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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Animal Conservation
  [SJR: 1.576]   [H-I: 62]   [37 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1367-9430 - ISSN (Online) 1469-1795
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Conservation in a changing world needs predictive models
    • Authors: K. A. Wood; R. A. Stillman, G. M. Hilton
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T02:38:07.064144-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12371
       
  • Mapping range dynamics from opportunistic data: spatiotemporal modelling
           of the lynx distribution in the Alps over 21 years
    • Authors: A. Molinari-Jobin; M. Kéry, E. Marboutin, F. Marucco, F. Zimmermann, P. Molinari, H. Frick, C. Fuxjäger, S. Wölfl, F. Bled, C. Breitenmoser-Würsten, I. Kos, M. Wölfl, R. Černe, O. Müller, U. Breitenmoser
      Abstract: The Eurasian lynx is of special conservation concern based on the European Union's Habitat Directive and its populations need to be maintained or restored at favourable conservation status. To evaluate lynx population status, appropriate monitoring needs to be in place. We modelled the distribution dynamics of lynx in the Alps (200 000 km2) during 1994–2014 at a resolution of 100 km2. Lynx distribution and detection probability varied by year, country, forest cover, elevation and distance to the nearest release site. Occupancy of neighbouring quadrats had a strong positive effect on colonization and persistence rates. Our analyses demonstrate the importance of accounting for imperfect detection: the raw data underestimated the lynx range by 55% on average, depending on country and winter. Over the past 20 years the Alpine lynx range has expanded at an average rate of 4% per year, which was partly due to the lynx translocations to new areas. Our approach to large-scale distribution modelling and analysing trends using site occupancy models can be applied retrospectively and is useful in many cases where a network of trained people is established to report the presence of target species, for example, in Europe where member states of the European Union have to report conservation status of species of community interest. Hence, dynamic occupancy models are an appealing framework for inference about the large-scale range dynamics based on opportunistic data and a useful tool for large-scale management and conservation programmes.We analysed range dynamics of a reintroduced large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in the Alps (200 000 km2) over 20 years, combining a cutting edge occupancy model with citizen science. Lynx distribution and detection probability varied by distance to the nearest release site, year, forest cover, elevation and country. Occupancy of neighbouring quadrats had a strong positive effect on colonization and persistence rates. Our analyses demonstrate the importance of accounting for imperfect detection: the raw data underestimated the lynx range by 55% on average. Over the past 20 years the Alpine lynx range expanded at an average rate of 4% per year, which was partly due to the lynx translocations to new areas. Our approach to large-scale distribution modelling and analysing trends using site occupancy models can be applied retrospectively and is useful in many cases where a network of trained people is established to report the presence of target species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T23:46:14.190936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12369
       
  • Hand feeding can periodically fuel a major portion of bull shark energy
           requirements at a provisioning site in Fiji
    • Authors: J. M. Brunnschweiler; N. L. Payne, A. Barnett
      Abstract: Wildlife tourism is often extolled for its contribution to conservation. However, understanding the effects of tourism activities on the health of target animals is required to fully assess conservation benefits. Shark tourism operators often use food rewards to attract sharks in close proximity to tourists, but nothing is known about the contribution of these food rewards to the energetic requirements of target species. In this study, hand feeding of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas was directly observed on 36 commercial shark watching dives in the Shark Reef Marine Reserve (SRMR), Fiji. Mean number of tuna heads consumed per dive by focal individuals ranged from 1.3 to 3.7. Monitored bull sharks consumed an average of ~0.74 heads per provisioning day, and bioenergetics modelling suggests that some sharks might periodically be meeting their full energy requirement from provisioning at the SRMR. Knowing how much individual sharks consume at provisioning sites and how this relates to their energy requirements is crucial in order to better understand the effects of wildlife tourism and its contribution to conservation.In this study, hand feeding of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas was directly observed on 36 commercial shark watching dives in the Shark Reef Marine Reserve (SRMR), Fiji. Mean number of tuna heads consumed per dive by focal individuals ranged from 1.3 to 3.7. Monitored bull sharks consumed an average of ~0.74 heads per provisioning day, and bioenergetics modelling suggests that some sharks might periodically be meeting their full energy requirement from provisioning at the SRMR. Such information is crucial in order to better understand the effects of wildlife tourism and its contribution to conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T01:30:49.918518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12370
       
  • Assessing the sustainability of Waiwai subsistence hunting in Guyana by
           comparison of static indices and spatially explicit, biodemographic models
           
    • Authors: C. A. Shaffer; C. Yukuma, E. Marawanaru, P. Suse
      Abstract: While bushmeat hunting is critical to the livelihoods of millions of people throughout the tropical world, it is also a major threat to wildlife conservation. Assessing the sustainability of hunting has been a major goal in conservation biology but developing methods that accurately predict patterns of prey depletion has proven notoriously problematic. In this study, we sought to assess the sustainability of the hunting of indigenous Waiwai in Guyana by comparing results from the most commonly used static sustainability index, the production model, with results from spatially explicit biodemographic models for three indicator species; tapirs Tapirus terrestris, spider monkeys Ateles paniscus, and curassows Crax alector. Our goals were to (1) assess how conclusions about sustainability differ between the two methods and (2) to determine the suitability of biodemographic modeling for nonprimate taxa. We used hunter-self monitoring data to calculate annual harvest and to estimate parameters for biodemographic models. The production model indicated that all three species were being overharvested, with T. terrestris harvested at six times the sustainable rate. In contrast, biodemographic models indicated that each species would persist in the Waiwai catchment area in 20 years (although A. paniscus would be close to extirpation), even if the Waiwai population increased by 64% and shifted to all shotgun hunting. Predicted densities for A. paniscus and C. alector were statistically indistinguishable from empirically derived encounter rates and those for T. terrestris were consistent with the locations of Waiwai kills, demonstrating the robustness of the model. While the weaknesses of static sustainability indices are well documented, they continue to be used and conclusions based on their results are still cited and influential in determining conservation policy. Our study demonstrates that biodemographic models perform far better than static indices and that the biodemographic approach is robust for a range of different prey species.Bushmeat hunting is a major threat to wildlife throughout the tropics. In this study, we sought to assess the sustainability Waiwai hunting in Guyana, by comparing results from the production model with results from spatially explicit biodemographic models for three indicator species; tapirs, spider monkeys, and curassows. Despite the production model indicating overharvesting, we predict all three species will persist in the Waiwai catchment in 20 years. Our study demonstrates that biodemographic models perform far better than static indices and are robust for a range of prey species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T23:35:52.500662-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12366
       
  • Land-use change and an exotic potential prey for the jaguar: a reply to da
           Rosa et al.
    • Authors: L. M. Verdade; F. Palomares, H. T. Z. Couto, J. L. Polizel
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T23:35:33.190481-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12368
       
