for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover American Journal of Primatology
  [SJR: 1.197]   [H-I: 63]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0275-2565 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2345
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche modeling reveal post-LGM
           expansion of the Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the foothills of
           Nepal Himalaya
    • Authors: Laxman Khanal; Mukesh K. Chalise, Kai He, Bipin K. Acharya, Yoshi Kawamoto, Xuelong Jiang
      Abstract: Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills. A total of 277 fecal samples were collected from 39 wild troops over almost the entire distribution of the species in Nepal. The mtDNA fragment encompassing the complete control region (1121 bp) was recovered from 208 samples, thus defining 54 haplotypes. Results showed low nucleotide diversity (0.0075 ± SD 0.0001) but high haplotype diversity (0.965 ± SD 0.004). The mtDNA sequences revealed a shallow population genetic structure with a moderate but statistically significant effect of isolation by distance. Demographic history analyses using mtDNA sequences suggested a post-pleistocene population expansion. Paleodistribution reconstruction projected that the potential habitat of the Assam macaque was confined to the lower elevations of central Nepal during the Last Glacial Maximum. With the onset of the Holocene climatic optimum, the glacial refugia population experienced eastward range expansion to higher elevations. We conclude that the low genetic diversity and shallow population genetic structure of the Assam macaque population in the Nepal Himalaya region are the consequence of recent demographic and spatial expansion.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14T01:51:11.278527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22748
  • Oxytocin regulates reunion affiliation with a pairmate following social
           separation in marmosets
    • Authors: Jon Cavanaugh; Aaryn Mustoe, Jeffrey A. French
      Abstract: While separation from significant social partners produces a host of neurobiological and behavioral perturbations, including behavioral distress and increased glucocorticoid production, positive social interactions upon reunion are critical for the reestablishment of normative relationship dynamics and the attenuation of the biobehavioral stress response. The hormone oxytocin has critical and pervasive roles in reproductive and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and plays a particularly prominent role in social bonding. In this study, we examined the extent that oxytocin modulates interactions with a pairmate following separation challenges that varied in both social context (isolation; separation) and duration (long; short), in marmosets. We demonstrated that the impact of pharmacological manipulations of the oxytocin system on the expression of affiliation upon reunion depended on both the context and duration of the separation challenge. Specifically, marmosets treated with an oxytocin antagonist spent less time in proximity with their pairmate upon reunion following a long-separation challenge. During the short-separation challenge, marmosets engaged in more social gaze when separated with an opposite-sex stranger, but not when separated with their mate. Furthermore, marmosets that received the most social gaze from opposite-sex strangers spent the most time in proximity with their long-term mate upon reunion. We also showed that marmosets treated with an OT agonist received increased levels of gaze from opposite-sex strangers, but not from their mate. Overall, these results suggest that marmosets are sensitive to the nature of the social interactions during separation, and subsequently alter their expression of affiliation upon reunion with their long-term mate. These findings further implicate oxytocin as a bond-enhancing molecule that regulates the reestablishment of normative levels of affiliation with a mate following separation, and add to the emerging literature that suggests the OT system underlies critical behavioral processes that contribute to the preservation of long-lasting social bonds.
