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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1580 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1580 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 243, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Animal Science Journal
  [SJR: 0.569]   [H-I: 24]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1344-3941 - ISSN (Online) 1740-0929
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1580 journals]
  • Regulation of intestinal health by branched-chain amino acids
    • Authors: Hua Zhou; Bing Yu, Jun Gao, John Khun Htoo, Daiwen Chen
      Abstract: Besides its primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, the intestine also interacts with a complex external milieu, and is the first defense line against noxious pathogens and antigens. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier is associated with enhanced intestinal permeability and development of various gastrointestinal diseases. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important nutrients, which are the essential substrates for protein biosynthesis. Recently, emerging evidence showed that BCAAs are involved in maintaining intestinal barrier function. It has been reported that dietary supplementation with BCAAs promotes intestinal development, enhances enterocyte proliferation, increases intestinal absorption of amino acids (AA) and glucose, and improves the immune defenses of piglets. The underlying mechanism of these effects is mediated by regulating expression of genes and proteins associate with various signaling pathways. In addition, BCAAs promote the production of beneficial bacteria in the intestine of mice. Compelling evidence supports the notion that BCAAs play important roles in both nutrition and intestinal health. Therefore, as functional amino acids with various physiological effects, BCAAs hold key roles in promoting intestinal development and health in animals and humans.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T04:35:47.434464-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12937
  • Effect of adding different levels of rumen protected choline to the diet
           on productive and reproductive performance of female goats and growth of
           their kids from birthing to weaning
    • Authors: Alsaied A. Habeeb; Ahmed E. Gad, Mostafa A. Atta, Mohammed M. Mustafa
      Abstract: Forty female goats in the third parity were randomly divided into four similar groups. The experiment was started 20 days before mating and lasted until the end of the suckling period for 60 days and weaning their kids. The first group were fed diet without supplementation and kept as control while in the second, third and fourth groups, each doe was fed diets with rumen protected choline (RPC) at the rate of 10, 20 and 40 g/day, respectively. Results showed that number of doe kidding twins and triplets and litter weight of kids born per group increased with increasing the level of RPC in the diet of goats and viability rate of born kids during the suckling period improved due to RPC supplementation in the diets of their mothers. Duration of estrous, days from weaning to estrous, days from kidding to estrous and kidding interval decreased significantly, while conception rate increased due to adding RPC. Milk choline concentrations and total choline secretion though milk were progressively increased significantly with increasing the level of RPC supplementation. Live body weight and daily body gain of their suckling male and female kids at weaning increased significantly with increasing RPC levels in the diets of their mothers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T07:00:19.154696-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12932
  • Effects of high ambient temperature on plasma metabolomic profiles in
    • Authors: Shozo Tomonaga; Hirofumi Okuyama, Tetsuya Tachibana, Ryosuke Makino
      Abstract: Exposure to high ambient temperature is detrimental to the poultry industry. To understand the influence from a metabolic perspective, we investigated the effects of exposure to high ambient temperature on plasma low-molecular-weight metabolite levels in chicks using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based non-targeted metabolomic analysis. Heat exposure for 4 days suppressed growth and food intake. Of the 92 metabolites identified, the levels of 29 decreased, whereas the levels of nine increased. We performed an enrichment analysis on the identified metabolites and found 35 candidates for metabolic processes affected by heat exposure. Among them, the sulfur amino acid metabolic pathway was clearly detected and the levels of the following related metabolites were decreased: cystathionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine and hypotaurine. Changes in the kynurenine pathway in tryptophan metabolism, which is linked to the immune system and oxidative stress, were also observed: kynurenine and quinolinic acid levels increased, whereas nicotinamide levels decreased. These results suggest the possible involvement of various metabolic processes in heat-exposed chicks. Some of these metabolites would be important to understand the mechanism of biological responses to high ambient temperature in chicks.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T06:57:43.906228-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12951
  • Epistatic effects between pairs of the growth hormone secretagogue
           receptor 1a, growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, non-SMC condensin I
           complex, subunit G and stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes on carcass,
           price-related and fatty acid composition traits in Japanese Black cattle
    • Authors: Masanori Komatsu; Kagetomo Nishino, Yuki Fujimori, Yasutoshi Haga, Nagako Iwama, Aisaku Arakawa, Yoshito Aihara, Hisato Takeda, Hideaki Takahashi
      Abstract: Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), are known to play important roles in growth and lipid metabolisms. Single and epistatic effects of the five genes on carcass, price-related and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in a commercial Japanese Black cattle population of Ibaraki Prefecture. A total of 650 steers and 116 heifers for carcass and price-related traits, and 158 steers for FA composition traits were used in this study. Epistatic effects between pairs of the five genes were found in several traits. Alleles showing strain-specific differences in the five genes had significant single and epistatic effects in some traits. The data suggest that a TG-repeat polymorphism of the GHSR1a.5′UTR-(TG)n locus plays a central role in gene–gene epistatic interaction of FA composition traits in the adipose tissue of Japanese Black cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T06:57:38.179703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12947
  • Influences of quorum-quenching probiotic bacteria on the gut microbial
           community and immune function in weaning pigs
    • Authors: Jonggun Kim; Jaepil Kim, Younghoon Kim, Sangnam Oh, Minho Song, Jee Hwan Choe, Kwang-Youn Whang, Kwang Hyun Kim, Sejong Oh
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic gut microbial diversity in weaning swine after administering feed supplemented with probiotic bacteria that specifically inhibit the activity of quorum molecules. Initially, the universal quorum molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) bioassay results indicated that AI-2 activity was profoundly inhibited in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in the presence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain 30SC cell extract, although the growth of EHEC was not affected. Based on plate counting results, bacterial community analysis revealed a specific reduction in coliforms compared to the control, whereas the population of lactobacilli increased in weaning swine in in vivo trials. Supplementation with L. acidophilus strain 30SC did not affect the counts of other communities, such as total aerobes and yeast/mold. In addition, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed a significant difference in the 16S rRNA gene products after administering L. acidophilus strain 30SC. Selected bands were sequenced, and most of them were identified as uncultured bacterium clones or a Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-specific community. Therefore, our results indicate that quorum-quenching probiotic bacteria can significantly modulate the gut microbiota of swine and these beneficial effects can contribute to the improvement of performance and health in the gastrointestinal tract of weaning pigs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T06:50:40.088837-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12954
  • Development of furnished cages re-using conventional cages for laying
           hens: Behaviour, physical condition and productivity
    • Authors: Tsuyoshi Shimmura; Naoko Maekawa, Satoshi Hirahara, Toshio Tanaka, Michael C. Appleby
      Abstract: Furnished cages for laying hens have advantages in allowing normal behaviors and maintaining productivity. As the cost of introduction is a barrier for farms, we developed furnished cages that re-use conventional cages. To determine the minimum and functional cage design, we compared six designs, combinations of two floor designs (artificial turf or wire cage floor) and three screening designs in the integrated area (no screening, one entrance side or four sides). In total, 144 hens were used, and we measured behavior, physical condition and productivity. Comparing the floors, the percentages of hens performing dust-bathing and laying eggs in the integrated area were higher in cages with turf than wire floor (P 
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T06:50:21.375539-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12955
  • Effects of supplementary amino acids on available energy of soybean meal
           determined by difference and regression methods fed to growing pigs
    • Authors: Jinbiao Zhao; Chuanxin Shi, Zhongchao Li, Ji Wang, Ling Liu, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level and supplementary amino acids (AAs) on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) values of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs, determined by difference and regression methods. Sixty pigs were fed 10 diets according to a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement. Two control diets contained 97.34% corn without supplementary AAs or 95.61% corn with supplementary AAs. Eight diets were formulated by replacing corn and AAs in control diets with 8%, 15%, 25% and 31% SBM. There was no difference in DE and ME values of SBM determined by difference method as inclusion level of SBM increased or crystalline AAs were added. No difference was observed in DE and ME values of SBM determined by the two methods in diets without supplementary AAs, but the values determined by the difference method were greater (P 
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T22:25:23.098521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12940
  • Performance and hemtochemical parameters of buck-kids fed concentrate
           partially replaced with tropical Piliostigma thonningii foliage
    • Authors: Olurotimi A. Olafadehan; Ahmed A. Njidda, Sunday A. Okunade, Sarah O. Salihu, David O. Balogun, Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
      Abstract: Fifteen 5-month-old Red Sokoto buck-kids, (6.6 ± 0.71 kg body weight (BW)) randomly distributed into three groups of five animals per group, were used to study the effects of supplementary concentrate partially replaced with Piliostigma thonningii (PT) foliage on the growth performance, economic benefit and blood profile in a completely randomized design using analysis of variance. The goats in group 1 received 100% supplementary concentrates (PT0), groups 2 and 3 received 25% (PT25) and 50% (PT50), respectively, of concentrate replaced with an equal amount (dry matter basis) of Piliostigma foliage. The goats were fed a basal diet of threshed sorghum top (TST). Intake of concentrate, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, total feeding cost and cost/kg BW were greater (P 
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T21:35:20.403409-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12814
  • Effect of follistatin on pre-implantational development of pig
           parthenogenetic embryos
    • Authors: Yunsheng Li; Xing Liu, Zhen Chen, Dandan Song, Jie Yang, Xiaoyuan Zuo, Zubing Cao, Ya Liu, Yunhai Zhang
      Abstract: The present study was designed to explore effects of follistatin (FST) on pre-implantational development of parthenogenetically activated embryos (PAEs) in pigs. First, we investigated the FST messenger RNA expression level and dynamic FST protein expression patterns in porcine oocytes and PAEs. Then, PAEs were placed in embryo culture medium supplemented with 10 ng/mL of FST-288, FST-300, and FST-315. Next, PAEs were cultured with 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/mL of FST-315 protein throughout the in vitro culture (IVC) duration. Further, 10 ng/mL of FST-300 was added from the start of IVC in which PAEs were treated for 30, 48 and 60 h. The results showed that 1 ng/mL FST-315 could significantly increase the total cell numbers of blastocyst and trophectoderm cell number in PAEs. Exogenous FST-300 supplementation could significantly promote the early cleavage divisions and improve the blastocyst formation rate of porcine embryos. FST-300 appeared to affect early embryonic development before activation of the embryonic genome. In all, the study confirmed for the first time that FST plays a role in promoting early embryonic development in pigs, which differed with different FST subtypes. FST-300 could facilitate the initial cleavage time and improve the blastocyst formation rate, and FST-315 could improve the blastocyst quality.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T01:30:47.489465-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12936
  • Relationship of the conception rate and the side (left or right) of
           preovulatory follicle location at artificial insemination in dairy heifers
    • Authors: Ryotaro Miura; Taiki Izumi
