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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1576 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1576 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 392, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 219, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Physical Anthropology
  [SJR: 1.41]   [H-I: 88]   [36 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9483 - ISSN (Online) 1096-8644
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1576 journals]
  • Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian
           populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara
    • Authors: Iva Kulichová; Verónica Fernandes, Alioune Deme, Jana Nováčková, Vlastimil Stenzl, Andrea Novelletto, Luísa Pereira, Viktor Černý
      Abstract: BackgroundToday, African pastoralists are found mainly in the Sahel/Savannah belt spanning 6,000 km from west to east, flanked by the Sahara to the north and tropical rainforests to the south. The most significant group among them are the Fulani who not only keep cattle breeds of possible West Eurasian ancestry, but form themselves a gene pool containing some paternally and maternally-transmitted West Eurasian haplogroups.Materials and MethodsWe generated complete sequences for 33 mitogenomes belonging to haplogroups H1 and U5 (23 and 10, respectively), and genotyped 16 STRs in 65 Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b-V88.ResultsWe show that age estimates of the maternal lineage H1cb1, occurring almost exclusively in the Fulani, point to the time when the first cattle herders settled the Sahel/Savannah belt. Similar age estimates were obtained for paternal lineage R1b-V88, which occurs today in the Fulani but also in other, mostly pastoral populations. Maternal clade U5b1b1b, reported earlier in the Berbers, shows a shallower age, suggesting another possibly independent input into the Sahelian pastoralist gene pool.ConclusionsDespite the fact that animal domestication originated in the Near East ∼ 10 ka, and that it was from there that animals such as sheep, goats as well as cattle were introduced into Northeast Africa soon thereafter, contemporary cattle keepers in the Sahel/Savannah belt show uniparental genetic affinities that suggest the possibility of an ancient contact with an additional ancestral population of western Mediterranean ancestry.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T01:32:03.247426-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23285
       
  • Neandertal talus bones from El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain): A 3D
           geometric morphometrics analysis
    • Authors: Antonio Rosas; Anabel Ferrando, Markus Bastir, Antonio García-Tabernero, Almudena Estalrrich, Rosa Huguet, Daniel García-Martínez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Marco de la Rasilla
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe El Sidrón tali sample is assessed in an evolutionary framework. We aim to explore the relationship between Neandertal talus morphology and body size/shape. We test the hypothesis 1: talar Neandertal traits are influenced by body size, and the hypothesis 2: shape variables independent of body size correspond to inherited primitive features.Materials and methodsWe quantify 35 landmarks through 3D geometric morphometrics techniques to describe H. neanderthalensis-H. sapiens shape variation, by Mean Shape Comparisons, Principal Component, Phenetic Clusters, Minimum spanning tree analyses and partial least square and regression of talus shape on body variables. Shape variation correlated to body size is compared to Neandertals-Modern Humans (MH) evolutionary shape variation. The Neandertal sample is compared to early hominins.ResultsNeandertal talus presents trochlear hypertrophy, a larger equality of trochlear rims, a shorter neck, a more expanded head, curvature and an anterior location of the medial malleolar facet, an expanded and projected lateral malleolar facet and laterally expanded posterior calcaneal facet compared to MH.DiscussionThe Neandertal talocrural joint morphology is influenced by body size. The other Neandertal talus traits do not co-vary with it or not follow the same co-variation pattern as MH. Besides, the trochlear hypertrophy, the trochlear rims equality and the short neck could be inherited primitive features; the medial malleolar facet morphology could be an inherited primitive feature or a secondarily primitive trait; and the calcaneal posterior facet would be an autapomorphic feature of the Neandertal lineage.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T05:25:53.896378-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23280
       
  • Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae
           using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic
           anthropology
    • Authors: Jaroslav Brůžek; Frédéric Santos, Bruno Dutailly, Pascal Murail, Eugenia Cunha
      Abstract: ObjectivesA new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation.Materials and MethodsTen metric variables collected from 2,040 ossa coxa of adult subjects of known sex were recorded between 1986 and 2002 (reference sample). To test both the validity and reliability, a target sample consisting of two series of adult ossa coxa of known sex (n = 623) was used. The DSP2 software (Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v2) is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis, and the posterior probabilities are calculated using an R script.ResultsFor the reference sample, any combination of four dimensions provides a correct sex estimate in at least 99% of cases. The percentage of individuals for whom sex can be estimated depends on the number of dimensions; for all ten variables it is higher than 90%. Those results are confirmed in the target sample.DiscussionOur posterior probability threshold of 0.95 for sex estimate corresponds to the traditional sectioning point used in osteological studies. DSP2 software is replacing the former version that should not be used anymore. DSP2 is a robust and reliable technique for sexing adult os coxae, and is also user friendly.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T05:25:24.936439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23282
       
  • Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca
           arctoides) facial and vocal signals
    • Authors: Aru Toyoda; Tamaki Maruhashi, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Hiroki Koda
      Abstract: ObjectivesSpeech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species.Materials and MethodsWe observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed.ResultsFacial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans.DiscussionThese results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T06:36:00.173621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23276
       
  • 2,000 Year old β-thalassemia case in Sardinia suggests malaria was
           endemic by the Roman period
    • Authors: Claudia Viganó; Cordula Haas, Frank J. Rühli, Abigail Bouwman
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe island of Sardinia has one of the highest incidence rates of β-thalassemia in Europe due to its long history of endemic malaria, which, according to historical records, was introduced around 2,600 years ago by the Punics and only became endemic around the Middle Ages. In particular, the cod39 mutation is responsible for more than 95% of all β-thalassemia cases observed on the island. Debates surround the origin of the mutation. Some argue that its presence in the Western Mediterranean reflects the migration of people away from Sardinia, others that it reflects the colonization of the island by the Punics who might have carried the disease allele. The aim of this study was to investigate β-globin mutations, including cod39, using ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, to better understand the history and origin of β-thalassemia and malaria in Sardinia.Materials and MethodsPCR analysis followed by sequencing were used to investigate the presence of β-thalassemia mutations in 19 individuals from three different Roman and Punic necropolises in Sardinia.ResultsThe cod39 mutation was identified in one male individual buried in a necropolis from the Punic/Roman period. Further analyses have shown that his mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were U5a and I2a1a1, respectively, indicating the individual was probably of Sardinian origin.ConclusionsThis is the earliest documented case of β-thalassemia in Sardinia to date. The presence of such a pathogenic mutation and its persistence until present day indicates that malaria was likely endemic on the island by the Roman period, earlier than the historical sources suggest.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T06:10:28.558708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23278
       
  • THE GLOBAL HISTORY OF PALEOPATHOLOGY: PIONEERS AND PROSPECTS Edited by
           Jane Buikstra, Charlotte Roberts New York, NY: Oxford University Press,
           2012. 798 pp. ISBN: 9780195389807. $195.00 (cloth)
    • Authors: Daniel H. Temple
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T06:10:19.996433-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23274
       
  • Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile)
           shows environmental adaptation and resilience
    • Authors: Catrine L. Jarman; Thomas Larsen, Terry Hunt, Carl Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Rapa Nui “ecocide” narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources.Materials and methodsMaterials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment.ResultsResults of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ15N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment.DiscussionOur results suggest highly elevated δ15N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T05:41:02.166322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23273
       
