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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
  [SJR: 1.347]   [H-I: 75]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1046-7408 - ISSN (Online) 1600-0897
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-05-22T04:22:35.368485-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12571
  • Abnormal ratio of CD57+ cells to CD56+ cells in women with recurrent
           implantation failure
    • Authors: Ruiwei Jiang; Guijun Yan, Jun Xing, Zhilong Wang, Yong Liu, Hongyan Wu, Xiangshan Fan, Jianjun Zhou, Lijun Ding, Haixiang Sun
      Abstract: ProblemTo define a more precise parameter for a better understanding of natural killer (NK) cells and its relation with regulatory T cells (Tregs) in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF).Method of studyThe percentages of CD56+ cells, CD57+ cells and Foxp3+ cells in the endometrium and blood from 23 normal controls and 32 women with RIF were measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.ResultsWomen with RIF had significantly increased ratio of CD57+ cells to CD56+ cells in both the endometrium (P
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T01:15:25.723427-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12708
  • Peripartum cytokine flares in a multiethnic cohort of chronic hepatitis B
           carriers does not correlate with hepatitis B virus suppression or
           increased risk of liver disease
    • Authors: Shivali S. Joshi; Daniel Wong, Eliana Castillo, Mark G. Swain, Carla S. Coffin
      Abstract: ProblemIn chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carriers, alanine transaminase (ALT) flares are common in the peripartum period. There are limited data on immunological changes of pregnancy in CHB. We hypothesize that in pregnant CHB carriers, the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio is altered resulting in changes in biochemical/virological and liver fibrosis markers.Study methodsSerum from 38 pregnant/post-partum CHB carriers (median age 32 years, 53% Asian, 8 HBeAg+) was tested for HBV DNA, quantitative HBV surface antigen, ALT and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE). Serum cytokines were analyzed using a Luminex assay.ResultsUntreated CHB cases had mild ALT flares post-partum, but showed normal TE, and no change in viral markers despite increased Th1 cytokines compared to healthy controls (P
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T23:50:24.267558-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12707
  • CXCL10 and IL-6: Markers of two different forms of intra-amniotic
           inflammation in preterm labor
    • Authors: Roberto Romero; Piya Chaemsaithong, Noppadol Chaiyasit, Nikolina Docheva, Zhong Dong, Chong Jai Kim, Yeon Mee Kim, Jung-Sun Kim, Faisal Qureshi, Suzanne M. Jacques, Bo Hyun Yoon, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Lami Yeo, Sonia S. Hassan, Offer Erez, Steven J. Korzeniewski
      Abstract: ProblemTo determine whether amniotic fluid (AF) CXCL10 concentration is associated with histologic chronic chorioamnionitis in patients with preterm labor (PTL) and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PROM).Method of StudyThis study included 168 women who had an episode of PTL or preterm PROM. AF interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL10 concentrations were determined by immunoassay.Results(i) Increased AF CXCL10 concentration was associated with chronic (OR: 4.8; 95% CI: 1.7-14), but not acute chorioamnionitis; (ii) increased AF IL-6 concentration was associated with acute (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.3-13.7) but not chronic chorioamnionitis; and (iii) an increase in AF CXCL10 concentration was associated with placental lesions consistent with maternal anti-fetal rejection (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.3-10.4). (iv) All patients with elevated AF CXCL10 and IL-6 delivered preterm.ConclusionIncreased AF CXCL10 concentration is associated with chronic chorioamnionitis or maternal anti-fetal rejection, whereas increased AF IL-6 concentration is associated with acute histologic chorioamnionitis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T23:40:30.98385-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12685
  • Elevated maternal placental protein 13 serum levels at term of pregnancy
           in postpartum major hemorrhage (>1000 mLs). A prospective cohort study
    • Authors: Antonio Farina; Dalila Bernabini, Cinzia Zucchini, Paola De Sanctis, Maria Soledad Quezada, Mara Mattioli, Nicola Rizzo
      Abstract: ProblemTo compare placental protein 13 (PP13) levels in the serum of women with primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with a control population.MethodsA prospective cohort study was conducted between May 2014 and May 2016 and included 435 pregnant women at term (38 weeks gestation) without any known risk factor and with normal labor. Multiples of median (MoM) were used to evaluate differences of the PP13 values between cases and controls. PP13 concentrations were adjusted for maternal and neonatal weight. Multivariable analysis was used to detect independent contribution of predictors of PPH.ResultsFifteen had a major PPH>1000 mLs and represented the cases of the study. They were matched with 399 controls. Twenty-one patients who had a minor PPH (500-1000 mLs) were excluded. The mean observed rank in the PPH group was higher than that of controls (28.5 vs 13.5, P-value=.01). PP13 MoM values adjusted for maternal weight were higher than expected being 1.44±0.45 in PPH cases and 1.00±0.59 in controls (P-value .008). This difference was still significant even after adjustment for neonatal weight that represented a confounding variable.ConclusionHigher PP13 levels are independently associated with major PPH>1000 mLs.Relationship between maternal weight (kg) and maternal serum PP13 (expressed as multiples of the median or MoM). The straight line represents the currently used log-linear relationship while the thick curved line shows the power relationship (Y=a. weightb) (F=27.72 P-value
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T23:10:27.701447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12702
  • The cross talk between cervical carcinoma cells and vascular endothelial
           cells mediated by IL-27 restrains angiogenesis
    • Authors: Bing Zhang; Feng Xie, Chun-Lin Dong, Chun-Jie Gu, Jiao Cheng, Yuan Wang, Xi-Zhong Xu, Hong Pu, Yi-Bo Wu, Xiao-Wei Qi, Da-Jin Li, Jin-Jin Yu, Ming-Qing Li
      Abstract: ProblemTo explore whether cervical carcinoma cell-derived interleukin-27 (IL-27) modulates the angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells.Method of studyThe expression of IL-27 in cervical cancer tissues and cervical cell lines was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow cytometry. Then, the effects of IL-27 on the proliferation and apoptosis-related molecules and angiogenesis in vitro of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. Finally, in vivo experiment was performed to further confirm the effects of IL-27.ResultsCompared with cervicitis, the cervical cancer tissues highly expressed IL-27. Both HeLa and CaSki cells secreted IL-27, and HUVECs expressed low levels of IL-27 receptors (IL-27R). However, the co-culture of cervical cell lines and HUVECs led to a significant elevation of IL-27R on HUVECs. Co-culturing with IL-27-overexpressed HeLa cells downregulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 and upregulated Fas expression in HUVECs. In addition, overexpression of IL-27 in HeLa cells and CasKi cells secreted less IL-8 and could further restrict angiogenesis compared with control cells in vitro. In the subcutaneous tumorous model of C57/BL6 mouse, there were decreased vessel density and tumor volume when inoculation with IL-27-overexpressed TC-1 cells.ConclusionThis study indicates that IL-27 secreted by cervical carcinoma cells restricts the angiogenesis in a paracrine manner in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T23:05:33.566323-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12706
  • Functional properties of peripheral CD8+ T cells in patients with
           repeated implantation failure
    • Authors: Biao Yin; Yong Zeng, Tonghua Wu, Shuyi Yu, Jian Xu, Su Liu, Lianghui Diao, Zhenfu Zhao, Desheng Liang, Yuye Li
      Abstract: CD8+ T cells are the main candidates to recognize and respond to fetal HLA-C at the fetal-maternal interface, but data on the amount of peripheral CD8+ T cells and their functions during the window of implantation in recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients are limited. Peripheral blood was obtained from 56 women with RIF and 16 fertile women in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and the CD8+ T cells were determined by FACS analysis. No statistical differences in the proportion of peripheral CD8+ T cells were observed among the women with RIF and the control group. However, the levels of IFN-γ+ and TNF-α+ CD8+ T cells in the RIF group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The cytolytic activity and regulatory proportion of CD8+ T cells in RIF were similar to that in the control group. Our data indicated that the elevated expression levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α in peripheral CD8+ T cells may contribute to an impaired immune tolerance in women with RIF.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:55:26.512608-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12704
  • Efficacy of intrauterine perfusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating
           factor (G-CSF) for Infertile women with thin endometrium: A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Yiran Xie; Tao Zhang, Zhengping Tian, Jiamiao Zhang, Wanxue Wang, Hong Zhang, Yong Zeng, Jianping Ou, Yihua Yang
      Abstract: This meta-analysis aimed to explore the efficiency of intrauterine perfusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on infertile women with thin endometrium. Following PRISMA protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of academic literatures on various databases including PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library. Studies published in English before July 1, 2016 were included for primary screening. Data on the thickness of endometrium, cycle cancelation rate,clinical pregnancy rate, and embryo implantation rate were extracted and analyzed, respectively. Eleven eligible studies involving 683 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with control group, G-CSF perfusion could significantly improve endometrial thickness (mean difference [MD]=1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-2.67), clinical pregnancy rate (risk ratio [RR]=2.52, 95% CI: 1.39-4.55), and embryo implantation rate (RR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.20-4.60), while it could decrease cycle cancelation rate (RR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.25-0.58). Funnel plots revealed that there was no evidence of publication bias. The current data indicate that intrauterine perfusion of G-CSF can improve endometrial thickness, clinical pregnancy rate, and embryo implantation rate, but decrease the cycle cancelation rate in women with thin endometrium.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T06:00:28.904362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12701
  • Increased delta neutrophil index in women with severe preeclampsia
    • Authors: Hee Young Cho; Inkyung Jung, So Jung Kim, Yong Won Park, Young Han Kim, Ja-Young Kwon
      Abstract: ProblemThe pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE) is believed to be associated with a systemic inflammatory response, but few inflammatory markers are currently available to predict PE. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the serum delta neutrophil index (DNI) between normal and preeclamptic women.MethodsSixty-five patients with mild preeclampsia (mPE), 147 patients with severe preeclampsia (sPE), and 163 women with normal pregnancy were included in this study. Maternal laboratory values including DNI were compared among the three groups.ResultsThe mean DNI was significantly higher in the sPE group, but there was no significant difference between the normal pregnancy group and mPE. The DNI also showed positive correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, mean arterial pressure, proteinuria during 24 hours, proteinuria in dipstick, and ominous symptoms.ConclusionThe serum DNI value was increased in women with severe preeclampsia compared to that in those with normal pregnancy or mild preeclampsia. Further studies are needed to evaluate application of the DNI value as a prognostic marker of preeclampsia.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T05:55:23.812954-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12705
  • Expression profile of heat shock proteins in placental tissues of patients
           with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm labor
           with intact membranes
    • Authors: Lenka Dvorakova; Katarina Ivankova, Ladislav Krofta, Ilona Hromadnikova
      Abstract: ProblemInvestigating the stress response in the central cotyledon zone of placental tissue in pregnancies with PPROM, PTB, and at term in labor.Method of studyGene expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90, and HspBP1 was compared between these particular groups. Correlation between variables including Hsp gene expression in placental tissue and the gestational age at delivery, WBC count at admission, and serum levels of CRP at admission in patients with PPROM and PTB was determined.ResultsBoth PPROM and PTB pregnancies were associated with altered Hsp gene expression profile. While PPROM and PTB always induced upregulation of Hsp27 and Hsp60, downregulation of Hsp70 and HspBP1 was present entirely in patients with PPROM. HspBP1 expression profile was also able to differentiate between PPROM and PTB pregnancies. The highest mRNA levels of Hsp60 and Hsp70 were detected in PTB pregnancies with elevated CRP levels at admission. Some of the examined Hsp displayed increased expression with advancing gestational age in both groups (PPROM: Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90; and PTB: Hsp27).ConclusionUpregulation of Hsp27 is a common phenomenon shared between pregnancies affected with PTB and PPROM. On the other hand, downregulation of Hsp70 and HspBP1 represents a unique feature of PPROM.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T04:30:58.780345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12698
  • Immunosuppressive treatment using tacrolimus promotes pregnancy outcome in
           infertile women with repeated implantation failures
    • Authors: Koji Nakagawa; Joanne Kwak-Kim, Keiji Kuroda, Rikikazu Sugiyama, Koushi Yamaguchi
      Abstract: ProblemWe aim to investigate whether the peripheral blood T helper (Th) 1 cell level could predict pregnancy outcome in patients who have experienced repeated implantation failure (RIF, three or more) after ART cycles.Method of studyThis is a prospective cohort study of total 124 women with RIF who showed elevated Th1/Th2 (CD4+IFN-γ+/CD4+IL-4+) cell ratios (≥10.3) and received tacrolimus at Sugiyama Clinic between November 2011 and July 2016. Patients were divided into three groups as per Th1 cell levels: Th1 level of
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T04:40:25.154853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12682
  • Challenges in conducting research on sexual violence and HIV and
           approaches to overcome them
    • Authors: Annette Aldous; Manya Magnus, Afsoon Roberts, Heather DeVore, Theresa Moriarty, Catherine Hatch Schultz, Maria Zumer, Gary Simon, Mimi Ghosh
      Abstract: Studies have implicated sexual violence as a strong correlate of HIV acquisition in women. Characterizing how such violence affects the female immune system may provide insight into the biological mechanisms of HIV transmission and ultimately improve global HIV prevention strategies. Little research has been carried out in this domain, and the obstacles to investigation can be daunting. Here, we describe methodological challenges encountered and solutions explored while implementing a study of dysregulation of immune biomarkers potentially indicative of increased HIV susceptibility in women following sexual assault. Challenges included accessing sexual assault survivors and defining sexual assault, promoting study participant well-being during research engagement, reducing selection and information bias, collecting and processing biological samples, and adjusting for confounders such as reproductive tract infections and emotional and physical abuse. We found that many survivors of sexual assault welcomed the attention from study staff and felt empowered by the opportunity to help other women at risk for violence. Well-trained research staff and well-articulated community and medical partnerships were key methods to overcoming challenges while promoting the safety and welfare of vulnerable study participants.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T04:35:30.680109-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12699
  • Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is decreased with viral
           infection and regulates pro-labour mediators OA
    • Authors: Stella Liong; Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
      Abstract: ProblemIntrauterine infection caused by viral infection has been implicated to contribute to preterm birth. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) regulates inflammation in non-gestational tissues in response to viral infection.Method of studyThe aims of this study were to determine the effect of: (i) viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on HAVCR2 expression; and (ii) HAVCR2 silencing by siRNA (siHAVCR2) in primary amnion and myometrial cells on poly(I:C)-induced inflammation.ResultsIn human foetal membranes and myometrium, HAVCR2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased when exposed to poly(I:C). Treatment of primary amnion and myometrial cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL1A, IL1B and IL6; the expression of chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2; the expression and secretion of adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1; and PTGS2 and PTGFR mRNA expression and the release of prostaglandin PGF2α. This increase was significantly augmented in cells transfected with siHAVCR2. Furthermore, mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10 was significantly decreased.ConclusionCollectively, our data suggest that HAVCR2 regulates cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and cell adhesion molecules in the presence of viral infection. This suggests a potential for HAVCR2 activators as therapeutics for the management of preterm birth associated with viral infections.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T04:10:38.289366-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12696
  • Physiological and pathological angiogenesis in endometrium at the time of
           embryo implantation