      Abstract: In this study, we examined the locational effect (left or right ovary) of the preovulatory follicle (PF) on fertility in dairy heifers. In total, 1,111 artificial inseminations (AI) were analyzed. At AI, PF locations were examined using rectal palpation, and heifers were divided into two groups on their PF locations: (i) the PF located in the left ovary (L-PF); and (ii) the PF located in the right ovary (R-PF). Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation 60 days after AI. The conception rate was 50.7% in all heifers. Conception rate was significantly higher in the L-PF (60.1%) than in the R-PF (46.2%). The conception rate was significantly lower by sexed semen (48.6%) than conventional semen (59.1%). Conception rates divided by the semen type (sexed: n = 896, conventional: n = 215) were significantly higher in the L-PF than in the R-PF for both semen types (sexed; L-PF vs. R-PF: 57.3% vs. 44.4%, conventional; L-PF vs. R-PF: 72.3% vs. 53.3%). In addition, season, age, AI number, and the number of re-inseminations at the same estrus did not affect conception rates. In summary, PF development in the left ovary was associated with increased conception rates in dairy heifers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T04:55:25.580776-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12949
  • Trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid increases triacylglycerol
           accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells in vitro
    • Authors: Tianying Zhang; Yue Ma, Hui Wang, Juan J Loor, Huifen Xu, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo
      Abstract: Trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) is well-established in decreasing milk fat content and causing milk fat depression (MFD) in dairy cattle and goats. However, the detailed mechanisms of its effect are not completely understood. Therefore, we used goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) to further study the molecular mechanisms whereby t10c12-CLA regulates milk fat synthesis. The optimal concentration of t10c12-CLA (100 μmol/L) for cell culture was determined through a cell vitality and morphology assay, and evaluation of abundance of apoptosis-related proteins. Oil red O stain indicated that t10c12-CLA increased concentration of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Furthermore, t10c12-CLA increased the intracellular triacylglycerol (TG) content (P 
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T04:30:50.546201-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12935
  • Impact of α-amylase supplementation on energy balance and performance of
           high-yielding dairy cows on moderate starch feeding
    • Authors: Martin Bachmann; Mandy Bochnia, Norbert Mielenz, Joachim Spilke, Wolfgang B. Souffrant, Elisabeth Azem, Wolfgang Schliffka, Annette Zeyner
      Abstract: In dairy cows, exogenous α-amylase is suggested to improve starch utilization and positively affect performance and health traits linked to energy balance and fertility. In a 1-year feeding experiment, 421 cows were orally supplemented with α-amylase (treatment: 12.5 g/kg dry matter (DM) addition rate to a concentrated feed) or non-supplemented (control) on the basis of an ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR). Every cow was allocated to a high- (≥32 kg milk/day) or late-lactation group (
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T05:00:20.953773-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12939
  • Application of DNA markers for discrimination between Japanese and
           Australian Wagyu beef
    • Authors: Fuki Kawaguchi; Yuto Kitamura, Ryuji Nakajima, Masayoshi Takahashi, Hiroaki Goto, Yuichi Washida, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Shinji Sasazaki, Hideyuki Mannen
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to discriminate between original Japanese and Australian Wagyu beef, which is sold in the Singapore markets, using six previously developed DNA markers. To effectively evaluate the six markers for breed identification, the probability of identification as Australian Wagyu beef was calculated based on the estimated allele frequencies using 130 Australian Wagyu individuals. The combined use of six markers would allow the discrimination of Australian Wagyu beef with an estimated probability of 0.776. The probability to discriminate Australian Wagyu from Japanese Wagyu beef was sufficiently high. In addition, Australian Wagyu has maternal mitochondrial DNA of Bos indicus cattle with moderate high frequency of 0.377. The DNA marker system could also be used as a deterrent force against false sales, and contribute to the reduction and prevention of incorrect or falsified labeling of beef.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T01:05:25.342454-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12938
  • Effects of composite antimicrobial peptide on growth performance and
           health in weaned piglets
    • Authors: Jiankai Shi; Pan Zhang, Meng meng Xu, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Gang Li, De Wu, Shengyu Xu
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of composite antimicrobial peptide (CAP) on growth performance and health status in weaned piglets. Over 28 days, 36 weaned piglets (body weight, 10.58 ± 0.99 kg) underwent three treatments: negative control (NC, basal diet), positive control (PC, basal diet + 20 mg/kg colistin sulphate + 50 mg/kg kitasamycin), and CAP treatment (CAP, basal diet with 400 mg/kg CAP). Average daily gain of piglets fed the CAP diet was greater (P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T00:50:22.617523-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12933
  • Influence of stewing time on the texture, ultrastructure and in vitro
           digestibility of meat from the yellow-feathered chicken breed
    • Authors: Jun Qi; Xiao Li, Wenwen Zhang, Huhu Wang, Guanghong Zhou, Xinglian Xu
      Abstract: This study assessed the influence of stewing (1, 2 or 3 h) on the texture, ultrastructure and in vitro digestibility of meat from the yellow-feathered chicken, which is a popular broiler chicken in Asia. Results indicated that longer stewing considerably increased cooking loss of the chicken carcass and tenderness of thigh meat. After 3 h of stewing, protein digestibility decreased from 90.5% to 80.3% and fiber diameter decreased by 8.63 μm. The shear force value of breast meat decreased from 32.34 N at 1 h to 10.29 N at 2 h, and then increased to 39.98 N at 3 h. The texture profile of breast meat remarkably decreased during stewing. Moreover, increased stewing time induced longitudinal and transversal shrinkage of muscle fibers and the degradation of the myosin heavy chain. These findings suggested that prolonged stewing (3 h) resulted in decreased meat qualities, based on the changes in cooking loss, digestibility and texture profile, but that stewing for 2 h increased thigh and breast tenderness. Producers could utilize this information to stew yellow-feathered chicken meat with desirable qualities.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T00:30:51.756955-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12929
  • Involvement of μ/m-calpain in the proteolysis and meat quality changes
           during postmortem storage of chicken breast muscle
    • Authors: Liang Zhao; Tong Xing, Jichao Huang, Yan Qiao, Yulian Chen, Ming Huang
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of calpain isotypes, especially poultry-specific μ/m-calpain in the proteolysis and meat quality changes of chicken breast muscle during postmortem storage. Calpain activity was detected by casein zymography, while the degradation of titin, desmin and Troponin-T was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot. Meat quality indicators such as water holding capacity and tenderness were also studied. The correlation analysis between calpain activity, proteolysis and the changes in meat quality indicators indicated that there were strong correlations for μ-calpain during the first 12 h of storage, while such strong correlations for μ/m-calpain were only found in samples stored from 12 h to 7 days. Our study suggested that μ-calpain played a major role in meat quality changes while μ/m-calpain could also be involved but played a limited role in the proteolysis and meat quality changes during 12 h to 7 days postmortem storage of chicken breast muscle.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T19:45:34.558232-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12921
  • A method for extracting carboxy-myoglobin from beef
    • Authors: Masahiro Waga; Shiro Takeda, Ryoichi Sakata
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to devise a method for the effective extraction of carboxy-myoglobin (COMb) from beef without carbon monoxide dissociation. The ratio of COMb to myoglobin was computed at absorptions of wavelengths 541 and 551 nm, which characterize COMb and the isosbestic point between COMb and deoxy-myoglobin, respectively. The COMb extraction rate was found to vary with temperature, pH and oxygen conditions. The decrease observed in this rate was inversely proportional to the rise in extraction temperature. The COMb extraction rate was also affected by pH, and the stability of COMb in the extract solution was the highest at pH 8.0–9.0. Moreover, the presence of oxygen was found to disturb COMb extraction. According to these results, nearly all COMb could be extracted from carbon-monoxide-treated beef under stirring conditions in pH 8.5 deoxidized buffer, at 1°C, and under N2 flow with the improved extraction method in this study (98.1 ± 2.7%). The decrement of COMb in the extract was accelerated by light, and the COMb was stable for 20 min in the dark, at 1°C. The extraction conditions for COMb described above should allow the accurate evaluation of COMb in meat tissue.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T04:30:25.003404-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12942
  • Interactions between fawns and does of farmed fallow deer Dama dama in the
           postnatal period
    • Authors: Paweł Janiszewski; Justyna Cilulko-Dołęga, Daria Murawska, Marek Bogdaszewski
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to describe the suckling behavior of the offspring of farmed European fallow deer Dama dama in the postnatal period. Video surveillance footage from the first 18 days postpartum was analyzed in detail to reveal that the duration of interactions between the mother and the offspring changed with the fawns’ age. The duration of mother-offspring interactions was longest between postpartum days 12 and 18. The frequency of interactions at different times of the day varied in the analyzed periods. The results of the study could be used to increase the welfare of farmed deer.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T22:10:35.126087-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12926
  • Partial characterization of phylogeny, ecology and function of the
           fibrolytic bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens OS14, newly isolated from
           the rumen of swamp buffalo
    • Authors: Phoompong Boonsaen; Madoka Kinjo, Suriya Sawanon, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
      Abstract: The fibrolytic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciensOS14 was isolated from swamp buffalo and its phylogenetic, ecological and digestive properties were partially characterized. Isolates from rumen contents of four swamp buffalo were screened for fibrolytic bacteria; one of the 40 isolates showed a distinctive feature of solubilizing cellulose powder in liquid culture and was identified as R. flavefaciens based on its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. This isolate, OS14, was employed for detection and digestion studies, for which a quantitative PCR assay was developed and defined cultures were tested with representative forages in Thailand. OS14 was phylogenetically distant from other isolated and uncultured R. flavefaciens and showed limited distribution among Thai ruminants but was absent in Japanese cattle. OS14 digested rice straw and other tropical forage to a greater extent than the type strain C94 of R. flavefaciens. OS14 produced more lactate than C94, and digested para grass to produce propionate more extensively in co-culture with lactate-utilizing Selenomonas ruminantium S137 than a co-culture of C94 with S137. These results indicate that phylogenetically distinct OS14 could digest Thai local forage more efficiently than the type strain, possibly forming a symbiotic cross-feeding relationship with lactate-utilizing bacteria. This strain might be useful for future animal and other industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T04:00:42.684025-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12927
  • Selenium supplementation during in vitro maturation enhances meiosis and
           developmental capacity of yak oocytes
    • Authors: Xianrong Xiong; Daoliang Lan, Jian Li, Yaqiu Lin, Mingyang Li
      Abstract: The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) on the developmental capacity of yak (Bos grunniens) oocytes. Nuclear maturation, DNA integrity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, subsequent embryonic development, and gene expression after in vitro fertilization (IVF) were evaluated. The Se concentrations in yak plasma and follicular fluid were 0.142 and 0.069 μg/mL, respectively. The DNA damage in cumulus cells decreased significantly with 2 and 4 μg/mL supplementation of sodium selenite to IVM medium (P  0.05). The IVF blastocyst formation rates of 0, 1 and 4 μg/mL sodium selenite groups were 47.7%, 51.2% and 58.9%, respectively. The 2 μg/mL sodium selenite group had the highest blastocyst formation rate (60.5%). Gene expression analysis revealed that the quantity of transcripts associated with selenoprotein and protein synthesis were high in the 2 and 4 μg/mL groups. In conclusion, both GSH-Px activity of oocytes and DNA integrity of cumulus cells significantly increased with supplemental Se during oocyte IVM. Considering that embryonic development is responsive to Se supplementation, we inferred that appropriate Se concentrations during IVM were beneficial for yak oocyte maturation and subsequent development.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T03:55:52.485355-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12894
  • Feeding forage mixtures of alfalfa hay and maize stover optimizes growth
           performance and carcass characteristics of lambs
    • Authors: Lin Sun; Qiang Yin, Ge Gentu, Yanlin Xue, Meiling Hou, Liying Liu, Yushan Jia
      Abstract: A feeding experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different proportions of alfalfa hay and maize stover on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening lambs. Forty-two healthy 3.5-month-old male Small-tail Han lambs of 23.89 ± 0.38 kg body mass were assigned to seven groups, which were fed mixed diets composed of maize stover and alfalfa hay containing 0%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% or 100% maize stover on a dry matter (DM) basis. Each lamb received 1.5 kg DM of forage mixture three times daily and supplementary concentrate (0.5 kg corn per lamb per day) for 60 days. Compared with the control forage diet of maize stover only, forage intake rate and forage conversion rate on the 40% maize stover/60% alfalfa hay mixture were 30% and 5% higher, respectively. Body weight, dressing percentage and net income were 6.7 kg, 8% and 94.37 Yuan higher per lamb, respectively. Thus, feeding lambs with a forage mixture of maize stover and alfalfa hay in a ratio of 40:60 optimized the production performance, slaughter performance, and the income derived from lambs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:05:23.541801-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12928
