversity and structure of Japanese Polled and Kuchinoshima feral cattle, which are maintained in small populations. We determined the mitochondrial DMA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) sequences for both cattle populations and analyzed these in conjunction with previously published data from Northeast Asian cattle populations. Our findings showed that Japanese native cattle have a predominant, Asian-specific mtDNA haplogroup T4 with high frequencies (0.43–0.81). This excluded Kuchinoshima cattle (32 animals), which had only one mtDNA haplotype belonging to the haplogroup T3. Japanese Polled showed relatively lower mtDNA diversity in the average sequence divergence (0.0020) than other Wagyu breeds (0.0036–0.0047). Japanese Polled have been maintained in a limited area of Yamaguchi, and the population size is now less than 200. Therefore, low mtDNA diversity in the Japanese Polled could be explained by the decreasing population size in the last three decades. We found low mtDNA diversity in both Japanese Polled and Kuchinoshima cattle. The genetic information obtained in this study will be useful for maintaining these populations and for understanding the origin of Japanese native cattle.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T04:45:42.396556-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12716
       
  • Conversion of Goat Fibroblasts into Lineage-Specific Cells Using a Direct
           Reprogramming Strategy
    • Authors: Yanjie Guo; Tong Yu, Lei Lei, Anqin Duan, Xiaoling Ma, Huayan Wang
      Pages: 745 - 754
      Abstract: Direct reprogramming is an efficient strategy to convert one cell type to another. In this study, due to the failure of maintaining the undifferentiated state of goat embryotic stem- and induced pluripotent stem-like cells in vitro, we explored an alternative way to directly convert goat fibroblasts to lineage-specific cells. The ‘Yamanaka factors’ was ectopically expressed in fibroblasts for a short term to situate cells in a metastable state. By culturing with lineage-specific media for 1–2 weeks, the cardiomyocyte-like cells and neurocyte-like cells were generated and confirmed by the quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining. The metastable-state cells could also be converted into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) after culturing in media with retinoic acid (RA) and bovine follicular fluid (bFF) for 2–3 weeks. The generated OLCs were surrounded by cumulus granulosa cell-like cells and formed a structure resembling goat cumulus-oocyte complex from ovaries. This primary follicular structure could be developed further in oocyte mature medium and expressed germ cell-specific markers. In addition, we found that the induction efficiency was higher and OLC cell size was bigger in bFF than in RA treatment. Altogether, the direct reprogramming of goat fibroblasts into lineage-specific cells can facilitate stem cell research in domestic animals.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T05:56:44.67402-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12700
       
  • Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis on
           rumen fermentation and the bacterial community in calves
    • Authors: Rong Zhang; Xiaoli Dong, Meng Zhou, Yan Tu, Naifeng Zhang, Kaidong Deng, Qiyu Diao
      Pages: 755 - 762
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary probiotics on rumen fermentation and the bacterial community in dairy calves. Twelve Holstein calves were randomly allocated to three treatments: a basal diet, the basal diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum GF103 (LB) or basal diet supplemented with a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum GF103 and Bacillus subtilis B27 (LBS). A milk replacer was fed to calves from 8 days of age. A starter and alfalfa hay was offered ad libitum from 21 and 28 days of age, respectively, and the orts were weighted daily. The ruminal fluid was sampled at 56 and 83 days of age to determine the rumen fermentation characteristics. The bacterial community was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the number of certain bacteria was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The ratio of total dry matter intake to average body wieght was higher in the control (P 
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T21:15:22.338861-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12691
       
  • Effects of different dietary tryptophan : lysine ratios and sanitary
           conditions on growth performance, plasma urea nitrogen, serum haptoglobin
           and ileal histomorphology of weaned pigs
    • Authors: Balachandar Jayaraman; John K. Htoo, Charles M. Nyachoti
      Pages: 763 - 771
      Abstract: A total of 180 mixed-sex pigs (Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace); average initial body weight of 7.36 ± 0.2 kg) weaned at 21 ± 1 days were fed corn-soybean meal-wheat-based diets to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan to lysine ratio (Trp : Lys) in a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement (two sanitary conditions: clean (CL) and unclean (UCL), and five dietary treatments (SID Trp : Lys (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24%)). In each sanitary condition, blood was collected on days 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen and on day 14, ileal tissue (one pig per pen) was collected for the measurement of gut morphology. Pigs kept under UCL conditions had lower growth rate (P  0.10) on villous height (VH), crypt depth ( CD) and VH : CD. In conclusion, an SID Trp : Lys to optimize ADG for pigs raised under UCL conditions was higher (4%) than CL conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T04:45:46.974641-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12695
       
  • Optimisation of combi-lipases from Aspergillus niger for the synergistic
           and efficient hydrolysis of soybean oil
    • Authors: Hanzhen Qiao; Fei Zhang, Wutai Guan, Jianjun Zuo, Dingyuan Feng
      Pages: 772 - 780
      Abstract: The enzymatic properties of four lipases (A, B, C and D) from different strains of Aspergillus niger, were investigated, and a 3-factor mixture design and triangular surface analysis were performed to screen the optimal combi-lipase by observing synergistic effects. Lipases B and D differed in optimal pH, temperature and substrate specificity. A combi-lipase with 31.2% lipase B and 68.8% lipase D (w/w, equal to units of 30.36% and 69.64%) exhibited optimal hydrolytic activity on soybean oil, which exceeded the sum of the combined activities of individual lipases (P 
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T07:23:08.172416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12718
       
