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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Animal Conservation
  [SJR: 1.576]   [H-I: 62]   [34 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1367-9430 - ISSN (Online) 1469-1795
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Cutaneous bacteria, but not peptides, are associated with chytridiomycosis
           resistance in Peruvian marsupial frogs
    • Authors: D. Burkart; S. V. Flechas, V. T. Vredenburg, A. Catenazzi
      Abstract: Amphibians are a highly threatened vertebrate group, and populations of these animals have declined drastically. An important global threat to amphibians is the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. However, not all species develop chytridiomycosis when exposed to Bd. We compared susceptibility to disease in two species of marsupial frogs and found that Gastrotheca nebulanastes is susceptible, whereas its congeneric G. excubitor is resistant. Since Bd is a skin pathogen, it is possible that cutaneous defenses like symbiotic bacteria and antimicrobial peptides protect the resistant species. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the anti-Bd abilities of cutaneous defenses between the two Gastrotheca species. Cultivable bacteria and peptides were isolated from the skin and tested for their abilities to inhibit Bd with in vitro co-culture assays. Twenty-six bacteria were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene and 19 peptides were profiled by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. We found that bacteria, but not peptides, differed between the two species in their ability to inhibit Bd growth. The resistant G. excubitor harbored more isolates of cultivable anti-Bd bacteria both in number and proportion (6/15 vs. 1/11). Also, the one anti-Bd isolate from G. nebulanastes demonstrated the weakest ability to inhibit Bd growth. Our results highlight the importance of anti-Bd skin bacteria in providing frog species with protection from Bd and can inform mitigation strategies for other wildlife diseases.We determined that two species of marsupial frogs differ in their resistance to chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We hypothesized that differences in their cutaneous bacteria or antimicrobial peptides may explain this difference in susceptibility. Both defenses were tested for their abilities to inhibit the growth of Bd, and we found that the resistant frog species harbored more and stronger anti-Bd bacteria, but that peptides did not differ between the species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T23:45:25.980972-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12352
       
  • Drivers of present and lifetime natural resource use in a tropical
           biodiversity hotspot
    • Authors: K. E. Reuter; B. J. Sewall, E. Di Minin
      Abstract: Effective biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of the drivers of natural resource use. Few studies, however, have examined how motivations of natural resource users and attributes of local social organizations affect resource extraction over time. We aimed to identify which characteristics of individuals (taboos, food security, resource-related income), groups (village size, ease of access to education, proximity to park), and institutions (presence of enforcement mechanisms) best predicted use of multiple types of natural resources near a protected area during the past 1.5 years and during respondents’ lifetimes. Data were collected in 2013 via semi-structured interviews with 360 people across ten villages along the perimeter of Ankarana National Park (northern Madagascar). All recent and lifetime uses of natural resources examined were higher in villages close to the park and for respondents with a history of earning money from extracting natural resources. In addition, individuals with ancestral meat-related taboos were less likely to have extracted natural resources over their lifetime, while individuals who recently consumed meat were more likely to have extracted natural resources over the past 1.5 years. All other variables were less important in explaining the use of natural resources. The results highlight that some drivers can be consistently important in predicting natural resource use and that simple models can have relatively high explanatory power even in the context of the (sometimes) illegal extraction of five different types of natural resources.Effective biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of drivers of natural resource use. In this study we examine recent and lifetime natural resource use around the perimeter of Ankarana National Park (northern Madagascar). The results highlight that some drivers were always important in predicting natural resource use and that simple models can have relatively high explanatory power even in the context of the (sometimes) illegal extraction of five different types of natural resources.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T00:30:32.774653-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12355
       
  • Halting the isolation of jaguars: where to act locally to sustain
           connectivity in their southernmost population
    • Authors: J. Martinez Pardo; A. Paviolo, S. Saura, C. De Angelo
      Abstract: Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the major threats to the conservation of biodiversity. Improvement of landscape connectivity becomes one of the main strategies for alleviating these threats and is an increasingly used target in management policies worldwide. However, implementation of connectivity principles in local management actions often implies great difficulties derived from the different criteria used by connectivity analysts and policy makers. We generated a management tool to incorporate connectivity criteria for large carnivores in landscape conservation planning at a local scale. Focusing on the southernmost population of jaguars Panthera onca, we use a graph-based connectivity approach to (1) analyze habitat connectivity and availability in five areas previously identified as main corridors; (2) detect priority forest patches for maintaining connectivity, and (3) propose specific management strategies for each area matching the relative importance and role of the forest patches in it. For this purpose, we defined the patches as the local land management units (properties) and used information on land cover and jaguar movement for determining the probabilities of connectivity metric. We identified the key patches that represent 90% of the total contribution to connectivity in the study areas; these patches were less than half of the total number of patches in each corridor. Based on this forest patch prioritization, we identified the most critical areas and specific patches where urgent conservation measures need to be implemented. The percentage of patches and the total area they covered varied among the five analyzed corridors showing contrasting situations for connectivity management and highlighting the importance of the proposed approach to understand the impact of patch-level actions in a broader connectivity context. This approach might serve as a model to account for habitat connectivity for large carnivores in the design of landscape management and land-use plans at a local scale.Focusing on the southernmost population of jaguars (Panthera onca) and with a graph-based connectivity approach, we generated a management tool to incorporate connectivity criteria for large carnivores in landscape conservation planning at a local scale. We defined the patches as the local land management units and we used information on land cover and jaguar movement for determining the probabilities of connectivity metrics (PC). With this information, we identified the key patches where urgent conservation measures need to be carried out to have an impact in a broader connectivity context.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T22:50:30.986698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12354
       
  • Relative importance of anthropogenic landscape characteristics for
           Neotropical frugivores at multiple scales
    • Authors: M. B. Nagy-Reis; C. A. Estevo, E. Z. F. Setz, M. C. Ribeiro, A. G. Chiarello, J. D. Nichols
      Abstract: Frugivores are key components of Neotropical forests, regulating plant communities, forest structure, and plant diversity; however, they are highly threatened by human impacts worldwide. To effectively conserve this group, maintain their ecological functions, and plan management actions or establish future protected areas, we need to gather information about their relationship with the landscape attributes. Here, we used camera traps and call surveys (April 2013 to March 2014) to estimate the occupancy of seven frugivores (a rodent, two ungulates, two primates and two ground-dwelling birds) at 45 sampling sites distributed within a protected area of Atlantic Forest (35 000 ha) in south-east Brazil. We evaluated the relative effects of anthropogenic landscape variables, environmental attributes and geomorphometry on their occupancy at multiple scales. To achieve this, we measured landscape metrics at three spatial scales (200, 500 and 1000 m) around each sampling site and used multi-season occupancy modeling. Factors related to human presence or disturbance, such as human accessibility, proximity to the reserve, and forest cover, were the main predictors of occupancy by frugivorous game species (paca – Cuniculus paca; brocket deer – Mazama sp.; and collared peccary – Pecari tajacu). Strictly environmental and geomorphometric variables were weaker determinants of frugivore occupancy. Our results also suggest that weather, season and habitat-related variables can equally influence animal detection probability. Moreover, different species of frugivores responded differently to landscape attributes, and their response depended on the spatial landscape scale at which they perceive their habitat. This highlights the importance of a multi-taxa and multi-scale approach when assessing species-habitat relationships and planning wildlife management actions.We evaluated the relative effects of anthropogenic landscape variables, environmental attributes and geomorphometry on the occupancy of seven Neotropical frugivores using occupancy modeling and multiple scale perspective. Different species of frugivores responded differently to landscape attributes, and their responses depended on the spatial landscape scale at which they perceive their habitat. Factors related to human presence or disturbance, such as human accessibility, proximity to the reserve, and forest cover, were the main predictors of occupancy by frugivorous game species (paca – Cuniculus paca; brocket deer – Mazama sp.; and collared peccary – Pecari tajacu). Strictly environmental and geomorphometric variables were weaker determinants of frugivore occupancy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T13:27:53.540275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12346
       
  • How to make (in) effective conservation projects: look at the internal
           context!
    • Authors: C. Battisti
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:30:43.283283-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12353
       
  • Global correlates of extinction risk in freshwater crayfish
    • Authors: L. M. Bland
      Abstract: Global trait-based analyses can shed light on the factors predisposing species to high extinction risk, and can help bridge knowledge gaps in speciose and poorly known taxa. In this paper, I conduct the first global comparative study of crayfish extinction risk. I collated data on intrinsic (biology and ecology) and extrinsic (environment and threats) factors for 450 crayfish species assessed on the IUCN Red List. Phylogenetic multiple regression models were used to identify correlates of risk in all species; in centres of diversity (American cambarids and Australian parastacids); and among threat types (agriculture, water management, pollution). I assessed the relative ability of threat maps quantifying specific threats (e.g. river fragmentation, mercury deposition) or a generic threat (human population density) to predict crayfish extinction risk. I also quantified the effects of range size on extinction risk with variation partitioning and multiplicative bivariate regressions. Crayfish with small range size, small body size, habitat dependency on caves, and with ranges in areas of low precipitation, high altitude and high human population density were at higher risk of extinction. Correlates of risk varied between American cambarids and Australian parastacids, suggesting that centres of diversity shape patterns of extinction risk in crayfish. The explanatory power of models ranged between 31 and 65%, with low explanatory power for models based on threat types. Few specific threat measures were significantly related to extinction risk, suggesting that large-scale threat mapping may not be informative for freshwater invertebrates. In the absence of population data for most freshwater invertebrates, trait-based models are powerful and cost-effective tools for understanding and mitigating drivers of extinction risk.Global trait-based analyses can shed light on the factors predisposing species to high extinction risk, and can help bridge knowledge gaps in speciose and poorly known taxa. I conducted the first global comparative study of freshwater crayfish extinction risk, and found that crayfish with small range size, small body size and habitat dependency on caves are at high risk of extinction. Few threat measures were significantly related to extinction risk, suggesting that large-scale threat mapping may not be informative for freshwater invertebrates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:25:37.7145-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12350
       
  • Seabird population changes following mammal eradications on islands
    • Authors: M. de L. Brooke; E. Bonnaud, B. J. Dilley, E. N. Flint, N. D. Holmes, H. P. Jones, P. Provost, G. Rocamora, P. G. Ryan, C. Surman, R. T. Buxton
      Abstract: Seabirds are among the most threatened groups of birds, and predation by invasive mammals is one of the most acute threats at their island breeding stations. Island restoration projects increasingly involve the eradication of invasive non-native mammals, with benefits for seabirds and other island fauna. To date, demonstrated benefits of invasive mammal eradication include increased seabird nesting success and enhanced adult survival. However, the recovery dynamics of seabird populations have not been documented. Drawing on data from across the world, we assemble population growth rates (λ) of 181 seabird populations of 69 species following successful eradication projects. After successful eradication, the median growth rate was 1.119 and populations with positive growth (λ > 1; n = 151) greatly outnumbered those in decline (λ 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T02:00:38.492099-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12344
       
