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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Physical Anthropology
  [SJR: 1.41]   [H-I: 88]   [35 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9483 - ISSN (Online) 1096-8644
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Trabecular and cortical bone structure of the talus and distal tibia in
           Pan and Homo
    • Authors: Zewdi J. Tsegai; Matthew M. Skinner, Andrew H. Gee, Dieter H. Pahr, Graham M. Treece, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L. Kivell
      Abstract: ObjectivesInternal bone structure, both cortical and trabecular bone, remodels in response to loading and may provide important information regarding behavior. The foot is well suited to analysis of internal bone structure because it experiences the initial substrate reaction forces, due to its proximity to the substrate. Moreover, as humans and apes differ in loading of the foot, this region is relevant to questions concerning arboreal locomotion and bipedality in the hominoid fossil record.Materials and methodsWe apply a whole-bone/epiphysis approach to analyze trabecular and cortical bone in the distal tibia and talus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens. We quantify bone volume fraction (BV/TV), degree of anisotropy (DA), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), bone surface to volume ratio (BS/BV), and cortical thickness and investigate the distribution of BV/TV and cortical thickness throughout the bone/epiphysis.ResultsWe find that Pan has a greater BV/TV, a lower BS/BV and thicker cortices than Homo in both the talus and distal tibia. The trabecular structure of the talus is more divergent than the tibia, having thicker, less uniformly aligned trabeculae in Pan compared to Homo. Differences in dorsiflexion at the talocrural joint and in degree of mobility at the talonavicular joint are reflected in the distribution of cortical and trabecular bone.DiscussionOverall, quantified trabecular parameters represent overall differences in bone strength between the two species, however, DA may be directly related to joint loading. Cortical and trabecular bone distributions correlate with habitual joint positions adopted by each species, and thus have potential for interpreting joint position in fossil hominoids.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:44.595738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23249
  • Application of geographic information systems to investigating
           associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino
           Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy)
    • Authors: Marissa C. Stewart; Giuseppe Vercellotti
      Abstract: ObjectivesSocioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested.Materials and MethodsThis study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th–13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery.ResultsGetis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated.DiscussionOverall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:37.81324-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23251
  • Occupational manual activity is reflected on the patterns among hand
    • Authors: Fotios Alexandros Karakostis; Gerhard Hotz, Heike Scherf, Joachim Wahl, Katerina Harvati
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn anthropological sciences, entheses are widely utilized as occupational stress markers. However, the reaction of entheseal surfaces to mechanical loading is not well understood. Furthermore, previous studies on entheses relied on the individuals' occupation-at-death. Past research by one of us has identified two patterns among hand entheses, proposing that they reflect two synergistic muscle groups. Here, we investigate the association between these patterns and habitual manual activity using an extensively documented skeletal sample and a three-dimensional system of quantification.Materials and MethodsThe hand bones utilized belong to 45 individuals from mid-19th century Basel. These were male adults (18 to 48 years old) who were not directly related, showed no manual pathological conditions, and whose occupational activities during their lifetime were clearly documented and could be evaluated according to historical sources. The patterns of entheses were explored using principal component analysis on both raw and size-adjusted variables. The influence of age-at-death, body mass, and bone length was assessed through correlation tests.ResultsThe analysis showed that the previously proposed patterns of entheses are present in our sample. Individuals with the same or comparable occupations presented similar entheseal patterns. These results were not considerably affected by entheseal overall size, age-at-death, body mass, or bone length.DiscussionIndividuals involved in intense manual labor during their lifetime presented a distinctive pattern of hand entheses, consistent with the application of high grip force. By contrast, individuals with less strenuous and/or highly mechanized occupations showed an entheseal pattern related to the thumb intrinsic muscles.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:32.651805-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23253
  • Behavioral inferences from the high levels of dental chipping in Homo
    • Authors: Ian Towle; Joel D. Irish, Isabelle De Groote
      Abstract: ObjectivesA variety of mechanical processes can result in antemortem dental chipping. In this study, chipping data in the teeth of Homo naledi are compared with those of other pertinent dental samples to give insight into their etiology.Materials and methodsPermanent teeth with complete crowns evidencing occlusal wear were examined macroscopically. The location, number, and severity of fractures were recorded and compared to those found in samples of two other South African fossil hominin species and in samples of nonhuman primates (n = 3) and recent humans (n = 7).ResultsWith 44% of teeth affected, H. naledi exhibits far higher rates of chipping than the other fossil hominin samples. Specifically, 50% of posterior teeth and 31% of anterior teeth display at least one chip. The maxillary teeth are more affected than the mandibular teeth (45% vs 43%, respectively), 73% of molar chipping occurs on interproximal surfaces, and right teeth are more often affected than left teeth (50% vs 38%).DiscussionResults indicate that the teeth of H. naledi were exposed to acute trauma on a regular basis. Because interproximal areas are more affected than buccal and posterior teeth more than anterior, it is unlikely that nonmasticatory cultural behavior was the cause. A diet containing hard and resistant food, or contaminants such as grit, is more likely. The small chip size, and steep occlusal wear and cupped dentine on some molars are supportive of the latter possibility. This pattern of chipping suggests that H. naledi differed considerably—in terms of diet, environment, and/or specialized masticatory processing—relative to other African fossil hominins.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:30.253822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23250
  • Temporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture for a modern
           American sample
    • Authors: Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt
      Abstract: ObjectivesTemporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture are investigated for three U.S. populations in the FDB. Patterns of association between birth years and posterior probabilities of cluster membership are identified to assess how these proportions of admixture have changed over recent time. Demographic and genetic data correlates, patterns of morphological expression, and shifts in source populations are evaluated.Materials and MethodsEstimates of three-way admixture were obtained for 1,521 individuals of documented population, sex, and birth years that span the 20th century. Correlations were calculated between birth years and admixture proportions for members of each FDB population. Population and sex-specific admixture variation was further assessed by ANOVA and regression. Correlation analysis was used to identify, per population, which of the cranial measurements change in dimension under increased or decreased admixture.ResultsAdmixture proportions differ significantly by population and change over time. No sex differences are detected. Analysis of the relationship between admixture proportions and ILDs finds that admixture drives morphological change in areas of the cranium known to vary among populations. Results agree with prior work on secular change.DiscussionFindings reveal a progressive increase in White-European population admixture for the self-identified Black individuals, a recent demographic shift toward the increased representation of Hispanic individuals carrying greater Native American ancestry, and reduction in admixture for White individuals that suggest a loss of diversity over time. Changes in admixture produce tractable differences in morphological expression. Both sexes exhibit similar admixture proportions and self-identification patterns. Observed diachronic trends are corroborated by information on recent U.S. demographic change.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:27.800913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23242
  • Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the dimensions of
           the girdle bones in the postnatal period
    • Authors: Hugo F. V. Cardoso; Laure Spake, Louise T. Humphrey
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones.Materials and methodsAge estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined.ResultsMeasurements of the pelvis provide more precise age estimates than the shoulder. In the younger age group, the height and width of the ilium, and the height of the glenoid yield the most precise age estimates. In the older age group, the length of the clavicle provides the most precise estimates, followed by measurements of the pubis and ischium.DiscussionIn the younger individuals (
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:30:25.151831-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23248
  • New methodology to reconstruct in 2-D the cuspal enamel of modern human
           lower molars
