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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 386, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Primatology
  [SJR: 1.197]   [H-I: 63]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0275-2565 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2345
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-06-20T11:04:33.605005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22603
       
  • The effect of infant vocalization in alloparental responsiveness of common
           marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)
    • Authors: Maricele Nascimento Barbosa; Maria Teresa da Silva Mota, Marcela Nascimento Barbosa
      Abstract: Among mammals, alloparental care can be influenced by hormones as well as by previous experience and sensory stimuli from the infants, such as sight and sound, smell, and physical contact with the infant. To determine the responsiveness of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) nonreproductive females and males with and without previous experience in caretaking to infant sensory cues, we exposed 12 females and 12 males to vocalization recordings for 10 min under two conditions: (1) exposure to adult conspecific vocalization recordings, and (2) exposure to infant vocalization recordings. We recorded the frequency of approach toward the sound source, the time spent near it and locomotion frequency of males and females in the cage under both conditions. Blood samples were collected after each test for cortisol measuring by EIA method. The infant vocalization affects the behavioral and hormonal responses of males and females of common marmosets. The animals approached and spent more time near the sound source and showed an increase in locomotion during infant vocalization exposure compared to the adult vocalization. However, there was no significant difference in the behavioral response of animals when previous experience and the sex were taken into account. In both sexes, cortisol levels were significantly higher following infant vocalization exposure compared to the adult vocalization. These findings suggest that the infant vocalization appears to be an effective cue that facilitates the approach of the caregiver and maintaining their responsiveness and that the cortisol seems to be important for alertness to sensory stimuli, modulating their motivation to interact with the infant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T05:17:38.946068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22682
       
  • High reproductive effort is associated with decreasing mortality late in
           life in captive ruffed lemurs
    • Authors: Morgane Tidière; Jean-François Lemaître, Guillaume Douay, Mylisa Whipple, Jean-Michel Gaillard
      Abstract: Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions. We report clear evidence of actuarial senescence (i.e., the decline of annual survival with increasing age) in both sexes and for both species of ruffed lemurs. RRL had a lower baseline mortality and senesced faster than BWRL, resulting in similar distributions of longevities for both species. No between-sex difference was observed in any species. Lastly, a higher reproductive effort was positively associated with an increase of survival late in life, and thereby an increased longevity. These findings indicate that individual quality rather than trade-off drives the association between reproductive success and survival pattern among individual lemurs of both species in the protected environment provided by zoos. Lemurs are among the world's highest conservation priorities and better understanding factors influencing their longevity and actuarial senescence patterns should improve their conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T08:25:23.721932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22677
       
  • Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early
           adversity
    • Authors: Rebecca H. Larke; Alice Toubiana, Katrina A. Lindsay, Sally P. Mendoza, Karen L. Bales
      Abstract: The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T06:20:21.240624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22678
       
  • The befuddling nature of mouse lemur hands and feet at Bezà Mahafaly,
           SW Madagascar
    • Authors: Gina Agostini; Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R. Godfrey
      Abstract: The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus—a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy. We demonstrate significant interpopulation differences in autopod morphophology despite no evidence of divergence in mitochondrial cytochrome b. We test two hypotheses regarding ultimate causation. The first, based on the Fine Branch Arborealism Hypothesis (FBAH), holds that autopod differences are related to different locomotor practices in the two environments, and the second, based on the Narrow Niche Hypothesis (NNH), holds that the observed differences reflect a relaxation (from ancestral to descendant conditions) of selective pressure for terrestrial locomotion and/or use of large, vertical supports combined with positive selection for locomoting in peripheral branch settings. Our data conform well to FBAH expectations and show some support for the NNH. Individuals from the gallery forest possess disproportionally long posterior digits that facilitate locomotion on small, flexible canopy supports while individuals from the spiny forest possess shorter posterior digits and a longer pollex/hallux that increase functional grasping diameter for large vertical supports and facilitate efficient ground locomotion. Focal individual data confirm differences in how often individuals descend to the ground and use vertical supports. We further show that predispersal juveniles, like adults, possess autopod morphologies suited to their natal forest. We explore two proximate mechanisms that could generate these cheiridial differences. The first posits an in vivo plastic response to different locomotor behaviors, the second posits differences that manifest in early development.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T06:10:23.912075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22680
       
  • Evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized
           reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca
           sylvanus)
    • Authors: Sandra Molesti; Bonaventura Majolo
      Abstract: Reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. Reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. Three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (i) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (ii) indirect reciprocity, where another individual returns the grooming to the former donor; and (iii) generalized reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to another individual. While there is evidence that direct reciprocity plays an important role in various species of animals, the role of indirect and generalized reciprocity is less clear and has been rarely analyzed. We tested the role of direct, indirect, and generalized reciprocity in explaining grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques, by analyzing the temporal contingency between giving and receiving grooming. We collected the occurrence and latency of the three types of grooming reciprocation during 1 hr long focal sessions run simultaneously on two partners who just stopped grooming (post-grooming session) or who were in proximity (i.e., within 1.5 m) without grooming each other (control session). We ran the analyses on 284 post-grooming and 63 control sessions. The results revealed a temporal contingency of grooming interactions exchanged according to direct reciprocity but not according to indirect or generalized reciprocity. Our results indicate that grooming distribution in Barbary macaques is partner-specific. We discuss the possible role of cognition and emotions in explaining direct reciprocity in animals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T08:45:24.268026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22679
       
  • Of lemurs and louse flies: The biogeochemical and biotic effects of forest
           disturbance on Propithecus edwardsi and its obligate ectoparasite
           Allobosca crassipes in Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar
    • Authors: Elizabeth McGee; Stanley Vaughn
      Abstract: From alleles to ecosystems and landscapes, anthropogenic activity continues to affect the environment, with particularly adverse effects on biodiversity hotspots such as Madagascar. Selective logging has been proposed as a “win-win” conservation strategy, yet its effects on different components of biodiversity are still not fully understood. Here we examine biotic factors (i.e., dietary differences) that may be driving differences in biogeochemical stocks between disturbed and undisturbed forests. We present the stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope composition of hair from the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and of whole bodies of its obligate ectoparasite, the louse-fly Allobosca crassipes, from sites in Ranomafana National Park (RNP) that are comparable except for the history of logging and subsequent forest regeneration. P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from the disturbed (i.e., heavily selectively logged) site are lower in 15N and 13C relative to P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from sites that were minimally selectively logged or not commercially logged at all. There is a ∼3‰ decrease in 15N between disturbed and undisturbed sites that corresponds to a difference of nearly a full trophic level. Flowers from Bakerella clavata, a staple food source for P. edwardsi in disturbed habitats and a fallback food for P. edwardsi in primary forests, were also analyzed isotopically. B. clavata is δ15N-depleted in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Data from longitudinal behavioral surveys of P. edwardsi in RNP and other forests in eastern Madagascar point to significant differences in consumption patterns of B. clavata, with P. edwardsi in disturbed forests consuming almost twice as much of this plant. Depletion of 15N in animal tissues is a complex issue, but likely the result of the interaction of physiological and ecological factors. Anthropogenic disturbance in RNP from selective logging has had both biotic and biogeochemical effects that are observable trophically.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T11:00:37.513218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22676
       
  • Alpha male replacements in nonhuman primates: Variability in processes,
           outcomes, and terminology
    • Authors: Julie A. Teichroeb; Katharine M. Jack
      Abstract: Alpha male replacements occur in all primates displaying a dominance hierarchy but the process can be extremely variable. Here, we review the primate literature to document differences in patterns of alpha male replacements, showing that group composition and dispersal patterns account for a large proportion of this variability. We also examine the consequences of alpha male replacements in terms of sexual selection theory, infanticide, and group compositions. Though alpha male replacements are often called takeovers in the literature, this term masks much of the variation that is present in these processes. We argue for more concise terminology and provide a list of terms that we suggest more accurately define these events. Finally, we introduce the papers in this special issue on alpha male replacements in the American Journal of Primatology and discuss areas where data are still lacking.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T07:50:29.864527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22674
       
  • Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education
           program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes
    • Authors: Austin Leeds; Kristen E. Lukas, Corinne J. Kendall, Michelle A. Slavin, Elizabeth A. Ross, Martha M. Robbins, Dagmar van Weeghel, Richard A. Bergl
      Abstract: Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). Students viewed a trilogy of conservation films about great apes, produced specifically for this audience, and participated in complementary extra-curricular activities. The knowledge and attitudes of students participating in the program from KNP, but not BINP were assessed using questionnaires prior to (N = 1271) and following (N = 872) the completion of the program. Following the program, students demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of threats to great apes and an increase in their knowledge of ways that villagers and students can help conserve great apes. Additionally, student attitudes toward great apes improved following the program. For example, students showed an increase in agreement with liking great apes and viewing them as important to the environment. These data provide evidence that conservation films made specifically to address regional threats and using local actors and settings can positively influence knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes among students living in a primate range country.Mean proportion of desirable answers to the question “How can you conserve great apes” before and after the Great Ape Education Program by student population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:35:31.557215-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22673
       