      PubDate: 2018-03-11T22:10:58.012405-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22750
  • Small but wise: Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) use acoustic signals
           as cues to avoid interactions with blonde capuchin monkeys (Sapajus
    • Authors: Monique Bastos; Karolina Medeiros, Gareth Jones, Bruna Bezerra
      Abstract: Vocalizations are often used by animals to communicate and mediate social interactions. Animals may benefit from eavesdropping on calls from other species to avoid predation and thus increase their chances of survival. Here we use both observational and experimental evidence to investigate eavesdropping and how acoustic signals may mediate interactions between two sympatric and endemic primate species (common marmosets and blonde capuchin monkeys) in a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in Northeastern Brazil. We observed 22 natural vocal encounters between the study species, but no evident visual or physical contact over the study period. These two species seem to use the same area throughout the day, but at different times. We broadcasted alarm and long distance calls to and from both species as well as two control stimuli (i.e., forest background noise and a loud call from an Amazonian primate) in our playback experiments. Common marmosets showed anti-predator behavior (i.e., vigilance and flight) when exposed to blonde capuchin calls both naturally and experimentally. However, blonde capuchin monkeys showed no anti-predator behavior in response to common marmoset calls. Blonde capuchins uttered long distance calls and looked in the direction of the speaker following exposure to their own long distance call, whereas they fled when exposed to their own alarm calls. Both blonde capuchin monkeys and common marmosets showed fear behaviors in response to the loud call from a primate species unknown to them, and showed no apparent response to the forest background noise. Common marmoset responses to blonde capuchin calls suggests that the latter is a potential predator. Furthermore, common marmosets appear to be eavesdropping on calls from blonde capuchin monkeys to avoid potentially costly encounters with them.Diurnal sympatric common marmosets and blonde capuchins temporally manage the use of the area. Marmosets' avoidance of the blonde capuchin monkeys seems to be an active behavioral process mediated by vocal signals. Marmosets' responses to blonde capuchins calls suggest the latter are predators.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28T05:22:19.146675-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22744
  • Age-related changes in the social behavior of tufted capuchin monkeys
    • Authors: Gabriele Schino; Marta Pinzaglia
      Abstract: The effects of aging on the social behavior of nonhuman primates is little understood, especially in New World monkeys. We studied the members of a colony of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) in order to evaluate age related changes in their social behavior. We conducted observations on 25 subjects aged 4–36 years, living in captive social groups. We found that affiliative interactions (grooming and proximity) decreased with age, and that grooming was increasingly directed to a single preferred partner. Manipulation of objects in the environment also decreased with age, while locomotion and aggression showed no change. Overall, these results concur with previous findings on both human and nonhuman primates, and cast doubts on interpretations of age associated changes in human social behavior that rely of uniquely human advanced cognitive capacities.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28T05:20:51.794547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22746
  • In memoriam: W. Richard “Dick” Dukelow (1936–2018), former ASP
           president and distinguished primatologist
    • Authors: Richard G. Rawlins; Matthew J. Kessler, Joseph M. Erwin
      PubDate: 2018-02-23T10:12:07.433499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22741
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2018-02-23T10:12:06.452093-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22699
  • Chemical composition of glandular secretions from a pair-living monogamous
           primate: Sex, age, and gland differences in captive and wild owl monkeys
           (Aotus spp.)
    • Authors: Andrea Spence-Aizenberg; Bruce A. Kimball, Lawrence E. Williams, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
      Abstract: Broadening our knowledge of olfactory communication in strictly monogamous systems can inform our understanding of how chemosignals may facilitate social and reproductive behavior between the sexes. Compared to other social and mating systems, relatively little is known about olfactory communication in strictly monogamous non-human primates. Furthermore, platyrrhines are not well represented in chemical analyses of glandular secretions. We conducted semi-quantitative headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to investigate the chemical components of glandular secretions from the subcaudal and pectoral glands of a strictly pair-living platyrrhine, the owl monkey (Aotus spp.). In this study, the first chemical analysis of a wild platyrrhine population, our goals were to (1) conduct a robust analysis of glandular secretions from both captive and wild owl monkey populations and (2) identify whether biologically relevant traits are present in glandular secretions. We also compared and contrasted the results between two Aotus species in different environmental contexts: wild Aotus azarae (N = 33) and captive A. nancymaae (N = 104). Our findings indicate that secretions from both populations encode sex, gland of origin, and possibly individual identity. These consistent patterns across species and contexts suggest that secretions may function as chemosignals. Our data also show that wild A. azarae individuals are chemically discriminated by age (adult or subadult). Among the captive A. nanycmaae, we found chemical differences associated with location, possibly caused by dietary differences. However, there was no noticeable effect of contraception on the chemical profiles of females, nor evidence that closely related individuals exhibit more similar chemical profiles in A. nancymaae. Overall, our data suggest that glandular secretions of both wild and captive Aotus convey specific information. Future studies should use behavioral bioassays to evaluate the ability of owl monkeys to detect signals, and consider whether odor may ultimately facilitate social and sexual relationships between male and female owl monkeys.Male and female owl monkeys differ chemically in their glandular secretions. Secretions from the pectoral and subcaudal gland are chemically different. These differences are observed in both wild Aotus azarae and captive A. nancymaae.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23T10:12:04.418657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22730