    • Authors: Mario Modesto-Mata; Cecilia García-Campos, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Rebeca García-González, Yuliet Quintino, Antoni Canals, Marina Lozano, M. Christopher Dean, María Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez de Castro
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn the last years different methodologies have been developed to reconstruct worn teeth. In this article, we propose a new 2-D methodology to reconstruct the worn enamel of lower molars. Our main goals are to reconstruct molars with a high level of accuracy when measuring relevant histological variables and to validate the methodology calculating the errors associated with the measurements.MethodsThis methodology is based on polynomial regression equations, and has been validated using two different dental variables: cuspal enamel thickness and crown height of the protoconid. In order to perform the validation process, simulated worn modern human molars were employed. The associated errors of the measurements were also estimated applying methodologies previously proposed by other authors.ResultsThe mean percentage error estimated in reconstructed molars for these two variables in comparison with their own real values is −2.17% for the cuspal enamel thickness of the protoconid and −3.18% for the crown height of the protoconid. This error significantly improves the results of other methodologies, both in the interobserver error and in the accuracy of the measurements.ConclusionsThe new methodology based on polynomial regressions can be confidently applied to the reconstruction of cuspal enamel of lower molars, as it improves the accuracy of the measurements and reduces the interobserver error. The present study shows that it is important to validate all methodologies in order to know the associated errors. This new methodology can be easily exportable to other modern human populations, the human fossil record and forensic sciences.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T05:26:22.898707-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23243
  • Skeletal maturity of the hand in an East African group from Sudan
    • Authors: Fadil Elamin; Nihal Abdelazeem, Ahmed Elamin, Duaa Saif, Helen M. Liversidge
      Abstract: ObjectivesStudies of skeletal maturity from Africa indicate a delay, reflected in a negative relative skeletal age (RSA). This study aims to evaluate the influence of age, socioeconomic status (SES) and nutritional status on skeletal maturation in a large sample of children from North Sudan.MaterialsThe sample consisted 665 males and 1018 females from 3-25 years from Khartoum. Height, weight, age of menarche and, SES were recorded of patients attending for dental treatment.MethodsSkeletal age was assigned from hand-wrist radiographs using the Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas (1952). RSA (difference between skeletal and chronological ages) was compared in groups divided by age, sex, height-for-age and body-mass-index z scores, and SES. Spearman's correlation and student t-test was used to compare groups.ResultsDelayed skeletal age was noted across all age in boys. In girls, a delay was observed between ages 6-10, while advancement occurred between ages 13–18. Maturity was delayed in low height groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T05:26:01.725858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23247
  • Investigating biogeographic boundaries of the Sunda shelf: A phylogenetic
           analysis of two island populations of Macaca fascicularis
    • Authors: A.R. Klegarth; S.A. Sanders, A.D. Gloss, K.E. Lane-deGraaf, L. Jones-Engel, A. Fuentes, H. Hollocher
      Abstract: ObjectivesCyclical submergence and re-emergence of the Sunda Shelf throughout the Pleistocene served as a dynamic biogeographic landscape, across which long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have migrated and evolved. Here, we tested the integrity of the previously reported continental-insular haplotype divide reported among Y and mitochondrial DNA lineages across multiple studies.Materials and MethodsThe continental-insular haplotype divide was tested by heavily sampling wild macaques from two important biogeographic regions within Sundaland: (1) Singapore, the southernmost tip of continental Asia and (2) Bali, Indonesia, the southeastern edge of the Indonesian archipelago, immediately west of Wallace's line. Y DNA was haplotyped for samples from Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago. Mitochondrial D-loop from both islands was analyzed against existing data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches.ResultsWe uncovered both “continental” and “insular” Y DNA haplotypes in Bali. Between Singapore and Bali we found 52 unique mitochondrial haplotypes, none of which had been previously described. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed a major haplogroup division within Singapore and identified five new Singapore subclades and two primary subclades in Bali.DiscussionWhile we confirmed the continental-insular divide among mtDNA haplotypes, maintenance of both Y DNA haplotypes on Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago calls into question the mechanism by which Y DNA diversity has been maintained. It also suggests the continental-insular designation is less appropriate for Y DNA, leading us to propose geographically neutral Y haplotype designations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:10:36.787222-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23235
  • Deviant burials and social identity in a postmedieval polish cemetery: An
           analysis of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the “vampires” of
    • Authors: Lesley A. Gregoricka; Amy B. Scott, Tracy K. Betsinger, Marek Polcyn
      Abstract: ObjectivesDeviant burials can reveal important information about both social and individual identity, particularly when the mortuary record is supplemented by an examination of skeletal remains. At the postmedieval (17th to 18th c. AD) cemetery of Drawsko (Site 1), Poland, six individuals (of n = 285) received deviant, anti-vampiristic mortuary treatment. A previous study using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios (x¯= 0.7112 ± 0.0006, 1σ, n = 60) found that these “vampires” were in fact locals, not migrants to the region targeted for deviant burial due to their status as immigrant outsiders. However, considerable geologic overlap in strontium isotope ratios across the North European Plain may have masked the identification of at least some nonlocal individuals. This study further contextualizes strontium isotope ratios using additional biogeochemical data to test the hypothesis that additional nonlocals were present in the Drawsko cemetery.MethodsStable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the dental enamel of 58 individuals interred in both normative and atypical burials at Drawsko were analyzed.ResultsBoth δ18Oc(VPDB) (x¯= −4.5 ± 0.7‰) and δ13Cap isotope values (x¯= −13.6 ± 0.8‰) displayed little variability and were not significantly different between vampire and normative burials, supporting prior strontium results of a largely local population. Nevertheless, homogeneity in oxygen isotope values across other northern European sites makes it difficult to speculate about isotopic regional diversity, leaving open the possibility that additional migrants to the region remain undetected. Additionally, carbon isotope values point to a locally sourced diet dominated by C3 resources but with some supplementation by C4 goods that likely included millet, fitting with historic descriptions of postmedieval diet in Poland.ConclusionsThose interred as vampires appear local to the region and thus likely underwent deviant funerary treatment due to some other social stigma not apparent from the skeleton.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:06:13.08018-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23244
  • Differential investment in body girths by sex: Evidence from 3D photonic
           scanning in a Thai cohort
    • Authors: Meghan K. Shirley; Tim J. Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven, Jonathan C.K. Wells
      Abstract: ObjectivesLife history trade-offs may manifest between competing organs and tissues in the body. Sexual dimorphism in tissue investment is well-established in humans, with sex-associated body shape differences linked to natural and sexual selection. This study uses three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning to test whether males and females differentially invest energy in various body regions in relation to two independent proxies of growth.Materials and methodsBody shape data (multiple girths) came from a Thai cohort (n = 11,610; 53% female; age range 21-88 years). Weight was considered a proxy for recent energy acquisition. Stature represented completed growth, a proxy for energy acquisition earlier in life. The data were analyzed using growth-proxy by sex interaction log-log regression models adjusting for age, salary and number of children.ResultsFor a given percentage increase in weight, females showed greater percentage increases than males in girths of the arm, chest, hip, thigh, knee and calf (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:05:44.292461-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23238
  • The ecology of white-handed and pileated gibbons in a zone of overlap and
           hybridization in Thailand
    • Authors: Norberto Asensio; Juan Manuel José-Domínguez, Chalita Kongrit, Warren Y. Brockelman
