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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1589 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1589 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 419, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 247, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Physical Anthropology
  [SJR: 1.41]   [H-I: 88]   [37 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9483 - ISSN (Online) 1096-8644
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Detection of mitochondrial haplogroups in a small avar-slavic population
           from the eigth–ninth century AD
    • Authors: Lukáš Šebest; Marian Baldovič, Adam Frtús, Csaba Bognár, Klaudia Kyselicová, Ľudevít Kádasi, Radoslav Beňuš
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn the sixth century AD, Avars came to Central Europe from middle Eurasian steppes and founded a strong Empire called the Avar Khagante (568–799/803 AD) in the Pannonian basin. During the existence of this empire, they undertook many military and pugnacious campaigns. In the seventh century, they conquered the northern territory inhabited by Slavs, who were further recruited in Avar military and were commissioned with obtaining food supplies. During almost 200 years of Avar domination, a significant influence by the Avar culture (especially on the burial rite) and assimilation with indigenous population (occurrence of “East Asian”cranial features) could be noticed in this mixed area, which is supported by achaeological and anthropologcal research. Therefore we expected higher incidence of east Eurasian haplogroups (introduced by Avars) than the frequencies detected in present-day central European populations.Materials and methodsMitochondrial DNA from 62 human skeletal remains excavated from the Avar-Slavic burial site Cífer-Pác (Slovakia) dated to the eighth and ninth century was analyzed by the sequencing of hypervariable region I and selected parts of coding region. Obtained haplotypes were compared with other present-day and historical populations and genetic distances were calculated using standard statistical method.Results and discussionIn total, the detection of mitochondrial haplogroups was possible in 46 individuals. Our results prooved a higher frequency of east Eurasian haplogroups in our analyzed population (6.52%) than in present-day central European populations. However, it is almost three times lower than the frequency of east Eurasian haplogroups detected in other medieval Avar populations. The statistical analysis showed a greater similarity and the lowest genetic distances between the Avar-Slavic burial site Cifer-Pac and medieval European populations than the South Siberian, East and Central Asian populations.ConclusionOur results indicate that the transfer of Avar genetic variation through their mtDNA was rather weak in the analyzed mixed population.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T05:55:34.611015-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23380
  • The continuing misuse of null hypothesis significance testing in
           biological anthropology
    • Authors: Richard J Smith
      Abstract: There is over 60 years of discussion in the statistical literature concerning the misuse and limitations of null hypothesis significance tests (NHST). Based on the prevalence of NHST in biological anthropology research, it appears that the discipline generally is unaware of these concerns. The p values used in NHST usually are interpreted incorrectly. A p value indicates the probability of the data given the null hypothesis. It should not be interpreted as the probability that the null hypothesis is true or as evidence for or against any specific alternative to the null hypothesis. P values are a function of both the sample size and the effect size, and therefore do not indicate whether the effect observed in the study is important, large, or small. P values have poor replicability in repeated experiments. The distribution of p values is continuous and varies from 0 to 1.0. The use of a cut-off, generally p ≤ 0.05, to separate significant from nonsignificant results, is an arbitrary dichotomization of continuous variation. In 2016, the American Statistical Association issued a statement of principles regarding the misinterpretation of NHST, the first time it has done so regarding a specific statistical procedure in its 180-year history. Effect sizes and confidence intervals, which can be calculated for any data used to calculate p values, provide more and better information about tested hypotheses than p values and NHST.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T05:50:48.704658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23399
  • Body mass prediction from femoral volume and sixteen other femoral
           variables in the elderly: BMI and adipose tissue effects
    • Authors: Tony Chevalier; Jan Pieter Clarys, Philippe Lefèvre, Jean-Pol Beauthier, Stéphane Louryan, Erik Cattrysse
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe frequently used prediction equations of body mass do not seem appropriate for elderly individuals. Here, we establish the relationship between femoral dimensions and known body mass in elderly individuals in order to develop prediction formulas and identify the factors affecting their accuracy.Materials and MethodsThe body mass linear least-squares regression is based on 17 femoral dimensions, including femoral volume, and 66 individuals. Body proportion and composition effects on accuracy are analyzed by means of the body mass index (BMI) and on a subset sample (n = 25), by means of the masses of adipose, bone and muscle tissues.ResultsMost variables significantly reflect body mass. Among them, six dimensions (e.g., biepicondylar breadth, femoral volume, and head femoral diameter) present percent standard errors of estimate ranging from 9.5 to 11% (r = 0.72–0.81) in normal BMI samples. Correlations are clearly lower in samples with normal and abnormal BMI [r = 0.38–0.58; % of standard error of estimate (SEE) = 17.3–19.6%] and not significantly correlated in females (femoral volume) who present high proportions of abnormal BMI and adipose tissue. In the subset, femoral volume is well correlated with bone mass (r = 0.88; %SEE = 7.9%) and lean body mass (r = 0.67; %SEE = 17.2%).DiscussionOur body mass estimation equations for elderly individuals are relevant since relatively low correlations are recurrent in studies using younger individuals of known body mass. However, age, sex, lifestyle, and skeleton considerations of studied populations can provide information about the relevance of the body mass estimation, which is dependent on the BMI classification and the proportion of adipose tissue. Our general considerations can be used for studies of younger individuals.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T05:50:35.082215-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23396
  • Unexpected terrestrial hand posture diversity in wild mountain gorillas
    • Authors: Nathan E Thompson; Kelly R Ostrofsky, Shannon C McFarlin, Martha M Robbins, Tara S Stoinski, Sergio Almécija
      Abstract: ObjectivesGorillas, along with chimpanzees and bonobos, are ubiquitously described as ‘knuckle-walkers.’ Consequently, knuckle-walking (KW) has been featured pre-eminently in hypotheses of the pre-bipedal locomotor behavior of hominins and in the evolution of locomotor behavior in apes. However, anecdotal and behavioral accounts suggest that mountain gorillas may utilize a more complex repertoire of hand postures, which could alter current interpretations of African ape locomotion and its role in the emergence of human bipedalism. Here we documented hand postures during terrestrial locomotion in wild mountain gorillas to investigate the frequency with which KW and other hand postures are utilized in the wild.Materials and methodsMultiple high-speed cameras were used to record bouts of terrestrial locomotion of 77 habituated mountain gorillas at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Uganda) and Volcanoes National Park (Rwanda).ResultsWe captured high-speed video of hand contacts in 8% of the world's population of mountain gorillas. Our results reveal that nearly 40% of these gorillas used “non-KW” hand postures, and these hand postures constituted 15% of all hand contacts. Some of these “non-KW” hand postures have never been documented in gorillas, yet match hand postures previously identified in orangutans.DiscussionThese results highlight a previously unrecognized level of hand postural diversity in gorillas, and perhaps great apes generally. Although present at lower frequencies than KW, we suggest that the possession of multiple, versatile hand postures present in wild mountain gorillas may represent a shared feature of the African ape and human clade (or even great ape clade) rather than KW per se.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T04:46:29.913563-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23404
  • Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone
           cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and
           physique from the skeleton
    • Authors: Emma Pomeroy; Alison Macintosh, Jonathan C.K. Wells, Tim J. Cole, Jay T. Stock
      Abstract: ObjectivesEstimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass.Materials and MethodsHumerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis.ResultsLean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and>33%, respectively).DiscussionLean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T04:40:48.446649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23398
  • The black legend on the Spanish presence in the low countries: Verifying
           shared beliefs on genetic ancestry
    • Authors: Maarten H. D. Larmuseau; Francesc Calafell, Sarah A. Princen, Ronny Decorte, Violet Soen
      Abstract: ObjectivesWar atrocities committed by the Spanish army in the Low Countries during the 16th century are so ingrained in the collective memory of Belgian and Dutch societies that they generally assume a signature of this history to be present in their genetic ancestry. Historians claim this assumption is a consequence of the so-called “Black Legend” and negative propaganda portraying and remembering Spanish soldiers as extreme sexual aggressors. The impact of the presence of Spaniards during the Dutch Revolt on the genetic variation in the Low Countries has been verified in this study.Materials and methodsA recent population genetic analysis of Iberian-associated Y-chromosomal variation among Europe is enlarged with representative samples of Dutch (N = 250) and Flemish (N = 1,087) males. Frequencies of these variants are also compared between donors whose oldest reported paternal ancestors lived in—nowadays Flemish—cities affected by so-called Spanish Furies (N = 116) versus other patrilineages in current Flemish territory (N = 971).ResultsThe frequencies of Y-chromosomal markers Z195 and SRY2627 decline steeply going north from Spain and the data for the Flemish and Dutch populations fits within this pattern. No trend of higher frequencies of these variants has been found within the well-ascertained samples associated with Spanish Fury cities.DiscussionAlthough sexual aggression did occur in the 16th century, these activities did not leave a traceable “Spanish” genetic signature in the autochthonous genome of the Low Countries. Our results support the view that the ‘Black Legend’ and historical propaganda on sexual aggression have nurtured today's incorrect assumptions regarding genetic ancestry.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T22:10:42.179083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23409
  • Fiber type composition of epaxial muscles is geared toward facilitating
           rapid spinal extension in the leaper Galago senegalensis
    • Authors: Emranul Huq; Andrea B. Taylor, Zuowei Su, Christine E. Wall
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe hypothesized that the vertical leaper Galago senegalensis will have epaxial extensor muscles with a fast fiber phenotype to facilitate rapid spinal extension during leaping in comparison to the slow-moving quadruped Nycticebus coucang. To test this, we determined the percentage of fiber cross-sectional area (%CSA) devoted to Type 2 fibers in epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis compared to those of N. coucang.Materials and methodsImmunohistochemistry was used to identify Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers in iliocostalis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles of G. senegalensis (n = 3) and N. coucang (n = 3). Serial muscle sections were used to estimate and compare proportions, cross-sectional areas (CSAs), and %CSAs of Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers between species.ResultsEpaxial muscles of G. senegalensis were comprised predominantly of Type 2 fibers with large CSAs (%CSA range ≈ 83–94%; range of mean CSA = 1,218–1,586 μm2). N. coucang epaxial muscles were comprised predominantly Type 1 fibers with large CSAs (%CSA range ≈ 69–77%; range of mean CSA = 983–1,220 μm2).DiscussionThe predominance of Type 2 fibers in G. senegalensis epaxial muscles facilitates rapid muscle excursion and spinal extension during leaping, and is consistent with their relatively long muscle fibers. The predominance of Type 1 fibers in N. coucang epaxial muscles may aid in maintaining stable postures during bridging and cantilevering behaviors characteristic of slow-climbing. These histochemical characteristics highlight the major divergent locomotor repertoires of G. senegalensis and N. coucang.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T02:16:22.559124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23405
  • Great ape walking kinematics: Implications for hominoid evolution
    • Authors: Emma M. Finestone; Mary H. Brown, Stephen R. Ross, Herman Pontzer
      Abstract: ObjectivesGreat apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics.MethodsHigh-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp. N = 6) walking over-ground at self-selected speeds were used to determine the timing of limb touch-down, take-off, and to measure joint and segment angles at touch-down, midstance, and take-off.ResultsThe great apes in our study showed broad kinematic and spatiotemporal similarity in quadrupedal walking. Size-adjusted walking speed was the strongest predictor of gait variables. Body mass had a negligible effect on variation in joint and segment angles, but stride frequency did trend higher among larger apes in analyses including size-adjusted speed. In contrast to most other primates, great apes did not favor diagonal sequence footfall patterns, but exhibited variable gait patterns that frequently shifted between diagonal and lateral sequences.ConclusionSimilarities in the terrestrial walking kinematics of extant great apes likely reflect their similar post-cranial anatomy and proportions. Our results suggest that the walking kinematics of orthograde, suspensory Miocene ape species were likely similar to living great apes, and highlight the utility of videographic and behavioral data in interpreting primate skeletal morphology.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T06:06:54.632055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23397
  • Population-level assessment of genetic diversity and habitat fragmentation
           in critically endangered Grauer's gorillas
    • Authors: Pauline Baas; Tom van der Valk, Linda Vigilant, Urbain Ngobobo, Escobar Binyinyi, Radar Nishuli, Damien Caillaud, Katerina Guschanski
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe critically endangered Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) has experienced an estimated 77% population decline within a single generation. Although crucial for informed conservation decisions, there is no clear understanding about population structure and distribution of genetic diversity across the species' highly fragmented range. We fill this gap by studying several core and peripheral Grauer's gorilla populations throughout their distribution range.Materials and MethodsWe generated genetic profiles for a sampling of an unstudied population of Grauer's gorillas from within the species' core range at 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and combined them with previously published and newly generated data from four other Grauer's gorilla populations, two mountain gorilla populations, and one western lowland gorilla population.ResultsIn agreement with previous studies, the genetic diversity of Grauer's gorillas is intermediate, falling between western lowland and mountain gorillas. Among Grauer's gorilla populations, we observe lower genetic diversity and high differentiation in peripheral compared with central populations, indicating a strong effect of genetic drift and limited gene flow among small, isolated forest fragments.DiscussionAlthough genetically less diverse, peripheral populations are frequently essential for the long-term persistence of a species and migration between peripheral and core populations may significantly enrich the overall species genetic diversity. Thus, in addition to central Grauer's gorilla populations from the core of the distribution range that clearly deserve conservation attention, we argue that conservation strategies aiming to ensure long-term species viability should include preserving peripheral populations and enhancing habitat connectivity.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T06:06:35.783322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23393