  • Identifying key sites for connecting jaguar populations in the Brazilian
           Atlantic Forest
    • Authors: M. F. Diniz; R. B. Machado, A. A. Bispo, D. Brito
      Abstract: Networks of protected areas play a key role for large carnivore conservation since habitat fragmentation and population isolation are strong threats for them. We evaluated the contribution of the Protected Jaguar Areas (PJAs) and other forest fragments (1217 patches) to habitat availability and connectivity for jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We used habitat availability indices to rank the PJAs and the forest fragments according to their importance to different aspects of landscape connectivity. We also analyzed the protection degree of the forest fragments with greater importance for connectivity. PJAs represented 37% of the total amount of habitat area and 34% of the equivalent connected area of the whole network, suggesting that PJAs contribute only modestly to the habitat availability and connectivity of the complete network. The individual classification showed that the majority of PJAs did not contribute expressively in terms of intrapatch connectivity (65%) or to the connectivity among other patches (74%). Twenty-six forest fragments were identified by the rank analysis. They increased the equivalent connected area index of the PJAs network between 3.8 and 4.1 times. Nearly half of the connector fragments’ area (44.4%) is not under any degree of protection, and 34.8% of them are under the protection of sustainable use protected areas (IUCN categories V–VI). As umbrella and/or flagship species, the effective protection of jaguars may also benefit other species. Therefore, results indicate that the inclusion of the connector fragments in more restrictive protection categories (strict protection protected areas), associated with active population and habitat management strategies, might enhance habitat connectivity and availability not only for jaguars, but also for many other species in the Atlantic Forest.Habitat fragmentation and population isolation are severe threats for large carnivores. In this context, the situation of the jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is critical. We evaluated the contribution of the protected areas network and other forest fragments to habitat availability and connectivity for jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We showed that the current protected areas network contributes only modestly to habitat availability and connectivity for jaguars. We identified 26 forest fragments that had great importance for interpatch connectivity. Nearly half of these fragments’ area is not under any degree of protection. Our findings suggest that the current network of protected areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest needs to be complemented to improve habitat availability and connectivity for jaguars, and potentially for other species as well (Photo credit: Grasiela Porfírio).
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T23:00:52.498-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12367
       
  • Population genetic evaluations within a co-distributed taxonomic group: a
           multi-species approach to conservation planning
    • Authors: W. J. B. Anthonysamy; M. J. Dreslik, M. R. Douglas, D. Thompson, G. M. Klut, A. R. Kuhns, D. Mauger, D. Kirk, G. A. Glowacki, M. E. Douglas, C. A. Phillips
      Abstract: Multi-species approaches provide valuable insight for conservation planning, yet most studies focus on only one species while generalizing across taxa. Here, we employed 5–14 microsatellite DNA loci to evaluate population genetic patterns and future vulnerability for a freshwater turtle assemblage distributed across north-eastern Illinois. Focal species (Emydoidea blandingii, Clemmys guttata, Chrysemys picta and Chelydra serpentina) differ in conservation status as well as in ecological and life-history traits, which modulate gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. We hypothesized (1) common and more ubiquitous species (C. picta and C. serpentina) would exhibit higher levels of genetic connectivity compared to species more restricted in distributions and with an elevated conservation status (E. blandingii and C. guttata) and (2) endangered species exhibit a greater loss of future genetic diversity. We found that genetic patterns varied considerably among co-distributed species. Endangered species had lower levels of genetic diversity and gene flow, more pronounced genetic structure and a higher risk of genetic drift compared to common species, thus supporting our hypotheses. The observed patterns are potentially attributable to life-history and ecological traits and will affect the long-term viability of the four species within a modified north-eastern Illinois landscape. Our study is an important first step for understanding how landscape features and species-specific traits interact to affect gene flow and population genetic structure within altered landscapes. It also underscores how multi-species approaches can be informative for conservation actions.We employed microsatellite DNA loci to evaluate population genetic patterns and future vulnerability for a freshwater turtle assemblage distributed across north-eastern Illinois. We found that genetic patterns varied considerably among co-distributed species: endangered species had lower levels of genetic diversity and gene flow, more pronounced genetic structure and a higher risk of genetic drift compared to common species. Our study is an important first step for understanding how landscape features and species-specific traits interact to affect gene flow and population genetic structure within altered landscapes and underscores how multi-species approaches can be informative for conservation actions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-23T23:25:35.26857-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12365
       
  • Habitat selection and range use of little owls in relation to habitat
           patterns at three spatial scales
    • Authors: N. Apolloni; M. U. Grüebler, R. Arlettaz, T. K. Gottschalk, B. Naef-Daenzer
      Abstract: Understanding the rules of habitat selection and the individual behavioural routines in the home-range is crucial for developing evidence-based conservation action. We investigated habitat selection and range use of adult little owls Athene noctua in relation to landscape configuration, habitat structure and resource distribution. We determined the preference of habitat structures by VHF-telemetry. Large- and fine-scale distribution patterns of voles – the main prey during the breeding season – were assessed by transect counts of signs of vole presence. An experiment using artificial perches was carried out to determine the fine-scale adjustment of the owls' range use in relation to prey abundance and vegetation height. Habitat selection and resource exploitation by little owls were structured at all spatial levels: (1) at the landscape scale, orchards were highly preferred over other areas. This accords with the patchy large-scale occurrence of voles, which were absent in cropland, but abundant in orchards and grassland; (2) within home-ranges, the spatial distribution of voles was highly inhomogeneous and structures with high prey abundance were used over-proportionally; (3) at the scale of foraging sites, little owls preferred patches with low vegetation over those with high prey abundance, establishing that prey availability is the crux. The results suggest that all levels of habitat selection and range use were related to farming practices and affected by current cultivation. Conservation measures should focus on the conservation and restoration of orchards on the landscape level and habitat management measures should focus on grasslands – the main food providers – by creating a mosaic of patches with short grass and tall grass. Together with other habitat structures providing food resources such as field edges, wildflower areas and structures facilitating access to prey, the quality of habitat patches in terms of food availability may be highly improved.Our case study on little owls Athene noctua addresses habitat selection and range use at three spatial scales, ranging from the landscape level to fine-grain resource distributions. The results suggest that all levels of habitat selection and range use were related to farming practices and affected by current cultivation. Conservation measures should focus on the conservation and restoration of orchards on the landscape level, and on maintaining high vegetation diversity within orchards and grassland. Photo credit: ' Marcel Burkhardt, ornifoto.ch
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T01:05:36.814112-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12361
       
