for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 399, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover American Journal of Primatology
  [SJR: 1.197]   [H-I: 63]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0275-2565 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2345
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Correlates of androgens in wild male Barbary macaques: Testing the
           challenge hypothesis
    • Authors: Alan V. Rincon; Laëtitia Maréchal, Stuart Semple, Bonaventura Majolo, Ann MacLarnon
      Abstract: Investigating causes and consequences of variation in hormonal expression is a key focus in behavioral ecology. Many studies have explored patterns of secretion of the androgen testosterone in male vertebrates, using the challenge hypothesis (Wingfield, Hegner, Dufty, & Ball, 1990; The American Naturalist, 136(6), 829–846) as a theoretical framework. Rather than the classic association of testosterone with male sexual behavior, this hypothesis predicts that high levels of testosterone are associated with male–male reproductive competition but also inhibit paternal care. The hypothesis was originally developed for birds, and subsequently tested in other vertebrate taxa, including primates. Such studies have explored the link between testosterone and reproductive aggression as well as other measures of mating competition, or between testosterone and aspects of male behavior related to the presence of infants. Very few studies have simultaneously investigated the links between testosterone and male aggression, other aspects of mating competition and infant-related behavior. We tested predictions derived from the challenge hypothesis in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), a species with marked breeding seasonality and high levels of male-infant affiliation, providing a powerful test of this theoretical framework. Over 11 months, 251 hr of behavioral observations and 296 fecal samples were collected from seven adult males in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Fecal androgen levels rose before the onset of the mating season, during a period of rank instability, and were positively related to group mating activity across the mating season. Androgen levels were unrelated to rates of male–male aggression in any period, but higher ranked males had higher levels in both the mating season and in the period of rank instability. Lower androgen levels were associated with increased rates of male-infant grooming during the mating and unstable periods. Our results generally support the challenge hypothesis and highlight the importance of considering individual species’ behavioral ecology when testing this framework.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T22:10:37.784508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22689
       
  • High mortality associated with tapeworm parasitism in geladas
           (Theropithecus gelada) in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
    • Authors: India Schneider-Crease; Randi H. Griffin, Megan A. Gomery, Thore J. Bergman, Jacinta C. Beehner
      Abstract: Despite increasing appreciation for parasitism as an important component of primate ecology and evolution, surprisingly few studies have demonstrated the costs of helminth parasitism in primates. Detecting parasite-related costs in primates is particularly difficult because it requires detailed, long-term data on individual host reproductive success, survival, and parasitism. The identification of the larval tapeworm Taenia serialis in geladas under intensive long-term study in the Ethiopian Highlands (Nguyen et al. [2015] American Journal of Primatology, 77:579–594; Schneider-Crease et al. [2013] Veterinary Parasitology 198:240–243) provides an opportunity to examine how an endemic parasite impacts host reproductive success and survival. We used survival analyses to assess the mortality risk associated with protuberant larval cysts characteristic of T. serialis using a decade of data from a gelada population in the Simien Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia. We demonstrated strikingly high mortality associated with T. serialis cysts in adult females, particularly for younger adults. The estimated effect of cysts on male mortality was similar, although the effect was not statistically significant, likely owing to the smaller sample size. Additionally, the offspring of mothers with cysts experienced increased mortality, which was driven almost entirely by maternal death. Mothers with cysts had such high mortality that they rarely completed an interbirth interval. Comparison with a study of this parasite in another gelada population on the Guassa Plateau (Nguyen et al. [2015] American Journal of Primatology, 77:579–594) revealed lower cyst prevalence in the SMNP and similar cyst-associated mortality. However, many more females with cysts completed interbirth intervals at Guassa than in the SMNP, suggesting that T. serialis cysts may kill hosts more rapidly in the SMNP. Our results point toward the underlying causes of individual and population-level heterogeneity in T. serialis-associated mortality as important areas for future research.Parasitism is associated with high mortality and low reproductive success in wild geladas. Infection with the larvae of the tapeworm Taenia serialis significantly decreases survival in females. Offspring of infected females have lower survival due to maternal death.The larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia serialis causes protuberant cysts associated with high fitness costs in geladas (Theropithecus gelada) in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T08:20:39.883023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22684
       