  • Influence of fruit and invertebrate consumption on the gut microbiota of
           wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)
    • Authors: Elizabeth K. Mallott; Katherine R. Amato, Paul A. Garber, Ripan S. Malhi
      Abstract: ObjectivesInvertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes.Materials and methodsFecal samples (n = 169) and dietary data were collected over 12 months. The V3-V5 region of microbial 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. The IM-TORNADO pipeline was used to analyze sequences.ResultsWhite-faced capuchin gut bacterial communities were characterized primarily by Firmicutes (41.6%) and Proteobacteria (39.2%). There was a significant relationship between the invertebrate diet composition of individual capuchins and their gut microbiome composition. However, there was no relationship between the fruit diet composition of individual capuchins and their gut microbiome composition, even when examining multiple timescales.DiscussionThe results of our study indicate that there is a stronger relationship between gut microbial community structure and invertebrate diet composition than between gut microbial community structure and fruit consumption. As invertebrates and other animal prey play an important role in the diet of many primates, these results give important insight into the role of faunivory in shaping the evolution of host-microbe interactions in primates.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T06:06:30.168023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23395
  • Biological distance at the Ryan Mound site
    • Authors: Elizabeth Weiss
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Ryan Mound site in California spans 2000 years and has been utilized in over 200 studies. The Ryan Mound has been assumed to be a culturally and, therefore, a biologically continuous population over time. This study attempts to determine whether adults at the Ryan Mound consisted of a continuous population over the span of three temporal periods by using nonmetric skeletal traits.Materials and MethodsThirty-eight nonmetric cranial traits and four nonmetric post-cranial traits were scored on adults. Trait correlations were assessed for sex and age using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. For bilateral traits, data were recorded for both sides, but only results from the left side are reported. Most data were recorded as present or absent. Twelve traits had scores that had more than two nominal categories, which were converted to binary values to enable mean measure of divergence (MMD) statistical analyses.ResultsAfter data reduction, 36 traits remained. Using these traits, standardized MMD analyses revealed that the oldest temporal period and the most recent temporal period individuals were significantly different.ConclusionThis study illustrates the importance of testing for biological continuity. Nonmetric studies provide a way to examine relationships within a sample to determine biological continuity. For the Ryan Mound, new populations may have moved into the region early on as part of the Meganos intrusion, or new populations may have moved into the region later, between AD 1500 and AD 1800. Comparative data from nearby sites further support the Meganos intrusion theory.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T06:06:17.949124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23392
  • Violence in paradise: Cranial trauma in the prehispanic population of Gran
           Canaria (Canary Islands)
    • Authors: Teresa Delgado-Darias; Verónica Alberto-Barroso, Javier Velasco-Vázquez
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis paper addresses the prevalence and pattern of physical violence in the prehispanic society of Gran Canaria and discusses its link with the social structure and insular context in which that people lived.Materials and Methods347 prehispanic crania from Guayadeque Ravine (575–1415 AD) have been examined in order to determine the frequency, types, location, and timing of trauma.ResultsCraniofacial injuries are present in 27.4% of the crania examined. Only 2% display perimortem trauma. Most of the injuries (84.3%) correspond to depressed blunt force trauma, with an ellipsoidal or circular shape. Most of these are in the anterior aspect of the cranium. Males are significantly more affected than females.DiscussionThe aboriginal population of Gran Canaria show a high frequency of traumatic injuries to the skull compared to other archaeological groups. Their frequent location in the anterior aspect suggests regular face-to-face confrontations. However, the lethal injuries typically occurring in large-scale combat are scarce. Practices such as ritualized combat, mentioned in ethnohistorical sources, would help to channel and mitigate inter-group conflict. The predominance of depressed blunt force trauma is in accordance with the weapons used by those populations: hand-thrown stones, clubs and sticks. The higher frequency in males indicates that they took part in direct violence more than females did. The hierarchical organization of their society may have led to frequent situations of conflict. The insular nature of a territory barely 1,500 m2 in size was a determining factor in competition for access to food resources, especially at times of climate crises or population growth.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T05:55:57.13911-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23400
  • Matriclans shape populations: Insights from the Angolan Namib Desert into
           the maternal genetic history of southern Africa
    • Authors: Sandra Oliveira; Anne-Maria Fehn, Teresa Aço, Fernanda Lages, Magdalena Gayà-Vidal, Brigitte Pakendorf, Mark Stoneking, Jorge Rocha
      Abstract: ObjectivesSouthern Angola is a poorly studied region, inhabited by populations that have been associated with different migratory movements into southern Africa. Apart from Kx'a-speaking San foragers and Bantu-speaking pastoralists, ethnographic and linguistic studies have suggested the existence of an enigmatic array of pre-Bantu communities, like the Kwepe (formerly Khoe-Kwadi speakers), Twa and Kwisi. Here, we evaluate previous peopling hypotheses by assessing the relationships between different southern Angolan populations, based on newly collected linguistic data and complete mtDNA genomes.Materials and methodsWe analyzed 295 complete mtDNA genomes and linguistic data from seven groups from the Namib Desert (Himba, Kuvale, Tjimba, Twa, Kwisi, Kwepe) and Kunene Province (!Xun), placing special emphasis on the evaluation of the genealogical consistency of the matriclanic system that characterizes most of these groups.ResultsWe found that the maternal genetic structure of all groups from the Namib Desert was strongly shaped by the consistency of their matriclanic system. The tracking of the maternal heritage enhanced population differentiation by genetic drift and is likely to have caused the divergent mtDNA profiles of the Kwepe, Twa, and Kwisi, who probably formed a single population within the spectrum of Bantu genetic variation. Model-based analyses further suggest that the dominant pastoral groups Kuvale and Himba may be grouped into a Bantu proto-population which also included the ancestors of present-day Tjimba and Herero, as well as the Khoe-Kwadi speaking Damara foragers from Namibia.DiscussionThe view from southwestern Angola offers a new perspective on the populating history of southern Africa and the Bantu expansions by showing that social stratification and different subsistence patterns are not always indicative of remnant groups, but may reflect Bantu-internal variation and ethnogenesis.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T11:07:40.800516-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23378
  • Digital radiomorphometric analysis of the frontal sinus and assessment of
           the relation between persistent metopic suture and frontal sinus
    • Authors: Silviya Nikolova; Diana Toneva, Ivan Georgiev, Nikolai Lazarov
