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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1579 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1579 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 241, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Physical Anthropology
  [SJR: 1.41]   [H-I: 88]   [37 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9483 - ISSN (Online) 1096-8644
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • A comparison of paternity data and relative testes size as measures of
           level of sperm competition in the Hominoidea
    • Authors: R. Robin Baker; Todd K. Shackelford
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe phrase “level of sperm competition” is used only vaguely in the primate literature. There is also little distinction between the important elements of frequency and intensity of sperm competition, largely because the two current forms of measurement (socio-sexual system and relative testes size) are both proxies which allow neither precision nor fine distinctions. Both measures have critics, socio-sexual system in particular being branded subjective, misleading, and changeable. Testes size is considered the more reliable despite its validation resting on correlations with the other, less reliable, proxy. Recently, genetic paternity studies have been mooted to provide a potentially superior third measure of sperm competition but so far lack a formal interpretive framework. Here we use the published and relatively comprehensive genetic field studies of the Hominoidea to develop such a framework.Materials and methodsFormulae are derived to convert paternity data into a direct measure of the frequency, intensity, and overall level of sperm competition. We then compare these measures with relative testes size at the study, species, and phylogenetic levels.ResultsA significant correlation between level of sperm competition and relative testes size was obtained at each level. These correlations provide independent support for the continuing use of testes size as a proxy measure when such a measure is sufficient. However, they also suggest that paternity data and our formulae yield a viable alternative measure.DiscussionThis alternative measure based on paternity data has a number of advantages. Not only is it a potentially direct measure of the level of sperm competition but it also allows the roles of frequency and intensity to be studied separately when of interest.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:20:43.47633-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23360
  • Ancestry and dental development: A geographic and genetic perspective
    • Authors: Brunilda Dhamo; Lea Kragt, Olja Grgic, Strahinja Vucic, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Fernando Rivadeneira, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Eppo B. Wolvius, Edwin M. Ongkosuwito
      Abstract: ObjectiveIn this study, we investigated the influence of ancestry on dental development in the Generation R Study.MethodsInformation on geographic ancestry was available in 3,600 children (1,810 boys and 1,790 girls, mean age 9.81 ± 0.35 years) and information about genetic ancestry was available in 2,786 children (1,387 boys and 1,399 girls, mean age 9.82 ± 0.34 years). Dental development was assessed in all children using the Demirjian method. The associations of geographic ancestry (Cape Verdean, Moroccan, Turkish, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese Creole and Surinamese Hindustani vs Dutch as the reference group) and genetic content of ancestry (European, African or Asian) with dental development was analyzed using linear regression models.ResultsIn a geographic perspective of ancestry, Moroccan (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.28), Turkish (β = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.32), Dutch Antillean (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.41), and Surinamese Creole (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) preceded Dutch children in dental development. Moreover, in a genetic perspective of ancestry, a higher proportion of European ancestry was associated with decelerated dental development (β = −0.32; 95% CI: –.44, –.20). In contrast, a higher proportion of African ancestry (β = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.43) and a higher proportion of Asian ancestry (β = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.48) were associated with accelerated dental development. When investigating only European children, these effect estimates increased to twice as large in absolute value.ConclusionBased on a geographic and genetic perspective, differences in dental development exist in a population of heterogeneous ancestry and should be considered when describing the physiological growth in children.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T04:15:22.187382-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23351
  • Breastfeeding, weaning, and dietary practices during the Western Zhou
           Dynasty (1122–771 BC) at Boyangcheng, Anhui Province, China
    • Authors: Yang Xia; Jinglei Zhang, Fei Yu, Hui Zhang, Tingting Wang, Yaowu Hu, Benjamin T. Fuller
      Abstract: ObjectivesHere we investigate breastfeeding and weaning practices and adult dietary habits at the Western Zhou Dynasty (1122–771 BC) site of Boyangcheng (薄阳城) located in Anhui Province, China. In addition, we utilize the differences in bone collagen turnover rates between rib and long bones from the same individual to examine past life histories, such as changes in diet or residence.Materials and methodsBone collagen from both the rib and long bones (either femora or humeri) of 42 individuals was measured for stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). In addition, δ13C and δ15N values are reported for 35 animals (dogs, cows, horses, pigs, and deer).ResultsThe human δ13C values range from −20.7‰ to −12.0‰ with a mean value of −18.8 ± 1.6‰. The human δ15N values range from 9.1‰ to 13.4‰ with a mean value of 10.9 ± 1.0‰. The animals display a wide range of δ13C (−21.5‰ to −8.2‰; −15.8 ± 4.5‰) and δ15N values (4.0‰ to 9.5‰; 6.5 ± 1.8‰).ConclusionsThe adult δ13C and δ15N results indicate that mixed C3 (rice) and C4 (millet) terrestrial diets with varying levels of animal protein (mostly pigs and deer) were consumed. The elevated subadult δ15N results return to adult levels by approximately 3–4 years of age, indicating that the weaning process was completed during this period. Individuals between 2 and 10 years old, with lower δ13C and δ15N results than the adult mean, possibly consumed more plant-based diets, and this is consistent with Chinese medical teachings ∼1500 years later during the Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907). The isotopic offsets between the ribs and long bones revealed that five adults experienced dramatic dietary shifts in their later lives, switching from predominately C3/C4 to C3 diets. This research provides the first isotopic information about ancient Chinese breastfeeding and weaning practices and establishes a foundation for future studies to examine diachronic trends.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:34:42.163493-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23358
  • Tests of fit of historically-informed models of African American Admixture
    • Authors: Jessica M Gross
      Abstract: ObjectivesAfrican American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time.Materials and methodsWe used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model.ResultsThe mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported.DiscussionWe demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:34:27.381396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23343
  • Costs of reproduction are reflected in women's faces: Post-menopausal
           women with fewer children are perceived as more attractive, healthier and
           younger than women with more children
    • Authors: Urszula M. Marcinkowska; Anthony C. Little, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Ilona Nenko, Magdalena Klimek, Grazyna Jasienska
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe costs associated with reproduction (i.e., gestation, lactation, childcare) have long-term negative consequences by elevating risk of disease and reducing lifespan. We tested the hypotheses that high parity, and thus high reproductive costs bear by women, is perceived by other people when they evaluate facial appearance of health, attractiveness and age of mothers.Materials and MethodsUsing computer software we created average facial images based on real photographs of post-menopausal women with varying number of children; 3 parity categories were created (1–2, 4–5, and 7–9 children). Study participants (N = 571) were asked to choose the face they perceived as more attractive, younger and healthier via two-alternative forced choice questions asked in three randomized blocks.ResultsWomen who had given birth to fewer children were judged both by men and women as more attractive, younger and healthier than women with more children. In each category the lowest scores were received by women from highest parity category (7–9 children).DiscussionMechanisms behind the observed variation in facial appearance are not known but higher levels of oxidative stress among women with high parity may explain their faster aging and lower attractiveness in older age. These results suggest that costs of reproduction might affect women's physical appearance.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:27:51.142437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23362
  • Erratum: Differential investment in body girths by sex: Evidence from 3D
           photonic scanning in a Thai cohort; 163: 696–706. Meghan K. Shirley, Tim
           J. Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven and Jonathan C.K. Wells.
           DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23238
    • PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:27:46.208204-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23359
  • Moderate climate signature in cranial anatomy of late holocene human
           populations from Southern South America
    • Authors: Lumila Paula Menéndez
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied.Materials and MethodsThe variation in shape and size of 361 crania was studied, registering 62 3D landmarks that capture shape and size variation in the face, cranial vault, and base. Mean, minimum, and maximum annual temperature, as well as mean annual precipitation, but also diet and altitude, were matched for each population sample. A PCA, as well as spatial statistical techniques, including kriging, regression, and multimodel inference were employed.ResultsThe facial skeleton size presents a latitudinal pattern which is partially associated with temperature diversity. Both diet and altitude are the variables that mainly explain the skull shape variation, although mean annual temperature also plays a role. The association between climate factors and cranial variation is low to moderate, mean annual temperature explains almost 40% of the entire skull, facial skeleton and cranial vault shape variation, while annual precipitation and minimum annual temperature only contribute to the morphological variation when considered together with maximum annual temperature. The cranial base is the structure less associated with climate diversity.ConclusionThese results suggest that climate factors may have had a partial impact on the facial and vault shape, and therefore contributed moderately to the diversification of southern South American populations, while diet and altitude might have had a stronger impact. Therefore, cranial variation at the southern cone has been shaped both by random and nonrandom factors. Particularly, the influence of climate on skull shape has probably been the result of directional selection. This study supports that, although cranial vault is the cranial structure more associated to mean annual temperature, the impact of climate signature on morphology decreases when populations from extreme cold environments are excluded from the analysis. Additionally, it shows that the extent of the geographical scales analyzed, as well as differential sampling may lead to different results regarding the role of ecological factors and evolutionary processes on cranial morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T06:16:43.771612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23355
  • Applicability of 3D-dental reconstruction in cervical odontometrics
    • Authors: Seyedeh M. Kazzazi; Elena F. Kranioti
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to assess the accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) images in measuring cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth sizes, by comparing the values obtained by 3D virtual models from CT images with those obtained using digital calipers.Materials and methodsIn total, 530 maxillary and mandibular teeth of 51 individuals from two Iron Age sites were scanned using a Siemens Somatom sensation 64-slice computed tomography machine, and the images were reconstructed and measured. Values obtained by direct measurement served as the primary reference for cervical measurements. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was assessed by calculating technical error of measurements (TEM), relative technical error of measurements (rTEM), and the coefficient of reliability (R).ResultsResults showed that virtual cervical measurements were not significantly different from the actual measurements, and the correlation of the two measurement methods shows that the methods are comparable. Inter- and intra-observer error analysis also indicated high replicability of measurements with both measuring methods (R > 0.99). The rTEM values for all the measurements were below the 5% standards for anthropometric studies.DiscussionCT is a non-invasive technique that allows for an accurate and detailed visualization of morphological features without causing any damage to teeth. Our findings indicate that virtual odontometric analysis is a reliable method, similar to traditional physical odontometric analysis. Currently, the virtual system is likely to be more suitable for fragile specimens, such as archaeological samples.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T06:15:23.526331-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23353
  • Investigating cranial morphological variation of early human skeletal
           remains from Chile: A 3D geometric morphometric approach
    • Authors: Susan C. Kuzminsky; Omar Reyes Báez, Bernardo Arriaza, César Méndez, Vivien G. Standen, Manuel San Román, Iván Muñoz, Ángel Durán Herrera, Mark Hubbe