  • Rabbits killing hares: an invasive mammal modifies native
           predator–prey dynamics
    • Authors: J. Cerri; M. Ferretti, S. Bertolino
      Abstract: Invasive species management requires practical evidence of the impacts of introduced species over ecosystem structure and functioning. Theoretical ecology and empirical data support the potential of introduced mammals to drive native species to extinction, indeed the majority of practical evidence comes from insular environments, where conditions may differ from the mainland. We analyzed the effects of an introduced lagomorph, the eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus on two native mammals, the European hare Lepus europaeus and the red fox Vulpes vulpes. We used relative abundances collected over 8 years at 30 protected areas in Italy. A generalized linear mixed model was fit to test various hypotheses about the relationships between cottontails, foxes and climatic conditions over the abundance of native hares. In our model, hare and cottontail abundances did not show a negative relationship and we believe that no direct competition occurs between the two species. However, the relationship between fox and hare abundances, positive when cottontails were scarce, became more and more negative as cottontails increased: this supports the hypothesis that indirect dynamics like apparent competition exists between the two lagomorphs. Climatic conditions, expressed through the North Atlantic Oscillation, did not affect the relationship between cottontail and hare abundances. As the impact of parasites on mammal populations is generally climate dependent, we believe that cottontails do not play a direct role in the cycle of parasites affecting hares. Our results provide a clue that an invasive mammal, the eastern cottontail, is modifying the predator–prey relationship between two native species in a non-insular environment. The existence of such dynamics should lead wildlife managers to account for the effect of introduced species in their decision making, directing control activities on cottontails and not on native foxes.Invasive species management requires practical evidence of the impacts of introduced species over ecosystem structure and functioning. We analyzed the effects of an introduced lagomorph, the eastern cottontail on two native mammals, the European hare and the red fox, through relative abundances collected over 8 years at 30 protected areas in Italy. The relationship between foxes and hares became more and more negative, as cottontail abundance increased. As no direct competition between introduced cottontails and native hares emerged, we believe that indirect dynamics like apparent competition exists between the two lagomorphs (Photo credit: Timothy Kline).
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T01:10:54.042304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12343
       
  • Elevated temperatures alter competitive outcomes and body condition in
           southern Appalachian salamanders
    • Authors: L. A. Liles; K. K. Cecala, J. R. Ennen, J. M. Davenport
      Abstract: Temperature elevation due to climate change is directly altering organismal performance and distributions, but the mechanisms behind these shifts require additional attention. Because small aquatic ectotherms are proposed to perform better at future climates, it is possible that competitive interactions in size-structured communities may also shift. To study the interactive effects of climate and competition on species performance, we evaluated body condition of small and large desmognathan salamanders at current and elevated temperatures in stream mesocosms, and characterized habitat use. In situ evaluation of capture locations demonstrated that the widespread and larger species, Desmognathus conanti, competitively excludes the smaller more narrowly distributed, D. abditus, from stream centers and cooler temperatures, but ex situ mesocosm experiments indicated an interaction between temperature and intra- versus inter-specific competition on D. abditus body condition. At current temperatures, D. abditus body condition increased in the presence of the larger D. conanti, but at elevated temperatures, D. abditus body condition tended to decline in the presence of the larger species relative to intraspecific competitors. We also noted that individuals at future temperatures prioritized growth differently than individuals at current temperatures by shifting allocations away from growth in length to growth in mass consistent with responses of other organisms to stressful conditions that could result in declining reproductive rates. This study demonstrates that processes in size-structured communities may interact with temperature to affect species’ future success.This study evaluates thermal relationships with species performance in size-structured communities of aquatic ectotherms. The smaller salamander species performed better at warmer temperatures, but competitive relationships minimized this trend. Temperature is correlated with better performance in some ectothermic species, but this relationship is conditional within the community context.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:10:32.026088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12342
       
  • Adverse effects of artificial illumination on bat drinking activity
    • Authors: D. Russo; L. Cistrone, N. Libralato, C. Korine, G. Jones, L. Ancillotto
      Abstract: Artificial illumination at night (ALAN) alters many aspects of animal behaviour. Commuting and foraging bats have been found to be affected by ALAN, but no study has yet addressed the impact of lighting on drinking activity, despite its critical importance for bats. We experimentally illuminated cattle troughs used by drinking bats at four forest sites in Italy, and compared drinking activity and foraging activity under lit and dark conditions. We predicted that (1) the number of bat species and drinking events will be lower under illumination and (2) forest bat species will be more affected than edge specialists. We recorded 2549 drinking events from 12 species or species groups, most of which decreased drinking activity under illumination. The effects of ALAN on drinking were stronger than on foraging. Forest species never drank when the light was on. Edge-foraging species reduced drinking activity while also increasing foraging under lit conditions. We highlight a previously overlooked negative effect of ALAN on bats, whose implications may be locally catastrophic. Given the importance of water sites for both bat foraging and drinking, their illumination should be forbidden, appropriately mitigated or, if necessary, compensated for with the creation of alternative drinking sites.We show that artificial illumination leads to a dramatic decrease in bat drinking activity. We found that lighting affects drinking behaviour more than foraging and that even species usually regarded as light-tolerant exhibit adverse reactions to light when drinking. Illumination of drinking sites may therefore have considerably harmful consequences for bat conservation (Image courtesy of Jens Rydell).
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T23:05:30.745824-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12340
       
  • Body condition as a quantitative tool to guide hand-rearing decisions in
           an endangered seabird
    • Authors: J. M. Morten; N. J. Parsons, C. Schwitzer, M. W. Holderied, R. B. Sherley
      Abstract: The use of wildlife rehabilitation for conservation is growing, but quantitative criteria are rarely used to guide whether and when to remove animals from the wild. Since 2006, large numbers of African penguin Spheniscus demersus chicks have been abandoned annually when adults enter moult with dependent young still in the nest. As part of conservation initiatives for this endangered species, these chicks were collected and hand reared to fledging age. Post-release survival has been well documented; in this study we develop models to predict survival of individuals during rehabilitation with the aim of improving hand-rearing success and guiding the use of scarce resources. For 1455 chicks abandoned between 2008 and 2013, we assessed whether a chick body condition index (BCI) could predict outcome (death or release) and time spent in rearing. In addition, for a subset of 173 chicks in 2012, we assessed whether BCI at admission influenced chick growth rates during rehabilitation and examined whether the use of additional structural measurements and sex provided additional power to predict outcome. Models predicted an 82.9% (95% confidence interval: 73.3–89.5%) release rate for chicks admitted with a BCI>0, the proposed guideline for removal from colonies. This fell below 50% for BCIs 
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T23:20:40.814568-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12338
       
  • Identification of candidate pelagic marine protected areas through a
           seabird seasonal-, multispecific- and extinction risk-based approach
    • Authors: L. Krüger; J. A. Ramos, J. C. Xavier, D. Grémillet, J. González-Solís, Y. Kolbeinsson, T. Militão, J. Navarro, M. V. Petry, R. A. Phillips, I. Ramírez, J. M. Reyes-González, P. G. Ryan, I. A. Sigurðsson, E. Van Sebille, R. M. Wanless, V. H. Paiva
      Abstract: With increasing pressure on the oceans from environmental change, there has been a global call for improved protection of marine ecosystems through the implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs). Here, we used species distribution modelling (SDM) of tracking data from 14 seabird species to identify key marine areas in the southwest Atlantic Ocean, valuing areas based on seabird species occurrence, seasonality and extinction risk. We also compared overlaps between the outputs generated by the SDM and layers representing important human threats (fishing intensity, ship density, plastic and oil pollution, ocean acidification), and calculated loss in conservation value using fishing and ship density as cost layers. The key marine areas were located on the southern Patagonian Shelf, overlapping extensively with areas of high fishing activity, and did not change seasonally, while seasonal areas were located off south and southeast Brazil and overlapped with areas of high plastic pollution and ocean acidification. Non-seasonal key areas were located off northeast Brazil on an area of high biodiversity, and with relatively low human impacts. We found support for the use of seasonal areas depending on the seabird assemblage used, because there was a loss in conservation value for the seasonal compared to the non-seasonal approach when using ‘cost’ layers. Our approach, accounting for seasonal changes in seabird assemblages and their risk of extinction, identified additional candidate areas for incorporation in the network of pelagic MPAs.Marine Protected Areas are one of the main tools used to buffer the impact of environmental change on Marine Ecosystems. In this study we used year-round tracking data of pelagic seabird communities into distribution modelling to detect key areas for conservation in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The key marine areas were located on the southern Patagonian Shelf overlapping extensively with areas of high fishing activity, off south and southeast Brazil overlapping with areas of high plastic pollution and ocean acidification, and off northeast Brazil on an area of high biodiversity with relatively low human impacts. There was a loss in conservation value for seasonal areas off tropical waters when compared to the non-seasonal approach when using 'cost’ layers. Our approach identified additional candidate areas for incorporation in the network of pelagic MPAs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:20:36.281872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12339
       
  • Grain spilled from moving trains create a substantial wildlife attractant
           in protected areas
    • Authors: A. Gangadharan; S. Pollock, P. Gilhooly, A. Friesen, B. Dorsey, C. C. St. Clair
      Abstract: Transportation corridors can attract threatened wildlife via habitat enhancement and foraging opportunities, leading to collisions with vehicles. But wildlife may also be attracted to energy-dense food products that are spilled or discarded from moving vehicles, which is rarely studied. Therefore, we quantified train-spilled attractants in Banff and Yoho National Parks, Canada, where agricultural products (hereafter, grain) are transported along 134 km of railway and may contribute to wildlife mortality. We measured grain deposition from 2012 to 2015 at 19 sites and assessed the performance of three structures developed to measure spilled grain. We then modeled grain deposition with respect to four types of spatial and temporal variables: those related to grain shipment, physical habitat characteristic, train-related characteristics and variables specific to the study site. Grain was spilled at a mean rate of 1.64 g m−2 day−1 (sd = 3.60) from April to October (n = 3 years) and 1.52 (sd = 2.37) from November to March (n = 1 year). Extrapolating annual deposition across the study area yielded enough grain (110 tons) to provide 4.77 × 108 kcal of gross energy, which is equivalent to the average annual caloric needs of 42–54 grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis; the regional population is estimated at 50–73 animals. Much of this energy will not be accessible or available to bears; however, their attraction to it could contribute to rising and unsustainable rates of mortality. Models explained 9–31% of the variance in deposition for each grain type, primarily via coarse temporal variables of shipping rates and month. The absence of more specific predictive variables suggests that mitigation should target broader policies, such as prompt reporting and repair of leaky hopper cars, and limits to train stoppage in protected areas. We encourage more global assessment of the under-studied issue of food attractants spilled by vehicles along transportation corridors.Spillage of wildlife attractants from moving vehicles is an important but little-studied problem in areas where transportation networks pass through wildlife habitat. We demonstrate that this spillage could add up to a major food supplement to wildlife, potentially contributing to risk of wildlife–vehicle collisions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T03:40:39.017919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12336
       