  • Consistency of spatiotemporal sound features supports the use of passive
           acoustics for long-term monitoring
    • Authors: E. Parmentier; L. Di Iorio, M. Picciulin, S. Malavasi, J.-P. Lagardère, F. Bertucci
      Abstract: Many studies stress the usefulness of fish calls as effective indicators of distinct species occurrence. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in a given area and during restricted periods of time. There is a need to show passive acoustic monitoring is a reliable method to study vocal species over space and time. This study aims to use passive acoustic methods to follow the brown meagre Sciaena umbra at relevant temporal and spatial scales. Specimens of S. umbra were recorded in both aquarium and in the field. In situ recordings were made at two regions (Corsica and Sardinia) during four summers (2008–2012–2013–2015). Temporal and frequency parameters of the fish calls were collected by different teams and compared to test the ability to unequivocally identify the fish sound. The comparison between our data and the bibliography highlights the capability to identify S. umbra during a period of 17 years in different Mediterranean regions, clearly supporting the usefulness of acoustic monitoring to discover and protect aggregation sites of this endangered species. The sound producing mechanism in S. umbra consists of high-speed sonic muscles surrounding dorsally the posterior end of the swim bladder, which can explain the low acoustic variability that helps in the species identification. Similar mechanisms are found in other Sciaenidae, suggesting that a similar conclusion can be drawn for many other adult sciaenids that could be used as sentinel species. This study should be of high interest to policymakers and scientists because it shows passive acoustic can be confidently used in resource management.Many studies stress the usefulness of fish calls as effective indicators of distinct species occurrence. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in a particular area and during restricted periods of time. This study used passive acoustic methods to follow the brown meagre Sciaena umbra at relevant temporal and spatial scales. The comparisons highlight the capability to identify S. umbra during a period of 17 years in different Mediterranean regions, clearly supporting the usefulness of acoustic monitoring to discover and protect aggregation sites of this endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T23:25:40.194729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12362
       
  • Post-reintroduction distribution and habitat preferences of a spatially
           limited island bird species
    • Authors: M. Massaro; A. Chick, E. S. Kennedy, R. Whitsed
      Abstract: Investigating habitat use and preferences of a threatened species can be challenging, especially if wild populations have decreased to such low numbers that they occupy only fractions of their former natural range. Hence, assessing habitat suitability of a potential release site for a threatened species before a reintroduction attempt can be difficult because frequently no comparable baseline data are available. In these instances, post-release monitoring data can inform about habitat use and preferences of a reintroduced species. Here, we use monitoring data of an endangered endemic island bird, the Chatham Island black robin Petroica traversi, to investigate habitat preferences and the temporal change in distribution patterns across 26 years following a reintroduction. We show that densities and distribution of black robin pairs at the reintroduction site have changed significantly over the years. Spatial distribution of pairs is clustered, and this clustering has intensified as the population increased. We used the maximum entropy method MaxEnt to model habitat suitability on the island, showing that black robins clearly prefer forested areas inland that are within 70 m to the forest edge at lower elevations (
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T05:35:32.668569-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12364
       
  • Beauty and the beast: how a bat utilizes forests shaped by outbreaks of an
           insect pest
    • Authors: M. Kortmann; J. Hurst, R. Brinkmann, M. Heurich, R. Silveyra González, J. Müller, S. Thorn
      Abstract: The consequences of different management strategies following natural disturbances are a matter of global concern. In former production forests around the Northern Hemisphere, the abandonment of intervention, such as removal of dead wood, after outbreaks of bark beetles has been increasingly promoted to regain more natural conditions. However, many focal species of conservation, such as the barbastelle bat Barbastella barbastellus, do not primarily depend on dead wood but might respond indirectly to disturbance-induced changes of forest structural attributes. We investigated the response of B. barbastellus foraging activity and roost selection by combining acoustic surveys, radio telemetry, and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to characterize B. barbastellus habitat use on different scales. B. barbastellus foraging activity increased with increasing canopy opening. Maternity colonies were recorded exclusively in trees killed by bark beetles. Bats preferred roost trees with a higher volume (m3 ha−1) of live trees in the surrounding, and trees with on average larger diameters than nearby control trees. Our results revealed that outbreaks of bark beetles result in forest structural attributes that are suitable habitat for B. barbastellus. Salvage logging, i.e., the removal of beetle-affected trees, generally deteriorates the positive effects of bark-beetle outbreaks on the foraging and roosting habitat of B. barbastellus. We recommend maintaining snags of large diameter if salvage logging is mandatory.Natural disturbances are increasingly promoted to regain more natural conditions in many protected areas, coming out of former production forests. We investigated how the barbastelle bat (Barbastellus barbastellus) utilizes forests shaped by outbreaks of bark beetles, by using acoustic surveys, radio telemetry, and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Our results demonstrate that beetle-killed spruce forests are utilized by B. barbastellus on different scales. First, the foraging activity increased with increasing beetle-induced canopy opening. Second, B. barbastellus roosted beneath bark of beetle-killed spruces, which were larger than expected by chance.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T00:26:44.061204-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12359
       
  • High mortality and small population size prevents population recovery of a
           reintroduced mesopredator
    • Authors: T. Cremona; M. S. Crowther, J. K. Webb
      Abstract: Northern Australia's native mammal fauna has undergone a severe decline in recent decades. Putative factors include altered fire regimes, cat predation, poisoning by cane toads and disease. Populations of northern quolls, Dasyurus hallucatus severely declined following cane toad invasion and have not recovered. We monitored a population of northern quolls in Kakadu National Park that was supplemented with ‘toad-smart’ individuals, to determine whether cane toad poisoning or predation was preventing population recovery. The population increased after supplementation, but crashed in March 2012, coincident with a high level of trap disturbance by canids. Canid predation was the major source of mortality for radio-tagged quolls. We used population viability analyses (PVA) to explore how changes in mortality influenced the likelihood of extinction. With no management, the quoll population has a 48% chance of extinction over the next 20 years. Sensitivity analyses highlighted small population size and high mortality as the main reasons for the population failing to recover. We then explored whether population supplementation or reducing mortality could increase the likelihood of persistence. One year of supplementation increased the probability of population survival over 20 years from 51.6% to 81.7%. Continuing supplementation for 3 or 5 years increased the probability of population survival to 96.5% and 98.1% respectively. Similarly, a 2.5% reduction in the rate of mortality for juveniles and adult females increased the probability of population persistence over 20 years to 83.6%. Further reductions in mortality of 5% and 10% increased the probability of survival to 92.2% and 99.4% respectively. The results of the PVA suggest that small interventions could have a significant positive effect on population survival. We hypothesize that predation from food-subsidized canids is preventing the recovery of quoll populations. Future management actions to reduce mortality, via improved fire management, or through population supplementation, are necessary to ensure the persistence of the northern quoll.Northern Australia's native mammal fauna has undergone a severe decline in recent decades. Putative factors include altered fire regimes, cat predation, poisoning by cane toads and disease. Populations of northern quolls Dasyurus hallucatus severely declined following cane toad invasion and have not recovered. We utilized population viability analyses to investigate factors causing decline in a population of endangered northern quolls that had been trained not to eat toxic cane toads. Using ‘toad-smart’ quolls provides us with the unique opportunity to disentangle the factors influencing their decline.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T00:00:41.745618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12358
       