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study aimed to establish the frequency of the frontal sinus (FS) aplasia, to compare metopic and nonmetopic series and thus to assess the relationship between the preservation of metopic suture and FS development.Materials and methodsFSs were investigated in 230 dry skulls of adult males distributed into control (137) and metopic (93) series. They were visualized through industrial digital radiography.ResultsIn the control series, the FS aplasia was observed in 12.41% of the skulls, and it was mostly unilateral (8.76%) than bilateral (3.65%). The left-sided aplasia (5.11%) slightly prevailed over the right-sided one (3.65%). In the metopic series, the aplasia was observed with a frequency of 19.35%, and the bilateral aplasia (7.53%) was rarer that the unilateral one (11.83%), while the right-sided aplasia was clearly predominant (9.68%) compared to the left-sided one (2.15%).DiscussionThe significant differences between both series showed a tendency for the persistence of metopic suture to be frequently related with FS underdevelopment in the vertical plate of the frontal bone, but in cases of pneumatization, it was preferentially on the left side. Taking into account that the cranial hypertension leads to suture diastasis and hinders development of the FS, it could be suggested that persistence of the metopic suture along with underdevelopment of the FS in nonsyndromic adults could be an expression of an elevated intracranial pressure during early development as an after-effect of certain condition.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T07:50:27.712471-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23375
  • A quantitative approach for sex estimation based on cranial morphology
    • Authors: Efthymia Nikita; Efrossyni Michopoulou
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis paper proposes a method for the quantification of the shape of sexually dimorphic cranial traits, namely the glabella, mastoid process and external occipital protuberance.Materials and methodsThe proposed method was developed using 165 crania from the documented Athens Collection and tested on 20 Cretan crania. It is based on digital photographs of the lateral view of the cranium, drawing of the profile of three sexually dimorphic structures and calculation of variables that express the shape of these structures.ResultsThe combinations of variables that provide optimum discrimination between sexes are identified by means of binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis. The best cross-validated results are obtained when variables from all three structures are combined and range from 75.8 to 85.1% and 81.1 to 94.6% for males and females, respectively. The success rate is 86.3–94.1% for males and 83.9–93.5% for females when half of the sample is used for training and the rest for prediction. Correct classification for the Cretan material based upon the standards developed for the Athens sample was 80–90% for the optimum combinations of discriminant variables.DiscussionThe proposed method provides an effective way to capture quantitatively the shape of sexually dimorphic cranial structures; it gives more accurate results relative to other existing methods and it does not require specialized equipment. Equations for sex estimation based on combinations of variables are provided, along with instructions on how to use the method and Excel macros for calculation of discriminant variables with automated implementation of the optimum equations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T05:55:26.576508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23376
  • A test of the preauricular sulcus as an indicator of sex
    • Authors: Jordan K. Karsten
      Abstract: ObjectivesAlthough the presence of a preauricular sulcus is often cited as an indicator of female sex, very little research has been conducted to substantiate this claim. This article examines both the relationship between the incidence and morphology of the preauricular sulcus and sex.Materials and methodsA total of 500 left ossa coxae from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection belonging to 261 males and 239 females were examined to investigate the relationship between the preauricular sulcus and sex. The sample includes both American Blacks and Whites. Each individual was scored based on groove presence and morphology. Differences between the sexes in terms of overall prevalence and morphology were investigated using chi-squared tests. Additionally, possible relationships between ancestry and the manifestation of the preauricular sulcus were investigated using multiple regression analysis.ResultsOverall, the presence or absence of the preauricular sulcus resulted in correct sex assessment in 75.8% of ossa coxae. However, the accuracy differed between the sexes, with 62.84% of males and 89.96% of females being assessed correctly. Males were significantly more likely to display a short, narrow sulcus (score 4) than females, whereas females were observed to be significantly more likely to have a wide, long sulcus. Ancestry was not related to sulcus manifestation.DiscussionThe results presented here suggest that the presence of a preauricular sulcus should not be considered positive proof of female sex. However, the complete lack of a sulcus could be considered suggestive of male sex.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T04:11:34.921055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23372
  • Age estimation in older adults: Use of pulp/tooth ratios calculated from
           tooth sections
    • Authors: Lori D'Ortenzio; Tracy Prowse, Michael Inskip, Bonnie Kahlon, Megan Brickley
      Abstract: ObjectivesAccurate age estimates are foundational for bioarchaeological research, yet the ability to accurately age older adult skeletons remains elusive. This study uses a new version of pulp/tooth area calculations to investigate chronological age of older archaeological individuals.Materials and MethodsPulp/tooth area ratios were calculated on modern control teeth (n = 10) that were first radiographed and then sectioned for comparative analysis. Pulp/tooth area ratios were determined on sectioned teeth using ImageJ software for: (a) modern individuals of known age (n = 26); (b) individuals from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (1821–1874) with documented age (n = 50); and (c) Belleville individuals with skeletally estimated age (n = 122).ResultsCalculations from tooth sections on modern teeth (n = 10) resulted in a mean absolute error (MAE) of ±3.9 years, whereas the radiographic method for the same teeth had an MAE of ±14.45 years. Results indicate that sectioned pulp/tooth area ratios are a significant predictor of chronological age (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T04:11:25.856778-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23371
  • Proceedings of the Eighty-Sixth Business Meeting of the American
           Association of Physical Anthropologists New Orleans, Louisiana April 21,
    • Authors: Anne L. Grauer
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T04:06:16.774227-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23354
  • Body size and allometric variation in facial shape in children
    • Authors: Jacinda R. Larson; Mange F. Manyama, Joanne B. Cole, Paula N. Gonzalez, Christopher J. Percival, Denise K. Liberton, Tracey M. Ferrara, Sheri L. Riccardi, Emmanuel A. Kimwaga, Joshua Mathayo, Jared A. Spitzmacher, Campbell Rolian, Heather A. Jamniczky, Seth M. Weinberg, Charles C. Roseman, Ophir Klein, Ken Lukowiak, Richard A. Spritz, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
      Abstract: ObjectivesMorphological integration, or the tendency for covariation, is commonly seen in complex traits such as the human face. The effects of growth on shape, or allometry, represent a ubiquitous but poorly understood axis of integration. We address the question of to what extent age and measures of size converge on a single pattern of allometry for human facial shape.MethodsOur study is based on two large cross-sectional cohorts of children, one from Tanzania and the other from the United States (N = 7,173). We employ 3D facial imaging and geometric morphometrics to relate facial shape to age and anthropometric measures.ResultsThe two populations differ significantly in facial shape, but the magnitude of this difference is small relative to the variation within each group. Allometric variation for facial shape is similar in both populations, representing a small but significant proportion of total variation in facial shape. Different measures of size are associated with overlapping but statistically distinct aspects of shape variation. Only half of the size-related variation in facial shape can be explained by the first principal component of four size measures and age while the remainder associates distinctly with individual measures.ConclusionsAllometric variation in the human face is complex and should not be regarded as a singular effect. This finding has important implications for how size is treated in studies of human facial shape and for the developmental basis for allometric variation more generally.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T08:11:05.592094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23356