      Abstract: ObjectivesArchaeological and genetic research has demonstrated that the Pacific Coast was a key route in the early colonization of South America. Research examining South American skeletons>8000 cal BP has revealed differences in cranial morphology between early and late Holocene populations, which may reflect distinct migration events and/or populations. However, genetic, cultural, and some skeletal data contradict this model. Given these discrepancies, this study examines ∼9000 years of prehistory to test the hypothesis that Early skeletons have a distinct cranial morphology from later skeletons.Materials and MethodsUsing 3D digital models, craniofacial landmarks, and geometric morphometric analyses, we compared Early Holocene crania (n = 4) to later Chilean samples (n = 90) frequently absent in continental assessments of craniofacial variation. PCA, Mahalanobis distances, posterior and typicality probabilities were used to examine variation.ResultsTwo of the earliest skeletons from northern Chile show clear affinities to individuals from later sites in the same region. However, the hypothesis cannot be rejected as one Early individual from northern Chile and one individual from inland Patagonia did not always show clear affinities to coastal populations.DiscussionBiological affinities among northern populations and other regions of Chile align with genetic and archaeological data, supporting cultural and biological continuity along the Pacific Coast. In Patagonia, archaeological data are in accordance with skeletal differences between the Early inland steppe individual and coastal populations. This study incorporates 3D methods and skeletal datasets not widely used in assessments of biological affinity, thus contributing to a critical body of research examining the ancient population history of western South America.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:50:32.915052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23344
  • Brief communication: A re-evaluation of the health index of southern
           Brazilian shellmound populations
    • Authors: Mark Hubbe; Madelyn K. Green, Colleen M. Cheverko, Walter A. Neves
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe southern Brazilian shellmounds provide archaeological evidence of prolonged human activity in the coast from approximately 6000 to 1000 BP. Shellmound building populations exploited the rich coastal estuarine zones, and the human remains recovered from them are important sources of information on health and overall lifestyle of these mid-Holocene groups. Therefore, they were included in the Western Hemisphere Global History of Health project. The shellmounds contribute the highest Health Index in the Western Hemisphere, but these conclusions are based on collections that exclude postcranial remains. Here, we reconstruct the Health Index for one specific shellmound using both cranial and postcranial remains to determine whether the initial studies might misrepresent the relative health of the Brazilian shellmound builders.Materials and methodsThe Health Index was calculated for a sample of 18 complete skeletons recovered from the shellmound Porto do Rio Vermelho 02 (Santa Catarina Island, Brazil). The Heath Index was calculated with and without postcranial markers and the results are compared with the Western Hemisphere Global History of Health data.ResultsThe Health Index for Porto do Rio Vermelho 02 is lower than the reported average for American series in the Western Hemisphere Global History of Health Project and considerably lower than the original index reported for Brazilian shellmounds. This discrepancy is due to an increased prevalence of infectious disease and low stature.ConclusionsAlthough the Health Index remains a useful comparison statistic, re-evaluation of fragmentary skeletal remains demonstrates the need for caution when applying it to incomplete skeletal series.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:50:26.955839-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23346
  • The contributions of admixture and genetic drift to diversity among
           post-contact populations in the Americas
    • Authors: Anthony J. Koehl; Jeffrey C. Long
      Abstract: ObjectiveWe present a model that partitions Nei's minimum genetic distance between admixed populations into components of admixture and genetic drift. We applied this model to 17 admixed populations in the Americas to examine how admixture and drift have contributed to the patterns of genetic diversity.Materials and MethodsWe analyzed 618 short tandem repeat loci in 949 individuals from 49 population samples. Thirty-two samples serve as proxies for continental ancestors. Seventeen samples represent admixed populations: (4) African-American and (13) Latin American. We partition genetic distance, and then calculate fixation indices and principal coordinates to interpret our results. A computer simulation confirms that our method correctly estimates drift and admixture components of genetic distance when the assumptions of the model are met.ResultsThe partition of genetic distance shows that both admixture and genetic drift contribute to patterns of genetic diversity. The admixture component of genetic distance provides evidence for two distinct axes of continental ancestry. However, the genetic distances show that ancestry contributes to only one axis of genetic differentiation. The genetic distances among the 13 Latin American populations in this analysis show contributions from both differences in ancestry and differences in genetic drift. By contrast, the genetic distances among the four African American populations in this analysis owe mostly to genetic drift because these groups have similar fractions of European and African ancestry.ConclusionThe genetic structure of admixed populations in the Americas reflects more than admixture. We show that the history of serial founder effects constrains the impact of admixture on allele frequencies to a single dimension. Genetic drift in the admixed populations imposed a new level of genetic structure onto that created by admixture.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:35:25.511246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23347
  • A comparative analysis of microscopic alterations in modern and ancient
           undecalcified and decalcified dry bones
    • Authors: Valentina Caruso; Marco Cummaudo, Emanuela Maderna, Annalisa Cappella, Giorgio Caudullo, Valentina Scarpulla, Cristina Cattaneo
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe present study aims to evaluate the preservation of the microstructure of skeletal remains collected from four different known burial sites (archaeological and contemporary). Histological analysis on undecalcified and decalcified thin sections was performed in order to assess which of the two techniques is more affected by taphonomic insults.Materials and MethodsA histological analysis was performed on both undecalcified and decalcified thin sections of 40 long bones and the degree of diagenetic change was evaluated using transmitted and polarized light microscopy according to the Oxford Histological Index (OHI). In order to test the optical behavior of bone tissue, thin sections were observed by polarized light microscopy and the intensity of birefringence was evaluated.ResultsThe more ancient samples are generally characterized by a low OHI (0–1) with extensive microscopic focal destruction; recent samples exhibited a better preservation of bone micromorphology. When comparing undecalcified to decalcified thin sections, the latter showed an amelioration in the conservation of microscopic structure. As regards the birefringence, it was very low in all the undecalcified thin sections, whereas decalcification process seems to improve its visibility.DiscussionThe preservation of the bone microscopic structure appears to be influenced not only by age, but also by the burial context. Undecalcified bones appear to be more affected by taphonomical alterations, probably because of the thickness of the thin sections; on the contrary, decalcified thin sections proved to be able to tackle this issue allowing a better reading of the bone tissue.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:57.370181-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23348
  • High-resolution mitochondrial DNA analysis sheds light on human diversity,
           cultural interactions, and population mobility in Northwestern Amazonia
    • Authors: Leonardo Arias; Chiara Barbieri, Guillermo Barreto, Mark Stoneking, Brigitte Pakendorf
      Abstract: ObjectivesNorthwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high-resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups.MethodsWe collected saliva samples from individuals representing 40 different NWA ethnolinguistic groups and sequenced 439 complete mitochondrial genomes to an average coverage of 1,030×.ResultsThe mtDNA data revealed that NWA populations have high genetic diversity with extensive sharing of haplotypes among groups. Moreover, groups who practice linguistic exogamy have higher genetic diversity, while the foraging Nukak have lower genetic diversity. We also find that rivers play a more important role than either geography or language affiliation in structuring the genetic relationships of populations.DiscussionContrary to the view of NWA as a pristine area inhabited by small human populations living in isolation, our data support a view of high diversity and contact among different ethnolinguistic groups, with movement along rivers probably facilitating this contact. Additionally, we provide evidence for the impact of cultural practices, such as linguistic exogamy, on patterns of genetic variation. Overall, this study provides new data and insights into a remote and little-studied region of the world.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:44.624145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23345
  • Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth
           reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste
    • Authors: Phoebe R. Spencer; Katherine A. Sanders, Debra S. Judge
      Abstract: ObjectivesPopulation-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs.Materials and methodsOver an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI).ResultsRelative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood.DiscussionThis is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:35.865963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23350
  • Isotopic assessment of marine food consumption by natural-foraging chacma
           baboons on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa
    • Authors: Matthew C. Lewis; Adam G. West, M. Justin O'Riain
      Abstract: ObjectivesStable isotope analysis has been used to investigate consumption of marine resources in a variety of terrestrial mammals, including humans, but not yet in extant nonhuman primates. We sought to test the efficacy of stable isotope analysis as a tool for such studies by comparing isotope- and observation-based estimates of marine food consumption by a troop of noncommensal, free-ranging chacma baboons.Materials and methodsWe determined δ13C and δ15N values of baboon hair (n = 9) and fecal samples (n = 144), and principal food items (n = 362). These values were used as input for diet models, the outputs of which were compared to observation-based estimates of marine food consumption.ResultsFecal δ13C values ranged from −29.3‰ to −25.6‰. δ15N values ranged from 0.9‰ to 6.3‰ and were positively correlated with a measure of marine foraging during the dietary integration period. Mean (± SD) δ13C values of adult male and female baboon hairs were −21.6‰ (± 0.1) and −21.8‰ (± 0.3) respectively, and corresponding δ15N values were 5.0‰ (± 0.3) and 3.9‰ (± 0.2). Models indicated that marine contributions were ≤10% of baboon diet within any season, and contributed ≤17% of dietary protein through the year.DiscussionModel output and observational data were in agreement, both indicating that despite their abundance in the intertidal region, marine foods comprised only a small proportion of baboon diet. This suggests that stable isotope analysis is a viable tool for investigating marine food consumption by natural-foraging primates in temperate regions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:13.873059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23332
  • Genetic diversity in Svaneti and its implications for the human settlement
           of the Highland Caucasus
    • Authors: Aram Yardumian; Ramaz Shengelia, David Chitanava, Shorena Laliashvili, Lia Bitadze, Irma Laliashvili, Fernando Villanea, Akiva Sanders, Andrew Azzam, Victoria Groner, Kristi Edleson, Miguel G. Vilar, Theodore G. Schurr
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn this study, we characterized genetic diversity in the Svans from northwestern Georgia to better understand the phylogeography of their genetic lineages, determine whether genetic diversity in the highland South Caucasus has been shaped by language or geography, and assess whether Svan genetic diversity was structured by regional residence patterns.Materials and MethodsWe analyzed mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in 184 individuals from 13 village districts and townlets located throughout the region. For all individuals, we analyzed mtDNA diversity through control region sequencing, and, for males, we analyzed Y-chromosome diversity through SNP and STR genotyping. The resulting data were compared with those for populations from the Caucasus and Middle East.ResultsWe observed significant mtDNA heterogeneity in Svans, with haplogroups U1-U7, H, K, and W6 being common there. By contrast, ∼78% of Svan males belonged to haplogroup G2a, with the remainder falling into four other haplogroups (J2a1, I2, N, and R1a). While showing a distinct genetic profile, Svans also clustered with Caucasus populations speaking languages from different families, suggesting a deep common ancestry for all of them. The mtDNA data were not structured by geography or linguistic affiliation, whereas the NRY data were influenced only by geography.DiscussionThese patterns of genetic variation confirm a complex set of geographic sources and settlement phases for the Caucasus highlands. Such patterns may also reflect social and cultural practices in the region. The high frequency and antiquity of Y-chromosome haplogroup G2a in this region further points to its emergence there.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:13.73558-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23324
  • Behavioral implications of ontogenetic changes in intrinsic hand and foot
           proportions in olive baboons (Papio Anubis)
    • Authors: François Druelle; Jesse Young, Gilles Berillon