  • Using demographic characteristics of populations to detect spatial
           fragmentation following suspected ebola outbreaks in great apes
    • Authors: Céline Genton; Romane Cristescu, Sylvain Gatti, Florence Levréro, Elodie Bigot, Peggy Motsch, Pascaline Le Gouar, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Nelly Ménard
      Abstract: ObjectivesDemographic crashes due to emerging diseases can contribute to population fragmentation and increase extinction risk of small populations. Ebola outbreaks in 2002–2004 are suspected to have caused a decline of more than 80% in some Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. We investigated whether demographic indicators of this event allowed for the detection of spatial fragmentation in gorilla populations.Materials and MethodsWe collected demographic data from two neighbouring populations: the Lokoué population, suspected to have been affected by an Ebola outbreak (followed from 2001 to 2014), and the Romani population, of unknown demographic status before Ebola outbreaks (followed from 2005 to 2014).ResultsTen years after the outbreak, the Lokoué population is slowly recovering and the short-term demographic indicators of a population crash were no longer detectable. The Lokoué population has not experienced any additional demographic perturbation over the past decade. The Romani population did not show any of the demographic indicators of a population crash over the past decade. Its demographic structure remained similar to that of unaffected populations.DiscussionOur results highlighted that the Ebola disease could contribute to fragmentation of gorilla populations due to the spatially heterogeneous impact of its outbreaks. The demographic structure of populations (i.e., age-sex and group structure) can be useful indicators of a possible occurrence of recent Ebola outbreaks in populations without known history, and may be more broadly used in other emerging disease/species systems. Longitudinal data are critical to our understanding of the impact of emerging diseases on wild populations and their conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:05:26.70528-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23275
       
  • Resource intensification and osteoarthritis patterns: changes in activity
           in the prehistoric Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region
    • Authors: Colleen M. Cheverko; Eric J. Bartelink
      Abstract: ObjectivesEthnohistoric accounts and archaeological research from Central California document a shift from the use of lower-cost, high-ranked resources (e.g., large game) toward the greater use of higher-cost, low-ranked resources (e.g., acorns and small seeds) during the Late Holocene (4500–200 BP). The subsistence transition from higher consumption of large game toward an increased reliance on acorns was likely associated with increases in levels of logistical mobility and physical activity. This study predicts that mobility and overall workload patterns changed during this transition to accommodate new food procurement strategies and incorporate new dietary resources during the Late Holocene in Central California.Materials and MethodsOsteoarthritis prevalence was scored in the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee of adult individuals (n = 256) from seven archaeological sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Comparisons were made between osteoarthritis prevalence, sex, age-at-death, and time period using ANCOVAs.ResultsThe results of this study indicate significant increases in osteoarthritis prevalence in the hip of adult males and females during the Late Period (1200–200 BP), even after correcting for the cumulative effects of age. No differences were observed between the sexes or between time periods for the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints.DiscussionThe temporal increase in hip osteoarthritis supports the hypothesis that there was an increasing need for greater logistical mobility over time to procure key resources away from the village sites. Additionally, the lack of sex differences in osteoarthritis prevalence may suggest that females and males likely performed similar levels of activity during these periods.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T04:27:51.089174-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23272
       
  • Resolving relationships between several Neolithic and Mesolithic
           populations in Northern Eurasia using geometric morphometrics
    • Authors: Ekaterina Stansfield (Bulygina); Anna Rasskasova, Natalia Berezina, Andrei D. Soficaru
      Abstract: ObjectivesRemains from several Eastern European and Siberian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are analysed to clarify their biological relationships. We assume that groups' geographical distances correlate with genetic and, therefore, morphological distances between them.Materials and MethodsMaterial includes complete male crania from several Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites across Northern Eurasia and from several modern populations. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical techniques are applied to explore morphological trends, group distances, and correlations with their geographical position, climate, and the time of origin.ResultsDespite an overlap in the morphology among the modern and archeological groups, some of them show significant morphological distances. Geographical parameters account for only a small proportion of cranial variation in the sample, with larger variance explained by geography and age together. Expectations of isolation by distance are met in some but not in all cases. Climate accounts for a large proportion of autocorrelation with geography. Nearest-neighbor joining trees demonstrate group relationships predicted by the regression on geography and on climate.DiscussionThe obtained results are discussed in application to relationships between particular groups. Unlike the Ukrainian Mesolithic, the Yuzhny Oleni Ostrov Mesolithic displays a high morphological affinity with several groups from Northern Eurasia of both European and Asian origin. A possibility of a common substrate for the Yuzhny Oleni Ostrov Mesolithic and Siberian Neolithic groups is reviewed. The Siberian Neolithic is shown to have morphological connection with both modern Siberian groups and the Native North Americans.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:52:33.134039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23264
       
  • Geographic substructure in craniometric estimates of admixture for
           contemporary American populations
    • Authors: Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study investigates heterogeneity in craniometrically-derived estimates of admixture in order to reveal population substructure in a sample of Black, White, Hispanic, and Native American individuals from the FDB. It reports evidence of spatial trends in population-specific patterns of admixture and contextualizes its results in terms of demographic diversity in the United States.Materials and MethodsThe FDB was sampled to capture the population variation within forensic casework, skeletal collections, and the U.S. population-at-large. Individuals were selected for the availability of population identifier, sex, and geographic information. Variation in inferred admixture proportions was evaluated, per population and by sex, for evidence of geographic substructure. Comparative data was sourced from the U.S. Census.ResultsThis analysis identifies significant associations between the estimated Black, Native American and White component memberships and place of birth and recovery. The sampled populations differ significantly in admixture proportions, in a systematic way. Admixture patterns vary in accordance with the densities and relative proportions of the U.S. census populations.DiscussionThere is considerable variation in admixture estimates, not just between, but notably within, all four of the populations. This substructure can be explained by differences in geography, including regions, divisions, and states. This article's findings agree with census trends and speak broadly to admixture dynamics and ancestral diversity among contemporary Americans. They are also specifically relevant to those cases in the FDB. The presence of subpopulations has implications for cranial research, forensic identification, and studies of biological variation in the United States.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T08:16:02.684069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23267
       
  • Measuring fitness heritability: Life history traits versus morphological
           traits in humans
    • Authors: Alina Gavrus-Ion; Torstein Sjøvold, Miguel Hernández, Rolando González-José, María Esther Esteban Torné, Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza
      Abstract: ObjectivesTraditional interpretation of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection is that life history traits (LHT), which are closely related with fitness, show lower heritabilities, whereas morphological traits (MT) are less related with fitness and they are expected to show higher heritabilities. In humans, although few studies have examined the heritability of LHT and MT, none of them have analyzed the same sample for comparative purposes. Here we assessed, for the first time, the heritability, additive genetic variance (VA), residual variance (VR) and coefficient of genetic additive variation (CVA) values of LHT and MT in a singular collection of identified skulls with associated demographic records from Hallstatt (Austria).Materials and MethodsLHT, such as lifespan, number of offspring, age at birth of first and last child, reproductive span, and lifetime reproductive success, were estimated from 18,134 individuals from the Hallstatt Catholic parish records, which represent seven generations and correspond to a time span of 400 years. MT were assessed through 17 craniofacial indices and 7 angles obtained from 355 adult crania from the same population. Heritability, VA, VR, and CVA values of LHT and MT were calculated using restricted maximum likelihood methods.ResultsLHT heritabilities ranged from 2.3 to 34% for the whole sample, with men showing higher heritabilities (4–45%) than women (0-23.7%). Overall, MT presented higher heritability values than most of LHT, ranging from 0 to 40.5% in craniofacial indices, and from 13.8 to 32.4% in craniofacial angles. LHT showed considerable additive genetic variance values, similar to MT, but also high environmental variance values, and most of them presenting a higher evolutionary potential than MT.DiscussionOur results demonstrate that, with the exception of lifespan, LHT show lower heritability values, than MT. The lower heritability of LHT is explained by a higher influence of environmental and cultural factors.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T02:31:31.819812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23271
       
