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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 224)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 226, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Physical Anthropology
  [SJR: 1.41]   [H-I: 88]   [37 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9483 - ISSN (Online) 1096-8644
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • External and internal ontogenetic changes in the first rib
    • Authors: Daniel García-Martínez; Orosia García Gil, Oscar Cambra-Moo, María Canillas, Miguel A. Rodríguez, Markus Bastir, Armando González Martín
      Abstract: ObjectivesFirst ribs bear information about thorax morphology and are usually well preserved, compared to other ribs, in bone/fossil samples. Several studies have addressed ontogeny of the first rib by studying changes in bone microanatomy and rib morphology separately, but no studies have combined both approaches to study how internal and external changes covary during ontogeny. The aim of this project is to fill this gap in our knowledge.Materials and methodsWe applied 3D geometric morphometrics of sliding semilandmarks to 14 first ribs of Homo sapiens to quantify rib curvature and mid-shaft cross-section outline. Ontogenetic variation was addressed throughout a principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, we made histological sections at the mid-shaft of the same ribs and studied tissue matrix composition and compartmentalization. Finally, we performed partial least squares (PLS) and regression analyses to study covariation between rib morphology and compartmentalization variables.ResultsPCA shows that first ribs increase their curvature over the course of ontogeny and the rib midshaft becomes less rounded during ontogeny. In addition, the sternal end becomes more medially oriented during ontogeny and the relative head-tubercle distance becomes longer. Compartmentalization shows a decrease in the area occupied by mineralized tissues and an increase in the area occupied by non-mineralized tissues over the course of ontogeny, which covaries with mid-shaft cross-section shape.ConclusionsOur results show detailed variation in rib morphology along with histological changes in bone tissue compartmentalization and, for the first time, the correlation between the two. This could be related to muscle attachments on the 1st rib and also to changes in breathing mode, from diaphragmatic in perinatals to pulmonary in adults, which could also have implications for understanding thorax evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23T09:20:45.587021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23313
       
  • Manual function and performance in humans, gorillas, and orangutans during
           the same tool use task
    • Authors: Ameline Bardo; Raphaël Cornette, Antony Borel, Emmanuelle Pouydebat
      Abstract: ObjectivesHumans are known to possess more complex manual abilities than other primates. However, the manual abilities of primates have not been fully explored, and we still do not know if the manipulative abilities we attribute to humans are unique. The aim of this study was to compare the manual function and performance developed by humans, gorillas and orangutans while performing the same experimental tool use task.Materials and MethodsThe study was conducted on 20 humans, 6 gorillas, and 7 orangutans. Each individual had to use a tool to collect food from a maze during six experimental sessions while maintaining the same unconstrained body posture condition. We quantified the different manual techniques used and the manual performance.ResultsEach species used different techniques. Humans used bimanual grip techniques, pad-to-pad precision grasping postures, and in-hand movements involving fingertips. Gorillas used unimanual grip techniques and simple in-hand movements while orangutans used a variety of strategies (e.g., hand or mouth). With these techniques, humans performed the task better than both gorillas and orangutans (e.g., by being quicker to collect the food).DiscussionThis study highlights other ways in which humans’ manual dexterity differs from that of other species and emphasizes the distinct manipulative function of orangutans. The differences between the species could be due to the differing muscular anatomy and morphology of the hands, with hand proportion possibly placing particular biomechanical constraints on each species. The differences between gorillas and orangutans could result from their different locomotor behaviors, and we hypothesize terrestriality facilitates the development of complex manipulation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23T09:20:40.225451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23323
       
  • Femoral neck-shaft angle and climate-induced body proportions
    • Authors: Stephanie L. Child; Libby W. Cowgill
      Abstract: ObjectivesDeclination in femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is commonly linked to an increased level of physical activity during life. More recently, however, research suggests that lower NSA might also be explained, in part, as the mechanical consequence of differences in ecogeographic body proportions. This study tests the proposed link between NSA and climatic-induced body proportions, using relative body mass (RBM), throughout the course of development.Materials and MethodsNSA and RBM were collected for 445 immature remains from five geographic locations. NSA and RBM were standardized for age-effects. ANOVA was used to examine when population differences emerged in both NSA and RBM. Regression analyses were used to examine the pattern of relationship between NSA and RBM.ResultsPopulations differ significantly in NSA and RBM before skeletal maturity, and these differences occur early in life. While both NSA and RBM change over the course of development, no significant relationship was found between NSA and RBM for any sample, or any age category (p = .244).DiscussionIndividuals who have relatively greater relative body mass do not necessarily have lower NSA. Population differences in NSA were found to be variable, while differences in RBM remained consistent across the developmental span. Taken together, these results suggest that regardless of body proportions, the degree of declination of NSA is presumed to be similar among individuals with similar gait and ambulatory behaviors. Conversely, populations differ in RBM from birth, and these differences are consistent throughout development. These two measures likely are responsive to diffing stimuli, and any potential relationship is likely complex and multifactorial.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23T09:20:29.068309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23311
       
  • The effect of leprotic infection on the risk of death in medieval rural
           Denmark
    • Authors: K. Saige Kelmelis; Michael Holton Price, Jim Wood
      Abstract: IntroductionPaleopathological studies of leprosy in Danish skeletal collections show that many individuals suffered from this stigmatized disease during the Middle Ages. This study examines the risk of death associated with leprotic infection in individuals from the Danish rural cemetery of Øm Kloster (AD 1172–1536). Specifically, we modeled the influence of leprotic infection on age-specific mortality accounting also for sex and social status (lay person / monastic).Materials and methodsThe sample consisted of 311 adult individuals from the Øm Kloster skeletal collection housed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (ADBOU). We modeled morbidity and mortality using a three-state illness-death model with the following parameterizations for the three transition hazards: (1) nonlesioned to lesioned: constant; (2) nonlesioned to dead: Gompertz-Makeham; and (3) lesioned to dead: Gompertz-Makeham, directly proportional to the hazard of the well to dead transition.ResultsThe mortality hazard of lesioned individuals exceeded that of nonlesioned individuals by a factor of 1.4 (40%) across all individuals, 1.7 for females, 1.0 for males, 1.3 for lay persons, and 1.7 for monastics. Overall, 15% of the sample died with skeletal manifestations of leprosy, though it is likely that a higher percentage of the population carried the bacterium.DiscussionThis study improves understanding of past health and population dynamics focusing on a chronic infectious disease. The methods employed could informatively be applied to larger analyses of community health from skeletal collections by incorporating more than one disease into the multistate model and inferring individual frailty using various skeletal markers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T05:01:38.476814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23314
       
  • Erratum: Resolving relationships between several Neolithic and Mesolithic
           populations in Northern Eurasia using geometric morphometrics;
           164:163–183. Ekaterina Stansfield (Bulygina), Anna Rasskasova, Natalia
           Berezina and Andrei D. Soficaru. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23264
    • PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:11:23.514855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23316
       
  • MAHALE CHIMPANZEES: 50 YEARS OF RESEARCH Edited by Michio NakamuraKazuhiko
           HosakaNoriko ItohKoichiro Zamma Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge
           University Press. 2015. 780 pp. ISBN 978–1-107–05231-4 (Hardcover).
    • Authors: Jill D. Pruetz
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:11:06.271384-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23293
       