  • Landscape-scale effects of single- and multiple small wind turbines on bat
           activity
    • Authors: J. Minderman; M. H. Gillis, H. F. Daly, K. J. Park
      Abstract: While the effects of wind farms on bats are widely studied, effects of small wind turbines (SWTs, here
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T23:32:25.876592-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12331
       
  • Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as a case study for locating cryptic and
           data-poor marine fishes for conservation
    • Authors: L. Aylesworth; T.-L. Loh, W. Rongrongmuang, A. C. J. Vincent
      Abstract: When seeking to conserve data-poor species, we need to decide how to allocate research effort, especially when threats are substantial and pressing. Our study provides guidance for sampling marine fishes that are particularly difficult to find – those species that are cryptic or rare and or where little information exists on local distribution (data-poor). We used our experience searching for seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) in Thailand to evaluate two search strategies for marine conservation: (1) determining relative abundance and (2) searching for presence/absence with detection probabilities. Our fieldwork indicated that using the presence/absence framework was more likely to lead to inferences that seahorses could be found in the site than when using the relative abundance framework. This realization would support a commonsense approach, where presence/absence with detection probabilities is centrally important to marine conservation planning for cryptic and or data-poor marine species.Our paper addresses the important conservation question of whether zeros in survey data represent true absence of species, especially those known to be rare, depleted or patchily distributed. We use field research on seahorses in Thailand to demonstrate that we can achieve more conservation relevant information if we focus on presence/absence data with detection covariates than if we emphasize analyses of relative abundance and density. The former approach helped identify sites where seahorses were found, altered the conclusions we drew and contributed to marine conservation planning, whereas searches aimed at determining relative abundance did not.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:00:53.52676-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12332
       
  • Can fear conditioning repel California sea lions from fishing
           activities'
    • Authors: Zachary A. Schakner; Thomas Götz, Vincent M. Janik, Daniel T. Blumstein
      Abstract: Marine mammal interactions with fisheries create conflicts that can threaten human safety, economic interests and marine mammal survival. A deterrent that capitalizes on learning mechanisms, like fear conditioning, may enhance success while simultaneously balancing welfare concerns and reduce noise pollution. During fear conditioning, individuals learn the cues that precede the dangerous stimuli, and respond by avoiding the painful situations. We tested the efficacy of fear conditioning using acoustic stimuli for reducing California sea lion Zalophus californianus interactions from two fishing contexts in California, USA; bait barges and recreational fishing vessels. We performed conditioning trials on 24 individual sea lions interacting with bait barges. We tested for acquisition of conditioned fear by pairing a neutral tone with a startle stimulus. Avoidance was strongest in response to the startle stimulus alone, but low when paired with a neutral tone. From actively fishing vessels, we tested for fear conditioning by exposing sea lions to a neutral tone followed by a startle pulse, a startle pulse alone or a no sound control. We conducted playbacks from 146 (including 48 no sound control) stops over two summer fishing seasons (2013, 2014). The startle stimulus decreased surfacing frequency, reduced bait foraging and increased surfacing distance from the vessel while the conditioned stimulus only caused a mild reduction in surfacing frequency with no other behavioral change. Exposing animals to a pair of a conditioned stimulus with a startle pulse did not achieve the intended management outcome. Rather, it generated evidence (in two study contexts) of immediate learning that led to the reduction of the unconditioned response. Taken together, our results suggest that for fear conditioning to be applied as a non-lethal deterrent, careful consideration has to be given to individual behavior, the unconditioned/conditioned responses and the overall management goals.Marine mammal interactions with fisheries create conflicts that can threaten human safety, economic interests and marine mammal survival. Using fear conditioning may enhance deterrent success while simultaneously balancing welfare concerns and reduce noise pollution because individuals learn the cues that precede the dangerous stimuli, and respond by avoiding the painful situations. We tested the efficacy of fear conditioning using acoustic stimuli for reducing California sea lion Zalophus californianus interactions in two fishing contexts in California, USA; bait barges and recreational fishing vessels. Exposing animals to a pair of a conditioned stimulus with a startle pulse did not achieve the intended management outcome. Rather, it generated evidence (in two study contexts) of immediate learning that led to the reduction of the unconditioned response.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T00:35:43.911152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12329
       
  • ‘The early bird catches the nest’: possible competition between scops
           owls and ring-necked parakeets
    • Authors: E. Mori; L. Ancillotto, M. Menchetti, D. Strubbe
      Abstract: Competition for critical resources is one of the key mechanisms through which invasive species impact on native communities. Among birds, the widely introduced ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri locally affects cavity-nesting communities through competition for suitable tree cavities, although it remains unclear to what extent such competition translates into population declines of native species. Here, we studied the potential for nest site competition between ring-necked parakeets and the native scops owl Otus scops, a small nocturnal migratory raptor, by comparing the spatial distribution of the nest site locations of the raptor before (2002) and after (2015) the parakeet invasion. Pre-invasion nesting sites of scops owls (2002) strongly coincided with those selected by ring-necked parakeets, but although both parakeet and scops owl populations increased during the study period, this was no longer true for 2015. Ring-necked parakeets took over several cavities formerly occupied by scops owls, and land-use data suggest that because of the higher overall breeding densities in 2015, scops owls were forced to occupy suboptimal breeding habitats to minimize nest site competition with invasive parakeets. Ring-necked parakeets start breeding early in the season, a behaviour enabling them to secure the best nest sites first, before the owls return from their wintering grounds. Our study highlights that locally observed competition not necessarily impacts on population dynamics of competing species and thus warns against uncritical extrapolation of smaller scale studies for assessing invasive species risks at larger spatial scales. Nonetheless, given the increasing number of studies demonstrating its competitive capacities, monitoring of ring-necked parakeet populations is prudent and mitigation measures (such as mounting of man-made nest-boxes, which are used by scops owls, but not by parakeets) may be justified when the parakeets are likely to invade areas harbouring cavity-nesters of conservation concern.Before the invasion of ring-necked parakeets, scops owls occupied a number of breeding sites located within urban parks and green areas within the city of Follonica (Southern Tuscany). After the invasion, ring-necked parakeets took over several cavities formerly occupied by owls, forcing them to breed in suboptimal areas to avoid competition with alien parrots. Locally observed competition may occur without affecting population size of native species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T00:35:26.412474-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12334
       
  • An assessment of conflict areas between alien and native species richness
           of terrestrial vertebrates on a macro-ecological scale in a Mediterranean
           hotspot
    • Authors: A. J. Carpio; J. A. Barasona, J. Guerrero-Casado, J. Oteros, F. S. Tortosa, P. Acevedo
      Abstract: Understanding how the diversity of invasive species is geographically distributed and identifying the major drivers of that pattern is a relevant challenge as regards invasion biology. The aim of this paper was, therefore, to identify and characterize those areas colonized by a high number of alien species as a means to provide directional indications that can be used to minimize the potential negative effects that the alien species may have on host ecosystems. This is done by applying spatially explicit predictive modeling in order to explain the diversity of vertebrate alien species in Spain. The relative importance of the different factors was assessed using variation partitioning. Our results showed that the main factor as regards predicting the distribution of alien species was the anthropogenic variable, and that this was followed by abiotic variables. The other significant predictor of alien species was the number of native species, which had a positive relationship with the number of alien species. This accord with the ‘the rich get richer’ acceptance hypothesis, which predicts a higher number of alien species in areas with high native species diversity. In this study, we detected actual conflict areas (ACAs), which have high-medium values for the number of both native and alien species. Many of the ACAs identified some overlap with protected areas, which further aggravate the problem as these areas are often the home to endangered species which may be adversely affected by the emergence of alien species. This signifies that eradication, control or mitigation programs should be carried out to reduce the undesirable impact of alien species in these areas. However, other areas of conflict also appeared in unprotected areas near to big cities, where monitoring and preventive measures are necessary to avoid the release of new species and their subsequent spread.We established the areas that had a higher risk of being colonized by alien species. We found that antropic and ecogeographical variables were the main factors to explain richness of alien species. Urban land uses and the distances to big cities were key features to predict the distribution of alien species. We also identified potential conflict areas, which have higher values for the number of both native and predicted alien species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T23:15:31.812698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12330
       
  • Which amphibians should qualify for the ark?
    • Authors: R. A. Griffiths
      Pages: 120 - 121
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:42:29.647759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12348
       
  • A global problem requires a global multifaceted solution
    • Authors: B. Tapley; C. J. Michaels, K. Johnson, D. Field
      Pages: 122 - 123
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:42:29.124469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12349
       
  • No conservation without representation? Linked decisions and priority
           setting in amphibian ex situ programmes
    • Authors: S. Canessa
      Pages: 124 - 125
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:42:27.772859-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12347
       
  • Asking the right questions about the role of zoos in amphibian
           conservation
    • Authors: T. E. Martin; A. Biega, D. Greenberg, A. O. Mooers
      Pages: 126 - 127
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:42:27.293735-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12351
       
  • Erratum for ‘Could biodiversity loss have increased Australia's bushfire
           threat?’ and ‘The implications of biodiversity loss for the dynamics
           of wildlife in Australia’
    • Pages: 213 - 213
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:42:26.867136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12345
       
  • The impact of lions on the demography and ecology of endangered African
           wild dogs
    • Authors: R. J. Groom; K. Lannas, C. R. Jackson
      Abstract: It has long been recognized that superior carnivores can impact on the demography and ecology of smaller members of the guild, although exact mechanisms remain unclear. Here we use original data from a unique natural experiment to study some of the mechanisms by which African lions Panthera leo impact on African wild dogs Lycaon pictus. Using a study site where wild dogs outnumbered lions for several years prior to lion population recovery, we aimed to investigate whether or not, and by which means, wild dog populations are regulated and influenced by lions. We used 38 pack-years of demographic and behavioural data across two 4-year periods where lion density differed 20-fold (pre-lion era: 1996–1999 and lion era: 2010–2013) to assess how lions may affect wild dog pack size and age structure, litter size and pup survival (n = 329 pups), as well as den site selection (n = 46 dens). Pack size was significantly greater during the pre-lion era. The pup to adult ratio was lower during the lion era and the change in pack composition was directly attributable to significantly greater lion-induced pup mortality. We also demonstrate a behavioural shift, with locations selected for the vulnerable denning period being in more rugged terrain and in areas with lower prey densities during the lion era, as compared with the pre-lion era. Lower adult recruitment into a population of an obligate cooperative breeder like the African wild dog can have complex consequences, including on feeding and defence of young, and mate finding.This paper presents data from a unique natural experiment to help elucidate the mechanisms by which a (vulnerable) large carnivore (lions) impacts an endangered mesopredator (African wild dogs). This has important management implications for both species, as well as relevance to the mesopredator suppression debate in general, particularly for social species where recruitment is impacted by the superior carnivore.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T23:15:28.564006-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12328
       
