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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1582 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Primatology
  [SJR: 1.197]   [H-I: 63]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0275-2565 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2345
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1582 journals]
  • Alpha male replacements in nonhuman primates: Variability in processes,
           outcomes, and terminology
    • Authors: Julie A. Teichroeb; Katharine M. Jack
      Abstract: Alpha male replacements occur in all primates displaying a dominance hierarchy but the process can be extremely variable. Here, we review the primate literature to document differences in patterns of alpha male replacements, showing that group composition and dispersal patterns account for a large proportion of this variability. We also examine the consequences of alpha male replacements in terms of sexual selection theory, infanticide, and group compositions. Though alpha male replacements are often called takeovers in the literature, this term masks much of the variation that is present in these processes. We argue for more concise terminology and provide a list of terms that we suggest more accurately define these events. Finally, we introduce the papers in this special issue on alpha male replacements in the American Journal of Primatology and discuss areas where data are still lacking.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T07:50:29.864527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22674
  • Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education
           program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes
    • Authors: Austin Leeds; Kristen E. Lukas, Corinne J. Kendall, Michelle A. Slavin, Elizabeth A. Ross, Martha M. Robbins, Dagmar van Weeghel, Richard A. Bergl
      Abstract: Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). Students viewed a trilogy of conservation films about great apes, produced specifically for this audience, and participated in complementary extra-curricular activities. The knowledge and attitudes of students participating in the program from KNP, but not BINP were assessed using questionnaires prior to (N = 1271) and following (N = 872) the completion of the program. Following the program, students demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of threats to great apes and an increase in their knowledge of ways that villagers and students can help conserve great apes. Additionally, student attitudes toward great apes improved following the program. For example, students showed an increase in agreement with liking great apes and viewing them as important to the environment. These data provide evidence that conservation films made specifically to address regional threats and using local actors and settings can positively influence knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes among students living in a primate range country.Mean proportion of desirable answers to the question “How can you conserve great apes” before and after the Great Ape Education Program by student population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:35:31.557215-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22673
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-05-10T07:57:54.148546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22675
  • Extraction of honey from underground bee nests by central African
           chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Loango National Park, Gabon:
           Techniques and individual differences
    • Authors: Vittoria Estienne; Colleen Stephens, Christophe Boesch
      Abstract: A detailed analysis of tool use behaviors can disclose the underlying cognitive traits of the users. We investigated the technique used by wild chimpanzees to extract the underground nests of stingless bees (Meliplebeia lendliana), which represent a hard-to-reach resource given their highly undetectable location. Using remote-sensor camera trap footage, we analyzed 151 visits to 50 different bee nests by 18 adult chimpanzees of both sexes. We quantified the degree of complexity and flexibility of this technique by looking at the behavioral repertoire and at its structural organization. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models to test whether individuals differed in their action repertoire sizes and in their action sequencing patterns, as well as in their preferences of use of different behavioral elements (namely, actions, and grip types). We found that subjects showed non-randomly organized sequences of actions and that the occurrence of certain actions was predicted by the type of the previous action in the sequences. Subjects did not differ in their repertoire sizes, and all used extractive actions involving tools more often than manual digging. As for the type of grip employed, the grip involving the coordinated use of hands and feet together was most frequently used by all subjects when perforating, and we detected significant individual preferences in this domain. Overall, we describe a highly complex and flexible extractive technique, and propose the existence of inter-individual variation in it. We discuss our results in the light of the evolution of higher cognitive abilities in the human lineage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:12:49.610342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22672
  • Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a
           non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in “La Forêt des Singes”
    • Authors: Sebastian Sosa; Peng Zhang, Guénaël Cabanes
      Abstract: This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:12:11.527355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22662
  • Feeding behavior and activity budget of the southern yellow-cheeked
           crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in a lowland tropical forest
    • Authors: Thanh H. Bach; Jin Chen, Minh D. Hoang, Kingsly C. Beng, Van T. Nguyen
      Abstract: The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period. We compared these data to information on phenological patterns at the site gleaned during a prior study. We found that the gibbons gathered most of their food from 69 different plant species and also consumed insects and bird eggs. Fruits were the main dietary item (43.3%), followed by leaves (38.4%), flowers (11.6%), and other plant parts (6.0%). A significant seasonal shift in diet was observed; fruit generally dominated the diet in the rainy season and leaves in the dry season. The gibbons often started daily activities very early (05:10 am) in the morning and also ended quite early (16:45 pm) in the afternoon. Socializing was concentrated in the early morning, feeding had a bimodal pattern of high activity levels in mid-morning and mid-afternoon, and resting was most intense at the earliest and latest hours of the day and at midday, with proportionally less time used for traveling at these times. Averaged over the annual cycle, the gibbons spent 45% of their time feeding, 31.9% resting, 14.1% traveling, and 9.0% socializing. The percentage of time allocated to different activities varied significantly across months and between the dry and rainy seasons. Monthly variation in the activity budget was strongly related to changes in diet. In the rainy season, when the gibbons ate a higher percentage of fruit, they decreased their feeding time, while increasing traveling time in search of food; conversely, in the dry season, when they fed on a higher percentage of leaves, they decreased traveling time. Overall, our results show that the activity budget and diet of the southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon are associated with seasonal shifts in climate. This study provides information relevant to the conservation and management of this endangered species by identifying important habitat conditions for reintroducing captive animals into the wild and providing insight into dietary needs, which may be relevant to the maintenance of animals in rescue centers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:35:26.534101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22667
  • Higher levels of submissive behaviors at the onset of the pairing process
           of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are associated with lower risk of
           wounding following introduction
    • Authors: Ori Pomerantz; Kate C. Baker
      Abstract: Social housing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is considered to be the cornerstone of behavioral management programs in biomedical facilities. However, it also involves the risk of socially inflicted trauma. The ability to avoid such trauma would contribute to the animals’ well-being and alleviate staff's concerns, thus paving the path for more introductions. Here, we sought to address the conflict between the need to socially house rhesus macaques and the need to bring social wounding to a minimum by identifying behaviors expressed early in social introductions, that may serve as predictors of later wounding events. We employed logistic regression analysis to predict the occurrence of wounding for 39 iso-sexual, adult pairs in the 30 days following the introduction into full contact using the levels of behaviors that were observed at the onset of the introduction. The results show that the levels of submissive behaviors were the only significant predictor to later stage wounding. Higher levels of submissive behaviors expressed during the early phases of the introduction were associated with a decreased likelihood of wounding. Interestingly, levels of affiliative behaviors have not added any power to the predictability of the statistical model. Therefore, it may be suggested that the exchange of submissive signals at the earliest stages of the introduction is critical in the determination of relative rank and preclude the need to establish dominance via aggression when allowed full contact. While the observation of clear-cut dominance relationships is commonly considered a harbinger of success, our findings suggest that it is the acknowledgment of subordination, rather than the expression of dominance that underlies this observed pattern. The value of our findings for guiding social housing decision-making may be strongest in situations in which the composition of potential partners is constrained, and therefore requiring that wise decisions be relied upon early behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:29:51.778701-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22671
  • Personality assessment and model comparison with behavioral data: A
           statistical framework and empirical demonstration with bonobos (Pan
    • Authors: Jordan S. Martin; Scott A. Suarez