  • Testing support for the northern and southern dispersal routes out of
           Africa: an analysis of Levantine and southern Arabian populations
    • Authors: Deven N. Vyas; Ali Al-Meeri, Connie J. Mulligan
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Northern Dispersal Route (NDR) and Southern Dispersal Route (SDR) are hypothesized to have been used by modern humans in the dispersal out of Africa. The NDR follows the Nile into Northeast Africa and crosses the Red Sea into the Levant. The SDR emerges from the Horn of Africa and crosses the Bab el-Mandeb into southern Arabia. In this study, we analyze genetic data from populations living along the NDR and SDR to test support for each dispersal route.Materials and methodsWe genotyped 90 Yemeni samples on the Affymetrix Human Origins array. We analyzed these data with published data from Levantine and other southern Arabian populations as well as 157 comparative populations for a total sample size of>550,000 genetic variants from>2,000 individuals in>160 populations. We calculated outgroup f3 statistics to test how Levantine and southern Arabian populations relate to African populations living along the NDR and SDR and to other non-African populations.ResultsWe find that Levantine and southern Arabian populations bear similar genetic relationships to both African and non-African populations, thus providing no support for the use of one dispersal route over the other.DiscussionOur results are consistent with a history of gene flow between the Levant and southern Arabia. Consideration of genetic, archaeological, and paleoclimate data provide a slight edge for the SDR but, ultimately, more data are needed to definitively identify which dispersal route out of Africa was used.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T04:01:36.363254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23312
       
  • Semiautomatic extraction of cortical thickness and diaphyseal curvature
           from CT scans
    • Authors: Ján Dupej; Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Josef Pelikán, Jaroslav Brůžek
      Abstract: The understanding of locomotor patterns, activity schemes, and biological variations has been enhanced by the study of the geometrical properties and cortical bone thickness of the long bones measured using CT scan cross-sections. With the development of scanning procedures, the internal architecture of the long bones can be explored along the entire diaphysis. Recently, several methods that map cortical thickness along the whole femoral diaphysis have been developed. Precise homology is vital for statistical examination of the data; however, the repeatability of these methods is unknown and some do not account for the curvature of the bones. We have designed a semiautomatic workflow that improves the morphometric analysis of cortical thickness, including robust data acquisition with minimal user interaction and considering the bone curvature. The proposed algorithm also performs automatic landmark refinement and rigid registration on the extracted morphometric maps of the cortical thickness. Because our algorithm automatically reslices the diaphysis into 100 cross-sections along the medial axis and uses an adaptive thresholding method, it is usable on CT scans that contain soft tissues as well as on bones that have not been oriented specifically prior to scanning. Our approach exhibits considerable robustness to error in user-supplied landmarks, suppresses distortion caused by the curvature of the bones, and calculates the curvature of the medial axis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T04:00:50.258952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23315
       
  • Age at reproductive debut: Developmental predictors and consequences for
           lactation, infant mass, and subsequent reproduction in rhesus macaques
           (Macaca mulatta)
    • Authors: Florent Pittet; Crystal Johnson, Katie Hinde
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe age at which females initiate their reproductive career is a critical life-history parameter with potential consequences on their residual reproductive value and lifetime fitness. The age at reproductive debut may be intimately tied to the somatic capacity of the mother to rear her young, but relatively little is known about the influence of age of first birth on milk synthesis within a broader framework of reproductive scheduling, infant outcomes, and other life-history tradeoffs.Material and MethodsOur study investigated the predictors of age at first reproduction among 108 captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females, and associations with their milk synthesis at peak lactation, infant mass, and ability to subsequently conceive and reproduce.ResultsThe majority of females reproduced in their fourth year (typical breeders); far fewer initiated their reproductive career one year earlier or one year later (respectively early and late breeders). Early breeders (3-year-old) benefited from highly favorable early life development (better juvenile growth, high dominance rank) to accelerate reproduction, but were impaired in milk synthesis due to lower somatic resources and their own continued growth. Comparatively, late breeders suffered from poor developmental conditions, only partially compensated by their delayed reproduction, and evinced compromised milk synthesis. Typical breeders not only produced higher available milk energy but also had best reproductive performance during the breeding and birth seasons following primiparity.DiscussionHere, we refine and extend our understanding of how life-history tradeoffs manifest in the magnitude, sources, and consequences of variation in age of reproductive debut. These findings provide insight into primate reproductive flexibility in the context of constraints and opportunities.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T02:26:59.760011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23286
       
  • New primate locality from the early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina
    • Authors: Nelson M. Novo; Marcelo F. Tejedor, María E. Pérez, J. Marcelo Krause
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this work is to present a new primate locality with evidence that increases the knowledge on the radiation of the extinct platyrrhine primates.Materials and methodsWe studied the new specimen and compared it to specimens identified as Mazzonicebus almendrae.ResultsThe new first and second molars were comparable to Mazzonicebus almendrae in all morphological details, allowing us to allocate the new specimen to M. almendrae and add comments on morphological variation in this species regarding the orientation of the labial cristae and development of the anterolingual cingulum. This new maxilla also present the first known M3 for the species.DiscussionThe new specimen increases our knowledge of the extinct platyrrhines from Patagonia. Their age and geographical distribution ranges from early to middle Miocene in an area between 40° to 47° of southern latitude.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T02:26:48.459731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23309
       
  • A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics
    • Authors: Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson; Anna Kjellström, Torun Zachrisson, Maja Krzewińska, Veronica Sobrado, Neil Price, Torsten Günther, Mattias Jakobsson, Anders Götherström, Jan Storå
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue.Materials and methodsGenome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual.ResultsThe genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin.DiscussionThe identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T01:20:49.334878-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23308
       
  • Cranial sexual dimorphism in the Kinda baboon (Papio hamadryas kindae)
    • Authors: Michelle Singleton; Brielle C. Seitelman, Joseph R. Krecioch, Stephen R. Frost
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe smallest extant member of genus Papio, the Kinda baboon exhibits low sexual dimorphism and a distinctive cranial shape. Ontogenetic scaling accounts for most cranial-shape differences within Papio, but studies have shown that the Kinda follows a separate ontogenetic trajectory. If so, its cranial-dimorphism pattern should differ from other subspecies. To evaluate this hypothesis, morphometric analysis was used to investigate cranial dimorphism in Papio.Materials and methodsThree-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 434 adult crania representing six Papio subspecies. Size- and shape-dimorphism magnitudes were quantified using centroid size and Procrustes distances. Patterns of sex- and size-related variation were explored using MAN(C)OVA, multivariate regression, and form-space PCA. Canine dimorphism was investigated using dental metrics.ResultsKinda size and shape dimorphism are significantly lower than in other Papio subspecies. The relative magnitude of Kinda shape dimorphism is similar to other southern baboons; Kinda canine dimorphism is unremarkable. MAN(C)OVA results support subspecies differences in cranial dimorphism and scaling. Allometric and dimorphism vectors differ significantly in some subspecies, and their vector-angle matrices are strongly correlated. The Kinda's allometric vector angles are divergent. Form-space PC3, summarizing size-independent dimorphism, separates the Kinda from other subspecies.DiscussionThe Kinda baboon exhibits significantly lower size and shape dimorphism than other baboons, but its relative dimorphism levels are unexceptional. The Kinda differs from other subspecies in patterns of allometry, size-related shape dimorphism, and residual shape dimorphism. Kinda facial shape is “masculinized” relative to size, especially in females, suggesting female sexual selection contributed to the evolution of Kinda dimorphism.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:15:12.298343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23304
       