  • Scale of human mobility in the southern Andes (Argentina and Chile): A new
           framework based on strontium isotopes
    • Authors: Ramiro Barberena; Víctor A Durán, Paula Novellino, Diego Winocur, Anahí Benítez, Augusto Tessone, María N Quiroga, Erik J Marsh, Alejandra Gasco, Valeria Cortegoso, Gustavo Lucero, Carina Llano, Kelly J Knudson
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of “high residential mobility” suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains.MethodsWe develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes. We analyze bone and teeth samples as an approach to life-history changes in spatial residence. Human samples from the main geological units and periods within the last two millennia are selected.ResultsWe present a framework for the analysis of bioavailable strontium based on the combination of the geological data with isotope results for rodent samples. The 87Sr/86Sr values from human samples indicate residential stability within geological regions along life history. When comparing strontium and oxygen values for the same human samples, we record a divergent pattern: while δ18O values for samples from distant regions overlap widely, there are important differences in 87Sr/86Sr values.ConclusionsDespite the large socio-economic changes recorded, 87Sr/86Sr values indicate a persisting scenario of low systematic mobility between the different geological regions. Our results suggest that strontium isotope values provide the most germane means to track patterns of human occupation of distinct regions in complex geological landscapes, offering a much higher spatial resolution than oxygen isotopes in the southern Andes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T01:51:17.442142-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23270
       
  • Region-dependent patterns of trabecular bone growth in the human proximal
           femur: A study of 3D bone microarchitecture from early postnatal to late
           childhood period
    • Authors: Petar Milovanovic; Danijela Djonic, Michael Hahn, Michael Amling, Björn Busse, Marija Djuric
      Abstract: ObjectivesParallel with body growth and development, bone structure in non-adults is reorganized to achieve the particular design observed in mature individuals. We traced the changes in three-dimensional trabecular microarchitectural design during the phases of locomotor maturation to clarify how human bone adapts to mechanical demands.Materials and MethodsMicro-CT was performed on biomechanically-relevant subregions of the proximal femur (medial, intermediate and lateral neck regions, intertrochanteric region, metaphyseal region) from early postnatal period to late childhood.ResultsDevelopmental patterns of trabecular microarchitecture showed that gestationally overproduced bone present at birth underwent the most dramatic reduction during the first year, followed by a reversing trend in some of the quantitative parameters (e.g., bone volume fraction, trabecular anisotropy). Certain regional anisotropy already present at birth is further accentuated into the childhood suggesting an adaptation to differential loading environments. Trabecular eccentricity in the femoral neck was particularly accentuated during childhood, giving the medial neck—the site mostly loaded in walking—superior microarchitectural design (high bone volume fraction and anisotropy, the earliest appearance and predominance of plate- and honeycomb-shaped trabeculae).DiscussionWhile providing quantitative data on how bone microarchitecture adapts to increasing mechanical demands occurring during the phases of locomotor maturation, the study reveals how regional anisotropy develops in the proximal femur to ensure a functional and competent bone structure. Decomposing the region-specific patterns of bone mass accrual is important in understanding skeletal adaptations to bipedalism, as well for understanding why fractures often occur location-dependent, both in pediatric and elderly individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T01:50:33.168118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23268
       
  • Comparative performance of deciduous and permanent dental morphology in
           detecting biological relatives
    • Authors: Kathleen S. Paul; Christopher M. Stojanowski
      Abstract: ObjectivesDental morphology plays a key role in reconstructing population history and evolutionary relationships at global, regional, and intracemetery scales. At the inter-individual level, it is assumed that close biological kin exhibit greater phenotypic similarity than non-relatives. Heritability estimates provide one measure of phenotypic resemblance but are not easily incorporated into analyses of archaeological samples. In this study we evaluate the assumption that relatives are more similar phenotypically than non-relatives. We compare results for permanent dental morphology to those obtained using deciduous dental morphology in a matched dataset (Paul & Stojanowski, ).Materials and MethodsPermanent trait expression was scored from dental casts representing 69 sibling pairs, curated as part of the longitudinal Burlington Growth Study. Simulating a biodistance approach, 22 morphological traits of permanent tooth crowns were used to generate 69 inter-relative and 2,076 non-relative Euclidean distances. Following distance ordination, family-specific dispersion values were calculated from multidimensional scaling coordinates. Output was compared to that of a previous study that focused on deciduous crown variation in the same set of individuals (Paul & Stojanowski, ). Mantel tests were used to evaluate the correlation of a proxy genetic distance matrix to both the permanent and deciduous dental distance matrices.ResultsOn average, inter-relative distances generated from morphological traits of permanent tooth crowns were smaller than expected by chance based on resampling (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T00:20:36.860111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23260
       
  • Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in
           the Issa valley, Western Tanzania
    • Authors: Katarina Almeida-Warren; Volker Sommer, Alex K. Piel, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
      Abstract: ObjectivesChimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania.Materials and MethodsUsing traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall–Wallace tests.ResultsIssa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1–16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants.DiscussionThe exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T08:41:01.978003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23269
       
  • Maize (Zea mays) consumption in the southern andes (30°–31° S. Lat):
           Stable isotope evidence (2000 BCE–1540 CE)
    • Authors: Marta Alfonso-Durruty; Andrés Troncoso, Pablo Larach, Cristian Becker, Nicole Misarti
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe timing and dietary role of maize agriculture is central to archaeological discussions in the Andean region. In the semi-arid region of northern Chile (SARNC), archaeological models propose that maize was adopted during the Early Ceramic period in tandem with pottery and sedentism. Through stable isotope (SI) analyses, of bone collagen and apatite, this study assesses the timing of maize introduction, diachronic changes (2,000 BCE to 1,540 CE.), and synchronic dietary variability in the prehistoric SARNC.Materials and MethodsFifty-two prehistoric individuals from SARNC were analyzed for δ13Cap, δ13Ccol, and δ15N. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the results by period and location (inland and coast). Between-periods (ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests), and synchronic comparisons (inland vs. coast; Student's t-tests), were conducted. A SIAR model was run to further evaluate dietary changes. Dietary interpretations are based on food web data.ResultsCoastal groups show significant changes in the diet during the Middle (900-1,000CE; enrichment in δ13C), and Late Intermediate periods (100-1450CE; when the Δ13Cap-col is above 5.2‰). In the inland, significant changes in SI occurred in the Late Intermediate period (δ13C enrichment). In the Late period, the inland diet became enriched for δ15N. Synchronic comparisons showed coastal individuals to have higher δ15N.DiscussionThe popularization of maize in the SARNC was not associated with the appearance of pottery and/or sedentism, and its role as a dietary staple was a late phenomenon (c.a. 1,000CE). The results obtained in this study show that the adoption and consumption of maize varied dramatically in the Southern Andes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T08:40:56.567834-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23263
       