  • Causes of colony mortality in bumblebees
    • Authors: D. Goulson; S. O'Connor, K. J. Park
      Abstract: Despite considerable interest in bumblebees and their conservation, few data are available on basic life-history parameters such as rates of nest predation and the proportion of wild nests that survive to reproduction. Here, we use a combination of data collected by volunteers and our own direct observations which together describe the fate of 908 bumblebee nests in the UK between 2008 and 2013. Overall, 75% of nests produced gynes, with marked differences between species; the recently arrived species, Bombus hypnorum, had the highest proportion of colonies surviving to gyne production (96%), with the long-tongued Bombus hortorum having the lowest success in reaching gyne production (41%). There were also large differences between bumblebee species in the timing of nesting, gyne production and nest mortality, with B. hypnorum and Bombus pratorum nests starting early, producing most gynes before mid-summer, and then dying off in June, whereas at the other end of the spectrum Bombus pascuorum nests started late and produced gynes mainly in August. There was evidence for the partial or complete destruction of 100 nests. The main reported causes were excavation by a large mammal, probably primarily Meles meles (50%). Human disturbance was the second greatest cause of nest mortality (26%), followed by flooding (7%). Wax moth infestations were common (55% of nests), with B. hypnorum nests most frequently infested. However, infestation did not results in reduced likelihood of gyne production, perhaps because infestations often do not become severe until after some gynes have been produced. Our study provides novel insights into the little-studied biology of wild bumblebee nests and factors affecting their survival; collecting similar datasets in the future would enable fascinating comparisons as to how parameters such as nest survival and reproduction are changing over time, and are affected by management interventions for bees.We describe by far the largest study ever conducted on factors affecting the survival of bumblebee nests, using data largely collected by volunteers. Overall, 75% of nests went on to produce young queens (gynes), but with large differences between bumblebee species. The main causes of nest mortality were, in declining order, destruction by badgers (Meles meles), accidental destruction by humans, or flooding.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T23:41:15.588977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12363
       
  • An empirical test of the role of learning in translocation
    • Authors: A. R. Krochmal; T. C. Roth, H. O'Malley
      Abstract: Translocation centers on the introducing, reintroducing, or augmenting populations by moving individuals from existing wild source populations to different locations with purportedly suitable habitat. Despite much research in and application of translocation, this technique is often marred by low success rates. While many possible factors could contribute to low translocation success, outcomes are often improved when researchers engage in a soft release, which provides the animals with the opportunity for extra time to acclimate to their release site, indicating that aspects of learning may play an important role in translocation success. To test the importance of the time available for learning in translocation success, we performed hard and soft releases into an existing population of Eastern painted turtles Chrysemys picta that has experienced seasonal ephemeral water sources and in which resident turtles navigate to new permanent sources of water with extreme precision (±3.5 m) using specific routes known to be facilitated by learning. Translocated adult turtles in both hard- and soft-release groups failed to successfully negotiate upland habitat, even when given 3 months to prospect and learn (the maximum time possible in our system). Likewise, turtles in both groups moved more slowly, stopped more frequently, and were slower to restart movement than resident adults. Finally, both translocated groups exhibited significant drops in body mass and elevated rates of predation. In contrast, juveniles from the same donor population navigated to alternative water successfully, with movements and mortality rates not different from resident animals. These results indicate that complex aspects of cognition beyond time to learn can influence translocation success and highlight the importance of considering how and when animals learn.We tested the benefit of providing translocated Eastern painted turtles Chrysemys picta with extended time to learn to navigate seasonally ephemeral wetland habitat. Translocated adult turtles in both hard- and soft-release treatments failed to successfully negotiate upland habitat, suffering elevated rates of predation, whereas juveniles from the same donor population navigated to alternative water without mortality. Our results indicate that complex aspects of cognition can influence translocation success, highlighting the importance of considering the mechanisms and timing of animal learning when developing and implementing conservation plans.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T23:26:03.490586-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12357
       
  • My chat with a poacher in Western Serengeti
    • Authors: A. Eustace
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T00:21:14.206135-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12360
       
  • Optimizing monitoring schemes to detect trends in abundance over broad
           scales
    • Authors: G. F. Ficetola; A. Romano, S. Salvidio, R. Sindaco
      Abstract: Measuring population changes and trends is essential to identify threatened species, and is requested by several environmental regulations (e.g. European Habitat Directive). However, obtaining this information for small and cryptic animals is challenging, and requires complex, broad-scale monitoring schemes. How should we allocate the limited resources available for monitoring, to maximize the probability of detecting declines' The analysis of simulated data can help to identify the performance of monitoring scenarios across species with different features. We simulated data of populations with a wide range of abundance, detection probability and rate of decline, and tested under which circumstances open-population N-mixture models can successfully detect the decline of populations. We tested multiple monitoring strategies, to identify the ones having the highest probability of detecting declines. If 30 sites are surveyed, strong declines (≥30%) can be successfully spotted for nearly all the simulated species, except the species with lowest abundance and detection probability. Weaker declines are successfully identified only in species that are easy to detect and have high abundance. Increasing the number of sites quickly increases model power, but hundreds of sites would require monitoring to measure trends of the least detectable species. For most of species, performance of monitoring was improved by: surveying many sites with a few replicates per site; surveying many small sites instead of a few large sites; combining data from sites monitored for multiple species. Our findings show that one single monitoring approach cannot be appropriate for all the species, and that surveying efforts should be modulated across them, according to their detection probabilities and abundances. We provide quantitative values on how the number of surveys and the number of sites to be surveyed can be assigned to different species, and emphasize the need of planning to maximize the performance of monitoring.How should we allocate the limited resources available for monitoring, to maximize the probability of detecting species declines' Through the analysis of simulated data, we assessed the performance of multiple monitoring scenarios across species with different features, and showed that the probability of detecting declines increases with species detection probability, in species showing high local abundance, and in monitoring schemes surveying many populations. Surveying efforts should be modulated across species to maximize the effectiveness of monitoring, and we provide quantitative values on how the number of surveys and the number of sites to be surveyed can be assigned to different species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T01:20:32.769579-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12356
       
  • Cutaneous bacteria, but not peptides, are associated with chytridiomycosis
           resistance in Peruvian marsupial frogs
    • Authors: D. Burkart; S. V. Flechas, V. T. Vredenburg, A. Catenazzi
      Abstract: Amphibians are a highly threatened vertebrate group, and populations of these animals have declined drastically. An important global threat to amphibians is the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. However, not all species develop chytridiomycosis when exposed to Bd. We compared susceptibility to disease in two species of marsupial frogs and found that Gastrotheca nebulanastes is susceptible, whereas its congeneric G. excubitor is resistant. Since Bd is a skin pathogen, it is possible that cutaneous defenses like symbiotic bacteria and antimicrobial peptides protect the resistant species. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the anti-Bd abilities of cutaneous defenses between the two Gastrotheca species. Cultivable bacteria and peptides were isolated from the skin and tested for their abilities to inhibit Bd with in vitro co-culture assays. Twenty-six bacteria were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene and 19 peptides were profiled by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. We found that bacteria, but not peptides, differed between the two species in their ability to inhibit Bd growth. The resistant G. excubitor harbored more isolates of cultivable anti-Bd bacteria both in number and proportion (6/15 vs. 1/11). Also, the one anti-Bd isolate from G. nebulanastes demonstrated the weakest ability to inhibit Bd growth. Our results highlight the importance of anti-Bd skin bacteria in providing frog species with protection from Bd and can inform mitigation strategies for other wildlife diseases.We determined that two species of marsupial frogs differ in their resistance to chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We hypothesized that differences in their cutaneous bacteria or antimicrobial peptides may explain this difference in susceptibility. Both defenses were tested for their abilities to inhibit the growth of Bd, and we found that the resistant frog species harbored more and stronger anti-Bd bacteria, but that peptides did not differ between the species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T23:45:25.980972-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12352
       