  • Transition to agriculture in South-Eastern Arabia: Insights from oral
           conditions
    • Authors: Olivia Munoz
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn Southeast (SE) Arabia, agriculture is supposed to expand around 3000 BC, but its tempo and its actual role in populations' subsistence is still debated by archaeologists. Here, we compare dental health conditions of 11 skeletal samples from coastal and inland sites, dated from the Late Neolithic (ca. 4500–3100 BC) to the Early Bronze Age (EBA), conventionally divided into Hafit (ca. 3100–2700 BC) and Umm an-Nar period (ca. 2700–2000 BC). The goal is to assess long-term trends in subsistence patterns and regional variability during the local transition to agriculture.MethodsSeven indicators of oral health and childhood stress were analyzed, including dental wear, calculus, caries, alveolar resorption, periapical lesions, ante-mortem tooth loss (AMTL), and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH).ResultsNeolithic coastal populations are globally characterized by high dental wear, high calculus frequency, high LEH frequency, and frequent periodontal disease, whereas they exhibit low abscesses and AMTL frequencies and a total absence of carious lesions. Samples from the Hafit period present high dental wear, low rates of calculus and LEH, frequent periodontal disease, combined with low abscess and AMTL frequencies and absence of caries. By contrast, samples from the Umm an-Nar period exhibit much lower dental wear, calculus and LEH rates, whereas caries, periapical lesions and AMTL frequencies increase significantly. Marked differences were observed between coastal and inland Umm an-Nar groups, the latter presenting significantly higher frequencies of caries, periapical lesions, alveolar resorption and AMTL.Discussion/ConclusionOral conditions from the Neolithic coastal populations denote a diet mainly composed of unprocessed and abrasive food, with high protein and low carbohydrate intakes, and frequent stress episodes. Although Hafit populations display some changes in oral pathologies, which indicate modifications in their lifestyle and a diversification of the diet, no markers of high carbohydrate intakes were observed in our samples. The impact of agriculture on oral health appears clearly only from the Umm an-Nar period, and is more intense inland than on the coast, where marine resources are still a main component of the diet.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:14:35.086821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23307
       
  • Comparison of hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in
           mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and chimpanzees (Pan
           troglodytes)
    • Authors: Johanna Neufuss; Martha M. Robbins, Jana Baeumer, Tatyana Humle, Tracy L. Kivell
      Abstract: ObjectivesStudies on grasping and limb posture during arboreal locomotion in great apes in their natural environment are scarce and thus, attempts to correlate behavioral and habitat differences with variation in morphology are limited. The aim of this study is to compare hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in wild, habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and semi-free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to assess differences in the climbing styles that may relate to variation in hand or forelimb morphology and body size.Materials and methodsWe investigated hand use and forelimb posture during both ascent and descent vertical climbing in 15 wild mountain gorillas and eight semi-free-ranging chimpanzees, using video records obtained ad libitum.ResultsIn both apes, forelimb posture was correlated with substrate size during both ascent and descent climbing. While climbing, both apes used power grips and diagonal power grips, including three different thumb postures. Mountain gorillas showed greater ulnar deviation of the wrist during vertical descent than chimpanzees, and the thumb played an important supportive role when gorillas vertically descended lianas.DiscussionWe found that both apes generally had the same grip preferences and used similar forelimb postures on supports of a similar size, which is consistent with their overall similarity in hard and soft tissue morphology of the hand and forelimb. However, some species-specific differences in morphology appear to elicit slightly different grasping strategies during vertical climbing between mountain gorillas and chimpanzees.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T06:12:40.681571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23303
       
  • Predictors of insubordinate aggression among captive female rhesus
           macaques
    • Authors: Shannon K. Seil; Darcy L. Hannibal, Brianne A. Beisner, Brenda McCowan
      Abstract: ObjectivesCercopithicine primates tend to have nepotistic hierarchies characterized by predictable, kinship-based dominance. Although aggression is typically directed down the hierarchy, insubordinate aggression does occur. Insubordination is important to understand because it can precipitate social upheaval and undermine group stability; however, the factors underlying it are not well understood. We test whether key social and demographic variables predict insubordination among captive female rhesus macaques.Materials and MethodsTo identify factors influencing insubordination, multivariate analyses of 10,821 dyadic conflicts among rhesus macaque females were conducted, using data from six captive groups. A segmented regression analysis was used to identify dyads with insubordination. Negative binomial regression analyses and an information theoretic approach were used to assess predictors of insubordination among dyads.ResultsIn the best models, weight difference (w = 1.0; IRR = 0.930), age (dominant: w = 1.0, IRR = 0.681; subordinate: w = 1.0, IRR = 1.069), the subordinate's total number of allies (w = 0.727, IRR = 1.060) or non-kin allies (w = 0.273, IRR = 1.165), the interaction of the dominant's kin allies and weight difference (w = 0.938, IRR = 1.046), violation of youngest ascendancy (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.727), and the subordinate's maternal support (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.928), are important predictors of insubordination.DiscussionThese results show that both intrinsic and social factors influence insubordinate behavior. This adds to evidence of the importance of intrinsic factors and flexibility in a social structure thought to be rigid and predetermined by external factors. Further, because insubordination can precipitate social overthrow, determining predictors of insubordination will shed light on mechanisms underlying stability in nepotistic societies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T01:50:59.296488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23296
       
  • The characteristic mid-shaft cross-sectional shape of the ulna in Jomon
           hunter-gatherers
    • Authors: Yasuo Hagihara; Takashi Nara
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Jomon people were hunter-gatherers who inhabited the Japanese archipelago between 10,000 BC and 300 BC. Here, we focus on the mid-shaft cross-sectional shape of the ulna in the Jomon population and compare it with modern Japanese people.Materials and methodsJomon specimens, including 32 males and 22 females, were excavated from shell mound sites in the Pacific and Seto inland coastal area of Honshu island in the Japanese archipelago dated to the Late-to-Final Jomon phase (between 2,000 BC and 300 BC). Mid-shaft ulna cross-sectional shapes were compared with modern Japanese specimens (25 males, 21 females) using standard linear measurements and elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA). Differences from both sides of this element were compared using predicted handedness.ResultsLinear measurements and EFA results show that ulna shape of both sexes within the Jomon population are relatively larger in the antero-posterior direction and have more developed posterior borders than modern Japanese males and females. No significant differences were observed between Jomon sexes based on the predicted dominant side, but differences were evident in the predicted nondominant side. At the same time, bilateral differences were recognized in Jomon females, because of a lower level of posterior border development in the predicted nondominant side compared to the dominant side.DiscussionShape differences between Jomon people and modern Japanese can be explained by variation in the habitual loading of the ulna. Sexual dimorphism in ulna shape within the Jomon population suggests division of labor differences.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T01:50:20.380287-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23300
       