      Abstract: ObjectivesRelatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether ontogenetic changes in digital proportions are related to variation in voluntary grasping behaviors in baboons.Materials and methodsLongitudinal morphological and behavioral data were collected on 6 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) as they aged from 5 to 22 months. The length of digits and metapodials, measured from radiographs, were used to calculate phalangeal indices (i.e., PIs: summed length of non-distal phalanges relative to corresponding metapodial length). We also examined the allometric scaling of digital bones relative to body mass. We observed baboon positional behaviors over a 15-day period following the radiographic sessions, quantifying the frequency of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors.ResultsPIs for all digits declined during growth, a result of the differential scaling of metapodials (which scaled to body mass with isometry) versus phalanges (which scaled with negative allometry). The incidence of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors declined with age. Though we found no relationship between forelimb grasping and hand proportions, the incidence of hindlimb grasping was directly correlated with postaxial digit PIs.DiscussionOnly changes in the intrinsic proportions of the pedal digits are associated with variation in grasping activity in growing baboons. This finding accords previous biomechanical and neuroanatomical studies showing distinct functional roles for the hands and feet during primate locomotion, and has important implications for reconstructing primate locomotor evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:11.874312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23331
  • The applicability of dental wear in age estimation for a modern American
    • Authors: Katie E. Faillace; Jonathan D. Bethard, Murray K. Marks
      Abstract: ObjectivesThough applied in bioarchaeology, dental wear is an underexplored age indicator in the biological anthropology of contemporary populations, although research has been conducted on dental attrition in forensic contexts (Kim et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45, 303; Prince et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53, 588; Yun et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52, 678). The purpose of this study is to apply and adapt existing techniques for age estimation based on dental wear to a modern American population, with the aim of producing accurate age range estimates for individuals from an industrialized context.Materials and methodsMethodologies following Yun and Prince were applied to a random sample from the University of New Mexico (n = 583) and Universidade de Coimbra (n = 50) cast and skeletal collections. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between tooth wear scores and age.ResultsApplication of both Yun et al. () and Prince et al. () methodologies resulted in inaccurate age estimates. Recalibrated sectioning points correctly classified individuals as over or under 50 years for 88% of the sample. Linear regression demonstrated 60% of age estimates fell within ±10 years of the actual age, and accuracy improved for individuals under 45 years, with 74% of predictions within ±10 years.DiscussionThis study demonstrates age estimation from dental wear is possible for modern populations, with comparable age intervals to other established methods. It provides a quantifiable method of seriation into “older” and “younger” adult categories, and provides more reliable age interval estimates than cranial sutures in instances where only the skull is available.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:11.785781-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23318
  • Seasonal glucocorticoid production correlates with a suite of
           small-magnitude environmental, demographic, and physiological effects in
    • Authors: M. J. E. Charpentier; L. Givalois, C. Faurie, O. Soghessa, F. Simon, P. M. Kappeler
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a neuroendocrine response to external and internal changes that animals face on a predictable or unpredictable basis. Across species, variation in glucocorticoid production has been related to such changes. In this study, we investigated the predictable, seasonal sources of variation in the levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) in a large natural population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Southern Gabon.Materials and methodsUsing five years of regular behavioral monitoring and hormone analyses performed on 1,233 fecal samples collected on 99 individuals of both sexes and all ages and General Linear Mixed Models, we studied the three main seasonal predictors of fGCM concentrations: (i) weather conditions, (ii) number of adult males, and (iii) female reproductive status. These three predictors all vary seasonally in mandrills.ResultsWe first showed an increase in fGCM concentrations during the short dry season while controlling for other factors. Pregnant females, which include the large majority of adult females at this time of the year, mainly drove this increase, although a combination of other small-magnitude, season-related effects linked to climatic events and demographic changes also partly explained this seasonal trend. Indeed, fGCM concentrations increased with both low temperatures (and low rainfall) and high numbers of adult males present in the group. These seasonal changes, while correlated, held true throughout the studied years and when restricting our analyses to a given season. Finally, we found that older mandrills showed on average higher fGCM concentrations than younger ones and that medium-ranked females exhibited the highest levels of fGCMs.DiscussionThe observed patterns suggest that plasticity in mandrills’ metabolism in the form of glucocorticoid production allows them to adjust to predictable changes in climatic, demographic and physiological conditions by mobilizing and redirecting energetic resources toward appropriate, calibrated seasonal responses.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:08.22898-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23329
  • Testing inter-observer reliability of the Transition Analysis aging method
           on the William M. Bass forensic skeletal collection
    • Authors: Christina L. Fojas; Jieun Kim, Jocelyn D. Minsky-Rowland, Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt
      Abstract: ObjectivesSkeletal age estimation is an integral part of the biological profile. Recent work shows how multiple-trait approaches better capture senescence as it occurs at different rates among individuals. Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical framework of analysis provides more useful age estimates. The component-scoring method of Transition Analysis (TA) may resolve many of the functional and statistical limitations of traditional phase-aging methods and is applicable to both paleodemography and forensic casework. The present study contributes to TA-research by validating TA for multiple, differently experienced observers using a collection of modern forensic skeletal cases.Materials and methodsFive researchers independently applied TA to a random sample of 58 documented individuals from the William M. Bass Forensic Skeletal Collection, for whom knowledge of chronological age was withheld. Resulting scores were input into the ADBOU software and maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were produced using the forensic prior. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability and agreement. Inaccuracy and bias were measured to gauge the magnitude and direction of difference between estimated ages and chronological ages among the five observers.ResultsThe majority of traits had moderate to excellent agreement among observers (≥0.6). The superior surface morphology had the least congruence (0.4), while the ventral symphyseal margin had the most (0.9) among scores. Inaccuracy was the lowest for individuals younger than 30 and the greatest for individuals over 60. Consistent over-estimation of individuals younger than 30 and under-estimation of individuals over 40 years old occurred. Individuals in their 30s showed a mixed pattern of under- and over-estimation among observers.DiscussionThese results support the use of the TA method by researchers of varying experience levels. Further, they validate its use on forensic cases, given the low error overall.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:03:05.6737-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23342
  • Stable isotope analysis of a pre-Hispanic Andean community: Reconstructing
           pre-Wari and Wari era diets in the hinterland of the Wari empire, Peru
    • Authors: Tiffiny A. Tung; Kelly J. Knudson
      Abstract: ObjectivesStable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis is used to reconstruct diet among a pre-Hispanic population from the Peruvian Andes to evaluate whether local foodways changed with Wari imperial influence in the region. This study also compares local diet to other Wari-era sites.Materials and methodsSamples derive from the site of Beringa in Peru and correspond primarily to pre-Wari (200–600 CE) and Wari (600–1,000 CE). We examine stable carbon isotopes from enamel (n = 29) and bone apatite (n = 22), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from bone collagen (n = 29), and we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data on archaeological and modern fauna (n = 37) and plants (n = 19) from the region.ResultsThere were no significant differences in either δ13C or δ15N from the pre-Wari to Wari era, indicating that those measurable aspects of diet did not change with Wari influence. There were no sex-based differences among juveniles (as inferred from δ13C from enamel carbonates) nor among adults (based on δ13C and δ15N from adult bone collagen). Comparisons to other Wari era sites show that Beringa individuals exhibited significantly lower δ13C values, suggesting that they consumed significantly less maize, a socially valued food. Further, the Froehle et al. (2012) stable isotope model suggests that the majority of the Beringa individuals consumed more C3 than C4 plants, and dietary protein was derived primarily from terrestrial animals and some marine resources.ConclusionsThe similar diets from pre-Wari to Wari times hint at strong local dietary traditions and durable food trade networks during the period of Wari imperial influence. The presence of limited marine foods in the diet suggests a trade network with coastal groups or sojourns to the coast to gather marine resources.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:01:06.015183-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23339
  • Infanticide in chimpanzees: Taphonomic case studies from Gombe
    • Authors: Claire A. Kirchhoff; Michael L. Wilson, Deus C. Mjungu, Jane Raphael, Shadrack Kamenya, D. Anthony Collins
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe present a study of skeletal damage to four chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infanticide victims from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Skeletal analysis may provide insight into the adaptive significance of infanticide by examining whether nutritional benefits sufficiently explain infanticidal behavior. The nutritional hypothesis would be supported if bone survivorship rates and skeletal damage patterns are comparable to those of monkey prey. If not, other explanations, such as the resource competition hypothesis, should be considered.MethodsTaphonomic assessment of two chimpanzee infants included description of breakage and surface modification, data on MNE, %MNE, and bone survivorship. Two additional infants were assessed qualitatively. The data were compared to published information on monkey prey. We also undertook a review of published infanticide cases.ResultsThe cases were intercommunity infanticides (one male and three female infants) committed by males. Attackers partially consumed two of the victims. Damage to all four infants included puncture marks and compression fractures to the cranium, crenulated breaks to long bones, and incipient fractures on ribs. Compared to monkey prey, the chimpanzee infants had an abundance of vertebrae and hand/foot bones.ConclusionsThe cases described here suggest that chimpanzees may not always completely consume infanticide victims, while reports on chimpanzee predation indicated that complete consumption of monkey prey usually occurred. Infanticidal chimpanzees undoubtedly gain nutritional benefits when they consume dead infants, but this benefit may not sufficiently explain infanticide in this species. Continued study of infanticidal and hunting behavior, including skeletal analysis, is likely to be of interest.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:00:52.802326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23335
  • Secular trend trends are associated with the demographic and epidemiologic
           transitions in an indigenous community in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico
    • Authors: Robert M. Malina; Bertis B. Little, Maria Eugenia Peña Reyes
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that secular changes in body size and age at menarche are related to the demographic and epidemiologic transitions in an indigenous community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico.MethodsData were derived from surveys of a Zapotec-speaking community conducted between 1968 and 2000. Segmented linear regressions of height, weight, BMI and recalled age at menarche on year of birth in cohorts of adults born before and after the demographic transition were used to evaluate secular changes. Corresponding comparisons of body size (MANCOVA controlling for age) and age at menarche (status quo, probit analysis) were done for samples of children and adolescents born before and after the epidemiological transition.ResultsHeight and weight increased in adults born after the demographic transition (mid-1950s), and especially in children and adolescents born after the epidemiological transition (mid-1980s). Age at menarche also decreased significantly in women born after the demographic transition, but at a more rapid estimated rate in adolescents born after the epidemiological transition. Secular gains in body weight were proportional to those for height among children and adolescents, but adults, males more so than females, gained proportionally more weight.ConclusionsThe secular trend in height in adults of both sexes was associated with the decade of the demographic transition in the mid-1950s. Significant secular gains in size attained and age at menarche occurred in children and youth born after the epidemiologic transition which likely reflected improved health and nutritional conditions since the mid-1980s.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:00:32.153931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23326
  • Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for
           short and long-term child growth, development and health
    • Authors: Rihlat Said-Mohamed; John M Pettifor, Shane A Norris
      Abstract: Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms’ strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent–offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals’ cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:00:21.598653-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23340
  • A multivariate assessment of the Dali hominin cranium from China:
           Morphological affinities and implications for Pleistocene evolution in
           East Asia
    • Authors: Sheela Athreya; Xinzhi Wu
      Abstract: ObjectivesA nearly complete hominin fossil cranium from Dali in Shaanxi Province, China was excavated in 1978. We update and expand on previous research by providing a multivariate analysis of the specimen relative to a large sample of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins.Materials and MethodsWe apply principal components analysis, discriminant function analysis, and a method of assessing group membership based on a soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) to the study of Dali's cranial morphology. We evaluate Dali's affinities within the context of Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo patterns of craniofacial morphology.ResultsWhen just the facial skeleton is considered, Dali aligns with Middle Paleolithic H. sapiens and is clearly more derived than African or Eurasian Middle Pleistocene Homo. When just the neurocranium is considered, Dali is most similar to African and Eastern Eurasian but not Western European Middle Pleistocene Homo. When both sets of variables are considered together, Dali exhibits a unique morphology that is most closely aligned with the earliest H. sapiens from North Africa and the Levant.DiscussionThese results add perspective to our previous view of as Dali a “transitional” form between Chinese H. erectus and H. sapiens. Athough no taxonomic allocation is appropriate at this time for Dali, it appears to represent a population that played a more central role in the origin of Chinese H. sapiens. Dali's affinities can be understood in the context of Wu's Continuity with Hybridization scenario and a braided-stream network model of gene flow. Specifically, we propose that Pleistocene populations in China were shaped by periods of isolated evolutionary change within local lineages at certain times, and gene flow between local lineages or between Eastern and Western Eurasia, and Africa at other times, resulting in contributions being made in different capacities to different regions at different times.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T05:37:00.417479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23305
  • DNA methylation of methylation complex genes in relation to stress and
           genome-wide methylation in mother–newborn dyads
    • Authors: Christopher J. Clukay; David A. Hughes, Nicole C. Rodney, Darlene A. Kertes, Connie J. Mulligan
      Abstract: ObjectivesEarly life stress is known to have enduring biological effects, particularly with respect to health. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are a possible mechanism to mediate the biological effect of stress. We previously found correlations between maternal stress, newborn birthweight, and genome-wide measures of DNA methylation. Here we investigate ten genes related to the methylation/demethylation complex in order to better understand the impact of stress on health.Materials and methodsDNA methylation and genetic variants at methylation/demethylation genes were assayed. Mean methylation measures were constructed for each gene and tested, in addition to genetic variants, for association with maternal stress measures based on interview and survey data (chronic stress and war trauma), maternal venous, and newborn cord genome-wide mean methylation (GMM), and birthweight.ResultsAfter cell type correction, we found multiple pairwise associations between war trauma, maternal GMM, maternal methylation at DNMT1, DNMT3A, TET3, and MBD2, and birthweight.ConclusionsThe association of maternal GMM and maternal methylation at DNMT1, DNMT3A, TET3, and MBD2 is consistent with the role of these genes in establishing, maintaining and altering genome-wide methylation patterns, in some cases in response to stress. DNMT1 produces one of the primary enzymes that reproduces methylation patterns during DNA replication. DNMT3A and TET3 have been implicated in genome-wide hypomethylation in response to glucocorticoid hormones. Although we cannot determine the directionality of the genic and genome-wide changes in methylation, our results suggest that altered methylation of specific methylation genes may be part of the molecular mechanism underlying the human biological response to stress.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:30:33.209363-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23341
  • Ethnic derivation of the Ainu inferred from ancient mitochondrial DNA data
    • Authors: Noboru Adachi; Tsuneo Kakuda, Ryohei Takahashi, Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Ken-ichi Shinoda
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Ainu, the indigenous people living on the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, have long been a focus of anthropological interest because of their cultural, linguistic, and physical identity. A major problem with genetic studies on the Ainu is that the previously published data stemmed almost exclusively from only 51 modern-day individuals living in Biratori Town, central Hokkaido. To clarify the actual genetic characteristics of the Ainu, individuals who are less influenced by mainland Japanese, who started large-scale immigration into Hokkaido about 150 years ago, should be examined. Moreover, the samples should be collected from all over Hokkaido.Materials and methodsMitochondrial DNA haplogroups of 94 Ainu individuals from the Edo era were successfully determined by analyzing haplogroup-defining polymorphisms in the hypervariable and coding regions. Thereafter, their frequencies were compared to those of other populations.ResultsOur findings indicate that the Ainu still retain the matrilineage of the Hokkaido Jomon people. However, the Siberian influence on this population is far greater than previously recognized. Moreover, the influence of mainland Japanese is evident, especially in the southwestern part of Hokkaido that is adjacent to Honshu, the main island of Japan.DiscussionOur results suggest that the Ainu were formed from the Hokkaido Jomon people, but subsequently underwent considerable admixture with adjacent populations. The present study strongly recommends revision of the widely accepted dual-structure model for the population history of the Japanese, in which the Ainu are assumed to be the direct descendants of the Jomon people.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:02:47.369242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23338
  • Further consideration of the curvature of the Neandertal Femur
    • Authors: Tara Chapman; Victor Sholukha, Patrick Semal, Stéphane Louryan, Serge Van Sint Jan
      Abstract: ObjectivesNeandertal femora are particularly known for having a marked sagittal femoral curvature. This study examined femoral curvature in Neandertals in comparison to a modern human population from Belgium by the use of three-dimensional (3D) quadric surfaces modeled from the bone surface. 3D models provide detailed information and enabled femoral curvature to be analyzed in conjunction with other morphological parameters.Materials and Methods3D models were created from CT scans of 75 modern human femora and 7 Neandertal femora. Quadric surfaces (QS) were created from the triangulated surface vertices in all areas of interest (neck, head, diaphyseal shaft, condyles) extracted from previously placed anatomical landmarks. The diaphyseal shaft was divided into five QS shapes and curvature was measured by degrees of difference between QS shapes. Each bone was placed in a local coordinate system enabling each bone to be analyzed in the same way.ResultsThe use of 3D quadric surface fitting allowed the distribution of curvature with similarly curved femora to be analyzed and the different patterns of curvature between the two groups to be determined. The Neandertals were shown to have a higher degree of femoral curvature and a more distal point of femoral curvature than the modern human population from Belgium.ConclusionsMorphological aspects of the Neandertal femur are different from this modern human population although mainly seem unrelated to femoral curvature. The relative lack of correlations with other femoral bony morphological factors suggests femoral curvature variations may be related to other aspects.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:02:42.116107-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23334
  • An anatomical and mechanical analysis of the douc monkey (genus
           Pygathrix), and its role in understanding the evolution of brachiation
    • Authors: C. D. Byron; M. C. Granatosky, H. H. Covert
      Abstract: ObjectivesPygathrix is an understudied Asian colobine unusual among the Old World monkeys for its use of arm-swinging. Little data exists on the anatomy and mechanics of brachiation in this genus. Here, we consider this colobine to gain insight into the parallel evolution of suspensory behavior in primates.Materials and methodsThis study compares axial and appendicular morphological variables of Pygathrix with other Asian colobines. Additionally, to assess the functional consequences of Pygathrix limb anatomy, kinematic and kinetic data during arm-swinging are included to compare the douc monkey to other suspensory primates (Ateles and Hylobates).ResultsCompared to more pronograde species, Pygathrix and Nasalis share morphology consistent with suspensory locomotion such as its narrower scapulae and elongated clavicles. More distally, Pygathrix displays a gracile humerus, radius, and ulna, and shorter olecranon process. During suspensory locomotion, Pygathrix, Ateles, and Hylobates all display mechanical convergence in limb loading and movements of the shoulder and elbow, but Pygathrix uses pronated wrist postures that include substantial radial deviation during arm-swinging.DiscussionThe adoption of arm-swinging represents a major shift within at least three anthropoid clades and little data exist about its transition. Across species, few mechanical differences are observed during arm-swinging. Apparently, there are limited functional solutions to the challenges associated with moving bimanually below branches, especially in more proximal forelimb regions. Morphological data support this idea that the Pygathrix distal forelimb differs from apes more than its proximal end. These results can inform other studies of ape evolution, the pronograde to orthograde transition, and the convergent ways in which suspensory locomotion evolved in primates.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:02:12.769463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23320
  • AnthropMMD: An R package with a graphical user interface for the mean
           measure of divergence
    • Authors: Frédéric Santos
      Abstract: The mean measure of divergence is a dissimilarity measure between groups of individuals described by dichotomous variables. It is well suited to datasets with many missing values, and it is generally used to compute distance matrices and represent phenograms. Although often used in biological anthropology and archaeozoology, this method suffers from a lack of implementation in common statistical software. A package for the R statistical software, AnthropMMD, is presented here. Offering a dynamic graphical user interface, it is the first one dedicated to Smith's mean measure of divergence. The package also provides facilities for graphical representations and the crucial step of trait selection, so that the entire analysis can be performed through the graphical user interface. Its use is demonstrated using an artificial dataset, and the impact of trait selection is discussed. Finally, AnthropMMD is compared to three other free tools available for calculating the mean measure of divergence, and is proven to be consistent with them.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T06:40:40.001018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23336
  • Dental microwear textural analysis as an analytical tool to depict
           individual traits and reconstruct the diet of a primate
    • Authors: Alice M. Percher; Gildas Merceron, Gontran Nsi Akoue, Jordi Galbany, Alejandro Romero, Marie JE Charpentier
      Abstract: ObjectivesDental microwear is a promising tool to reconstruct animals' diet because it reflects the interplay between the enamel surface and the food items recently consumed. This study examines the sources of inter-individual variations in dietary habits in a free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) using a combination of feeding monitoring and in vivo dental microwear textural analysis (DMTA).MethodsWe investigated the impact of seasonality and individual traits on four DMTA parameters. In parallel, we further studied the influence of the physical properties of the food items consumed on these four parameters, using three proxies (mechanical properties, estimates of phytolith and external grit contents).ResultsWe found that seasonality, age, and sex all impact DMTA parameters but those results differ depending on the facet analyzed (crushing vs. shearing facets). Three DMTA parameters (anisotropy, complexity, and heterogeneity of complexity) appear sensitive to seasonal variations and anisotropy also differs between the sexes while textural fill volume tends to vary with age. Moreover, the physical properties of the food items consumed vary seasonally and also differ depending on individual sex and age.ConclusionConsidering the interplay between the tested variables and both dental microwear and diet, we reaffirm that food physical properties play a major role in microwear variations. These results suggest that DMTA parameters may provide valuable hints for paleoecological reconstruction using fragmentary fossil dental remains.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T09:10:42.422503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23337
  • A newborn infant chimpanzee snatched and cannibalized immediately after
           birth: Implications for “maternity leave” in wild chimpanzee