  • Local factors mediate the response of biodiversity to land use on two
           African mountains
    • Authors: M. Jung; S. L. L. Hill, P. J. Platts, R. Marchant, S. Siebert, A. Fournier, F. B. Munyekenye, A. Purvis, N. D. Burgess, T. Newbold
      Abstract: Land-use change is the single biggest driver of biodiversity loss in the tropics. Biodiversity models can be useful tools to inform policymakers and conservationists of the likely response of species to anthropogenic pressures, including land-use change. However, such models generalize biodiversity responses across wide areas and many taxa, potentially missing important characteristics of particular sites or clades. Comparisons of biodiversity models with independently collected field data can help us understand the local factors that mediate broad-scale responses. We collected independent bird occurrence and abundance data along two elevational transects in Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania and the Taita Hills, Kenya. We estimated the local response to land use and compared our estimates with modelled local responses based on a large database of many different taxa across Africa. To identify the local factors mediating responses to land use, we compared environmental and species assemblage information between sites in the independent and African-wide datasets. Bird species richness and abundance responses to land use in the independent data followed similar trends as suggested by the African-wide biodiversity model, however the land-use classification was too coarse to capture fully the variability introduced by local agricultural management practices. A comparison of assemblage characteristics showed that the sites on Kilimanjaro and the Taita Hills had higher proportions of forest specialists in croplands compared to the Africa-wide average. Local human population density, forest cover and vegetation greenness also differed significantly between the independent and Africa-wide datasets. Biodiversity models including those variables performed better, particularly in croplands, but still could not accurately predict the magnitude of local species responses to most land uses, probably because local features of the land management are still missed. Overall, our study demonstrates that local factors mediate biodiversity responses to land use and cautions against applying biodiversity models to local contexts without prior knowledge of which factors are locally relevant.Biodiversity models can be useful tools to predict species responses to human land use, yet they often generalize over many local factors in order to be broadly applicable. We compared estimates from an African-wide biodiversity model with new independent data. Our results show that overall biodiversity responds similarly to land use in both datasets, yet we found that certain factors of local land-use systems can lead to mismatches if they do not conform to African-wide averages. We make recommendations about additional factors to include in biodiversity models and their use in new local contexts.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T23:10:28.260746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12327
       
  • Modeling landscape connectivity for bobcats using expert-opinion and
           empirically derived models: how well do they work'
    • Authors: G. C. Reed; J. A. Litvaitis, C. Callahan, R. P. Carroll, M. K. Litvaitis, D. J. A. Broman
      Abstract: Efforts to retain ecological connectivity have become a conservation priority to permit animal movements within home ranges, allow dispersal between populations and provide opportunities for animals to respond to climate change. We used expert-opinion and empirically derived models to investigate landscape connectivity at two spatial scales among bobcats Lynx rufus in New Hampshire, USA. Paths of marked bobcats were compared to random movements in the context of program CircuitScape. At the local scale (within home ranges), the empirical model (based on observations and telemetry locations) performed better than the expert-opinion model. At the regional scale (state of New Hampshire), both models identified urban development as a potential barrier; however, the models differed in predicting how specific natural features (e.g. mountains and large water bodies) and some roads affected bobcat movements. When compared with bobcat population structure based on genetic information, the expert-opinion model overestimated the influence of roads. Alternatively, the empirical model overestimated the influence of snow. Our findings indicate that the empirically based resistance model was better at describing landscape-scale effects, whereas the expert-opinion model provided a good understanding of gene flow at a regional scale. As such, both models may be considered complementary. Bobcats were sensitive to disruptions imposed by habitat fragmentation and thus may be a suitable focal species for evaluating the consequences of land-use changes on the regional suite of mesocarnivores.We used expert-opinion and empirically derived models to investigate landscape connectivity at two spatial scales among bobcats Lynx rufus. Paths of marked bobcats were compared to random movements. At the local scale (within home ranges), the empirical model performed better than the expert-opinion model. At the regional scale, both models identified urban development as a potential barrier; however, the models differed in predicting how specific natural features or some roads affected bobcat movements. When compared to bobcat population structure based on genetic information, the expert-opinion model overestimated the influence of roads, whereas the empirical model overestimated the influence of snow. Therefore, both models may be considered complementary.
      PubDate: 2016-12-18T02:05:41.307747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12325
       
  • Biologgers reveal post-release behavioural impairments of freshwater
           turtles following interactions with fishing nets
    • Authors: L. F. G. Gutowsky; L. J. Stoot, N. A. Cairns, J. D. Thiem, J. W. Brownscombe, A. J. Danylchuk, G. Blouin-Demers, S. J. Cooke
      Abstract: Bycatch, the incidental capture of non-target organisms, occurs in most commercial fisheries. Although immediate bycatch mortality is frequently documented in fisheries, detrimental sub-lethal effects and potential post-release mortality remain largely unknown despite the potential population-level consequences. Turtles are captured as bycatch and their populations are vulnerable to slight increases in adult mortality. In eastern Ontario, turtles are frequently captured as bycatch in a small-scale freshwater commercial fyke-net fishery and, currently, the fate of discarded turtles is unknown. We wished to determine the effect of fyke-net capture on post-release survival and behaviour in eastern musk turtles Sternotherus odoratus and painted turtles Chrysemys picta. We used biologgers equipped with tri-axial acceleration, depth and temperature sensors to document locomotor activity, vertical distribution, and temperature use of entrapped (exposed to forced submergence for 4 h) and control turtles upon release. Overall dynamic body acceleration was used as a measure of post-release activity for the first hour, first 6 h, and first 48 h. Post-release mortality was not detected. Turtles subjected to entrapment exhibited lower activity during the first 6 h following release, and their vertical distribution and temperature use differed in the first 2 h following release, but these effects disappeared after 48 h, suggesting turtles have the ability to recover. Quantifying the post-release mortality and sub-lethal effects of entrapment is important for estimating the population effects associated with bycatch.Bycatch, the incidental capture and discard of non-target organisms, occurs in most commercial fisheries. Although immediate bycatch mortality is frequently documented in fisheries, detrimental sub-lethal effects and potential post-release mortality remain largely unknown despite the potential population-level consequences. In eastern Ontario, turtles are frequently captured as bycatch in a small-scale freshwater commercial fyke-net fishery and, currently, the fate of discarded turtles is unknown. Musk and painted turtles subjected to simulated bycatch exhibit lower activity during the first 6 h following release, and their vertical distribution and temperature use differ in the first 2 h following release, but these effects disappeared after 48 h, suggesting turtles have the ability to recover.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07T07:37:36.891971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12323
       
  • Costs are key when reintroducing threatened species to multiple release
           sites
    • Authors: K. J. Helmstedt; H. P. Possingham
      Abstract: Threatened species with reduced and fragmented habitats can be reintroduced into their historical ranges to establish new populations. Multiple sites might be an option for reintroductions; therefore, managers must determine when to open sites (e.g. establish infrastructure and improve conditions), release individuals into those sites, and eventually cease releases. Careful planning of this schedule, incorporating the cost of actions, is imperative at the outset of a program. To address this challenge, we consider a reintroduction plan under different cost scenarios for three potential reintroduction sites. In particular, we investigate the implications of having either no ongoing site-management cost, a financial ongoing site-management cost, or a demographic cost of continuous releases. We couple population and management models to find a schedule that maximizes total abundance over time of bridled nail-tail wallaby Onychogalea fraenata (released in fixed numbers each breeding season from a stable source population) using stochastic dynamic programming. We find that the type of ongoing cost influences the structure of the optimal schedule. If active release sites cost nothing to maintain, there is no incentive to cease releases. In that case, the optimal schedule is to open sites sequentially, then release individuals to the smallest active population for the entire length of the program. A financial cost for managing active sites alters this result; once all sites are open and have populations of a critical threshold size, sites should be closed sequentially. A higher mortality rate (demographic cost) at active compared to inactive sites completely changes the structure of the optimal strategy. Instead of opening all sites in the first few management stages, only one site should be active any time to reduce the demographic impact of releases. Our general results provide a guide for planning future reintroduction programs and illustrate the importance of categorizing and understanding ongoing costs for reintroduction planning.Multiple sites might be options for threatened species reintroductions; therefore, managers must determine when to prepare sites for new populations, release individuals into those sites, and eventually cease releases. We find optimal release schedules for bridled nailtail wallabies (Onychogalea fraenata) with three different cost scenarios: no ongoing site-management cost, a financial ongoing site-management cost, and a demographic cost of continuous releases. Our general results provide a guide for planning future reintroduction programs and illustrate the importance of categorizing and understanding ongoing costs for reintroduction planning.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T23:20:24.928488-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12319
       
  • Social implications of a colony collapse in a highly structured vertebrate
           species (long-tailed bat, Chalinolobus tuberculatus)
    • Authors: J. M. Monks; C. F. J. O'Donnell
      Abstract: Strong social structuring within a population can confer fitness advantages to group members, but may also affect the ability of a population to recover from local extinctions. Opportunities to evaluate the dynamics of the collapse of a sub-population on a vertebrate population in the wild are rare, requiring a crash during a long-term study of marked individuals. Endangered long-tailed bats Chalinolobus tuberculatus, which are members of the widespread family Vespertilionidae, live in closed social groups as evidenced by non-random associations of individuals and a low degree of mixing among colonies. During a 19-year mark-recapture study of long-tailed bats in the Eglinton Valley, New Zealand, one colony of bats collapsed over a 2-year period in which numbers of introduced predators were high. We investigated individual- and colony-level implications of this local extinction event. Survivors (11 known) were assimilated into the neighbouring colony during and immediately after the collapse, but retained higher association rates with individuals from their former colony. The neighbouring colony gradually extended its roosting range into habitat formerly occupied by the extinct colony. Acceptance of individuals into other colonies demonstrates resilience of highly structured vertebrate populations to local crashes.Strong social structuring within a population can confer fitness advantages to group members, but may also impact on the ability of a population to recover from local extinctions. We used a 19-year mark-recapture dataset of long-tailed bats, in which one colony collapsed during a period of high predator numbers, to investigate the social impacts of a colony collapse. The 11 known survivors were accepted into the neighbouring colony, demonstrating resilience of highly structured vertebrate populations to local crashes.
      PubDate: 2016-11-28T23:17:22.35064-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12324
       