  • Optimization and physicochemical properties of nutritional protein isolate
           from pork liver with ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction
    • Authors: Ye Zou; Huan Bian, Pengpeng Li, Zhilan Sun, Chong Sun, Muhan Zhang, Zhiming Geng, Weimin Xu, Daoying Wang
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal conditions of ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction (UAAE) on pork liver protein isolate (UPLPI) and its physico-chemical properties. Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal conditions for UAAE, which were at ultrasonic power 265 W, ultrasonic time 42 min, NaOH concentration 0.80%, temperature 50°C, and solvent/raw material ratio 70. The extraction yield and efficiency of UPLPI were significantly improved over the conventional alkaline extraction (PLPI). The results of amino acid composition showed that UAAE could increase serine (36.5 g/kg), arginine (38.1 g/kg), alanine (37.5 g/kg), proline (48.7 g/kg), phenylalanine (55.6 g/kg) and lysine (47.2 g/kg) elution amount. The changes in fourier transform infrared spectra indicated unfolding and destruction of the protein structure in UPLPI. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis presented UPLPI with a slightly lower onset and peak denaturation temperature over PLPI. Surface hydrophobicity increased and the microstructures presented larger and more pores of UPLPI, therefore, it had better in vitro digestibility than PLPI. Therefore, UPLPI might have a potential application prospect in the food field due to its changes on molecular structure as well as on the microstructure of protein by UAAE.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T03:21:11.885976-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12930
  • Vitrification of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts in a paper
    • Authors: Ashit Kumar Paul; Yuanyuan Liang, Kanokwan Srirattana, Takashi Nagai, Rangsun Parnpai
      Abstract: In the present study, we aimed to determine the applicability of a paper container for the vitrification of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, IVM oocytes were exposed to vitrification solution (20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 20% ethylene glycol (EG), and 5 mol/L sucrose), using a two-step method, for 30 s; loaded onto either a paper container or Cryotop; and stored in liquid nitrogen. No significant difference (P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T03:20:57.600841-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12892
  • Effect of replacing alfalfa hay with a mixture of cassava foliage silage
    • Authors: Hoang Lam Dang; Renlong Lv, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of replacing alfalfa hay (AH) with a mixture of cassava foliage silage and sweet potato vine silage (CSP) (1:1 on a dry matter (DM) basis) on ruminal and intestinal nutrient digestion in sheep. Four wethers were fed a control diet containing 35% of AH and two treatment diets containing 15% and 30% of the CSP as substitute for AH at 1.5 times the metabolizable energy required for maintenance. Replacing AH with the CSP silage did not affect DM intake, whereas it linearly increased (P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T20:41:02.158437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12925
  • The use of accelerometer to measure sleeping posture of beef cows
    • Authors: Michiru Fukasawa; Tokushi Komatsu, Yumi Higashiyama, Akinori Oshibe
      Abstract: Sleep is one of the essential behaviors for mammals. The aims of this study were to validate the use of accelerometer for measuring sleeping posture of cattle. Duration of sleeping posture of seven Japanese Black cows from 19.00 to 07.00 hours was measured by both accelerometer and video, and a total of 67 accelerometer and video measurement sets were collected. We calculated Cohen's κ coefficient between accelerometer and video measurements and 91.5% of the κ-values were>0.80. Intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variance showed that specific acceleration waveform patterns of sleeping posture could be easily and accurately detected by independent observers. There were no significant differences in the frequency of sleeping posture occurrences between accelerometer and video measurements. We compared averaged sleeping posture bout, and the total sleeping posture time between accelerometer and video measurements using regression. In each trait, the slope was close to 1 and the intercept was not different from 0, which showed a strong agreement between accelerometer and video measurements. This shows that an accelerometer could accurately detect sleeping postures of cattle. We conclude that adequate measurements of sleeping postures can be made using an accelerometer.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T20:40:59.308083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12931
  • Hair cortisol levels of lactating dairy cows in cold- and warm-temperate
           regions in Japan
    • Authors: Katsuji Uetake; Shigeru Morita, Nobutada Sakagami, Kazuaki Yamamoto, Shinji Hashimura, Toshio Tanaka
      Abstract: We compared the hair cortisol levels of lactating dairy cows in a cold- and a warm-temperate region out of four climatic zones in Japan. We simultaneously investigated the effects of calving number, lactation period and month of hair sampling. Hair of nine Holstein lactating cows chosen from each region (i.e. 18 cows per sampling) was sampled in March, June, September and December. Number of calvings (1, 2, ≥3) and lactation duration (early: 201 days) were balanced between regions. Cortisol was extracted from hair by methanol, and its level was determined with a cortisol immunoassay kit. A multi-way analysis of variance revealed that the effects of month of hair sampling (P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T20:40:37.889071-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12934
  • Aging adult porcine fibroblasts can support nuclear transfer and
           transcription factor-mediated reprogramming
    • Authors: Xia Li; Pengfei Zhang, Shaoshuai Jiang, Biao Ding, Xiaoyuan Zuo, Yunsheng Li, Zubing Cao, Yunhai Zhang
      Abstract: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology are two classical reprogramming methods. Donor cell types can affect the reprogramming results in the above two methods. We here used porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) and adult porcine ear skin fibroblasts (APEFs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as donor cells for SCNT and source cells for iPSCs to study their in vitro developmental capability and colony-formation efficiency, respectively. For SCNT, fusion and cleavage rate has no significant difference among PEFs, ADSCs and APEFs. The rate and total cell number of blastocysts in the APEF group were significant lower than that in PEFs and ADSCs. For transcription factor-mediated reprogramming, the reprogramming efficiency of ADSCs were significantly higher than PEFs and APEFs and there is no significant difference between PEFs and APEFs. Furthermore, PEFs, APEFs and ADSCs can be used to generate iPSCs. Fianlly, somatic cloned pigs could still be successfully generated from APEFs, suggesting terminally differentiated aging adult somatic cells could be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. Considering the easy availability of animal tissue and the costs of establishing cell lines, aging porcine ear fibroblasts can support nuclear transfer-mediated and transcription factor-based reprogramming.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T01:35:14.728104-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12871
  • The induction of cashmere shedding via cyclophosphamide injection
    • Authors: Qian Chen; Yu-yan Cong, Xue-jian Li, Rui-yang Zhang
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cyclophosphamide (CPA) on cashmere shedding in cashmere goats. Thirty-two castrated Liaoning cashmere goats were randomly allotted to four groups, with eight replicates in each group. The four groups were injected intravenously with CPA doses of 0, 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Feed intake, body weight, body temperature, and sphygmus were recorded and the erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, hemoglobin content, and cashmere yield and length were determined. CPA has no significant effect on feed intake, body weight, body temperature, or sphygmus of cashmere goats. It was found that CPA significantly decreased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content in cashmere goats on the days immediately following injection, but the effects on erythrocytes diminished within 6 days, with hemoglobin content returning to normal within 10 days. Cashmere fiber began to shed on about day 10 after injection with CPA. CPA had no significant effect on cashmere length but significantly increased cashmere yield. The results indicate that CPA can induce cashmere shedding and achieve the purpose of concentrated defleecing. A dose of 20 mg/kg body weight is preferable for hair removal and regrowth in cashmere goats.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T21:05:31.066858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12917
  • Trends in the quality and hygiene parameters of bulk Italian Mediterranean
           buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk: A three year study
    • Authors: Marina Pasquini; Andrea Osimani, Stefano Tavoletti, Itzhak Moreno, Francesca Clementi, Maria Federica Trombetta
      Abstract: Buffalo milk represents an indispensable source of nourishment in many parts of the world and it is the second most consumed milk worldwide. Buffalo milk is actually used for the production of many dairy products such as pasteurized or concentrated milk, butter, yogurt, ice-cream, dehydrated milk products and cheeses. Due to its high nutritional value and the presence of natural bioactive substances, buffalo milk can also provide health benefits to consumers. In Italy, buffalo milk is used mainly for cheese making, mozzarella PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), which is a highly valued dairy product. This 3-year study, carried out between 2011 and 2013, was aimed at evaluating the quality of bulk Italian Mediterranean buffalo milk by monitoring physico-chemical parameters, somatic cell and total bacterial counts. A total of 51 samples of bulk milk were collected from one herd throughout the monitored period. Analysis of variance, carried out to test month, season and year main effects, highlighted remarkable seasonal effects for fat, protein and lactose content, as well as for predicted mozzarella cheese yield, and somatic cell counts. The calculation of simple correlations allowed the identification of positive correlations between estimated cheese yield and fat and protein content.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T11:18:45.218399-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12916
  • Phenotypic characteristics of upright and pendulous comb among chicken
           breeds and association with growth rate and egg production
    • Authors: Yi Wan; Zhicheng Wang, Xing Guo, Chendong Ma, Qi Fang, Zhaoyu Geng, Xingyong Chen, Runshen Jiang
      Abstract: Upright and pendulous combs commonly exist in most single-comb chicken breeds. Here, the phenotypic characteristics of upright and pendulous combs in chickens and association with growth rate and egg production were analyzed. Phenotypic frequencies of upright and pendulous comb were investigated in five chicken breeds; the phenotypic frequencies of complete pendulous comb (CPC) and partial pendulous comb (PPC) ranged from 10.1% to 29.0% and 21.8% to 65.3%, respectively. CPC hens produced more eggs than PPC hens (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T03:35:58.608855-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12922
  • Effects of illite supplementation on in vitro and in vivo rumen
           fermentation, microbial population and methane emission of Hanwoo steers
           fed high concentrate diets
    • Authors: Ashraf A. Biswas; Sung-Sill Lee, Lovelia L. Mamuad, Seon-Ho Kim, Yeon-Jae Choi, Chanhee Lee, Kichoon Lee, Gui-Seck Bae, Sang-Suk Lee
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding supplemental illite to Hanwoo steers on methane (CH4) emission and rumen fermentation parameters. An in vitro ruminal fermentation technique was conducted using a commercial concentrate as substrate and illite was added at different concentrations as treatments: 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% illite. Total volatile fatty acids (VFA) were different (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T04:51:35.401191-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12913
  • Heifers express G-protein coupled receptor 153 in anterior pituitary
           gonadotrophs in stage-dependent manner
    • Authors: Kiran Pandey; Onalenna Kereilwe, Hiroya Kadokawa
      Abstract: We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)153 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR153 colocalizes with gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) in the plasma membrane of gonadotrophs and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR153, and either luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. GPR153 was detected in the gonadotrophs, and was colocalized with GnRHR in the plasma membrane. GPR153 was also detected in the cytoplasm of cultured gonadotrophs. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses found that expression was lower (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T02:55:33.71524-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12920
  • Microarray analysis of Longissimus thoracis muscle gene expressions in
           vitamin A-restricted Japanese Black steers in middle fattening stage
    • Authors: Masayuki Hayashi; Kyoko Kido, Kyoko Hodate