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe study of related species in contact zones can elucidate what factors mediate species coexistence and geographical distributions. We investigated niche overlap and group interactions of two gibbon species and their hybrids co-occurring in a zone of overlap and hybridization.MethodsThe location, composition and behavior of white-handed, pileated, and mixed-species gibbon groups were studied by following them during 31 consecutive months in a relatively large part of the contact zone.ResultsTwenty groups of white-handed gibbon were mapped followed by nine groups of pileated gibbons and five mixed-species groups. White-handed, pileated and mixed-species groups had similar sizes and composition, ate a high proportion of fruits, shared a large number of species in their diets, and presented similar habitat preferences. Group home range sizes did not differ between species and overlapped little with neighboring groups irrespective of species, and intraspecific and interspecific encounter rates were similar.DiscussionEcological similarities support that competition between the gibbon species exists and takes the form of interspecific territoriality. However, we could not find any clear mechanism of niche partitioning favoring coexistence between species. Our findings suggest that the contact zone is unstable and is maintained by dispersal inward from groups of the parental species. The relatively low numbers of mixed-species groups and hybrids found suggests a high degree of premating reproductive isolation, perhaps mediated by interspecific miscommunication. The existence of hybrids and backcrosses potentially undetectable from phenotypic characters alone raises the possibility of more widespread introgression than has been evident. Hence, while interspecific territoriality should reduce the rate of gene transfer, it would not necessarily present a barrier to introgression into contiguous populations of the opposite species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T07:01:11.701784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23241
  • Differences between biological and chronological age-at-death in human
           skeletal remains: A change of perspective
    • Authors: Lourdes R. Couoh
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis analysis seeks to determine whether differences between real and estimated chronological age (CA) with biological age (BA) in skeletal individuals reflect variability in aging.Material and methodsA total of 87 individuals of two samples, ranging from 20 to 94 years old, were analyzed. One, partially documented, belongs to a Mexican skeletal collection dating to the 20th century; the other is an assemblage of prehispanic individuals from different archaeological sites. In all specimens, the tooth annulation method (TCA) was applied to estimate CA, while—excluding individuals older than 80 years—auricular surface (AS) and pubic symphysis (PS) methods were used to estimate BA. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify correlations and significance of the differences between CA vs. TCA, CA vs. AS/PS, TCA vs. AS/PS. Sex of individuals was assessed for its influence in aging.ResultsThe use of TCA to estimate CA was successful for most individuals. A strong correlation was found between CA vs. TCA, CA vs. AS/PS, TCA vs. AS/PS and their differences were significant but variation in these were found when assessed by separate age groups. Sex did not influence such differences.DiscussionTCA can be used to estimate CA and its differences with BA, being less than 10 years, are similar to those found in living populations. Differences between CA and BA are due to intra-population variability, which could be the consequence of individual differences in aging. More research is needed to have confidence that under- and overestimations of BA are indicators of aging variability at the level of the individual.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T09:05:28.037433-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23236
  • The postcranial skeletal maturation of Australopithecus sediba
    • Authors: Noel Cameron; Barry Bogin, Debra Bolter, Lee R. Berger
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn 2008, an immature hominin defined as the holotype of the new species Australopithecus sediba was discovered at the 1.9 million year old Malapa site in South Africa. The specimen (MH1) includes substantial post-cranial skeletal material, and provides a unique opportunity to assess its skeletal maturation.MethodsSkeletal maturity indicators observed on the proximal and distal humerus, proximal ulna, distal radius, third metacarpal, ilium and ischium, proximal femur and calcaneus were used to assess the maturity of each bone in comparison to references for modern humans and for wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).ResultsIn comparison to humans the skeletal maturational ages for Au. sediba correspond to between 12.0 years and 15.0 years with a mean (SD) age of 13.1 (1.1) years. In comparison to the maturational pattern of chimpanzees the Au. sediba indicators suggest a skeletal maturational age of 9–11 years. Based on either of these skeletal maturity estimates and the body length at death of MH1, an adult height of 150–156 cm is predicted.DiscussionWe conclude that the skeletal remains of MH1 are consistent with an ape-like pattern of maturity when dental age estimates are also taken into consideration. This maturity schedule in australopiths is consistent with ape-like estimates of age at death for the Nariokotome Homo erectus remains (KMN-WT 15000), which are of similar postcranial immaturity to MH1. The findings suggest that humans may have distinctive and delayed post-cranial schedules from australopiths and H. erectus, implicating a recent evolution of somatic and possibly life history strategies in human evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:55:19.745983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23234
  • A tale of agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers: Exploring the thrifty
           genotype hypothesis in native South Americans
    • Authors: Guillermo Reales; Diego L. Rovaris, Vanessa C. Jacovas, Tábita Hünemeier, José R. Sandoval, Alcibiades Salazar-Granara, Darío A. Demarchi, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Aline B. Felkl, Michele A. Serafini, Francisco M. Salzano, Rafael Bisso-Machado, David Comas, Vanessa R. Paixão-Côrtes, Maria Cátira Bortolini
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo determine genetic differences between agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer southern Native American populations for selected metabolism-related markers and to test whether Neel's thrifty genotype hypothesis (TGH) could explain the genetic patterns observed in these populations.Materials and Methods375 Native South American individuals from 17 populations were genotyped using six markers (APOE rs429358 and rs7412; APOA2 rs5082; CD36 rs3211883; TCF7L2 rs11196205; and IGF2BP2 rs11705701). Additionally, APOE genotypes from 39 individuals were obtained from the literature. AMOVA, main effects, and gene-gene interaction tests were performed.ResultsWe observed differences in allele distribution patterns between agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers for some markers. For instance, between-groups component of genetic variance (FCT) for APOE rs429358 showed strong differences in allelic distributions between hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists (p = 0.00196). Gene-gene interaction analysis indicated that the APOE E4/CD36 TT and APOE E4/IGF2BP2 A carrier combinations occur at a higher frequency in hunter-gatherers, but this combination is not replicated in archaic (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and ancient (Anzick, Saqqaq, Ust-Ishim, Mal'ta) hunter-gatherer individuals.DiscussionA complex scenario explains the observed frequencies of the tested markers in hunter-gatherers. Different factors, such as pleotropic alleles, rainforest selective pressures, and population dynamics, may be collectively shaping the observed genetic patterns. We conclude that although TGH seems a plausible hypothesis to explain part of the data, other factors may be important in our tested populations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:55:16.3885-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23233
  • Body growth and life history in wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei
           beringei) from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda
    • Authors: Jordi Galbany; Didier Abavandimwe, Meagan Vakiener, Winnie Eckardt, Antoine Mudakikwa, Felix Ndagijimana, Tara S. Stoinski, Shannon C. McFarlin
      Abstract: ObjectivesGreat apes show considerable diversity in socioecology and life history, but knowledge of their physical growth in natural settings is scarce. We characterized linear body size growth in wild mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, a population distinguished by its extreme folivory and accelerated life histories.MethodsIn 131 individuals (0.09–35.26 years), we used non-invasive parallel laser photogrammetry to measure body length, back width, arm length and two head dimensions. Nonparametric LOESS regression was used to characterize cross-sectional distance and velocity growth curves for males and females, and consider links with key life history milestones.ResultsSex differences became evident between 8.5 and 10.0 years of age. Thereafter, female growth velocities declined, while males showed increased growth velocities until 10.0–14.5 years across dimensions. Body dimensions varied in growth; females and males reached 98% of maximum body length at 11.7 and 13.1 years, respectively. Females attained 95.3% of maximum body length by mean age at first birth. Neonates were 31% of maternal size, and doubled in size by mean weaning age. Males reached maximum body and arm length and back width before emigration, but experienced continued growth in head dimensions.ConclusionsWhile comparable data are scarce, our findings provide preliminary support for the prediction that mountain gorillas reach maximum body size at earlier ages compared to more frugivorous western gorillas. Data from other wild populations are needed to better understand comparative great ape development, and investigate links between trajectories of physical, behavioral, and reproductive maturation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:55:09.563249-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23232
  • The influence of variation in parental height dimorphism on same-sex
           parent-offspring height differences
    • Authors: B. Floyd