  • Translocation and hand-rearing result in short-tailed albatrosses
           returning to breed in the Ogasawara Islands 80 years after extirpation
    • Authors: T. Deguchi; F. Sato, M. Eda, H. Izumi, H. Suzuki, R. M. Suryan, E. W. Lance, H. Hasegawa, K. Ozaki
      Abstract: Restoration or establishment of colonies using translocation and hand-rearing can be an effective tool for conserving birds. However, well-designed post-release evaluation studies for long-lived species are rarely implemented. We investigated the attendance and breeding attempts of hand-reared short-tailed albatross (STAL) Phoebastria albatrus chicks (n = 69) translocated to a historic breeding island in the Ogasawara Islands, 350 km from the source colony, for 8 consecutive years after the first translocation. Thirty-nine percent of hand-reared birds (n = 27) returned to the translocation site at least once per breeding season, of which 67% (n = 18) also visited the natal island. The number of hand-reared birds returning each year was lower at the translocation site (mean: 0.3–2.3 birds per day) versus the natal island (0.4–3.5 birds per day). The first breeding attempt occurred 5 years after the first translocation. Three pairs (producing three chicks) recruited to the translocation site or neighboring islands and five pairs (producing nine chicks) recruited to the natal island by 8 years after the first translocation. Every hand-reared bird that raised a chick paired with a naturally reared bird. At the translocation site and neighboring islands, two hand-reared birds paired with a mate from the natal island and a breeding colony 1850 km away, respectively, while the parents of the third chick were unknown. Their breeding at the translocation region was observed among conspecific social attractants (decoys, audio playback; one pair) or congeners (two pairs). Our preliminary results suggest that even though more translocated and hand-reared albatrosses visited and recruited to their natal island compared to the translocation site, the early re-establishment of breeding by short-tailed albatrosses in the Ogasawara Islands 80 years after extirpation would not have occurred without the initial translocation effort. Further study is needed, however, to fully understand formation of breeding colonies beyond conspecific attraction and philopatry.We investigated the attendance and breeding attempts of hand-reared short-tailed albatross chicks translocated to a historic breeding island in the Ogasawara Islands, 350 km from the natal island, for 8 consecutive years after the first translocation. Thirty-nine per cent of hand-reared birds returned to the translocation site at least once per breeding season, of which 67% also visited the natal island. Our preliminary results suggest that even though more translocated and hand-reared albatrosses visited and recruited to their natal island compared to the translocation site, the early re-establishment of breeding by short-tailed albatrosses in the Ogasawara Islands 80 years after extirpation would not have occurred without the initial translocation effort.
      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:25:32.272417-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12322
       
  • When the neighbourhood goes bad: can endangered black robins adjust
           nest-site selection in response to the risk of an invasive predator'
    • Authors: C. Lawrence; D. Paris, J. V. Briskie, M. Massaro
      Abstract: The introduction of exotic predators into new areas has had significant impacts on naïve prey species, which initially lack behavioural mechanisms to avoid predation. Understanding a species’ ability to respond appropriately to novel threats may inform in situ management options for threatened island populations. In the presence of nest predators, physical characteristics of the nest site can influence the likelihood that eggs or chicks are lost to predation. Some birds that evolved under high nest predation pressure show predictable changes in nest-site selection following nest predation, but the ability of naïve island birds to alter nest-site decisions based on experience with novel nest predators has not been well studied. We examined nest-site choices of re-nesting Chatham Island black robins Petroica traversi following nest predation by invasive European starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Robins whose first nests were depredated re-nested in a new location that was significantly lower to the ground than pairs whose first nests were lost through other causes. As predation risk increases with nest height, the lower placement of re-nests is consistent with a movement towards safer nest sites. The cause of nest failure did not influence the choice of substrate for a replacement nest, nor did individual pairs re-nest further away from depredated nests. Changes in nest-site selection did not carry over into subsequent nesting seasons. Our results suggest that some evolutionarily naïve species may be capable of assessing immediate risk through individual experience with novel predators, and modifying their nest-site decisions accordingly.Chatham Island black robins are subject to nest predation by invasive European starlings. Robins re-nest in safer sites following predation of an earlier nest, suggesting robins are showing adaptive behavioural responses to this novel nest predator.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T02:01:06.555169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12318
       
  • Rebuilding beluga stocks in West Greenland
    • Authors: M. P. Heide-Jørgensen; R. G. Hansen, S. Fossette, N. H. Nielsen, D. L. Borchers, H. Stern, L. Witting
      Abstract: Decisions about sustainable exploitation levels of marine resources are often based on inadequate data, but are nevertheless required for practical purposes. We describe one exception where abundance estimates spanning 30 years and catch data spanning more than 40 years were used in a Bayesian assessment model of belugas Delphinapterus leucas off West Greenland. The model was updated with data from a visual aerial survey on the wintering ground in 2012. Methods that take account of stochastic animal availability by using independent estimates of forward and perpendicular sighting distances were used to estimate beluga abundance. A model that appears to be robust to the presence of a few large groups yielded an estimate of 7456 belugas (cv = 0.44), similar to a conventional distance-sampling estimate. A mark–recapture distance analysis that corrects for perception and availability bias estimated the abundance to be 9072 whales (cv = 0.32). Increasing distance of beluga sightings from shore was correlated with decreasing sea ice cover, suggesting that belugas expand their distribution offshore (i.e. westward in this context) with the reduction of coastal sea ice. A model with high (0.98) adult survival estimated a decline from 18 600 (90% CI: 13 400, 26 000) whales in 1970 to 8000 (90% CI: 5830, 11 200) in 2004. The decline was probably a result of a period with exceptionally large catches. Following the introduction of catch limits in 2004, the model projects an increase to 11 600 (90% CI: 6760, 17 600) individuals in 2020 (assuming annual removals of 294 belugas after 2014). If the annual removal level is fixed at 300 individuals, a low-survival (0.97) model predicts a 75% probability of an increasing population during 2015–2020. Reduced removal rates due to catch limits and the more offshore, less accessible distribution of the whales are believed to be responsible for the initial signs of population recovery.Beluga whales are hunted in many Arctic communities and it is necessary to promote a scientific basis for establishing sustainable exploitation levels. This study utilizes a long-term time series of abundance estimates and data on sea ice coverage to assess future harvest levels of belugas in West Greenland.
      PubDate: 2016-11-11T00:30:29.628006-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12315
       
  • The feral pig as prey for jaguars: A reply to the ‘Letter from the
           Conservation Front Line’ by Verdade et al.
    • Authors: C. A. Rosa; F. Puertas, M. Galetti
      PubDate: 2016-10-31T00:25:27.771532-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12312
       
  • The vacant planting: limited influence of habitat restoration on patch
           colonization patterns by arboreal marsupials in south-eastern Australia
    • Authors: D. B. Lindenmayer; A. Mortelliti, K. Ikin, J. Pierson, M. Crane, D. Michael, S. Okada
      Abstract: Many key questions remain unresolved about how biodiversity responds to temporal increases in native vegetation cover resulting from extensive restoration efforts. We quantified occupancy and colonization probability of old growth, regrowth and planted woodland patches by arboreal marsupials within Australian agricultural landscapes subject to woodland restoration over an 11-year period. Our analyses focused on the common brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula and common ringtail possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus. We found strong evidence of a gradient in occupancy levels ranging from highest in old growth woodland, approaching zero in plantings, with regrowth woodland intermediate between these two broad types of vegetation structure. Plantings were not occupied by either species at the outset of our investigation and were rarely colonized throughout the subsequent 10 years. We hypothesize that a lack of shelter sites in large old hollow-bearing trees is one of the key factors limiting the occurrence of plantings by cavity-dependent arboreal marsupials, suggesting a lag between planting establishment and the time required for plantings to become suitable habitat. We found the probability of colonization was positively related to the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape. Unexpectedly, colonization probability was not influenced by a temporal increase in woody vegetation cover surrounding a patch. A paucity of relationships between patch colonization and the temporal change in vegetation cover may be explained by the fact that most of the increased vegetation cover in our study landscapes over the past decade has resulted from establishment of plantings which are generally not suitable nesting habitat for arboreal marsupials. Our findings have key management implications such as emphasizing the value of old growth woodland for arboreal marsupials and of targeting restoration efforts around old growth and regrowth woodland patches, and the flawed notion of biodiversity offsets that allow replantings to compensate for clearing old growth woodland.Remnant native vegetation cover in Australian temperate agricultural landscapes includes old growth woodland, regrowth woodland and planted (restored) woodland. We quantified occupancy and colonization probability of these kinds of woodland by arboreal marsupials over an 11-year period. Occupancy levels were highest in old growth, approached zero in plantings, with regrowth intermediate between these two vegetation types. Plantings were not occupied at the outset of our investigation and only rarely colonized throughout the subsequent 10 years, most probably as a result of a lack of shelter sites in large old hollow-bearing trees. The probability of colonization was positively related to the amount of vegetation cover in the landscape surrounding a patch, but not influenced by a temporal increase in woody vegetation cover. Our findings emphasize the value of old growth woodland for arboreal marsupials and suggest that restoration efforts be targeted around old growth and regrowth woodland patches.
      PubDate: 2016-10-31T00:05:27.969758-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12316
       