  • Extraction of honey from underground bee nests by central African
           chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Loango National Park, Gabon:
           Techniques and individual differences
    • Authors: Vittoria Estienne; Colleen Stephens, Christophe Boesch
      Abstract: A detailed analysis of tool use behaviors can disclose the underlying cognitive traits of the users. We investigated the technique used by wild chimpanzees to extract the underground nests of stingless bees (Meliplebeia lendliana), which represent a hard-to-reach resource given their highly undetectable location. Using remote-sensor camera trap footage, we analyzed 151 visits to 50 different bee nests by 18 adult chimpanzees of both sexes. We quantified the degree of complexity and flexibility of this technique by looking at the behavioral repertoire and at its structural organization. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models to test whether individuals differed in their action repertoire sizes and in their action sequencing patterns, as well as in their preferences of use of different behavioral elements (namely, actions, and grip types). We found that subjects showed non-randomly organized sequences of actions and that the occurrence of certain actions was predicted by the type of the previous action in the sequences. Subjects did not differ in their repertoire sizes, and all used extractive actions involving tools more often than manual digging. As for the type of grip employed, the grip involving the coordinated use of hands and feet together was most frequently used by all subjects when perforating, and we detected significant individual preferences in this domain. Overall, we describe a highly complex and flexible extractive technique, and propose the existence of inter-individual variation in it. We discuss our results in the light of the evolution of higher cognitive abilities in the human lineage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:12:49.610342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22672
       
  • Feeding behavior and activity budget of the southern yellow-cheeked
           crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in a lowland tropical forest
    • Authors: Thanh H. Bach; Jin Chen, Minh D. Hoang, Kingsly C. Beng, Van T. Nguyen
      Abstract: The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period. We compared these data to information on phenological patterns at the site gleaned during a prior study. We found that the gibbons gathered most of their food from 69 different plant species and also consumed insects and bird eggs. Fruits were the main dietary item (43.3%), followed by leaves (38.4%), flowers (11.6%), and other plant parts (6.0%). A significant seasonal shift in diet was observed; fruit generally dominated the diet in the rainy season and leaves in the dry season. The gibbons often started daily activities very early (05:10 am) in the morning and also ended quite early (16:45 pm) in the afternoon. Socializing was concentrated in the early morning, feeding had a bimodal pattern of high activity levels in mid-morning and mid-afternoon, and resting was most intense at the earliest and latest hours of the day and at midday, with proportionally less time used for traveling at these times. Averaged over the annual cycle, the gibbons spent 45% of their time feeding, 31.9% resting, 14.1% traveling, and 9.0% socializing. The percentage of time allocated to different activities varied significantly across months and between the dry and rainy seasons. Monthly variation in the activity budget was strongly related to changes in diet. In the rainy season, when the gibbons ate a higher percentage of fruit, they decreased their feeding time, while increasing traveling time in search of food; conversely, in the dry season, when they fed on a higher percentage of leaves, they decreased traveling time. Overall, our results show that the activity budget and diet of the southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon are associated with seasonal shifts in climate. This study provides information relevant to the conservation and management of this endangered species by identifying important habitat conditions for reintroducing captive animals into the wild and providing insight into dietary needs, which may be relevant to the maintenance of animals in rescue centers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:35:26.534101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22667
       