  • Occurrence of osteon banding in adult human cortical bone
    • Authors: Janna M. Andronowski; Isaac V. Pratt, David M. L. Cooper
      Abstract: ObjectivesDifferentiating human from nonhuman fragmented bone is often accomplished using histological methods if the observation of gross morphology proves insufficient. Linearly oriented primary and/or secondary osteonal systems, commonly referred to as osteon bands, are described as a strong indicator of nonhuman bone, particularly the occurrence of multiple bands. This phenomenon has been conventionally documented using two-dimensional (2D) histology, but such analyses are destructive and typically limited to a single cross-section. Progressive developments in high-resolution X-ray imaging, however, allow for the nondestructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of bone microarchitecture. The primary objective of the current research was to visualize and document the occurrence of osteon banding in adult human cortical bone using high-resolution synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomography (SR micro-CT).Materials and methodsSynchrotron radiation-based micro-CT scanning was carried out at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) national synchrotron facility. The presence or absence of osteon banding was visualized in human skeletal elements from three adult males with representative samples from all regions of the skeleton (n = 129). If present, osteon banding was described and quantified.ResultsResults indicated that 23 of 129 human cortical bone specimens exhibited osteon banding, representing 18% of the sample. Linear arrangements of primary and/or secondary osteons were observed in the following skeletal elements: temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital, clavicle, mandible, femur, tibia, ulna, second metatarsal, and sacrum.DiscussionThe present work represents the first 3D examination of inter-element variation in osteon banding in adult human cortical bone. Findings indicate that the presence of multiple osteon bands in a single specimen is not diagnostic of nonhuman bone. As such, osteon banding categorically should not be taken as evidence of nonhuman bone in forensic and archaeological contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:56:00.436029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23297
       
  • Relative tooth size at birth in primates: Life history correlates
    • Authors: Timothy D. Smith; Magdalena N. Muchlinski, Wade R. Bucher, Christopher J. Vinyard, Christopher J. Bonar, Sian Evans, Lawrence E. Williams, Valerie B. DeLeon
      Abstract: ObjectivesDental eruption schedules have been closely linked to life history variables. Here we examine a sample of 50 perinatal primates (28 species) to determine whether life history traits correlate with relative tooth size at birth.Materials and methodsNewborn primates were studied using serial histological sectioning. Volumes of deciduous premolars (dp2–dp4), replacement teeth (if any), and permanent molars (M1–2/3) of the upper jaw were measured and residuals from cranial length were calculated with least squares regressions to obtain relative dental volumes (RDVs).ResultsRelative dental volumes of deciduous or permanent teeth have an unclear relationship with relative neonatal mass in all primates. Relative palatal length (RPL), used as a proxy for midfacial size, is significantly, positively correlated with larger deciduous and permanent postcanine teeth. However, when strepsirrhines alone are examined, larger RPL is correlated with smaller RDV of permanent teeth. In the full sample, RDVs of deciduous premolars are significantly negatively correlated with relative gestation length (RGL), but have no clear relationship with relative weaning age. RDVs of molars lack a clear relationship with RGL; later weaning is associated with larger molar RDV, although correlations are not significant. When strepsirrhines alone are analyzed, clearer trends are present: longer gestations or later weaning are associated with smaller deciduous and larger permanent postcanine teeth (only gestational length correlations are significant).DiscussionOur results indicate a broad trend that primates with the shortest RGLs precociously develop deciduous teeth; in strepsirrhines, the opposite trend is seen for permanent molars. Anthropoids delay growth of permanent teeth, while strepsirrhines with short RGLs are growing replacement teeth concurrently. A comparison of neonatal volumes with existing information on extent of cusp mineralization indicates that growth of tooth germs and cusp mineralization may be selected for independently.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:49.591828-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23302
       
  • Heritability and genetic integration of tooth size in the South Carolina
           Gullah
    • Authors: Christopher M. Stojanowski; Kathleen S. Paul, Andrew C. Seidel, William N. Duncan, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis article provides estimates of narrow-sense heritability and genetic pleiotropy for mesiodistal tooth dimensions for a sample of 20th century African American individuals. Results inform biological distance analysis and offer insights into patterns of integration in the human dentition.Materials and MethodsMaximum mesiodistal crown dimensions were measured using Hillson-FitzGerald calipers on 469 stone dental casts from the Menegaz-Bock Collection. Narrow-sense heritability estimates and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using SOLAR 8.1.1 with covariate screening for age, sex, age*sex interaction, and birth year.ResultsHeritability estimates were moderate (∼0.10 – 0.90; h2 mean = 0.51) for most measured variables with sex as the only significant covariate. Patterns of genetic correlation indicate strong integration across tooth classes, except molars. Comparison of these results to previously published work suggests lower overall heritability relative to other human populations and much stronger genetic integration across tooth classes than obtained from nonhuman primate genetic pleiotropy estimates.ConclusionsThese results suggest that the high heritabilities previously published may reflect overestimates inherent in previous study designs; as such the standard estimate of 0.55 used in biodistance analyses may not be appropriate. For the Gullah, isolation and endogamy coupled with elevated levels of physiological and economic stress may suppress narrow-sense heritability estimates. Pleiotropy analyses suggest a more highly integrated dentition in humans than in other mammals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:38.792193-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23290
       
  • Variation in human gape cycle kinematics and occlusal topography
    • Authors: Myra F. Laird
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study tested hypotheses relating intraspecific variation in occlusal morphology and intraspecific variation in jaw movements during feeding. Gape cycle kinematic variation was hypothesized to correlate with gape cycle number within a chewing sequence as well as with food toughness and stiffness. Gape cycle kinematic variation was also hypothesized to correlate with variation in occlusal area, slope, and volume.Methods and MaterialsTwenty-six adult human subjects chewed four foods with varying material properties while their jaw movements were recorded using three-dimensional coordinates of facial markers captured with a Vicon camera system. Post-canine occlusal morphology of each subject was quantified in ArcGIS using dental topographic analysis of dental casts.ResultsGape cycle duration did not vary with gape cycle number, food toughness, or food stiffness. Gape cycle vertical and lateral displacement correlated negatively with gape cycle number, while foods with higher toughness and Young's modulus had greater jaw vertical and lateral displacement. Subjects with steeper occlusal slopes had longer gape cycle durations and greater amounts of vertical displacement during the slow closing phase of the gape cycle.DiscussionThe results suggest that gape cycle durations are relatively consistent despite changes in food properties and gape cycle number, while occlusal slope affects gape cycle duration and vertical displacement during inferred occlusal contact. However, gape cycle number and bolus properties explain greater amounts of kinematic variation than does occlusal morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:34.022543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23298
       
  • Energetic cost of walking in fossil hominins
    • Authors: M. Vidal-Cordasco; A. Mateos, G. Zorrilla-Revilla, O. Prado-Nóvoa, J. Rodríguez
      Abstract: ObjectiveMany biomechanical studies consistently show that a broader pelvis increases the reaction forces and bending moments across the femoral shaft, increasing the energetic costs of unloaded locomotion. However, a biomechanical model does not provide the real amount of metabolic energy expended in walking. The aim of this study is to test the influence of pelvis breadth on locomotion cost and to evaluate the locomotion efficiency of extinct Pleistocene hominins.Material and MethodsThe current study measures in vivo the influence of pelvis width on the caloric cost of locomotion, integrating anthropometry, body composition and indirect calorimetry protocols in a sample of 46 subjects of both sexes.ResultsWe show that a broader false pelvis is substantially more efficient for locomotion than a narrower one and that the influence of false pelvis width on the energetic cost is similar to the influence of leg length. Two models integrating body mass, femur length and bi-iliac breadth are used to estimate the net and gross energetic costs of locomotion in a number of extinct hominins. The results presented here show that the locomotion of Homo was not energetically more efficient than that of Australopithecus and that the locomotion of extinct Homo species was not less efficient than that of modern Homo sapiens.DiscussionThe changes in the anatomy of the pelvis and lower limb observed with the appearance of Homo ergaster probably did not fully offset the increased expenditure resulting from a larger body mass. Moreover, the narrow pelvis in modern humans does not contribute to greater efficiency of locomotion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:29.56307-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23301
       