  • Predicting landscape connectivity for the Asian elephant in its largest
           remaining subpopulation
    • Authors: J.-P. Puyravaud; S. A. Cushman, P. Davidar, D. Madappa
      Abstract: Landscape connectivity between protected areas is crucial for the conservation of megafauna. But often, corridor identification relies on expert knowledge that is subjective and not spatially synoptic. Landscape analysis allows generalization of expert knowledge when satellite tracking or genetic data are not available. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in southern India supports the largest wild populations of the endangered Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Current understanding of connectivity in this region is based on corridors identified by experts, which are not empirically validated and incongruent with each other. To more rigorously assess population connectivity for the Asian elephant, we evaluated a combination of three resistance layers and three dispersal abilities. The resistance models were based on the combined contributions of land cover, topographical slope, elevation, roads and buildings. A spatially explicit connectivity modeling tool predicted optimal movement corridors as a function of factorial least-cost routes across the resistance maps. A resistant kernel approach produced maps of the expected frequency of elephant movement through each cell to define core areas. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of resistance and dispersal. We selected the resistance surface and dispersal ability that produced the highest correlation with observed elephant densities. We evaluated the optimality of expert corridors by using a path randomization method. Eleven out of 24 expert corridors had connectivity values significantly higher than expected by chance, while only two corridors were spatially congruent between expert teams. Areas with the highest connectivity corresponded well with priority areas identified by conservationists and elephant density predicted by the resistant kernel connectivity model correlated significantly with surveys (Spearman's ρ = 0.85, n = 500, P ≪ 0.001). The results provide the first rigorous, spatially synoptic and empirically validated evaluation of the connectivity of the elephant population across the reserve.To better assess population connectivity for the Asian elephant in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, we evaluated a combination of three resistance layers and three dispersal abilities with a connectivity modeling tool over the landscape. We evaluated the optimality of 24 expert corridors and obtained a much better agreement between the calculated corridors and the expert corridors than the expert teams achieved. Our results provide the first rigorous, spatially synoptic and empirically validated evaluation of the connectivity of the elephant population across the reserve.
      PubDate: 2016-10-25T03:25:40.096411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12314
       
  • Fishers' knowledge as an information source to investigate bycatch of
           marine mammals in the South China Sea
    • Authors: M. Liu; M. Lin, S. T. Turvey, S. Li
      Abstract: Bycatch mortality is a significant driver of marine mammal population declines. However, there is little information available on patterns or magnitude of bycatch mortality in many heavily fished Asian marine systems such as the South China Sea (SCS). To address this limited knowledge base, we conducted interviews with fishers to gather local ecological knowledge on marine mammal bycatch around Hainan Island, China. Gillnets were the primary fishing gear used in local fisheries, and were also responsible for the majority of reported marine mammal bycatch events in recent decades. Bycatch events were reported from all seasons but were most frequent in spring (38.4%), which might relate to seasonal variation in fishing activities. The spatial pattern of relative bycatch densities for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Indo-Pacific finless porpoises and unidentified small dolphins varied around Hainan and neighbouring waters. A substantial proportion of informants (36.1 and 9.2% respectively) reported that they have eaten or sold marine mammal meat, demonstrating the continued existence of cultural practices of consuming marine mammals on Hainan. Responses of fishers to bycatch events were dependent both on their existing attitudes and perceptions towards marine mammals and on other sociocultural factors. Almost half of informants agreed that marine mammal populations in the SCS have decreased. Declines were thought by informants to have been caused by overfishing, water pollution and vessel collisions, with bycatch responsible for further declines in dolphins.Using fishers’ knowledge as an information source, by-catch of marine mammals in the South China Sea were investigated, including which fishing gears caused by-catch, spatial pattern and potential seasonality of by-catch, and possible relation between by-catch and fishing activities, as well as fishers’ attitudes and behaviors towards by-catch, and they perceptions about marine mammals. Based on these findings, we provide new baseline data on regional fishing methods and activities, associated geographic and seasonal patterns of by-catch for different marine mammal species around Hainan, and patterns and drivers of other interactions between marine mammals and fishers, all of which will strengthen the evidence-base for marine mammal conservation and management in the South China Sea.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T01:25:30.24654-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12304
       
  • Mismatch between goals and the scale of actions constrains adaptive
           carnivore management: the case of the wolverine in Sweden
    • Authors: M. Aronsson; J. Persson
      Abstract: Efficient conservation of wide-ranging carnivores requires that adaptive management consider the varying ecological and societal conditions within the entire range of a population. In northern Europe, large carnivore management has to balance carnivore conservation and maintaining the indigenous reindeer-herding culture. Wolverine Gulo gulo monitoring and management in Sweden is currently focused on alpine reindeer husbandry areas where wolverine abundance and associated depredation conflicts have been highest. However, this focus ignores a potential southwards population expansion because current monitoring relies on snow-based tracking methods that are not applicable outside northern alpine areas. Thus, in this study we: (1) used available monitoring data from 1996 to 2014 in Sweden to assess wolverine distribution trends in relation to national management goals, and (2) evaluate the current monitoring protocol against the use of camera stations as an alternative, snow-independent, method for detecting wolverine presence at the southern periphery of its distribution. We show that the wolverine population in Sweden has expanded considerably into the boreal forest landscape, and colonized areas without reindeer husbandry and persistent spring snow cover. The latter indicates a less strict relationship between wolverine distribution and snow cover than previously hypothesized. Current management continues to use a monitoring protocol that is only adapted to high-conflict alpine areas, and is not adapting to changing conditions in the population range, which creates a problematic scale mismatch. Consequently, national management decisions are currently based on incomplete population information, as roughly a third of wolverine's range is not included in official population estimates, which could have detrimental consequences for conflict mitigation and conservation efforts. This illustrates that an important key to successful carnivore conservation is flexible management that considers the entire range of conditions at the appropriate regional and temporal scales under which carnivores, environment and people interact.We show how wolverines in Sweden colonize areas with low conflicts and poor snow cover where they are not monitored. Instead, management focuses on high-conflict areas and dismisses an opportunity to implement sound population-level management. This illustrates the importance of flexible management that considers the entire range of conditions under which carnivores, people and the environment interact, because the solution may be found outside areas with high management focus.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T23:25:26.733456-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12310
       
  • Forecasting disturbance effects on wildlife: tolerance does not mitigate
           effects of increased recreation on wildlands
    • Authors: B. P. Pauli; R. J. Spaul, J. A. Heath
      Abstract: There is widespread evidence that human disturbance affects wildlife behavior, but long-term population effects can be difficult to quantify. Individual-based models (IBMs) offer a way to assess population-level, aggregate effects of disturbance on wildlife. We created Tolerance in Raptors and the Associated Impacts of Leisure Sports (TRAILS), an IBM that simulates interactions between recreationists and nesting raptors, to assess the effect of human disturbance on raptor populations and test if changes in tolerance to disturbance could mitigate negative consequences. We used behavioral and demographic data from golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos, and recreation activity data to parameterize TRAILS and simulate the effects of pedestrian and off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation on the likelihood of territory occupancy, egg-laying and nest survival of eagles over 100 years. We modeled eagle populations in the absence of recreation, with stationary 2014 levels of recreation, and with annual increases in recreation. Furthermore, we simulated eagles that developed tolerance to disturbance randomly, through natural selection, habitat imprinting, or habituation. In the presence of recreation, simulated eagle populations had significantly lower and more variable growth rates, population sizes and territory occupancy. Annual increases in recreation of 1–2% greatly exacerbated population declines. Though both habituation and natural selection lead to more tolerant eagle populations, neither buffered eagle populations from detrimental effects of recreation. These results suggest that long-lived species that experience encroachment from human activities may not adapt to human disturbance at a rate that compensates for changes in disturbance. This project illustrates the usefulness of IBMs for evaluating non-lethal threats, forecasting population changes and testing theoretical feedbacks in system processes.We created TRAILS (Tolerance in Raptors and the Associated Impacts of Leisure Sports), an individual-based model that simulates the interaction between recreationists and nesting raptors, to assess the effects of human disturbance on raptor populations and test if changes in tolerance to disturbance could mitigate negative consequences of increased recreation activity. We used behavioral and demographic data from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and recreation activity data to parameterize TRAILS and simulate the likelihood of territory occupancy, egg-laying, and nest survival of eagles in the absence of recreation, with stationary 2014 levels of recreation, and with annual increases in recreation. Recreation activity significantly lowered the population growth rates, population sizes, and territory occupancy of eagles and no simulated method of tolerance acquisition buffered eagle populations from the detrimental effects of recreational disturbance.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T23:05:26.868354-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12308
       
  • Defaunation and biomass collapse of mammals in the largest Atlantic forest
           remnant
    • Authors: M. Galetti; C. R. Brocardo, R. A. Begotti, L. Hortenci, F. Rocha-Mendes, C. S. S. Bernardo, R. S. Bueno, R. Nobre, R. S. Bovendorp, R. M. Marques, F. Meirelles, S. K. Gobbo, G. Beca, G. Schmaedecke, T. Siqueira
      Abstract: Large continuous rainforests are the main hope for sustaining the population of large-bodied vertebrates that cannot cope with fragmentation or unsustainable hunting. The Brazilian Atlantic forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot and although highly fragmented, it still contains large forest patches that may be important for the conservation of mammals that require large areas. Here, we estimated species richness, density and biomass of medium- and large-sized mammals along the largest remnant of the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil (the Serra do Mar bioregion), an estimated area of 8000 km2. We recorded 44 species based on 4090 km of diurnal line transects and camera traps, animal tracks and interviews in 11 continental regions and two large land-bridge islands. We found high levels of similarity in mammalian composition between pairs of sites in the continental forest sites (0.84–1), but much lower similarity between pairs from the continental forest sites and the two large land-bridge islands (0.29–0.74) indicating potential local extinctions or poor dispersal of continental mammals to these islands. In addition, we found that the density and biomass varied 16- and 70-fold among sites, respectively. Mammalian biomass declined by up to 98% in intensively hunted sites and was 53-fold lower than in other Neotropical non-fragmented forests. Although this large forest remnant is able to maintain a high diversity of medium- and large-bodied mammal species, their low density and biomass may affect the long-term persistence of these populations and the ecosystem services they provide.The Brazilian Atlantic forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot and although highly fragmented, it still contains large forest patches that may be important for the conservation of mammals that require large areas. Here we estimated species richness, density and biomass of medium and large sized mammals along the largest remnant of the Atlantic rainforest in Brazil. We found that the density and biomass of mammals varied 16 and 70 fold among sites, respectively. Mammalian biomass declined by up to 98% in intensively hunted sites and was 53 fold lower than in other Neotropical non-fragmented forests. Therefore, we show that hunting is depleting the mammalian biomass in the largest Atlantic forest remnant. Photo: the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) (Pedro Jordano).
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:27:52.517499-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12311
       