  • Sleeping above the enemy: Sleeping site choice by black-fronted titi
           monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons)
    • Authors: Christini B. Caselli; Carla C. Gestich, Mariana B. Nagy-Reis
      Abstract: The costs imposed by predation may result in behavioral adaptations to reduce mortality risk, including the choice and use of sleeping sites. The threat of predation, however, is rarely the sole force shaping sleeping site choice, which is likely to reflect other factors such as foraging needs as well. Here we describe the use of sleeping sites by three groups of small Neotropical monkeys, the black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons), and evaluate the role of predation pressure and foraging optimization in their choice of sleeping sites. We monitored each group for 9–20 months at two Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil. The titi monkeys used taller and larger trees to sleep than the average trees at each study site and chose branches with high vegetation coverage and located in higher forest strata than those used during diurnal activity. Sleeping sites were randomly distributed within each group's home range, and the groups avoided using the same site on consecutive nights. The characteristics of the sleeping sites and the behavior of the titi monkeys suggest that predation avoidance, especially of scansorial carnivores, is an important factor driving sleeping site choice. We conclude that titi monkeys’ strategy to avoid predation while sleeping depends on the presence of a heterogeneous forest stratum with large emergent trees and liana tangles, which offer a physical barrier against predators.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T12:20:25.279946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22688
       
  • Membership analysis of the American Society of Primatologists through 2015
           and planning for future
    • Authors: Kimberley A. Phillips; Marilyn A. Norconk
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T10:55:46.861117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22685
       
  • Resilience of experimentally seeded dietary traditions in wild vervets:
           Evidence from group fissions
    • Authors: Erica van de Waal; Carel P. van Schaik, Andrew Whiten
      Abstract: Controlled laboratory experiments have delivered extensive and compelling evidence for the diffusion and maintenance of socially learned behavior in primates and other animals. Such evidence is rarer in the wild, but we show that a behavior seeded in a majority of individuals within vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythus) groups may be sustained across several years. Here, we report results of two natural fission events in such groups that offer novel evidence of the resilience of socially transmitted group norms of behavior. Before fission, high ranked females exhibited an almost exclusive adherence to a group preference among two food options, originally introduced through a distasteful additive in one option, but no longer present in repeated later tests. Because of rank-dependent competition, low-ranked females ate more of the formerly distasteful food and so discovered it was now as palatable as the alternative. Despite this experience, low ranked females who formed the splinter groups then expressed a 100% bias for the preferred option of their original parent group, revealing these preferences to be resilient. We interpret this effect as conformity to either the preferences of high rankers or of a majority in the parent group, or both. However, given fissioned individuals’ familiarity with their habitat and experimental options, we question the adequacy of the informational function usually ascribed to conformity and discuss alternatives under a concept of “social conformity”.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T06:21:47.931747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22687
       
  • Morbidity and mortality in infant mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei
           beringei): A 46-year retrospective review
    • Authors: James M. Hassell; Dawn Zimmerman, Michael R. Cranfield, Kirsten Gilardi, Antoine Mudakikwa, Jan Ramer, Elisabeth Nyirakaragire, Linda J. Lowenstine
      Abstract: Long-term studies of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging primates are scarce, but may have important implications for the conservation of extant populations. Infants comprise a particularly important age group, as variation in survival rates may have a strong influence on population dynamics. Since 1968, the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP, Inc.) and government partners have conducted a comprehensive health monitoring and disease investigation program on mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In an effort to better understand diseases in this species, we reviewed reliable field reports (n = 37), gross post-mortem (n = 66), and histopathology (n = 53) reports for 103 infants (less than 3.5 years) mountain gorillas in the Virunga Massif. Our aim was to conduct the first comprehensive analysis of causes of infant mortality and to correlate histological evidence with antemortem morbidity in infant mountain gorillas. Causes of morbidity and mortality were described, and compared by age, sex, and over time. Trauma was the most common cause of death in infants (56%), followed by respiratory infections and aspiration (13%). Gastrointestinal parasitism (33%), atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (suggestive of infectious disease) (31%), and hepatic capillariasis (25%) were the most significant causes of antemortem morbidity identified post-mortem. Identifying the causes of mortality and morbidity in infants of this critically endangered species will help to inform policy aimed at their protection and guide ante- and post-mortem health monitoring and clinical decision-making in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T10:35:39.528981-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22686
       
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-07-17T14:21:38.113296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22604
       