  • Higher levels of submissive behaviors at the onset of the pairing process
           of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are associated with lower risk of
           wounding following introduction
    • Authors: Ori Pomerantz; Kate C. Baker
      Abstract: Social housing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is considered to be the cornerstone of behavioral management programs in biomedical facilities. However, it also involves the risk of socially inflicted trauma. The ability to avoid such trauma would contribute to the animals’ well-being and alleviate staff's concerns, thus paving the path for more introductions. Here, we sought to address the conflict between the need to socially house rhesus macaques and the need to bring social wounding to a minimum by identifying behaviors expressed early in social introductions, that may serve as predictors of later wounding events. We employed logistic regression analysis to predict the occurrence of wounding for 39 iso-sexual, adult pairs in the 30 days following the introduction into full contact using the levels of behaviors that were observed at the onset of the introduction. The results show that the levels of submissive behaviors were the only significant predictor to later stage wounding. Higher levels of submissive behaviors expressed during the early phases of the introduction were associated with a decreased likelihood of wounding. Interestingly, levels of affiliative behaviors have not added any power to the predictability of the statistical model. Therefore, it may be suggested that the exchange of submissive signals at the earliest stages of the introduction is critical in the determination of relative rank and preclude the need to establish dominance via aggression when allowed full contact. While the observation of clear-cut dominance relationships is commonly considered a harbinger of success, our findings suggest that it is the acknowledgment of subordination, rather than the expression of dominance that underlies this observed pattern. The value of our findings for guiding social housing decision-making may be strongest in situations in which the composition of potential partners is constrained, and therefore requiring that wise decisions be relied upon early behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:29:51.778701-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22671
       
  • Personality assessment and model comparison with behavioral data: A
           statistical framework and empirical demonstration with bonobos (Pan
           paniscus)
    • Authors: Jordan S. Martin; Scott A. Suarez
      Abstract: Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers’ from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods. In this paper, we propose a statistical framework for primate personality research designed to address these limitations. Our framework synthesizes recently developed mixed-effects modeling approaches for quantifying behavioral variation with an information-theoretic model selection paradigm for confirmatory personality research. After detailing a multi-step analytic procedure for personality assessment and model comparison, we employ this framework to evaluate seven models of personality structure in zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus). We find that differences between sexes, ages, zoos, time of observation, and social group composition contributed to significant behavioral variance. Independently of these factors, however, personality nonetheless accounted for a moderate to high proportion of variance in average behavior across observational periods. A personality structure derived from past rating research receives the strongest support relative to our model set. This model suggests that personality variation across the measured behavioral traits is best described by two correlated but distinct dimensions reflecting individual differences in affiliation and sociability (Agreeableness) as well as activity level, social play, and neophilia toward non-threatening stimuli (Openness). These results underscore the utility of our framework for quantifying personality in primates and facilitating greater integration between the behavioral ecological and comparative psychological approaches to personality research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T17:57:34.283239-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22670
       
  • The relative effects of reproductive condition, stress, and seasonality on
           patterns of parasitism in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta
           pigra)
    • Authors: Rodolfo Martínez-Mota; Paul A. Garber, Rupert Palme, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Over the course of one year, we collected fresh fecal samples from 15 adult females belonging to seven black howler groups living in Escárcega, Mexico. Fecal samples were used for parasitological analysis and for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (i.e., stress biomarker). We found that the prevalence of intestinal parasites and parasite richness did not differ among non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating females. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels increased significantly during pregnancy and during the first month of lactation, and positively predicted the probability of Controrchis biliophilus infection. Parasite prevalence and richness decreased during the months of increased rainfall. We conclude that reproductive physiology has limited consequences on intestinal parasitic infection risk in female black howler monkeys and that seasonal environmental fluctuations have greater effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:56:06.726579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22669
       
  • Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates,
           irrespective of reinforcement
    • Authors: Amy Lewis; Josep Call, Dorthe Berntsen
      Abstract: Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:46.700759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22665
       
  • Orangutan trade, confiscations, and lack of prosecutions in Indonesia
    • Authors: Vincent Nijman
      Abstract: Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993–2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were “donated” to law enforcement agencies. This resulted in seven (7) successful prosecutions by six different courts. Sentencing was lenient (median fine US$ 442 out of a possible US$ 7,600, median prison sentence 8 months out of a possible 5 years) and certainly too low to act as a deterrent. A paradigm shift within government authorities, conservation organizations, the judiciary, and by the general public is needed where trade in orangutans is no longer seen as a crime against an individual animal but as an economic crime that negatively affects society as a whole. Prosecuting offenders for tax evasion, corruption, endangering public health, animal cruelty, and smuggling, in addition to violating protected species laws, would allow for an increase in sentencing, resulting in a stronger deterrent, and greater public support. Conservation and welfare NGOs have a duty to become more proactive in a drive to increase enforcement; rescuing orangutans always has to coincide with prosecuting offenders and failures, and successes of these prosecutions have to be vigorously publicized. Despite numerous commitments made by Indonesia to orangutan conservation, and clear failures to deliver on almost all components, international donors have increased their funding year on year; it is time that this changes to a system where not failure is rewarded but success.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:44.524665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22652
       