  • In aid of (re)discovered species: maximizing conservation insights from
           minimal data
    • Authors: T. A. Brichieri-Colombi; J. M. McPherson, D. J. Sheppard, A. Moehrenschlager
      Abstract: New species discoveries or the rediscovery of species once considered extinct or extirpated is good news, and yet prospects for long-term survival may be bleak if remnant populations are small and isolated. Because (re)discovered species are commonly rare or cryptic, data to inform appropriate conservation actions are usually sparse. We demonstrate how to make the most of available data, using the recent rediscovery in Ghana of sitatunga Tragelaphus spekei as an illustrative case study. Sitatunga were thought extinct in Ghana for over 50 years, but were ‘rediscovered’ by science in Avu Lagoon in 1998. Little is known about this species, especially West African populations, given its cryptic nature and inaccessible wetland habitat. Our approach to maximizing insights given limited data first paired observations of occurrence with landscape characteristics derived from open-access remote sensing data, creating the first ever habitat suitability model for sitatunga. This model then served to: (1) elucidate habitat preferences; (2) assess possible existence and connectivity of remnant populations elsewhere in Ghana; and (3) estimate maximum total and effective population size. Moreover, the timing of occurrence sightings provided insights into behavior. Sitatunga sightings were rare, heavily male-biased and mostly occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. Suitable habitat was limited, suggesting that habitat in and near Avu Lagoon is insufficient to ensure long-term population viability, and the existence of other, connected populations in Ghana is improbable. Without continued protection, and possibly additional interventions to augment population numbers or gene flow, the sitatunga in Avu Lagoon will likely go extinct. Our case study demonstrates the conservation challenges associated with the rediscovery of relict populations, and the utility of applying tools such as habitat suitability models to sparse data. Moreover, our research stresses the need to implement immediate conservation action upon species (re)discoveries to prevent (regional) extinction.Species (re)discoveries often involve small, isolated populations that require urgent conservation interventions despite limited data. We use a case study of the recent rediscovery in Ghana of sitatunga Tragelaphus spekei, a cryptic wetland antelope, to illustrate how even sparse data can yield considerable, conservation-relevant insights. Our approach first paired observations of occurrence with landscape characteristics derived from open-access remote sensing and map data. The resulting habitat suitability model, a first for sitatunga, then served to: (1) elucidate habitat preferences; (2) assess possible existence and connectivity of remnant populations elsewhere in Ghana; and (3) estimate maximum total and effective population size. Our results demonstrate the conservation challenges associated with the rediscovery of relict populations, and the utility of applying tools such as habitat suitability models to sparse data. Moreover, our research stresses the need to implement immediate conservation action upon species (re)discoveries to prevent (regional) extinction.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:22:04.933394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12306
       
  • Toll-like receptor variation in the bottlenecked population of the
           endangered Seychelles warbler
    • Authors: D. L. Gilroy; C. Oosterhout, J. Komdeur, D. S. Richardson
      Abstract: In small populations, drift results in a loss of genetic variation, which reduces adaptive evolutionary potential. Furthermore, the probability of consanguineous mating increases which may result in inbreeding depression. Under certain circumstances, balancing selection can counteract drift and maintain variation at key loci. Identifying such loci is important from a conservation perspective and may provide insight into how different evolutionary forces interact in small populations. Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes play a pivotal role in vertebrate innate immune defence by recognizing invading pathogens. We characterize TLR variation in the Seychelles warbler (SW) Acrocephalus sechellensis, an endangered passerine that recently suffered a population bottleneck. Five of seven TLR loci were polymorphic, with one locus (TLR15) containing four functional variants and showing an excess of heterozygotes. Haplotype-level tests failed to detect selection at these loci, but site-specific tests detected signatures of positive selection within TLR3 and TLR15. After characterizing variation (excluding TLR15) in 5–6 other Acrocephalus species, we found that TLR variation was positively correlated with population size across species and followed the pattern observed at neutral microsatellite loci. The depauperate TLR variation observed suggests that even at important immunity-related loci, balancing selection may only attenuate the overriding effects of drift. However, in the SW, TLR15 appears to be an outlier and warrants further investigation. The low levels of TLR variation may be disadvantageous for the long-term viability of the SW and conservation measures that maximize the retention of the variation should be considered.In small populations, drift can result in a loss of genetic variation which can reduce adaptive evolutionary potential. However, under certain circumstances, balancing selection can counteract drift and maintain variation at functional loci. Identifying these loci can have important conservation implications and give insight into how different evolutionary forces interact in small populations. Here we investigate toll-like receptor (TLR) genes that play a key role in vertebrate innate immune defence, and whether variation has been maintained at TLR loci in a bottlenecked population of the endangered Seychelles warbler. We find depauperate levels of variation that suggests drift is the dominating evolutionary force in this island population and this may well be disadvantageous for the long-term viability of this species. Although the finding of variation of specific TLR loci, in spite of the recent bottleneck event, does warrant further study.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T23:10:44.953753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12307
       
  • Challenges of using behavior to monitor anthropogenic impacts on wildlife:
           a case study on illegal killing of African elephants
    • Authors: S. Z. Goldenberg; I. Douglas-Hamilton, D. Daballen, G. Wittemyer
      Abstract: Monitoring anthropogenic impacts on wildlife can be challenging, particularly when human activities affecting wildlife are cryptic. Using anti-predator behaviors as proxies for perceived pressure is appealing because of the relative ease with which they can be recorded and the presumed relationship between the threat of interest and a predator stimulus. However, behaviors are plastic and affected by factors unrelated to human activity. Consequently, it is critical to assess the relationship between behavioral indicators and their context before interpretation. In this study we used a combination of behavior, movement and demography from a threatened population of African elephants in northern Kenya to determine whether reaction to research vehicles was indicative of poaching pressure. We used mixed-effects models predicting reaction of elephants to observer vehicle approaches in which we treated individuals as random effects and included ecological, anthropogenic, spatial, social and demographic predictor variables. Contrary to our hypothesis, recorded levels of reactive behavior did not increase with poaching levels in either a population-level dataset or a data subset of individuals whose spatial behavior was precisely known via radio-tracking. Rather, primary productivity positively predicted reactive behavior in both datasets. This relationship was heightened by the presence of musth males in the radio-collar dataset. Reactivity was not related to the time since entering the protected areas, but increased among groups that spent less time in the protected areas. Inter-individual differences were apparent, suggesting the importance of inherent differences (e.g. personality) across groups. In our study, elephants plagued by a severe human threat did not react defensively to humans in another context, suggesting nuanced discrimination of threats. Our study demonstrates the caution that should be taken in designing studies that use behavioral indices to represent threat and contributes to a growing body of literature employing behavioral indicators to monitor wildlife populations of conservation concern.Behavioral indicators are increasingly advocated as a way to monitor populations of conservation concern, but the efficacy of this approach in field settings must be investigated. In this study we use a rare combination of movement, behavior, demography, ecology, and poaching pressure from a threatened population of African elephants in northern Kenya to assess the ability of a behavioral indicator to reflect levels of human pressure. Our results suggest that behavioral indicators may not always reflect the anthropogenic impacts they are intended to measure, should be carefully tailored to systems of interest, and should incorporate non-human variables that may influence wildlife behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T23:10:41.853514-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12309
       
  • Interactions between domestic and wild carnivores around the greater
           Serengeti ecosystem
    • Authors: M. E. Craft; F. Vial, E. Miguel, S. Cleaveland, A. Ferdinands, C. Packer
      Abstract: The domestic and wild carnivore interface is complex, yet understudied. Interactions between carnivore species have important implications for direct interference competition, cross-species transmission of shared pathogens and conservation threats to wild carnivores. However, carnivore intraguild interactions are hard to quantify. In this study, we asked 512 villagers residing around a conservation area in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania, to report on the presence of wild carnivores in their village, the number of domestic dogs Canis familiaris and cats Felis catus in their household and interactions between domestic and wild carnivores. Wild carnivores are abundant near households surrounding the Serengeti National Park, villagers have many free-ranging domestic dogs (and would like to have more) and direct and indirect contacts between wild and domestic carnivores are common. Large carnivores, such as spotted hyenas and leopards, often killed or wounded domestic dogs. Small carnivores, such as mongoose, bat-eared fox, serval and wildcat, are locally abundant and frequently interact with domestic dogs. We demonstrate that interspecific carnivore behavior, human culture and local and regional geography play a complex role in domestic and wild carnivore interaction risk around conservation areas. Through the use of household surveys, we were able to efficiently obtain data on a wide scope of carnivore interactions over a large area, which may provide a direction for future targeted and in-depth research to reduce interspecific conflict. Improving the health and husbandry of domestic animals and reducing the unintentional feeding of wild carnivores could reduce dog–wildlife interactions and the potential for pathogen transmission at the domestic–wild animal interface.Interactions between carnivore species have important implications for direct interference competition and cross-species transmission of shared pathogens. We asked villagers residing around a conservation area to report on the presence of wild carnivores in their village, the number of domestic dogs and cats in their household and interactions between domestic and wild carnivores. We find that wild carnivores are abundant near households surrounding the National Park, villagers would like to have more domestic dogs, interactions between wild and domestic carnivores are common and that social surveys were a useful tool for obtaining data on carnivore interactions as well as providing a direction for future targeted and in-depth research to reduce interspecific conflict. Photo credit: Andrew Ferdinands.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T01:31:05.469853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12305
       
  • Modelling different reintroduction strategies for the critically
           endangered Floreana mockingbird
    • Authors: C. Bozzuto; P. E. A. Hoeck, H. C. Bagheri, L. F. Keller
      Abstract: One of the main recommendations of reintroduction biology for prospective projects is that they should be planned with local species knowledge and with species-specific quantitative modelling, for example, from population viability analysis (PVA). Here, we apply this approach to the planned reintroduction of the critically endangered Floreana mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus in the Galápagos Archipelago. After its extinction on Floreana Island, the Floreana mockingbird today only persists on two small islets, Champion and Gardner. In the context of a wider island restoration project, there are plans to reintroduce M. trifasciatus back to Floreana to establish a population as large and genetically diverse as possible, while minimizing the impact on the two source populations. To aid the planning of this reintroduction effort, we compared six potential reintroduction strategies that differ in three aspects: (1) use of captive breeding, (2) state-(in)dependent sourcing of birds, (3) time span for translocations. We assessed the strategies’ performance using a multi-site count-based PVA and simulations of coancestry as a measure of genetic diversity. In general, PVA and coancestry results were comparable in terms of the strategies’ performance. Strategies with captive breeding resulted in larger population sizes and higher genetic diversity on Floreana after 20 years. However, the advantages of captive breeding disappeared when the population growth rate in captivity or on Floreana was very low. The reintroductions did not negatively impact the source populations’ viability, provided no more than 2 and 16 birds were taken annually from the two source islets. The approach employed here shows how a count-based PVA in combination with simulations of genetic diversity can help reintroduction planning.In agreement with one of the main recommendations in reintroduction biology, we used local knowledge of species to develop quantitative advice for the planned reintroduction of the critically endangered Floreana mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus in the Galápagos Archipelago. Using population viability analysis and simulations of genetic diversity, we compared six potential reintroduction strategies that differ, among other aspects, in the use of captive breeding. Although in general our findings favour a captive breeding strategy, we discuss situations where these advantages vanish.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06T05:30:28.304948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12299
       