      Abstract: ObjectiveThis study evaluates how adjusting for parental height dimorphism influences height differences among parents and same-sex offspring distinguished by parents' early backgrounds.Participants and methodsRegression analyses using data from independent groups of Taiwanese families, 56 with sons and 51 with daughters, evaluate how adjusting for parental height dimorphism influences same-sex parent-offspring height differences among families grouped by grandfathers' occupations into three status categories reflecting good to relatively poor early parental environments.ResultsParental height dimorphism was statistically significantly associated with same-sex parent-offspring height differences (father–son: mean Δ = 3.88 cm, β = −71.47 ± 11.49 SE, t = −6.22, p ≤ .0005; mother–daughter: mean Δ = 4.15 cm, β = 80.46 ± 18.52 SE, t = 4.35, p ≤ .0005). Adjusted mean father–son differences increased significantly across grandfathers' occupation categories (Privileged, Δ = 0.60, Business, Δ = 4.06, Farming & Labor, Δ = 5.28; p = .011). Mother–daughter differences were substantial, from 3.33 cm to 5.06 cm, but did not differ significantly across occupational categories (p = .63).DiscussionAdjustments here for variation in parent height dimorphism did not alter original interpretations that while female growth may be more canalized, it is similarly capable of responding to improvements in developmental contexts. Patterns of same-sex parent-offspring height differences across grandfathers' occupational categories remain best accounted for by Taiwan's rapidly expanding economy, substantial income equity and reductions in biases favoring sons over daughters. Adjustment for sub-group variation in parental height dimorphism should be considered in similar studies in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T01:15:36.411694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23227
  • Trabecular mapping: Leveraging geometric morphometrics for analyses of
           trabecular structure
    • Authors: Adam D. Sylvester; Claire E. Terhune
      Abstract: ObjectivesTrabecular microstructure of limb bone epiphyses has been used to elucidate the relationship between skeletal form and behavior among mammals. Such studies have often relied on the analysis of a single volume of interest (VOI). Here we present a method for evaluating variation in bone microstructure across articular surfaces by leveraging sliding semilandmarks.MethodsTwo samples were used to demonstrate the proposed methodology and test the hypothesis that microstructural variables are homogeneously distributed: tali from two ape genera (Pan and Pongo, n = 9) and modern human distal femora (n = 10). Sliding semilandmarks were distributed across articular surfaces and used to locate the position of multiple VOIs immediately deep to the cortical shell. Trabecular bone properties were quantified using the BoneJ plugin for ImageJ. Nonparametric MANOVA tests were used to make group comparisons and differences were explored using principal components analysis and visualized using color maps.ResultsTests reveal that trabecular parameters are not distributed homogeneously and identify differences between chimpanzee and orangutan tali with regards to trabecular spacing and degree of anisotropy, with chimpanzee tali being more anisotropic and having more uniformly spaced trabeculae. Human males and females differed in the pattern of trabecular spacing with males having more uniform trabecular spacing across the joint surface.ConclusionsThe proposed procedure quantifies variation in trabecular bone parameters across joint surfaces and allows for meaningful statistical comparisons between groups of interest. Consequently it holds promise to help elucidate links between trabecular bone structure and animal behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T08:47:20.25992-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23231
  • Brief communication: An analysis of dental development in Pleistocene Homo
           using skeletal growth and chronological age
    • Authors: Maja Šešelj
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study takes a new approach to interpreting dental development in Pleistocene Homo in comparison with recent modern humans. As rates of dental development and skeletal growth are correlated given age in modern humans, using age and skeletal growth in tandem yields more accurate dental development estimates. Here, I apply these models to fossil Homo to obtain more individualized predictions and interpretations of their dental development relative to recent modern humans.Materials and MethodsProportional odds logistic regression models based on three recent modern human samples (N = 181) were used to predict permanent mandibular tooth development scores in five Pleistocene subadults: Homo erectus/ergaster, Neanderthals, and anatomically modern humans (AMHs). Explanatory variables include a skeletal growth indicator (i.e., diaphyseal femoral length), and chronological age.ResultsAMHs Lagar Velho 1 and Qafzeh 10 share delayed incisor development, but exhibit considerable idiosyncratic variation within and across tooth types, relative to each other and to the reference samples. Neanderthals Dederiyeh 1 and Le Moustier 1 exhibit delayed incisor coupled with advanced molar development, but differences are reduced when femoral diaphysis length is considered. Dental development in KNM-WT 15,000 Homo erectus/ergaster, while advanced for his age, almost exactly matches the predictions once femoral length is included in the models.DiscussionThis study provides a new interpretation of dental development in KNM-WT 15000 as primarily reflecting his faster rates of skeletal growth. While the two AMH specimens exhibit considerable individual variation, the Neanderthals exhibit delayed incisor development early and advanced molar development later in ontogeny.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T08:47:16.989091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23228
  • Stuck in fragments: Population genetics of the Endangered collared brown
           lemur Eulemur collaris in the Malagasy littoral forest
    • Authors: Stefania Bertoncini; Jacopo D'Ercole, Francesca Brisighelli, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Cristian Capelli, Sergio Tofanelli, Giuseppe Donati
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans.Materials and MethodsGenetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest.ResultsThe overall genetic diversity of E. collaris in the southeastern coastal region of Madagascar was lower than in other populations, as well as in other lemur species. The population appears highly structured, with less variable and more inbred groups inhabiting the littoral forest fragments compared to the inland area. Major barriers to gene flow were identified isolating littoral forest fragments from each other and from the inland lowland humid forest.DiscussionMedium to long-term drift and scarce gene flow is the scenario that best explains the current genetic distribution. Habitat discontinuities such as rivers and grassland between forest fragments played a major role in structuring the population. A common history of size contraction is pointed out by several genetic estimators, indicating a possible ecological crisis triggered around 1,300 years ago. The adoption of strategies aimed at facilitating gene flow and population growth appears crucial to delay further loss of genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:06:52.280083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23230
  • Ancient mitochondrial DNA and ancestry of Paquimé inhabitants, Casas
           Grandes (A.D. 1200–1450)
    • Authors: Ana Y. Morales-Arce; Meradeth H. Snow, Jane H. Kelley, M. Anne Katzenberg
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Casas Grandes (Paquimé) culture, located in the Northwest of Chihuahua, Mexico reached its apogee during the Medio Period (A.D. 1200–1450). Paquimé was abandoned by the end of the Medio Period (A.D. 1450), and the ancestry of its inhabitants remains unsolved. Some authors suggest that waves of Mesoamerican immigrants, possibly merchants, stimulated Paquimé's development during the Medio Period. Archaeological evidence suggests possible ties to groups that inhabited the Southwestern US cultures. This study uses ancient DNA analysis from fourteen samples to estimate genetic affinities of ancient Paquimé inhabitants.Materials and methodsDNA was extracted from 14 dental ancient samples from Paquimé. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to obtain mitochondrial control region sequences. Networks, PCoA, and Nei genetic distances were estimated to compare Paquimé haplotypes against available past haplotypes data from Southwestern and Mesoamerican groups.ResultsHaplogroups were characterized for 11 of the samples, and the results revealed the presence of four distinct Amerindian mitochondrial lineages: B (n = 5; 45%), A (n = 3; 27%), C (n = 2; 18%) and D (n = 1; 10%). Statistical analysis of the haplotypes, haplogroup frequencies, and Nei genetic distances showed close affinity of Paquimé with Mimbres.DiscussionAlthough our results provide strong evidence of genetic affinities between Paquimé and Mimbres, with the majority of haplotypes shared or derived from ancient Southwest populations, the causes of cultural development at Paquimé still remain a question. These preliminary results provide evidence in support of other bioarchaeological studies, which have shown close biological affinities between Paquimé and Mimbres, a Puebloan culture, in the Southwestern US.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T01:53:05.009478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23223
  • Fueguian crania and the circum-Pacific rim variation
    • Authors: D. Turbon; C. Arenas, C. M. Cuadras
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Fueguians are descendants of the first settlers of America, a 'relict' isolated geographically for 10,000 years. We compared their cranial variation with other Americans, and samples from Asia and Australia to know whether the modern extinct Fueguians can be considered Paleoamericans or not.Materials and MethodsHerein we study 176 Fuego-Patagonian skulls, the largest cranial sample to be studied, refined and well documented, using CVA, and the D2 of Mahalanobis. The affinities between populations and sexual dimorphism were jointly studied.ResultsTerrestrial hunters (Selknam) have a different cranial morphology from sea canoeists (Yamana, Alakaluf) particularly with regard to cranial size and robustness. In the American context, there are extreme differences between the canoeists of Santa Cruz (California) and the Eskimos and canoeists of Fuego-Patagonia in terms of cranial size, prognathism and development of the frontal region. Fueguian canoeists are cranially closer to the Californian ones than to their Fueguian neighbors, the Selknam. Our results favor the hypothesis of two different flows for the origin of the first populators of Tierra del Fuego.DiscussionWe concluded that the robusticity of some Fuegians (Selknam) might be the result of an allometric pattern of overall robusticity expression well as a result of epigenetics or differential reproduction (Larsen, 2015:264) or hypothetical endocrine changes (Bernal et al. in Am J Hum Biol 2006;18:748–765). When compared with three Australian–Melanesian series, the group comprising Amerindians, Ainu, and Eskimos clusters together as they are all extremely different from the former in terms of both cranial size and shape.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:05:54.902333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23207