  • Hand preference on unimanual and bimanual tasks in Barbary macaques
           (Macaca sylvanus)
    • Authors: Barbara Regaiolli; Caterina Spiezio, William D. Hopkins
      Abstract: The presence of group-level handedness in non-human primates remains controversial, as different studies have produced inconsistent results. Bimanual coordinated tasks have been found to elicit more pronounced hand preferences than simple unimanual tasks. The aim of this study was to examine manual lateralization in a group of 15 Barbary macaques during unimanual and bimanual tasks. In the unimanual task, data on simple food reaching in a foraging context were collected. During the bimanual task, macaques had to use one hand to hold a tube-shaped apparatus while reaching with the other hand to retrieve the food inside it. Data on the hand use to retrieve food were collected. First, no significant group-level hand preference was found for the unimanual task. However, a significant right hand bias was evident for the bimanual task. At the individual-level, approximately 47% and 67% of the subjects had a significant hand preference in the unimanual and bimanual task respectively. The strength of the hand preference was greater in the bimanual than in the unimanual task. Findings of this study add Macaca sylvanus to the other species showing a right hand preference for coordinated bimanual tasks. Moreover, our results add to the growing body of evidence that bimanual tasks are more suitable and valid measures to investigate handedness in non-human primates.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T05:40:54.887816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22745
  • Non-invasive genetic censusing and monitoring of primate populations
    • Authors: Mimi Arandjelovic; Linda Vigilant
      Abstract: Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships. Data may also be used to estimate sex ratios, sex differences in dispersal distances, and detect gene flow among locations. Recent advances in capture-recapture models have further improved the precision of population estimates derived from non-invasive samples. Simulations using these methods have shown that the confidence interval of point estimates includes the true population size when assumptions of the models are met, and therefore this range of population size minima and maxima should be emphasized in population monitoring studies. Innovations such as the use of sniffer dogs or anti-poaching patrols for sample collection are important to ensure adequate sampling, and the expected development of efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequencing methods for DNAs derived from non-invasive samples will automate and speed analyses.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T05:40:49.866242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22743
  • Rhesus macaque personality, dominance, behavior, and health
    • Authors: Lauren M. Robinson; Kristine Coleman, John P. Capitanio, Daniel H. Gottlieb, Ian G. Handel, Mark J. Adams, Matthew C. Leach, Natalie K. Waran, Alexander Weiss
      Abstract: Previous studies of nonhuman primates have found relationships between health and individual differences in personality, behavior, and social status. However, despite knowing these factors are intercorrelated, many studies focus only on a single measure, for example, rank. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the degree to which these individual differences are independently associated with health. The present study sought to untangle the associations between health and these individual differences in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We studied 85 socially housed macaques at the Oregon and California National Primate Research Centers, and used veterinary records to determine the number of injuries and illnesses for each macaque. We measured personality using 12 items from a well-established primate personality questionnaire, performed focal observations of behaviors, and calculated dominance status from directional supplant data. All twelve personality questionnaire items were reliable and were used to represent five of the six personality dimensions identified in rhesus macaques—Dominance, Confidence, Openness, Anxiety, and Friendliness (also known as Sociability). Following this, we fit generalized linear mixed effects models to understand how these factors were associated with an animal's history of injury and history of illness. In the models, age was an offset, facility was a random effect, and the five personality dimensions, behavior, sex, and dominance status were fixed effects. Number of injuries and illnesses were each best represented by a negative binomial distribution. For the injury models, including the effects did improve model fit. This model revealed that more confident and more anxious macaques experienced fewer injuries. For the illness models, including the fixed effects did not significantly improve model fit over a model without the fixed effects. Future studies may seek to assess mechanisms underlying these associations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T05:40:25.189342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22739
  • Intranasal oxytocin modulates neural functional connectivity during human
           social interaction
    • Authors: James K. Rilling; Xiangchuan Chen, Xu Chen, Ebrahim Haroon
      Abstract: Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model. Here, we conduct an extensive re-analysis of these data to explore how OT modulates functional connectivity across a neural network that animal studies implicate in social behavior. OT induced widespread increases in functional connectivity in response to positive social interactions among men and widespread decreases in functional connectivity in response to negative social interactions among women. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, an important regulator of selective attention and motivation with a particularly high density of OT receptors, had the largest number of OT-modulated connections. Regions known to receive mesolimbic dopamine projections such as the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum were also hubs for OT effects on functional connectivity. Our results suggest that the neural mechanism by which OT influences primate social cognition may include changes in patterns of activity across neural networks that regulate social behavior in other animals.