    • Authors: Hitonaru Nishie; Michio Nakamura
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate “maternity leave” from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery.Materials and methodsThe subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. The case of cannibalism was observed on December 2, 2014. We used the long-term daily attendance record of the M group chimpanzees between 1990 and 2010 to calculate the lengths of “maternity leave,” a perinatal period during which a mother chimpanzee tends to hide herself and gives birth alone.ResultsWe observed a very rare case of delivery in a wild chimpanzee group. A female chimpanzee gave birth in front of other members, and an adult male snatched and cannibalized the newborn infant immediately after birth. Using the long-term data, we demonstrate that the length of “maternity leave” is longer than that of nonmaternity leave among adult and adolescent female chimpanzees.DiscussionWe argue that this cannibalism event immediately after birth occurred due to the complete lack of “maternity leave” of the mother chimpanzee of the victim, who might lack enough experience of delivery. We suggest that “maternity leave” taken by expecting mothers may function as a possible counterstrategy against infanticide soon after delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T00:30:02.191818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23327
  • Forearm pronation efficiency in A.L. 288-1 (Australopithecus afarensis)
           and MH2 (Australopithecus sediba): Insights into their locomotor and
           manipulative habits
    • Authors: Pere Ibáñez-Gimeno; Joan Manyosa, Ignasi Galtés, Xavier Jordana, Salvador Moyà-Solà, Assumpció Malgosa
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe locomotor and manipulative abilities of australopithecines are highly debated in the paleoanthropological context. Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus sediba likely engaged in arboreal locomotion and, especially the latter, in certain activities implying manipulation. Nevertheless, their degree of arboreality and the relevance of their manipulative skills remain unclear. Here we calculate the pronation efficiency of the forearm (Erot) in these taxa to explore their arboreal and manipulative capabilities using a biomechanical approach.Materials and methodsThree-dimensional humeral images and upper limb measurements of A.L. 288-1 (Au. afarensis) and MH2 (Au. sediba) were used to calculate Erot using a previously described biomechanical model.ResultsMaximal Erot in elbow flexion occurs in a rather supinated position of the forearm in Au. afarensis, similarly to Pan troglodytes. In elbow extension, maximal Erot in this fossil taxon occurs in the same forearm position as in Pongo spp. In Au. sediba the forearm positions where Erot is maximal are largely coincident with those for Hylobatidae.ConclusionsThe pattern in Au. afarensis suggests relevant arboreal capabilities, which would include vertical climbing, although it is suggestive of poorer manipulative skills than in modern humans. The similarity between Au. sediba and Hylobatidae is difficult to interpret, but the differences between Au. sediba and Au. afarensis suggest that the capacity to rotate the forearm followed different evolutionary processes in these australopithecine species. Although functional inferences from the upper limb are complex, the observed differences between both taxa point to the existence of two distinct anatomical models.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:30:36.611852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23319
  • The development of feeding behavior in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes
    • Authors: Joel Bray; Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin N. Muller, Richard W. Wrangham, Zarin P. Machanda
      Abstract: ObjectivesPrimates have an extended period of juvenility before adulthood. Although dietary complexity plays a prominent role in hypotheses regarding the evolution of extended juvenility, the development of feeding behavior is still poorly understood. Indeed, few studies have investigated the timing and nature of feeding transitions in apes, including chimpanzees. We describe general patterns of feeding development in wild chimpanzees and evaluate predictions of the needing-to-learn hypothesis.Materials and MethodsWe analyzed 4 years of behavioral data (2010–2013) from 26 immature chimpanzees and 31 adult chimpanzees of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Specifically, we examined milestones of nutritional independence (first consumption of solid food and cessation of suckling) as well as developmental changes in feeding time, diet composition, diet breadth, and ingestion rates.ResultsChimpanzees first fed on solid food at 5.1 months and, on average, suckled until 4.8 years. Daily feeding time of immature individuals reached adult levels between 4 and 6 years, while diet composition showed minor changes with age. By juvenility (5–10 years), individuals had a complete adult diet breadth. Ingestion rates for five ripe fruit species remained below adult levels until juvenility but continued to show absolute increases into adolescence.DiscussionChimpanzees acquired adult-like patterns on all feeding measures by infancy or juvenility. These data are inconsistent with the needing-to-learn hypothesis; moreover, where delays exist, alternatives hypotheses make similar predictions but implicate physical constraints rather than learning as causal factors. We outline predictions for how future studies might distinguish between hypotheses for the evolution of extended juvenility.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:30:25.921051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23325
  • External and internal ontogenetic changes in the first rib
    • Authors: Daniel García-Martínez; Orosia García Gil, Oscar Cambra-Moo, María Canillas, Miguel A. Rodríguez, Markus Bastir, Armando González Martín
      Abstract: ObjectivesFirst ribs bear information about thorax morphology and are usually well preserved, compared to other ribs, in bone/fossil samples. Several studies have addressed ontogeny of the first rib by studying changes in bone microanatomy and rib morphology separately, but no studies have combined both approaches to study how internal and external changes covary during ontogeny. The aim of this project is to fill this gap in our knowledge.Materials and methodsWe applied 3D geometric morphometrics of sliding semilandmarks to 14 first ribs of Homo sapiens to quantify rib curvature and mid-shaft cross-section outline. Ontogenetic variation was addressed throughout a principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, we made histological sections at the mid-shaft of the same ribs and studied tissue matrix composition and compartmentalization. Finally, we performed partial least squares (PLS) and regression analyses to study covariation between rib morphology and compartmentalization variables.ResultsPCA shows that first ribs increase their curvature over the course of ontogeny and the rib midshaft becomes less rounded during ontogeny. In addition, the sternal end becomes more medially oriented during ontogeny and the relative head-tubercle distance becomes longer. Compartmentalization shows a decrease in the area occupied by mineralized tissues and an increase in the area occupied by non-mineralized tissues over the course of ontogeny, which covaries with mid-shaft cross-section shape.ConclusionsOur results show detailed variation in rib morphology along with histological changes in bone tissue compartmentalization and, for the first time, the correlation between the two. This could be related to muscle attachments on the 1st rib and also to changes in breathing mode, from diaphragmatic in perinatals to pulmonary in adults, which could also have implications for understanding thorax evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23T09:20:45.587021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23313
  • Manual function and performance in humans, gorillas, and orangutans during
           the same tool use task
    • Authors: Ameline Bardo; Raphaël Cornette, Antony Borel, Emmanuelle Pouydebat
      Abstract: ObjectivesHumans are known to possess more complex manual abilities than other primates. However, the manual abilities of primates have not been fully explored, and we still do not know if the manipulative abilities we attribute to humans are unique. The aim of this study was to compare the manual function and performance developed by humans, gorillas and orangutans while performing the same experimental tool use task.Materials and MethodsThe study was conducted on 20 humans, 6 gorillas, and 7 orangutans. Each individual had to use a tool to collect food from a maze during six experimental sessions while maintaining the same unconstrained body posture condition. We quantified the different manual techniques used and the manual performance.ResultsEach species used different techniques. Humans used bimanual grip techniques, pad-to-pad precision grasping postures, and in-hand movements involving fingertips. Gorillas used unimanual grip techniques and simple in-hand movements while orangutans used a variety of strategies (e.g., hand or mouth). With these techniques, humans performed the task better than both gorillas and orangutans (e.g., by being quicker to collect the food).DiscussionThis study highlights other ways in which humans’ manual dexterity differs from that of other species and emphasizes the distinct manipulative function of orangutans. The differences between the species could be due to the differing muscular anatomy and morphology of the hands, with hand proportion possibly placing particular biomechanical constraints on each species. The differences between gorillas and orangutans could result from their different locomotor behaviors, and we hypothesize terrestriality facilitates the development of complex manipulation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23T09:20:40.225451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23323
  • Femoral neck-shaft angle and climate-induced body proportions
    • Authors: Stephanie L. Child; Libby W. Cowgill
      Abstract: ObjectivesDeclination in femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is commonly linked to an increased level of physical activity during life. More recently, however, research suggests that lower NSA might also be explained, in part, as the mechanical consequence of differences in ecogeographic body proportions. This study tests the proposed link between NSA and climatic-induced body proportions, using relative body mass (RBM), throughout the course of development.Materials and MethodsNSA and RBM were collected for 445 immature remains from five geographic locations. NSA and RBM were standardized for age-effects. ANOVA was used to examine when population differences emerged in both NSA and RBM. Regression analyses were used to examine the pattern of relationship between NSA and RBM.ResultsPopulations differ significantly in NSA and RBM before skeletal maturity, and these differences occur early in life. While both NSA and RBM change over the course of development, no significant relationship was found between NSA and RBM for any sample, or any age category (p = .244).DiscussionIndividuals who have relatively greater relative body mass do not necessarily have lower NSA. Population differences in NSA were found to be variable, while differences in RBM remained consistent across the developmental span. Taken together, these results suggest that regardless of body proportions, the degree of declination of NSA is presumed to be similar among individuals with similar gait and ambulatory behaviors. Conversely, populations differ in RBM from birth, and these differences are consistent throughout development. These two measures likely are responsive to diffing stimuli, and any potential relationship is likely complex and multifactorial.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23T09:20:29.068309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23311
  • The effect of leprotic infection on the risk of death in medieval rural
    • Authors: K. Saige Kelmelis; Michael Holton Price, Jim Wood
      Abstract: IntroductionPaleopathological studies of leprosy in Danish skeletal collections show that many individuals suffered from this stigmatized disease during the Middle Ages. This study examines the risk of death associated with leprotic infection in individuals from the Danish rural cemetery of Øm Kloster (AD 1172–1536). Specifically, we modeled the influence of leprotic infection on age-specific mortality accounting also for sex and social status (lay person / monastic).Materials and methodsThe sample consisted of 311 adult individuals from the Øm Kloster skeletal collection housed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (ADBOU). We modeled morbidity and mortality using a three-state illness-death model with the following parameterizations for the three transition hazards: (1) nonlesioned to lesioned: constant; (2) nonlesioned to dead: Gompertz-Makeham; and (3) lesioned to dead: Gompertz-Makeham, directly proportional to the hazard of the well to dead transition.ResultsThe mortality hazard of lesioned individuals exceeded that of nonlesioned individuals by a factor of 1.4 (40%) across all individuals, 1.7 for females, 1.0 for males, 1.3 for lay persons, and 1.7 for monastics. Overall, 15% of the sample died with skeletal manifestations of leprosy, though it is likely that a higher percentage of the population carried the bacterium.DiscussionThis study improves understanding of past health and population dynamics focusing on a chronic infectious disease. The methods employed could informatively be applied to larger analyses of community health from skeletal collections by incorporating more than one disease into the multistate model and inferring individual frailty using various skeletal markers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T05:01:38.476814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23314
  • Erratum: Resolving relationships between several Neolithic and Mesolithic
           populations in Northern Eurasia using geometric morphometrics;
           164:163–183. Ekaterina Stansfield (Bulygina), Anna Rasskasova, Natalia
           Berezina and Andrei D. Soficaru. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23264
    • PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:11:23.514855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23316
  • MAHALE CHIMPANZEES: 50 YEARS OF RESEARCH Edited by Michio NakamuraKazuhiko
           HosakaNoriko ItohKoichiro Zamma Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge
           University Press. 2015. 780 pp. ISBN 978–1-107–05231-4 (Hardcover).