  • Dental wear and age grading at Roonka, South Australia
    • Authors: Judith Littleton
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn many hunter-gatherer populations, the teeth are used as a third hand or a tool. Much attention has been paid to wear and its relationship to gendered division of labor, but age is also a significant organizing factor in many societies. In this article, I analyze whether the pattern of wear at Roonka, Australia, reflects the age-graded acquisition of tasks.Materials and MethodsThe remains analyzed come from Roonka and date from c6000 BP to 150 BP. In total 126 adults and juveniles were analyzed. Wear gradients were calculated for each tooth relative to wear on the first molar. Data were compared using nonparametric statistics and cluster analysis to assess the degree of patterning within the sample.ResultsDental wear proceeded rapidly. There is no evidence of sex differences in the pattern of wear. Age differences do occur. While disproportionate anterior wear occurs among juveniles and young adults, by middle adulthood the pattern is less variable and involves the premolars. Old adults have a much flatter pattern of wear.DiscussionThe pattern of wear is consistent with ethnographic observations, which suggest a degree of latitude in the activities of juveniles and young adults. By middle age variability between individuals declines reflecting shared tasks and more intensive use of the teeth. The pattern of wear amongst old adults, however, is much flatter presumably due to changes in occlusion. While dental wear is informative about the organization of labor there is a need to take into account both patterns of activity and occlusion.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:05:41.242399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23226
  • Applying wet sieving fecal particle size measurement to frugivores: A case
           study of the eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)
    • Authors: Taylor E. Weary; Richard W. Wrangham, Marcus Clauss
      Abstract: ObjectivesFecal particle size (FPS) as quantified by wet sieving analysis is a measure of chewing efficiency relevant for the understanding of physiological adaptations and constraints in herbivores. FPS has not been investigated systematically in frugivores, and important methodological problems remain. In particular, food items that are not chewed may skew estimates of FPS. We address such methodological issues and also assess the influence of diet type and age on FPS in wild chimpanzees.Materials and MethodsAbout 130 fecal samples of 38 individual chimpanzees (aged from 1.3 to ∼55 years) from the Kanyawara community of Kibale National Park (Uganda) were collected during three fruit seasons and analyzed using standardized wet sieves (pores from 16 to 0.025 mm). The effects of using different sieve series and excluding large seeds were investigated. We also assessed the relationship between FPS and sex, age, and fruit season.ResultsThe treatment of seeds during the sieving process had a large influence on the results. FPS was not influenced by chimpanzee sex or age, but was smaller during a fig season (0.88 ± 0.31 mm) than during two drupe-fruit seasons (1.68 ± 0.37 mm) (0.025–4 mm sieves, excluding seeds).DiscussionThe absence of an age effect on FPS suggests that dental senescence might be less critical in chimpanzees, or in frugivores in general, than in folivorous herbivores. To increase the value of FPS studies for understanding frugivore and hominoid dietary evolution we propose modifications to prior herbivore protocols.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:05:38.991792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23225
  • The 5th national survey on the physical growth and development of children
           in the nine cities of China: Anthropometric measurements of Chinese
           children under 7 years in 2015
    • Authors: Ya-Qin Zhang; Hui Li, Hua-Hong Wu, Xin-Nan Zong, Zong-Han Zhu, Ying Pan, Jia Li, Xing-Rong Zheng, Mei Wei, Mei-Ling Tong, Ai-Fen Zhou, Yan Hu, Wei Chen, Ke Zhu, Yang Yu
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the physical growth of healthy children under 7 years in China based on the latest national survey and provide more data for revising growth reference and monitoring the impact of social development on children's health and growth.MethodsIn the cross-sectional survey, 161,774 healthy children under 7 years were selected by multistage stratified cluster sampling method in nine cities of China. According to the geographical location, the nine cities were divided into northern, central and southern regions, and each city included urban and suburban areas. Anthropometric measurements were obtained on the spots and other related information was collected with questionnaires.ResultsThere were slight urban–suburban difference and obvious regional difference in anthropometric measurements in China. Comparison with the 4th NSPGDC in 2005, measurements increased 0.1–1.1 kg in weight, 0.5–1.8 cm in height in urban areas (except children under 3 years) and 0.1–2.5 kg in weight, 0.2–3.8 cm in height in suburban areas. The urban–suburban difference of those measurements became smaller than 10 years ago, but their regional difference persistently exist. Chinese children were 0.36 SD in weight, 0.43 SD in height in urban areas and 0.30 SD in weight, 0.30 SD in height in suburban areas higher than WHO standards.ConclusionsPhysical growth of children under 7 years old was undergoing a slowly positive secular trend during the latest decade in more economically developed regions of China. Urban–suburban difference of those measurements became smaller, while their regional difference persistently exist. Chinese healthy children under 7 years in nine cities was taller and heavier than WHO standards.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:05:34.908207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23224
           PRIMATES John J. Shea New York, Cambridge University Press, 2017. 236 pp.
           ISBN 978-1-107-55493-1. £22.99 (paper)
    • Authors: William C. McGrew
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T07:25:23.246058-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23200
  • Early Pleistocene hominin deciduous teeth from the Homo antecessor Gran
           Dolina-TD6 bearing level (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)
    • Authors: José María Bermúdez de Castro; María Martinón-Torres, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Mario Modesto-Mata, Cecilia García-Campos, Xiujie Wu, Song Xing, Wu Liu
      Abstract: ObjectivesDuring the last 13 years, the late Early Pleistocene Gran Dolina-TD6-2 level (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded an additional sample of 26 dental specimens attributed to Homo antecessor. In this report, we present a descriptive and comparative study of the six deciduous teeth.MethodsWe provide external and internal morphological descriptions following classical terminology, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the teeth. The internal morphology was described by means of micro-CT technique.ResultsThe TD6 deciduous teeth preserve primitive features regarding the Homo clade, such as the presence of styles in lower and upper canines and developed anterior and posterior foveae in the dm2. However, other features related to the complexity of the crown morphology (e.g., cingulum) are not present in this sample. Furthermore, the great reduction of the talonid of the dm1s is also noteworthy. Despite the limited comparative evidence, the presence of a remarkably well-developed tuberculum molare in the dm1 and dm1s from TD6 can be also considered a derived feature in the genus Homo. The TD6 hominins exhibit dental dimensions similar to those of other Pleistocene hominins. The dm1s are buccolingually elongated and the buccolingual diameter of ATD6-93 is the largest recorded so far in the Homo fossil record.ConclusionsThis study expands the list of plesiomorphic features of H. antecessor, and provides some information on the evolutionary status of this species. However, the identification of some advanced traits evinces a step towards the derived morphology of European Pleistocene teeth. The study of the deciduous dentition confirms the mosaic pattern of H. antecessor morphology revealed in previous studies of this hominin sample.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T05:25:40.21686-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23222
  • Feeding in fear? How adult male western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes
           verus) adjust to predation and savanna habitat pressures
    • Authors: Stacy Lindshield; Brent J. Danielson, Jessica M. Rothman, Jill D. Pruetz