    • Authors: Xiaoyan Chen; Gene Chi Wai Man, Yingyu Liu, Fangrong Wu, Jin Huang, Tin Chiu Li, Chi Chiu Wang
      Abstract: Embryo establishes contact with the endometrium during implantation. Proper endometrial vascular development and maintenance at the time of embryo implantation is crucial for successful pregnancy. Vascular development at the maternal-embryo interface can be regulated by various cell types, of which uterine natural killer (uNK) cells play an important role. Abnormal angiogenesis and uNK cell number/function may lead to reproductive failure, particularly in women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) after IVF-ET treatment, which are the important clinical hurdles in reproductive medicine to overcome. In this review, we aim to discuss the current knowledge of physiological angiogenic processes and the pathological angiogenesis at the time of implantation, as well as the possible mechanism and potential treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:55:24.039206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12693
  • Prevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 at maternal and fetal
           sides of the placenta in asymptomatic pregnant women
    • Authors: Fabiana Finger-Jardim; Emiliana C. Avila, Vanusa P. Hora, Carla V. Gonçalves, Ana Maria B. Martinez, Marcelo A. Soares
      Abstract: ProblemHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial infection, but can also infect the genital mucosa. In contrast, HSV-2 is usually genital. Genital herpes can transmit the virus vertically to the fetus during pregnancy. We sought to estimate the prevalence of HSV-1/2 on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta.Method of studyPlacental tissues were collected from pregnant women seen at the Rio Grande University Hospital. HSV-1 and HSV-2 were detected by nested PCR.ResultsThe prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 was, respectively, 28% and 12.6% (maternal side) and 29.9% and 8.3% (fetal side). All HSV-positive women were asymptomatic. Sexual behavior, vaginal delivery, and presence of HSVs on one side of the placenta were risk factors associated with HSV infection.ConclusionThe occurrence of HSVs in placental tissue was high, especially for HSV-1. Novel strategies need to be implemented for the management of asymptomatic women who might transmit HSV to their newborns.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T05:51:05.516631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12689
  • Hypoxia-inhibited DUSP2 expression promotes IL-6/STAT3 signaling in
    • Authors: Kuei-Yang Hsiao; Ning Chang, Jia-Ling Tsai, Shih-Chieh Lin, Shaw-Jenq Tsai, Meng-Hsing Wu
      Abstract: ProblemHow does hypoxia-mediated downregulation of dual-specificity phosphatase-2 (DUSP2) promote the development of endometriotic lesions'Method of studyThe levels of IL-6 and DUSP2 were assessed in eutopic stromal cells with DUSP2 knockdown or hypoxia treatment. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was applied for evaluating cell proliferation. The protein levels of DUSP2, cleaved caspase-3, phosphorylated STAT3, and STAT3 were analyzed using immunoblot.ResultsThe genomewide analysis of cells with DUSP2 overexpression indicated IL-6 regulates multiple pathways related to inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. DUSP2 overexpression significantly suppressed IL-6 expression, while DUSP2 knockdown promoted IL-6 expression. The hypoxia-treated eutopic stromal cells expressed higher levels of IL-6, recapitulating the elevated levels of IL-6 in ectopic stromal cells. The treatment with IL-6 elicited the phosphorylation of STAT3, mimicking the elevated levels of phosphorylated STAT3 in the ectopic stromal cells. The IL-6-treated eutopic stromal cells showed more BrdU incorporation and less cleaved caspase-3, which can be reversed by STAT3 inhibitor.ConclusionHypoxia-induced IL-6 production in endometriotic lesions is mediated via downregulation of DUSP2, which causes aberrant activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and helps the endometriotic cells survive under the ectopic environment.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T05:50:46.935166-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12690
  • Endometrial immune markers are potential predictors of normal fertility
           and pregnancy after in vitro fertilization
    • Authors: Louise Kofod; Anette Lindhard, Michael Bzorek, Jens Ole Eriksen, Lise Grupe Larsen, Thomas Vauvert F. Hviid
      Abstract: ProblemElucidating immune mechanisms in the endometrium, which lead to the success of implantation and pregnancy, is important in reproductive medicine. Studies of immune cell abundance have shown conflicting results, and the expression and importance of HLA class Ib proteins in pre-implantation endometrium have not yet been investigated.Method of studyThe study population consisted of four subgroups: a hydrosalpinx, a salpingectomy, an unexplained infertility, and a fertile control group. Endometrial samples were collected during the implantation window. Immune markers (CD56+ and CD16+ cells, FoxP3+ Tregs, HLA-G, HLA-F) were quantified in the samples. The outcome of the subsequent IVF treatment was recorded.ResultsIncreased CD56+ uNK cells and high HLA-G expression served as predictor for successful pregnancy outcome. HLA-F expression was positively correlated with uNK cells, being indirectly predictive for achieving pregnancy.ConclusionEndometrial uNK cell abundance in the pre-implantation endometrium seems to be important for normal fertility and pregnancy success, and they may be used as clinical markers to predict implantation success in IVF.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T05:50:15.139636-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12684
  • Soy isoflavones enhance β-defensin synthesis and secretion in endometrial
           epithelial cells with exposure to TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic
    • Authors: Yotesawee Srisomboon; Sutthasinee Poonyachoti, Chatsri Deachapunya
      Abstract: Problemβ-defensins are important innate chemical barriers that protect the endometrium from pathogen invasion. The effects of soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, on the expression and secretion of porcine β-defensins (PBD) in endometrial epithelial cells were investigated under normal or poly I:C-stimulated conditions.Method of studyPrimary cultured porcine endometrial epithelial (PE) cells were pretreated with genistein or daidzein followed by poly I:C inoculation. During treatment, the culture media were analyzed for PBD 1-4 secretion by ELISA and the total RNA for PBD gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR.ResultsPorcine endometrial epithelial cells constitutively expressed PBD 1-4 and secreted PBD-1, PBD-2, and PBD-4. Genistein and daidzein enhanced PBD-2 expression and PBD-2 and PBD-3 secretion. These compounds also potentiated PBD-2 and PBD-3 expression and secretion which were upregulated by poly I:C.ConclusionSoy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, could be potentially used for promoting the innate host defense of endometrium against infection.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:15:51.095928-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12694
  • Characterization of immune cells and infection by HIV in human ovarian
    • Authors: Zheng Shen; Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, Christina Ochsenbauer, Charles R. Wira
      Abstract: ProblemNew HIV infections in women are predominantly spread through sexual intercourse. Recent non-human primate studies demonstrated that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) deposited in the vagina infected immune cells in the ovary. Whether immune cells in the human ovary are susceptible to HIV infection is unknown.Method of studyImmune cells were isolated from ovaries and characterized by flow cytometry. Cells were exposed to HIV for 2 hours. HIV infection was measured by flow cytometry and p24 secretion following 6 days in culture.ResultsCD4+ T cells and CD14+ cells are present in the ovary and susceptible to infection by HIV-BaL. Among the CD45+ cells present, 30% were CD3+ T cells (with similar proportions of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells), and 7%-10% were CD14+ cells. Both CD4+ T cells and CD14+ cells were productively infected and supported replication.ConclusionImmune cells in the ovary are potential targets for HIV infection.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T02:20:29.513904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12687
  • The need for enhancing the message: Screening for Zika, STORCH, and other
           agents and co-infections should be considered and assessed
    • Authors: Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales; Carlos Culquichicón
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:50:26.674101-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12688
  • Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV
           infection in Malawian women
    • Authors: Wilson L. Mandala; Esther N. Gondwe, Malcolm E. Molyneux, Jenny M. MacLennan, Calman A. MacLennan
      Abstract: ProblemWe investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity.Method of studyWe recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups.ResultsParturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T01:35:13.796787-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12678
  • Molecular displaying of differential immunoresponse to various infections
           of amniotic epithelia