  • Drivers of present and lifetime natural resource use in a tropical
           biodiversity hotspot
    • Authors: K. E. Reuter; B. J. Sewall, E. Di Minin
      Abstract: Effective biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of the drivers of natural resource use. Few studies, however, have examined how motivations of natural resource users and attributes of local social organizations affect resource extraction over time. We aimed to identify which characteristics of individuals (taboos, food security, resource-related income), groups (village size, ease of access to education, proximity to park), and institutions (presence of enforcement mechanisms) best predicted use of multiple types of natural resources near a protected area during the past 1.5 years and during respondents’ lifetimes. Data were collected in 2013 via semi-structured interviews with 360 people across ten villages along the perimeter of Ankarana National Park (northern Madagascar). All recent and lifetime uses of natural resources examined were higher in villages close to the park and for respondents with a history of earning money from extracting natural resources. In addition, individuals with ancestral meat-related taboos were less likely to have extracted natural resources over their lifetime, while individuals who recently consumed meat were more likely to have extracted natural resources over the past 1.5 years. All other variables were less important in explaining the use of natural resources. The results highlight that some drivers can be consistently important in predicting natural resource use and that simple models can have relatively high explanatory power even in the context of the (sometimes) illegal extraction of five different types of natural resources.Effective biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of drivers of natural resource use. In this study we examine recent and lifetime natural resource use around the perimeter of Ankarana National Park (northern Madagascar). The results highlight that some drivers were always important in predicting natural resource use and that simple models can have relatively high explanatory power even in the context of the (sometimes) illegal extraction of five different types of natural resources.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T00:30:32.774653-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12355
       
  • Halting the isolation of jaguars: where to act locally to sustain
           connectivity in their southernmost population
    • Authors: J. Martinez Pardo; A. Paviolo, S. Saura, C. De Angelo
      Abstract: Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the major threats to the conservation of biodiversity. Improvement of landscape connectivity becomes one of the main strategies for alleviating these threats and is an increasingly used target in management policies worldwide. However, implementation of connectivity principles in local management actions often implies great difficulties derived from the different criteria used by connectivity analysts and policy makers. We generated a management tool to incorporate connectivity criteria for large carnivores in landscape conservation planning at a local scale. Focusing on the southernmost population of jaguars Panthera onca, we use a graph-based connectivity approach to (1) analyze habitat connectivity and availability in five areas previously identified as main corridors; (2) detect priority forest patches for maintaining connectivity, and (3) propose specific management strategies for each area matching the relative importance and role of the forest patches in it. For this purpose, we defined the patches as the local land management units (properties) and used information on land cover and jaguar movement for determining the probabilities of connectivity metric. We identified the key patches that represent 90% of the total contribution to connectivity in the study areas; these patches were less than half of the total number of patches in each corridor. Based on this forest patch prioritization, we identified the most critical areas and specific patches where urgent conservation measures need to be implemented. The percentage of patches and the total area they covered varied among the five analyzed corridors showing contrasting situations for connectivity management and highlighting the importance of the proposed approach to understand the impact of patch-level actions in a broader connectivity context. This approach might serve as a model to account for habitat connectivity for large carnivores in the design of landscape management and land-use plans at a local scale.Focusing on the southernmost population of jaguars (Panthera onca) and with a graph-based connectivity approach, we generated a management tool to incorporate connectivity criteria for large carnivores in landscape conservation planning at a local scale. We defined the patches as the local land management units and we used information on land cover and jaguar movement for determining the probabilities of connectivity metrics (PC). With this information, we identified the key patches where urgent conservation measures need to be carried out to have an impact in a broader connectivity context.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T22:50:30.986698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12354
       
  • Relative importance of anthropogenic landscape characteristics for
           Neotropical frugivores at multiple scales
    • Authors: M. B. Nagy-Reis; C. A. Estevo, E. Z. F. Setz, M. C. Ribeiro, A. G. Chiarello, J. D. Nichols
      Abstract: Frugivores are key components of Neotropical forests, regulating plant communities, forest structure, and plant diversity; however, they are highly threatened by human impacts worldwide. To effectively conserve this group, maintain their ecological functions, and plan management actions or establish future protected areas, we need to gather information about their relationship with the landscape attributes. Here, we used camera traps and call surveys (April 2013 to March 2014) to estimate the occupancy of seven frugivores (a rodent, two ungulates, two primates and two ground-dwelling birds) at 45 sampling sites distributed within a protected area of Atlantic Forest (35 000 ha) in south-east Brazil. We evaluated the relative effects of anthropogenic landscape variables, environmental attributes and geomorphometry on their occupancy at multiple scales. To achieve this, we measured landscape metrics at three spatial scales (200, 500 and 1000 m) around each sampling site and used multi-season occupancy modeling. Factors related to human presence or disturbance, such as human accessibility, proximity to the reserve, and forest cover, were the main predictors of occupancy by frugivorous game species (paca – Cuniculus paca; brocket deer – Mazama sp.; and collared peccary – Pecari tajacu). Strictly environmental and geomorphometric variables were weaker determinants of frugivore occupancy. Our results also suggest that weather, season and habitat-related variables can equally influence animal detection probability. Moreover, different species of frugivores responded differently to landscape attributes, and their response depended on the spatial landscape scale at which they perceive their habitat. This highlights the importance of a multi-taxa and multi-scale approach when assessing species-habitat relationships and planning wildlife management actions.We evaluated the relative effects of anthropogenic landscape variables, environmental attributes and geomorphometry on the occupancy of seven Neotropical frugivores using occupancy modeling and multiple scale perspective. Different species of frugivores responded differently to landscape attributes, and their responses depended on the spatial landscape scale at which they perceive their habitat. Factors related to human presence or disturbance, such as human accessibility, proximity to the reserve, and forest cover, were the main predictors of occupancy by frugivorous game species (paca – Cuniculus paca; brocket deer – Mazama sp.; and collared peccary – Pecari tajacu). Strictly environmental and geomorphometric variables were weaker determinants of frugivore occupancy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T13:27:53.540275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12346
       
  • How to make (in) effective conservation projects: look at the internal
           context!
    • Authors: C. Battisti
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:30:43.283283-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12353
       