  • A test of the optimal iron hypothesis among breastfeeding Ariaal mothers
           in northern Kenya
    • Authors: Masako Fujita; Katherine Wander
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe optimal iron hypothesis posits a trade-off in iron nutrition—iron deficiency restricts iron available to infectious agents, protecting against severe infection, but also compromises immune defense—such that mild-to-moderate iron deficiency may be more adaptive than either iron-replete or severe deficiency in environments with high infectious disease load. This hypothesis has not been tested among adults.Materials and MethodsA secondary analysis of data and specimens from 220 lactating mothers in northern Kenya was conducted. Elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP > 2 or>5 mg/l) was utilized to identify prevalent subclinical infection/inflammation. Iron deficiency was identified with transferrin receptor in archived dried blood spots (TfR > 5.0 mg/l). The absence of iron deficiency or anemia (Hemoglobin  2 mg/l: adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.30; p = 0.02; for CRP > 5 mg/l: aOR = 0.27; p = 0.10), compared to the iron replete state. The protective effect of IDE differed in the presence of vitamin A deficiency or underweight.ConclusionsWe interpret these patterns as tentative support for the optimal iron hypothesis in breastfeeding women in the infectious disease ecology of northern Kenya. Iron deficiency may interact in important ways with other forms of malnutrition that are known to affect immune protection.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:20.961823-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23299
       
  • Erratum: Agerinia smithorum sp. nov., a new early Eocene primate from the
           Iberian Peninsula; 161: 116–124. Joan Femenias-Gual, Raef
           Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó and Salvador Moyà-Solà. DOI:
           10.1002/ajpa.23014
    • PubDate: 2017-08-11T01:10:24.965258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23289
       
  • Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval
           London
    • Authors: Kathryn Krakowka
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050–1550 AD).Materials and MethodsIn total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85).ResultsThe overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault.DiscussionUsing both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T02:00:30.54784-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23288
       
  • OH 83: A new early modern human fossil cranium from the Ndutu beds of
           Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
    • Authors: Whitney B. Reiner; Fidelis Masao, Sabrina B. Sholts, Agustino Venance Songita, Ian Stanistreet, Harald Stollhofen, R.E. Taylor, Leslea J. Hlusko
      Abstract: ObjectiveHerein we introduce a newly recovered partial calvaria, OH 83, from the upper Ndutu Beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We present the geological context of its discovery and a comparative analysis of its morphology, placing OH 83 within the context of our current understanding of the origins and evolution of Homo sapiens.Materials and methodsWe comparatively assessed the morphology of OH 83 using quantitative and qualitative data from penecontemporaneous fossils and the W.W. Howells modern human craniometric dataset.ResultsOH 83 is geologically dated to ca. 60–32 ka. Its morphology is indicative of an early modern human, falling at the low end of the range of variation for post-orbital cranial breadth, the high end of the range for bifrontal breadth, and near average in frontal length.DiscussionThere have been numerous attempts to use cranial anatomy to define the species Homo sapiens and identify it in the fossil record. These efforts have not met wide agreement by the scientific community due, in part, to the mosaic patterns of cranial variation represented by the fossils. The variable, mosaic pattern of trait expression in the crania of Middle and Late Pleistocene fossils implies that morphological modernity did not occur at once. However, OH 83 demonstrates that by ca. 60–32 ka modern humans in Africa included individuals that are at the fairly small and gracile range of modern human cranial variation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T05:16:16.341773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23292
       
  • Post-weaning diet in archaeological human populations: A meta-analysis of
           carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of child skeletons
    • Authors: Takumi Tsutaya
      Abstract: ObjectivesChildhood is a unique stage in human life history, in which subadults have completed their weaning process but are still dependent on older individuals for survival. Although the importance of food provisioning during childhood has been intensively discussed, childhood diet in the past has rarely been studied in a systematic manner.MethodsIn this study, a meta-analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of post-weaning children (PWC) in Holocene human populations around the world is presented. The isotope ratios of PWC were standardized with those of adult females and males in the same population, and they were analyzed in terms of the difference in subsistence.ResultsResults of this study indicate that diets of PWC and adults were generally similar (most differences were within the range of ±1‰), which is consistent with the universal feature of food provisioning to PWC in humans. In hunter—gatherer populations, there is no significant difference between PWC and adult isotope ratios. In non-hunter—gatherer populations, however, PWC probably consumed significantly larger proportions of foods from lower trophic levels than did the adults, and such foods would be terrestrial C3 plants.ConclusionsPotential factors relating to the dietary differences among PWC and adults are presented from a perspective of balance between food provisioning and self-acquisition by PWC. Significant isotopic differences between PWC and adults in non-hunter—gatherer populations revealed in this study have implications for declined health during the subsistence transition in Holocene, isotopic studies using human tooth enamel, and “δ15N dip” of subadults after weaning.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T05:15:29.786807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23295
       
  • The genetic admixture in Tibetan-Yi Corridor
    • Authors: Hong-Bing Yao; Senwei Tang, Xiaotian Yao, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Wanhu Zhang, Zhiyan Xie, Qiajun Du, Liying Ma, Shuoyun Wei, Xue Gong, Zilong Zhang, Quanfang Li, Bingying Xu, Hu-Qin Zhang, Gang Chen, Chuan-Chao Wang
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Tibetan-Yi Corridor located on the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau is suggested to be the key region for the origin and diversification of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations and the main route of the peopling of the Plateau. However, the genetic history of the populations in the Corridor is far from clear due to limited sampling in the northern part of the Corridor.Materials and methodsWe collected blood samples from 10 Tibetan and 10 Han Chinese individuals from Gansu province and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).ResultsOur data revealed that the populations in the Corridor are all admixed on a genetic cline of deriving ancestry from Tibetans on the Plateau and surrounding lowland East Asians. The Tibetan and Han Chinese groups in the north of the Plateau show significant evidence of low-level West Eurasian admixture that could be probably traced back to 600∼900 years ago.DiscussionWe conclude that there have been huge population migrations from surrounding lowland onto the Tibetan Plateau via the Tibetan-Yi Corridor since the initial formation of Tibetans probably in Neolithic Time, which leads to the current genetic structure of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T04:35:32.160607-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23291
       
  • Brief communication: An analysis of dental development in Pleistocene Homo
           using skeletal growth and chronological age; 163: 531-541. Maja Šešelj.
           DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23228
    • PubDate: 2017-08-04T07:40:20.215268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23284
       