      Abstract: Vitamin A (VA) restriction in beef cattle improves meat marbling; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We performed microarray analysis to clarify the effect of VA restriction on Longissimus thoracis gene expressions in Japanese Black steers. Six Japanese Black steers 13–14 months of age were divided into two groups: S group (n = 3), which received VA supplementation, and R group (n = 3), in which dietary VA intake was restricted. Steers were fattened for 7 months, following which tissue samples were obtained. Extracted RNA samples were analyzed by Affymetrix Genechip Bovine Genome Array. Lists of genes highly expressed in the R and S groups were obtained. The lists were functionally interpreted using functional annotation software, DAVID. In the R and S groups, 48 and 40 genes were significantly highly expressed, respectively. The gene list of the R group included CD36, LPL, GPAM, DGAT2, and SCD and additional genes annotated ‘PPAR signaling pathway,’ ‘lipid biosynthesis’ and ‘mitochondrion,’ whereas that of the S group included COL1A2, FN1 and DCN and additional genes annotated ‘extracellular matrix.’ Changes in the expression of these genes are possibly involved in marbling improvement in beef cattle by VA restriction.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T02:45:19.165085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12898
  • Thermal decomposition, chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and
           gas production and in situ degradability of oilseed residues from the
           biofuel industry
    • Authors: Anderson Dias Vieira de Souza; Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo, Simone Palma Fávaro, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira Ítavo, Hélène Veronique Petit, Alexandre Menezes Dias, Maria da Graça Morais, Fernando Alvarenga Reis, Renato Roscoe
      Abstract: Thermal analysis could rapidly and easily predict nutritional value of ruminant feeds. The hypothesis is that crambe meal (CM) has a quality similar to that of soybean meal (SM), and the objective of this study was to determine the nutritional characteristics of CM and compare them to those of SM. CM had greater concentrations of phytic acid (26.3 vs. 16.0 g/kg) and phenol compounds (615 vs. 393 mg gallic acid (GAE)/kg) than SM. In vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility was lower for CM than SM (752 vs. 975 g/kg DM). Cumulative in vitro gas production at 48 h of incubation (14.1 vs. 19.4 mL/100 mg substrate DM), and energy release (4.5 vs. 5.7 kJ/g substrate DM) were lower for CM than SM. CM had a higher concentration of low digestible fiber, hence degradability of DM was lower and the proportion of indigestible fraction was greater for CM than SM. High concentrations of indigestible compounds were likely responsible for lower gas production of CM compared to SM. These results suggest CM quality is lower than that of SM and that thermal analysis is a useful tool to precisely determine the nutritive value of oilseed residues.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T02:42:25.72158-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12889
  • A retrospective study of female reproductive parameters in the Kunming dog
    • Authors: Yun-Fang Wei; Jiu-Sheng Wan, Fang-Liang Chen, Chao Chen, Jing Li, Lu-Guang Cheng, Ai-Guo Mao, Fei-Xiang Li, Bin Wang, Qing-Guo Huang, Shu-Sheng Tang, Hong-Jiang Wei
      Abstract: The Kunming dog is the first and only working dog breed from China to be recognized worldwide. As a domestic working dog, its excellent working performance has been well established; however, its normal reproductive parameters are not well understood. Therefore, this study was conducted to document the main reproductive parameters of this purebred working dog in field breeding conditions. Data on 1004 heats (753 with mating) from 203 bitches between 2008 to 2014, were collected and analyzed. The pregnancy rate and whelping rate was 79.42% and 75.30%, respectively. Finally, for 567 litters (4298 puppies), the mean litter size was 7.19 ± 0.12 puppies (range 1–15). The mean gestation period and birth weight were approximately 61.64 ± 0.10 days and 407.25 ± 1.21 g. The mean sex ratio was 1.03 males to 1.00 female. Estrus occurred throughout the year with no significant differences between seasons and months (P > 0.05), which confirms that Kunming dogs are non-seasonal breeders; births occurred in every month of the year. Pregnant bitches exhibited significantly longer inter-estrus intervals than non-pregnant bitches (220.85 ± 2.05 vs. 180.19 ± 2.94 days, P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T02:25:53.394202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12914
  • Effect of changing forage on the dynamic variation in rumen fermentation
           in sheep
    • Authors: Xiao Xie; Jia-kun Wang, Leluo Guan, Jian-Xin Liu
      Abstract: To better understand rumen adaptation during dietary transitions between high- and low-quality forages, 10 rumen-cannulated Hu sheep were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments (five sheep each) with the same concentrate-to-forage ratio and concentration mixture, but different forage sequences: (i) alfalfa hay (AH) to corn stover (CS) and back to AH; and (ii) CS to AH and back to CS. A significant decrease in the rumen microbial protein concentration was observed on day 6 after dietary transition whether the transition was from AH to CS or from CS to AH, and this was accompanied by an increase in the ammonia nitrogen concentration as well as a decrease in the total volatile fatty acids concentration and pH. However, after transitioning back to the original forage, the rumen fermentation parameters returned to their initial levels within 2 weeks. Our findings suggest that abrupt substitutions of forages with large nutrient differences could influence rumen function to some extent, but recovery can occur within 2 weeks without detrimental effects. Furthermore, we speculate that the variation of fermentation in the first 6 days may indicate an important rumen transition stage that requires further study.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T01:00:37.57032-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12915
  • Effect of the proportion of roughage fed as rolled and baled hay on
           repressing wool-biting behavior in housed sheep
    • Authors: Chen-Yu Huang; Ken-ichi Takeda
      Abstract: Wool-biting behavior in housed sheep is a serious animal welfare problem and is difficult to control. Since we have found that sheep fed on rolled hay performed less post-feeding wool-biting than those fed on baled hay, here we mixed these two kinds of hay in four different proportions (0%, 33%, 67% and 100% of rolled hay) to test the effect of rolled hay on repressing wool-biting behavior. We also measured the pulling force needed to remove a piece of rolled hay, baled hay, wool and fresh grass. Wool-biting occurred most frequently in the treatment containing 0% rolled hay; however, there was no significant difference between the other three treatments. The pulling force needed to remove a piece of baled hay was significantly weaker than that for the other three objects; no other significant differences in pulling force were found. Our results suggest that the wool-biting behavior of sheep was due to feeding frustration, which arises when they lack the appropriate oral stimulation from performing their normal foraging movement; this then redirects to the wool on their pen-mates. Feeding sheep rolled hay, even in low quantities, can provide them with appropriate oral stimulation and was effective in repressing wool-biting behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T01:00:27.279862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12895
  • Determination of net energy content of soybean oil fed to growing pigs
           using indirect calorimetry
    • Authors: Enkai Li; Zhiqian LV, Hu Liu, Ling Liu, Yakui Li, Zhongchao Li, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
      Abstract: The objectives of this experiment were: (i) to determine the net energy (NE) of soybean oil (SBO) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC); and (ii) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on heat production, oxidative status and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows were allotted to three diets based on completely randomized design with six replicate pigs (period) per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two test diets containing 5% or 10% SBO at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 14 days, including 7 days to adapt to feed, metabolism crate and environmental conditions. On day 8, pigs were transferred to the open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of daily O2 consumption and CO2 and CH4 production. During this time, pigs were fed one of the three diets at 2.4 MJ metabolizable energy/kg body weight (BW)0.6/day. Total feces and urine were collected and daily total heat production (THP) was measured from days 9 to 13 and fasted on day 14 to evaluate their fasting heat production (FHP). The results show that trends of decreased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (linear, P = 0.09) and acid detergent fiber (linear, P = 0.07) were observed as the content of dietary lipids increased. The average THP for the three diets were 1326, 1208 and 1193 kJ/kg BW0.6/day, respectively. The FHP of pigs averaged 843 kJ/kg BW0.6/day and was not affected by diet characteristics. A reduction of the respiratory quotients in the fed state as the inclusion level of SBO increased was observed. In conclusion, the NE values of SBO we determined by indirect calorimetry were 33.45 and 34.05 MJ/kg dry matter under two inclusion levels. THP could be largely reduced when SBO is added in the feed, but the THP of SBO included at 5% in a corn-soybean meal diet is not different from the THP of SBO included at 10%.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T04:02:26.858553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12888
  • Effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculation on fermentation quality and
           fatty acid profile of barley silage
    • Authors: Dong Hyeon Kim; Sadar M. Amanullah, Hyuk Jun Lee, Young Ho Joo, Ouk Kyu Han, Adegbola T. Adesogan, Sam Churl Kim
      Abstract: This study estimated the effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculant on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silages. Yuyeon (Silkless) and Youngyang (Silking) barley hybrids were harvested at 24.9 and 27.1% dry matter, respectively, and chopped to 10 cm lengths. Each hybrid was treated with or without an inoculant (2 × 104 colony-forming units/g of Lactobacillus plantarum). A total of 48 silos were prepared in an experiment with a 2 × 2 (hybrid × inoculant) treatment arrangement with four replications and three ensiling durations (2, 7 and 100 days). After 100 days of ensiling, Yuyeon silage had higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T03:45:44.240701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12923
  • Relationships between mineral concentrations and physicochemical
           characteristics in the Longissimus thoracis muscle of Japanese Black
    • Authors: Takashi Kitagawa; Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
      Abstract: The relationship between mineral concentrations, and the relationship of mineral concentrations with physicochemical characteristics in muscles were investigated using the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 44 Japanese Black steers. We determined moisture content, fat content, meat color, fatty acid composition and mineral concentrations in the LT muscle. Magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) concentrations had negative correlations with fat content, but sodium (Na), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations were not correlated with fat content. The concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn largely and positively contributed to the first principal component of mineral concentrations. Because the red muscle was rich in these minerals compared to the white muscle, the variation of these minerals probably results from the abundance of red fibers in the LT muscle. The concentration of K was positively correlated with moisture content but Na concentration was not related to moisture content, suggesting that the intracellular fluid volume can largely affect moisture content. The results of the present experiment suggest that mineral concentrations reflect some traits such as not only fat content but also the composition of myofiber type and the intracellular fluid volume in the LT muscle of Japanese Black cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T03:30:25.204539-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12919
  • Effect of negative dietary cation-anion differences on carcass
           characteristics and beef tenderness of Japanese Black steers
    • Authors: Kyohei Ishida; Kazuo Hirano
      Abstract: Lowering dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD) can enhance responsiveness to Ca-homeostatic hormones and increase Ca availability, which might have potential to activate a Ca-dependent protease, calpain, and to enhance postmortem myofibrillar proteolysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of DCAD manipulation on calpain activity and beef tenderness in Japanese Black cattle which are characterized by their high marbling. Thirty-six Japanese Black steers were allotted to one of two treatments: (i) control (CON; DCAD +6.09 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM)) or (ii) negative DCAD (NEGD; DCAD −8.27 mEq/100 g DM) for 70 days before slaughter. Lowering DCAD decreased DM and energy intake (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T03:10:51.399678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12918
  • Nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass and stylo mixed
    • Authors: Juliana S. Silva; Karina G. Ribeiro, Odilon G. Pereira, Hilário C. Mantovani, Paulo R. Cecon, Rosana C. Pereira, Janaina de L. Silva
      Abstract: The nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes) and stylo (Stylosanthes capitata × S. macrocephala cv. Campo Grande) mixed silages were evaluated. The experiment was analyzed in a factorial scheme (5 × 2) in a completely randomized design using increasing levels of stylo (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on a fresh matter basis) on palisadegrass silages, with and without microbial inoculants (MI). With the increased ratio of stylo in mixed silages, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin content increased in silages. The presence of MI promoted lower DM content, and higher neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ADF and lignin content. The acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content and the lactic acid bacteria populations were not affected by treatments. The in vitroDM digestibility was affected by the interaction of levels of the stylo and MI. The pH, NH3-N/total nitrogen and butyric acid concentrations decreased with increasing levels of stylo. Better nutritive value and quality of fermentation was found in the silage containing higher proportions of this stylo mixed with palisadegrass. The microbial inoculant evaluated did not alter the nutritive value or quality of the fermentation of the silages in this experiment.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T02:39:10.956058-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12854
  • Exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells in milk on bovine mastitis
           caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with bacterial load
    • Authors: Yuya Nagasawa; Yoshio Kiku, Kazue Sugawara, Fuyuko Tanabe, Tomohito Hayashi
      Abstract: The exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in milk is affected by physiological, breeding and environmental factors. Little is known about the relationship between the MEC exfoliation into milk and mammary-infected Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) load on bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between S. aureus load and the proportion of MEC exfoliation in milk using five substantial bovine mastitis models. In 64 randomly extracted milk samples from udders at 3–21 days after S. aureus infusion, there were various samples with different numbers of S. aureus counts and somatic cell counts. No significant correlations were found between the S. aureus counts and somatic cell count (r = 0.338). In contrast, a significant correlation was noted between S. aureus counts and the proportion of cytokeratin-positive cells in the milk from the infused udders (r = 0.734, P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:50:32.295415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12886
  • Dietary cation and anion difference: Effects on milk production and body
           fluid distribution in lactating dairy goats under tropical conditions
    • Authors: Thiet Nguyen; Narongsak Chaiyabutr, Somchai Chanpongsang, Sumpun Thammacharoen
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) on milk production and body fluid distribution in lactating dairy goats. Ten dairy goats were selected and divided into two groups, five animals each. Animals received either control DCAD (control, 22.81 mEq/100 g dry matter (DM)) or high DCAD (DCAD, 39.08 mEq/100 g DM). The results indicated that rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rate, milk yield and compositions did not differ between groups. But the percentage change of Tr from the DCAD group was lower than the control group between 09.00 and 13.00 hours. DM intake tended to increase in the DCAD group. Dairy goats in the DCAD group drank more water, but urinary excretion and plasma antidiuretic hormone concentration remained unchanged. Apparent water balance was higher from the DCAD group over 24 h. There was no effect of DCAD on plasma and blood volumes, but tended to increase in extracellular fluid and thereby increased total body water. The present results indicate that animals supplemented with high DCAD increase their total body water and apparent water balance. These results have contributed to the process of adaptation for evaporative cooling and would be useful in slowing down the elevation in Tr.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T03:10:31.744253-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12897
  • Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the feces of dairy cows fed
           whole crop maize silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the
    • Authors: Hongyan Han; Chao Wang, Yanbing Li, Zhu Yu, Qingfang Xu, Guangpeng Li, Tang Thuy Minh, Naoki Nishino
      Abstract: In order to assess the survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in whole crop maize silage in the gut of dairy cows, one representative silage sample and three different feces samples were collected from dairy cows on three dairy farms in Hua Bei, China and three dairy farms in Kyushu, Japan. The composition of the bacterial community was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lactobacillus acetotolerans was detected in all bunker-made maize silage samples, regardless of the dairy farm or sampling region from which they were sourced. A total of eight LAB species were detected in the maize silage samples, of which three (L. acetotolerans, L. pontis and L. casei) appeared to survive digestion. The populations of L. acetotolerans in silage and feces were 106–7 and 103–4 copies/g, respectively, indicating that, even for the LAB species showing potential survival in the gut, competition in this niche may be harsh and the population may substantially decrease during the digestion process. It may be difficult for silage LAB to survive in the gut of silage-fed dairy cows, because marked decrease in population can take place during the digestion process, even for surviving species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T02:55:35.620904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12896
  • Identification of sialyl oligosaccharides including an oligosaccharide
           nucleotide in colostrum of an addax (Addax nasomaculatus) (Subfamily
    • Authors: Khuukhenbaatar Ganzorig; Takuya Asakawa, Masashi Sasaki, Tadao Saito, Isao Suzuki, Kenji Fukuda, Tadasu Urashima
      Abstract: Mammalian milk/colostrum usually contains milk oligosaccharides along with the predominant lactose. Although milk oligosaccharides of a variety of Bovidae species including cow, sheep and goat have been characterized, those of the addax, an Antelopinae species of the Bovidae, have not as yet been clarified. In this study, several sialyl oligosaccharides were purified from a sample of addax colostrum and characterized as follows: Neu5Ac(α2-8)Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Gc(α2-8)Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc, Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Gc(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Gc(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc. In addition, an oligosaccharide nucleotide Neu5Gc(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAcα1-UDP was characterized. Molecular species of a variety of sialyl oligosaccharides found in milk and colostrum of these Bovidae were compared.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T03:00:21.394224-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12899
  • Exploratory and descriptive study on nutritional characteristics and
           quality of eggs from Chilean partridge (Nothoprocta perdicaria)
    • Authors: José Luis Arias; Alberto Matthei, Carolina Valenzuela
      Abstract: This work aims to contribute more information on tinamou eggs by performing an exploratory and descriptive study of some of their nutritional and quality characteristics. The chemical composition of tinamou egg showed a high protein content in white (85% dry basis) and high lipid concentration in yolk (52% db). The iron (Fe) content in white was higher than hen egg (0.47 mg/100 g) and this could be associated with the observed pinkish color of the white. As in the hen egg, the major fatty acids in tinamou yolk were: oleic (39%), linoleic (23%) and palmitic (20%). The cholesterol content of tinamou was 21.2 mg/g of yolk, and 100 g of whole egg provides 589 mg of cholesterol. As in the hen egg, tinamou egg white showed high levels of lysine, sulfur-containing amino acids, threonine and valine with respect to the recommended allowance for an adult man. All essential amino acids with the exception of histidine cover the adult requirements. The shell inorganic composition of these eggs is calcium carbonate and the morphology was similar to other avian eggs. Tinamou egg is small and elongated, with a dark brown color. The eggshell is thinner and experiences more deformation but less breaking strength than hen eggshell.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T02:40:34.181304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12900
  • Glucocorticoid receptor is involved in the differential expression of
           hepatic 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase between barrows and boars at
           finishing stage
    • Authors: Xian Li; Rihua Cong, Wen Yao, Yimin Jia, Runsheng Li, Zhiyuan Sun, Xi Li, Ruqian Zhao
      Abstract: The enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) plays an important role in androstenone metabolism in pig liver, and its defective expression is related to the development of boar taint. Early age castration is a common practice in many countries to avoid boar taint, yet whether and how castration affects porcine hepatic 3β-HSD expression are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the expression of 3β-HSD between intact (boars) and castrated (barrows) male pigs, and to explore the potential factors regulating 3β-HSD transcription. Compared to barrows, boars showed worse carcass quality. Boars had significantly higher levels of serum androstenone (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:56:05.847376-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12853
  • Effects of correcting missing daily feed intake values on the genetic
           parameters and estimated breeding values for feeding traits in pigs
    • Authors: Tetsuya Ito; Kazuo Fukawa, Mai Kamikawa, Satoshi Nikaidou, Masaaki Taniguchi, Aisaku Arakawa, Genki Tanaka, Satoshi Mikawa, Tsutomu Furukawa, Kensuke Hirose
      Abstract: Daily feed intake (DFI) is an important consideration for improving feed efficiency, but measurements using electronic feeder systems contain many missing and incorrect values. Therefore, we evaluated three methods for correcting missing DFI data (quadratic, orthogonal polynomial, and locally weighted (Loess) regression equations) and assessed the effects of these missing values on the genetic parameters and the estimated breeding values (EBV) for feeding traits. DFI records were obtained from 1622 Duroc pigs, comprising 902 individuals without missing DFI and 720 individuals with missing DFI. The Loess equation was the most suitable method for correcting the missing DFI values in 5–50% randomly deleted datasets among the three equations. Both variance components and heritability for the average DFI (ADFI) did not change because of the missing DFI proportion and Loess correction. In terms of rank correlation and information criteria, Loess correction improved the accuracy of EBV for ADFI compared to randomly deleted cases. These findings indicate that the Loess equation is useful for correcting missing DFI values for individual pigs and that the correction of missing DFI values could be effective for the estimation of breeding values and genetic improvement using EBV for feeding traits.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T02:26:32.45254-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12891
  • Survival and developmental competence of bovine embryos at different
           developmental stages and separated blastomeres after vitrification in
           different solutions
    • Authors: Theesit Juanpanich; Tayita Suttirojpattana, Mari Takayama, Yuanyuan Liang, Osamu Dochi, Rangsun Parnpai, Kei Imai
      Abstract: Generating techniques to enhance the success of blastomere separation is important for bovine economy, because it increases the number of transferable embryos. This study aimed to identify the optimum cryoprotectants for the vitrification of bovine embryos and the separation of blastomeres at different stages. In experiment 1, expanded blastocysts were vitrified in two different vitrification solutions, either (1) ethylene glycol (EG) + propylene glycol (PG) or (2) EG. The survival rate of blastocysts in the EG + PG was higher than that of the EG. In experiment 2, intact two-cell and eight-cell stage embryos were vitrified in the same solutions used in experiment 1. The EG + PG produced more dead embryos than the EG (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T02:01:01.980733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12890
  • Meat and nutritional quality comparison of purebred and crossbred pigs
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Jie Chai, Zonggang Luo, Hang He, Lei Chen, Xueqin Liu, Qinfei Zhou
      Abstract: Crossbreeding is an effective method of improving the efficiency and profit of production in commercial pig operations. To understand the effect of crossbreeding on meat and nutrient quality, a combination including three purebred (Duroc, D; Landrace, L; Yorkshire, Y) and two crossbred pig lines (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY; Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), DLY) frequently used internationally were studied. The results showed that meat from the LY and DLY crosses had lower values for lightness L24h∗, shear force and epinephrine and higher values for drip loss, C18:1, insulin, glucagon and monounsaturated fatty acids than D, L and Y pigs. Moreover, LY had higher values for post mortem pH and lower values for a* and b* than the purebreds. In contrast, DLY had lower values for pH and higher values for a* and b* than the purebreds. Meat quality-related gene analysis showed that the CAST, IGF2 and MC4R gene expression levels in the LY and DLY pigs were significantly higher than those in the D, L and Y pigs. These results indicate that crossbreeding can alter the meat quality, nutritive value, energy metabolism and gene expression of pigs. Future research should focus on microRNA expression and DNA methylation that regulate gene expression and thus affect the meat quality.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T01:30:32.103006-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12878
  • Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure
           and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat
    • Authors: Wanwisa Chumngoen; Chih-Feng Chen, Fa-Jui Tan
      Abstract: This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T04:03:02.443271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12864
  • Influence of luteinizing hormone support on granulosa cells transcriptome
           in cattle
    • Authors: Anne-Laure Nivet; Christian Vigneault, Patrick Blondin, Marc-Andre Sirard
      Abstract: In cows, the use of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to stimulate follicular growth followed by a short period of FSH withdrawal has been shown to be beneficial for oocyte developmental competence. Although this treatment represents a useful optimization to generate highly competent oocytes, the underlying physiological process is not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of luteinizing hormone (LH) action during FSH withdrawal before ovulation. To accomplish this, LH release was pharmacologically inhibited during the coasting period with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. Granulosa cells samples were obtained from cows stimulated with FSH during 3 days followed by a coasting period of 68 h and treated with a GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix group) or not (control). A significant reduction in the number of follicles at>10 mm diameter was observed with the cetrorelix group and gene expression of granulosa cells reveals that 747 transcripts are potentially regulated by LH. Further analysis indicates how the absence of LH may trigger early atresia, the upregulation of atretic agent as tumor protein P53 and transforming growth factor β1 and the inhibition of growth support. This work allows identification of genes that are associated with maintained follicular growth and conversely the ones leading to atresia in dominant pre-ovulatory follicles.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T03:45:25.621643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12856