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe evaluated risk-sensitive foraging in adult male western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) occupying a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal. The aim of this study was to determine how the risks of predation and heat stress influenced their behavior while feeding on a key food, fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata).Materials and MethodsProximity of fruiting baobab trees to anthropogenic landmarks were compared to food intake, feeding rate, and behavioral indicators of fear in adult males (N = 11) at Fongoli. Additionally, we compared foraging to vegetative habitats, baobab ripe fruit nutritive quality, surface water availability, and foraging party composition.ResultsFruit abundance increased with proximity to anthropogenic landmarks, and chimpanzees exhibited higher frequencies of antipredator behaviors as they approached these risky areas. However, predation risk did not deter adult males from visiting these fruiting trees; instead, risky foraging bouts were associated with higher food intakes and longer feeding times. Additionally, higher feeding rates were observed in open-canopy habitats, and this behavior may have minimized their risk of heat stress.ConclusionsAdaptations that minimize predation risk are widespread in mammalian prey species, but these traits are poorly understood in chimpanzees. Great apes encounter few nonhuman predators capable of successfully capturing and killing them; thus, such events are rarely observed. Although people rarely hunt chimpanzees in Senegal, we found that adult males perceived humans as predators and adjusted their behavior while foraging in risky habitats. From an applied perspective, risk-taking behavior is important for understanding and mitigating the problem of crop-feeding in locations where chimpanzees and humans live in sympatry.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:35:30.108893-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23221
  • Buccal dental microwear texture and catarrhine diets
    • Authors: Andrés Aliaga-Martínez; Alejandro Romero, Jordi Galbany, R. Adriana Hernández-Aguilar, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
      Abstract: ObjectivesTwo-dimensional dental microwear analyses on occlusal and nonocclusal enamel surfaces have been widely applied to reconstruct the feeding behaviors of extant primates and to infer ecological adaptations in fossil hominins. To date, analyses of dental microwear texture, using three-dimensional, Scale-Sensitive Fractal Analysis approaches has only been applied to occlusal surfaces. Here, for the first time, we apply this 3D proxy to buccal enamel surfaces of catarrhine primates of known feeding ecologies to assess the utility of nonocclusal microwear texture variables as indicators of dietary habits.Materials and MethodsBuccal microwear texture attributes were collected from high-resolution second molar casts in a sample of seven extant African catarrhine taxa with differing dietary behaviors. A white-light confocal microscope with a 100× objective lens was used to record six microwear texture variables that assess complexity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, and textural fill volume.ResultsThe physical properties and variation in hardness of ingested foods is reflected by significant differences in the microwear variables on buccal enamel surfaces between species, which is in agreement with early reports using 2D microwear signatures of the same samples. Species that consume hard brittle items showed high buccal enamel complexity and low anisotropy values, while folivorous species that consume tough foods revealed high anisotropy and low complexity enamel patterns.DiscussionBuccal microwear texture analysis on enamel surfaces clearly reflects diet-related variation in nonhuman primates. Our findings indicate that microwear texture attributes on nonworking enamel surfaces provide an alternative procedure for reconstructing dietary behavior when wear facets on occlusal surfaces are lacking.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:35:23.59569-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23219
  • Quantification of the position and depth of the flexor hallucis longus
           groove in euarchontans, with implications for the evolution of primate
           positional behavior
    • Authors: Gabriel S. Yapuncich; Erik R. Seiffert, Doug M. Boyer
      Abstract: ObjectiveOn the talus, the position and depth of the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon have been used to infer phylogenetic affinities and positional behaviors of fossil primates. This study quantifies aspects of the flexor hallucis longus groove (FHLG) to test if: (1) a lateral FHLG is a derived strepsirrhine feature, (2) a lateral FHLG reflects inverted and abducted foot postures, and (3) a deeper FHLG indicates a larger muscle.MethodsWe used linear measurements of microCT-generated models from a sample of euarchontans (n = 378 specimens, 125 species) to quantify FHLG position and depth. Data are analyzed with ANOVA, Ordinary and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares, and Bayesian Ancestral State Reconstruction (ASR).ResultsExtant strepsirrhines, adapiforms, plesiadapiforms, dermopterans, and Ptilocercus exhibit lateral FHLGs. Extant anthropoids, subfossil lemurs, and Tupaia have medial FHLGs. FHLGs of omomyiforms and basal fossil anthropoids are intermediate between those of strepsirrhines and extant anthropoids. FHLG position has few correlations with pedal inversion features. Relative FHLG depth is not significantly correlated with body mass. ASRs support a directional model for FHLG position and a random walk model for FHLG depth.ConclusionsThe prevalence of lateral FHLGs in many non-euprimates suggests a lateral FHLG is not a derived strepsirrhine feature. The lack of correlations with pedal inversion features suggests a lateral FHLG is not a sufficient indicator of strepsirrhine-like foot postures. Instead, a lateral FHLG may reduce the risk of tendon displacement in abducted foot postures on large diameter supports. A deep FHLG does not indicate a larger muscle, but likely reduces bowstringing during plantarflexion.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T07:21:42.990054-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23213
  • Horticultural activity predicts later localized limb status in a
           contemporary pre-industrial population
    • Authors: Jonathan Stieglitz; Benjamin C. Trumble, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven
      Abstract: ObjectivesModern humans may have gracile skeletons due to low physical activity levels and mechanical loading. Tests using pre-historic skeletons are limited by the inability to assess behavior directly, while modern industrialized societies possess few socio-ecological features typical of human evolutionary history. Among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists, we test whether greater activity levels and, thus, increased loading earlier in life are associated with greater later-life bone status and diminished age-related bone loss.Materials and MethodsWe used quantitative ultrasonography to assess radial and tibial status among adults aged 20+ years (mean ± SD age = 49 ± 15; 52% female). We conducted systematic behavioral observations to assess earlier-life activity patterns (mean time lag between behavioural observation and ultrasound = 12 years). For a subset of participants, physical activity was again measured later in life, via accelerometry, to determine whether earlier-life time use is associated with later-life activity levels. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during medical exams.ResultsStructural decline with age is reduced for the tibia (female: −0.25 SDs/decade; male: 0.05 SDs/decade) versus radius (female: −0.56 SDs/decade; male: −0.20 SDs/decade), which is expected if greater loading mitigates bone loss. Time allocation to horticulture, but not hunting, positively predicts later-life radial status (βHorticulture = 0.48, p = 0.01), whereas tibial status is not significantly predicted by subsistence or sedentary leisure participation.DiscussionPatterns of activity- and age-related change in bone status indicate localized osteogenic responses to loading, and are generally consistent with the logic of bone functional adaptation. Nonmechanical factors related to subsistence lifestyle moderate the association between activity patterns and bone structure.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T07:20:55.281974-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23214
  • The dawn of dentistry in the late upper Paleolithic: An early case of
           pathological intervention at Riparo Fredian
    • Authors: Gregorio Oxilia; Flavia Fiorillo, Francesco Boschin, Elisabetta Boaretto, Salvatore A. Apicella, Chiara Matteucci, Daniele Panetta, Rossella Pistocchi, Franca Guerrini, Cristiana Margherita, Massimo Andretta, Rita Sorrentino, Giovanni Boschian, Simona Arrighi, Irene Dori, Giuseppe Mancuso, Jacopo Crezzini, Alessandro Riga, Maria C. Serrangeli, Antonino Vazzana, Piero A. Salvadori, Mariangela Vandini, Carlo Tozzi, Adriana Moroni, Robin N. M. Feeney, John C. Willman, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Stefano Benazzi
      Abstract: ObjectivesEarly evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here, we report the second earliest probable evidence for dentistry in a Late Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer recovered from Riparo Fredian (Tuscany, Italy).Materials and MethodsThe Fredian 5 human consists of an associated maxillary anterior dentition with antemortem exposure of both upper first incisor (I1) pulp chambers. The pulp chambers present probable antemortem modifications that warrant in-depth analyses and direct dating. Scanning electron microscopy, microCT and residue analyses were used to investigate the purported modifications of external and internal surfaces of each I1.ResultsThe direct date places Fredian 5 between 13,000 and 12,740 calendar years ago. Both pulp chambers were circumferentially enlarged prior to the death of this individual. Occlusal dentine flaking on the margin of the cavities and striations on their internal aspects suggest anthropic manipulation. Residue analyses revealed a conglomerate of bitumen, vegetal fibers, and probable hairs adherent to the internal walls of the cavities.DiscussionThe results are consistent with tool-assisted manipulation to remove necrotic or infected pulp in vivo and the subsequent use of a composite, organic filling. Fredian 5 confirms the practice of dentistry—specifically, a pathology-induced intervention—among Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers. As such, it appears that fundamental perceptions of biomedical knowledge and practice were in place long before the socioeconomic changes associated with the transition to food production in the Neolithic.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T07:20:50.350342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23216
  • Shifting diet, shifting culture? A bioarchaeological approach to island
           dietary development on Iron-Age Öland, Baltic Sea
    • Authors: Helene Wilhelmson