  • The D0-14/D ratio: A new paleodemographic index and equation for
           estimating total fertility rates
    • Authors: Clare McFadden; Marc F. Oxenham
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to develop a new subadult–adult ratio for application to sites with good infant representation and to produce an equation to estimate the total fertility rate for a population based on the age-at-death ratio. A new approach is required as current methods exclude the 0–4 years age category due to presumed underenumeration of infants. While this is true for some skeletal samples, others experience good infant representation.Materials and MethodsUsing age-at-death data and total fertility rates for 52 countries from the United Nations database for the year 1960, we examined the correlation between three age-at-death ratios and the fertility rate. We also utilized linear regression to determine an equation for calculating total fertility rate from the ratio.ResultsWe achieved a correlation of 0.848 between our D0-14/D Ratio and actual fertility rates. This correlation was significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:05:45.327756-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23365
  • Proximate cause, anatomical correlates, and obstetrical implication of a
           supernumerary lumbar vertebra in humans
    • Authors: Robert G. Tague
      Abstract: ObjectivesThree issues are considered on variation in number of presacral vertebrae (PSV) in humans: (1) sexual difference in number of PSV, (2) inactivation of Hoxd-11 gene as etiology for a supernumerary lumbar vertebra, and (3) anatomical correlates of a supernumerary lumbar vertebra, including lumbar-sacral nearthrosis, and pelvic size.Materials and methodsSample was 407 skeletonized females and 1,318 males from United States; ages at death were 20 to 49 years. Two subsamples of males were used: (1) 98 with modal numbers of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae (PSV = 24) and (2) 45 with a supernumerary lumbar vertebra but modal numbers for other vertebral segments (PSV = 25). Measurements were taken of ulna, second metacarpal, vertebrae, femur, and pelvis; presence of lumbar-sacral nearthrosis was observed.ResultsAlthough 90% of females and males have 24 PSV, females have higher frequency of 23 PSV and males have higher frequency of 25 PSV. Compared to males with 24 PSV, males with 25 PSV and supernumerary lumbar vertebra show (1) no difference in anatomies associated with inactivation of Hoxd-11, and (2) higher frequency of lumbar-sacral nearthrosis and smaller pelvic inlet circumference.DiscussionSexual difference in number of PSV may be due to tempo of somite formation and Hox gene activation. Hypothesis is not supported that a supernumerary lumbar vertebra is due to inactivation of Hoxd-11. The presence of a supernumerary lumbar vertebra is associated with small pelvic inlet circumference, which can be obstetrically disadvantageous.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:05:35.536966-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23361
  • Predicting the bending properties of long bones: Insights from an
           experimental mouse model
    • Authors: Sarah J. Peacock; Brittney R. Coats, J. Kyle Kirkland, Courtney A. Tanner, Theodore Garland, Kevin M. Middleton
      Abstract: ObjectivesAnalyses of bone cross-sectional geometry are frequently used by anthropologists and paleontologists to infer the loading histories of past populations. To address some underlying assumptions, we investigated the relative roles of genetics and exercise on bone cross-sectional geometry and bending mechanics in three mouse strains: high bone density (C3H/He), low bone density (C57BL/6), and a high-runner strain homozygous for the Myh4Minimsc allele (MM).Methods and MaterialsWeanlings of each strain were divided into exercise (wheel) or control (sedentary) treatment groups for a 7-week experimental period. Morphometrics of the femoral mid-diaphysis and mechanical testing were used to assess both theoretical and ex vivo bending mechanics.ResultsAcross all measured morphological and bending traits, we found relatively small effects of exercise treatment compared to larger and more frequent interstrain differences. In the exercised group, total distance run over the experimental period was not a predictor of any morphological or bending traits. Cross-sectional geometry did not accurately predict bone response to loading.DiscussionResults from this experimental model do not support hypothesized associations among extreme exercise, cross-sectional geometry, and bending mechanics. Our results suggest that analysis of cross-sectional geometry alone is insufficient to predict loading response, and questions the common assumption that cross-sectional geometry differences are indicative of differential loading history.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T06:56:08.585959-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23363
  • Additive genetic variation in the craniofacial skeleton of baboons (genus
           Papio) and its relationship to body and cranial size
    • Authors: Jessica L. Joganic; Katherine E. Willmore, Joan T. Richtsmeier, Kenneth M. Weiss, Michael C. Mahaney, Jeffrey Rogers, James M. Cheverud
      Abstract: ObjectivesDetermining the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and genetic correlations among them is important for understanding morphological evolution patterns. We address two questions regarding papionin evolution: (1) what effect do body and cranial size, age, and sex have on phenotypic (VP) and additive genetic (VA) variation in baboon crania, and (2) how might additive genetic correlations between craniofacial traits and body mass affect morphological evolution'Materials and MethodsWe use a large captive pedigreed baboon sample to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for craniofacial dimensions (EIDs). Our models include nested combinations of the covariates listed above. We also simulate the correlated response of a given EID due to selection on body mass alone.ResultsCovariates account for 1.2–91% of craniofacial VP. EID VA decreases across models as more covariates are included. The median genetic correlation estimate between each EID and body mass is 0.33. Analysis of the multivariate response to selection reveals that observed patterns of craniofacial variation in extant baboons cannot be attributed solely to correlated response to selection on body mass, particularly in males.DiscussionBecause a relatively large proportion of EID VA is shared with body mass variation, different methods of correcting for allometry by statistically controlling for size can alter residual VP patterns. This may conflate direct selection effects on craniofacial variation with those resulting from a correlated response to body mass selection. This shared genetic variation may partially explain how selection for increased body mass in two different papionin lineages produced remarkably similar craniofacial phenotypes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T06:55:40.279466-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23349
  • A comparison of paternity data and relative testes size as measures of
           level of sperm competition in the Hominoidea
    • Authors: R. Robin Baker; Todd K. Shackelford