    • Authors: Waleed Nemr; Monem Bashandy, Eman Araby, Omaima Khamiss
      Abstract: ProblemMolecular displaying for the interaction of innate immune cells against pathogen is important for knowing their defense mechanism. This study aimed to visualize the differential gene expression profiles of amniotic epithelium, in response to various infections, using simple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques.Method of studyAntimicrobial activity of human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs) was verified against three different models of pathogenic microorganisms. RNA was extracted from infected and non-infected cells. Transcripts were visualized by two methods of RT-PCR; one of them targets β-defensin 2 (BDEF2). The other is a novel design method of RNA fingerprinting based on differential length amplification of transcripts (DifLAT) to polymorphism more than 69 coding sequences for antimicrobial proteins.ResultsThe semiquantitative gel analysis indicated that BDEF2 was upregulated during all infections. DifLAT experiment visualized different patterns of HAECs transcripts for each case of infection.ConclusionThis study proved that HAECs uses alternative gene expression profiles for fighting different pathogens.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T04:55:55.878371-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12662
  • Assessment of the immunogenicity of gonadotrophins during controlled
           ovarian stimulation
    • Authors: Carles Morte; Carles Celma, Christian De Geyter, Janos Urbancsek, Buenaventura Coroleu Lletget, Barbara Cometti
      Abstract: ProblemGonadotrophin hormones are used for the controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) as part of the in vitro fertilization techniques. Therapeutic proteins have the potential to induce an unwanted immune response.Method of studyThe presence of anti-FSH, anti-LH and anti-hCG antibodies were determined in patients from two different clinical trials after the repeated administration of hMG or FSH.ResultsIn the first study, 27 subjects were screening for the presence of anti-FSH antibodies. From the 27 patients, only one patient showed the presence of low levels of antibodies. In a second study, 25 patients were screened for the presence of anti-FSH, anti-LH and anti-hCG antibodies. At the end of the study, no patients showed the presence of antibodies.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that repeated treatment cycles with FSH or hMG in patients undergoing COS for in vitro fertilization can be safely and effectively applied without concerns for immunogenicity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T04:46:26.360789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12675
  • Detection of invariant natural killer T cells in ejaculates from infertile
           patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract
    • Authors: Yong-Gang Duan; Shujian Chen, Gerhard Haidl, Jean-Pierre Allam
      Abstract: Chronic inflammation of genital tract is thought to play a major role in male fertility disorder. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and NK cells which display immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known regarding the presence and function of NK T cells in ejaculates from patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract. Invariant NK T (iNK T) cells were detected by invariant (Vα24-JαQ) TCR chain in ejaculates from patients suffering from chronic inflammation of genital tract (CIGT) using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of double staining (n=40). Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ were detected in cell-free seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count, motility, vitality, seminal IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ was investigated. Significant percentages of iNK T cells above 10% were detected in 50% (CIGT-NKT+ group). A negative correlation was detected between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count (r=−.5957, P=.0056), motility (r=−.6163, P=.0038), and vitality (r=−.8032, P=.0019) in CIGT-NKT+ group (n=20). Interestingly, a significant correlation of iNK T cells to seminal IL-6 (r=.7083, P=.0005), IFN-γ (r=.9578, P
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T03:45:38.026353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12671
  • Downregulation of genes related to immune and inflammatory response in IVF
           implantation failure cases under controlled ovarian stimulation
    • Authors: Amruta D. S. Pathare; Kusum Zaveri, Indira Hinduja
      Abstract: ProblemImplantation failure (IF) even after the good-quality embryo transfer (ET) is main obstacle in in vitro fertilization (IVF). We aim to study the genomics of endometrial receptivity in IF patients under controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) during which ET is generally practised in IVF.Method of studyEndometrial gene expression profiling in IF patients (n=10) and oocyte donors (n=8) were compared during window of implantation under COS by microarray. Enrichment analysis of microarray data was performed to determine dysregulated pathways. Microarray results were validated by real-time PCR. Localization of genes related to immune response (progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin-6 signal transducer (IL6ST) was detected by immunohistochemistry.ResultsThe gene ontology, pathway analysis and enrichment mapping revealed significant downregulation in activation and regulation of immune and inflammation response in IF patients under COS. The lower expression of PAEP, LIF and IL6ST in cases compared to controls by real time and immunohistochemistry suggests the functional importance of these genes.ConclusionImportance of immune and inflammatory response in endometrial receptivity adds on to the current knowledge of gene expression profile in IF under COS. The panel of genes involved in these pathways would be useful in determining further line of treatment for IF during IVF.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:59:56.14807-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12679
  • Zika virus infection and cervical cytology specimen
    • Authors: Sora Yasri; Viroj Wiwanitkit
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:59:04.858584-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12681
  • In appreciation
    • Authors: Sung Ki Lee
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:25:24.724926-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12680
  • Relevance of Wnt10b and activation of β-catenin/GCMa/syncytin-1
           pathway in BeWo cell fusion
    • Authors: Sudha Saryu Malhotra; Priyanka Banerjee, Piyush Chaudhary, Rahul Pal, Satish Kumar Gupta
      Abstract: ProblemTo study the involvement of specific Wnt(s) ligand during trophoblastic BeWo cell differentiation.Method of studyBeWo cells on treatment with forskolin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were studied for cell fusion by desmoplakin I+II staining and/or hCG secretion by ELISA. Levels of Wnt10b/β-catenin/glial cell missing a (GCMa)/syncytin-1 were studied by qPCR/Western blotting in forskolin-/hCG-treated control siRNA and Wnt10b silenced BeWo cells.ResultsBeWo cells on treatment with hCG (5 IU/mL) led to a 94-fold increase in Wnt10b transcript. Wnt10b silencing showed significant decrease in forskolin-/hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. It led to down-regulation of β-catenin (nuclear and cytoplasmic), GCMa and syncytin-1 expression. Treatment of BeWo cells with H89, protein kinase A (PKA) signaling inhibitor, significantly reduced forskolin-/hCG-induced Wnt10b, β-catenin, and syncytin-1 expression, which also resulted in reduced cell fusion.ConclusionWnt10b is involved in forskolin/hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion via β-catenin/GCMa/syncytin pathway, which may also involve activation of PKA.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:20:33.583807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12676
  • Maternal rubella immunity status and pre-eclampsia
    • Authors: Terence T. Lao; Daljit S. Sahota, Lai-Wa Law, Tak-Yeung Leung
      Abstract: ProblemTo determine if maternal immune maladaptation associated with pre-eclampsia is reflected in the rubella immunity status.Method of studyIncidence of pre-eclampsia was compared between rubella non-immune and immune gravidae carrying a singleton pregnancy beyond 24 weeks, taking into account maternal characteristics and reported risk factors for pre-eclampsia.ResultsThe 9870 (10.4%) rubella non-immune gravidae among the 95 024 in the cohort exhibited no difference in incidence of underlying medical disorders, but they were slightly but significantly older, shorter, heavier, and had more pre-eclampsia (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47) despite having fewer nulliparas. Regression analysis confirmed an overall association between rubella non-immunity with pre-eclampsia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), which was related to multiparas (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.05-1.91) and carrying a male fetus (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.78).ConclusionThe association between rubella non-immunity and pre-eclampsia reflects immune maladaptation in multiparas and toward a male fetus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:02:11.247818-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12677
  • Pregnancy and maternal chronic hepatitis B infection—Evidence of
           reproductive advantage?