  • Orangutans, enamel defects, and developmental health: A comparison of
           Borneo and Sumatra
    • Authors: Mark F. Skinner; Matthew M. Skinner
      Abstract: Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans. We are concerned that neglect of this possible marker of ill health may be contributing, through inaction, to their alarming decline in numbers. Width and depth of an LEH are considered proxies for duration and intensity of stress. The hypothesis that Bornean orangutans would exhibit relatively wider and deeper LEH was tested on 163 independent episodes of LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans measured with a NanoFocus AG “µsurf Mobile Plus” scanner. Non-normally distributed data (depths) were converted to natural logs. No difference was found in width of LEH among the two island taxa; nor are their differences in width or depth between the sexes. After controlling for significant differences in LEH depths between incisors and canines, defects are, contrary to prediction, significantly deeper in Sumatran than Bornean animals (median = 28, 18 µm, respectively). It is concluded that repetitive LEH records an unknown but significant stressor present in both Sumatra and Borneo, with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof) that lasts about 6–8 weeks. It is worse in Sumatra. Given this patterning, shared with apes from a wide range of ecological and temporal sources, rLEH is more likely attributable to disease than to malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:31.400312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22668
       
  • Contexts and consequences of takeovers in hamadryas baboons: Female
           parity, reproductive state, and observational evidence of pregnancy loss
    • Authors: Alexis L. Amann; Mathew Pines, Larissa Swedell
      Abstract: The evolutionary consequences of sexual selection and sexual conflict are epitomized in the hamadryas baboon, a species characterized by strong sexual dimorphism and intense male–male competition. Hamadryas males coerce individual females into reproductively exclusive one-male units via aggressive takeovers, and infants involved in such takeovers are at least four times more likely to be killed (or otherwise die) after takeovers compared to other times. Here we examine female reproductive state before and after takeovers to further investigate the determinants of takeovers and their impact on female reproduction. Our data set consists of 162 takeovers over a period of 20 years in a population of wild hamadryas baboons at Filoha, Ethiopia. Results show that, in contrast to their polygynandrous relatives, hamadryas males show no bias with regard to female reproductive state at the time of the takeover, but are more likely to take over nulliparous compared to multiparous females. In addition, these results reinforce previous findings demonstrating the high likelihood of infant loss after hamadryas takeovers and suggest that females may use an additional strategy of pregnancy termination to curtail investment in offspring that are very likely to die anyway. Thus, hamadryas males may target females with high future reproductive value and hamadryas females may employ counterstrategies to help mitigate the effects of sexual coercion and infanticide on their own fitness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T17:25:35.104828-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22649
       
  • Optimizing field and analytical procedures for estimating densities of
           arboreal and threatened primates in tropical rainforest
    • Authors: Nathalie Cavada; Marco Ciolli, Claudia Barelli, Francesco Rovero
      Abstract: The application of distance sampling to primate density estimation is challenging and susceptible to estimation biases, mainly due to the difficulties of properly accounting for variation in species’ detectability and of accurately sampling the spread of the social groups. We apply a hierarchical distance sampling approach to primate data, to account for a comprehensive set of environmental covariates of both detectability and abundance, and we propose a novel field routine to measure the spread of groups during transect sampling. We confirm the good potential of this approach, given we obtained refined estimates of primate density (as measured by the Akaike Information Criterion) in comparison to estimates from models without covariates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T15:05:42.350269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22666
       