      Abstract: Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers’ from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods. In this paper, we propose a statistical framework for primate personality research designed to address these limitations. Our framework synthesizes recently developed mixed-effects modeling approaches for quantifying behavioral variation with an information-theoretic model selection paradigm for confirmatory personality research. After detailing a multi-step analytic procedure for personality assessment and model comparison, we employ this framework to evaluate seven models of personality structure in zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus). We find that differences between sexes, ages, zoos, time of observation, and social group composition contributed to significant behavioral variance. Independently of these factors, however, personality nonetheless accounted for a moderate to high proportion of variance in average behavior across observational periods. A personality structure derived from past rating research receives the strongest support relative to our model set. This model suggests that personality variation across the measured behavioral traits is best described by two correlated but distinct dimensions reflecting individual differences in affiliation and sociability (Agreeableness) as well as activity level, social play, and neophilia toward non-threatening stimuli (Openness). These results underscore the utility of our framework for quantifying personality in primates and facilitating greater integration between the behavioral ecological and comparative psychological approaches to personality research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T17:57:34.283239-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22670
  • Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca
           fascicularis and M. sylvanus
    • Authors: Amy R. Klegarth; Hope Hollocher, Lisa Jones-Engel, Eric Shaw, Benjamin P.Y.-H. Lee, Tessa Feeney, Damian Holmes, Dale Laguea, Agustín Fuentes
      Abstract: The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T11:13:06.813357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22633
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-04-18T11:13:06.301508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22601
  • The relative effects of reproductive condition, stress, and seasonality on
           patterns of parasitism in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta
    • Authors: Rodolfo Martínez-Mota; Paul A. Garber, Rupert Palme, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Over the course of one year, we collected fresh fecal samples from 15 adult females belonging to seven black howler groups living in Escárcega, Mexico. Fecal samples were used for parasitological analysis and for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (i.e., stress biomarker). We found that the prevalence of intestinal parasites and parasite richness did not differ among non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating females. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels increased significantly during pregnancy and during the first month of lactation, and positively predicted the probability of Controrchis biliophilus infection. Parasite prevalence and richness decreased during the months of increased rainfall. We conclude that reproductive physiology has limited consequences on intestinal parasitic infection risk in female black howler monkeys and that seasonal environmental fluctuations have greater effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:56:06.726579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22669
  • Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates,
           irrespective of reinforcement
    • Authors: Amy Lewis; Josep Call, Dorthe Berntsen
      Abstract: Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:46.700759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22665
  • Orangutan trade, confiscations, and lack of prosecutions in Indonesia
    • Authors: Vincent Nijman
      Abstract: Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993–2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were “donated” to law enforcement agencies. This resulted in seven (7) successful prosecutions by six different courts. Sentencing was lenient (median fine US$ 442 out of a possible US$ 7,600, median prison sentence 8 months out of a possible 5 years) and certainly too low to act as a deterrent. A paradigm shift within government authorities, conservation organizations, the judiciary, and by the general public is needed where trade in orangutans is no longer seen as a crime against an individual animal but as an economic crime that negatively affects society as a whole. Prosecuting offenders for tax evasion, corruption, endangering public health, animal cruelty, and smuggling, in addition to violating protected species laws, would allow for an increase in sentencing, resulting in a stronger deterrent, and greater public support. Conservation and welfare NGOs have a duty to become more proactive in a drive to increase enforcement; rescuing orangutans always has to coincide with prosecuting offenders and failures, and successes of these prosecutions have to be vigorously publicized. Despite numerous commitments made by Indonesia to orangutan conservation, and clear failures to deliver on almost all components, international donors have increased their funding year on year; it is time that this changes to a system where not failure is rewarded but success.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:44.524665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22652
  • Orangutans, enamel defects, and developmental health: A comparison of
           Borneo and Sumatra
    • Authors: Mark F. Skinner; Matthew M. Skinner
      Abstract: Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans. We are concerned that neglect of this possible marker of ill health may be contributing, through inaction, to their alarming decline in numbers. Width and depth of an LEH are considered proxies for duration and intensity of stress. The hypothesis that Bornean orangutans would exhibit relatively wider and deeper LEH was tested on 163 independent episodes of LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans measured with a NanoFocus AG “µsurf Mobile Plus” scanner. Non-normally distributed data (depths) were converted to natural logs. No difference was found in width of LEH among the two island taxa; nor are their differences in width or depth between the sexes. After controlling for significant differences in LEH depths between incisors and canines, defects are, contrary to prediction, significantly deeper in Sumatran than Bornean animals (median = 28, 18 µm, respectively). It is concluded that repetitive LEH records an unknown but significant stressor present in both Sumatra and Borneo, with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof) that lasts about 6–8 weeks. It is worse in Sumatra. Given this patterning, shared with apes from a wide range of ecological and temporal sources, rLEH is more likely attributable to disease than to malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:31.400312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22668
  • Contexts and consequences of takeovers in hamadryas baboons: Female
           parity, reproductive state, and observational evidence of pregnancy loss
    • Authors: Alexis L. Amann; Mathew Pines, Larissa Swedell
      Abstract: The evolutionary consequences of sexual selection and sexual conflict are epitomized in the hamadryas baboon, a species characterized by strong sexual dimorphism and intense male–male competition. Hamadryas males coerce individual females into reproductively exclusive one-male units via aggressive takeovers, and infants involved in such takeovers are at least four times more likely to be killed (or otherwise die) after takeovers compared to other times. Here we examine female reproductive state before and after takeovers to further investigate the determinants of takeovers and their impact on female reproduction. Our data set consists of 162 takeovers over a period of 20 years in a population of wild hamadryas baboons at Filoha, Ethiopia. Results show that, in contrast to their polygynandrous relatives, hamadryas males show no bias with regard to female reproductive state at the time of the takeover, but are more likely to take over nulliparous compared to multiparous females. In addition, these results reinforce previous findings demonstrating the high likelihood of infant loss after hamadryas takeovers and suggest that females may use an additional strategy of pregnancy termination to curtail investment in offspring that are very likely to die anyway. Thus, hamadryas males may target females with high future reproductive value and hamadryas females may employ counterstrategies to help mitigate the effects of sexual coercion and infanticide on their own fitness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T17:25:35.104828-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22649
  • Optimizing field and analytical procedures for estimating densities of
           arboreal and threatened primates in tropical rainforest
    • Authors: Nathalie Cavada; Marco Ciolli, Claudia Barelli, Francesco Rovero
      Abstract: The application of distance sampling to primate density estimation is challenging and susceptible to estimation biases, mainly due to the difficulties of properly accounting for variation in species’ detectability and of accurately sampling the spread of the social groups. We apply a hierarchical distance sampling approach to primate data, to account for a comprehensive set of environmental covariates of both detectability and abundance, and we propose a novel field routine to measure the spread of groups during transect sampling. We confirm the good potential of this approach, given we obtained refined estimates of primate density (as measured by the Akaike Information Criterion) in comparison to estimates from models without covariates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T15:05:42.350269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22666
  • Conservation strategies for understanding and combating the primate
           bushmeat trade on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    • Authors: Drew T. Cronin; Paul R. Sesink Clee, Matthew W. Mitchell, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, David Fernández, Cirilo Riaco, Maximiliano Fero Meñe, Jose Manuel Esara Echube, Gail W. Hearn, Mary Katherine Gonder