    • Authors: Terence T. Lao; Daljit S. Sahota
      Abstract: ProblemAs multiparas have high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, we examined here the relationship between the number of pregnancies with HBV infection.Method of studyRetrospective cohort study examining the prevalence of HBV infection by actual gravidity and parity in 104 242 gravidae managed during 1997-2013.ResultsInfection rate increased from 8.5% to 10.6% for G1 to G≥6 and from 8.8% to 10.0% for P0 to P≥3 (P10%) than nulliparas (
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:00:36.101403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12667
  • Expression of TWIST in the first-trimester trophoblast and decidual tissue
           of women with recurrent pregnancy losses
    • Authors: Jin Hee Ahn; Hye Ran Park, Chan-Woo Park, Dong-Wook Park, Joanne Kwak-Kim
      Abstract: ProblemIn this study, we aim to investigate if the expression of TWIST in the first-trimester placenta and decidua has any association with spontaneous abortion (SAB) and recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL).MethodsExpression of TWIST was measured in the first-trimester trophoblast and decidual tissues using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Women with a pregnancy loss comprised the study group (AB group) including women with two or more recurrent pregnancy loses (RPL group), and women with a spontaneous abortion who had no history of previous pregnancy losses (SAB group). Controls were women with elective abortion of normal pregnancy (NP group).ResultsIn in-vitro culture study of endometrial cells, expression of TWIST was detected with the induction of decidualization. In syncytiotrophoblast, expression of TWIST in NP group was significantly higher than that of AB group. RPL group had no expression of TWIST, both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblast. In decidual tissue, majority of TWIST was expressed on the decidual stromal cells. NP group showed significantly higher expression of TWIST in cytoplasm and nucleus as compared with those of SAB group.ConclusionThis suggests that TWIST may have a functional role in decidualization of endometrial cells and syncytialization of cytotrophoblast cells.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T01:25:42.408728-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12670
  • TRADD, TRAF2, RIP1 and TAK1 are required for TNF-α-induced pro-labour
           mediators in human primary myometrial cells
    • Authors: Ratana Lim; Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
      Abstract: ProblemTNF-α plays a central role in the processes of human labour and delivery. This study sought to determine the role of the adaptor proteins TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in TNF-α-induced formation of pro-labour mediators.Method of studyHuman primary myometrial cells were transfected with siRNA against TRADD (siTRADD), TRAF2 (siTRAF2), RIP1 (siRIP1) or TAK1 (siTAK1), treated with TNF-α, and assayed for pro-inflammatory mediators expression.ResultssiTRADD, siTRAF2, siRIP1 and siTAK1 significantly decreased TNF-α-induced IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 mRNA expression and release of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1; and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and release of prostaglandin PGF2α. There was a significant attenuation of TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA with siTRADD, siTRAF2 or siRIP1. siTRADD and siRIP1 significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression and release and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. There was a significant increase in TNF-α-induced sVCAM-1 release, MMP-9 mRNA expression and NF-κB activity with siTAK1.ConclusionTRADD, TRAF2, RIP1 and TAK1 are involved in TNF-α signalling in human myometrium. Further studies are required to determine whether inhibition of these proteins can prevent preterm birth.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T01:05:33.354697-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12664
  • PAI-1 in granulosa cells is suppressed directly by statin and indirectly
           by suppressing TGF-β and TNF-α in mononuclear cells by
           insulin-sensitizing drugs
    • Authors: Kaori Yamada-Nomoto; Osamu Yoshino, Ikumi Akiyama, Akira Iwase, Yosuke Ono, Tomoko Nakamura, Miyuki Harada, Akitoshi Nakashima, Tomoko Shima, Akemi Ushijima, Yutaka Osuga, Russell Jeffrey Chang, Shunichi Shimasaki, Shigeru Saito
      Abstract: ProblemPlasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is elevated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the regulation in granulosa cells (GCs) is unclear.Method of studyPAI-1 expression in PCOS ovaries was investigated immunohistologically. PAI-1 expressions in HGrC1, a human GC cell line, were investigated at mRNA and activity levels. The expressions of TGF-β and TNF-α in peritoneal fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) were measured with quantitative PCR.ResultsLittle PAI-1 expression is observed in healthy GCs, whereas GCs of PCOS and atretic follicle exhibit distinct expression in vivo. In vitro study using HGrC1 shows that TGF-β and TNF-α increase PAI-1 mRNA and its activity, and both together exhibit a synergistic effect. The expression of PAI-1 mRNA is suppressed by simvastatin. Moreover, insulin-sensitizing drugs (metformin, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone) suppress LPS-induced TGF-β and TNF-α mRNA expression in PFMC.ConclusionStatin and insulin-sensitizing drugs may provide a potential therapy for PCOS via down-regulation of PAI-1 expression in GCs and down-regulation of TGF-β and TNF-α expression in PFMC, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T00:55:35.268747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12669
  • Activation of NOD-1/JNK/IL-8 signal axis in decidual stromal cells
           facilitates trophoblast invasion
    • Authors: Byung Jun Ryu; Jae Won Han, Ryang Hee Kim, Sohyun Yun, Tae Hyun Kim, Sung Eun Hur, Chul Jung Kim, Sung Ki Lee
      Abstract: Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) are known to regulate trophoblast invasion via unveiled mechanism yet. And nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) may influence on this DSC-trophoblast interaction. We investigated the mechanism underlying the DSC-mediated regulation of trophoblast invasion and the effect of NOD1 on their cross talk. Using human primary DSCs, BeWo cell invasion was measured. Cytokine secretion and MAP kinase signaling were examined in DSCs following treatment with NOD1 agonist, Tri-DAP. DSCs secreted IL-8 and increased trophoblast invasion. Tri-DAP further increased IL-8 secretion from DSCs via JNK pathway and facilitated both MMP-2 production and trophoblast invasion compared with control. Upon cotreatment of IL-8 and anti-IL-8 antibody to BeWo cells, the number of invading trophoblasts and MMP-2 production decreased significantly. These results suggest that IL-8 from DSCs may play a role to increase the invasiveness of trophoblast cells into the decidua via NOD1/JNK pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T05:00:55.318823-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12672
  • MicroRNAs downregulated following immune activation of rat testis
    • Authors: Mitchell I. Parker; Michael A. Palladino
      Abstract: ProblemLittle is known about how infection and the response to inflammation affect the microRNA (miRNA) profile of the male reproductive tract. We hypothesized that expression of inflammatory-related miRNAs would be altered following immune activation of rat testis.Method of studyTestis total RNA was purified from Sprague-Dawley rats 3 or 6 hours after receiving a 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and examined by qPCR using an 84-panel miRNA array.ResultsFive inflammatory-related miRNAs showed a greater than twofold downregulation (P
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:20:25.084033-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12673
  • Ex vivo infection of human placental chorionic villi explants with
           Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii induces different Toll-like
           receptor expression and cytokine/chemokine profiles
    • Authors: Christian Castillo; Lorena Muñoz, Ileana Carrillo, Ana Liempi, Christian Gallardo, Norbel Galanti, Juan Diego Maya, Ulrike Kemmerling
      Abstract: ProblemTrypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii present, respectively, low and high congenital transmission rates. The placenta as an immune regulatory organ expresses TLRs, leading to the secretion of cytokines. Both parasites are recognized by TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9. Here, we studied if the parasites induce differences in TLR protein expression, cytokine profiles, and whether receptor inhibition is related to parasite infection.Method of studyPlacental tissue explants were infected ex vivo with each parasite, TLRs protein expression, cytokine profile and parasite infection were determined by Western blotting, ELISA and qPCR.ResultsTrypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii infection is related to TLR-2 and TLR-4/TLR-9, respectively. Trypanosoma cruzi elicits an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokine secretion whereas T. gondii only increases the secretion of IL-8.ConclusionThe susceptibility of the placenta to each parasite is mediated partially by the innate immune response.Trypanosoma cruzi induce, in ex vivo infected HPCVE, increases of TLR-2 and TLR-4 protein expression as well as of secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and IL-8 (right panel). In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii induce increases of TLR-9 protein expression and IL-8 secretion (left panel). The differential TLR activation and cytokine/chemokine profile might explain, at least partially, the different susceptibility of the placenta to both parasites.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:15:52.346765-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12660