  • The sex-selective impact of the Black Death and recurring plagues in the
           Southern Netherlands, 1349–1450
    • Authors: Daniel R. Curtis; Joris Roosen
      Abstract: Although recent work has begun to establish that early modern plagues had selective mortality effects, it was generally accepted that the initial outbreak of Black Death in 1347-52 was a “universal killer.” Recent bioarchaeological work, however, has argued that the Black Death was also selective with regard to age and pre-plague health status. The issue of the Black Death's potential sex selectivity is less clear. Bioarchaeological research hypothesizes that sex-selection in mortality was possible during the initial Black Death outbreak, and we present evidence from historical sources to test this notion.ObjectiveTo determine whether the Black Death and recurring plagues in the period 1349–1450 had a sex-selective mortality effect.Materials and MethodsWe present a newly compiled database of mortality information taken from mortmain records in Hainaut, Belgium, in the period 1349–1450, which not only is an important new source of information on medieval mortality, but also allows for sex-disaggregation.ResultsWe find that the Black Death period of 1349–51, as well as recurring plagues in the 100 years up to 1450, often had a sex-selective effect—killing more women than in “non-plague years.”DiscussionAlthough much research tends to suggest that men are more susceptible to a variety of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, we cannot assume that the same direction of sex-selection in mortality applied to diseases in the distant past such as Second Pandemic plagues. While the exact reasons for the sex-selective effect of late-medieval plague are unclear in the absence of further data, we suggest that simple inequities between the sexes in exposure to the disease may not have been a key driver.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T00:45:24.858086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23266
       
  • Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during food cooking:
           Implications for the interpretation of the fossil human record
    • Authors: Aurélien Royer; Valérie Daux, François Fourel, Christophe Lécuyer
      Abstract: ObjectivesStable isotope data provide insight into the reconstruction of ancient human diet. However, cooking may alter the original stable isotope compositions of food due to losses and modifications of biochemical and water components.MethodsTo address this issue, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on meat aliquots sampled from various animals such as pork, beef, duck and chicken, and also from the flesh of fishes such as salmon, European seabass, European pilchard, sole, gilt-head bream, and tuna. For each specimen, three pieces were cooked according to the three most commonly-known cooking practices: boiling, frying and roasting on a barbecue.ResultsOur data show that cooking produced isotopic shifts up to 1.8‰, 3.5‰, and 5.2‰ for δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O values, respectively. Such variations between raw and cooked food are much greater than previously estimated in the literature; they are more sensitive to the type of food rather than to the cooking process itself, except in the case of boiling.ConclusionsReconstructions of paleodietary may thus suffer slight bias in cases of populations with undiversified diets that are restrained toward a specific raw or cooked product, or using a specific cooking mode. In cases of oxygen isotope compositions from skeletal remains (bones, teeth), they not only constitute a valuable proxy for reconstructing past climatic conditions, but they could also be used to improve our knowledge of past human diet.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T05:00:39.704913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23246
       
  • The Late Neandertal permanent lower left third premolar from Walou Cave
           (Trooz, Belgium) and its context
    • Authors: Michel Toussaint; Christine Verna, Adeline Le Cabec, Aida Gómez-Robles, Christelle Draily, Michael P. Richards, Stéphane Pirson
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe describe a hominin permanent lower left third premolar unearthed in 1997 at Walou Cave (Belgium), found in direct association with a Mousterian lithic industry, in a layer directly dated to 40–38,000 years BP.Materials and methodsThe taxonomical attribution of the tooth is addressed through comparative morphometric analyses, and stable isotope analyses aimed at determining the diet of the individual.ResultsThe Walou P3 plots within the Neandertal range of variation and is significantly different from recent modern humans in all morphometric assessments. The isotope data showed that like other Neandertals, the Walou individual acquired its dietary proteins primarily from terrestrial food sources.DiscussionWe discuss the implications of the existence of a clearly Neandertal premolar dating to the period of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in the Meuse river basin.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T05:00:33.734128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23252
       
  • New evidence suggesting a dissociated etiology for cribra orbitalia and
           porotic hyperostosis
    • Authors: Frances Rivera; Marta Mirazón Lahr
      Abstract: ObjectivesPorotic hyperostosis (PH), characterized by porotic lesions on the cranial vault, and cribra orbitalia (CO), a localized appearance of porotic lesions on the roof of the orbits, are relatively common osteological conditions. Their etiology has been the focus of several studies, and an association with anemia has long been suggested. Anemia often causes bone marrow hypertrophy or hyperplasia, leading to the expansion in trabecular or cranial diploic bone as a result of increased hematopoiesis. Hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia is often coupled with a disruption of the remodeling process of outer cortical bone, cranially and/or postcranially, leading to the externally visible porotic lesions reported in osteological remains. In this article, we investigate whether individuals with CO have increased thickness of the diploë, the common morphological direct effect of increased hematopoiesis, and thus test the relationship between the two conditions, as well as explore the type of anemia that underlie it.MethodsAn analysis of medical CT scans of a worldwide sample of 98 complete, young to middle-aged adult dry skulls from the Duckworth Collection was conducted on male and female cribrotic individuals (n = 23) and noncribrotic individuals (n = 75), all of whom lacked any evidence of porotic lesions on the vault. Measurements of total and partial cranial thickness were obtained by virtual landmark placement, using the Amira 5.4 software; all analyses were conducted in IBM SPSS 21.ResultsCribriotic individuals have significantly thinner diploic bone and thicker outer and inner tables than noncribriotic individuals, contrary to the expected diploic expansion that would result from anemic conditions associated to bone marrow hypertrophy or hyperplasia. Additionally, individuals without CO and those with the condition have distinctive cranial thickness at particular locations across the skull and the severity to which CO is expressed also differentiates between those with mild and those with a moderate to severe form of the condition.ConclusionsOur results suggest a complex pattern of causality in relation to the pathologies that may lead to the formation of porotic lesions on the vault and the roof of the orbits. A form of anemia may be behind the osteological changes observed in PH and CO, but it is unlikely to be the same type of anemic condition that underlies both types of osteological lesions. We suggest that CO may be associated to anemias that lead to diploic bone hypocellularity and hypoplasia, such as those caused by anemia of chronic disease and, to a lesser extent, of renal failure, aplastic anemia, protein deficiency, and anemia of endocrine disorders, and not those that lead to bone marrow hypercellularity and hyperplasia and potential PH. This leads us to the conclusion that the terms PH and CO should be used to reflect different underlying conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:56:09.940983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23258
       
  • Chimpanzee ankle and foot joint kinematics: Arboreal versus terrestrial
           locomotion
    • Authors: Nicholas B. Holowka; Matthew C. O'Neill, Nathan E. Thompson, Brigitte Demes
      Abstract: ObjectivesMany aspects of chimpanzee ankle and midfoot joint morphology are believed to reflect adaptations for arboreal locomotion. However, terrestrial travel also constitutes a significant component of chimpanzee locomotion, complicating functional interpretations of chimpanzee and fossil hominin foot morphology. Here we tested hypotheses of foot motion and, in keeping with general assumptions, we predicted that chimpanzees would use greater ankle and midfoot joint ranges of motion during travel on arboreal supports than on the ground.MethodsWe used a high-speed motion capture system to measure three-dimensional kinematics of the ankle and midfoot joints in two male chimpanzees during three locomotor modes: terrestrial quadrupedalism on a flat runway, arboreal quadrupedalism on a horizontally oriented tree trunk, and climbing on a vertically oriented tree trunk.ResultsChimpanzees used relatively high ankle joint dorsiflexion angles during all three locomotor modes, although dorsiflexion was greatest in arboreal modes. They used higher subtalar joint coronal plane ranges of motion during terrestrial and arboreal quadrupedalism than during climbing, due in part to their use of high eversion angles in the former. Finally, they used high midfoot inversion angles during arboreal locomotor modes, but used similar midfoot sagittal plane kinematics across all locomotor modes.DiscussionThe results indicate that chimpanzees use large ranges of motion at their various ankle and midfoot joints during both terrestrial and arboreal locomotion. Therefore, we argue that chimpanzee foot anatomy enables a versatile locomotor repertoire, and urge caution when using foot joint morphology to reconstruct arboreal behavior in fossil hominins.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T04:55:54.403717-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23262
       