    • Authors: Jill D. Pruetz
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:11:06.271384-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23293
  • Testing support for the northern and southern dispersal routes out of
           Africa: an analysis of Levantine and southern Arabian populations
    • Authors: Deven N. Vyas; Ali Al-Meeri, Connie J. Mulligan
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Northern Dispersal Route (NDR) and Southern Dispersal Route (SDR) are hypothesized to have been used by modern humans in the dispersal out of Africa. The NDR follows the Nile into Northeast Africa and crosses the Red Sea into the Levant. The SDR emerges from the Horn of Africa and crosses the Bab el-Mandeb into southern Arabia. In this study, we analyze genetic data from populations living along the NDR and SDR to test support for each dispersal route.Materials and methodsWe genotyped 90 Yemeni samples on the Affymetrix Human Origins array. We analyzed these data with published data from Levantine and other southern Arabian populations as well as 157 comparative populations for a total sample size of>550,000 genetic variants from>2,000 individuals in>160 populations. We calculated outgroup f3 statistics to test how Levantine and southern Arabian populations relate to African populations living along the NDR and SDR and to other non-African populations.ResultsWe find that Levantine and southern Arabian populations bear similar genetic relationships to both African and non-African populations, thus providing no support for the use of one dispersal route over the other.DiscussionOur results are consistent with a history of gene flow between the Levant and southern Arabia. Consideration of genetic, archaeological, and paleoclimate data provide a slight edge for the SDR but, ultimately, more data are needed to definitively identify which dispersal route out of Africa was used.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T04:01:36.363254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23312
  • Semiautomatic extraction of cortical thickness and diaphyseal curvature
           from CT scans
    • Authors: Ján Dupej; Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Josef Pelikán, Jaroslav Brůžek
      Abstract: The understanding of locomotor patterns, activity schemes, and biological variations has been enhanced by the study of the geometrical properties and cortical bone thickness of the long bones measured using CT scan cross-sections. With the development of scanning procedures, the internal architecture of the long bones can be explored along the entire diaphysis. Recently, several methods that map cortical thickness along the whole femoral diaphysis have been developed. Precise homology is vital for statistical examination of the data; however, the repeatability of these methods is unknown and some do not account for the curvature of the bones. We have designed a semiautomatic workflow that improves the morphometric analysis of cortical thickness, including robust data acquisition with minimal user interaction and considering the bone curvature. The proposed algorithm also performs automatic landmark refinement and rigid registration on the extracted morphometric maps of the cortical thickness. Because our algorithm automatically reslices the diaphysis into 100 cross-sections along the medial axis and uses an adaptive thresholding method, it is usable on CT scans that contain soft tissues as well as on bones that have not been oriented specifically prior to scanning. Our approach exhibits considerable robustness to error in user-supplied landmarks, suppresses distortion caused by the curvature of the bones, and calculates the curvature of the medial axis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T04:00:50.258952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23315
  • Age at reproductive debut: Developmental predictors and consequences for
           lactation, infant mass, and subsequent reproduction in rhesus macaques
           (Macaca mulatta)
    • Authors: Florent Pittet; Crystal Johnson, Katie Hinde
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe age at which females initiate their reproductive career is a critical life-history parameter with potential consequences on their residual reproductive value and lifetime fitness. The age at reproductive debut may be intimately tied to the somatic capacity of the mother to rear her young, but relatively little is known about the influence of age of first birth on milk synthesis within a broader framework of reproductive scheduling, infant outcomes, and other life-history tradeoffs.Material and MethodsOur study investigated the predictors of age at first reproduction among 108 captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females, and associations with their milk synthesis at peak lactation, infant mass, and ability to subsequently conceive and reproduce.ResultsThe majority of females reproduced in their fourth year (typical breeders); far fewer initiated their reproductive career one year earlier or one year later (respectively early and late breeders). Early breeders (3-year-old) benefited from highly favorable early life development (better juvenile growth, high dominance rank) to accelerate reproduction, but were impaired in milk synthesis due to lower somatic resources and their own continued growth. Comparatively, late breeders suffered from poor developmental conditions, only partially compensated by their delayed reproduction, and evinced compromised milk synthesis. Typical breeders not only produced higher available milk energy but also had best reproductive performance during the breeding and birth seasons following primiparity.DiscussionHere, we refine and extend our understanding of how life-history tradeoffs manifest in the magnitude, sources, and consequences of variation in age of reproductive debut. These findings provide insight into primate reproductive flexibility in the context of constraints and opportunities.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T02:26:59.760011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23286
  • New primate locality from the early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina
    • Authors: Nelson M. Novo; Marcelo F. Tejedor, María E. Pérez, J. Marcelo Krause
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this work is to present a new primate locality with evidence that increases the knowledge on the radiation of the extinct platyrrhine primates.Materials and methodsWe studied the new specimen and compared it to specimens identified as Mazzonicebus almendrae.ResultsThe new first and second molars were comparable to Mazzonicebus almendrae in all morphological details, allowing us to allocate the new specimen to M. almendrae and add comments on morphological variation in this species regarding the orientation of the labial cristae and development of the anterolingual cingulum. This new maxilla also present the first known M3 for the species.DiscussionThe new specimen increases our knowledge of the extinct platyrrhines from Patagonia. Their age and geographical distribution ranges from early to middle Miocene in an area between 40° to 47° of southern latitude.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T02:26:48.459731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23309
  • A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics
    • Authors: Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson; Anna Kjellström, Torun Zachrisson, Maja Krzewińska, Veronica Sobrado, Neil Price, Torsten Günther, Mattias Jakobsson, Anders Götherström, Jan Storå
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue.Materials and methodsGenome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual.ResultsThe genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin.DiscussionThe identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T01:20:49.334878-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23308
  • Cranial sexual dimorphism in the Kinda baboon (Papio hamadryas kindae)
    • Authors: Michelle Singleton; Brielle C. Seitelman, Joseph R. Krecioch, Stephen R. Frost
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe smallest extant member of genus Papio, the Kinda baboon exhibits low sexual dimorphism and a distinctive cranial shape. Ontogenetic scaling accounts for most cranial-shape differences within Papio, but studies have shown that the Kinda follows a separate ontogenetic trajectory. If so, its cranial-dimorphism pattern should differ from other subspecies. To evaluate this hypothesis, morphometric analysis was used to investigate cranial dimorphism in Papio.Materials and methodsThree-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 434 adult crania representing six Papio subspecies. Size- and shape-dimorphism magnitudes were quantified using centroid size and Procrustes distances. Patterns of sex- and size-related variation were explored using MAN(C)OVA, multivariate regression, and form-space PCA. Canine dimorphism was investigated using dental metrics.ResultsKinda size and shape dimorphism are significantly lower than in other Papio subspecies. The relative magnitude of Kinda shape dimorphism is similar to other southern baboons; Kinda canine dimorphism is unremarkable. MAN(C)OVA results support subspecies differences in cranial dimorphism and scaling. Allometric and dimorphism vectors differ significantly in some subspecies, and their vector-angle matrices are strongly correlated. The Kinda's allometric vector angles are divergent. Form-space PC3, summarizing size-independent dimorphism, separates the Kinda from other subspecies.DiscussionThe Kinda baboon exhibits significantly lower size and shape dimorphism than other baboons, but its relative dimorphism levels are unexceptional. The Kinda differs from other subspecies in patterns of allometry, size-related shape dimorphism, and residual shape dimorphism. Kinda facial shape is “masculinized” relative to size, especially in females, suggesting female sexual selection contributed to the evolution of Kinda dimorphism.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:15:12.298343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23304
  • Transition to agriculture in South-Eastern Arabia: Insights from oral
    • Authors: Olivia Munoz
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn Southeast (SE) Arabia, agriculture is supposed to expand around 3000 BC, but its tempo and its actual role in populations' subsistence is still debated by archaeologists. Here, we compare dental health conditions of 11 skeletal samples from coastal and inland sites, dated from the Late Neolithic (ca. 4500–3100 BC) to the Early Bronze Age (EBA), conventionally divided into Hafit (ca. 3100–2700 BC) and Umm an-Nar period (ca. 2700–2000 BC). The goal is to assess long-term trends in subsistence patterns and regional variability during the local transition to agriculture.MethodsSeven indicators of oral health and childhood stress were analyzed, including dental wear, calculus, caries, alveolar resorption, periapical lesions, ante-mortem tooth loss (AMTL), and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH).ResultsNeolithic coastal populations are globally characterized by high dental wear, high calculus frequency, high LEH frequency, and frequent periodontal disease, whereas they exhibit low abscesses and AMTL frequencies and a total absence of carious lesions. Samples from the Hafit period present high dental wear, low rates of calculus and LEH, frequent periodontal disease, combined with low abscess and AMTL frequencies and absence of caries. By contrast, samples from the Umm an-Nar period exhibit much lower dental wear, calculus and LEH rates, whereas caries, periapical lesions and AMTL frequencies increase significantly. Marked differences were observed between coastal and inland Umm an-Nar groups, the latter presenting significantly higher frequencies of caries, periapical lesions, alveolar resorption and AMTL.Discussion/ConclusionOral conditions from the Neolithic coastal populations denote a diet mainly composed of unprocessed and abrasive food, with high protein and low carbohydrate intakes, and frequent stress episodes. Although Hafit populations display some changes in oral pathologies, which indicate modifications in their lifestyle and a diversification of the diet, no markers of high carbohydrate intakes were observed in our samples. The impact of agriculture on oral health appears clearly only from the Umm an-Nar period, and is more intense inland than on the coast, where marine resources are still a main component of the diet.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:14:35.086821-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23307
  • Comparison of hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in
           mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and chimpanzees (Pan
    • Authors: Johanna Neufuss; Martha M. Robbins, Jana Baeumer, Tatyana Humle, Tracy L. Kivell
      Abstract: ObjectivesStudies on grasping and limb posture during arboreal locomotion in great apes in their natural environment are scarce and thus, attempts to correlate behavioral and habitat differences with variation in morphology are limited. The aim of this study is to compare hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in wild, habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and semi-free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to assess differences in the climbing styles that may relate to variation in hand or forelimb morphology and body size.Materials and methodsWe investigated hand use and forelimb posture during both ascent and descent vertical climbing in 15 wild mountain gorillas and eight semi-free-ranging chimpanzees, using video records obtained ad libitum.ResultsIn both apes, forelimb posture was correlated with substrate size during both ascent and descent climbing. While climbing, both apes used power grips and diagonal power grips, including three different thumb postures. Mountain gorillas showed greater ulnar deviation of the wrist during vertical descent than chimpanzees, and the thumb played an important supportive role when gorillas vertically descended lianas.DiscussionWe found that both apes generally had the same grip preferences and used similar forelimb postures on supports of a similar size, which is consistent with their overall similarity in hard and soft tissue morphology of the hand and forelimb. However, some species-specific differences in morphology appear to elicit slightly different grasping strategies during vertical climbing between mountain gorillas and chimpanzees.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T06:12:40.681571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23303
  • Predictors of insubordinate aggression among captive female rhesus
    • Authors: Shannon K. Seil; Darcy L. Hannibal, Brianne A. Beisner, Brenda McCowan
      Abstract: ObjectivesCercopithicine primates tend to have nepotistic hierarchies characterized by predictable, kinship-based dominance. Although aggression is typically directed down the hierarchy, insubordinate aggression does occur. Insubordination is important to understand because it can precipitate social upheaval and undermine group stability; however, the factors underlying it are not well understood. We test whether key social and demographic variables predict insubordination among captive female rhesus macaques.Materials and MethodsTo identify factors influencing insubordination, multivariate analyses of 10,821 dyadic conflicts among rhesus macaque females were conducted, using data from six captive groups. A segmented regression analysis was used to identify dyads with insubordination. Negative binomial regression analyses and an information theoretic approach were used to assess predictors of insubordination among dyads.ResultsIn the best models, weight difference (w = 1.0; IRR = 0.930), age (dominant: w = 1.0, IRR = 0.681; subordinate: w = 1.0, IRR = 1.069), the subordinate's total number of allies (w = 0.727, IRR = 1.060) or non-kin allies (w = 0.273, IRR = 1.165), the interaction of the dominant's kin allies and weight difference (w = 0.938, IRR = 1.046), violation of youngest ascendancy (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.727), and the subordinate's maternal support (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.928), are important predictors of insubordination.DiscussionThese results show that both intrinsic and social factors influence insubordinate behavior. This adds to evidence of the importance of intrinsic factors and flexibility in a social structure thought to be rigid and predetermined by external factors. Further, because insubordination can precipitate social overthrow, determining predictors of insubordination will shed light on mechanisms underlying stability in nepotistic societies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T01:50:59.296488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23296
  • The characteristic mid-shaft cross-sectional shape of the ulna in Jomon
    • Authors: Yasuo Hagihara; Takashi Nara
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Jomon people were hunter-gatherers who inhabited the Japanese archipelago between 10,000 BC and 300 BC. Here, we focus on the mid-shaft cross-sectional shape of the ulna in the Jomon population and compare it with modern Japanese people.Materials and methodsJomon specimens, including 32 males and 22 females, were excavated from shell mound sites in the Pacific and Seto inland coastal area of Honshu island in the Japanese archipelago dated to the Late-to-Final Jomon phase (between 2,000 BC and 300 BC). Mid-shaft ulna cross-sectional shapes were compared with modern Japanese specimens (25 males, 21 females) using standard linear measurements and elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA). Differences from both sides of this element were compared using predicted handedness.ResultsLinear measurements and EFA results show that ulna shape of both sexes within the Jomon population are relatively larger in the antero-posterior direction and have more developed posterior borders than modern Japanese males and females. No significant differences were observed between Jomon sexes based on the predicted dominant side, but differences were evident in the predicted nondominant side. At the same time, bilateral differences were recognized in Jomon females, because of a lower level of posterior border development in the predicted nondominant side compared to the dominant side.DiscussionShape differences between Jomon people and modern Japanese can be explained by variation in the habitual loading of the ulna. Sexual dimorphism in ulna shape within the Jomon population suggests division of labor differences.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T01:50:20.380287-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23300
  • Occurrence of osteon banding in adult human cortical bone
    • Authors: Janna M. Andronowski; Isaac V. Pratt, David M. L. Cooper
      Abstract: ObjectivesDifferentiating human from nonhuman fragmented bone is often accomplished using histological methods if the observation of gross morphology proves insufficient. Linearly oriented primary and/or secondary osteonal systems, commonly referred to as osteon bands, are described as a strong indicator of nonhuman bone, particularly the occurrence of multiple bands. This phenomenon has been conventionally documented using two-dimensional (2D) histology, but such analyses are destructive and typically limited to a single cross-section. Progressive developments in high-resolution X-ray imaging, however, allow for the nondestructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of bone microarchitecture. The primary objective of the current research was to visualize and document the occurrence of osteon banding in adult human cortical bone using high-resolution synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomography (SR micro-CT).Materials and methodsSynchrotron radiation-based micro-CT scanning was carried out at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) national synchrotron facility. The presence or absence of osteon banding was visualized in human skeletal elements from three adult males with representative samples from all regions of the skeleton (n = 129). If present, osteon banding was described and quantified.ResultsResults indicated that 23 of 129 human cortical bone specimens exhibited osteon banding, representing 18% of the sample. Linear arrangements of primary and/or secondary osteons were observed in the following skeletal elements: temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital, clavicle, mandible, femur, tibia, ulna, second metatarsal, and sacrum.DiscussionThe present work represents the first 3D examination of inter-element variation in osteon banding in adult human cortical bone. Findings indicate that the presence of multiple osteon bands in a single specimen is not diagnostic of nonhuman bone. As such, osteon banding categorically should not be taken as evidence of nonhuman bone in forensic and archaeological contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:56:00.436029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23297
  • Relative tooth size at birth in primates: Life history correlates
    • Authors: Timothy D. Smith; Magdalena N. Muchlinski, Wade R. Bucher, Christopher J. Vinyard, Christopher J. Bonar, Sian Evans, Lawrence E. Williams, Valerie B. DeLeon
      Abstract: ObjectivesDental eruption schedules have been closely linked to life history variables. Here we examine a sample of 50 perinatal primates (28 species) to determine whether life history traits correlate with relative tooth size at birth.Materials and methodsNewborn primates were studied using serial histological sectioning. Volumes of deciduous premolars (dp2–dp4), replacement teeth (if any), and permanent molars (M1–2/3) of the upper jaw were measured and residuals from cranial length were calculated with least squares regressions to obtain relative dental volumes (RDVs).ResultsRelative dental volumes of deciduous or permanent teeth have an unclear relationship with relative neonatal mass in all primates. Relative palatal length (RPL), used as a proxy for midfacial size, is significantly, positively correlated with larger deciduous and permanent postcanine teeth. However, when strepsirrhines alone are examined, larger RPL is correlated with smaller RDV of permanent teeth. In the full sample, RDVs of deciduous premolars are significantly negatively correlated with relative gestation length (RGL), but have no clear relationship with relative weaning age. RDVs of molars lack a clear relationship with RGL; later weaning is associated with larger molar RDV, although correlations are not significant. When strepsirrhines alone are analyzed, clearer trends are present: longer gestations or later weaning are associated with smaller deciduous and larger permanent postcanine teeth (only gestational length correlations are significant).DiscussionOur results indicate a broad trend that primates with the shortest RGLs precociously develop deciduous teeth; in strepsirrhines, the opposite trend is seen for permanent molars. Anthropoids delay growth of permanent teeth, while strepsirrhines with short RGLs are growing replacement teeth concurrently. A comparison of neonatal volumes with existing information on extent of cusp mineralization indicates that growth of tooth germs and cusp mineralization may be selected for independently.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:49.591828-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23302
  • Heritability and genetic integration of tooth size in the South Carolina
    • Authors: Christopher M. Stojanowski; Kathleen S. Paul, Andrew C. Seidel, William N. Duncan, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis article provides estimates of narrow-sense heritability and genetic pleiotropy for mesiodistal tooth dimensions for a sample of 20th century African American individuals. Results inform biological distance analysis and offer insights into patterns of integration in the human dentition.Materials and MethodsMaximum mesiodistal crown dimensions were measured using Hillson-FitzGerald calipers on 469 stone dental casts from the Menegaz-Bock Collection. Narrow-sense heritability estimates and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using SOLAR 8.1.1 with covariate screening for age, sex, age*sex interaction, and birth year.ResultsHeritability estimates were moderate (∼0.10 – 0.90; h2 mean = 0.51) for most measured variables with sex as the only significant covariate. Patterns of genetic correlation indicate strong integration across tooth classes, except molars. Comparison of these results to previously published work suggests lower overall heritability relative to other human populations and much stronger genetic integration across tooth classes than obtained from nonhuman primate genetic pleiotropy estimates.ConclusionsThese results suggest that the high heritabilities previously published may reflect overestimates inherent in previous study designs; as such the standard estimate of 0.55 used in biodistance analyses may not be appropriate. For the Gullah, isolation and endogamy coupled with elevated levels of physiological and economic stress may suppress narrow-sense heritability estimates. Pleiotropy analyses suggest a more highly integrated dentition in humans than in other mammals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:38.792193-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23290
  • Variation in human gape cycle kinematics and occlusal topography