  • Conservation strategies for understanding and combating the primate
           bushmeat trade on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    • Authors: Drew T. Cronin; Paul R. Sesink Clee, Matthew W. Mitchell, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, David Fernández, Cirilo Riaco, Maximiliano Fero Meñe, Jose Manuel Esara Echube, Gail W. Hearn, Mary Katherine Gonder
      Abstract: Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is among the important places in Africa for the conservation of primates, but a cultural preference for bushmeat and a lack of effective law enforcement has encouraged commercial bushmeat hunting, threatening the survival of the remaining primate population. For over 13 years, we collected bushmeat market data in the Malabo market, recording over 35,000 primate carcasses, documenting “mardi gras” consumption patterns, seasonal carcass availability, and negative effects resulting from government intervention. We also conducted forest surveys throughout Bioko's two protected areas in order to localize and quantify primate populations and hunting pressure. Using these data, we were able to document the significant negative impact bushmeat hunting had on monkey populations, estimate which species are most vulnerable to hunting, and develop ecological niche models to approximate the distribution of each of Bioko's diurnal primate species. These results also have allowed for the identification of primate hotspots, such as the critically important southwest region of the Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve, and thus, priority areas for conservation on Bioko, leading to more comprehensive conservation recommendations. Current and future efforts now focus on bridging the gap between investigators and legislators in order to develop and effectively implement a management plan for Bioko's Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve and to develop a targeted educational campaign to reduce demand by changing consumer attitudes toward bushmeat. Using this multidisciplinary approach, informed by biological, socioeconomic, and cultural research, there may yet be a positive future for the primates of Bioko.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:38.873813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22663
       
  • Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet
           across an altitudinal gradient
    • Authors: Halszka Glowacka; Shannon C. McFarlin, Erin R. Vogel, Tara S. Stoinski, Felix Ndagijimana, Deo Tuyisingize, Antoine Mudakikwa, Gary T. Schwartz
      Abstract: The robust masticatory system of mountain gorillas is thought to have evolved for the comminution of tough vegetation, yet, compared to other primates, the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet is unremarkable. This may be a result of low plant toughness in the mountain gorilla environment or of mountain gorillas feeding selectively on low-toughness foods. The goal of this paper is to determine how the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet varies across their habitat, which spans a large altitudinal range, and whether there is a relationship between toughness and food selection by mountain gorillas. We collected data on the following variables to determine whether, and if so how, they change with altitude: leaf toughness of two plant species consumed by mountain gorillas, at every 100 m increase in altitude (2,600–3,700 m); toughness of consumed foods comprising over 85% of the gorilla diet across five vegetation zones; and toughness of unconsumed/infrequently consumed plant parts of those foods. Although leaf toughness increased with altitude, the toughness of the gorilla diet remained similar. There was a negative relationship between toughness and consumption frequency, and toughness was a better predictor of consumption frequency than plant frequency, biomass, and density. Consumed plant parts were less tough than unconsumed/infrequently consumed parts and toughness of the latter increased with altitude. Although it is unclear whether gorillas select food based on toughness or use toughness as a sensory cue to impart other plant properties (e.g., macronutrients, chemicals), our results that gorillas maintain a consistent low-toughness dietary profile across altitude, despite toughness increasing with altitude, suggest that the robust gorilla masticatory apparatus evolved for repetitive mastication of foods that are not high in toughness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:34.181657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22661
       
  • Social and demographic correlates of male androgen levels in wild
           white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)
    • Authors: Franka S. Schaebs; Susan E. Perry, Don Cohen, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner
      Abstract: The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males had higher androgen levels than subordinates. Contrary to our predictions, neither the number of breeding-age males nor the number of potentially fertile females was obviously associated with androgen levels. Furthermore, male androgen levels were not significantly linked to social stability, as measured by stability of male group membership or recency of change in the alpha male position. Androgen levels changed seasonally, but not in a manner that had an obvious relationship to predictions from the Challenge Hypothesis: levels were generally at their lowest near the beginning of the conception season, but instead of peaking when reproductive opportunities were greatest, they were at their highest near the end of the conception season or shortly thereafter. This lack of correspondence to the timing of conceptions suggests that there may be ecological factors not yet identified that influence ifA levels. We expected that the presence of offspring who were young enough to be vulnerable to infanticide during an alpha male takeover might influence androgen levels, at least in the alpha male, but this variable did not significantly impact results.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:40:34.137678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22653
       