      PubDate: 2018-02-10T01:55:35.820457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22740
  • Trauma rates and patterns in specific pathogen free (SPF) rhesus macaque
           (Macaca mulatta) groups
    • Authors: Ronda C. Stavisky; Jacklyn K. Ramsey, Tracy Meeker, Melissa Stovall, Maria M. Crane
      Abstract: There are some predictable patterns of trauma in captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups. Several factors have been documented to contribute to these patterns, including group formation of unrelated animals, and the establishment of dominance ranks. Here, we report on how socially induced trauma in groups of rhesus monkeys is influenced by the breeding season, numbers of matrilines per group and matriline size. We analyzed 3 years of data collected from veterinary admittance logs for four groups in our specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colony. Since the groups differed in time from formation, both the numbers of matrilines and the composition of those matrilines were different. Across the four groups, trauma rates were significantly higher during the fall breeding season than the spring and summer months when births occur. The group that was formed most recently, comprised of the greatest number of matrilines but fewest related animals, showed significantly higher rates of trauma than the older social groups. Further, the middle and lowest ranking families received signifincantly higher rates of trauma than the highest ranking families, suggesting a rank–related phenomenon. Additionally, there was a significant negative correlation between numbers of adult females in a matriline and rates of trauma observed in each matriline, but the numbers of adult females are significantly higher in the top ranked families compared to all of the other matrilines. These findings suggest that trauma rates increase during the breeding season and may be exacerbated in recently formed breeding groups that have smaller matrilines and reduced opportunities for social support to mitigate rank-related aggression. Management practices should be devised to ensure adequate matrilineal size to decrease rates of trauma in captive rhesus macaque groups.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08T08:35:33.291294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22742
  • Parentage complexity in socially monogamous lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer):
           Integrating genetic and observational data
    • Authors: Rachel L. Jacobs; David C. Frankel, Riley J. Rice, Vera J. Kiefer, Brenda J. Bradley
      Abstract: Genetic analyses of parentage sometimes reveal that “socially monogamous” (pair-living) species do not reside in strict family groups. Circumstances such as adult turnovers and extra-pair copulations, among others, may result in non-nuclear families. These genetic relationships within groups have implications for interpreting social behaviors. Red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer) live in groups generally comprising an adult male-female pair plus immatures, and early genetic analyses of parentage in a relatively small sample suggested they mate monogamously. However, previous research on this taxon has also identified scenarios in which non-nuclear families might result, such as adult turnovers. To assess the potential occurrence of non-nuclear families in this “socially monogamous” taxon, as well as the social conditions under which they might occur, we combined behavioral observations of wild red-bellied lemurs in Ranomafana National Park with genetic parentage analysis of immatures from 17 groups. We found that the majority of groups (75%) represented nuclear family groups. However, 25% of groups represented non-nuclear families at some point during the study. The social factors that resulted in non-nuclear families were varied and included at least one adult turnover, and potentially delayed female dispersals and extra-pair copulations. Our results suggest that red-bellied lemurs are generally reproductively monogamous, with only limited evidence that non-nuclear families result from non-monogamous reproduction. However, similar to other pair-living primates, red-bellied lemurs appear to exhibit flexibility in their social organization and mating strategies. Multiple lines of evidence should be considered when inferring parent-offspring relationships within pair-living groups.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T02:40:40.917865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22738
  • Salivary tannin-binding proteins are a pervasive strategy used by the
           folivorous/frugivorous black howler monkey
    • Authors: Fabiola Carolina Espinosa-Gómez; Juan Carlos Serio-Silva, Juan Diego Santiago-García, Carlos Alfredo Sandoval-Castro, Laura Teresa Hernández-Salazar, Fernando Mejía-Varas, Javier Ojeda-Chávez, Colin Austin Chapman