  • A method of factor analysis for shape coordinates
    • Authors: Fred L. Bookstein
      Abstract: Currently the most common reporting style for a geometric morphometric (GMM) analysis of anthropological data begins with the principal components of the shape coordinates to which the original landmark data have been converted. But this focus often frustrates the organismal biologist, mainly because principal component analysis (PCA) is not aimed at scientific interpretability of the loading patterns actually uncovered. The difficulty of making biological sense of a PCA is heightened by aspects of the shape coordinate setting that further diverge from our intuitive expectations of how morphometric measurements ought to combine. More than 50 years ago one of our sister disciplines, psychometrics, managed to build an algorithmic route from principal component analysis to scientific understanding via the toolkit generally known as factor analysis. This article introduces a modification of one standard factor-analysis approach, Henry Kaiser's varimax rotation of 1958, that accommodates two of the major differences between the GMM context and the psychometric context for these approaches: the coexistence of “general” and “special” factors of form as adumbrated by Sewall Wright, and the typical loglinearity of partial warp variance as a function of bending energy. I briefly explain the history of principal components in biometrics and the contrast with factor analysis, introduce the modified varimax algorithm I am recommending, and work three examples that are reanalyses of previously published cranial data sets. A closing discussion emphasizes the desirability of superseding PCA by algorithms aimed at anthropological understanding rather than classification or ordination.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T05:40:51.588138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23277
       
  • Land use and mobility during the Neolithic in Wales explored using isotope
           analysis of tooth enamel
    • Authors: Samantha Neil; Janet Montgomery, Jane Evans, Gordon T. Cook, Chris Scarre
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe nature of land use and mobility during the transition to agriculture has often been debated. Here, we use isotope analysis of tooth enamel from human populations buried in two different Neolithic burial monuments, Penywyrlod and Ty Isaf, in south-east Wales, to examine patterns of land use and to evaluate where individuals obtained their childhood diet.Materials and MethodsWe employ strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope analysis of enamel from adjacent molars. We compare strontium isotope values measured in enamel to locally bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr values. We combine discussion of these results with evaluation of new radiocarbon dates obtained from both sites.ResultsThe majority of enamel samples from Penywyrlod have strontium isotope ratios above 0.7140. In contrast, the majority of those from Ty Isaf have 87Sr/86Sr values below 0.7140. At Penywyrlod oxygen isotope ratios range between 25.9 and 28.2 ‰ (mean 26.7 ± 0.6 ‰, 1σ, n = 15) and enamel δ13Ccarbonate values range between −18.0 and −15.0 ‰ (mean −16.0 ± 0.8 ‰, 1σ, n = 15). At Ty Isaf oxygen isotope ratios exhibited by Neolithic individuals range between 25.4 and 27.7 ‰ (mean 26.7 ± 0.6 ‰, 1σ, n = 15) and enamel δ13Ccarbonate values range between −16.9 and −14.9 ‰ (mean −16.0 ± 0.6 ‰, 1σ, n = 15).DiscussionThe strontium isotope results suggest that the majority of individuals buried at Penywyrlod did not source their childhood diet locally. One individual in this group has strontium isotope ratios that exceed all current known biosphere values within England and Wales. This individual is radiocarbon dated to the first few centuries of the 4th millennium BC, consistent with the period in which agriculture was initiated in Wales: the results therefore provide evidence for migration during the transition to farming in Wales. In contrast, all individuals sampled from Ty Isaf post-date the period in which agriculture is considered to have been initiated and could have sourced their childhood diet from the local region in which they were buried.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T01:55:49.538803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23279
       
  • Malnutrition-related early childhood exposures and enamel defects in the
           permanent dentition: A longitudinal study from the Bolivian Amazon
    • Authors: Erin E. Masterson; Annette L. Fitzpatrick, Daniel A. Enquobahrie, Lloyd A. Mancl, Esther Conde, Philippe P. Hujoel
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe investigated the relationship between early childhood malnutrition-related measures and subsequent enamel defects in the permanent dentition.Materials and MethodsThis cohort study included 349 Amerindian adolescents (10–17 years, 52% male) from the Bolivian Amazon. Exposures included: stunted growth (height-for-age z-scores), underweight (weight-for-age z-scores), anemia (hemoglobin), acute inflammation (C-reactive protein) and parasitic infection (hookworm). We measured the occurrence (no/yes) and extent (2/3) of enamel defects. We estimated associations between childhood exposures and enamel defect measures using log-binomial and multinomial logistic regression.ResultsThe prevalence of an enamel defect characterized by an orange peel texture on a large central depression on the labial surface of the central maxillary incisors was 92.3%. During childhood (1–4 years), participants had a high prevalence of stunted growth (75.2%), anemia (56.9%), acute inflammation (39.1%), and hookworm infection (49.6%). We observed associations between childhood height-for-age (OR = 0.65; P = 0.028 for>2/3 extent vs. no EH) and gastrointestinal hookworm infection (OR = 3.43; P = 0.035 for>2/3 extent vs. no defects or
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T01:55:20.989611-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23283
       
  • A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of
           migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history
    • Authors: Kathryn Grow Allen; Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel
      Abstract: ObjectivesDebate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data.Materials and MethodsCraniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D2-matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian.ResultsAffinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns.DiscussionThe results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T02:26:08.165651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23287
       
  • Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian
           populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara
    • Authors: Iva Kulichová; Verónica Fernandes, Alioune Deme, Jana Nováčková, Vlastimil Stenzl, Andrea Novelletto, Luísa Pereira, Viktor Černý
      Abstract: BackgroundToday, African pastoralists are found mainly in the Sahel/Savannah belt spanning 6,000 km from west to east, flanked by the Sahara to the north and tropical rainforests to the south. The most significant group among them are the Fulani who not only keep cattle breeds of possible West Eurasian ancestry, but form themselves a gene pool containing some paternally and maternally-transmitted West Eurasian haplogroups.Materials and MethodsWe generated complete sequences for 33 mitogenomes belonging to haplogroups H1 and U5 (23 and 10, respectively), and genotyped 16 STRs in 65 Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b-V88.ResultsWe show that age estimates of the maternal lineage H1cb1, occurring almost exclusively in the Fulani, point to the time when the first cattle herders settled the Sahel/Savannah belt. Similar age estimates were obtained for paternal lineage R1b-V88, which occurs today in the Fulani but also in other, mostly pastoral populations. Maternal clade U5b1b1b, reported earlier in the Berbers, shows a shallower age, suggesting another possibly independent input into the Sahelian pastoralist gene pool.ConclusionsDespite the fact that animal domestication originated in the Near East ∼ 10 ka, and that it was from there that animals such as sheep, goats as well as cattle were introduced into Northeast Africa soon thereafter, contemporary cattle keepers in the Sahel/Savannah belt show uniparental genetic affinities that suggest the possibility of an ancient contact with an additional ancestral population of western Mediterranean ancestry.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T01:32:03.247426-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23285
       