    • Authors: Myra F. Laird
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study tested hypotheses relating intraspecific variation in occlusal morphology and intraspecific variation in jaw movements during feeding. Gape cycle kinematic variation was hypothesized to correlate with gape cycle number within a chewing sequence as well as with food toughness and stiffness. Gape cycle kinematic variation was also hypothesized to correlate with variation in occlusal area, slope, and volume.Methods and MaterialsTwenty-six adult human subjects chewed four foods with varying material properties while their jaw movements were recorded using three-dimensional coordinates of facial markers captured with a Vicon camera system. Post-canine occlusal morphology of each subject was quantified in ArcGIS using dental topographic analysis of dental casts.ResultsGape cycle duration did not vary with gape cycle number, food toughness, or food stiffness. Gape cycle vertical and lateral displacement correlated negatively with gape cycle number, while foods with higher toughness and Young's modulus had greater jaw vertical and lateral displacement. Subjects with steeper occlusal slopes had longer gape cycle durations and greater amounts of vertical displacement during the slow closing phase of the gape cycle.DiscussionThe results suggest that gape cycle durations are relatively consistent despite changes in food properties and gape cycle number, while occlusal slope affects gape cycle duration and vertical displacement during inferred occlusal contact. However, gape cycle number and bolus properties explain greater amounts of kinematic variation than does occlusal morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:34.022543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23298
  • Energetic cost of walking in fossil hominins
    • Authors: M. Vidal-Cordasco; A. Mateos, G. Zorrilla-Revilla, O. Prado-Nóvoa, J. Rodríguez
      Abstract: ObjectiveMany biomechanical studies consistently show that a broader pelvis increases the reaction forces and bending moments across the femoral shaft, increasing the energetic costs of unloaded locomotion. However, a biomechanical model does not provide the real amount of metabolic energy expended in walking. The aim of this study is to test the influence of pelvis breadth on locomotion cost and to evaluate the locomotion efficiency of extinct Pleistocene hominins.Material and MethodsThe current study measures in vivo the influence of pelvis width on the caloric cost of locomotion, integrating anthropometry, body composition and indirect calorimetry protocols in a sample of 46 subjects of both sexes.ResultsWe show that a broader false pelvis is substantially more efficient for locomotion than a narrower one and that the influence of false pelvis width on the energetic cost is similar to the influence of leg length. Two models integrating body mass, femur length and bi-iliac breadth are used to estimate the net and gross energetic costs of locomotion in a number of extinct hominins. The results presented here show that the locomotion of Homo was not energetically more efficient than that of Australopithecus and that the locomotion of extinct Homo species was not less efficient than that of modern Homo sapiens.DiscussionThe changes in the anatomy of the pelvis and lower limb observed with the appearance of Homo ergaster probably did not fully offset the increased expenditure resulting from a larger body mass. Moreover, the narrow pelvis in modern humans does not contribute to greater efficiency of locomotion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:29.56307-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23301
  • A test of the optimal iron hypothesis among breastfeeding Ariaal mothers
           in northern Kenya
    • Authors: Masako Fujita; Katherine Wander
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe optimal iron hypothesis posits a trade-off in iron nutrition—iron deficiency restricts iron available to infectious agents, protecting against severe infection, but also compromises immune defense—such that mild-to-moderate iron deficiency may be more adaptive than either iron-replete or severe deficiency in environments with high infectious disease load. This hypothesis has not been tested among adults.Materials and MethodsA secondary analysis of data and specimens from 220 lactating mothers in northern Kenya was conducted. Elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP > 2 or>5 mg/l) was utilized to identify prevalent subclinical infection/inflammation. Iron deficiency was identified with transferrin receptor in archived dried blood spots (TfR > 5.0 mg/l). The absence of iron deficiency or anemia (Hemoglobin  2 mg/l: adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.30; p = 0.02; for CRP > 5 mg/l: aOR = 0.27; p = 0.10), compared to the iron replete state. The protective effect of IDE differed in the presence of vitamin A deficiency or underweight.ConclusionsWe interpret these patterns as tentative support for the optimal iron hypothesis in breastfeeding women in the infectious disease ecology of northern Kenya. Iron deficiency may interact in important ways with other forms of malnutrition that are known to affect immune protection.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T01:55:20.961823-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23299
  • Erratum: Agerinia smithorum sp. nov., a new early Eocene primate from the
           Iberian Peninsula; 161: 116–124. Joan Femenias-Gual, Raef
           Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó and Salvador Moyà-Solà. DOI:
    • PubDate: 2017-08-11T01:10:24.965258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23289
  • Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval
    • Authors: Kathryn Krakowka
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050–1550 AD).Materials and MethodsIn total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85).ResultsThe overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault.DiscussionUsing both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T02:00:30.54784-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23288
  • OH 83: A new early modern human fossil cranium from the Ndutu beds of
           Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
    • Authors: Whitney B. Reiner; Fidelis Masao, Sabrina B. Sholts, Agustino Venance Songita, Ian Stanistreet, Harald Stollhofen, R.E. Taylor, Leslea J. Hlusko
      Abstract: ObjectiveHerein we introduce a newly recovered partial calvaria, OH 83, from the upper Ndutu Beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We present the geological context of its discovery and a comparative analysis of its morphology, placing OH 83 within the context of our current understanding of the origins and evolution of Homo sapiens.Materials and methodsWe comparatively assessed the morphology of OH 83 using quantitative and qualitative data from penecontemporaneous fossils and the W.W. Howells modern human craniometric dataset.ResultsOH 83 is geologically dated to ca. 60–32 ka. Its morphology is indicative of an early modern human, falling at the low end of the range of variation for post-orbital cranial breadth, the high end of the range for bifrontal breadth, and near average in frontal length.DiscussionThere have been numerous attempts to use cranial anatomy to define the species Homo sapiens and identify it in the fossil record. These efforts have not met wide agreement by the scientific community due, in part, to the mosaic patterns of cranial variation represented by the fossils. The variable, mosaic pattern of trait expression in the crania of Middle and Late Pleistocene fossils implies that morphological modernity did not occur at once. However, OH 83 demonstrates that by ca. 60–32 ka modern humans in Africa included individuals that are at the fairly small and gracile range of modern human cranial variation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T05:16:16.341773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23292
  • Post-weaning diet in archaeological human populations: A meta-analysis of
           carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of child skeletons
    • Authors: Takumi Tsutaya
      Abstract: ObjectivesChildhood is a unique stage in human life history, in which subadults have completed their weaning process but are still dependent on older individuals for survival. Although the importance of food provisioning during childhood has been intensively discussed, childhood diet in the past has rarely been studied in a systematic manner.MethodsIn this study, a meta-analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of post-weaning children (PWC) in Holocene human populations around the world is presented. The isotope ratios of PWC were standardized with those of adult females and males in the same population, and they were analyzed in terms of the difference in subsistence.ResultsResults of this study indicate that diets of PWC and adults were generally similar (most differences were within the range of ±1‰), which is consistent with the universal feature of food provisioning to PWC in humans. In hunter—gatherer populations, there is no significant difference between PWC and adult isotope ratios. In non-hunter—gatherer populations, however, PWC probably consumed significantly larger proportions of foods from lower trophic levels than did the adults, and such foods would be terrestrial C3 plants.ConclusionsPotential factors relating to the dietary differences among PWC and adults are presented from a perspective of balance between food provisioning and self-acquisition by PWC. Significant isotopic differences between PWC and adults in non-hunter—gatherer populations revealed in this study have implications for declined health during the subsistence transition in Holocene, isotopic studies using human tooth enamel, and “δ15N dip” of subadults after weaning.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T05:15:29.786807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23295
  • The genetic admixture in Tibetan-Yi Corridor
    • Authors: Hong-Bing Yao; Senwei Tang, Xiaotian Yao, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Wanhu Zhang, Zhiyan Xie, Qiajun Du, Liying Ma, Shuoyun Wei, Xue Gong, Zilong Zhang, Quanfang Li, Bingying Xu, Hu-Qin Zhang, Gang Chen, Chuan-Chao Wang
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Tibetan-Yi Corridor located on the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau is suggested to be the key region for the origin and diversification of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations and the main route of the peopling of the Plateau. However, the genetic history of the populations in the Corridor is far from clear due to limited sampling in the northern part of the Corridor.Materials and methodsWe collected blood samples from 10 Tibetan and 10 Han Chinese individuals from Gansu province and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).ResultsOur data revealed that the populations in the Corridor are all admixed on a genetic cline of deriving ancestry from Tibetans on the Plateau and surrounding lowland East Asians. The Tibetan and Han Chinese groups in the north of the Plateau show significant evidence of low-level West Eurasian admixture that could be probably traced back to 600∼900 years ago.DiscussionWe conclude that there have been huge population migrations from surrounding lowland onto the Tibetan Plateau via the Tibetan-Yi Corridor since the initial formation of Tibetans probably in Neolithic Time, which leads to the current genetic structure of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T04:35:32.160607-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23291
  • A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of
           migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history
    • Authors: Kathryn Grow Allen; Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel
      Abstract: ObjectivesDebate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data.Materials and MethodsCraniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D2-matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian.ResultsAffinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns.DiscussionThe results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T02:26:08.165651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23287
  • Cover & Editorial Board
    • Pages: 455 - 456
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T01:22:33.81315-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23097
  • Issue Information – Table of Contents
    • Pages: 647 - 648
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T01:22:35.855493-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23328
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