  • Meat quality traits as a function of cow maturity
    • Authors: Soo Hyun Cho; Geunho Kang, Pilnam Seong, Sunmoon Kang, Changwan Sun, Sunsik Jang, Jin Hyung Cheong, Beomyoung Park, Inho Hwang
      Pages: 781 - 789
      Abstract: To investigate the physico-chemical and sensory properties of striploin muscles, 90 Hanwoo carcasses (QG 1+) were randomly selected within six maturity levels (4 to 9 according to age in months). Results demonstrated that the protein contents at maturity levels 4 and 5 were significantly higher than 9. No significant difference in fat, moisture and collagen contents were found at different maturity levels (P > 0.05). The quantity of collagen type I and ratio of type I to III were observed at higher maturity levels; collagen type III showed significantly high levels (P > 0.05) at low maturity and decreased with increase in maturity levels. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was significantly lower in groups 4 to 6, whereas water holding capacity (WHC) was significantly higher than maturity level 8 and 9 groups (P  0.05). Color properties, L* values of striploin muscle from maturity level 4 were significantly different from level 9 (P 
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T04:45:37.774226-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12635
       
  • Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A
           real-time PCR analysis
    • Authors: Lixin Deng; Cong He, Yanwei Zhou, Lifan Xu, Huijun Xiong
      Pages: 790 - 797
      Abstract: Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T02:35:55.744595-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12615
       
  • Effects of social isolation, re-socialization and age on cognitive and
           aggressive behaviors of Kunming mice and BALB/c mice
    • Authors: Dong An; Wei Chen, De-Qin Yu, Shi-Wei Wang, Wei-Zhi Yu, Hong Xu, Dong-Mei Wang, Dan Zhao, Yi-Ping Sun, Jun-Cheng Wu, Yi-Yuan Tang, Sheng-Ming Yin
      Pages: 798 - 806
      Abstract: Both Kunming (KM) mice and BALB/c mice have been widely used as rodent models to investigate stress-associated mental diseases. However, little is known about the different behaviors of KM mice and BALB/c mice after social isolation, particularly cognitive and aggressive behaviors. In this study, the behaviors of KM and BALB/c mice isolated for 2, 4 and 8 weeks and age-matched controls were evaluated using object recognition, object location and resident-intruder tests. The recovery of behavioral deficits by re-socialization was also examined for the isolated mice in adolescence. Our study showed that isolation for 2, 4 and 8 weeks led to cognitive deficits and increased aggressiveness for both KM and BALB/c mice. An important finding is that re-socialization could completely recover spatial/non-spatial cognitive deficits resulted from social isolation for both KM and BALB/c mice. In addition, age only impacted aggressiveness of KM mice. Moreover, isolation duration showed different impacts on cognitive and aggressive behaviors for both KM and BALB/c mice. Furthermore, BALB/c mice showed weak spatial/non-spatial memory and low aggressiveness when they were at the same age and isolation duration, compared to KM mice. In conclusion, KM mice and BALB/c mice behaved characteristically under physiology and isolation conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T22:40:27.344256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12688
       
  • Leather quality of beefalo-Nellore cattle in different production systems
    • Authors: Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo; Rodrigo Gonçalves Mateus, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira Ítavo, Alexandre Menezes Dias, Fabio Candal Gomes, Fabiano Ferreira Silva, Alex Resende Schio, Eriklis Nogueira, Hélène Véronique Petit
      Pages: 807 - 816
      Abstract: The aim was to compare the effects of two production systems on performance, carcass traits and physical-mechanical characteristics of leather from Beefalo-Nellore steers and heifers and to determine if the response to the production system was similar for both genders. A total of 40 Beefalo-Nellore cattle, 20 steers and 20 heifers, were evaluated. Animals were divided into two production systems: slaughtered at 15 (intensive system) or 26 (extensive system) months of age. In the intensive system, all animals received a ration containing 600 g/kg corn silage and 400 g/kg concentrate. In the extensive system, animals were kept on a pasture predominantly based on Brachiaria sp. and supplemented with 2 kg/day concentrate. In the intensive system, there was no difference in slaughter weight (470 kg body weight) between steers and heifers but steers in the extensive system had greater slaughter weight than heifers (463 and 428 kg body weight, respectively). Leather weight was higher for animals in the intensive than extensive system but there was no difference in leather weight once excess fat was removed. Leather quality from Beefalo-Nellore cattle slaughtered at 15 or 26 months of age is similar although carcass yield is higher for cattle slaughtered at a younger age.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T04:45:24.382059-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12683
       
  • Three-dimensional culture system can induce expression of casein in
           immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells
    • Authors: Kang Zhan; Miao Lin, MingMei Liu, YangNan Sui, Haitham Mohammed Babekir, GuoQi Zhao
      Pages: 817 - 825
      Abstract: Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are not ideal models for long-term studies of lactation mechanisms because these cells in a monolayer culture system cannot be polarized to simulate the physiological functions in vitro. We investigate the effects of different culture models and karyotypes on casein expression in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The immortalized cells' karyotypes were analyzed at passages 10, 20, 30 and 40 to detect the effects of chromosome stability. Western blotting examined that whether or not the immortalized cells at passages 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 could induce expression of casein in a 3D culture system. The proper polarization of the acinar structures was monitored. BMECs were successfully immortalized. The cell karyotype at passage 30 remained at 60 chromosomes and the average value was 57.1 ± 0.40 after passage 40. The polarized protein's levels were up-regulated in 3D culture compared to 2D culture. Expression of αs1, β and κ-casein could be detectable in a passage range in 3D culture. Expression of αs2-casein was undetectable in all experimental groups. However, all casein expressions were barely detectable in traditional 2D culture system. Therefore, 3D culture system is an important tool for the long-term study of lactation mechanisms in vitro.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T22:50:32.78156-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12702
       
 
 
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