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe diet and subsistence in Iron-Age Öland is debated as earlier studies and different archaeological sources seemingly provide conflicting interpretations. The objectives of this study are therefore to: (i) add new insights on diet and (ii) investigate the chronological variation in detail. It is common in studies of diet to investigate differences between datasets defined by archaeological periods (determined by artefact typology), but it is rare to explore whether these dietary changes are, in fact, well correlated with these temporal categories or not.Materials and methodsStable isotope analysis of 108 individuals and 25 animals was used to interpret diet in comparison with data from earlier studies. Different values of TLE (Trophic Level Effect) for δ15N were compared for interpretations of diet. Of the 108 individuals, 42 were subjected to 14C analysis in this study.ResultsThe isotopes from Iron-Age animals on Öland indicate that the local, contemporary ecology is specific. The human isotope values show chronological development both when pooled in chronological groups by typology and by more specific 14C chronology.DiscussionThe new samples of animals as well as the use of 5‰ TLE for δ15N values results in the diet reinterpreted as mainly domesticate-based, with at least two shifts in diet occurring in the Iron Age. The use of 14C dates in connection with the stable isotope results indicates a dietary transition occurring between 200 BC and AD 200, a date range that spans two typologically determined time periods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T07:20:42.010528-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23204
  • Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is unrelated to measures of somatic
           reproductive effort among young men from Cebu, the Philippines
    • Authors: Alexander V. Georgiev; Calen P. Ryan, Lee T. Gettler, Thomas W. McDade, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesA low second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio, a retrospective marker of high prenatal androgens, predicts increased investment in costly sexually dimorphic traits in men in some studies, although results are mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that the association of low 2D:4D ratios with increased muscularity and decreased adiposity depends on current testosterone (T) levels, such that digit ratio will be a particularly strong predictor of outcomes among men exhibiting a mating-effort-oriented endocrinological profile (high T). We also test the association between 2D:4D and somatic traits independently of T.Materials and methodsWe related 2D:4D digit ratios, and their interaction with T, to handgrip strength, lean mass, arm muscle area, and skinfold thickness in a sample of young, childess men (20–22 y) from Cebu, Philippines (N = 623).ResultsDigit ratio did not significantly predict men's T-dependent somatic traits. Interactions between 2D:4D and morning T, similarly, did not predict male muscularity or adiposity. Although two of the interactions were significant or marginally significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T07:20:35.294007-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23215
  • Ancestry dynamics in a South American population: The impact of gene flow
           and preferential mating
    • Authors: Philip W. Hedrick
      Abstract: ObjectivesEuropean ancestry in many populations in Latin America at autosomal loci is often higher than that from X-linked loci indicating more European male ancestry and more Amerindian female ancestry. Generally, this has been attributed to more European male gene flow but could also result from an advantage to European mating or reproductive success.MethodsPopulation genetic models were developed to investigate the dynamics of gene flow and mating or reproductive success. Using estimates of autosomal and X-chromosome European ancestry, the amount of male gene flow or mating or reproductive advantage for Europeans, or those with European ancestry, was estimated.ResultsIn a population from Antioquia, Colombia with an estimated 79% European autosomal ancestry and an estimated 69% European X-chromosome ancestry, about 15% male gene flow from Europe or about 20% mating or reproductive advantage of Europeans over Amerindians resulted in these levels of European ancestry in the contemporary population. Combinations of gene flow and mating advantage were nearly additive in their impact.ConclusionsGene flow, mating advantage, or a combination of both factors, are consistent with observed levels of European ancestry in a Latin American population. This approach provides a general methodology to determine the levels of gene flow and mating differences that can explain the observed contemporary differences in ancestry from autosomes and X-chromosomes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T07:20:32.101229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23220
  • East of the Andes: The genetic profile of the Peruvian Amazon populations
    • Authors: T. Di Corcia; C. Sanchez Mellado, T. J. Davila Francia, G. Ferri, S. Sarno, D. Luiselli, O. Rickards
      Abstract: ObjectivesAssuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments.Materials and MethodsWe analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America.ResultsWe detected a high degree of genetic diversity in the Peruvian Amazon people, both for mtDNA than for Y chromosome, excepting for Cashibo people, who seem to have had no exchanges with their neighbors, in contrast with the others communities. The genetic structure follows the divide between the Andes and the Amazon, but we found a certain degree of gene flow between these two environments, as particularly emerged with the Y chromosome descent cluster's (DCs) analysis.DiscussionThe Peruvian Amazon is home to an array of populations with differential rates of genetic exchanges with their neighbors and with the Andean people, depending on their peculiar demographic histories. We highlighted some successful Y chromosome lineages expansions originated in Peru during the pre-Columbian history which involved both Andeans and Amazon Arawak people, showing that at least a part of the Amazon rainforest did not remain isolated from those exchanges.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25T07:20:29.886993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23209
  • Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees
    • Authors: Christophe Boesch; Daša Bombjaková, Adam Boyette, Amelia Meier
      Abstract: ObjectivesAccording to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis.Materials and methodsAka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared.ResultsAs predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic.DiscussionObservations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T01:46:01.500357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23211
  • Comparisons of statistical techniques to assess age-related skeletal
           markers in bioarchaeology
    • Authors: Colleen M. Cheverko; Mark Hubbe
      Abstract: ObjectivesMany authors argue that inconsistencies between studies of skeletal markers are based on different data collection protocols, especially when comparing age-related markers such as osteoarthritis. Less attention is given to the choice of statistical techniques that are used to test the hypotheses associated with the data. This paper addresses how different statistical techniques compare the prevalence of age-related skeletal indicators, specifically osteoarthritis.Materials and methodsOsteoarthritis prevalence was scored in eight postcranial joints in 243 adult individuals from seven prehistoric archaeological sites in Central California, and data was compared between three time periods [Early (4800–2800 BP), Middle (2800–1200 BP), and Late (1200–250 BP)] using commonly used statistical tests: chi-square, Fisher's exact, and odds ratios. In addition, we analyzed the data with tests that are able to take into consideration the effect of age on osteoarthritis prevalence: ANCOVA and Factorial ANOVA. Finally, bootstraps were applied to the data to investigate how fluctuating frequencies, sample size, and age-at-death distributions affected the interpretations resulting from each test.ResultsThe results demonstrate that the tests that consider age as a covariate (ANCOVA and Factorial ANOVA) are more efficient in rejecting the null hypothesis when smaller magnitudes of difference are observed between samples, irrespective of sample size, even though osteoarthritis prevalence fails to meet assumptions of normal distribution and homoscedasticity.DiscussionANCOVAs or Factorial ANOVAs that incorporate age as a covariate should be considered more often in studies that test different prevalences of age-related osteological markers among past populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T09:05:40.525289-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23206
  • Limb bone allometry in modern Euro-Americans
    • Authors: R. L. Jantz; L. Meadows Jantz
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe pattern of static and secular allometry was examined in a time series of limb bone lengths from individuals with birth years ranging from 1840 to 1989. The main hypothesis investigated was that secular changes in limb proportions, as seen in changes in the brachial and crural indices, can be explained by allometric responses to increasing size.Materials and MethodsMaximum lengths of humerus, radius, femur, and tibia were obtained from 19th and 20th centuries identified skeletons. Allometry was investigated on two levels, static and secular. Static allometry was defined as average allometry within 20-year birth cohorts, and secular allometry as allometry among birth year cohorts. Allometry was assessed by extracting eigenvectors from covariance matrices of log transformed variables. Departures from allometry were examined using shape variables, and principal components of minor axes.ResultsStatic covariance matrices were homogeneous. Eigenvectors extracted from the secular covariance matrix showed important departures from static allometry, particularly a much stronger negative allometry of the humerus and a stronger positive allometry of the tibia. Shape analysis showed that relative humerus length decreased significantly over the time period examined and relative tibia length increased. The last principal component, which combined aspects of the brachial and crural index, showed the highest variation among birth year cohorts.DiscussionThe results demonstrate that the secular changes in limb proportions cannot be explained by allometric responses to increasing size alone. The majority of variation among birth cohorts is found on the last PC and that suggests that canalized development has been disrupted by the unique environment in which modern Americans now live.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T09:05:36.576562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23203