  • How do rivers, geographic distance, and dispersal behavior influence
           genetic structure in two sympatric New World monkeys'
    • Authors: Emilie Lecompte; Mohand-Ameziane Bouanani, Benoît de Thoisy, Brigitte Crouau-Roy
      Abstract: Dispersal, one of the major factors affecting the gene flow between populations, shapes the spatial distribution of genetic diversity within species. Alouatta macconnelli and Saguinus midas are two Neotropical monkey species that sympatrically inhabit the Guiana shield in northern Amazonia and are likely to differ in their dispersal behavior and vagility. We took advantage of their sympatry to investigate, over a fine geographical scale (∼50 km long), the relationship between spatial genetic structure, on the one hand, and geographical features and the species’ dispersal behavior on the other. A total of 84 A. macconnelli individuals from 25 social units and 76 S. midas individuals from 19 social units were genotyped for nine microsatellite markers. Both species displayed high genetic diversity and allelic richness. However, patterns of genetic structure differed between the two species. In A. macconnelli, no genetic substructuring was observed, while in S. midas we detected significant structuring, but this structuring was not correlated with geographical features, such as the location of individuals relative to the river and/or the distance between them. Instead, the geographical distribution of genetic variation observed for each species is predominantly explained by each species’ dispersal pattern. We identified bisexual dispersal for both species, but with significant differences, either in the distance or in the rate of dispersal, between species and sexes. Genetic relatedness within social units was higher in S. midas than in A. macconnelli: gene flow between social units seems limited in S. midas, especially for females, while high dispersal characterizes A. macconnelli, where females seem to disperse at lower rate but at a longer distance than males.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:40:36.069566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22660
       
  • How far do Neotropical primates disperse seeds'
    • Authors: Lisieux F. Fuzessy; Charles H. Janson, Fernando A. O. Silveira
      Abstract: Seed dispersal distance (SDD) is a vital component of vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal process: the average distance at which seeds are deposited away from the parent plant represents the starting template of plant regeneration. We present a simple model to explain and predict observed measures of average dispersal distance and we hypothesize that it is a consequence of how long seeds are retained in the disperser's gut, how rapidly the disperser moves per unit time and how twisted the animal travel path is relative to the straight-line distance moved away from the seed source. We retrieved data on dispersal distances from 26 published studies including nine primate species dispersing up to 112 plant species per study. We used gut transit time (TT) as a proxy for residence time inside the gut, the disperser's travel path per hour as proxy for movement rate, and the daily path length relative to the home range area as a correlate of path twisting (PT). We illustrate this model with comparative data on Neotropical primates. These three variables explained 90% of the variation in the average SDD. Path analysis indicates that additional variables exerted only indirect effects. Our model can be applied to primate populations for which detailed seed dispersal data are missing, and help evaluate conservation priorities for primate species according to the potential service they provide in terms of forest regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:30:47.025696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22659
       
  • An empirical evaluation of camera trapping and spatially explicit
           capture-recapture models for estimating chimpanzee density
    • Authors: Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner; Eric J. Howe, Pierre Drapeau, Hjalmar S. Kühl
      Abstract: Empirical validations of survey methods for estimating animal densities are rare, despite the fact that only an application to a population of known density can demonstrate their reliability under field conditions and constraints. Here, we present a field validation of camera trapping in combination with spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for enumerating chimpanzee populations. We used 83 camera traps to sample a habituated community of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of known community and territory size in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and estimated community size and density using spatially explicit capture-recapture models. We aimed to: (1) validate camera trapping as a means to collect capture-recapture data for chimpanzees; (2) validate SECR methods to estimate chimpanzee density from camera trap data; (3) compare the efficacy of targeting locations frequently visited by chimpanzees versus deploying cameras according to a systematic design; (4) evaluate the performance of SECR estimators with reduced sampling effort; and (5) identify sources of heterogeneity in detection probabilities. Ten months of camera trapping provided abundant capture-recapture data. All weaned individuals were detected, most of them multiple times, at both an array of targeted locations, and a systematic grid of cameras positioned randomly within the study area, though detection probabilities were higher at targeted locations. SECR abundance estimates were accurate and precise, and analyses of subsets of the data indicated that the majority of individuals in a community could be detected with as few as five traps deployed within their territory. Our results highlight the potential of camera trapping for cost-effective monitoring of chimpanzee populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T12:15:26.642913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22647
       
  • Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging
           ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the
           southern Ethiopian Highlands
    • Authors: Addisu Mekonnen; Peter J. Fashing, Afework Bekele, R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K. Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr. Stenseth
      Abstract: Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T20:01:18.660094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22644
       
  • Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at
           the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Kim Grützmacher; Verena Keil, Vera Leinert, Floraine Leguillon, Arthur Henlin, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Sophie Köndgen, Alexander Lang, Tobias Deschner, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz
      Abstract: Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine—in combination with monitoring for symptoms—is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T16:50:21.112546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22619
       
 
 
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