  • Significant differentiation in the apolipoprotein(a)/lipoprotein(a) trait
           between chimpanzees from Western and Central Africa
    • Authors: Asma Noureen; Claudius Ronke, Mahmoud Khalifa, Michel Halbwax, Anne Fischer, Claudine André, Rebeca Atencia, Rosa Garriga, Lawrence Mugisha, Uta Ceglarek, Joachim Thiery, Gerd Utermann, Konrad Schmidt
      Abstract: Elevated Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) plasma concentrations are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans, largely controlled by the LPA gene encoding apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). Lp(a) is composed of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apo(a) and restricted to Catarrhini. A variable number of kringle IV (KIV) domains in LPA lead to a size polymorphism of apo(a) that is inversely correlated with Lp(a) concentrations. Smaller apo(a) isoforms and higher Lp(a) levels in central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes [PTT]) compared to humans from Europe had been reported. We studied apo(a) isoforms and Lp(a) concentrations in 75 western (Pan troglodytes verus [PTV]) and 112 central chimpanzees, and 12 bonobos (Pan paniscus [PPA]), all wild born and living in sanctuaries in Sierra Leone, Republic of the Congo, and DR Congo, respectively, and 116 humans from Gabon. Lp(a) levels were severalfold higher in western than in central chimpanzees (181.0 ± 6.7 mg/dl vs. 56.5 ± 4.3 mg/dl), whereas bonobos showed intermediate levels (134.8 ± 33.4 mg/dl). Apo(a) isoform sizes differed significantly between subspecies (means 20.9 ± 2.2, 22.9 ± 4.4, and 23.8 ± 3.8 KIV repeats in PTV, PTT, and PPA, respectively). However, far higher isoform-associated Lp(a) concentrations for all isoform sizes in western chimpanzees offered the main explanation for the higher overall Lp(a) levels in this subspecies. Human Lp(a) concentrations (mean 47.9 ± 2.8 mg/dl) were similar to those in central chimpanzees despite larger isoforms (mean 27.1 ± 4.9 KIV). Lp(a) and LDL, apoB-100, and total cholesterol levels only correlated in PTV. This remarkable differentiation between chimpanzees from different African habitats and the trait's similarity in humans and chimpanzees from Central Africa poses the question of a possible impact of an environmental factor that has shaped the genetic architecture of LPA. Overall, studies on the cholesterol-containing particles of Lp(a) and LDL in chimpanzees should consider differentiation between subspecies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T08:25:58.002403-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22683
       
  • The Critically Endangered western chimpanzee declines by 80%
    • Authors: Hjalmar S. Kühl; Tenekwetsche Sop, Elizabeth A. Williamson, Roger Mundry, David Brugière, Genevieve Campbell, Heather Cohen, Emmanuel Danquah, Laura Ginn, Ilka Herbinger, Sorrel Jones, Jessica Junker, Rebecca Kormos, Celestin Y. Kouakou, Paul K. N'Goran, Emma Normand, Kathryn Shutt-Phillips, Alexander Tickle, Elleni Vendras, Adam Welsh, Erin G. Wessling, Christophe Boesch
      Abstract: African large mammals are under extreme pressure from unsustainable hunting and habitat loss. Certain traits make large mammals particularly vulnerable. These include late age at first reproduction, long inter-birth intervals, and low population density. Great apes are a prime example of such vulnerability, exhibiting all of these traits. Here we assess the rate of population change for the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, over a 24-year period. As a proxy for change in abundance, we used transect nest count data from 20 different sites archived in the IUCN SSC A.P.E.S. database, representing 25,000 of the estimated remaining 35,000 western chimpanzees. For each of the 20 sites, datasets for 2 different years were available. We estimated site-specific and global population change using Generalized Linear Models. At 12 of these sites, we detected a significant negative trend. The estimated change in the subspecies abundance, as approximated by nest encounter rate, yielded a 6% annual decline and a total decline of 80.2% over the study period from 1990 to 2014. This also resulted in a reduced geographic range of 20% (657,600 vs. 524,100 km2). Poverty, civil conflict, disease pandemics, agriculture, extractive industries, infrastructure development, and lack of law enforcement, are some of the many reasons for the magnitude of threat. Our status update triggered the uplisting of the western chimpanzee to “Critically Endangered” on the IUCN Red List. In 2017, IUCN will start updating the 2003 Action Plan for western chimpanzees and will provide a consensus blueprint for what is needed to save this subspecies. We make a plea for greater commitment to conservation in West Africa across sectors. Needed especially is more robust engagement by national governments, integration of conservation priorities into the private sector and development planning across the region and sustained financial support from donors.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T08:25:39.270036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22681
       