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe phrase “level of sperm competition” is used only vaguely in the primate literature. There is also little distinction between the important elements of frequency and intensity of sperm competition, largely because the two current forms of measurement (socio-sexual system and relative testes size) are both proxies which allow neither precision nor fine distinctions. Both measures have critics, socio-sexual system in particular being branded subjective, misleading, and changeable. Testes size is considered the more reliable despite its validation resting on correlations with the other, less reliable, proxy. Recently, genetic paternity studies have been mooted to provide a potentially superior third measure of sperm competition but so far lack a formal interpretive framework. Here we use the published and relatively comprehensive genetic field studies of the Hominoidea to develop such a framework.Materials and methodsFormulae are derived to convert paternity data into a direct measure of the frequency, intensity, and overall level of sperm competition. We then compare these measures with relative testes size at the study, species, and phylogenetic levels.ResultsA significant correlation between level of sperm competition and relative testes size was obtained at each level. These correlations provide independent support for the continuing use of testes size as a proxy measure when such a measure is sufficient. However, they also suggest that paternity data and our formulae yield a viable alternative measure.DiscussionThis alternative measure based on paternity data has a number of advantages. Not only is it a potentially direct measure of the level of sperm competition but it also allows the roles of frequency and intensity to be studied separately when of interest.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:20:43.47633-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23360
  • Ancestry and dental development: A geographic and genetic perspective
    • Authors: Brunilda Dhamo; Lea Kragt, Olja Grgic, Strahinja Vucic, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Fernando Rivadeneira, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Eppo B. Wolvius, Edwin M. Ongkosuwito
      Abstract: ObjectiveIn this study, we investigated the influence of ancestry on dental development in the Generation R Study.MethodsInformation on geographic ancestry was available in 3,600 children (1,810 boys and 1,790 girls, mean age 9.81 ± 0.35 years) and information about genetic ancestry was available in 2,786 children (1,387 boys and 1,399 girls, mean age 9.82 ± 0.34 years). Dental development was assessed in all children using the Demirjian method. The associations of geographic ancestry (Cape Verdean, Moroccan, Turkish, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese Creole and Surinamese Hindustani vs Dutch as the reference group) and genetic content of ancestry (European, African or Asian) with dental development was analyzed using linear regression models.ResultsIn a geographic perspective of ancestry, Moroccan (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.28), Turkish (β = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.32), Dutch Antillean (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.41), and Surinamese Creole (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) preceded Dutch children in dental development. Moreover, in a genetic perspective of ancestry, a higher proportion of European ancestry was associated with decelerated dental development (β = −0.32; 95% CI: –.44, –.20). In contrast, a higher proportion of African ancestry (β = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.43) and a higher proportion of Asian ancestry (β = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.48) were associated with accelerated dental development. When investigating only European children, these effect estimates increased to twice as large in absolute value.ConclusionBased on a geographic and genetic perspective, differences in dental development exist in a population of heterogeneous ancestry and should be considered when describing the physiological growth in children.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T04:15:22.187382-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23351
  • Breastfeeding, weaning, and dietary practices during the Western Zhou
           Dynasty (1122–771 BC) at Boyangcheng, Anhui Province, China
    • Authors: Yang Xia; Jinglei Zhang, Fei Yu, Hui Zhang, Tingting Wang, Yaowu Hu, Benjamin T. Fuller
      Abstract: ObjectivesHere we investigate breastfeeding and weaning practices and adult dietary habits at the Western Zhou Dynasty (1122–771 BC) site of Boyangcheng (薄阳城) located in Anhui Province, China. In addition, we utilize the differences in bone collagen turnover rates between rib and long bones from the same individual to examine past life histories, such as changes in diet or residence.Materials and methodsBone collagen from both the rib and long bones (either femora or humeri) of 42 individuals was measured for stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). In addition, δ13C and δ15N values are reported for 35 animals (dogs, cows, horses, pigs, and deer).ResultsThe human δ13C values range from −20.7‰ to −12.0‰ with a mean value of −18.8 ± 1.6‰. The human δ15N values range from 9.1‰ to 13.4‰ with a mean value of 10.9 ± 1.0‰. The animals display a wide range of δ13C (−21.5‰ to −8.2‰; −15.8 ± 4.5‰) and δ15N values (4.0‰ to 9.5‰; 6.5 ± 1.8‰).ConclusionsThe adult δ13C and δ15N results indicate that mixed C3 (rice) and C4 (millet) terrestrial diets with varying levels of animal protein (mostly pigs and deer) were consumed. The elevated subadult δ15N results return to adult levels by approximately 3–4 years of age, indicating that the weaning process was completed during this period. Individuals between 2 and 10 years old, with lower δ13C and δ15N results than the adult mean, possibly consumed more plant-based diets, and this is consistent with Chinese medical teachings ∼1500 years later during the Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907). The isotopic offsets between the ribs and long bones revealed that five adults experienced dramatic dietary shifts in their later lives, switching from predominately C3/C4 to C3 diets. This research provides the first isotopic information about ancient Chinese breastfeeding and weaning practices and establishes a foundation for future studies to examine diachronic trends.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:34:42.163493-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23358
  • Tests of fit of historically-informed models of African American Admixture
    • Authors: Jessica M Gross
      Abstract: ObjectivesAfrican American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time.Materials and methodsWe used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model.ResultsThe mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported.DiscussionWe demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:34:27.381396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23343
  • Costs of reproduction are reflected in women's faces: Post-menopausal
           women with fewer children are perceived as more attractive, healthier and
           younger than women with more children
    • Authors: Urszula M. Marcinkowska; Anthony C. Little, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Ilona Nenko, Magdalena Klimek, Grazyna Jasienska
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe costs associated with reproduction (i.e., gestation, lactation, childcare) have long-term negative consequences by elevating risk of disease and reducing lifespan. We tested the hypotheses that high parity, and thus high reproductive costs bear by women, is perceived by other people when they evaluate facial appearance of health, attractiveness and age of mothers.Materials and MethodsUsing computer software we created average facial images based on real photographs of post-menopausal women with varying number of children; 3 parity categories were created (1–2, 4–5, and 7–9 children). Study participants (N = 571) were asked to choose the face they perceived as more attractive, younger and healthier via two-alternative forced choice questions asked in three randomized blocks.ResultsWomen who had given birth to fewer children were judged both by men and women as more attractive, younger and healthier than women with more children. In each category the lowest scores were received by women from highest parity category (7–9 children).DiscussionMechanisms behind the observed variation in facial appearance are not known but higher levels of oxidative stress among women with high parity may explain their faster aging and lower attractiveness in older age. These results suggest that costs of reproduction might affect women's physical appearance.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:27:51.142437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23362
  • Erratum: Differential investment in body girths by sex: Evidence from 3D
           photonic scanning in a Thai cohort; 163: 696–706. Meghan K. Shirley, Tim
           J. Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven and Jonathan C.K. Wells.
           DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23238
    • PubDate: 2017-11-13T05:27:46.208204-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23359
  • Moderate climate signature in cranial anatomy of late holocene human
           populations from Southern South America
    • Authors: Lumila Paula Menéndez
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied.Materials and MethodsThe variation in shape and size of 361 crania was studied, registering 62 3D landmarks that capture shape and size variation in the face, cranial vault, and base. Mean, minimum, and maximum annual temperature, as well as mean annual precipitation, but also diet and altitude, were matched for each population sample. A PCA, as well as spatial statistical techniques, including kriging, regression, and multimodel inference were employed.ResultsThe facial skeleton size presents a latitudinal pattern which is partially associated with temperature diversity. Both diet and altitude are the variables that mainly explain the skull shape variation, although mean annual temperature also plays a role. The association between climate factors and cranial variation is low to moderate, mean annual temperature explains almost 40% of the entire skull, facial skeleton and cranial vault shape variation, while annual precipitation and minimum annual temperature only contribute to the morphological variation when considered together with maximum annual temperature. The cranial base is the structure less associated with climate diversity.ConclusionThese results suggest that climate factors may have had a partial impact on the facial and vault shape, and therefore contributed moderately to the diversification of southern South American populations, while diet and altitude might have had a stronger impact. Therefore, cranial variation at the southern cone has been shaped both by random and nonrandom factors. Particularly, the influence of climate on skull shape has probably been the result of directional selection. This study supports that, although cranial vault is the cranial structure more associated to mean annual temperature, the impact of climate signature on morphology decreases when populations from extreme cold environments are excluded from the analysis. Additionally, it shows that the extent of the geographical scales analyzed, as well as differential sampling may lead to different results regarding the role of ecological factors and evolutionary processes on cranial morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T06:16:43.771612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23355
  • Applicability of 3D-dental reconstruction in cervical odontometrics
    • Authors: Seyedeh M. Kazzazi; Elena F. Kranioti
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to assess the accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) images in measuring cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth sizes, by comparing the values obtained by 3D virtual models from CT images with those obtained using digital calipers.Materials and methodsIn total, 530 maxillary and mandibular teeth of 51 individuals from two Iron Age sites were scanned using a Siemens Somatom sensation 64-slice computed tomography machine, and the images were reconstructed and measured. Values obtained by direct measurement served as the primary reference for cervical measurements. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was assessed by calculating technical error of measurements (TEM), relative technical error of measurements (rTEM), and the coefficient of reliability (R).ResultsResults showed that virtual cervical measurements were not significantly different from the actual measurements, and the correlation of the two measurement methods shows that the methods are comparable. Inter- and intra-observer error analysis also indicated high replicability of measurements with both measuring methods (R > 0.99). The rTEM values for all the measurements were below the 5% standards for anthropometric studies.DiscussionCT is a non-invasive technique that allows for an accurate and detailed visualization of morphological features without causing any damage to teeth. Our findings indicate that virtual odontometric analysis is a reliable method, similar to traditional physical odontometric analysis. Currently, the virtual system is likely to be more suitable for fragile specimens, such as archaeological samples.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T06:15:23.526331-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23353
  • Investigating cranial morphological variation of early human skeletal
           remains from Chile: A 3D geometric morphometric approach
    • Authors: Susan C. Kuzminsky; Omar Reyes Báez, Bernardo Arriaza, César Méndez, Vivien G. Standen, Manuel San Román, Iván Muñoz, Ángel Durán Herrera, Mark Hubbe
      Abstract: ObjectivesArchaeological and genetic research has demonstrated that the Pacific Coast was a key route in the early colonization of South America. Research examining South American skeletons>8000 cal BP has revealed differences in cranial morphology between early and late Holocene populations, which may reflect distinct migration events and/or populations. However, genetic, cultural, and some skeletal data contradict this model. Given these discrepancies, this study examines ∼9000 years of prehistory to test the hypothesis that Early skeletons have a distinct cranial morphology from later skeletons.Materials and MethodsUsing 3D digital models, craniofacial landmarks, and geometric morphometric analyses, we compared Early Holocene crania (n = 4) to later Chilean samples (n = 90) frequently absent in continental assessments of craniofacial variation. PCA, Mahalanobis distances, posterior and typicality probabilities were used to examine variation.ResultsTwo of the earliest skeletons from northern Chile show clear affinities to individuals from later sites in the same region. However, the hypothesis cannot be rejected as one Early individual from northern Chile and one individual from inland Patagonia did not always show clear affinities to coastal populations.DiscussionBiological affinities among northern populations and other regions of Chile align with genetic and archaeological data, supporting cultural and biological continuity along the Pacific Coast. In Patagonia, archaeological data are in accordance with skeletal differences between the Early inland steppe individual and coastal populations. This study incorporates 3D methods and skeletal datasets not widely used in assessments of biological affinity, thus contributing to a critical body of research examining the ancient population history of western South America.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:50:32.915052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23344
  • Brief communication: A re-evaluation of the health index of southern
           Brazilian shellmound populations
    • Authors: Mark Hubbe; Madelyn K. Green, Colleen M. Cheverko, Walter A. Neves
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe southern Brazilian shellmounds provide archaeological evidence of prolonged human activity in the coast from approximately 6000 to 1000 BP. Shellmound building populations exploited the rich coastal estuarine zones, and the human remains recovered from them are important sources of information on health and overall lifestyle of these mid-Holocene groups. Therefore, they were included in the Western Hemisphere Global History of Health project. The shellmounds contribute the highest Health Index in the Western Hemisphere, but these conclusions are based on collections that exclude postcranial remains. Here, we reconstruct the Health Index for one specific shellmound using both cranial and postcranial remains to determine whether the initial studies might misrepresent the relative health of the Brazilian shellmound builders.Materials and methodsThe Health Index was calculated for a sample of 18 complete skeletons recovered from the shellmound Porto do Rio Vermelho 02 (Santa Catarina Island, Brazil). The Heath Index was calculated with and without postcranial markers and the results are compared with the Western Hemisphere Global History of Health data.ResultsThe Health Index for Porto do Rio Vermelho 02 is lower than the reported average for American series in the Western Hemisphere Global History of Health Project and considerably lower than the original index reported for Brazilian shellmounds. This discrepancy is due to an increased prevalence of infectious disease and low stature.ConclusionsAlthough the Health Index remains a useful comparison statistic, re-evaluation of fragmentary skeletal remains demonstrates the need for caution when applying it to incomplete skeletal series.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:50:26.955839-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23346
  • The contributions of admixture and genetic drift to diversity among
           post-contact populations in the Americas
    • Authors: Anthony J. Koehl; Jeffrey C. Long
      Abstract: ObjectiveWe present a model that partitions Nei's minimum genetic distance between admixed populations into components of admixture and genetic drift. We applied this model to 17 admixed populations in the Americas to examine how admixture and drift have contributed to the patterns of genetic diversity.Materials and MethodsWe analyzed 618 short tandem repeat loci in 949 individuals from 49 population samples. Thirty-two samples serve as proxies for continental ancestors. Seventeen samples represent admixed populations: (4) African-American and (13) Latin American. We partition genetic distance, and then calculate fixation indices and principal coordinates to interpret our results. A computer simulation confirms that our method correctly estimates drift and admixture components of genetic distance when the assumptions of the model are met.ResultsThe partition of genetic distance shows that both admixture and genetic drift contribute to patterns of genetic diversity. The admixture component of genetic distance provides evidence for two distinct axes of continental ancestry. However, the genetic distances show that ancestry contributes to only one axis of genetic differentiation. The genetic distances among the 13 Latin American populations in this analysis show contributions from both differences in ancestry and differences in genetic drift. By contrast, the genetic distances among the four African American populations in this analysis owe mostly to genetic drift because these groups have similar fractions of European and African ancestry.ConclusionThe genetic structure of admixed populations in the Americas reflects more than admixture. We show that the history of serial founder effects constrains the impact of admixture on allele frequencies to a single dimension. Genetic drift in the admixed populations imposed a new level of genetic structure onto that created by admixture.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:35:25.511246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23347