      Abstract: Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is among the important places in Africa for the conservation of primates, but a cultural preference for bushmeat and a lack of effective law enforcement has encouraged commercial bushmeat hunting, threatening the survival of the remaining primate population. For over 13 years, we collected bushmeat market data in the Malabo market, recording over 35,000 primate carcasses, documenting “mardi gras” consumption patterns, seasonal carcass availability, and negative effects resulting from government intervention. We also conducted forest surveys throughout Bioko's two protected areas in order to localize and quantify primate populations and hunting pressure. Using these data, we were able to document the significant negative impact bushmeat hunting had on monkey populations, estimate which species are most vulnerable to hunting, and develop ecological niche models to approximate the distribution of each of Bioko's diurnal primate species. These results also have allowed for the identification of primate hotspots, such as the critically important southwest region of the Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve, and thus, priority areas for conservation on Bioko, leading to more comprehensive conservation recommendations. Current and future efforts now focus on bridging the gap between investigators and legislators in order to develop and effectively implement a management plan for Bioko's Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve and to develop a targeted educational campaign to reduce demand by changing consumer attitudes toward bushmeat. Using this multidisciplinary approach, informed by biological, socioeconomic, and cultural research, there may yet be a positive future for the primates of Bioko.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:38.873813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22663
  • Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet
           across an altitudinal gradient
    • Authors: Halszka Glowacka; Shannon C. McFarlin, Erin R. Vogel, Tara S. Stoinski, Felix Ndagijimana, Deo Tuyisingize, Antoine Mudakikwa, Gary T. Schwartz
      Abstract: The robust masticatory system of mountain gorillas is thought to have evolved for the comminution of tough vegetation, yet, compared to other primates, the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet is unremarkable. This may be a result of low plant toughness in the mountain gorilla environment or of mountain gorillas feeding selectively on low-toughness foods. The goal of this paper is to determine how the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet varies across their habitat, which spans a large altitudinal range, and whether there is a relationship between toughness and food selection by mountain gorillas. We collected data on the following variables to determine whether, and if so how, they change with altitude: leaf toughness of two plant species consumed by mountain gorillas, at every 100 m increase in altitude (2,600–3,700 m); toughness of consumed foods comprising over 85% of the gorilla diet across five vegetation zones; and toughness of unconsumed/infrequently consumed plant parts of those foods. Although leaf toughness increased with altitude, the toughness of the gorilla diet remained similar. There was a negative relationship between toughness and consumption frequency, and toughness was a better predictor of consumption frequency than plant frequency, biomass, and density. Consumed plant parts were less tough than unconsumed/infrequently consumed parts and toughness of the latter increased with altitude. Although it is unclear whether gorillas select food based on toughness or use toughness as a sensory cue to impart other plant properties (e.g., macronutrients, chemicals), our results that gorillas maintain a consistent low-toughness dietary profile across altitude, despite toughness increasing with altitude, suggest that the robust gorilla masticatory apparatus evolved for repetitive mastication of foods that are not high in toughness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:34.181657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22661
  • Social and demographic correlates of male androgen levels in wild
           white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)
    • Authors: Franka S. Schaebs; Susan E. Perry, Don Cohen, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner
      Abstract: The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males had higher androgen levels than subordinates. Contrary to our predictions, neither the number of breeding-age males nor the number of potentially fertile females was obviously associated with androgen levels. Furthermore, male androgen levels were not significantly linked to social stability, as measured by stability of male group membership or recency of change in the alpha male position. Androgen levels changed seasonally, but not in a manner that had an obvious relationship to predictions from the Challenge Hypothesis: levels were generally at their lowest near the beginning of the conception season, but instead of peaking when reproductive opportunities were greatest, they were at their highest near the end of the conception season or shortly thereafter. This lack of correspondence to the timing of conceptions suggests that there may be ecological factors not yet identified that influence ifA levels. We expected that the presence of offspring who were young enough to be vulnerable to infanticide during an alpha male takeover might influence androgen levels, at least in the alpha male, but this variable did not significantly impact results.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:40:34.137678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22653
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-03-30T09:10:29.89706-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22664
  • How do rivers, geographic distance, and dispersal behavior influence
           genetic structure in two sympatric New World monkeys'
    • Authors: Emilie Lecompte; Mohand-Ameziane Bouanani, Benoît de Thoisy, Brigitte Crouau-Roy
      Abstract: Dispersal, one of the major factors affecting the gene flow between populations, shapes the spatial distribution of genetic diversity within species. Alouatta macconnelli and Saguinus midas are two Neotropical monkey species that sympatrically inhabit the Guiana shield in northern Amazonia and are likely to differ in their dispersal behavior and vagility. We took advantage of their sympatry to investigate, over a fine geographical scale (∼50 km long), the relationship between spatial genetic structure, on the one hand, and geographical features and the species’ dispersal behavior on the other. A total of 84 A. macconnelli individuals from 25 social units and 76 S. midas individuals from 19 social units were genotyped for nine microsatellite markers. Both species displayed high genetic diversity and allelic richness. However, patterns of genetic structure differed between the two species. In A. macconnelli, no genetic substructuring was observed, while in S. midas we detected significant structuring, but this structuring was not correlated with geographical features, such as the location of individuals relative to the river and/or the distance between them. Instead, the geographical distribution of genetic variation observed for each species is predominantly explained by each species’ dispersal pattern. We identified bisexual dispersal for both species, but with significant differences, either in the distance or in the rate of dispersal, between species and sexes. Genetic relatedness within social units was higher in S. midas than in A. macconnelli: gene flow between social units seems limited in S. midas, especially for females, while high dispersal characterizes A. macconnelli, where females seem to disperse at lower rate but at a longer distance than males.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:40:36.069566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22660
  • How far do Neotropical primates disperse seeds'
    • Authors: Lisieux F. Fuzessy; Charles H. Janson, Fernando A. O. Silveira
      Abstract: Seed dispersal distance (SDD) is a vital component of vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal process: the average distance at which seeds are deposited away from the parent plant represents the starting template of plant regeneration. We present a simple model to explain and predict observed measures of average dispersal distance and we hypothesize that it is a consequence of how long seeds are retained in the disperser's gut, how rapidly the disperser moves per unit time and how twisted the animal travel path is relative to the straight-line distance moved away from the seed source. We retrieved data on dispersal distances from 26 published studies including nine primate species dispersing up to 112 plant species per study. We used gut transit time (TT) as a proxy for residence time inside the gut, the disperser's travel path per hour as proxy for movement rate, and the daily path length relative to the home range area as a correlate of path twisting (PT). We illustrate this model with comparative data on Neotropical primates. These three variables explained 90% of the variation in the average SDD. Path analysis indicates that additional variables exerted only indirect effects. Our model can be applied to primate populations for which detailed seed dispersal data are missing, and help evaluate conservation priorities for primate species according to the potential service they provide in terms of forest regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:30:47.025696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22659
  • Reproductive status affects the feeding ecology and social association
           patterns of female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) in an Amazonian
    • Authors: Luana V.P. Ruivo; Anita I. Stone, Matthew Fienup
      Abstract: When making foraging decisions, female primates may follow specific behavioral strategies that reflect their reproductive state. Lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females, but we argue that gestation is also energetically expensive for squirrel monkeys. In this study, we examined whether female squirrel monkeys (a seasonally breeding primate) in different reproductive phases showed significant differences in their foraging ecology. We sampled two wild groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) using the focal animal method, during 12 months (June 2014 to May 2015). During this time, we quantified the effect of reproductive state (mating, gestation, and lactation) and sex (females vs. males) on activity budgets, foraging efficiency, dietary composition, and nearest neighbors. We found significant effects of both sex and reproductive phase on the mean proportion of time spent foraging, resting, traveling, and being social. Females consumed more insects than did males at all times; among females, time spent eating prey and fruit varied according to reproductive state. These data suggest that, due to their life history and seasonal breeding, reproduction is a costly activity for female Saimiri, and not only during lactation. Therefore, adopting the appropriate behavioral strategies is essential to reduce energetic deficits in females.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:25:58.079526-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22657
  • Overlooked small apes need more attention!