  • Dental evidence for wild tuber processing among Titicaca Basin foragers
           7000 ybp
    • Authors: James T. Watson; Randall Haas
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this work is to characterize dental wear in a skeletal sample dating to the Middle/Late Archaic period transition (8,000-6,700 cal. B.P.) from the Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru to better define subsistence behaviors of foragers prior to incipient sedentism and food production.Materials and MethodsThe dental sample consists of 251 teeth from 11 individuals recovered from the site of Soro Mik'aya Patjxa (SMP), the earliest securely dated burial assemblage in the Lake Titicaca Basin and the only burial assemblage in the region from an unequivocal forager context. Occlusal surface wear was quantified according to Smith (1984) and Scott (1979a) to characterize diversity within the site and to facilitate comparison with other foraging groups worldwide. General linear modeling was used to assess observation error and principal axis analysis was used to compare molar wear rates and angles. Teeth were also examined for caries and specialized wear.ResultsOcclusal surface attrition is generally heavy across the dental arcade and tends to be flat among posterior teeth. Only one carious lesion was observed. Five of the 11 individuals exhibit lingual surface attrition of the maxillary anterior teeth (LSAMAT).DiscussionTooth wear rates, molar wear plane, and caries rates are consistent with terrestrial foraging and a diverse diet. The presence of LSAMAT indicates tuber processing. The results therefore contribute critical new data toward our understanding of forager diet in the Altiplano prior to plant and animal domestication in the south-central Andes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T04:10:32.843578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23261
       
  • A multi-method assessment of bone maintenance and loss in an Imperial
           Roman population: Implications for future studies of age-related bone loss
           in the past
    • Authors: Patrick Beauchesne; Sabrina C. Agarwal
      Abstract: ObjectivesOne of the hallmarks of contemporary osteoporosis and bone loss is dramatically higher prevalence of loss and fragility in females post-menopause. In contrast, bioarchaeological studies of bone loss have found a greater diversity of age- and sex-related patterns of bone loss in past populations. We argue that the differing findings may relate to the fact that most studies use only a single methodology to quantify bone loss and do not account for the heterogeneity and complexity of bone maintenance across the skeleton and over the life course.MethodsWe test the hypothesis that bone mass and maintenance in trabecular bone sites versus cortical bone sites will show differing patterns of age-related bone loss, with cortical bone sites showing sex difference in bone loss that are similar to contemporary Western populations, and trabecular bone loss at earlier ages. We investigated this hypothesis in the Imperial Roman population of Velia using three methods: radiogrammetry of the second metacarpal (N = 71), bone histology of ribs (N = 70), and computerized tomography of trabecular bone architecture (N = 47). All three methods were used to explore sex and age differences in patterns of bone loss.ResultsThe suite of methods utilized reveal differences in the timing of bone loss with age, but all methods found no statistically significant differences in age-related bone loss.DiscussionWe argue that a multi-method approach reduces the influence of confounding factors by building a reconstruction of bone turnover over the life cycle that a limited single-method project cannot provide. The implications of using multiple methods beyond studies of bone loss are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T04:10:23.39526-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23256
       
  • Intra-individual metameric variation expressed at the enamel-dentine
           junction of lower post-canine dentition of South African fossil hominins
           and modern humans
    • Authors: Lei Pan; John Francis Thackeray, Jean Dumoncel, Clément Zanolli, Anna Oettlé, Frikkie de Beer, Jakobus Hoffman, Benjamin Duployer, Christophe Tenailleau, José Braga
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to compare the degree and patterning of inter- and intra-individual metameric variation in South African australopiths, early Homo and modern humans. Metameric variation likely reflects developmental and taxonomical issues, and could also be used to infer ecological and functional adaptations. However, its patterning along the early hominin postcanine dentition, particularly among South African fossil hominins, remains unexplored.Materials and MethodsUsing microfocus X-ray computed tomography (µXCT) and geometric morphometric tools, we studied the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology and we investigated the intra- and inter-individual EDJ metameric variation among eight australopiths and two early Homo specimens from South Africa, as well as 32 modern humans.ResultsAlong post-canine dentition, shape changes between metameres represented by relative positions and height of dentine horns, outlines of the EDJ occlusal table are reported in modern and fossil taxa. Comparisons of EDJ mean shapes and multivariate analyses reveal substantial variation in the direction and magnitude of metameric shape changes among taxa, but some common trends can be found. In modern humans, both the direction and magnitude of metameric shape change show increased variability in M2-M3 compared to M1-M2. Fossil specimens are clustered together showing similar magnitudes of shape change. Along M2-M3, the lengths of their metameric vectors are not as variable as those of modern humans, but they display considerable variability in the direction of shape change.ConclusionThe distalward increase of metameric variation along the modern human molar row is consistent with the odontogenetic models of molar row structure (inhibitory cascade model). Though much remains to be tested, the variable trends and magnitudes in metamerism in fossil hominins reported here, together with differences in the scale of shape change between modern humans and fossil hominins may provide valuable information regarding functional morphology and developmental processes in fossil species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T03:41:01.192083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23240
       
  • Error in geometric morphometric data collection: Combining data from
           multiple sources
    • Authors: Chris Robinson; Claire E. Terhune
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study compares two- and three-dimensional morphometric data to determine the extent to which intra- and interobserver and intermethod error influence the outcomes of statistical analyses.Materials and MethodsData were collected five times for each method and observer on 14 anthropoid crania using calipers, a MicroScribe, and 3D models created from NextEngine and microCT scans. ANOVA models were used to examine variance in the linear data at the level of genus, species, specimen, observer, method, and trial. Three-dimensional data were analyzed using geometric morphometric methods; principal components analysis was employed to examine how trials of all specimens were distributed in morphospace and Procrustes distances among trials were calculated and used to generate UPGMA trees to explore whether all trials of the same individual grouped together regardless of observer or method.ResultsMost variance in the linear data was at the genus level, with greater variance at the observer than method levels. In the 3D data, interobserver and intermethod error were similar to intraspecific distances among Callicebus cupreus individuals, with interobserver error being higher than intermethod error. Generally, taxa separate well in morphospace, with different trials of the same specimen typically grouping together. However, trials of individuals in the same species overlapped substantially with one another.ConclusionResearchers should be cautious when compiling data from multiple methods and/or observers, especially if analyses are focused on intraspecific variation or closely related species, as in these cases, patterns among individuals may be obscured by interobserver and intermethod error. Conducting interobserver and intermethod reliability assessments prior to the collection of data is recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T03:40:54.076534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23257
       