  • Changes in expression of the CD200 tolerance-signaling molecule and its
           receptor (CD200R) by villus trophoblasts during first trimester missed
           abortion and in chronic histiocytic intervillositis
    • Authors: David A. Clark; Jennifer M. Dmetrichuk, Elizabeth McCready, Sukhbinder Dhesy-Thind, Jorge L. Arredondo
      Abstract: ProblemExpression of CD200 at the feto-maternal interface is associated with successful murine and human pregnancy. CD200 binding to CD200 receptors on lymphomyeloid cells suppresses inflammation and induces Tregs. CD200 receptors are also expressed on mouse and human placental trophoblast cells. What is the expression of CD200 and CD200R in human missed abortions which have preserved Treg levels and in chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) where maternal inflammatory cells cause IUGR'MethodsImmunohistiochemistry for CD200, CD200R, and Ki67 using human placental sections from missed abortions, term placenta, and CHI. PCR testing was done for trisomy in missed abortion.ResultsCD200 and CD200R were expressed by human villus trophoblasts from 2 weeks post-implantation to term. Cytotrophoblast proliferation (Ki-67+ count) decreased at term. In first trimester missed abortion cases, CD200>CD200R villus trophoblasts accompanied missed abortion of non-trisomic male fetuses. CD200 and Ki67+ trophoblast proliferation was preserved in CHI with maternal inflammatory cell infiltration but CD200R was greatly decreased.ConclusionResidual CD200 activity may prevent completion of abortions via induction of Treg cells. In CHI, infiltrating maternal effector T cells may block Treg induction. An autocrine role for CD200-CD200R interaction versus inhibition of soluble CD200 by soluble CD200R is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:00:44.465762-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12665
  • Type I interferons modulate methotrexate resistance in gestational
           trophoblastic neoplasia
    • Authors: Kevin M. Elias; Richard A. Harvey, Kathleen T. Hasselblatt, Michael J. Seckl, Ross S. Berkowitz
      Abstract: ProblemResistance to methotrexate is a leading clinical problem in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), but there are limited laboratory models for this condition.Method of studyWe created isogenic trophoblastic cell lines resistant to methotrexate and compared these to the parent cell lines using gene expression microarrays and qRT-PCR followed by mechanistic studies using recombinant cytokines, pathway inhibitors, and patient sera.ResultsGene expression microarrays and focused analysis by qRT-PCR revealed methotrexate led to type I interferon upregulation, in particular interferon alpha 2 (IFNA2), and methotrexate resistance was associated with chronic low level increases in type I interferon expression. Recombinant IFNA2 imparted chemosensitive choriocarcinoma cells with partial resistance to methotrexate, while chemoresistant choriocarcinoma cells were uniquely sensitive to fludarabine, a STAT1 inhibitor. In pre-treatment patient sera, IFNA2 levels correlated with subsequent resistance to methotrexate chemotherapy.ConclusionMethotrexate resistance is influenced by type I interferon signaling with prognostic and therapeutic implications for treating women with GTN.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T04:26:03.484589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12666
  • Distribution of invariant natural killer T cells and dendritic cells in
           late pre-term birth without acute chorioamnionitis
    • Authors: Yasuyuki Negishi; Yoshio Shima, Toshiyuki Takeshita, Hidemi Takahashi
      Abstract: ProblemAcute chorioamnionitis (aCAM) is an important cause of pre-term birth. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of late pre-term birth without aCAM that was the most common category of pre-term birth. Here we analyze the kinetics of immune cells obtained from the decidua of women with late pre-term births with and without aCAM.Method of studyDeciduas were obtained from women who underwent labor with late pre-term birth without aCAM (PB-n/aCAM) or with aCAM (PB-w/aCAM). The population of DEC-205+ dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, NK cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD4+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.ResultsThe number of iNKT cells was higher in the decidua obtained from women with PB-n/aCAM than PB-w/aCAM. DEC-205+ DCs obtained from women with PB-n/aCAM preferentially induced iNKT cell proliferation.ConclusioniNKT cell accumulation with DEC-205+ DCs in PB-n/aCAM suggests that iNKT cells contribute to the onset of PB-n/aCAM.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T04:00:30.518251-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12658
  • Immune cell subsets, cytokine and cortisol levels during the first week of
           life in neonates born to pre-eclamptic mothers
    • Authors: Florentina Sava; Gergely Toldi, András Treszl, Júlia Hajdú, Ágnes Harmath, János Rigó, Tivadar Tulassay, Barna Vásárhelyi
      Abstract: ProblemTo address the hypothesis that pre-eclampsia (PE) impacts the fetal immune system, we investigated the prevalence of distinct immune cell subsets along with plasma cortisol and cytokine levels in pre-term newborns of PE mothers.Method of studyCord blood and peripheral blood samples on the 1st, 3rd and 7th postnatal days of life were collected from 14 pre-term infants affected by PE and 14 non-PE pregnancies. We measured plasma cortisol and cytokine levels with immunoassays and assessed the prevalence of T, NK and DC subsets using flow cytometry.ResultsThe prevalence of CD4+ cells was lower in PE infants, while that of memory T cells was higher. Myeloid DCs had a lower prevalence in PE neonates. Cytokine and cortisol levels were lower in PE neonates.ConclusionOur observations show that PE pregnancies are associated with altered newborn immune status during the first week of life.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T03:56:14.429763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12659
  • The transdifferentiation of regulatory T and Th17 cells in
           autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and its potential implications in
           pregnancy complications
    • Authors: Zhao-Zhao Liu; Guo-Qiang Sun, Xiao-Hui Hu, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Ai-Hua Liao
      Abstract: In the past decades, studies have shown that a balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells plays a major role in autoimmune/inflammatory diseases as well as pregnancy complications. Decreased number and function of Tregs, and increased number of Th17 cells which often have an opposed effect of Tregs, are associated with these conditions. Recently, the plasticity of Tregs and Th17 cells has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Hence, we summarize the current knowledge of Tregs and Th17 cells plasticity with an emphasis on their reciprocal transdifferentiation in autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Moreover, the regulators of the Tregs-to-Th17 cells transdifferentiation are discussed as well. Finally, by reviewing the immuno-inflammatory status of pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses, a possibility of Tregs-to-Th17 cells transdifferentiation as an underlying immune-pathology of these conditions is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T02:35:24.023296-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12657
  • Trophoblasts regulate natural killer cells via control of interleukin-15
           receptor signaling
    • Authors: Seo Y. Park; Sohyun Yun, Byung J. Ryu, Ae R. Han, Sung K. Lee
      Abstract: ProblemTrophoblasts are known to decrease natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. However, little is known about the interaction between trophoblasts and NK cells during pregnancy. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is essential for priming NK cells and maximizing their effector functions. We investigated whether trophoblasts regulate NK cell activation via IL-15/IL-2 receptor and its signaling pathways.Method of studyNatural killer-92 cells were primed with human first-trimester trophoblast cells (Sw.71) conditioned medium (CM) and co-cultured with K562 cells. Flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR were performed to assess NK cell cytotoxicity, IL-15/IL-2 receptor expression, phosphorylation of STAT5 and MAPKs, and mRNA expression of IL-15-related genes.ResultsNatural killer-92 cells incubated with Sw.71 CM showed reduced cytotoxicity and IL-15-mediated proliferation, and expression of IL-15/IL-2 receptor subunits. STAT5 phosphorylation, EOMES and T-bet mRNA expressions, and ERK/JNK pathways of NK 92 cells were suppressed by Sw.71 CM. Productions of perforin, granzyme B, and IFN-γ were also downregulated.ConclusionTrophoblasts regulate human NK cell functions via suppression of IL-15/IL-2 receptor expression, transcription factors, and ERK/JNK pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T02:20:28.11402-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12628