  • Global correlates of extinction risk in freshwater crayfish
    • Authors: L. M. Bland
      Abstract: Global trait-based analyses can shed light on the factors predisposing species to high extinction risk, and can help bridge knowledge gaps in speciose and poorly known taxa. In this paper, I conduct the first global comparative study of crayfish extinction risk. I collated data on intrinsic (biology and ecology) and extrinsic (environment and threats) factors for 450 crayfish species assessed on the IUCN Red List. Phylogenetic multiple regression models were used to identify correlates of risk in all species; in centres of diversity (American cambarids and Australian parastacids); and among threat types (agriculture, water management, pollution). I assessed the relative ability of threat maps quantifying specific threats (e.g. river fragmentation, mercury deposition) or a generic threat (human population density) to predict crayfish extinction risk. I also quantified the effects of range size on extinction risk with variation partitioning and multiplicative bivariate regressions. Crayfish with small range size, small body size, habitat dependency on caves, and with ranges in areas of low precipitation, high altitude and high human population density were at higher risk of extinction. Correlates of risk varied between American cambarids and Australian parastacids, suggesting that centres of diversity shape patterns of extinction risk in crayfish. The explanatory power of models ranged between 31 and 65%, with low explanatory power for models based on threat types. Few specific threat measures were significantly related to extinction risk, suggesting that large-scale threat mapping may not be informative for freshwater invertebrates. In the absence of population data for most freshwater invertebrates, trait-based models are powerful and cost-effective tools for understanding and mitigating drivers of extinction risk.Global trait-based analyses can shed light on the factors predisposing species to high extinction risk, and can help bridge knowledge gaps in speciose and poorly known taxa. I conducted the first global comparative study of freshwater crayfish extinction risk, and found that crayfish with small range size, small body size and habitat dependency on caves are at high risk of extinction. Few threat measures were significantly related to extinction risk, suggesting that large-scale threat mapping may not be informative for freshwater invertebrates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:25:37.7145-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12350
       
  • Seabird population changes following mammal eradications on islands
    • Authors: M. de L. Brooke; E. Bonnaud, B. J. Dilley, E. N. Flint, N. D. Holmes, H. P. Jones, P. Provost, G. Rocamora, P. G. Ryan, C. Surman, R. T. Buxton
      Abstract: Seabirds are among the most threatened groups of birds, and predation by invasive mammals is one of the most acute threats at their island breeding stations. Island restoration projects increasingly involve the eradication of invasive non-native mammals, with benefits for seabirds and other island fauna. To date, demonstrated benefits of invasive mammal eradication include increased seabird nesting success and enhanced adult survival. However, the recovery dynamics of seabird populations have not been documented. Drawing on data from across the world, we assemble population growth rates (λ) of 181 seabird populations of 69 species following successful eradication projects. After successful eradication, the median growth rate was 1.119 and populations with positive growth (λ > 1; n = 151) greatly outnumbered those in decline (λ 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T02:00:38.492099-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12344
       
  • Rabbits killing hares: an invasive mammal modifies native
           predator–prey dynamics
    • Authors: J. Cerri; M. Ferretti, S. Bertolino
      Abstract: Invasive species management requires practical evidence of the impacts of introduced species over ecosystem structure and functioning. Theoretical ecology and empirical data support the potential of introduced mammals to drive native species to extinction, indeed the majority of practical evidence comes from insular environments, where conditions may differ from the mainland. We analyzed the effects of an introduced lagomorph, the eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus on two native mammals, the European hare Lepus europaeus and the red fox Vulpes vulpes. We used relative abundances collected over 8 years at 30 protected areas in Italy. A generalized linear mixed model was fit to test various hypotheses about the relationships between cottontails, foxes and climatic conditions over the abundance of native hares. In our model, hare and cottontail abundances did not show a negative relationship and we believe that no direct competition occurs between the two species. However, the relationship between fox and hare abundances, positive when cottontails were scarce, became more and more negative as cottontails increased: this supports the hypothesis that indirect dynamics like apparent competition exists between the two lagomorphs. Climatic conditions, expressed through the North Atlantic Oscillation, did not affect the relationship between cottontail and hare abundances. As the impact of parasites on mammal populations is generally climate dependent, we believe that cottontails do not play a direct role in the cycle of parasites affecting hares. Our results provide a clue that an invasive mammal, the eastern cottontail, is modifying the predator–prey relationship between two native species in a non-insular environment. The existence of such dynamics should lead wildlife managers to account for the effect of introduced species in their decision making, directing control activities on cottontails and not on native foxes.Invasive species management requires practical evidence of the impacts of introduced species over ecosystem structure and functioning. We analyzed the effects of an introduced lagomorph, the eastern cottontail on two native mammals, the European hare and the red fox, through relative abundances collected over 8 years at 30 protected areas in Italy. The relationship between foxes and hares became more and more negative, as cottontail abundance increased. As no direct competition between introduced cottontails and native hares emerged, we believe that indirect dynamics like apparent competition exists between the two lagomorphs (Photo credit: Timothy Kline).
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T01:10:54.042304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12343
       
  • Elevated temperatures alter competitive outcomes and body condition in
           southern Appalachian salamanders
    • Authors: L. A. Liles; K. K. Cecala, J. R. Ennen, J. M. Davenport
      Abstract: Temperature elevation due to climate change is directly altering organismal performance and distributions, but the mechanisms behind these shifts require additional attention. Because small aquatic ectotherms are proposed to perform better at future climates, it is possible that competitive interactions in size-structured communities may also shift. To study the interactive effects of climate and competition on species performance, we evaluated body condition of small and large desmognathan salamanders at current and elevated temperatures in stream mesocosms, and characterized habitat use. In situ evaluation of capture locations demonstrated that the widespread and larger species, Desmognathus conanti, competitively excludes the smaller more narrowly distributed, D. abditus, from stream centers and cooler temperatures, but ex situ mesocosm experiments indicated an interaction between temperature and intra- versus inter-specific competition on D. abditus body condition. At current temperatures, D. abditus body condition increased in the presence of the larger D. conanti, but at elevated temperatures, D. abditus body condition tended to decline in the presence of the larger species relative to intraspecific competitors. We also noted that individuals at future temperatures prioritized growth differently than individuals at current temperatures by shifting allocations away from growth in length to growth in mass consistent with responses of other organisms to stressful conditions that could result in declining reproductive rates. This study demonstrates that processes in size-structured communities may interact with temperature to affect species’ future success.This study evaluates thermal relationships with species performance in size-structured communities of aquatic ectotherms. The smaller salamander species performed better at warmer temperatures, but competitive relationships minimized this trend. Temperature is correlated with better performance in some ectothermic species, but this relationship is conditional within the community context.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:10:32.026088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12342
       
  • Adverse effects of artificial illumination on bat drinking activity
    • Authors: D. Russo; L. Cistrone, N. Libralato, C. Korine, G. Jones, L. Ancillotto
      Abstract: Artificial illumination at night (ALAN) alters many aspects of animal behaviour. Commuting and foraging bats have been found to be affected by ALAN, but no study has yet addressed the impact of lighting on drinking activity, despite its critical importance for bats. We experimentally illuminated cattle troughs used by drinking bats at four forest sites in Italy, and compared drinking activity and foraging activity under lit and dark conditions. We predicted that (1) the number of bat species and drinking events will be lower under illumination and (2) forest bat species will be more affected than edge specialists. We recorded 2549 drinking events from 12 species or species groups, most of which decreased drinking activity under illumination. The effects of ALAN on drinking were stronger than on foraging. Forest species never drank when the light was on. Edge-foraging species reduced drinking activity while also increasing foraging under lit conditions. We highlight a previously overlooked negative effect of ALAN on bats, whose implications may be locally catastrophic. Given the importance of water sites for both bat foraging and drinking, their illumination should be forbidden, appropriately mitigated or, if necessary, compensated for with the creation of alternative drinking sites.We show that artificial illumination leads to a dramatic decrease in bat drinking activity. We found that lighting affects drinking behaviour more than foraging and that even species usually regarded as light-tolerant exhibit adverse reactions to light when drinking. Illumination of drinking sites may therefore have considerably harmful consequences for bat conservation (Image courtesy of Jens Rydell).
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T23:05:30.745824-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12340
       