  • GPS-identified, low-level nocturnal activity of vervets (Chlorocebus
           pygerythrus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Laikipia, Kenya
    • Authors: Lynne A. Isbell; Laura R. Bidner, Margaret C. Crofoot, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Damien R. Farine
      Abstract: ObjectivesExcept for owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), all anthropoid primates are considered strictly diurnal. Recent studies leveraging new technologies have shown, however, that some diurnal anthropoids also engage in nocturnal activity. Here we examine the extent to which vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis) are active at night.Materials and MethodsWe deployed GPS collars with tri-axial accelerometer data loggers on 18 free-ranging adult females: 12 vervets spread among 5 social groups, and 6 olive baboons spread among 4 groups. Their locations were recorded every 15 min, and their activity levels, for 3 s/min over 7.5 months. We also used camera traps that were triggered by heat and movement at seven sleeping sites.ResultsTravel was detected on 0.4% of 2,029 vervet-nights involving 3 vervets and 1.1% of 1,109 baboon-nights involving 5 baboons. Travel was mainly arboreal for vervets but mainly terrestrial for baboons. During the night, vervets and baboons were active 13% and 15% of the time, respectively. Activity varied little throughout the night and appeared unaffected by moon phase.DiscussionOur results confirm the low nocturnality of vervets and olive baboons, which we suggest is related to living near the equator with consistent 12-hr days, in contrast to other anthropoids that are more active at night. Since anthropoid primates are thought to have evolved in northern latitudes, with later dispersal to tropical latitudes, our results may have implications for understanding the evolution of anthropoid diurnality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T03:40:44.565764-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23259
       
  • Rethinking the starch digestion hypothesis for AMY1 copy number variation
           in humans
    • Authors: Catalina I. Fernández; Andrea S. Wiley
      Abstract: Alpha-amylase exists across taxonomic kingdoms with a deep evolutionary history of gene duplications that resulted in several α-amylase paralogs. Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) exists in many taxa, but among primates, humans appear to have higher average AMY1 copies than nonhuman primates. Additionally, AMY1 CNV in humans has been associated with starch content of diets, and one known function of α-amylase is its involvement in starch digestion. Thus high AMY1 CNV is considered to result from selection favoring more efficient starch digestion in the Homo lineage. Here, we present several lines of evidence that challenge the hypothesis that increased AMY1 CNV is an adaptation to starch consumption. We observe that α- amylase plays a very limited role in starch digestion, with additional steps required for starch digestion and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we note that α-amylase hydrolysis only produces a minute amount of free glucose with further enzymatic digestion and glucose absorption being rate-limiting steps for glucose availability. Indeed α-amylase is nonessential for starch digestion since sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase can hydrolyze whole starch granules while releasing glucose. While higher AMY1 CN and CNV among human populations may result from natural selection, existing evidence does not support starch digestion as the major selective force. We report that in humans α-amylase is expressed in several other tissues where it may have potential roles of evolutionary significance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T01:25:32.440025-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23237
       
  • Earliest evidence of bitumen from Homo sp. teeth is from El Sidrón
    • Authors: Karen Hardy; Stephen Buckley
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T01:25:28.930023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23255
       
  • Letter to the editor: Reply to Hardy & Buckley: Earliest evidence of
           bitumen from Homo sp. teeth is from El Sidro'n
    • Authors: Gregorio Oxilia; Flavia Fiorillo, Francesco Boschin, Elisabetta Boaretto, Salvatore A. Apicella, Chiara Matteucci, Daniele Panetta, Rossella Pistocchi, Franca Guerrini, Cristiana Margherita, Massimo Andretta, Rita Sorrentino, Giovanni Boschian, Simona Arrighi, Irene Dori, Giuseppe Mancuso, Jacopo Crezzini, Alessandro Riga, Maria C. Serrangeli, Antonino Vazzana, Piero A. Salvadori, Mariangela Vandini, Carlo Tozzi, Adriana Moroni, Robin N. M. Feeney, John C. Willman, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Stefano Benazzi
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T01:25:27.96731-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23254
       
  • Using urinary parameters to estimate seasonal variation in the physical
           condition of female white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus
           imitator)
    • Authors: Mackenzie L. Bergstrom; Melissa Emery Thompson, Amanda D. Melin, Linda M. Fedigan
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe physical condition of females depends on access to resources, which vary over space and time. Assessing variation in physical condition can help identify factors affecting reproductive success, but noninvasive measurement is difficult in wild animals. Creatinine concentration relative to the specific gravity (i.e., density) of urine has promise for noninvasively quantifying the relative muscle mass (RMM) of wild primates. We verified the relationship between these urinary parameters for wild white-faced capuchin monkeys, and assessed temporal changes in the RMM of females across groups and between periods of high and low resource abundance.Materials and MethodsWe collected urine from 25 adult females in three groups across varying seasons at Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. We measured the specific gravity and creatinine concentration of 692 samples and the effect of specific gravity on creatinine concentration. We used the residuals of this relationship to measure effects of group and season using mixed-effects models.ResultsSpecific gravity significantly predicted creatinine concentration. Season, group membership and the interaction between these variables were significant predictors of residual creatinine variation. Specifically, RMM was higher during months with high fruit energy density, lower in one social group, and less variable among females in the smallest group.DiscussionOur findings suggest that specific gravity and creatinine may be used as urinary parameters to make inferences about the RMM of capuchins. Using this technique, we infer that females experienced changes in muscle mass according to variation in resource energy availability and social group variation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T05:20:39.879381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23239
       
  • Trabecular and cortical bone structure of the talus and distal tibia in
           Pan and Homo
    • Authors: Zewdi J. Tsegai; Matthew M. Skinner, Andrew H. Gee, Dieter H. Pahr, Graham M. Treece, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L. Kivell
      Abstract: ObjectivesInternal bone structure, both cortical and trabecular bone, remodels in response to loading and may provide important information regarding behavior. The foot is well suited to analysis of internal bone structure because it experiences the initial substrate reaction forces, due to its proximity to the substrate. Moreover, as humans and apes differ in loading of the foot, this region is relevant to questions concerning arboreal locomotion and bipedality in the hominoid fossil record.Materials and methodsWe apply a whole-bone/epiphysis approach to analyze trabecular and cortical bone in the distal tibia and talus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens. We quantify bone volume fraction (BV/TV), degree of anisotropy (DA), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), bone surface to volume ratio (BS/BV), and cortical thickness and investigate the distribution of BV/TV and cortical thickness throughout the bone/epiphysis.ResultsWe find that Pan has a greater BV/TV, a lower BS/BV and thicker cortices than Homo in both the talus and distal tibia. The trabecular structure of the talus is more divergent than the tibia, having thicker, less uniformly aligned trabeculae in Pan compared to Homo. Differences in dorsiflexion at the talocrural joint and in degree of mobility at the talonavicular joint are reflected in the distribution of cortical and trabecular bone.DiscussionOverall, quantified trabecular parameters represent overall differences in bone strength between the two species, however, DA may be directly related to joint loading. Cortical and trabecular bone distributions correlate with habitual joint positions adopted by each species, and thus have potential for interpreting joint position in fossil hominoids.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:44.595738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23249
       
  • Application of geographic information systems to investigating
           associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino
           Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy)
    • Authors: Marissa C. Stewart; Giuseppe Vercellotti
      Abstract: ObjectivesSocioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested.Materials and MethodsThis study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th–13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery.ResultsGetis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated.DiscussionOverall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:37.81324-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23251
       