  • The effect of infant vocalization in alloparental responsiveness of common
           marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)
    • Authors: Maricele Nascimento Barbosa; Maria Teresa da Silva Mota, Marcela Nascimento Barbosa
      Abstract: Among mammals, alloparental care can be influenced by hormones as well as by previous experience and sensory stimuli from the infants, such as sight and sound, smell, and physical contact with the infant. To determine the responsiveness of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) nonreproductive females and males with and without previous experience in caretaking to infant sensory cues, we exposed 12 females and 12 males to vocalization recordings for 10 min under two conditions: (1) exposure to adult conspecific vocalization recordings, and (2) exposure to infant vocalization recordings. We recorded the frequency of approach toward the sound source, the time spent near it and locomotion frequency of males and females in the cage under both conditions. Blood samples were collected after each test for cortisol measuring by EIA method. The infant vocalization affects the behavioral and hormonal responses of males and females of common marmosets. The animals approached and spent more time near the sound source and showed an increase in locomotion during infant vocalization exposure compared to the adult vocalization. However, there was no significant difference in the behavioral response of animals when previous experience and the sex were taken into account. In both sexes, cortisol levels were significantly higher following infant vocalization exposure compared to the adult vocalization. These findings suggest that the infant vocalization appears to be an effective cue that facilitates the approach of the caregiver and maintaining their responsiveness and that the cortisol seems to be important for alertness to sensory stimuli, modulating their motivation to interact with the infant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T05:17:38.946068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22682
       
  • High reproductive effort is associated with decreasing mortality late in
           life in captive ruffed lemurs
    • Authors: Morgane Tidière; Jean-François Lemaître, Guillaume Douay, Mylisa Whipple, Jean-Michel Gaillard
      Abstract: Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions. We report clear evidence of actuarial senescence (i.e., the decline of annual survival with increasing age) in both sexes and for both species of ruffed lemurs. RRL had a lower baseline mortality and senesced faster than BWRL, resulting in similar distributions of longevities for both species. No between-sex difference was observed in any species. Lastly, a higher reproductive effort was positively associated with an increase of survival late in life, and thereby an increased longevity. These findings indicate that individual quality rather than trade-off drives the association between reproductive success and survival pattern among individual lemurs of both species in the protected environment provided by zoos. Lemurs are among the world's highest conservation priorities and better understanding factors influencing their longevity and actuarial senescence patterns should improve their conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T08:25:23.721932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22677
       
  • Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early
           adversity
    • Authors: Rebecca H. Larke; Alice Toubiana, Katrina A. Lindsay, Sally P. Mendoza, Karen L. Bales
      Abstract: The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T06:20:21.240624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22678
       
  • The befuddling nature of mouse lemur hands and feet at Bezà Mahafaly,
           SW Madagascar
    • Authors: Gina Agostini; Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R. Godfrey
      Abstract: The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus—a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy. We demonstrate significant interpopulation differences in autopod morphophology despite no evidence of divergence in mitochondrial cytochrome b. We test two hypotheses regarding ultimate causation. The first, based on the Fine Branch Arborealism Hypothesis (FBAH), holds that autopod differences are related to different locomotor practices in the two environments, and the second, based on the Narrow Niche Hypothesis (NNH), holds that the observed differences reflect a relaxation (from ancestral to descendant conditions) of selective pressure for terrestrial locomotion and/or use of large, vertical supports combined with positive selection for locomoting in peripheral branch settings. Our data conform well to FBAH expectations and show some support for the NNH. Individuals from the gallery forest possess disproportionally long posterior digits that facilitate locomotion on small, flexible canopy supports while individuals from the spiny forest possess shorter posterior digits and a longer pollex/hallux that increase functional grasping diameter for large vertical supports and facilitate efficient ground locomotion. Focal individual data confirm differences in how often individuals descend to the ground and use vertical supports. We further show that predispersal juveniles, like adults, possess autopod morphologies suited to their natal forest. We explore two proximate mechanisms that could generate these cheiridial differences. The first posits an in vivo plastic response to different locomotor behaviors, the second posits differences that manifest in early development.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T06:10:23.912075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22680
       
  • Evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized
           reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca
           sylvanus)
    • Authors: Sandra Molesti; Bonaventura Majolo
      Abstract: Reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. Reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. Three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (i) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (ii) indirect reciprocity, where another individual returns the grooming to the former donor; and (iii) generalized reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to another individual. While there is evidence that direct reciprocity plays an important role in various species of animals, the role of indirect and generalized reciprocity is less clear and has been rarely analyzed. We tested the role of direct, indirect, and generalized reciprocity in explaining grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques, by analyzing the temporal contingency between giving and receiving grooming. We collected the occurrence and latency of the three types of grooming reciprocation during 1 hr long focal sessions run simultaneously on two partners who just stopped grooming (post-grooming session) or who were in proximity (i.e., within 1.5 m) without grooming each other (control session). We ran the analyses on 284 post-grooming and 63 control sessions. The results revealed a temporal contingency of grooming interactions exchanged according to direct reciprocity but not according to indirect or generalized reciprocity. Our results indicate that grooming distribution in Barbary macaques is partner-specific. We discuss the possible role of cognition and emotions in explaining direct reciprocity in animals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T08:45:24.268026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22679
       
  • Of lemurs and louse flies: The biogeochemical and biotic effects of forest
           disturbance on Propithecus edwardsi and its obligate ectoparasite
           Allobosca crassipes in Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar
    • Authors: Elizabeth McGee; Stanley Vaughn
      Abstract: From alleles to ecosystems and landscapes, anthropogenic activity continues to affect the environment, with particularly adverse effects on biodiversity hotspots such as Madagascar. Selective logging has been proposed as a “win-win” conservation strategy, yet its effects on different components of biodiversity are still not fully understood. Here we examine biotic factors (i.e., dietary differences) that may be driving differences in biogeochemical stocks between disturbed and undisturbed forests. We present the stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope composition of hair from the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and of whole bodies of its obligate ectoparasite, the louse-fly Allobosca crassipes, from sites in Ranomafana National Park (RNP) that are comparable except for the history of logging and subsequent forest regeneration. P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from the disturbed (i.e., heavily selectively logged) site are lower in 15N and 13C relative to P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from sites that were minimally selectively logged or not commercially logged at all. There is a ∼3‰ decrease in 15N between disturbed and undisturbed sites that corresponds to a difference of nearly a full trophic level. Flowers from Bakerella clavata, a staple food source for P. edwardsi in disturbed habitats and a fallback food for P. edwardsi in primary forests, were also analyzed isotopically. B. clavata is δ15N-depleted in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Data from longitudinal behavioral surveys of P. edwardsi in RNP and other forests in eastern Madagascar point to significant differences in consumption patterns of B. clavata, with P. edwardsi in disturbed forests consuming almost twice as much of this plant. Depletion of 15N in animal tissues is a complex issue, but likely the result of the interaction of physiological and ecological factors. Anthropogenic disturbance in RNP from selective logging has had both biotic and biogeochemical effects that are observable trophically.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T11:00:37.513218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22676
       
  • Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education
           program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes
    • Authors: Austin Leeds; Kristen E. Lukas, Corinne J. Kendall, Michelle A. Slavin, Elizabeth A. Ross, Martha M. Robbins, Dagmar van Weeghel, Richard A. Bergl
      Abstract: Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). Students viewed a trilogy of conservation films about great apes, produced specifically for this audience, and participated in complementary extra-curricular activities. The knowledge and attitudes of students participating in the program from KNP, but not BINP were assessed using questionnaires prior to (N = 1271) and following (N = 872) the completion of the program. Following the program, students demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of threats to great apes and an increase in their knowledge of ways that villagers and students can help conserve great apes. Additionally, student attitudes toward great apes improved following the program. For example, students showed an increase in agreement with liking great apes and viewing them as important to the environment. These data provide evidence that conservation films made specifically to address regional threats and using local actors and settings can positively influence knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes among students living in a primate range country.Mean proportion of desirable answers to the question “How can you conserve great apes” before and after the Great Ape Education Program by student population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:35:31.557215-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22673
       
  • Extraction of honey from underground bee nests by central African
           chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Loango National Park, Gabon:
           Techniques and individual differences
    • Authors: Vittoria Estienne; Colleen Stephens, Christophe Boesch
      Abstract: A detailed analysis of tool use behaviors can disclose the underlying cognitive traits of the users. We investigated the technique used by wild chimpanzees to extract the underground nests of stingless bees (Meliplebeia lendliana), which represent a hard-to-reach resource given their highly undetectable location. Using remote-sensor camera trap footage, we analyzed 151 visits to 50 different bee nests by 18 adult chimpanzees of both sexes. We quantified the degree of complexity and flexibility of this technique by looking at the behavioral repertoire and at its structural organization. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models to test whether individuals differed in their action repertoire sizes and in their action sequencing patterns, as well as in their preferences of use of different behavioral elements (namely, actions, and grip types). We found that subjects showed non-randomly organized sequences of actions and that the occurrence of certain actions was predicted by the type of the previous action in the sequences. Subjects did not differ in their repertoire sizes, and all used extractive actions involving tools more often than manual digging. As for the type of grip employed, the grip involving the coordinated use of hands and feet together was most frequently used by all subjects when perforating, and we detected significant individual preferences in this domain. Overall, we describe a highly complex and flexible extractive technique, and propose the existence of inter-individual variation in it. We discuss our results in the light of the evolution of higher cognitive abilities in the human lineage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:12:49.610342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22672
       