      Abstract: Dietary tannins can affect protein digestion and absorption, be toxic, and influence food selection by being astringent and bitter tasting. Animals that usually ingest tannins may regularly secrete tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSPs) to counteract the negative effects of tannins or TBSPs production can be induced by a tannin-rich diet. In the wild, many primates regularly eat a diet that contains tannin-rich leaves and unripe fruit and it has been speculated that they have the physiological ability to cope with dietary tannins; however, details of their strategy remains unclear. Our research details the salivary protein composition of wild and zoo-living black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) feeding on natural versus manufactured low-tannin diets, and examines differences in TBSPs, mainly proline-rich proteins (PRPs), to determine whether production of these proteins is dependent on the tannin content of their food. We measured the pH, flow rate, and concentration of total protein and trichloroacetic acid soluble proteins (an index of PRPs) in saliva. Howler monkeys produced slightly alkaline saliva that may aid in the binding interaction between tannin and salivary proteins. We used gel electrophoresis to describe the salivary protein profile and this analysis along with a tannin-binding assay allowed us to detect several TBSPs in all individuals. We found no differences in the characteristics of saliva between wild and zoo-living monkeys. Our results suggest that black howler monkeys always secrete TBSPs even when fed on foods low in tannins. This strategy of constantly using this salivary anti-tannin defense enables them to obtain nutrients from plants that sometimes contain high levels of tannins and may help immediately to overcome the astringent sensation of their food allowing howler monkeys to eat tanniferous plants.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24T05:40:49.518697-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22737
  • Gastrointestinal protists and helminths of habituated agile mangabeys
           (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic
    • Authors: Barbora Pafčo; Zuzana Tehlárová, Kateřina Jirků Pomajbíková, Angelique Todd, Hideo Hasegawa, Klára J. Petrželková, David Modrý
      Abstract: Infectious diseases including those caused by parasites can be a major threat to the conservation of endangered species. There is thus a great need for studies describing parasite infections of these species in the wild. Here we present data on parasite diversity in an agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) group in Bai Hokou, Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic. We coproscopically analyzed 140 mangabey fecal samples by concentration techniques (flotation and sedimentation). Agile mangabeys hosted a broad diversity of protistan parasites/commensals, namely amoebas (Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba buetschlli), a Buxtonella-like ciliate and several parasitic helminths: strongylid and spirurid nematodes, Primasubulura sp., Enterobius sp., and Trichuris sp. Importantly, some of the detected parasite taxa might be of potential zoonotic importance, such as Entamoeba spp. and the helminths Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., and strongylid nematodes. Detailed morphological examination of ciliate cysts found in mangabeys and comparison with cysts of Balantioides coli from domestic pigs showed no distinguishing structures, although significant differences in cyst size were recorded. Scanning or transmission electron microscopy combined with molecular taxonomy methods are needed to properly identify these ciliates. Further studies using molecular epidemiology are warranted to better understand cross-species transmission and the zoonotic potential of parasites in sympatric non-human primates and humans cohabiting DSPA.Amoebas and strongylids were the most prevalent parasites. Several found parasite taxa might have a zoonotic potential. Ciliate cysts in mangabeys do not possess any structures distinguishing them from cysts of Balantioides coli from pigs.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T05:03:28.01245-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22736
  • An integrated framework for the role of oxytocin in multistage social
    • Authors: Matthew Piva; Steve W.C. Chang
      Abstract: Interest in the effects of oxytocin on social behavior has persisted even as an overarching theory describing these effects has remained largely elusive. Some of the earliest studies on the effects of oxytocin on social decision-making indicated that oxytocin might enhance prosocial actions directed toward others. This led to development of the prosocial hypothesis, which stipulates that oxytocin specifically enhances prosocial choices. However, further work indicated that oxytocin administration could elicit antisocial behaviors as well in certain social situations, highlighting the importance of context-dependent effects. At least two prominent hypotheses have been used to explain these seemingly contradictory findings. The social salience hypothesis indicates that the effects of oxytocin can be conceptualized as a general increase in the salience of social stimuli in the environment. Distinctly, the approach/withdrawal hypothesis stipulates that oxytocin enhances approach behaviors and