    • Authors: Pengfei Fan; Thad Q. Bartlett
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:25:21.769126-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22658
  • Embraces are lateralized in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris)
    • Authors: Emily R. Boeving; Starlie C. Belnap, Eliza L. Nelson
      Abstract: Side biases observed in behavior are thought to reflect underlying asymmetric brain function or hemispheric specialization. Previous work in multiple species identified left side biases (associated with the right hemisphere) for processing social behavior. In highly social species such as primates, many behaviors may be categorized as social, yet differences between such behaviors have not been examined as a test of asymmetric brain function. Using Colombian spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), we observed lateral positioning during two types of behaviors widely categorized as social affiliative: embracing and grooming, and identified a left bias for embracing, but not grooming. Our findings partially support prior research in hemispheric specialization, but suggest that there may be differences between social behaviors that drive specialization. We discuss these results in light of current theory on hemispheric specialization and highlight differences between embracing and grooming.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:21:32.785162-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22654
  • Vitamin D status in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) in Sri Lanka
    • Authors: Michael L. Power; Wolfgang P. J. Dittus
      Abstract: The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant. This study reports values for 25-OH-D and the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) for wild, forest-ranging toque macaques (Macaca sinica) in Sri Lanka. Plasma samples were obtained from eight adult males, seven juvenile males, six young nulliparous females, nine adult females not pregnant or lactating, eleven lactating adult females, and four pregnant females. Mean values for the complete sample were 61.3 ± 4.0 ng/ml for 25-OH-D and 155.6 ± 8.7 pg/ml for 1,25[OH]2 D. There were no significant differences for either metabolite among age and sex classes, nor between lactating and non-reproductive females. Values from the literature for circulating 25-OH-D in captive macaques are three times higher than those found in this wild population, however, 1,25[OH]2 D values in captive animals were similar to the wild values. The data from this study indicate that anthropoid primates exposed to extensive sunlight will have circulating values of 25-OH-D generally above 30 ng/ml, providing some support for the Endocrine Society recommendations for humans. Current dietary vitamin D supplementation of captive macaques likely exceeds requirement. This may affect metabolism and immune function, with possible consequences for macaque health and biomedical research results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:21:28.350927-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22655
  • Obituary Robert H. Horwich (1940–2017)
    • Authors: Sam Shanee; Keefe Keeley, Noga Shanee
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:15:58.951492-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22651
  • Parasites of orangutans (primates: ponginae): An overview
    • Authors: Wisnu Nurcahyo; Veronika Konstanzová, Ivona Foitová
      Abstract: Wild orangutan populations exist in an increasingly fragile state. As numbers continue to decline and populations became fragmented, the overall health of remaining individuals becomes increasingly at risk. Parasitic infections can have a serious impact on the health of wild orangutans, and can be fatal. It has been reported that rehabilitated individuals demonstrate a higher prevalence of parasitic diseases, and it is possible that they may spread these infections to wild orangutans upon reintroduction. In order to ensure the success of reintroduction and conservation efforts, it is crucial to understand the potential risks by fully understanding what parasites they have been reported to be infected with. Using this knowledge, future conservation strategies can be adapted to minimize the risk and prevalence of parasite transmission in the remaining orangutan populations. There is still limited information available on orangutan parasites, with several still not identified to the species level. Based on comprehensive literature review, we found 51 parasite taxa known to infect wild, semi-wild, and captive orangutans, including newly reported species. Here, we summarize methods used to identify parasites and draw conclusions relative to their reported prevalence. We also recommend fecal sample preservation and analytical methods to obtain best result in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:17:55.559514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22650
  • Stable carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, isotope analysis of plants from a
           South Asian tropical forest: Implications for primatology
    • Authors: Patrick Roberts; Scott A. Blumenthal, Wolfgang Dittus, Oshan Wedage, Julia A. Lee-Thorp
      Abstract: Stable isotope analysis of primate tissues in tropical forest contexts is an increasingly popular means of obtaining information about niche distinctions among sympatric species, including preferences in feeding height, forest canopy density, plant parts, and trophism. However, issues of equifinality mean that feeding height, canopy density, as well as the plant parts and plant species consumed, may produce similar or confounding effects. With a few exceptions, researchers have so far relied largely on general principles and/or limited plant data from the study area as references for deducing the predominant drivers of primate isotope variation. Here, we explore variation in the stable carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios of 288 plant samples identified as important to the three primate species from the Polonnaruwa Nature Sanctuary, Sri Lanka, relative to plant part, season, and canopy height. Our results show that plant part and height have the greatest effect on the δ13C and δ18O measurements of plants of immediate relevance to the primates, Macaca sinica, Semnopithecus priam thersites, and Trachypithecus vetulus, living in this monsoonal tropical forest. We find no influence of plant part, height or season on the δ15N of measured plants. While the plant part effect is particularly pronounced in δ13C between fruits and leaves, differential feeding height, and plant taxonomy influence plant δ13C and δ18O differences in addition to plant organ. Given that species composition in different regions and forest types will differ, the results urge caution in extrapolating general isotopic trends without substantial local baselines studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T04:52:29.878662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22656
  • An empirical evaluation of camera trapping and spatially explicit
           capture-recapture models for estimating chimpanzee density
    • Authors: Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner; Eric J. Howe, Pierre Drapeau, Hjalmar S. Kühl
      Abstract: Empirical validations of survey methods for estimating animal densities are rare, despite the fact that only an application to a population of known density can demonstrate their reliability under field conditions and constraints. Here, we present a field validation of camera trapping in combination with spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for enumerating chimpanzee populations. We used 83 camera traps to sample a habituated community of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of known community and territory size in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and estimated community size and density using spatially explicit capture-recapture models. We aimed to: (1) validate camera trapping as a means to collect capture-recapture data for chimpanzees; (2) validate SECR methods to estimate chimpanzee density from camera trap data; (3) compare the efficacy of targeting locations frequently visited by chimpanzees versus deploying cameras according to a systematic design; (4) evaluate the performance of SECR estimators with reduced sampling effort; and (5) identify sources of heterogeneity in detection probabilities. Ten months of camera trapping provided abundant capture-recapture data. All weaned individuals were detected, most of them multiple times, at both an array of targeted locations, and a systematic grid of cameras positioned randomly within the study area, though detection probabilities were higher at targeted locations. SECR abundance estimates were accurate and precise, and analyses of subsets of the data indicated that the majority of individuals in a community could be detected with as few as five traps deployed within their territory. Our results highlight the potential of camera trapping for cost-effective monitoring of chimpanzee populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T12:15:26.642913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22647
  • Activity patterns in seven captive lemur species: Evidence of
           cathemerality in Varecia and Lemur catta'
    • Authors: Joel Bray; David R. Samson, Charles L. Nunn