  • Neandertal talus bones from El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain): A 3D
           geometric morphometrics analysis
    • Authors: Antonio Rosas; Anabel Ferrando, Markus Bastir, Antonio García-Tabernero, Almudena Estalrrich, Rosa Huguet, Daniel García-Martínez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Marco de la Rasilla
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe El Sidrón tali sample is assessed in an evolutionary framework. We aim to explore the relationship between Neandertal talus morphology and body size/shape. We test the hypothesis 1: talar Neandertal traits are influenced by body size, and the hypothesis 2: shape variables independent of body size correspond to inherited primitive features.Materials and methodsWe quantify 35 landmarks through 3D geometric morphometrics techniques to describe H. neanderthalensis-H. sapiens shape variation, by Mean Shape Comparisons, Principal Component, Phenetic Clusters, Minimum spanning tree analyses and partial least square and regression of talus shape on body variables. Shape variation correlated to body size is compared to Neandertals-Modern Humans (MH) evolutionary shape variation. The Neandertal sample is compared to early hominins.ResultsNeandertal talus presents trochlear hypertrophy, a larger equality of trochlear rims, a shorter neck, a more expanded head, curvature and an anterior location of the medial malleolar facet, an expanded and projected lateral malleolar facet and laterally expanded posterior calcaneal facet compared to MH.DiscussionThe Neandertal talocrural joint morphology is influenced by body size. The other Neandertal talus traits do not co-vary with it or not follow the same co-variation pattern as MH. Besides, the trochlear hypertrophy, the trochlear rims equality and the short neck could be inherited primitive features; the medial malleolar facet morphology could be an inherited primitive feature or a secondarily primitive trait; and the calcaneal posterior facet would be an autapomorphic feature of the Neandertal lineage.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T05:25:53.896378-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23280
       
  • Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae
           using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic
           anthropology
    • Authors: Jaroslav Brůžek; Frédéric Santos, Bruno Dutailly, Pascal Murail, Eugenia Cunha
      Abstract: ObjectivesA new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation.Materials and MethodsTen metric variables collected from 2,040 ossa coxa of adult subjects of known sex were recorded between 1986 and 2002 (reference sample). To test both the validity and reliability, a target sample consisting of two series of adult ossa coxa of known sex (n = 623) was used. The DSP2 software (Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v2) is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis, and the posterior probabilities are calculated using an R script.ResultsFor the reference sample, any combination of four dimensions provides a correct sex estimate in at least 99% of cases. The percentage of individuals for whom sex can be estimated depends on the number of dimensions; for all ten variables it is higher than 90%. Those results are confirmed in the target sample.DiscussionOur posterior probability threshold of 0.95 for sex estimate corresponds to the traditional sectioning point used in osteological studies. DSP2 software is replacing the former version that should not be used anymore. DSP2 is a robust and reliable technique for sexing adult os coxae, and is also user friendly.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T05:25:24.936439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23282
       
  • Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca
           arctoides) facial and vocal signals
    • Authors: Aru Toyoda; Tamaki Maruhashi, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Hiroki Koda
      Abstract: ObjectivesSpeech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species.Materials and MethodsWe observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed.ResultsFacial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans.DiscussionThese results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T06:36:00.173621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23276
       
  • 2,000 Year old β-thalassemia case in Sardinia suggests malaria was
           endemic by the Roman period
    • Authors: Claudia Viganó; Cordula Haas, Frank J. Rühli, Abigail Bouwman
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe island of Sardinia has one of the highest incidence rates of β-thalassemia in Europe due to its long history of endemic malaria, which, according to historical records, was introduced around 2,600 years ago by the Punics and only became endemic around the Middle Ages. In particular, the cod39 mutation is responsible for more than 95% of all β-thalassemia cases observed on the island. Debates surround the origin of the mutation. Some argue that its presence in the Western Mediterranean reflects the migration of people away from Sardinia, others that it reflects the colonization of the island by the Punics who might have carried the disease allele. The aim of this study was to investigate β-globin mutations, including cod39, using ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, to better understand the history and origin of β-thalassemia and malaria in Sardinia.Materials and MethodsPCR analysis followed by sequencing were used to investigate the presence of β-thalassemia mutations in 19 individuals from three different Roman and Punic necropolises in Sardinia.ResultsThe cod39 mutation was identified in one male individual buried in a necropolis from the Punic/Roman period. Further analyses have shown that his mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were U5a and I2a1a1, respectively, indicating the individual was probably of Sardinian origin.ConclusionsThis is the earliest documented case of β-thalassemia in Sardinia to date. The presence of such a pathogenic mutation and its persistence until present day indicates that malaria was likely endemic on the island by the Roman period, earlier than the historical sources suggest.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T06:10:28.558708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23278
       
  • THE GLOBAL HISTORY OF PALEOPATHOLOGY: PIONEERS AND PROSPECTS Edited by
           Jane Buikstra, Charlotte Roberts New York, NY: Oxford University Press,
           2012. 798 pp. ISBN: 9780195389807. $195.00 (cloth)
    • Authors: Daniel H. Temple
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T06:10:19.996433-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23274
       
  • Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile)
           shows environmental adaptation and resilience
    • Authors: Catrine L. Jarman; Thomas Larsen, Terry Hunt, Carl Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Rapa Nui “ecocide” narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources.Materials and methodsMaterials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment.ResultsResults of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ15N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment.DiscussionOur results suggest highly elevated δ15N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T05:41:02.166322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23273
       
  • Resource intensification and osteoarthritis patterns: changes in activity
           in the prehistoric Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region
    • Authors: Colleen M. Cheverko; Eric J. Bartelink
      Abstract: ObjectivesEthnohistoric accounts and archaeological research from Central California document a shift from the use of lower-cost, high-ranked resources (e.g., large game) toward the greater use of higher-cost, low-ranked resources (e.g., acorns and small seeds) during the Late Holocene (4500–200 BP). The subsistence transition from higher consumption of large game toward an increased reliance on acorns was likely associated with increases in levels of logistical mobility and physical activity. This study predicts that mobility and overall workload patterns changed during this transition to accommodate new food procurement strategies and incorporate new dietary resources during the Late Holocene in Central California.Materials and MethodsOsteoarthritis prevalence was scored in the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee of adult individuals (n = 256) from seven archaeological sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Comparisons were made between osteoarthritis prevalence, sex, age-at-death, and time period using ANCOVAs.ResultsThe results of this study indicate significant increases in osteoarthritis prevalence in the hip of adult males and females during the Late Period (1200–200 BP), even after correcting for the cumulative effects of age. No differences were observed between the sexes or between time periods for the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints.DiscussionThe temporal increase in hip osteoarthritis supports the hypothesis that there was an increasing need for greater logistical mobility over time to procure key resources away from the village sites. Additionally, the lack of sex differences in osteoarthritis prevalence may suggest that females and males likely performed similar levels of activity during these periods.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T04:27:51.089174-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23272
       
  • Geographic substructure in craniometric estimates of admixture for
           contemporary American populations
    • Authors: Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study investigates heterogeneity in craniometrically-derived estimates of admixture in order to reveal population substructure in a sample of Black, White, Hispanic, and Native American individuals from the FDB. It reports evidence of spatial trends in population-specific patterns of admixture and contextualizes its results in terms of demographic diversity in the United States.Materials and MethodsThe FDB was sampled to capture the population variation within forensic casework, skeletal collections, and the U.S. population-at-large. Individuals were selected for the availability of population identifier, sex, and geographic information. Variation in inferred admixture proportions was evaluated, per population and by sex, for evidence of geographic substructure. Comparative data was sourced from the U.S. Census.ResultsThis analysis identifies significant associations between the estimated Black, Native American and White component memberships and place of birth and recovery. The sampled populations differ significantly in admixture proportions, in a systematic way. Admixture patterns vary in accordance with the densities and relative proportions of the U.S. census populations.DiscussionThere is considerable variation in admixture estimates, not just between, but notably within, all four of the populations. This substructure can be explained by differences in geography, including regions, divisions, and states. This article's findings agree with census trends and speak broadly to admixture dynamics and ancestral diversity among contemporary Americans. They are also specifically relevant to those cases in the FDB. The presence of subpopulations has implications for cranial research, forensic identification, and studies of biological variation in the United States.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T08:16:02.684069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23267
       