  • Occupational manual activity is reflected on the patterns among hand
           entheses
    • Authors: Fotios Alexandros Karakostis; Gerhard Hotz, Heike Scherf, Joachim Wahl, Katerina Harvati
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn anthropological sciences, entheses are widely utilized as occupational stress markers. However, the reaction of entheseal surfaces to mechanical loading is not well understood. Furthermore, previous studies on entheses relied on the individuals' occupation-at-death. Past research by one of us has identified two patterns among hand entheses, proposing that they reflect two synergistic muscle groups. Here, we investigate the association between these patterns and habitual manual activity using an extensively documented skeletal sample and a three-dimensional system of quantification.Materials and MethodsThe hand bones utilized belong to 45 individuals from mid-19th century Basel. These were male adults (18 to 48 years old) who were not directly related, showed no manual pathological conditions, and whose occupational activities during their lifetime were clearly documented and could be evaluated according to historical sources. The patterns of entheses were explored using principal component analysis on both raw and size-adjusted variables. The influence of age-at-death, body mass, and bone length was assessed through correlation tests.ResultsThe analysis showed that the previously proposed patterns of entheses are present in our sample. Individuals with the same or comparable occupations presented similar entheseal patterns. These results were not considerably affected by entheseal overall size, age-at-death, body mass, or bone length.DiscussionIndividuals involved in intense manual labor during their lifetime presented a distinctive pattern of hand entheses, consistent with the application of high grip force. By contrast, individuals with less strenuous and/or highly mechanized occupations showed an entheseal pattern related to the thumb intrinsic muscles.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:32.651805-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23253
       
  • Behavioral inferences from the high levels of dental chipping in Homo
           naledi
    • Authors: Ian Towle; Joel D. Irish, Isabelle De Groote
      Abstract: ObjectivesA variety of mechanical processes can result in antemortem dental chipping. In this study, chipping data in the teeth of Homo naledi are compared with those of other pertinent dental samples to give insight into their etiology.Materials and methodsPermanent teeth with complete crowns evidencing occlusal wear were examined macroscopically. The location, number, and severity of fractures were recorded and compared to those found in samples of two other South African fossil hominin species and in samples of nonhuman primates (n = 3) and recent humans (n = 7).ResultsWith 44% of teeth affected, H. naledi exhibits far higher rates of chipping than the other fossil hominin samples. Specifically, 50% of posterior teeth and 31% of anterior teeth display at least one chip. The maxillary teeth are more affected than the mandibular teeth (45% vs 43%, respectively), 73% of molar chipping occurs on interproximal surfaces, and right teeth are more often affected than left teeth (50% vs 38%).DiscussionResults indicate that the teeth of H. naledi were exposed to acute trauma on a regular basis. Because interproximal areas are more affected than buccal and posterior teeth more than anterior, it is unlikely that nonmasticatory cultural behavior was the cause. A diet containing hard and resistant food, or contaminants such as grit, is more likely. The small chip size, and steep occlusal wear and cupped dentine on some molars are supportive of the latter possibility. This pattern of chipping suggests that H. naledi differed considerably—in terms of diet, environment, and/or specialized masticatory processing—relative to other African fossil hominins.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:30.253822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23250
       
  • Temporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture for a modern
           American sample
    • Authors: Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt
      Abstract: ObjectivesTemporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture are investigated for three U.S. populations in the FDB. Patterns of association between birth years and posterior probabilities of cluster membership are identified to assess how these proportions of admixture have changed over recent time. Demographic and genetic data correlates, patterns of morphological expression, and shifts in source populations are evaluated.Materials and MethodsEstimates of three-way admixture were obtained for 1,521 individuals of documented population, sex, and birth years that span the 20th century. Correlations were calculated between birth years and admixture proportions for members of each FDB population. Population and sex-specific admixture variation was further assessed by ANOVA and regression. Correlation analysis was used to identify, per population, which of the cranial measurements change in dimension under increased or decreased admixture.ResultsAdmixture proportions differ significantly by population and change over time. No sex differences are detected. Analysis of the relationship between admixture proportions and ILDs finds that admixture drives morphological change in areas of the cranium known to vary among populations. Results agree with prior work on secular change.DiscussionFindings reveal a progressive increase in White-European population admixture for the self-identified Black individuals, a recent demographic shift toward the increased representation of Hispanic individuals carrying greater Native American ancestry, and reduction in admixture for White individuals that suggest a loss of diversity over time. Changes in admixture produce tractable differences in morphological expression. Both sexes exhibit similar admixture proportions and self-identification patterns. Observed diachronic trends are corroborated by information on recent U.S. demographic change.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:27.800913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23242
       
  • Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the dimensions of
           the girdle bones in the postnatal period
    • Authors: Hugo F. V. Cardoso; Laure Spake, Louise T. Humphrey
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones.Materials and methodsAge estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined.ResultsMeasurements of the pelvis provide more precise age estimates than the shoulder. In the younger age group, the height and width of the ilium, and the height of the glenoid yield the most precise age estimates. In the older age group, the length of the clavicle provides the most precise estimates, followed by measurements of the pubis and ischium.DiscussionIn the younger individuals (
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:25.151831-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23248
       
  • New methodology to reconstruct in 2-D the cuspal enamel of modern human
           lower molars
    • Authors: Mario Modesto-Mata; Cecilia García-Campos, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Rebeca García-González, Yuliet Quintino, Antoni Canals, Marina Lozano, M. Christopher Dean, María Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez de Castro
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn the last years different methodologies have been developed to reconstruct worn teeth. In this article, we propose a new 2-D methodology to reconstruct the worn enamel of lower molars. Our main goals are to reconstruct molars with a high level of accuracy when measuring relevant histological variables and to validate the methodology calculating the errors associated with the measurements.MethodsThis methodology is based on polynomial regression equations, and has been validated using two different dental variables: cuspal enamel thickness and crown height of the protoconid. In order to perform the validation process, simulated worn modern human molars were employed. The associated errors of the measurements were also estimated applying methodologies previously proposed by other authors.ResultsThe mean percentage error estimated in reconstructed molars for these two variables in comparison with their own real values is −2.17% for the cuspal enamel thickness of the protoconid and −3.18% for the crown height of the protoconid. This error significantly improves the results of other methodologies, both in the interobserver error and in the accuracy of the measurements.ConclusionsThe new methodology based on polynomial regressions can be confidently applied to the reconstruction of cuspal enamel of lower molars, as it improves the accuracy of the measurements and reduces the interobserver error. The present study shows that it is important to validate all methodologies in order to know the associated errors. This new methodology can be easily exportable to other modern human populations, the human fossil record and forensic sciences.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T05:26:22.898707-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23243
       
  • Skeletal maturity of the hand in an East African group from Sudan
    • Authors: Fadil Elamin; Nihal Abdelazeem, Ahmed Elamin, Duaa Saif, Helen M. Liversidge
      Abstract: ObjectivesStudies of skeletal maturity from Africa indicate a delay, reflected in a negative relative skeletal age (RSA). This study aims to evaluate the influence of age, socioeconomic status (SES) and nutritional status on skeletal maturation in a large sample of children from North Sudan.MaterialsThe sample consisted 665 males and 1018 females from 3-25 years from Khartoum. Height, weight, age of menarche and, SES were recorded of patients attending for dental treatment.MethodsSkeletal age was assigned from hand-wrist radiographs using the Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas (1952). RSA (difference between skeletal and chronological ages) was compared in groups divided by age, sex, height-for-age and body-mass-index z scores, and SES. Spearman's correlation and student t-test was used to compare groups.ResultsDelayed skeletal age was noted across all age in boys. In girls, a delay was observed between ages 6-10, while advancement occurred between ages 13–18. Maturity was delayed in low height groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T05:26:01.725858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23247
       