      Abstract: Cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. However, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. For example, Lemur catta and Varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. To investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemurs that are exposed to similar captive environments. Using MotionWatch 8 ® actigraphy data loggers, we studied 88 lemurs across seven species at the Duke Lemur Center (DLC). Six species were members of the family Lemuridae (Eulemur coronatus, E. flavifrons, E. mongoz, L. catta, V. rubra, V. variegata), while a seventh was strictly diurnal and included as an out-group (Propithecus coquereli). For each 24-hr cycle (N = 503), we generated two estimates of cathemerality: mean night (MN) activity and day/night (DN) activity ratio (day and night cutoffs were based on astronomical twilights). As expected, P. coquereli engaged in the least amount of nocturnal activity according to both measures; their activity was also outside the 95% confidence intervals of all three cathemeral Eulemur species, which exhibited the greatest evidence of cathemerality. By these estimates, Varecia activity was most similar to Eulemur and exhibited substantial deviations from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.22 ± SE 0.12; β (DN) = −0.21 ± SE 0.12). L. catta activity patterns also deviated from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.12 ± SE 0.11; β (DN) = −0.15 ± SE 0.12) but to a lesser degree than either Varecia or Eulemur. Overall, L. catta displayed an intermediate activity pattern between Eulemur and P. coquereli, which is somewhat consistent with wild studies. Regarding Varecia, although additional observations in more diverse wild habitats are needed, our findings support the existence of cathemeral behavior in this genus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T15:30:26.345685-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22648
  • Functional morphology of the douc langur (Pygathrix spp.) scapula
    • Authors: Katie E. Bailey; Susan E. Lad, James D. Pampush
      Abstract: Most colobine monkeys primarily move through their arboreal environment quadrupedally. Douc langurs (Pygathrix spp.), however, are regularly observed to use suspensory behaviors at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center (EPRC) in Northern Vietnam. Previous work has linked variation in scapular morphology to different modes of primate arboreal locomotion. Here we investigate whether the shape of the Pygathrix scapula resembles obligate brachiators (gibbons) or obligate arboreal quadrupeds (other cercopithecoids). Using a MicroScribe G2X 3D digitizer, the positions of 17 landmarks were recorded on 15 different species of nonhuman primates (n = 100) from three categories of locomotor behavior: brachiator, arboreal quadruped, and unknown (Pygathrix). All analyses were conducted in the R package geomorph. A Procrustes analysis uniformly scaled the shape data and placed specimens into the same morphospace. A Principal Component Analysis was used to examine scapular shape and a Procrustes ANOVA was conducted to test for shape difference in the scapulae. A pairwise analysis was used to compare the means of the locomotor categories and identify any statistically significant differences. A phylogenetically controlled Procrustes ANOVA was also conducted using a phylogeny from 10kTrees. Results show Pygathrix scapular morphology is significantly different from both arboreal colobine quadrupeds (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T15:15:26.229138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22646
  • Factors of influence and social correlates of parturition in captive
           Campbell's monkeys: Case study and breeding data
    • Authors: Alban Lemasson; Ronan Jubin, Philippe Bec, Martine Hausberger
      Abstract: How nonhuman primates deal with birth, at the moment of delivery, and during the following days, remains poorly explored because of the unpredictability of this event, particularly for forest-dwelling arboreal species. Available studies highlight intra- and interspecific variation which suggest flexibility of the timing of delivery, of behavior associated with labor contractions and parturition, and the social context and ambient noise surrounding delivery. Here, we present the findings of a two-decade survey of reproduction in a population of captive Campbell's monkeys. Analysis of 34 births (with a female-biased sex ratio) showed that deliveries occurred systematically at night and more frequently during week-ends and in fall (September–November). This suggests the existence of both circadian and infradian biological rhythms. We present the first detailed description of a birth for this species and its short-term social consequences. In line with previous findings for other monkeys and apes, labor (estimated by unusual stretching postures) and parturition were rapid, and delivery occurred in a clear social and vocal context. During the following days, the new mother became the center of attention of for young (kin and non-kin) females and rose through the hierarchy. We discuss socio-ecological factors, notably captivity conditions and the high degree of tolerance in the species’ social system, and confirm the existence of both “rigidity” and “flexibility” in the primates’ adaptive reproductive strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T18:15:44.090169-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22632
  • Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging
           ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the
           southern Ethiopian Highlands
    • Authors: Addisu Mekonnen; Peter J. Fashing, Afework Bekele, R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K. Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr. Stenseth
      Abstract: Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T20:01:18.660094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22644
  • Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate
    • Authors: Stuart K. Watson; Lisa A. Reamer, Mary Catherine Mareno, Gillian Vale, Rachel A. Harrison, Susan P. Lambeth, Steven J. Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
      Abstract: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals (“rank-bias”) has been proposed as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no “competing” models. In each of four captive groups, either a single high-rank (HR, n = 2) or a low-rank (LR, n = 2) chimpanzee model was trained on one method of opening a two-action puzzle-box, before demonstrating the trained method in a group context. This was followed by 8 hr of group-wide, open-access to the puzzle-box. Successful manipulations and observers of each manipulation were recorded. Barnard's exact tests showed that individuals in the LR groups used the seeded method as their first-choice option at significantly above chance levels, whereas those in the HR groups did not. Furthermore, individuals in the LR condition used the seeded method on their first attempt significantly more often than those in the HR condition. A network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) revealed that the best supported statistical models were those in which social transmission occurred only in groups with subordinate models. Finally, we report an innovation by a subordinate individual that built cumulatively on existing methods of opening the puzzle-box and was subsequently copied by a dominant observer. These findings illustrate that chimpanzees are motivated to copy rewarding novel behaviors that are demonstrated by subordinate individuals and that, in some cases, social transmission may be constrained by high-rank demonstrators.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T16:25:25.175248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22642
  • Seminal coagulation and sperm quality in different social contexts in
           captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella)
    • Authors: Julianne S. Lima; Danuza L. Leão, Karol G. Oliveira, Adriel B. Brito, Wlaisa V. Sampaio, Regiane R. Santos, Helder L. Queiroz, Sheyla F. Domingues
      Abstract: In the present study, we aimed to assess the influence of different social contexts on the seminal coagulation and sperm quality in captive tufted capuchin monkeys. For this, males were housed either individually, in mixed-sex groups (with females), or in male-only groups. Monkeys were housed in cages and each cage type (i.e., individual or group cage) was placed in a different room. Forty-one males were subjected to semen collection by rectal electroejaculation. The degree of seminal coagulation was determined on a scale of I–IV. Seminal volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, vigor, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated for all ejaculate samples. All ejaculates collected showed degrees of coagulation between II and IV, where the majority presented coagulation degree IV, when collected from animals housed in groups. No statistical differences among percentages of coagula degree when samples were collected from males housed individually. Animals housed in group cages (male-only groups and mixed-sex groups) showed a significantly higher percentage of ejaculates at degree IV than males housed individually. Seminal volume was not affected by the coagula degree but by the housing system, where animals housed individually showed the highest volume (543 μl) when compared with those animals from male (273 μl) and mixed-sex (318 μl) groups. No differences were observed in semen volume when comparing male-only groups with mixed-sex groups. Sperm motility was affected by both housing system and coagula degree. Samples with coagula degree IV from animals housed individually showed the highest (72%) sperm motility percentages. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was lower when samples were presenting coagula degree II + III and collected from male- (17%) or mixed-sex (23%) groups. However, this housing system effect was not observed when sperm was obtained from coagula degree IV semen. Sperm vigor was neither affect by housing system or coagula degree.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T16:20:26.643677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22643
  • Individual differences in zoo-housed squirrel monkeys' (Saimiri sciureus)
           reactions to visitors, research participation, and personality ratings
    • Authors: Zita Polgár; Lara Wood, Marie J. Haskell