  • Measuring fitness heritability: Life history traits versus morphological
           traits in humans
    • Authors: Alina Gavrus-Ion; Torstein Sjøvold, Miguel Hernández, Rolando González-José, María Esther Esteban Torné, Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza
      Abstract: ObjectivesTraditional interpretation of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection is that life history traits (LHT), which are closely related with fitness, show lower heritabilities, whereas morphological traits (MT) are less related with fitness and they are expected to show higher heritabilities. In humans, although few studies have examined the heritability of LHT and MT, none of them have analyzed the same sample for comparative purposes. Here we assessed, for the first time, the heritability, additive genetic variance (VA), residual variance (VR) and coefficient of genetic additive variation (CVA) values of LHT and MT in a singular collection of identified skulls with associated demographic records from Hallstatt (Austria).Materials and MethodsLHT, such as lifespan, number of offspring, age at birth of first and last child, reproductive span, and lifetime reproductive success, were estimated from 18,134 individuals from the Hallstatt Catholic parish records, which represent seven generations and correspond to a time span of 400 years. MT were assessed through 17 craniofacial indices and 7 angles obtained from 355 adult crania from the same population. Heritability, VA, VR, and CVA values of LHT and MT were calculated using restricted maximum likelihood methods.ResultsLHT heritabilities ranged from 2.3 to 34% for the whole sample, with men showing higher heritabilities (4–45%) than women (0-23.7%). Overall, MT presented higher heritability values than most of LHT, ranging from 0 to 40.5% in craniofacial indices, and from 13.8 to 32.4% in craniofacial angles. LHT showed considerable additive genetic variance values, similar to MT, but also high environmental variance values, and most of them presenting a higher evolutionary potential than MT.DiscussionOur results demonstrate that, with the exception of lifespan, LHT show lower heritability values, than MT. The lower heritability of LHT is explained by a higher influence of environmental and cultural factors.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T02:31:31.819812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23271
       
  • Scale of human mobility in the southern Andes (Argentina and Chile): A new
           framework based on strontium isotopes
    • Authors: Ramiro Barberena; Víctor A Durán, Paula Novellino, Diego Winocur, Anahí Benítez, Augusto Tessone, María N Quiroga, Erik J Marsh, Alejandra Gasco, Valeria Cortegoso, Gustavo Lucero, Carina Llano, Kelly J Knudson
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of “high residential mobility” suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains.MethodsWe develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes. We analyze bone and teeth samples as an approach to life-history changes in spatial residence. Human samples from the main geological units and periods within the last two millennia are selected.ResultsWe present a framework for the analysis of bioavailable strontium based on the combination of the geological data with isotope results for rodent samples. The 87Sr/86Sr values from human samples indicate residential stability within geological regions along life history. When comparing strontium and oxygen values for the same human samples, we record a divergent pattern: while δ18O values for samples from distant regions overlap widely, there are important differences in 87Sr/86Sr values.ConclusionsDespite the large socio-economic changes recorded, 87Sr/86Sr values indicate a persisting scenario of low systematic mobility between the different geological regions. Our results suggest that strontium isotope values provide the most germane means to track patterns of human occupation of distinct regions in complex geological landscapes, offering a much higher spatial resolution than oxygen isotopes in the southern Andes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T01:51:17.442142-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23270
       
  • Region-dependent patterns of trabecular bone growth in the human proximal
           femur: A study of 3D bone microarchitecture from early postnatal to late
           childhood period
    • Authors: Petar Milovanovic; Danijela Djonic, Michael Hahn, Michael Amling, Björn Busse, Marija Djuric
      Abstract: ObjectivesParallel with body growth and development, bone structure in non-adults is reorganized to achieve the particular design observed in mature individuals. We traced the changes in three-dimensional trabecular microarchitectural design during the phases of locomotor maturation to clarify how human bone adapts to mechanical demands.Materials and MethodsMicro-CT was performed on biomechanically-relevant subregions of the proximal femur (medial, intermediate and lateral neck regions, intertrochanteric region, metaphyseal region) from early postnatal period to late childhood.ResultsDevelopmental patterns of trabecular microarchitecture showed that gestationally overproduced bone present at birth underwent the most dramatic reduction during the first year, followed by a reversing trend in some of the quantitative parameters (e.g., bone volume fraction, trabecular anisotropy). Certain regional anisotropy already present at birth is further accentuated into the childhood suggesting an adaptation to differential loading environments. Trabecular eccentricity in the femoral neck was particularly accentuated during childhood, giving the medial neck—the site mostly loaded in walking—superior microarchitectural design (high bone volume fraction and anisotropy, the earliest appearance and predominance of plate- and honeycomb-shaped trabeculae).DiscussionWhile providing quantitative data on how bone microarchitecture adapts to increasing mechanical demands occurring during the phases of locomotor maturation, the study reveals how regional anisotropy develops in the proximal femur to ensure a functional and competent bone structure. Decomposing the region-specific patterns of bone mass accrual is important in understanding skeletal adaptations to bipedalism, as well for understanding why fractures often occur location-dependent, both in pediatric and elderly individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T01:50:33.168118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23268
       
  • Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in
           the Issa valley, Western Tanzania
    • Authors: Katarina Almeida-Warren; Volker Sommer, Alex K. Piel, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
      Abstract: ObjectivesChimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania.Materials and MethodsUsing traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall–Wallace tests.ResultsIssa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1–16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants.DiscussionThe exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T08:41:01.978003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23269
       
  • The sex-selective impact of the Black Death and recurring plagues in the
           Southern Netherlands, 1349–1450
    • Authors: Daniel R. Curtis; Joris Roosen
      Abstract: Although recent work has begun to establish that early modern plagues had selective mortality effects, it was generally accepted that the initial outbreak of Black Death in 1347-52 was a “universal killer.” Recent bioarchaeological work, however, has argued that the Black Death was also selective with regard to age and pre-plague health status. The issue of the Black Death's potential sex selectivity is less clear. Bioarchaeological research hypothesizes that sex-selection in mortality was possible during the initial Black Death outbreak, and we present evidence from historical sources to test this notion.ObjectiveTo determine whether the Black Death and recurring plagues in the period 1349–1450 had a sex-selective mortality effect.Materials and MethodsWe present a newly compiled database of mortality information taken from mortmain records in Hainaut, Belgium, in the period 1349–1450, which not only is an important new source of information on medieval mortality, but also allows for sex-disaggregation.ResultsWe find that the Black Death period of 1349–51, as well as recurring plagues in the 100 years up to 1450, often had a sex-selective effect—killing more women than in “non-plague years.”DiscussionAlthough much research tends to suggest that men are more susceptible to a variety of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, we cannot assume that the same direction of sex-selection in mortality applied to diseases in the distant past such as Second Pandemic plagues. While the exact reasons for the sex-selective effect of late-medieval plague are unclear in the absence of further data, we suggest that simple inequities between the sexes in exposure to the disease may not have been a key driver.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T00:45:24.858086-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23266
       
  • Cover & Editorial Board
    • Pages: 219 - 220
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T01:13:31.854601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23096
       
  • Issue Information – Table of Contents
    • Pages: 453 - 454
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T01:13:35.527653-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23310
       
 
 
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