  • Investigating biogeographic boundaries of the Sunda shelf: A phylogenetic
           analysis of two island populations of Macaca fascicularis
    • Authors: A.R. Klegarth; S.A. Sanders, A.D. Gloss, K.E. Lane-deGraaf, L. Jones-Engel, A. Fuentes, H. Hollocher
      Abstract: ObjectivesCyclical submergence and re-emergence of the Sunda Shelf throughout the Pleistocene served as a dynamic biogeographic landscape, across which long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have migrated and evolved. Here, we tested the integrity of the previously reported continental-insular haplotype divide reported among Y and mitochondrial DNA lineages across multiple studies.Materials and MethodsThe continental-insular haplotype divide was tested by heavily sampling wild macaques from two important biogeographic regions within Sundaland: (1) Singapore, the southernmost tip of continental Asia and (2) Bali, Indonesia, the southeastern edge of the Indonesian archipelago, immediately west of Wallace's line. Y DNA was haplotyped for samples from Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago. Mitochondrial D-loop from both islands was analyzed against existing data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches.ResultsWe uncovered both “continental” and “insular” Y DNA haplotypes in Bali. Between Singapore and Bali we found 52 unique mitochondrial haplotypes, none of which had been previously described. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed a major haplogroup division within Singapore and identified five new Singapore subclades and two primary subclades in Bali.DiscussionWhile we confirmed the continental-insular divide among mtDNA haplotypes, maintenance of both Y DNA haplotypes on Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago calls into question the mechanism by which Y DNA diversity has been maintained. It also suggests the continental-insular designation is less appropriate for Y DNA, leading us to propose geographically neutral Y haplotype designations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:10:36.787222-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23235
       
  • Deviant burials and social identity in a postmedieval polish cemetery: An
           analysis of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the “vampires” of
           Drawsko
    • Authors: Lesley A. Gregoricka; Amy B. Scott, Tracy K. Betsinger, Marek Polcyn
      Abstract: ObjectivesDeviant burials can reveal important information about both social and individual identity, particularly when the mortuary record is supplemented by an examination of skeletal remains. At the postmedieval (17th to 18th c. AD) cemetery of Drawsko (Site 1), Poland, six individuals (of n = 285) received deviant, anti-vampiristic mortuary treatment. A previous study using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios (x¯= 0.7112 ± 0.0006, 1σ, n = 60) found that these “vampires” were in fact locals, not migrants to the region targeted for deviant burial due to their status as immigrant outsiders. However, considerable geologic overlap in strontium isotope ratios across the North European Plain may have masked the identification of at least some nonlocal individuals. This study further contextualizes strontium isotope ratios using additional biogeochemical data to test the hypothesis that additional nonlocals were present in the Drawsko cemetery.MethodsStable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the dental enamel of 58 individuals interred in both normative and atypical burials at Drawsko were analyzed.ResultsBoth δ18Oc(VPDB) (x¯= −4.5 ± 0.7‰) and δ13Cap isotope values (x¯= −13.6 ± 0.8‰) displayed little variability and were not significantly different between vampire and normative burials, supporting prior strontium results of a largely local population. Nevertheless, homogeneity in oxygen isotope values across other northern European sites makes it difficult to speculate about isotopic regional diversity, leaving open the possibility that additional migrants to the region remain undetected. Additionally, carbon isotope values point to a locally sourced diet dominated by C3 resources but with some supplementation by C4 goods that likely included millet, fitting with historic descriptions of postmedieval diet in Poland.ConclusionsThose interred as vampires appear local to the region and thus likely underwent deviant funerary treatment due to some other social stigma not apparent from the skeleton.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:06:13.08018-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23244
       
  • Differential investment in body girths by sex: Evidence from 3D photonic
           scanning in a Thai cohort
    • Authors: Meghan K. Shirley; Tim J. Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven, Jonathan C.K. Wells
      Abstract: ObjectivesLife history trade-offs may manifest between competing organs and tissues in the body. Sexual dimorphism in tissue investment is well-established in humans, with sex-associated body shape differences linked to natural and sexual selection. This study uses three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning to test whether males and females differentially invest energy in various body regions in relation to two independent proxies of growth.Materials and methodsBody shape data (multiple girths) came from a Thai cohort (n = 11,610; 53% female; age range 21-88 years). Weight was considered a proxy for recent energy acquisition. Stature represented completed growth, a proxy for energy acquisition earlier in life. The data were analyzed using growth-proxy by sex interaction log-log regression models adjusting for age, salary and number of children.ResultsFor a given percentage increase in weight, females showed greater percentage increases than males in girths of the arm, chest, hip, thigh, knee and calf (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:05:44.292461-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23238
       
  • The ecology of white-handed and pileated gibbons in a zone of overlap and
           hybridization in Thailand
    • Authors: Norberto Asensio; Juan Manuel José-Domínguez, Chalita Kongrit, Warren Y. Brockelman
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe study of related species in contact zones can elucidate what factors mediate species coexistence and geographical distributions. We investigated niche overlap and group interactions of two gibbon species and their hybrids co-occurring in a zone of overlap and hybridization.MethodsThe location, composition and behavior of white-handed, pileated, and mixed-species gibbon groups were studied by following them during 31 consecutive months in a relatively large part of the contact zone.ResultsTwenty groups of white-handed gibbon were mapped followed by nine groups of pileated gibbons and five mixed-species groups. White-handed, pileated and mixed-species groups had similar sizes and composition, ate a high proportion of fruits, shared a large number of species in their diets, and presented similar habitat preferences. Group home range sizes did not differ between species and overlapped little with neighboring groups irrespective of species, and intraspecific and interspecific encounter rates were similar.DiscussionEcological similarities support that competition between the gibbon species exists and takes the form of interspecific territoriality. However, we could not find any clear mechanism of niche partitioning favoring coexistence between species. Our findings suggest that the contact zone is unstable and is maintained by dispersal inward from groups of the parental species. The relatively low numbers of mixed-species groups and hybrids found suggests a high degree of premating reproductive isolation, perhaps mediated by interspecific miscommunication. The existence of hybrids and backcrosses potentially undetectable from phenotypic characters alone raises the possibility of more widespread introgression than has been evident. Hence, while interspecific territoriality should reduce the rate of gene transfer, it would not necessarily present a barrier to introgression into contiguous populations of the opposite species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T07:01:11.701784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23241
       
  • Differences between biological and chronological age-at-death in human
           skeletal remains: A change of perspective
    • Authors: Lourdes R. Couoh
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis analysis seeks to determine whether differences between real and estimated chronological age (CA) with biological age (BA) in skeletal individuals reflect variability in aging.Material and methodsA total of 87 individuals of two samples, ranging from 20 to 94 years old, were analyzed. One, partially documented, belongs to a Mexican skeletal collection dating to the 20th century; the other is an assemblage of prehispanic individuals from different archaeological sites. In all specimens, the tooth annulation method (TCA) was applied to estimate CA, while—excluding individuals older than 80 years—auricular surface (AS) and pubic symphysis (PS) methods were used to estimate BA. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify correlations and significance of the differences between CA vs. TCA, CA vs. AS/PS, TCA vs. AS/PS. Sex of individuals was assessed for its influence in aging.ResultsThe use of TCA to estimate CA was successful for most individuals. A strong correlation was found between CA vs. TCA, CA vs. AS/PS, TCA vs. AS/PS and their differences were significant but variation in these were found when assessed by separate age groups. Sex did not influence such differences.DiscussionTCA can be used to estimate CA and its differences with BA, being less than 10 years, are similar to those found in living populations. Differences between CA and BA are due to intra-population variability, which could be the consequence of individual differences in aging. More research is needed to have confidence that under- and overestimations of BA are indicators of aging variability at the level of the individual.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T09:05:28.037433-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23236
       
  • Cover & Editorial Board
    • Pages: 643 - 644
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:14:21.119969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23094
       
  • Issue Information – Table of Contents
    • Pages: 835 - 836
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:14:21.059393-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23281
       
 
 
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