      Abstract: Understanding individual differences in captive squirrel monkeys is a topic of importance both for improving welfare by catering to individual needs, and for better understanding the results and implications of behavioral research. In this study, 23 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), housed in an environment that is both a zoo enclosure and research facility, were assessed for (i) the time they spent by an observation window under three visitor conditions: no visitors, small groups, and large groups; (ii) their likelihood of participating in voluntary research; and (iii) zookeepers, ratings of personality. A Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon post-hoc tests comparing mean times found that the monkeys spent more time by the window when there were large groups present than when there were small groups or no visitors. Thus, visitors do not seem to have a negative effect and may be enriching for certain individuals. Through GLMM and correlational analyses, it was found that high scores on the personality trait of playfulness and low scores on cautiousness, depression, and solitude were significant predictors of increased window approach behavior when visitors were present. The GLMM and correlational analyses assessing the links between personality traits and research participation found that low scores of cautiousness and high scores of playfulness, gentleness, affection, and friendliness, were significant predictors. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to selection bias and its potential confounding effect on cognitive studies with voluntary participation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T02:46:59.10714-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22639
  • Investigating the dental toolkit of primates based on food mechanical
           properties: Feeding action does matter
    • Authors: Ghislain Thiery; Franck Guy, Vincent Lazzari
      Abstract: Although conveying an indisputable morphological and behavioral signal, traditional dietary categories such as frugivorous or folivorous tend to group a wide range of food mechanical properties together. Because food/tooth interactions are mostly mechanical, it seems relevant to investigate the dental morphology of primates based on mechanical categories. However, existing mechanical categories classify food by its properties but cannot be used as factors to classify primate dietary habits. This comes from the fact that one primate species might be adapted to a wide range of food mechanical properties. To tackle this issue, what follows is an original framework based on action-related categories. The proposal here is to classify extant primates based on the range of food mechanical properties they can process through one given action. The resulting categories can be used as factors to investigate the dental tools available to primates. Furthermore, cracking, grinding, and shearing categories assigned depending on the hardness and the toughness of food are shown to be supported by morphological data (3D relative enamel thickness) and topographic data (relief index, occlusal complexity, and Dirichlet normal energy). Inferring food mechanical properties from dental morphology is especially relevant for the study of extinct primates, which are mainly documented by dental remains. Hence, we use action-related categories to investigate the molar morphology of an extinct colobine monkey Mesopithecus pentelicus from the Miocene of Pikermi, Greece. Action-related categories show contrasting results compared with classical categories and give us new insights into the dietary adaptations of this extinct primate. Finally, we provide some possible directions for future research aiming to test action-related categories. In particular, we suggest acquiring more data on mechanically challenging fallback foods and advocate the use of other food mechanical properties such as abrasiveness. The development of new action-related dental metrics is also crucial for primate dental studies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T02:46:57.096762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22640
  • Total energy expenditure in captive capuchins (Sapajus apella)
    • Authors: Wren Edwards; Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Herman Pontzer
      Abstract: Primates have markedly lower total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal/day) than other placental mammals, expending approximately 50% less energy for their mass than non-primate eutherians. However, little is known regarding interspecific variation of energy expenditure within platyrrhine primates. We investigated TEE in captive tufted capuchins (Sapajus apella, n = 8, ages 7–36), a frugivorous platyrrhine, to compare TEE with other placental mammals and primates. We tested the hypothesis that large-brained capuchins would exhibit greater TEE than other platyrrhines that are less encephalized. We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure TEE over 7–11 days, during which physical activity data were recorded via focal observation. TEE was strongly correlated with fat free mass, but sex, age, and rates of walking and climbing were not correlated with variation in TEE in multivariate analyses controlling for fat free mass. We found evidence that daily physical activity was negatively correlated with body fat percentage. Capuchin TEE was similar (P = 0.67) to other, less encephalized platyrrhines (Callithrix and Alouatta) and 54% lower than other placental mammals, in analyses controlling for body mass. These results suggest that brain size and physical activity do not necessarily influence variation in daily energy expenditure across primate species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T15:15:31.408837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22638
  • Do same-sex mounts function as dominance assertion in male golden
           snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)'
    • Authors: Pengzhen Huang; Xin He, Endi Zhang, Min Chen
      Abstract: It has been hypothesized that same-sex mounts can reflect the hierarchical relationship in a mounting dyad and it is widely deemed that mounting and being mounted are demonstrations of dominant and subordinate status, respectively. In this research, we aimed to test whether same-sex mounts function as dominance assertion in male golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). We investigated this behavior in eight-individuals, captive all-male unit (AMU) in Shanghai wild animal park, China. Behavioral observations were conducted with a total of 1,855 mounts recorded from November, 2014 to June, 2015, during which the alpha male was replaced in the beginning of April. In support to the dominance assertion hypothesis, we found that during the entire study period the higher-ranking male was more likely to be the mounter than the lower-ranking one, except the mounts that happened among juveniles in peaceful and playful social contexts. Our study indicates that the hierarchical relationship of a mounting dyad can be influenced by the age-class of the participants and the social context where mounting occurs. We suggest that same-sex mounts might have different functions in different age groups and be multifunctional in a species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T12:20:36.497658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22636
  • Functional planning units for the management of an endangered Brazilian
           titi monkey
    • Authors: Sidney F. Gouveia; João Pedro Souza-Alves, Bruno B. de Souza, Raone Beltrão-Mendes, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Stephen F. Ferrari
      Abstract: Conservation practices in the tropics often rely on the data available for a few, better-known species and the adoption of an appropriate spatial scale. By defining a set of landscape units that account for critical aspects of the focal species, the information available on these conservation targets can support regional conservation policies. Here, we define and classify adjacent landscapes, termed planning units, to orientate management decisions within and among these landscapes, which are occupied by an endangered flagship primate species (Coimbra-Filho's titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai) from eastern Brazil. We use landscape boundaries (highways and river systems), and a high-resolution map of forest remnants to identify continuous and manageable landscapes. We employed functional landscape metrics based on the species’ dispersal ability and home range size to characterize and classify these landscapes. We classified planning units by scoring them according to a suite of selected metrics through a Principal Component Analysis. We propose 31 planning units, containing one to six C. coimbrai populations, most with low values of habitat availability, functional connectivity and carrying capacity, and a high degree of degradation. Due to this poor landscape configuration, basic management practices are recommendable. However, additional aspects of the landscapes and the populations they contain (e.g., matrix type and genetic variability) should improve the scheme, which will require a closer integration of research aims with socio-political strategies. Even so, our scheme should prove useful for the combination of information on conservation targets (i.e., focal species) with management strategies on an administrative scale.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T12:20:30.751128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22637
  • Fine-scale genetic structure analyses reveal dispersal patterns in a
           critically endangered primate, Trachypithecus leucocephalus
    • Authors: Weiran Wang; Meng Yao
      Abstract: Dispersal is a critically important life history trait of social organisms that has a major impact on the population genetic structure and social relationships within groups. Primates exhibit highly diversified dispersal and philopatry patterns, but knowledge of these patterns is difficult to obtain and usually limited to observations of a small number of focal social groups or individuals. Here, we investigated the dispersal pattern of a critically endangered colobine monkey, the white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus), using molecular approaches, and sex-specific population genetic structure analyses at fine geographical scales. We non-invasively collected 403 fecal samples from 41 social groups across 90% of the langur's range in Fusui (FS) and Chongzuo (CZ) in southwestern Guangxi Province, China. We identified 214 unique individuals from the samples by genotyping 15 polymorphic autosomal microsatellite loci, a sex-specific marker, and sequencing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I (HVRI). We found higher intragroup than intergroup genetic relatedness in males and females in both populations. A significant positive correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance, that is a pattern of isolation-by-distance, was detected in females from the FS population, but not in males. Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed high within-group relatedness in both sexes and populations, as well as an additional positive correlation at the 0.5-km distance class in females from the FS population. Furthermore, we inferred first-generation migrants using genetic assignment tests. Our results suggest that male T. leucocephalus disperse at random distances within habitat areas, whereas dispersal of females may mainly occur among adjacent groups near their home site. Our study provides the first genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal in T. leucocephalus, which has important management and conservation implications for the species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T17:40:27.416005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22635
  • Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at
           the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Kim Grützmacher; Verena Keil, Vera Leinert, Floraine Leguillon, Arthur Henlin, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Sophie Köndgen, Alexander Lang, Tobias Deschner, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz
      Abstract: Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine—in combination with monitoring for symptoms—is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T16:50:21.112546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22619
  • Vocal repertoire of free-ranging black howler monkeys’ (Alouatta pigra):
           Call types, contexts, and sex-related contributions
    • Authors: Margarita Briseño-Jaramillo; Véronique Biquand, Alejandro Estrada, Alban Lemasson
      Abstract: Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repertoire, needed to be explored further. This report provides the first detailed description of the vocal repertoire of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), focusing on acoustic structures and contexts of emission of both loud and soft calls as well as on the contribution rate of males and females to the different call types. Three free-ranging social groups of black howler monkeys living in Palenque National Park, Mexico were monitored. We identified twelve acoustically discriminable call types, eight described previously and four described here for the first time. A few call types were systematically emitted either isolated or during howling bouts, but most of them could be heard in both calling contexts. Three call types were emitted only by females and two only by males. Adult males’ call rates (for the seven shared call types) were higher than those of females but only when considering calls emitted within howling bouts. Our contextual analysis enabled us to divide call types into potential functional categories, according to their degree of contribution, to intra-group versus inter-group interactions and to neutral-positive versus negative situations. We then discussed how socio-ecological factors, notably sex differences in social behaviors, may explain the variability found in the vocal repertoire of this species and compared our findings with the literature on other primate species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T16:45:27.430856-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22630
  • Description of a new species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae)
           based on integrative taxonomy
    • Authors: Peng-Fei Fan; Kai He, Xing Chen, Alejandra Ortiz, Bin Zhang, Chao Zhao, Yun-Qiao Li, Hai-Bo Zhang, Clare Kimock, Wen-Zhi Wang, Colin Groves, Samuel T. Turvey, Christian Roos, Kristofer M. Helgen, Xue-Long Jiang
      Abstract: We describe a species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) that is new to science from eastern Myanmar and southwestern China. The genus of hoolock gibbons comprises two previously described living species, the western (Hoolock hoolock) and eastern hoolock (H. leuconedys) gibbons, geographically isolated by the Chindwin River. We assessed the morphological and genetic characteristics of wild animals and museum specimens, and conducted multi-disciplinary analyses using mitochondrial genomic sequences, external morphology, and craniodental characters to evaluate the taxonomic status of the hoolock population in China. The results suggest that hoolocks distributed to the east of the Irrawaddy-Nmai Hka Rivers, which were previously assigned to H. leuconedys, are morphologically and genetically distinct from those to the west of the river, and should be recognized as a new species, the Gaoligong hoolock gibbon or skywalker hoolock gibbon (H. tianxing sp. nov.). We consider that the new species should be categorized as Endangered under IUCN criteria. The discovery of the new species focuses attention on the need for improved conservation of small apes, many of which are in danger of extinction in southern China and Southeast Asia.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T18:45:45.934646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22631
  • Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild
           Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea)
    • Authors: Tiago Falótico; Noemi Spagnoletti, Michael Haslam, Lydia V. Luncz, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Michael Gumert
      Abstract: Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05T14:55:26.084438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22629
  • Fluid dipping technology of chimpanzees in Comoé National Park, Ivory
    • Authors: Juan Lapuente; Thurston C. Hicks, K. Eduard Linsenmair
      Abstract: Over a 6 month period during the dry season, from the end of October 2014 to the beginning of May 2015, we studied tool use behavior of previously unstudied and non-habituated savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in the Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast (CI). We analyzed all the stick tools and leaf-sponges found that the chimpanzees used to forage for ants, termites, honey, and water. We found a particular behavior to be widespread across different chimpanzee communities in the park, namely, dipping for water from tree holes using sticks with especially long brush-tip modifications, using camera traps, we recorded adults, juveniles, and infants of three communities displaying this behavior. We compared water dipping and honey dipping tools used by Comoé chimpanzees and found significant differences in the total length, diameter, and brush length of the different types of fluid-dipping tools used. We found that water dipping tools had consistently longer and thicker brush-tips than honey dipping tools. Although this behavior was observed only during the late dry season, the chimpanzees always had alternative water sources available, like pools and rivers, in which they drank without the use of a tool. It remains unclear whether the use of a tool increases efficient access to water. This is the first time that water dipping behavior with sticks has been found as a widespread and well-established behavior across different age and sex classes and communities, suggesting the possibility of cultural transmission. It is crucial that we conserve this population of chimpanzees, not only because they may represent the second largest population in the country, but also because of their unique behavioral repertoire.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21T19:53:14.837818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22628
  • Ten years of orangutan-related wildlife crime investigation in West
           Kalimantan, Indonesia
    • Authors: Cathryn Freund; Edi Rahman, Cheryl Knott
      Abstract: Poaching for the pet trade is considered one of the main threats to orangutan survival, especially to the Bornean species (Pongo pygmaeus). However, there have been few attempts to quantify the number of individuals taken from the wild or to evaluate the drivers of the trade. Most orangutan poaching is thought to be opportunistic in nature, occurring in conjunction with deforestation for large-scale agriculture. Using data from our long-term wildlife crime field investigation program collected from 2004 to 2014, we evaluated the prevalence of orangutan poaching and its spatial distribution in and around Gunung Palung National Park, in the regencies (districts) of Ketapang and Kayong Utara, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over the project period, investigators uncovered 145 cases of orangutans being illegally held captive for the pet trade. There was a significant correlation between the extent of oil palm and the number of cases reported from each sub-district in the landscape, supporting the widely held hypothesis that orangutan poaching is opportunistic, and we found no evidence of orangutan trading rings (i.e., international traders) targeting Gunung Palung National Park. Over the past decade, there only has been one prosecution of orangutan trading in West Kalimantan, and weak law enforcement by Indonesian authorities remains the most significant challenge in addressing wildlife trade. We offer four recommendations to address this, including that Indonesia dedicate at least $3 million more to addressing orangutan poaching and trade in Kalimantan and that the country's wildlife protection laws be revised and strengthened, with the new laws socialized to a wide audience, including government officials and all aspects of civil society. As oil palm begins to expand into Africa, this study also may help predict how this will affect gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, encouraging proactive conservation action.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13T14:00:41.404893-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22620
  • Oesophagostomiasis in non-human primates of Gombe National Park, Tanzania