  • Maximum permissible load for Kiso horses trotting over a short, straight
    • Authors: Akihiro Matsuura; Sota Inoue, Mami Irimajiri, Koichi Hodate
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the load-bearing capacity of trotting Kiso horses using gait analysis. Ten Kiso horses with a height at withers of 128 cm were included. Their riders were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) recorded by two digital DVD cameras while trotting along a short, straight course. In total, eight tests were performed for each horse: the first with a 70 kg load; six with randomly loaded weights ranging 80–130 kg; and then a final test again with a 70 kg load. Three-dimensional movement of the marker was analyzed using a motion capture system. The time series of vertical displacement of the marker underwent spectrum analysis by the maximum entropy method, and the autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. The first two peaks of the autocorrelation were defined as symmetry and regularity, and their sum was defined as stability. Regularity in the 120 kg test (0.54) was lower than that in the first 70 kg test (0.61), and stability in the 120 kg test (1.31) was lower than that in the first 70 kg test (1.42). We concluded that the maximum permissible load for a trotting Kiso horse is
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T03:41:22.548557-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12893
  • Non-invasive assessment of culture media from goat cloned embryos
           associated with subjective morphology by gas chromatography – mass
           spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis
    • Authors: Yan-Li Zhang; Guo-Min Zhang, Ruo-Xin Jia, Yong-Jie Wan, Hua Yang, Ling-Wei Sun, Le Han, Feng Wang
      Abstract: Pre-implantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the development potential of embryos. We aim to determine if metabolic differences correlate with embryo morphology. In this study, gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)-based metabolomics was used to assess the culture media of goat cloned embryos collected from high-quality (HQ) and low-quality (LQ) groups based on morphology. Expression levels of amino acid transport genes were further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the HQ group presented higher percentages of blastocysts compared with the LQ counterparts (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T03:51:17.079948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12885
  • Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia
    • Authors: Tserenpurev Bat-Oyun; Takehiko Y Ito, Yadamjav Purevdorj, Masato Shinoda, Satomi Ishii, Hoshino Buho, Yuki Morinaga
      Abstract: Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T03:35:41.274167-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12842
  • Proteomic analysis to unravel the effect of heat stress on gene expression
           and milk synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells
    • Authors: Lian Li; Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Genlin Wang
      Abstract: Heat stress can play a negative effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli; these alveolar mammary epithelial cells reflect the milk producing ability of dairy cows. In this study, we exposed bovine mammary epithelial cells to heat stress and compared them to a control group using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with a control group, 104 differentially elevated proteins (>1.3-fold) and 167 decreased proteins (
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T03:36:05.270746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12880
  • Effects of (−)-hydroxycitric acid on lipid droplet accumulation in
           chicken embryos
    • Authors: Mengling Peng; Longlong Li, Lei Yu, Chongyang Ge, Haitian Ma
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the impact of (−)-hydroxycitric acid ((−)-HCA) on biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters in chicken embryos. Two hundred and forty fertilized eggs were divided into six groups and injected with (−)-HCA at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10.0 and 50 mg/kg (n = 40). After 19 days of incubation, serum and liver were collected for analysis of biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters. Results showed no significant differences on serum biochemical indices: 1–50 mg/kg (−)-HCA significantly increased serum glucose and hepatic glycogen contents (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T03:21:46.447064-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12887
  • Utilization of porcine in vitro-produced parthenogenetic embryos for
           co-transfer with vitrified and warmed embryos
    • Authors: Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Kazuhiro Kikuchi
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using in vitro-produced parthenogenetic (PA) embryos for co-transfer with morulae that had been collected in vivo and cryopreserved. The proportion of PA blastocysts (20.5%) was higher than that of their in vitro fertilization (IVF) counterparts (16.6%). Although there were no differences in morphology or diameter between the two groups, the number of cells in early PA blastocysts after in vitro culture for 6 days was lower than for IVF blastocysts (25.7 and 30.4 cells, respectively), and the number in recovered PA blastocysts was also smaller than that in recovered IVF blastocysts (37.4 and 50.2 cells, respectively). When 10 morulae warmed after vitrification were co-transferred with 10 PA blastocysts (total 20 embryos) to the uterus of five recipients, the rates of pregnancy and farrowing did not differ, but the average period until spontaneous abortion tended to be longer relative to the control (when 20 morulae were transferred). These data suggest that in vitro-produced PA embryos offer the possibility of assisted pregnancy for cryopreserved embryos; further experiments will be needed to confirm the beneficial effect of this approach on piglet production.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T22:10:52.416587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12869
  • Questionnaire investigation to clarify the occurrence rate and
           characteristics of maternal rejection behavior in Japanese black cattle
           (Bos taurus)
    • Authors: Daisuke Kohari; Azusa Takakura
      Abstract: We conducted a questionnaire investigation among breeding farmers to clarify the actual conditions of maternal rejection in Japanese Black cattle. We asked keeping experience of maternal rejective cows and compared occurrence patterns, rejective behavior manners, birth assistance methods, colostrum feeding method for calves, parity and rearing conditions of the cows. We found that 24% of the farms had kept rejective cows and 6% of the cows in these farms indicated maternal rejections. The most common occurrence pattern was ‘Occurred from the first birth (65.6%)’ and behavior manner was performing no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior (75%). Almost all the farmers assisted in each parturition (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T22:00:37.311229-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12858
  • Autonomous xenogenic cell fusion of murine and chick skeletal muscle
    • Authors: Tomohide Takaya; Yuma Nihashi, Shotaro Kojima, Tamao Ono, Hiroshi Kagami
      Abstract: Cell-cell fusion has been a great technology to generate valuable hybrid cells and organisms such as hybridomas. In this study, skeletal muscle myoblasts were utilized to establish a novel method for autonomous xenogenic cell fusion. Myoblasts are mononuclear myogenic precursor cells and fuse mutually to form multinuclear myotubes. We generated murine myoblasts (mMBs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) termed mMB-GFP, and the chick myoblasts (chMBs) expressing Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) termed chMB-DsRed. mMB-GFP and chMB-DsRed were cocultured and induced to differentiate. After 24 h, the multinuclear myotubes expressing both GFP and DsRed were observed, indicating that mMBs and chMBs interspecifically fuse. These GFP+/DsRed+ hybrid myotubes were able to survive and grew to hyper-multinucleated mature form. We also found that undifferentiated mMB-GFP efficiently fuse to the chMB-DsRed-derived myotubes. This is the first evidence for the autonomous xenogenic fusion of mammalian and avian cells. Myoblast-based fusogenic technique will open up an alternative direction to create novel hybrid products.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T03:00:58.818649-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12884
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1671 - 1672
      PubDate: 2017-11-05T20:49:20.617555-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12714
  • Evaluation of the genetic structure of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in
    • Authors: Sayaka Konishi; Shoko Hata, Sayumi Matsuda, Kazushi Arai, Yasushi Mizoguchi
      Pages: 1673 - 1677
      Abstract: The browsing habits of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan have caused serious ecological problems. Appropriate management of sika deer populations requires understanding the different genetic structures of local populations. In the present study, we used 10 microsatellite polymorphisms to explore the genetic structures of sika deer populations (162 individuals) living in the Kanto region. The expected heterozygosity of the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I) was lower than that of the populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II). Our results suggest that moderate gene flow has occurred between the sika deer populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II), but not to or from the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I). Also, genetic structure analysis showed that the Tanzawa population was separated from the other populations. This is probably attributable to a genetic bottleneck that developed in the Tanzawa sika deer population in the 1950s. However, we found that the Tanzawa population has since recovered from the bottleneck situation and now exhibits good genetic diversity. Our results show that it is essential to periodically evaluate the genetic structures of deer populations to develop conservation strategies appropriate to the specific structures of individual populations at any given time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T21:00:46.86138-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12844
  • Proper reprogramming of imprinted and non-imprinted genes in cloned cattle
    • Authors: Masahiro Kaneda; Shinya Watanabe, Satoshi Akagi, Yasushi Inaba, Masaya Geshi, Takashi Nagai
      Pages: 1678 - 1685
      Abstract: Epigenetic abnormalities in cloned animals are caused by incomplete reprogramming of the donor nucleus during the nuclear transfer step (first reprogramming). However, during the second reprogramming step that occurs only in the germline cells, epigenetic errors not corrected during the first step are repaired. Consequently, epigenetic abnormalities in the somatic cells of cloned animals should be erased in their spermatozoa or oocytes. This is supported by the fact that offspring from cloned animals do not exhibit defects at birth or during postnatal development. To test this hypothesis in cloned cattle, we compared the DNA methylation level of two imprinted genes (H19 and PEG3) and three non-imprinted genes (XIST, OCT4 and NANOG) and two repetitive elements (Satellite I and Satellite II) in blood and sperm DNAs from cloned and non-cloned bulls. We found no differences between cloned and non-cloned bulls. We also analyzed the DNA methylation levels of four repetitive elements (Satellite I, Satellite II, Alpha-satellite and Art2) in oocytes recovered from cloned and non-cloned cows. Again, no significant differences were observed between clones and non-clones. These results suggested that imprinted and non-imprinted genes and repetitive elements were properly reprogramed during gametogenesis in cloned cattle; therefore, they contributed to the soundness of cloned cattle offspring.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T07:55:29.114298-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12846
  • Extension of the culture period for the in vitro growth of bovine oocytes
           in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-4 increases oocyte diameter,
           but impairs subsequent developmental competence
    • Authors: Yinghua Yang; Chihiro Kanno, Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Masashi Nagano
      Pages: 1686 - 1691
      Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) inhibits luteinization of granulosa cells during in vitro growth (IVG) culture of bovine oocytes; however, oocytes derived from a 12 day IVG were less competent for development than in vivo-grown oocytes. We herein investigated whether an extended IVG culture with BMP-4 improves oocyte growth and development to blastocysts after in vitro fertilization. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were cultured for 14 or 16 days with BMP-4 (10 ng/mL), while a 12 day culture with BMP-4 served as the in vitro control. OGC viability was maintained for the 16 day culture with BMP-4 (83.2%), but was significantly lower without BMP-4 (58.9%) than the control (83.0%). Prolong-cultured oocytes at 16 days had statistically greater diameter (114.6 μm) than the control (111.7 μm). IVG oocytes with BMP-4 for the 16 day culture had a similar nuclear maturation rate to the control (approximately 67%); however, blastocyst rates in BMP-4 treated oocytes of 14 (1.8%) and 16 day (0%) IVG were statistically lower than that of 12 day IVG (9.0%). In conclusion, BMP-4 maintained OGC viability and promoted oocyte growth in a prolonged culture, but impaired the developmental competence of oocytes. Prolonged culture may not be an appropriate strategy for enhancing the developmental competence of IVG oocytes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:06:14.074755-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12841
  • Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen
           quality during liquid preservation at 17°C
    • Authors: Hao Li; Xiao-Gang Zhang, Qian Fang, Qi Liu, Ren-Rang Du, Gong-She Yang, Li-Qiang Wang, Jian-Hong Hu
      Pages: 1692 - 1699
      Abstract: Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:40:43.153246-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12865
  • Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase
           concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows
    • Authors: Wenming Huang; Yujia Tian, Shengli Li, Zhaohai Wu, Zhijun Cao
      Pages: 1700 - 1708
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL/kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL/kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:12:49.495988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12835
  • Effect of increasing monensin sodium levels in diets with virginiamycin on
           the finishing of Nellore cattle
    • Authors: João Marcos B. Benatti; João Alexandrino Alves Neto, Ivanna M. Oliveira, Flávio D. Resende, Gustavo R. Siqueira
      Pages: 1709 - 1714
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of increasing levels of monensin sodium (MON) in diets with virginiamycin (VM) on the finishing of feedlot cattle. Two hundred and eighty intact male Nellore cattle (348 ± 32 kg body weight, 22 months) received one of the following five diets: control diet (without additives); diet containing VM (25 mg per kg dry matter) combined with 0 (MON0), 10 (MON10), 20 (MON20) or 30 (MON30) mg MON per kg dry matter. During adaptation (28 days), the MON0 diet increased dietary net energy for maintenance and gain compared to the control diet (P = 0.04). The combination of additives linearly reduced dry matter intake, body weight and average daily gain (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:41:23.573295-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12831
  • Silage preparation and fermentation quality of kudzu, sugarcane top and
           their mixture treated with lactic acid bacteria, molasses and cellulase
    • Authors: Xinzhu Chen; Wenyang Li, Chengfang Gao, Xiaopei Zhang, Boqi Weng, Yimin Cai
      Pages: 1715 - 1721
      Abstract: We studied silage fermentation of kudzu (KZ), sugarcane top (ST) and their mixtures treated with additives to be able to effectively use available local feed resources. The silages were prepared using KZ, ST, KZ 90% + ST 10%, KZ 80% + ST 20%, KZ 70% + ST 30% and KZ 60% + ST 40%, based on fresh matter (FM). These silages were treated with 108 colony-forming units/g epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 5% molasses and 0.02% cellulase of FM. The KZ contained higher crude protein (CP; 14.52%) content and lower levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 62.15%) than those of ST (6.84% CP and 64.93% NDF) based on dry matter (DM). The KZ 60% + ST 40% silage fermented well with a higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T22:15:34.992389-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12840
  • Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness on
           silage quality at low temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Siran Wang; Xianjun Yuan, Zhihao Dong, Junfeng Li, Tao Shao
      Pages: 1722 - 1729
      Abstract: Four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from straw silages on the Tibetan Plateau were characterized, and their effects on the fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at different temperatures (10°C, 15°C and 25°C) were studied. These LAB isolates were evaluated using the acids production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All the isolates (M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9) could grow at 5-20°C, pH 3.5-7.0 and NaCl (3.0%, 6.5%). Strains M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. coryniformis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and P. acidilactici, respectively, by sequencing 16S ribosomal DNA. The four isolates were added to Italian ryegrass for ensiling for 30 days at various temperatures. Compared with the corresponding control, inoculating with isolates M1, LM8 and LO7 could improve the silage quality of Italian ryegrass at low temperatures, indicated by significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:50:36.201628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12852
  • Effect of soybean husk supplementation on the fecal fermentation
           metabolites and microbiota of dogs
    • Authors: Htun Myint; Yu Iwahashi, Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
      Pages: 1730 - 1736
      Abstract: In vitro fermentation and in vivo feeding experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of soybean (Glycine max) husk on the fecal fermentation metabolites and microbiota of dogs. An in vitro fermentation study using feces from three Toy Poodle dogs (6.5 ± 3.5 months in age and 2.9 ± 0.4 kg in body weight) revealed that the fecal inoculum was able to ferment soybean husk (supplemented at 0.01 g/mL culture) and increased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and Bifidobacterium, irrespective of pre-digestion of the husk by pepsin and pancreatin. In a feeding experiment, four Shiba dogs (7–48 months in age and 7.5 ± 1.7 kg in body weight) fed a commercial diet supplemented with 5.6% soybean husk showed an increase in SCFA, such as acetate and butyrate, and lactate, and a decrease in indole and skatole in the feces compared to those fed a 5.6% cellulose diet. Real-time PCR assay showed that soybean husk supplementation stimulated the growth of lactobacilli, Clostridium cluster IV including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium cluster XIVa, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group but inhibited the growth of Clostridium cluster XI. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that soybean husk supplementation improves gastrointestinal health through optimization of beneficial organic acid production and increase of beneficial bacteria. Therefore, soybean husk is suggested to be applicable as a functional fiber in the formulation of canine diets.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T00:00:02.624521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12817
  • Effect of ginkgo extract supplementation on in vitro rumen fermentation
           and bacterial profiles under different dietary conditions
    • Authors: Seongjin Oh; Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
      Pages: 1737 - 1743
      Abstract: Ginkgo extract was applied to a batch culture study and evaluated for its potential as a feed additive for ruminant animals under different forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratios (1:9, 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1). Rumen fluid was mixed with respective diet and incubated at 39°C for 24 h with and without ginkgo extract (1.6% fruit equivalent in culture). Methane production was significantly decreased by ginkgo extract, with the greatest reductions found in the 5:5 (41.9%) followed by the 7:3 ratios (36.7%). Total short chain fatty acid and ammonia levels were not affected by ginkgo extract supplementation in any of the five different diets. However, ginkgo extract increased propionate proportion and decreased acetate proportion in all dietary conditions tested. The levels of total bacteria, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes were decreased by ginkgo extract. The levels of Selenomonas ruminantium, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens and Megasphaera elsdenii were increased by ginkgo extract supplementation, possibly contributing to the higher propionate production. These results suggest that rumen modulation by ginkgo extract can be achieved at a wide range of F:C ratios with no adverse impact on feed digestion. Moreover, F:C ratios of 5:5 and 7:3 may be optimal when methane mitigation is expected.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:15:23.754704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12877
  • Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on
           reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of
           gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets
    • Authors: Jia Yin; Kwang Yong Lee, Jong Keun Kim, In Ho Kim
      Pages: 1744 - 1752
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:35.373233-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12819
  • Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal
           energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks
    • Authors: Shuangshuang Guo; Rui Duan, Lei Wang, Yongqing Hou, Linglin Tan, Qiang Cheng, Man Liao, Binying Ding
      Pages: 1753 - 1762
      Abstract: α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:32.666777-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12824
  • Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose
           transport in the small intestine
    • Authors: Yo Tsuchiya; Koichi Kawamata
      Pages: 1763 - 1767
      Abstract: Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T04:00:25.715147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12829
  • Influence of dietary fat source on sow and litter performance, colostrum
           and milk fatty acid profile in late gestation and lactation
    • Authors: Chao Jin; Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Caimei Wu, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
      Pages: 1768 - 1778
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various fat sources (3.8–3.9% of diet) during late pregnancy and lactation on the reproductive performance, fatty acids profile in colostrum, milk and serum of sow progeny. A total of 80 multiparous sows were randomly fed a control (adding no oil), palm oil (PO), fish oil (FO) or soybean oil (SO) supplemented diet from 90 days of pregnancy to weaning. Supplementation of FO increased litter size of weak piglets, compared with the control-fed sows (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:52.497199-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12836
  • The IGF-1/Akt/S6 pathway and expressions of glycolytic myosin heavy chain
           isoforms are upregulated in chicken skeletal muscle during the first week
           after hatching
    • Authors: Takaoki Saneyasu; Tatsuya Tsuchihashi, Ayana Kitashiro, Nami Tsuchii, Sayaka Kimura, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
      Pages: 1779 - 1787
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle mass is an important trait in the animal industry. We previously reported an age-dependent downregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt/S6 pathway, major protein synthesis pathway, in chicken breast muscle after 1 week of age, despite a continuous increase of breast muscle weight. Myosin heavy chain (HC), a major protein in muscle fiber, has several isoforms depending on chicken skeletal muscle types. HC I (fast-twitch glycolytic type) is known to be expressed in adult chicken breast muscle. However, little is known about the changes in the expression levels of protein synthesis-related factors and HC isoforms in perihatching chicken muscle. In the present study, protein synthesis-related factors, such as IGF-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, phosphorylation of Akt, and phosphorylated S6 content, increased in an age-dependent manner after post-hatch day (D) 0. The mRNA levels of HC I, III and V (fast-twitch glycolytic type) dramatically increased after D0. The increase ratio of breast muscle weight was approximately 1100% from D0 to D7. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first evidence that upregulation of protein synthesis pathway and transcription of fast twitch glycolytic HC isoforms play critical roles in the increase of chicken breast muscle weight during the first week after hatching.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:10:43.080747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12847
  • Myosin substitution rate is affected by the amount of cytosolic myosin in
           cultured muscle cells
    • Authors: Koichi Ojima; Emi Ichimura, Yuya Yasukawa, Mika Oe, Susumu Muroya, Takahiro Suzuki, Jun-ichi Wakamatsu, Takanori Nishimura
      Pages: 1788 - 1793
      Abstract: In striated muscles, approximately 300 myosin molecules form a single thick filament in myofibrils. Each myosin is continuously displaced by another myosin to maintain the thick filament structure. Our previous study using a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique showed that the myosin replacement rate is decreased by inhibition of protein synthesis, but myosin is still exchangeable. This result prompted us to examine whether myosin in the cytoplasm is involved in myosin replacement in myofibrils. To address this, FRAP was measured in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin heavy chain 3 (Myh3) expressing myotubes that were treated with streptolysin-O (SLO), which forms pores specifically in the plasma membrane to induce leakage of cytoplasmic proteins. Our biochemical data demonstrated that the cytoplasmic myosin content was reduced in SLO-permeabilized semi-intact myotubes. Furthermore, FRAP experiments showed a sluggish substitution rate of GFP-Myh3 in SLO-permeabilized myotubes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the myosin substitution rate is significantly reduced by a decreased amount of myosin in the cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic myosin contributes to myosin replacement in myofibrils.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T21:26:03.192556-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12826
  • Dynamics of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells
           of indigenous and exotic breeds of pigs in India
    • Authors: Perumalraja Kirthika; Mohammad Ayub Ali, Parthasarathi Behera, Prasant Kumar Subudhi, Thingujam Chaa Tolenkhomba, Jagan Mohanarao Gali
      Pages: 1794 - 1800
      Abstract: To incorporate immune competence traits in swine breeding programs, association between immune responsiveness and susceptibility to specific infectious diseases must be established. In order to understand the differences in immune competence between indigenous (Zovawk) and exotic (Large White Yorkshire: LWY) pigs reared in India, we carried out a time course expression analysis of immune-regulating key cytokine genes (interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4 and IL-10) in the phytohemagglutinin-P stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The IL-2 transcript levels in PBMCs increased several thousand-fold when compared to unstimulated cells in both the breeds, albeit the response in that of Zovawk was remarkably higher. Higher and earlier IFN-γ and IL-4 expression levels in Zovawk pigs suggest that both TH1 and TH2 immune responsiveness of this indigenous breed affords better preparedness for danger signals. Moreover, the low expression levels of IL-10 depict a regulated adaptive immune responsiveness. Remarkable difference between the two breeds of the pigs is evident showing a clear advantage of the Zovawk over LWY in terms of a shorter lag period of adaptive immune response. These findings provide a lead for understanding the genetic differences with respect to immune competence levels of indigenous pigs compared to exotic counterparts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T00:56:05.494808-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12827