  • Low-dose prednisone and immunoglobulin G treatment for woman at risk for
           neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and T helper 1 immunity
    • Authors: Annie Skariah; Nayoung Sung, Maria D. Salazar Garcia, Li Wu, Anjali Tikoo, Alice Gilman-Sachs, Joanne Kwak-Kim
      Abstract: ProblemFetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is an alloimmune disorder resulting from platelet opsonization by maternal antibodies that destroy fetal platelets. As there is no antenatal screening or immunization to prevent sensitization, selection of high-risk population or the prevention of antenatal sensitization is significantly limited.Method of study(i) A case report of ante- and postnatal management of a woman with paternal homozygosity for human platelet antigen-1(HPA) incompatibility. (ii) A retrospective case-control study of 11 confirmed FNAIT patients, 8 possible-FNAIT women, and 10 women with confirmed ITP.ResultAntenatal screening, prevention of maternal sensitization by serial monitoring and immunosuppression with prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) infusion resulted in two successful pregnancies without sensitization.ConclusionScreening for couples at risk and prednisone and/or IVIG treatment is an option for women with paternal homozygosity for offending HPA antigen to prevent antenatal sensitization. HPA incompatibility is associated with increased Th1 immunity and NK cell cytotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:20:47.899419-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12649
  • The CCL17-CCR4 axis between endometrial stromal cells and macrophages
           contributes to the high levels of IL-6 in ectopic milieu
    • Authors: Wen-Jie Zhou; Xin-Xin Hou, Xiao-Qiu Wang, Da-Jin Li
      Abstract: Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, in the peritoneal fluid. However, the precise mechanism of the highly elevated IL-6 levels in ectopic milieu remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cross talk between endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and macrophages contributes to the elevated IL-6 production. Samples of endometrium and ectopic tissues were obtained from patients with or without endometriosis. The peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was for IL-6 levels in peritoneal fluid and cell culture supernatant. In-Cell Western assay was used for protein expression of CCL17 and phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK, and P38. Immunohistochemistry was performed on normal, eutopic endometrium and ectopic tissues to analyze CCL17 expression. Flow cytometry was applied to detect the expression of CCR4, IL-6, and the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB. Patients with endometriosis have higher levels of IL-6 in peritoneal fluid compared to the control. The co-culture of ESCs and macrophages produce more IL-6 than cultured alone, respectively. The eutopic endometrium had significantly higher expression of CCL17 compared to normal endometrium, and the ectopic tissues had the highest expression. IL-6 induced CCL17 secretion in ESCs via activating JNK signaling pathway, CCL17 upregulated the expression of its receptor CCR4 on macrophages. Furthermore, CCL17-CCR4 axis subsequently led to excessive IL-6 production in macrophages by activating NF-κB. These findings suggest that the cross talk between ESCs and macrophages promotes the expression of CCL17 in ESCs and CCR4 on macrophages, which contributes to the high levels of IL-6 in ectopic milieu.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:20:39.647468-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12644
  • Aberrant expressions of endometrial Id3 and CTLA-4 are associated with
           unexplained repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage
    • Authors: Jin-Li Ding; Liang-Hui Diao, Tai-Lang Yin, Chun-Yu Huang, Biao Yin, Cong Chen, Yi Zhang, Jie Li, Yan-Xiang Cheng, Yong Zeng, Jing Yang
      Abstract: Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 3 (Id3) is required for tumor angiogenesis and regulatory T-cell generation. However, the involvement of Id3 in unexplained repeated implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriage (RM) remains poorly understood. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Id3, CD34, CTLA-4, and FOXP3 in the endometrium taken from the women with RIF (n=16), RM (n=16) and matched controls (n=8). The images were acquired and analyzed by the Vectra® automated quantitative pathology imaging system. Percentage of Id3+ cells was significantly higher in the endometrium of women with RIF and RM compared with controls. The numbers of Id3+ and CD34+ vessels in the endometrium were positively correlated in control but not in RIF or RM. Percentages of CTLA-4+ cells, but not FOXP3+ cells, were significantly increased in the endometrium of RIF and RM women than those in controls. We found aberrant expressions of endometrial Id3 and CTLA-4 in peri-implantation endometrium of women with RIF and RM, suggesting the negative roles of these angiogenesis and immune tolerance markers involving in regulating endometrium receptivity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:45:35.897009-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12632
  • Microbiome, autoimmunity, allergy, and helminth infection: The importance
           of the pregnancy period
    • Authors: Xian Chen; Su Liu, Qiao Tan, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yong Zeng
      Abstract: Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy. In this review, we attempt to discuss (i) the role of maternal microbiome in pregnancy outcomes known to adversely influence neonatal and infant health, including preterm birth, cardiometabolic complications of pregnancy, and gestational weight gain; (ii) the association of microbiome with autoimmunity, allergy diseases, and asthma during pregnancy; and (iii) the impact of helminth infection during pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:40:20.893477-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12654
  • Transcriptional regulation of Hb-α and Hb-β through nuclear factor
           E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation in human vaginal cells: A novel
           mechanism of cellular adaptability to oxidative stress
    • Authors: Debarchana Saha; Swanand Koli, Kudumula Venkata Rami Reddy
      Abstract: ProblemHemoglobin (Hb), a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O2), is expressed by erythroid lineages. Until recently, it was not known whether non-erythroid cells express Hb. The objective was to evaluate the expression and functional significance of Hb-α and Hb-β in human primary vaginal epithelial cells (hPVECs) and decipher downstream signaling.Methods of studyRT-PCR, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blot, immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the expression of Hb-α, Hb-β, and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2(Nrf2) after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induction. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to determine the binding efficiency of Nrf2 on the Hb-α promoter.ResultsStimulation of hPVECs and human vaginal epithelial cell line, VK2/E6E7 with H2O2 augmented the expression of Hb-α, Hb-β, Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment of these cells with Nrf2 inhibitor, trigonelline (Trig) inhibited Hb-α and Hb-β expressions. Hb-α and Hb-β overexpression downregulated H2O2-induced ROS. The presence of Nrf2 binding domain was demonstrated within Hb-α promoter.ConclusionThe results revealed for the first time that Hb-α and Hb-β were induced by oxidative stress through the activation of Nrf2. Overexpression of Hb-α and Hb-β ameliorated H2O2-induced oxidative stress, indicating one of the possible mechanism(s) to protect hPVECS from oxidative stress.Under normal physiological conditions, Nrf2 is present in an inactivated state in the cytoplasm. Nrf2 is constantly degraded via ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) which brings about its proteasomal degradation. Under stressed conditions, ROS modify cysteine residues in KEAP1 causing loss of its adaptor activity, and in turn failure to ubiquitylate Nrf2. Upon inactivation of KEAP1, Nrf2 accumulates in the nucleus where it activates the transcription of various antioxidative genes such as HO-1, Hb-α, and Hb-β. ARE-driven genes. HO-1 is an enzyme which exhibits antioxidative property. Our results suggest that Hb-α and Hb-β subunits are synthesized in response to alleviated oxidative stress to clear ROS.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:20:36.578664-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12645