    • Authors: Karen A. Terio; Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Michael J. Kinsel, Jane Raphael, Iddi Lipende, Anthony Collins, Yingying Li, Beatrice H. Hahn, Dominic A. Travis, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: Oesophagostomum sp. is a parasitic nematode that frequently infects wild chimpanzees. Although nodular lesions are commonly associated with infection, some wild chimpanzee populations seem to tolerate Oesophagostomum nodular lesions while those at Gombe and other sites suffer from associated morbidity and mortality. From August 2004 to December 2013, we examined demographic (i.e., age, sex) and individual correlates (i.e., fecal consistency, Oesophagostomum egg production) to Oesophagostomum-associated pathology in 14 individually recognized chimpanzees at Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania. In addition, we characterized Oesophagostomum-associated pathology in 14 individual sympatric primates including baboons, colobus, and cercopithecid monkeys. In five chimpanzees, there was no evidence of any significant underlying disease aside from oesophagostomiasis to explain the thin condition or diarrhea. All five of these chimpanzees had moderate to numerous parasitic nodules. In general, nodules were more numerous in older chimpanzees. Three of four chimpanzees with the highest average Oesophagostomum egg counts in feces collected during the year prior to their death had numerous parasitic nodules at necropsy. In contrast, the four chimpanzees with the lowest egg counts had only moderate numbers of nodules. No association (P = 0.74) was noted between frequency of diarrhea in the year prior to death and the number of nodules noted at necropsy. Nodules were also present in all baboons examined documenting pathology associated with Oesophagostomum infection in wild baboons. In contrast, no lesions were noted in colobus or cercopithecid monkeys, although it is uncertain if they are infected as no fecal studies have been completed in these species to date at Gombe. Sequence of DNA isolated from nodules in chimpanzees matched (99%) Oesophagostomum stephanostomum. Further research is needed to identify the types of Oesophagostomum causing lesions in baboons and to determine if baboons suffer from these infections. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T14:30:40.529445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22572
  • Socioecological correlates of clinical signs in two communities of wild
           chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania
    • Authors: Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf; Thomas R. Gillespie, Tiffany M. Wolf, Iddi Lipende, Jane Raphael, Jared Bakuza, Carson M. Murray, Michael L. Wilson, Shadrack Kamenya, Deus Mjungu, D. Anthony Collins, Ian C. Gilby, Margaret A. Stanton, Karen A. Terio, Hannah J. Barbian, Yingying Li, Miguel Ramirez, Alexander Krupnick, Emily Seidl, Jane Goodall, Beatrice H. Hahn, Anne E. Pusey, Dominic A. Travis
      Abstract: Disease and other health hazards pose serious threats to the persistence of wild ape populations. The total chimpanzee population at Gombe National Park, Tanzania, has declined from an estimated 120 to 150 individuals in the 1960's to around 100 individuals by the end of 2013, with death associated with observable signs of disease as the leading cause of mortality. In 2004, we began a non-invasive health-monitoring program in the two habituated communities in the park (Kasekela and Mitumba) with the aim of understanding the prevalence of health issues in the population, and identifying the presence and impacts of various pathogens. Here we present prospectively collected data on clinical signs (observable changes in health) in the chimpanzees of the Kasekela (n = 81) and Mitumba (n = 32) communities over an 8-year period (2005–2012). First, we take a population approach and analyze prevalence of clinical signs in five different categories: gastrointestinal system (diarrhea), body condition (estimated weight loss), respiratory system (coughing, sneezing etc.), wounds/lameness, and dermatologic issues by year, month, and community membership. Mean monthly prevalence of each clinical sign per community varied, but typically affected
      PubDate: 2016-05-16T15:45:28.666578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22562
  • Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: Comparing the use of online and
           in-person data collection methods
    • Authors: Kim E. Reuter; Melissa S. Schaefer
      Abstract: Although it is illegal to capture, sell, and trade lemurs, the live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is ongoing and may have impacted over 28,000 lemurs between 2010 and 2013. Only one study has examined this trade and did so using in-person interviews in northern Madagascar. The current study sought to expand this existing dataset and examine the comparability of online surveys to more traditional on-location data collection methods. In this study, we collected data through a web-based survey resulting in 302 sightings of 685 captive lemurs. We also collected data from 171 hotel and 43 restaurant websites and social media profiles. Survey submissions included sightings of 30 species from 10 genera, nearly twice as many species as identified via the in-person interviews. Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus were the most common species sighted in captivity. Captive lemurs were reported in 19 of Madagascar's 22 administrative regions and most were seen in urban areas near their habitat ranges. This represents a wider geographic distribution of captive lemurs than previously found through in-person interviews. The online survey results were broadly similar to those of the in-person surveys though greater in species and geographic diversity demonstrating advantages to the use of online surveys. The online research methods were low in cost (USD $100) compared to on-location data collection (USD $12,000). Identified disadvantages included sample bias; most of the respondents to the online survey were researchers and many captive sightings were near study sites. The results illustrate the benefits of incorporating a social science approach using online surveys as a complement to traditional fieldwork. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29T14:36:31.080042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22541
  • Consequences of a male takeover on mating skew in wild Sanje mangabeys
    • Authors: David Fernández
      Abstract: Among primate species living in multimale-multifemale groups, the number of receptive females may determine the rank of the lowest male that copulates (priority of access model, or PoA [Altmann SA. 1962. A field study of the sociobiology of rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 102:338–435]). Factors, such as temporary instability in the hierarchy and female behavior can, however, affect high-ranking males’ ability to monopolize females, reducing mating skew and causing the hierarchy to depart from predictions of PoA. Here, I use behavioral data collected over a 22-month period on a wild group of Sanje mangabeys (Cercocebus sanjei) to examine the effect of a takeover by two immigrating males who became α and β in the hierarchy, and of female behavior on male mating skew. Data on male agonistic interactions were collected on nine males using ad libitum observations, while information on male mating success (i.e., daily proportion of ejaculatory copulations with the focal female) was collected through focal follows of 12 sexually receptive females. Before the takeover, the hierarchy was stable and highly skewed, with the α-male monopolizing up to 75% of copulations. At this time, however, mating skew did not follow the predictions of PoA. During the takeover, from the time one of the newly immigrant males replaced the α until the second immigrant male became the new β, the stability of the hierarchy dropped significantly and mating was no longer skewed. Accordingly, the top two ranking males at that time (i.e., the new α and former β) accounted for only 33% of copulations. After the takeover, rank stability increased, and mating skew followed the PoA. Female mating solicitations also had a significant positive effect on male mating success, and may have contributed to the deviation from the PoA. This study demonstrates that temporary rank instability decreases high-ranking males’ ability to monopolize copulations, causing a departure from the predictions of the PoA. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T19:39:05.270057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22532
  • Maternal effects on offspring stress physiology in wild chimpanzees
    • Authors: Carson M. Murray; Margaret A. Stanton, Kaitlin R. Wellens, Rachel M. Santymire, Matthew R. Heintz, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf
      Abstract: Early life experiences are known to influence hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development, which can impact health outcomes through the individual's ability to mount appropriate physiological reactions to stressors. In primates, these early experiences are most often mediated through the mother and can include the physiological environment experienced during gestation. Here, we investigate stress physiology of dependent offspring in wild chimpanzees for the first time and examine whether differences in maternal stress physiology are related to differences in offspring stress physiology. Specifically, we explore the relationship between maternal rank and maternal fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration during pregnancy and early lactation (first 6 months post-partum) and examine whether differences based on maternal rank are associated with dependent offspring FGM concentrations. We found that low-ranking females exhibited significantly higher FGM concentrations during pregnancy than during the first 6 months of lactation. Furthermore, during pregnancy, low-ranking females experienced significantly higher FGM concentrations than high-ranking females. As for dependent offspring, we found that male offspring of low-ranking mothers experienced stronger decreases in FGM concentrations as they aged compared to males with high-ranking mothers or their dependent female counterparts. Together, these results suggest that maternal rank and FGM concentrations experienced during gestation are related to offspring stress physiology and that this relationship is particularly pronounced in males compared to females. Importantly, this study provides the first evidence for maternal effects on the development of offspring HPA function in wild chimpanzees, which likely relates to subsequent health and fitness outcomes. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T20:25:04.257251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22525
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