  • Reproductive performance and expression of imprinted genes in somatic cell
           cloned boars
    • Authors: Tatsuo Kawarasaki; Satoko Enya, Masayoshi Otake, Masatoshi Shibata, Satoshi Mikawa
      Pages: 1801 - 1810
      Abstract: To assess the performance of boars derived by somatic cell cloning, we analyzed various aspects of their reproductive characteristics and the expression of two imprinted genes. Cloned boars (cloned Duroc × Jinhua) were analyzed for birth weight, growth rate, age at first ejaculation, semen characteristics and fertility, in comparison with naturally bred control boars of the same strain. The expression of imprinted genes was analyzed using the microsatellite marker SWC9 for the paternally expressed gene insulin-like growth factor -2 (IGF2) and with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the gene maternally expressed 3 (MEG3). The cloned boars had high production of semen and were nearly equal in level of fertility to conventional pigs; they showed similar characteristics as naturally bred boars of the same strains. The expression of IGF2 was partially disturbed, but this disturbed expression was not linked to a change in developmental fate or reproductive performance. These results indicate that use of cloned boars could be highly effective for proliferation of pigs with desirable characteristics, preservation of genetic resources and risk reduction against epidemic diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease, through storage of somatic cells as a precautionary measure for use in regenerating pig populations after a future pandemic.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T00:30:26.321582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12838
  • Effects of transforming growth factor-β1 treatment on muscle regeneration
           and adipogenesis in glycerol-injured muscle
    • Authors: Mohamed A. A. Mahdy; Katsuhiko Warita, Yoshinao Z. Hosaka
      Pages: 1811 - 1819
      Abstract: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is associated with fibrosis in many organs. Recent studies demonstrated that delivery of TGF-β1 into chemically injured muscle enhances fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous TGF-β1 on muscle regeneration and adipogenesis in glycerol-injured muscle of normal mice. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were injured by glycerol injection. TGF-β1 was either co-injected with glycerol, as an ‘early treatment’ group, or injected at day 4 after glycerol, as a ‘late treatment’ group and the TA muscles were collected at day 7 after initial injury. Myotube density was significantly lower in the early treatment group than in the glycerol-injured group (without TGF-β1 treatment). Moreover, the Oil red O-positive area was significantly smaller in the early treatment group than in the late treatment group and glycerol-injured group. Furthermore, TGF-β1 treatment increased endomysial fibrosis and induced immunostaining of α-smooth muscle actin. The greater inhibitory effects of early TGF-β1 treatment than that of late TGF-β1 treatment during regeneration in glycerol-injured muscle suggest a more potent effect of TGF-β1 on the initial stage of muscle regeneration and adipogenesis. Combination of TGF-β1 with glycerol might be an alternative to enhance muscle fibrosis for future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T06:30:26.004068-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12845
  • Delicate changes of bioapatite mineral in pig femur with addition of
           dietary xylooligosaccharide: Evidences from Raman spectroscopy and ICP
    • Authors: Shujie Wang; Penghao Zhang, Xiangfeng Kong, Shengda Xie, Qiao Li, Zhen Li, Zhenlei Zhou
      Pages: 1820 - 1826
      Abstract: Bone mineral is strongly correlated with performance and health of animal bodies. The mineral bioapatite (BAp) is the dominant component in bone tissue. This study investigated mineralogical changes of BAp in pig femur by Raman spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The pigs had been raised with various xylooligosaccharide (XOS) additions at two stages of growth (growing and fattening periods). The results show that XOS can decrease the degree of carbonate substitution for PO4 in BAp mineral and improve the mineral's crystallinity. ICP data is consistent with the Raman results, that is the low solubility of bone BAp for pigs fed with XOS. Additionally, the effect of XOS is much better in the growing period (before 65 kg) than in the fattening period (after 65 kg). Moreover, the high addition of XOS (within the range of 0.1–0.5 g/kg) would be appropriate to improve the crystallinity of bone BAp. This study sheds light on applying Raman and ICP techniques to investigate the delicate changes of mineral in pig bones undergoing different managements.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:21:03.700561-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12837
  • Estradiol inhibits hepatic stellate cell area and collagen synthesis in
           the chicken liver
    • Authors: Shotaro Nishimura; Akifumi Teshima, Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata
      Pages: 1827 - 1834
      Abstract: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver. The HSC area and amount of collagen fibers are different between male and female chickens. This study was performed to confirm the effect of estradiol on collagen synthesis in the growing chicken liver. Blood estradiol levels in chicks were compared at 4 and 8 weeks of age, and the collagen fibril network in liver tissue was observed at 8 weeks by scanning electron microscopy. Intraperitoneal administrations of estradiol and tamoxifen to male and female chicks, respectively, were performed daily from 5 to 8 weeks of age. The areas of HSCs and collagen contents were measured in the liver tissue. The blood estradiol level was higher in females than in males, and the collagen fibril network was denser in males than in females at 8 weeks of age. Estradiol administration in males induced decreases in the HSC area and collagen content of the liver. Conversely, tamoxifen administration in females induced an increase in the HSC area but did not facilitate collagen synthesis. Based on these results, estradiol inhibits the area and collagen synthesis of HSCs in the growing chicken liver under normal physiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T07:40:35.963226-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12830
  • Cytokeratin-positive folliculo-stellate cells in chicken adenohypophysis
    • Authors: Shotaro Nishimura; Miyu Yamashita, Takane Kaneko, Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata
      Pages: 1835 - 1841
      Abstract: Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are non-endocrine cells found in the adenohypophysis and are identified in many animals by the S100 protein marker. Although keratin is another FS marker in several animals, there is no information on localization of keratin in the avian adenohypophysis. In this study, localization of cytokeratin in chicken adenohypophyseal cells was investigated immunohistochemically. Basic cytokeratin (bCK)-positive cells were arranged radially in the cell cords with their cytoplasmic processes reaching the basal lamina. The cell bodies encircled a follicle in the center of the cell cord. Furthermore, the bCK-positive cells were also S100B-positive. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and luteinizing hormone β-subunit did not co-localize with the bCK-positive cells. In addition, the bCK-positive cells had a laminin-positive area in their cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy observed agranular cells equipped with several microvilli that encircled a follicle. These results indicate that bCK-positive cells in the chicken adenohypophysis may be a predominant FS cell population and produce laminin. It is suggested that they function as sustentacular cells to sustain the adjacent endocrine cells and the structure of the cell cords in the chicken adenohypophysis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:50:57.03911-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12866
  • The effects of l-DOPA and sulpiride on growth hormone secretion at
           different injection times in Holstein steers
    • Authors: Etsuko Kasuya; Madoka Sutoh, Ken-ichi Yayou
      Pages: 1842 - 1848
      Abstract: The effects of l-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine (DA), and sulpiride, a D2-type DA receptor blocker, on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion were investigated in steers. Eight Holstein steers (212.8 ± 7.8 kg body weight) were used. Lighting conditions were 12:12 L:D (lights on: 06.00–18.00 hours). Blood samplings were performed during the daytime (11.00–15.00 hours) and nighttime (23.00–03.00 hours). Intravenous injections of drugs or saline were performed at 12.00 hour for the daytime and 00.00 hour for the nighttime, respectively. Plasma GH and PRL concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. l-DOPA did not alter the GH secretion when it was injected at 12.00 hour (spontaneous GH level at its peak). On the other hand, l-DOPA increased GH secretion at 00.00 hour (GH level at its trough). Injection of sulpiride suppressed GH secretion at 12.00 hour but did not affect GH levels at 00.00 hour. l-DOPA inhibited and sulpiride stimulated PRL release during both periods. These results suggest that dopaminergic neurons have stimulatory action on GH secretion and inhibitory action on PRL secretion in cattle. In addition, injection time should be considered to evaluate the exact effects on GH secretion due to its ultradian rhythm of GH secretion in cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T06:45:27.999422-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12850
  • Survival of spray-dried and free-cells of potential probiotic
           Lactobacillus plantarum 564 in soft goat cheese
    • Authors: Zorica Radulović; Jelena Miočinović, Nemanja Mirković, Milica Mirković, Dušanka Paunović, Marina Ivanović, Sanja Seratlić
      Pages: 1849 - 1854
      Abstract: A high viability of probiotics in food product, with a living cells threshold of 107/cfu/g (colony-forming units/g) is a challenge to achieve in food production. Spray drying is an efficient and economic industrial method for probiotic bacterial preservation and its application in food products. In this study, the survival of free and spray-dried cells of potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 564 after production and during 8 weeks of storage of soft acid coagulated goat cheese was investigated, as well as compositional and sensory quality of cheese. Total bacterial count of spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells were maintained at the high level of 8.82 log/cfu/g in cheese after 8 weeks of storage, while free-cell number decreased to 6.9 log/cfu/g. However, the chemical composition, pH values and sensory evaluation between control cheese (C1 sample made with commercial starter culture) and treated cheese samples (C2 and C3, made with the same starter, with the addition of free and spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells, respectively) did not significantly differ. High viability of potential probiotic bacteria and acceptable sensory properties indicate that spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 strain could be successfully used in the production of soft acid coagulated goat cheeses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T20:50:39.117733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12802
  • Expression level of the cytochrome P450c21 (CYP21) protein correlating to
           drip loss in pigs
    • Authors: Aungsuma Kaewkot; Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Jatuporn Noosud, Autchara Kayan
      Pages: 1855 - 1859
      Abstract: Drip loss is an important meat quality trait of fresh meat affecting economic losses. The cytochrome P450c21 (CYP21) protein has a role on cortisol production and depends on stress. This might affect meat quality. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of CYP21 protein in correlation with drip loss. The samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate drip loss (n = 300). Five muscles per group (low and high drip loss) were selected to evaluate CYP21 protein expression levels. Statistical analysis revealed that CYP21 protein expression levels were significantly difference between the drip loss groups. The high drip loss group had higher CYP21 protein expression levels than the low drip loss group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:35:22.172049-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12863
  • Improving effect of dietary soybean phospholipids supplement on hepatic
           and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying
    • Authors: Fei Yang; Jiming Ruan, Tiancheng Wang, Junrong Luo, Huabin Cao, Yalu Song, Jianzhen Huang, Guoliang Hu
      Pages: 1860 - 1869
      Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of dietary soybean phospholipid supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in layers, 135 300-day-old Hyline Brown layers were randomly divided into three groups (control, pathology and prevention), and each group had 45 layers with three replicates. Birds in the three groups were respectively fed the control diet, high-energy low-protein diet and high-energy high-protein diet affixed with 3% soybean phospholipid instead of maize. Results showed in the 30th day, birds’ livers in the pathology group became yellowish, enlarged in size and had hemorrhagic spots, while the prevention and control groups’ layers did not have such pathological changes. Contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein – cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde in serum or liver homogenate in prevention and control groups were remarkably lower than those in the pathology group (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T03:30:43.983724-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/asj.12832
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