  • Body condition as a quantitative tool to guide hand-rearing decisions in
           an endangered seabird
    • Authors: J. M. Morten; N. J. Parsons, C. Schwitzer, M. W. Holderied, R. B. Sherley
      Abstract: The use of wildlife rehabilitation for conservation is growing, but quantitative criteria are rarely used to guide whether and when to remove animals from the wild. Since 2006, large numbers of African penguin Spheniscus demersus chicks have been abandoned annually when adults enter moult with dependent young still in the nest. As part of conservation initiatives for this endangered species, these chicks were collected and hand reared to fledging age. Post-release survival has been well documented; in this study we develop models to predict survival of individuals during rehabilitation with the aim of improving hand-rearing success and guiding the use of scarce resources. For 1455 chicks abandoned between 2008 and 2013, we assessed whether a chick body condition index (BCI) could predict outcome (death or release) and time spent in rearing. In addition, for a subset of 173 chicks in 2012, we assessed whether BCI at admission influenced chick growth rates during rehabilitation and examined whether the use of additional structural measurements and sex provided additional power to predict outcome. Models predicted an 82.9% (95% confidence interval: 73.3–89.5%) release rate for chicks admitted with a BCI>0, the proposed guideline for removal from colonies. This fell below 50% for BCIs 
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T23:20:40.814568-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12338
       
  • Identification of candidate pelagic marine protected areas through a
           seabird seasonal-, multispecific- and extinction risk-based approach
    • Authors: L. Krüger; J. A. Ramos, J. C. Xavier, D. Grémillet, J. González-Solís, Y. Kolbeinsson, T. Militão, J. Navarro, M. V. Petry, R. A. Phillips, I. Ramírez, J. M. Reyes-González, P. G. Ryan, I. A. Sigurðsson, E. Van Sebille, R. M. Wanless, V. H. Paiva
      Abstract: With increasing pressure on the oceans from environmental change, there has been a global call for improved protection of marine ecosystems through the implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs). Here, we used species distribution modelling (SDM) of tracking data from 14 seabird species to identify key marine areas in the southwest Atlantic Ocean, valuing areas based on seabird species occurrence, seasonality and extinction risk. We also compared overlaps between the outputs generated by the SDM and layers representing important human threats (fishing intensity, ship density, plastic and oil pollution, ocean acidification), and calculated loss in conservation value using fishing and ship density as cost layers. The key marine areas were located on the southern Patagonian Shelf, overlapping extensively with areas of high fishing activity, and did not change seasonally, while seasonal areas were located off south and southeast Brazil and overlapped with areas of high plastic pollution and ocean acidification. Non-seasonal key areas were located off northeast Brazil on an area of high biodiversity, and with relatively low human impacts. We found support for the use of seasonal areas depending on the seabird assemblage used, because there was a loss in conservation value for the seasonal compared to the non-seasonal approach when using ‘cost’ layers. Our approach, accounting for seasonal changes in seabird assemblages and their risk of extinction, identified additional candidate areas for incorporation in the network of pelagic MPAs.Marine Protected Areas are one of the main tools used to buffer the impact of environmental change on Marine Ecosystems. In this study we used year-round tracking data of pelagic seabird communities into distribution modelling to detect key areas for conservation in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The key marine areas were located on the southern Patagonian Shelf overlapping extensively with areas of high fishing activity, off south and southeast Brazil overlapping with areas of high plastic pollution and ocean acidification, and off northeast Brazil on an area of high biodiversity with relatively low human impacts. There was a loss in conservation value for seasonal areas off tropical waters when compared to the non-seasonal approach when using 'cost’ layers. Our approach identified additional candidate areas for incorporation in the network of pelagic MPAs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:20:36.281872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12339
       
  • Grain spilled from moving trains create a substantial wildlife attractant
           in protected areas
    • Authors: A. Gangadharan; S. Pollock, P. Gilhooly, A. Friesen, B. Dorsey, C. C. St. Clair
      Abstract: Transportation corridors can attract threatened wildlife via habitat enhancement and foraging opportunities, leading to collisions with vehicles. But wildlife may also be attracted to energy-dense food products that are spilled or discarded from moving vehicles, which is rarely studied. Therefore, we quantified train-spilled attractants in Banff and Yoho National Parks, Canada, where agricultural products (hereafter, grain) are transported along 134 km of railway and may contribute to wildlife mortality. We measured grain deposition from 2012 to 2015 at 19 sites and assessed the performance of three structures developed to measure spilled grain. We then modeled grain deposition with respect to four types of spatial and temporal variables: those related to grain shipment, physical habitat characteristic, train-related characteristics and variables specific to the study site. Grain was spilled at a mean rate of 1.64 g m−2 day−1 (sd = 3.60) from April to October (n = 3 years) and 1.52 (sd = 2.37) from November to March (n = 1 year). Extrapolating annual deposition across the study area yielded enough grain (110 tons) to provide 4.77 × 108 kcal of gross energy, which is equivalent to the average annual caloric needs of 42–54 grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis; the regional population is estimated at 50–73 animals. Much of this energy will not be accessible or available to bears; however, their attraction to it could contribute to rising and unsustainable rates of mortality. Models explained 9–31% of the variance in deposition for each grain type, primarily via coarse temporal variables of shipping rates and month. The absence of more specific predictive variables suggests that mitigation should target broader policies, such as prompt reporting and repair of leaky hopper cars, and limits to train stoppage in protected areas. We encourage more global assessment of the under-studied issue of food attractants spilled by vehicles along transportation corridors.Spillage of wildlife attractants from moving vehicles is an important but little-studied problem in areas where transportation networks pass through wildlife habitat. We demonstrate that this spillage could add up to a major food supplement to wildlife, potentially contributing to risk of wildlife–vehicle collisions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T03:40:39.017919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12336
       
  • Landscape-scale effects of single- and multiple small wind turbines on bat
           activity
    • Authors: J. Minderman; M. H. Gillis, H. F. Daly, K. J. Park
      Abstract: While the effects of wind farms on bats are widely studied, effects of small wind turbines (SWTs, here
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T23:32:25.876592-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12331
       
  • Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as a case study for locating cryptic and
           data-poor marine fishes for conservation
    • Authors: L. Aylesworth; T.-L. Loh, W. Rongrongmuang, A. C. J. Vincent
      Abstract: When seeking to conserve data-poor species, we need to decide how to allocate research effort, especially when threats are substantial and pressing. Our study provides guidance for sampling marine fishes that are particularly difficult to find – those species that are cryptic or rare and or where little information exists on local distribution (data-poor). We used our experience searching for seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) in Thailand to evaluate two search strategies for marine conservation: (1) determining relative abundance and (2) searching for presence/absence with detection probabilities. Our fieldwork indicated that using the presence/absence framework was more likely to lead to inferences that seahorses could be found in the site than when using the relative abundance framework. This realization would support a commonsense approach, where presence/absence with detection probabilities is centrally important to marine conservation planning for cryptic and or data-poor marine species.Our paper addresses the important conservation question of whether zeros in survey data represent true absence of species, especially those known to be rare, depleted or patchily distributed. We use field research on seahorses in Thailand to demonstrate that we can achieve more conservation relevant information if we focus on presence/absence data with detection covariates than if we emphasize analyses of relative abundance and density. The former approach helped identify sites where seahorses were found, altered the conclusions we drew and contributed to marine conservation planning, whereas searches aimed at determining relative abundance did not.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:00:53.52676-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12332
       