  • Developmental changes in feeding behaviors of infant chimpanzees at
           Mahale, Tanzania: Implications for nutritional independence long before
           cessation of nipple contact
    • Authors: Takuya Matsumoto
      Abstract: ObjectivesWeaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4–5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of “early weaning” in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees.Materials and methodsI studied 19 infants aged 1–60 months in the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. The total observation time was 518 h, 25 min.ResultsAt around 3-years-old, infant chimpanzees spent more total feeding time, and time feeding on leaves, and food physically difficult to process without food transfer from other individuals. These results suggest that infant chimpanzees significantly reduced their dependence on milk for nutrition at around 3-years-old, that is, before cessation of nipple contact.DiscussionThis study suggests that M1 eruption in wild Eastern Chimpanzees is an index of the period when infants move toward nutritional independence with a key dietary transition. This is the first study to provide behavioral evidence of the large temporal gap between nutritional independence of infants and reconception of mothers in great apes, and clarify the unique feature of human life history whereby mothers can reconceive before an infant reaches nutritional independence.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T09:05:28.135037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23212
  • Ontogenetic changes in limb postures and their impact on effective limb
           length in baboons (Papio cynocephalus)
    • Authors: Angel Zeininger; Liza J. Shapiro, David A. Raichlen
      Abstract: ObjectivesDigitigrade hand and foot postures and extended elbows and knees are considered adaptations to running in cursorial mammals because they increase effective limb lengths (ELLs). However, the relationship between digitigrady and ELL in primates is not well understood. We documented the ontogeny of limb postures in baboons to better understand the function of digitigrady during walking. We hypothesized that the hand and foot would become more elevated and the elbow and knee more extended, leading to increased relative ELLs throughout ontogeny.Materials and MethodsLongitudinal kinematic data were collected on four infant yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) as they aged from two to nine months, and again at two to three years. Hand/foot postures, elbow/knee angles, relative fore/hind limb ELLs, and dimensionless velocity were measured for 404 symmetrical walking strides.ResultsDigitigrade hand and foot postures were preferred at all ages. The elbow extended slightly and the knee flexed slightly with age. Elevated proximal hands, extended elbows, and extended knees were associated with long relative ELLs. For a given age, relative hind limb ELL was longer than relative forelimb ELL.DiscussionIn the forelimb, digitigrade hand postures and extended elbows function to increase relative ELL at slow walking velocity. Increased forelimb ELL may be an attempt to equalize forelimb and hind limb ELLs in baboons with an absolutely longer hind limb. Pedal digitigrady is not a main contributing factor to hind limb ELL. Results suggest that manual and pedal digitigrady in terrestrial cercopithecoids does not function to increase velocity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T02:31:20.134677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23201
  • A test of a skeletal ageing method based on resorption of the alveolar
           crest following tooth loss using a skeletal population of documented age
           at death
    • Authors: Simon Mays
      Abstract: ObjectivesResorption of the alveolar process occurs following tooth loss, and appears to continue for a prolonged period. Previous study (Mays, ) with a known-age collection of human remains suggested the potential of this phenomenon for age estimation in remains of adults who have lost one or more molar teeth. This article tests this ageing technique on another known age group, and attempts to evaluate the impact of some extraneous factors on the method.Materials and methodsThe study group comprises adult skeletons (N = 110) of documented age at death from 18th to 19th century London. It examines the relationship between a previously described standardized measure of posterior corpus height (SPCH) in mandibles showing loss of one or more molars. The potential influence of a general tendency to form or lose bone (identified by the presence of ossification into the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine and cortical thickness at the metacarpal) and (for females) parity are also investigated.ResultsNegative age correlation was found for SPCH in females but not in males. In females, the age-association was weaker, and the rate of loss slower, than in a previously studied 19th century European population. None of the other factors investigated showed a relationship with SPCH.DiscussionAs with other bony age indicators, the relationship between SPCH and age varies in different populations. Further work is needed to evaluate the extraneous factors that affect the relationship with age.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T02:31:10.489044-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23202
  • Age-related changes of sulcal imprints on the endocranium in the Japanese
           macaque (Macaca fuscata)
    • Authors: Nguyen Minh; Yuzuru Hamada
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe degree of expression of sulcal patterns on endocasts of nonhuman primates has been shown to depend primarily on species (brain size) and age of the individual. It has been suggested that brain details on endocasts are reproduced better in juvenile than adult primates. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the imprint of the major sulci on the endocranium of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from the juvenile period to adulthood.Materials and methodsUsing CT scans of 25 (12 males, 13 females) cranial specimens from macaques, we generated virtual endocasts to assess imprints of the seven main sulci on the endocranial surface. Expression of each sulcal imprint was evaluated by imprint score method.ResultsThe degree of expression of sulcal imprints differed between sulci. Arcuate, superior temporal, and principal sulci were well defined, whereas lunate and intraparietal sulci were poorly represented. Sulcal imprints showed significant age-related changes in Japanese macaques from juvenile to elderly. Sulcal imprints showed a slight decrease in degree of expression from the juvenile period (2–4 years) to adolescence (4–6 years), and then remained unchanged until mid-adulthood (15–16 years). The degree of expression of the sulcal imprints significantly decreased from mid-adulthood to old age (>20 years).ConclusionsThe degree of expression of the sulcal imprints (relief forms) in inner table bone surface (endocranium) reveals significant age-related decreases in adults. The great decrease starts at around 20 years of age. The endocranial volume showed a significant age-related increase, and thus, it is suggested that the endocranial surface in macaques may be resorbed with advancing age.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T02:30:56.787988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23205
  • Androgen receptor polyglutamine repeat length (AR-CAGn) modulates the
           effect of testosterone on androgen-associated somatic traits in Filipino
           young adult men
    • Authors: Calen P. Ryan; Alexander V. Georgiev, Thomas W. McDade, Lee T. Gettler, Dan T. A. Eisenberg, Margarita Rzhetskaya, Sonny S. Agustin, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe androgen receptor (AR) mediates expression of androgen-associated somatic traits such as muscle mass and strength. Within the human AR is a highly variable glutamine short-tandem repeat (AR-CAGn), and CAG repeat number has been inversely correlated to AR transcriptional activity in vitro. However, evidence for an attenuating effect of long AR-CAGn on androgen-associated somatic traits has been inconsistent in human populations. One possible explanation for this lack of consistency is that the effect of AR-CAGn on AR bioactivity in target tissues likely varies in relation to circulating androgen levels.Materials and MethodsWe tested whether relationships between AR-CAGn and several androgen-associated somatic traits (waist circumference, lean mass, arm muscle area, and grip strength) were modified by salivary (waking and pre-bed) and circulating (total) testosterone (T) levels in young adult males living in metropolitan Cebu, Philippines (n = 675).ResultsWhen men's waking T was low, they had a reduction in three out of four androgen-associated somatic traits with lengthening AR-CAGn (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T05:35:28.164883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23208
  • The Missing Lemur Link: An Ancestral Step in the Evolution of Human
           Behavior Ivan Norscia Elisabetta Palagi Cambridge, UK, Cambridge
           University Press. 2016. 289 pp. ISBN: 978-1-107-01608-8 (hardback)
    • Authors: Andrea L. Baden
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T02:05:49.739238-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23199
  • Cover & Editorial Board
    • Pages: 229 - 230
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T00:22:30.27361-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23092
  • Issue Information – Table of Contents
    • Pages: 421 - 422
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T00:22:36.265936-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23245
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