  • Lnc-DC mediates the over-maturation of decidual dendritic cells and
           induces the increase in Th1 cells in preeclampsia
    • Authors: Wen Zhang; Yang Zhou, YiLing Ding
      Abstract: ProblemPreeclampsia is a severe pregnancy-related disease that involves an imbalance of the immune reaction, which is dominated by T helper1 (Th1) cells; however, the mechanism is unclear.Method of StudyWe used flow cytometry, RT-PCR and western blotting to detect Th1 cells in the blood and mature dendritic cells, lnc-DC (a long non-coding RNA that is specifically expressed in DCs and can mediate dendritic cell maturation by phosphorylating STAT3) and p-STAT3 (phosphorylated transducer and activator of transcription 3) in the deciduas of normal pregnancies and preeclampsia patients.ResultsWe found that the expression of lnc-DC and p-STAT3 was increased in the deciduas of preeclampsia patients. The proportion of Th1 cells and mature dendritic cells was significantly higher in the preeclampsia patients.ConclusionThese results suggested the hypothesis that the overexpression of lnc-DCs induces the over-maturation of decidual dendritic cells in preeclampsia patients and leads to an increase in Th1 cells.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T00:30:39.862809-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12647
  • Palmitic acid stimulates interleukin-8 via the TLR4/NF-κB/ROS pathway and
           induces mitochondrial dysfunction in bovine oviduct epithelial cells
    • Authors: Ayaka Ohtsu; Hazuki Tanaka, Kotomi Seno, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
      Abstract: ProblemWe investigated the effect of palmitic acid (PA), a major saturated fatty acid in NEFA, on bovine oviduct epithelial cells (OECs) during in vitro cell culture.Method of studyBovine oviductal tissues ipsilateral to the corpus luteum were collected 1-3 days after ovulation; the OECs were isolated and cultured.ResultsPA increased lipid accumulation and activated caspase-3 in OECs, resulting in decreased cell proliferation. PA also stimulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 depending on TLR4, NF-κB activation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, PA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, including mitochondrial fission, ATP production, and mitochondrial ROS production. It also increased levels of LC3 and p62 proteins, suggesting autophagy induction in OECs.ConclusionWe suggest that bovine OECs recognize an excessive increase in endogenous and sterile danger signals, such as PA, which may contribute to chronic oviductal inflammation, resulting in infertility associated with oviductal dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T00:15:48.536303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12642
  • Definitive class I human leukocyte antigen expression in gestational
           placentation: HLA-F, HLA-E, HLA-C, and HLA-G in extravillous trophoblast
           invasion on placentation, pregnancy, and parturition
    • Authors: Rinat Hackmon; Lakmini Pinnaduwage, Jianhong Zhang, Stephen J. Lye, Daniel E. Geraghty, Caroline E. Dunk
      Abstract: ProblemThe extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) express HLA-C and HLA-G, but HLA-E and HLA-F are the subject of conflicting reports. In this study, we define the HLA expression profile during active EVT placental implantation, pregnancy development, and parturition.Method of studyImmunohistochemistry, q-PCR, and Western blot were used to investigate HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-F placental expression across gestation from the early first trimester, late first trimester, second trimester (n=10 in each), preterm gestation (n=6) to elective term cesarean section and term vaginal deliveries (n=12, 38-41 weeks). EVT explants and Swan71 cells were used to assess HLA-C and HLA-F during active EVT migration.ResultsHLA-G, HLA-C, and HLA-F were expressed by 1st-trimester EVT and became intracellular and weaker as gestation progressed. HLA-E was only expressed in 1st-trimester placenta. HLA-F and HLA-C mRNA and protein expression levels showed a significant increase in the fetal villous mesenchyme across gestation. HLA-C levels increased with labor. We detected a 100-kDa HLA-F band in early pregnancy suggesting dimer formation on the EVT surface. These results were confirmed in EVT outgrowths and Swan71 trophoblast which showed that HLA-F and HLA-G are increased on the cell surface of migrating EVT, while HLA-C was internalized.ConclusionExpression of HLA-F and HLA-G on the cell surface of actively migrating EVT supports their specific role in early EVT invasion and interactions with uterine natural killer cells. HLA-C's limited expression to the proliferative EVT suggests a protective role in the earliest events of implantation but not in active EVT invasion. We also show for the first time that HLA-C may be involved in parturition.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T00:05:50.814819-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12643
  • A Role for the Inflammasome in Spontaneous Labor at Term
    • Authors: Roberto Romero; Yi Xu, Olesya Plazyo, Piya Chaemsaithong, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Ronald Unkel, Nandor Gabor Than, Po Jen Chiang, Zhong Dong, Zhonghui Xu, Adi L. Tarca, Vikki M. Abrahams, Sonia S. Hassan, Lami Yeo, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
      Abstract: ProblemInflammasomes are signaling platforms that, upon sensing pathogens and sterile stressors, mediate the release of mature forms of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the expression of major inflammasome components in the chorioamniotic membranes in spontaneous labor at term, (ii) whether there are changes in the inflammasome components associated with the activation of caspase-1 and caspase-4, and (iii) whether these events are associated with the release of the mature forms of IL-1β and IL-18.Method of studyChorioamniotic membranes were collected from women at term with and without spontaneous labor. mRNA abundance and protein concentrations of inflammasome components, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (NOD)1 and NOD2 proteins, caspase-1, caspase-4, IL-1β, and IL-18 were quantified by qRT-PCR (n = 28–29 each), ELISA (n = 10 each) or immunoblotting (n = 8 each), and immunohistochemistry (n = 10 each). Active caspase-1 and caspase-4, as well as mature IL-18, were determined by immunoblotting (n = 4 each), and pro- and mature forms of IL-1β were determined by ELISA (n = 4–7 each).ResultsInflammasome components and NOD proteins were expressed in the chorioamniotic membranes obtained from women at term. The chorioamniotic membranes from women who underwent labor had (i) higher concentrations of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3) and NOD1 protein, (ii) greater immunoreactivity for caspase-1 and caspase-4, (iii) a greater quantity of the active form of caspase-1 (p20), and (iv) higher mRNA abundance and protein concentrations of pro- and mature IL-1β. However, mRNA abundance and protein concentrations of the mature form of IL-18 were not increased in tissues from women who underwent labor at term.ConclusionsSpontaneous labor at term is characterized by the expression of inflammasome components, which may participate in the activation of caspase-1 and lead to the cleavage and release of mature IL-1β by the chorioamniotic membranes. These results support the participation of the inflammasome in the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous parturition at term.
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T03:32:28.287329-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aji.12440
  • Do Dose-related Mechanisms Exist for the Angiogenic Behaviours of Heparin
    • Authors: Celal Yavuz; Oğuz Karahan
      PubDate: 2012-06-22T05:27:17.053624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.1166.x
  • The myxovirus-resistance protein, MX1, is a component of exosomes secreted
           by uterine epithelial cells
    • Authors: Karen Racicot; Anthony Schmitt, Troy Ott
      Abstract: ProblemDairy cattle suffer from high percentages of early embryonic loss, and therefore, it is critical to study the function of the uterus at this time. We hypothesize that the antiviral protein, myxovirus resistance (MX)1, regulates secretion in uterine glandular cells during early pregnancy.Method of StudyUterine epithelial cells were used to study uterine function, in vitro. Sucrose gradients, Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy were used to isolate and identify exosomes. Immunofluorescence and ceramide inhibitors were used for the characterization of exosomes.ResultsMyxovirus resistance1 was associated with exosomes and protected from proteases, indicating it was inside exosomes. MX1 partially colocalized with exosomal protein CD63, and a ceramide inhibitor reduced numbers of MX1-associated exosomes.ConclusionThis study is the first to characterize MX1-associated exosomes, and we postulate that MX1 regulates secretion in epithelial cells by playing a role in exosome formation or trafficking.
      PubDate: 2012-02-20T02:48:38.465091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01109.
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