  • Can fear conditioning repel California sea lions from fishing
           activities'
    • Authors: Zachary A. Schakner; Thomas Götz, Vincent M. Janik, Daniel T. Blumstein
      Abstract: Marine mammal interactions with fisheries create conflicts that can threaten human safety, economic interests and marine mammal survival. A deterrent that capitalizes on learning mechanisms, like fear conditioning, may enhance success while simultaneously balancing welfare concerns and reduce noise pollution. During fear conditioning, individuals learn the cues that precede the dangerous stimuli, and respond by avoiding the painful situations. We tested the efficacy of fear conditioning using acoustic stimuli for reducing California sea lion Zalophus californianus interactions from two fishing contexts in California, USA; bait barges and recreational fishing vessels. We performed conditioning trials on 24 individual sea lions interacting with bait barges. We tested for acquisition of conditioned fear by pairing a neutral tone with a startle stimulus. Avoidance was strongest in response to the startle stimulus alone, but low when paired with a neutral tone. From actively fishing vessels, we tested for fear conditioning by exposing sea lions to a neutral tone followed by a startle pulse, a startle pulse alone or a no sound control. We conducted playbacks from 146 (including 48 no sound control) stops over two summer fishing seasons (2013, 2014). The startle stimulus decreased surfacing frequency, reduced bait foraging and increased surfacing distance from the vessel while the conditioned stimulus only caused a mild reduction in surfacing frequency with no other behavioral change. Exposing animals to a pair of a conditioned stimulus with a startle pulse did not achieve the intended management outcome. Rather, it generated evidence (in two study contexts) of immediate learning that led to the reduction of the unconditioned response. Taken together, our results suggest that for fear conditioning to be applied as a non-lethal deterrent, careful consideration has to be given to individual behavior, the unconditioned/conditioned responses and the overall management goals.Marine mammal interactions with fisheries create conflicts that can threaten human safety, economic interests and marine mammal survival. Using fear conditioning may enhance deterrent success while simultaneously balancing welfare concerns and reduce noise pollution because individuals learn the cues that precede the dangerous stimuli, and respond by avoiding the painful situations. We tested the efficacy of fear conditioning using acoustic stimuli for reducing California sea lion Zalophus californianus interactions in two fishing contexts in California, USA; bait barges and recreational fishing vessels. Exposing animals to a pair of a conditioned stimulus with a startle pulse did not achieve the intended management outcome. Rather, it generated evidence (in two study contexts) of immediate learning that led to the reduction of the unconditioned response.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T00:35:43.911152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12329
       
  • ‘The early bird catches the nest’: possible competition between scops
           owls and ring-necked parakeets
    • Authors: E. Mori; L. Ancillotto, M. Menchetti, D. Strubbe
      Abstract: Competition for critical resources is one of the key mechanisms through which invasive species impact on native communities. Among birds, the widely introduced ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri locally affects cavity-nesting communities through competition for suitable tree cavities, although it remains unclear to what extent such competition translates into population declines of native species. Here, we studied the potential for nest site competition between ring-necked parakeets and the native scops owl Otus scops, a small nocturnal migratory raptor, by comparing the spatial distribution of the nest site locations of the raptor before (2002) and after (2015) the parakeet invasion. Pre-invasion nesting sites of scops owls (2002) strongly coincided with those selected by ring-necked parakeets, but although both parakeet and scops owl populations increased during the study period, this was no longer true for 2015. Ring-necked parakeets took over several cavities formerly occupied by scops owls, and land-use data suggest that because of the higher overall breeding densities in 2015, scops owls were forced to occupy suboptimal breeding habitats to minimize nest site competition with invasive parakeets. Ring-necked parakeets start breeding early in the season, a behaviour enabling them to secure the best nest sites first, before the owls return from their wintering grounds. Our study highlights that locally observed competition not necessarily impacts on population dynamics of competing species and thus warns against uncritical extrapolation of smaller scale studies for assessing invasive species risks at larger spatial scales. Nonetheless, given the increasing number of studies demonstrating its competitive capacities, monitoring of ring-necked parakeet populations is prudent and mitigation measures (such as mounting of man-made nest-boxes, which are used by scops owls, but not by parakeets) may be justified when the parakeets are likely to invade areas harbouring cavity-nesters of conservation concern.Before the invasion of ring-necked parakeets, scops owls occupied a number of breeding sites located within urban parks and green areas within the city of Follonica (Southern Tuscany). After the invasion, ring-necked parakeets took over several cavities formerly occupied by owls, forcing them to breed in suboptimal areas to avoid competition with alien parrots. Locally observed competition may occur without affecting population size of native species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T00:35:26.412474-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12334
       
  • An assessment of conflict areas between alien and native species richness
           of terrestrial vertebrates on a macro-ecological scale in a Mediterranean
           hotspot
    • Authors: A. J. Carpio; J. A. Barasona, J. Guerrero-Casado, J. Oteros, F. S. Tortosa, P. Acevedo
      Abstract: Understanding how the diversity of invasive species is geographically distributed and identifying the major drivers of that pattern is a relevant challenge as regards invasion biology. The aim of this paper was, therefore, to identify and characterize those areas colonized by a high number of alien species as a means to provide directional indications that can be used to minimize the potential negative effects that the alien species may have on host ecosystems. This is done by applying spatially explicit predictive modeling in order to explain the diversity of vertebrate alien species in Spain. The relative importance of the different factors was assessed using variation partitioning. Our results showed that the main factor as regards predicting the distribution of alien species was the anthropogenic variable, and that this was followed by abiotic variables. The other significant predictor of alien species was the number of native species, which had a positive relationship with the number of alien species. This accord with the ‘the rich get richer’ acceptance hypothesis, which predicts a higher number of alien species in areas with high native species diversity. In this study, we detected actual conflict areas (ACAs), which have high-medium values for the number of both native and alien species. Many of the ACAs identified some overlap with protected areas, which further aggravate the problem as these areas are often the home to endangered species which may be adversely affected by the emergence of alien species. This signifies that eradication, control or mitigation programs should be carried out to reduce the undesirable impact of alien species in these areas. However, other areas of conflict also appeared in unprotected areas near to big cities, where monitoring and preventive measures are necessary to avoid the release of new species and their subsequent spread.We established the areas that had a higher risk of being colonized by alien species. We found that antropic and ecogeographical variables were the main factors to explain richness of alien species. Urban land uses and the distances to big cities were key features to predict the distribution of alien species. We also identified potential conflict areas, which have higher values for the number of both native and predicted alien species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T23:15:31.812698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12330
       
 
 
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