decreases withdrawal behaviors. These phenomenologically motivated hypotheses regarding the effects of oxytocin on social behavior have created controversies in the field. In this review, we present a multistage framework of social decision-making designed to unify these disparate theories in a process common to all social decisions. We conceptualize this process as involving multiple distinct computational steps, including sensory input, sensory perception, valuation, decision formulation, and behavioral output. Iteratively, these steps generate social behaviors, and oxytocin could be acting on any of these steps to exert its effects. In support of this framework, we examine both behavioral and neural evidence across rodents, non-human primates, and humans, determining at what point in our multistage framework oxytocin could be eliciting its socially relevant effects. Finally, we postulate based on our framework that the prosocial, social salience, and approach/withdrawal hypotheses may not be mutually exclusive and could explain the influence of oxytocin on social behavior to different extents depending on context.Research on oxytocin thus far has involved multiple distinct theories for its effects on social behavior. We provide a multistage framework to integrate these hypotheses and conceptualize the seemingly divergent results across both behavioral and neural studies of oxytocin.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T05:02:42.747947-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22735
  • The effects of social context and food abundance on chimpanzee feeding
    • Authors: Rebecca Koomen; Esther Herrmann
      Abstract: Feeding competition is thought to play a role in primate social organization as well as cognitive evolution. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), social and ecological factors can affect competition, yet how these factors interact to affect feeding behavior is not fully understood; they can be difficult to disentangle in wild settings. This experiment investigated the differential effects of food quantity, the presence of a co-feeding partner, and the contestability of a food patch on feeding rate. We presented tolerant pairs of chimpanzees from a semi-captive social group with an apparatus comprising a matrix of transparent tubes between two adjacent rooms, of which, either all (abundant condition) or only a small proportion (scarce condition) were baited with peanuts. Dyads were either grouped into the competitive treatment, in which peanuts were accessible from both sides of the apparatus simultaneously, or the non-competitive treatment, in which the peanuts were pre-divided; half of the tubes were accessible to one chimpanzee from one side, and the other half were accessible only from the opposite side of the apparatus. We compared dyadic tolerance levels with individual feeding rates across quantity conditions and between competitive treatments. While tolerance and food quantity had no effect on feeding rate, partner presence significantly increased feeding rate relative to individual feeding. This increase was much larger when the dyads directly competed over the peanuts than when they were co-feeding on a pre-divided set of peanuts. Thus, in a co-feeding situation, the presence of another individual and, to an even larger extent, the contestability of the food source play a larger role in chimpanzee feeding behavior than dyadic tolerance or food quantity. These findings highlight the relative impact of social facilitation and direct competition on co-feeding behavior between pairs of chimpanzees.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13T05:05:21.321379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22734
  • The influence of age on wild rhesus macaques' affiliative social
    • Authors: Zhijie Liao; Sebastian Sosa, Chengfeng Wu, Peng Zhang
      Abstract: The social relationships that individuals experience at different life stages have a non-negligible influence on their lives, and this is particularly true for group living animals. The long lifespan of many primates makes it likely that these animals have various tactics of social interaction to adapt to complex changes in environmental or physical conditions. The different strategies used in social interaction by individuals at different life stages, and whether the position (central or peripheral) or role (initiator or recipient) of an individual in the group social network changes with age, are intriguing questions that remain to be investigated. We used social network analysis to examine age-related differences in social interaction patterns, social roles, and social positions in three affiliative social networks (approach, allogrooming, and social play) in a group of wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results showed that social interaction patterns of rhesus macaques differ between age classes in the following ways: i) young individuals tend to allocate social time to a high number of groupmates, older individuals prefer to focus on fewer, specific partners; ii) as they grow older, individuals tend to be recipients in approach interactions and initiators