  • Feeding behavior and activity budget of the southern yellow-cheeked
           crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in a lowland tropical forest
    • Authors: Thanh H. Bach; Jin Chen, Minh D. Hoang, Kingsly C. Beng, Van T. Nguyen
      Abstract: The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period. We compared these data to information on phenological patterns at the site gleaned during a prior study. We found that the gibbons gathered most of their food from 69 different plant species and also consumed insects and bird eggs. Fruits were the main dietary item (43.3%), followed by leaves (38.4%), flowers (11.6%), and other plant parts (6.0%). A significant seasonal shift in diet was observed; fruit generally dominated the diet in the rainy season and leaves in the dry season. The gibbons often started daily activities very early (05:10 am) in the morning and also ended quite early (16:45 pm) in the afternoon. Socializing was concentrated in the early morning, feeding had a bimodal pattern of high activity levels in mid-morning and mid-afternoon, and resting was most intense at the earliest and latest hours of the day and at midday, with proportionally less time used for traveling at these times. Averaged over the annual cycle, the gibbons spent 45% of their time feeding, 31.9% resting, 14.1% traveling, and 9.0% socializing. The percentage of time allocated to different activities varied significantly across months and between the dry and rainy seasons. Monthly variation in the activity budget was strongly related to changes in diet. In the rainy season, when the gibbons ate a higher percentage of fruit, they decreased their feeding time, while increasing traveling time in search of food; conversely, in the dry season, when they fed on a higher percentage of leaves, they decreased traveling time. Overall, our results show that the activity budget and diet of the southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon are associated with seasonal shifts in climate. This study provides information relevant to the conservation and management of this endangered species by identifying important habitat conditions for reintroducing captive animals into the wild and providing insight into dietary needs, which may be relevant to the maintenance of animals in rescue centers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:35:26.534101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22667
       
  • Higher levels of submissive behaviors at the onset of the pairing process
           of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are associated with lower risk of
           wounding following introduction
    • Authors: Ori Pomerantz; Kate C. Baker
      Abstract: Social housing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is considered to be the cornerstone of behavioral management programs in biomedical facilities. However, it also involves the risk of socially inflicted trauma. The ability to avoid such trauma would contribute to the animals’ well-being and alleviate staff's concerns, thus paving the path for more introductions. Here, we sought to address the conflict between the need to socially house rhesus macaques and the need to bring social wounding to a minimum by identifying behaviors expressed early in social introductions, that may serve as predictors of later wounding events. We employed logistic regression analysis to predict the occurrence of wounding for 39 iso-sexual, adult pairs in the 30 days following the introduction into full contact using the levels of behaviors that were observed at the onset of the introduction. The results show that the levels of submissive behaviors were the only significant predictor to later stage wounding. Higher levels of submissive behaviors expressed during the early phases of the introduction were associated with a decreased likelihood of wounding. Interestingly, levels of affiliative behaviors have not added any power to the predictability of the statistical model. Therefore, it may be suggested that the exchange of submissive signals at the earliest stages of the introduction is critical in the determination of relative rank and preclude the need to establish dominance via aggression when allowed full contact. While the observation of clear-cut dominance relationships is commonly considered a harbinger of success, our findings suggest that it is the acknowledgment of subordination, rather than the expression of dominance that underlies this observed pattern. The value of our findings for guiding social housing decision-making may be strongest in situations in which the composition of potential partners is constrained, and therefore requiring that wise decisions be relied upon early behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:29:51.778701-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22671
       