  • Global representation of threatened amphibians ex situ is bolstered by
           non-traditional institutions, but gaps remain
    • Authors: A. Biega; D. A. Greenberg, A. O. Mooers, O. R. Jones, T. E. Martin
      Abstract: Ambitious global conservation targets have been set to manage increasing threats to amphibians. Ex situ institutions (broadly, ‘zoos’) are playing an expanding role in meeting these targets. Here, we examine the extent to which zoos house species representing the greatest overall conservation priority by testing how eight variables relating to extinction risk – International Union for the Conservation of Nature status, habitat specialization, obligate stream breeding, geographic range size, body size and island, high-altitude and tropical endemism – vary between amphibian species held in zoos and their close relatives not held in zoos. Based on 253 species found in zoos that could be confidently paired with close relatives not in zoos, and in contrast to reported patterns for birds and mammals, we find that amphibians currently held in zoos are equally as threatened as their close relatives not found in zoos. This result is entirely driven by the inclusion of data on species holdings from Amphibian Ark (AArk), an organization that helps to coordinate conservation activities in many ‘non-traditional’ institutions, as well as in ‘traditional’ commercial zoos. Such networks of small non-traditional institutions thus make meaningful contributions to ex situ conservation, and the establishment of other taxa-specific organizations modelled on AArk might be considered. That said, our results indicate that the ex situ network is still not prioritizing range-restricted habitat specialists, species that possess greater overall extinction risk in the near future. We strongly encourage zoos to continue increasing their holdings of amphibian species, but to pay greater attention to these species of particular conservation concern.We provide an analysis of amphibian ex-situ holdings by testing how eight ecological and biogeographical variables relating to extinction risk vary between amphibian species held in zoos and their close relatives not held in zoos. We find that species held in zoos are equally as threatened as their close relatives not found in zoos but that range and habitat-restricted species remain under-represented ex-situ. We highlight that the taxon specific conservation organization, Amphibian Ark, and non-traditional zoos are having an important effect on the representation of threatened species held ex-situ but also warn that species most at risk of short-term extinction (range-restricted specialists) require greater attention from the ex-situ conservation community.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T01:31:35.799427-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12297
       
  • Estimates of avian collision with power lines and carcass disappearance
           across differing environments
    • Authors: D. Costantini; M. Gustin, A. Ferrarini, G. Dell'Omo
      Abstract: Data on collisions of birds with high-voltage electric power lines are scarce and are often gathered without protocols for the correction of carcass disappearance. There is actually growing awareness that it is important to accomplish carcass removal trials in order to develop correction factors for producing adjusted estimates of mortality due to collisions. In this study, we provided for the first time raw counts and estimates of bird collisions across seven Italian areas that largely differ in their habitats. We also carried out carcass removal trials to compute the rate of carcass disappearance and produce better estimates of collision events and of optimal time intervals of carcass searches. Results of 1-year monitoring showed a general low frequency of birds collided with the power lines. Carcass removal trials showed effects of carcass size and season on the carcass disappearance, which varied largely among the study areas. In four areas, both small and large carcasses had more than 50% probability to be removed within 3–5 days from their distribution. Given the high variation among study areas, we suggest that estimates of carcass persistence and optimal time intervals should be conducted concurrently for each new study site.Our article provides for the first time raw counts and estimates of bird collisions with high-voltage power lines across seven Italian areas, and estimates of carcass disappearance that will help to improve monitoring programmes of fatal collisions of birds with the power lines.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17T06:30:30.120973-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12303
       
  • Are tourism and conservation compatible for ‘island tame’
           species'
    • Authors: T. Worrell; R. Admiraal, P. W. Bateman, P. A. Fleming
      Abstract: Islands play an important conservation role due to high rates of speciation as well as providing a predator-free refuge environment for species that are vulnerable to terrestrial predation on the mainland. Many animals show marked ‘island tameness’ on predator-free islands, reducing costly escape responses in the absence of predation threat. Island tameness also translates to altered responses toward humans, making many island species attractive for wildlife tourism. We explored temporal and spatial differences in behavioral responses in the Rottnest Island quokka Setonix brachyurus. This marsupial is an excellent species to test for the effects of ecotourism, as well as of being conservation significance (IUCN-listed as vulnerable). Comparing escape responses for n = 339 individuals in high tourism and low tourism seasons, quokkas at tourism sites allowed a person to approach closer before moving away compared with non-tourisms sites, and two-thirds of individuals around tourism sites allowed a person to approach within 1 m (compared with 14% of individuals at non-tourism sites). For n = 67 ad hoc interactions with tourists, quokkas would only move away from an interaction with a tourist when the tourist group was noisy or there was an attempt to touch the animal. Time budgets (n = 379 individuals) showed that quokkas spent more time in group behavior and locomotion, but less in vigilance and feeding for tourism sites compared with non-tourism sites. Understanding the impact of ecotourism on animal behavior will help to frame conservation management actions to ensure persistence of threatened wildlife species. We propose two models describing animal responses toward ecotourism: spatial separation according to animal temperament or temporal adjustment due to learned habituation. These models are not mutually exclusive and we suggest that both spatial separation and habitation are likely evident for Rottnest quokkas. We discuss the implications of these results for protection of animals on the island as well as for species conservation.Island tameness can make many island species attractive for wildlife tourism. For example, Rottnest Island quokkas allow people to approach and even touch them, which can make these animals more vulnerable to malicious attention or accidental injury. We found that quokkas at tourism sites allowed a person to approach closer before moving away compared with non-tourisms sites, and spent less time being vigilant and feeding on tourism sites. Understanding the impact of ecotourism on animal behavior will help to frame conservation management actions to ensure persistence of threatened wildlife species.
      PubDate: 2016-08-14T04:55:23.50306-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12301
       
  • Noise from a phantom road experiment alters the age structure of a
           community of migrating birds
    • Authors: C. J. W. McClure; H. E. Ware, J. D. Carlisle, J. R. Barber
      Abstract: Several past studies have demonstrated the effects of anthropogenic noise on populations of animals. Yet, differing effects of noise by age and subsequent changes in the age structure of populations are poorly understood. We experimentally tested the effects of traffic noise alone on the age structure of a community of migrating birds at a fall stopover site in south-western Idaho using an array of speakers – creating a phantom road – that replicated the sound of a roadway without other confounding aspects of roads. Both hatch-year and adult birds were negatively affected by noise – having lower capture rates, lower body condition and lower stopover efficiency along the phantom road when the noise was on compared to control conditions. However, hatch-year birds responded more strongly which lead to a significant shift in the ratio of hatch-year to adult birds under noisy conditions. Our previous work using the phantom road demonstrated that traffic noise can degrade the quality of a stopover site by affecting the ability of migrating birds to gain body condition. Here, we demonstrate differences between age classes such that although noise degrades habitat for both hatch-year and adult migrants, there are still differences in responses to noise between age groups. Despite alternative explanations of our results such as changes in behavior affecting capture likelihood, evidence suggests that younger birds avoided the phantom road more than adult birds perhaps because of different tradeoffs between foraging and predation risk and differing strategies of site selection during migration.Using a phantom road, we demonstrate experimentally that traffic noise alone can change the age structure of a community of migrating birds. We further show that the ability of both adult and hatch-year birds to gain weight during stopover is negatively affected by anthropogenic noise, although the effect is stronger for young birds. Photo credit: Ashley Jensen.
      PubDate: 2016-08-02T02:35:55.062383-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12302
       
  • Behaviour during handling predicts male natal dispersal distances in an
           establishing reintroduced hihi (Notiomystis cincta) population
    • Authors: K. M. Richardson; J. G. Ewen, P. Brekke, L. R. Doerr, K. A. Parker, D. P. Armstrong
      Abstract: Natal dispersal is a complex behaviour influenced by multiple factors that are often sex-specific and density-dependent. Reintroduced populations are typically low in density in the initial years of establishment; hence, understanding natal dispersal patterns in this context is a critical component of reintroduction biology. Natal dispersal is a key behaviour that influences both the probability of recruitment, and simultaneously dictates the spatial configuration of the reintroduced population as it establishes. Here, we examine natal dispersal in a reintroduced population of an endangered New Zealand forest passerine, the hihi, Notiomystis cincta, in the first 3 years after reintroduction to a large, mature forest reserve. We examined (1) differences between the sexes, and (2) the relationship between temperament and natal dispersal distances (NDD) in locally bred hihi over this time period. We found NDD varied widely in both sexes, with mean NDD significantly higher in males than females. There was a sex-specific effect of temperament, with males that distress-called during handling dispersing further than those that did not. Our results show that while clusters of individuals have established across the reserve due to conspecific attraction, there is movement between these clusters, primarily a consequence of dispersal of males of a distinct temperament. Continuing to monitor natal dispersal patterns as populations establish will provide further insights into the role of dispersal in shaping establishment patterns in reintroduced populations.Natal dispersal is a key behaviour in reintroduced populations, as it both influences the probability of recruitment, and simultaneously dictates the spatial configuration of the reintroduced population as it establishes. We examined natal dispersal distances (NDD) in a reintroduced passerine population, and found mean NDD to be significantly higher in males than in females. Males that distress-called during handling had greater NDD than those that did not. Our results show that while clusters of individuals established across the release area due to conspecific attraction, there is still movement between these clusters, primarily a consequence of natal dispersal of males of a distinct temperament.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T09:20:23.989605-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12296
       
  • Joint effects of rising temperature and the presence of introduced
           predatory fish on montane amphibian populations
    • Authors: N. Polo-Cavia; L. Boyero, B. Martín-Beyer, L. A. Barmuta, J. Bosch
      Abstract: Amphibian populations in montane habitats are often subjected to high thermal variability, which may exacerbate anthropogenic impacts such as the introduction of exotic species. Here, we present data from two experiments exploring the joint effects of rising temperatures and the presence of waterborne cues from an exotic predatory fish on the short- and long-term antipredatory responses (i.e. activity and time to metamorphosis respectively) of Rana iberica and Salamandra salamandra larvae from two montane amphibian populations. We found some evidence of a cumulative effect of an increase in temperature and the presence of predators. Although predator recognition was not precluded at rising temperatures, we observed an increase in larval activity in warmer water, which might negatively affect survival by favoring prey detectability by predators. We also observed a strong quadratic effect of temperature and a joint effect of temperature and predators on larval development: at intermediate temperatures, larvae exposed to exotic trout cues had greatly accelerated metamorphosis. These results suggest that warmer conditions might be particularly harmful for larvae in montane wetlands enduring the presence of exotic predators.Warmer conditions might exacerbate the impact of exotic predators in montane amphibian populations. A joint effect of increasing temperatures and the presence of fish predators was observed on activity and development of larval amphibian, although predator recognition was not precluded at rising temperatures.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28T23:15:28.348669-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acv.12294
       
 
 
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