in grooming interactions; and iii) regardless of the different social interaction strategies, individuals of all ages occupy a central position in the group. These results reveal a possible key role played by immature individuals in group social communication, a little-explored issue which deserves closer investigation in future research.Social relationships at different life stages have non-negligible influence on current and future life of group-living primates. There are questions still waiting for further exploration: what strategies do individuals of different life stages use in social interaction in response to the changing of environmental or physical condition, and whether individual's position or role in group social network will change through life span or not' Here We used social network analysis to examine age-related differences in social interaction patterns, social roles (initiator or recipient), and social positions (central or peripheral) in three affiliative social networks (approach, allogrooming, and social play) in a group of wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our study revealed that individual initiative in social activity decline with age. Combining weighted and unweighted social metrics, we found that rhesus monkeys in different age groups had different social tactics: young monkeys prefer to allocate their limited social time on many partners, which may help them to acquire survival skills; while the old ones prefer to focus on fewer, specific partners to build strong relationship. Regardless of the different social tactics used, both old and young individuals occupied a central position in social networks to benefit from group living. This study also revealed a possible key role played by immature individuals in group social communication, a little-explored issue which deserves closer investigation in future research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T04:01:47.154248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22733
  • The effect of extreme weather events on hair cortisol and body weight in a
           wild ring-tailed lemur population (Lemur catta) in southwestern Madagascar
    • Authors: Sara Fardi; Michelle. L. Sauther, Frank P. Cuozzo, Ibrahim A. Y. Jacky, Robin M. Bernstein
      Abstract: Madagascar is known for its hypervariable climate with periodic droughts and cyclones, but little is known of the impact of such events on lemur physiology. We examined the effects of sequential weather periods, drought, normal, cyclone and post-cyclone, on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and body weight in wild ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta (n = 185), at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Data were modeled and analyzed by sex, age, and troop. Given the ecological consequences of extreme climatic perturbations, we hypothesized that drought and cyclone would significantly impact lemur HCC. Among adults, drought was associated with higher HCC than other periods and the lowest HCC was associated with the post-cyclone period. Adult females had greater variation in HCC during drought and males had greater variation during cyclone and Post-cyclone periods, suggesting sexes were differentially affected in terms of how individuals responded to extreme weather events. Low HCC in the post-cyclone period followed a 12-month period of reduced availability of primary and fallback food resources. Based on the known extreme and chronic nutritional stress during this time, our results indicate hypocortisolism in the animals included in our analysis. Higher HCC in sub-adults during the cyclone also suggests that immature lemurs may experience extreme weather events differently than adults. Body weight, used as a gauge for environmental stress, was lowest during the post-cyclone for sub-adults, young adults, and adults. Body weight did not differ by sex among adults across any of the weather events. Overall, ring-tailed lemur's HCC appear to be more immediately impacted by drought, or stressors associated with that specific weather event, and influenced by the long-term impact of cyclones on resource availability evidenced by data from the post-cyclone period.We examined the effects of sequential weather events and longer term climatic perturbations (drought, normal, cyclone, post-cyclone) on hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and body weight in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur Catta) (n = 185 samples from 125 individuals). Drought was associated with higher HCC among adults; the lowest HCC and body weight were in association with the post-cyclone period. Extreme and chronic nutritional stress in the post-cyclone period suggests hypocortisolism. Cyclones may have long-term effects on the stress response system, which can impact how primates cope with (and potentially adapt to) environmental stressors through time. Extreme weather events have implications for endangered primate conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T04:01:38.763548-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22731
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-