  • Personality assessment and model comparison with behavioral data: A
           statistical framework and empirical demonstration with bonobos (Pan
           paniscus)
    • Authors: Jordan S. Martin; Scott A. Suarez
      Abstract: Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers’ from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods. In this paper, we propose a statistical framework for primate personality research designed to address these limitations. Our framework synthesizes recently developed mixed-effects modeling approaches for quantifying behavioral variation with an information-theoretic model selection paradigm for confirmatory personality research. After detailing a multi-step analytic procedure for personality assessment and model comparison, we employ this framework to evaluate seven models of personality structure in zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus). We find that differences between sexes, ages, zoos, time of observation, and social group composition contributed to significant behavioral variance. Independently of these factors, however, personality nonetheless accounted for a moderate to high proportion of variance in average behavior across observational periods. A personality structure derived from past rating research receives the strongest support relative to our model set. This model suggests that personality variation across the measured behavioral traits is best described by two correlated but distinct dimensions reflecting individual differences in affiliation and sociability (Agreeableness) as well as activity level, social play, and neophilia toward non-threatening stimuli (Openness). These results underscore the utility of our framework for quantifying personality in primates and facilitating greater integration between the behavioral ecological and comparative psychological approaches to personality research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T17:57:34.283239-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22670
       
  • The relative effects of reproductive condition, stress, and seasonality on
           patterns of parasitism in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta
           pigra)
    • Authors: Rodolfo Martínez-Mota; Paul A. Garber, Rupert Palme, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Over the course of one year, we collected fresh fecal samples from 15 adult females belonging to seven black howler groups living in Escárcega, Mexico. Fecal samples were used for parasitological analysis and for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (i.e., stress biomarker). We found that the prevalence of intestinal parasites and parasite richness did not differ among non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating females. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels increased significantly during pregnancy and during the first month of lactation, and positively predicted the probability of Controrchis biliophilus infection. Parasite prevalence and richness decreased during the months of increased rainfall. We conclude that reproductive physiology has limited consequences on intestinal parasitic infection risk in female black howler monkeys and that seasonal environmental fluctuations have greater effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:56:06.726579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22669
       
  • Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates,
           irrespective of reinforcement
    • Authors: Amy Lewis; Josep Call, Dorthe Berntsen
      Abstract: Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:46.700759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22665
       
  • Orangutan trade, confiscations, and lack of prosecutions in Indonesia
    • Authors: Vincent Nijman
      Abstract: Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993–2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were “donated” to law enforcement agencies. This resulted in seven (7) successful prosecutions by six different courts. Sentencing was lenient (median fine US$ 442 out of a possible US$ 7,600, median prison sentence 8 months out of a possible 5 years) and certainly too low to act as a deterrent. A paradigm shift within government authorities, conservation organizations, the judiciary, and by the general public is needed where trade in orangutans is no longer seen as a crime against an individual animal but as an economic crime that negatively affects society as a whole. Prosecuting offenders for tax evasion, corruption, endangering public health, animal cruelty, and smuggling, in addition to violating protected species laws, would allow for an increase in sentencing, resulting in a stronger deterrent, and greater public support. Conservation and welfare NGOs have a duty to become more proactive in a drive to increase enforcement; rescuing orangutans always has to coincide with prosecuting offenders and failures, and successes of these prosecutions have to be vigorously publicized. Despite numerous commitments made by Indonesia to orangutan conservation, and clear failures to deliver on almost all components, international donors have increased their funding year on year; it is time that this changes to a system where not failure is rewarded but success.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:44.524665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22652
       
  • Orangutans, enamel defects, and developmental health: A comparison of
           Borneo and Sumatra
    • Authors: Mark F. Skinner; Matthew M. Skinner
      Abstract: Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans. We are concerned that neglect of this possible marker of ill health may be contributing, through inaction, to their alarming decline in numbers. Width and depth of an LEH are considered proxies for duration and intensity of stress. The hypothesis that Bornean orangutans would exhibit relatively wider and deeper LEH was tested on 163 independent episodes of LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans measured with a NanoFocus AG “µsurf Mobile Plus” scanner. Non-normally distributed data (depths) were converted to natural logs. No difference was found in width of LEH among the two island taxa; nor are their differences in width or depth between the sexes. After controlling for significant differences in LEH depths between incisors and canines, defects are, contrary to prediction, significantly deeper in Sumatran than Bornean animals (median = 28, 18 µm, respectively). It is concluded that repetitive LEH records an unknown but significant stressor present in both Sumatra and Borneo, with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof) that lasts about 6–8 weeks. It is worse in Sumatra. Given this patterning, shared with apes from a wide range of ecological and temporal sources, rLEH is more likely attributable to disease than to malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:31.400312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22668
       
  • Optimizing field and analytical procedures for estimating densities of
           arboreal and threatened primates in tropical rainforest
    • Authors: Nathalie Cavada; Marco Ciolli, Claudia Barelli, Francesco Rovero
      Abstract: The application of distance sampling to primate density estimation is challenging and susceptible to estimation biases, mainly due to the difficulties of properly accounting for variation in species’ detectability and of accurately sampling the spread of the social groups. We apply a hierarchical distance sampling approach to primate data, to account for a comprehensive set of environmental covariates of both detectability and abundance, and we propose a novel field routine to measure the spread of groups during transect sampling. We confirm the good potential of this approach, given we obtained refined estimates of primate density (as measured by the Akaike Information Criterion) in comparison to estimates from models without covariates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T15:05:42.350269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22666
       
  • Conservation strategies for understanding and combating the primate
           bushmeat trade on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    • Authors: Drew T. Cronin; Paul R. Sesink Clee, Matthew W. Mitchell, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, David Fernández, Cirilo Riaco, Maximiliano Fero Meñe, Jose Manuel Esara Echube, Gail W. Hearn, Mary Katherine Gonder
      Abstract: Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is among the important places in Africa for the conservation of primates, but a cultural preference for bushmeat and a lack of effective law enforcement has encouraged commercial bushmeat hunting, threatening the survival of the remaining primate population. For over 13 years, we collected bushmeat market data in the Malabo market, recording over 35,000 primate carcasses, documenting “mardi gras” consumption patterns, seasonal carcass availability, and negative effects resulting from government intervention. We also conducted forest surveys throughout Bioko's two protected areas in order to localize and quantify primate populations and hunting pressure. Using these data, we were able to document the significant negative impact bushmeat hunting had on monkey populations, estimate which species are most vulnerable to hunting, and develop ecological niche models to approximate the distribution of each of Bioko's diurnal primate species. These results also have allowed for the identification of primate hotspots, such as the critically important southwest region of the Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve, and thus, priority areas for conservation on Bioko, leading to more comprehensive conservation recommendations. Current and future efforts now focus on bridging the gap between investigators and legislators in order to develop and effectively implement a management plan for Bioko's Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve and to develop a targeted educational campaign to reduce demand by changing consumer attitudes toward bushmeat. Using this multidisciplinary approach, informed by biological, socioeconomic, and cultural research, there may yet be a positive future for the primates of Bioko.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:38.873813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22663
       
  • Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet
           across an altitudinal gradient
    • Authors: Halszka Glowacka; Shannon C. McFarlin, Erin R. Vogel, Tara S. Stoinski, Felix Ndagijimana, Deo Tuyisingize, Antoine Mudakikwa, Gary T. Schwartz
      Abstract: The robust masticatory system of mountain gorillas is thought to have evolved for the comminution of tough vegetation, yet, compared to other primates, the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet is unremarkable. This may be a result of low plant toughness in the mountain gorilla environment or of mountain gorillas feeding selectively on low-toughness foods. The goal of this paper is to determine how the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet varies across their habitat, which spans a large altitudinal range, and whether there is a relationship between toughness and food selection by mountain gorillas. We collected data on the following variables to determine whether, and if so how, they change with altitude: leaf toughness of two plant species consumed by mountain gorillas, at every 100 m increase in altitude (2,600–3,700 m); toughness of consumed foods comprising over 85% of the gorilla diet across five vegetation zones; and toughness of unconsumed/infrequently consumed plant parts of those foods. Although leaf toughness increased with altitude, the toughness of the gorilla diet remained similar. There was a negative relationship between toughness and consumption frequency, and toughness was a better predictor of consumption frequency than plant frequency, biomass, and density. Consumed plant parts were less tough than unconsumed/infrequently consumed parts and toughness of the latter increased with altitude. Although it is unclear whether gorillas select food based on toughness or use toughness as a sensory cue to impart other plant properties (e.g., macronutrients, chemicals), our results that gorillas maintain a consistent low-toughness dietary profile across altitude, despite toughness increasing with altitude, suggest that the robust gorilla masticatory apparatus evolved for repetitive mastication of foods that are not high in toughness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:34.181657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22661
       
  • Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at
           the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Kim Grützmacher; Verena Keil, Vera Leinert, Floraine Leguillon, Arthur Henlin, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Sophie Köndgen, Alexander Lang, Tobias Deschner, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz
      Abstract: Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine—in combination with monitoring for symptoms—is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T16:50:21.112546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22619
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.224.75.202
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016