  • A comparative analysis of microscopic alterations in modern and ancient
           undecalcified and decalcified dry bones
    • Authors: Valentina Caruso; Marco Cummaudo, Emanuela Maderna, Annalisa Cappella, Giorgio Caudullo, Valentina Scarpulla, Cristina Cattaneo
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe present study aims to evaluate the preservation of the microstructure of skeletal remains collected from four different known burial sites (archaeological and contemporary). Histological analysis on undecalcified and decalcified thin sections was performed in order to assess which of the two techniques is more affected by taphonomic insults.Materials and MethodsA histological analysis was performed on both undecalcified and decalcified thin sections of 40 long bones and the degree of diagenetic change was evaluated using transmitted and polarized light microscopy according to the Oxford Histological Index (OHI). In order to test the optical behavior of bone tissue, thin sections were observed by polarized light microscopy and the intensity of birefringence was evaluated.ResultsThe more ancient samples are generally characterized by a low OHI (0–1) with extensive microscopic focal destruction; recent samples exhibited a better preservation of bone micromorphology. When comparing undecalcified to decalcified thin sections, the latter showed an amelioration in the conservation of microscopic structure. As regards the birefringence, it was very low in all the undecalcified thin sections, whereas decalcification process seems to improve its visibility.DiscussionThe preservation of the bone microscopic structure appears to be influenced not only by age, but also by the burial context. Undecalcified bones appear to be more affected by taphonomical alterations, probably because of the thickness of the thin sections; on the contrary, decalcified thin sections proved to be able to tackle this issue allowing a better reading of the bone tissue.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:57.370181-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23348
  • High-resolution mitochondrial DNA analysis sheds light on human diversity,
           cultural interactions, and population mobility in Northwestern Amazonia
    • Authors: Leonardo Arias; Chiara Barbieri, Guillermo Barreto, Mark Stoneking, Brigitte Pakendorf
      Abstract: ObjectivesNorthwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high-resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups.MethodsWe collected saliva samples from individuals representing 40 different NWA ethnolinguistic groups and sequenced 439 complete mitochondrial genomes to an average coverage of 1,030×.ResultsThe mtDNA data revealed that NWA populations have high genetic diversity with extensive sharing of haplotypes among groups. Moreover, groups who practice linguistic exogamy have higher genetic diversity, while the foraging Nukak have lower genetic diversity. We also find that rivers play a more important role than either geography or language affiliation in structuring the genetic relationships of populations.DiscussionContrary to the view of NWA as a pristine area inhabited by small human populations living in isolation, our data support a view of high diversity and contact among different ethnolinguistic groups, with movement along rivers probably facilitating this contact. Additionally, we provide evidence for the impact of cultural practices, such as linguistic exogamy, on patterns of genetic variation. Overall, this study provides new data and insights into a remote and little-studied region of the world.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:44.624145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23345
  • Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth
           reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste
    • Authors: Phoebe R. Spencer; Katherine A. Sanders, Debra S. Judge
      Abstract: ObjectivesPopulation-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs.Materials and methodsOver an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI).ResultsRelative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood.DiscussionThis is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:35.865963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23350
  • Isotopic assessment of marine food consumption by natural-foraging chacma
           baboons on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa
    • Authors: Matthew C. Lewis; Adam G. West, M. Justin O'Riain
      Abstract: ObjectivesStable isotope analysis has been used to investigate consumption of marine resources in a variety of terrestrial mammals, including humans, but not yet in extant nonhuman primates. We sought to test the efficacy of stable isotope analysis as a tool for such studies by comparing isotope- and observation-based estimates of marine food consumption by a troop of noncommensal, free-ranging chacma baboons.Materials and methodsWe determined δ13C and δ15N values of baboon hair (n = 9) and fecal samples (n = 144), and principal food items (n = 362). These values were used as input for diet models, the outputs of which were compared to observation-based estimates of marine food consumption.ResultsFecal δ13C values ranged from −29.3‰ to −25.6‰. δ15N values ranged from 0.9‰ to 6.3‰ and were positively correlated with a measure of marine foraging during the dietary integration period. Mean (± SD) δ13C values of adult male and female baboon hairs were −21.6‰ (± 0.1) and −21.8‰ (± 0.3) respectively, and corresponding δ15N values were 5.0‰ (± 0.3) and 3.9‰ (± 0.2). Models indicated that marine contributions were ≤10% of baboon diet within any season, and contributed ≤17% of dietary protein through the year.DiscussionModel output and observational data were in agreement, both indicating that despite their abundance in the intertidal region, marine foods comprised only a small proportion of baboon diet. This suggests that stable isotope analysis is a viable tool for investigating marine food consumption by natural-foraging primates in temperate regions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:13.873059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23332
  • Behavioral implications of ontogenetic changes in intrinsic hand and foot
           proportions in olive baboons (Papio Anubis)
    • Authors: François Druelle; Jesse Young, Gilles Berillon
      Abstract: ObjectivesRelatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether ontogenetic changes in digital proportions are related to variation in voluntary grasping behaviors in baboons.Materials and methodsLongitudinal morphological and behavioral data were collected on 6 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) as they aged from 5 to 22 months. The length of digits and metapodials, measured from radiographs, were used to calculate phalangeal indices (i.e., PIs: summed length of non-distal phalanges relative to corresponding metapodial length). We also examined the allometric scaling of digital bones relative to body mass. We observed baboon positional behaviors over a 15-day period following the radiographic sessions, quantifying the frequency of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors.ResultsPIs for all digits declined during growth, a result of the differential scaling of metapodials (which scaled to body mass with isometry) versus phalanges (which scaled with negative allometry). The incidence of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors declined with age. Though we found no relationship between forelimb grasping and hand proportions, the incidence of hindlimb grasping was directly correlated with postaxial digit PIs.DiscussionOnly changes in the intrinsic proportions of the pedal digits are associated with variation in grasping activity in growing baboons. This finding accords previous biomechanical and neuroanatomical studies showing distinct functional roles for the hands and feet during primate locomotion, and has important implications for reconstructing primate locomotor evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:11.874312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23331
  • Seasonal glucocorticoid production correlates with a suite of
           small-magnitude environmental, demographic, and physiological effects in
    • Authors: M. J. E. Charpentier; L. Givalois, C. Faurie, O. Soghessa, F. Simon, P. M. Kappeler
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a neuroendocrine response to external and internal changes that animals face on a predictable or unpredictable basis. Across species, variation in glucocorticoid production has been related to such changes. In this study, we investigated the predictable, seasonal sources of variation in the levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) in a large natural population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Southern Gabon.Materials and methodsUsing five years of regular behavioral monitoring and hormone analyses performed on 1,233 fecal samples collected on 99 individuals of both sexes and all ages and General Linear Mixed Models, we studied the three main seasonal predictors of fGCM concentrations: (i) weather conditions, (ii) number of adult males, and (iii) female reproductive status. These three predictors all vary seasonally in mandrills.ResultsWe first showed an increase in fGCM concentrations during the short dry season while controlling for other factors. Pregnant females, which include the large majority of adult females at this time of the year, mainly drove this increase, although a combination of other small-magnitude, season-related effects linked to climatic events and demographic changes also partly explained this seasonal trend. Indeed, fGCM concentrations increased with both low temperatures (and low rainfall) and high numbers of adult males present in the group. These seasonal changes, while correlated, held true throughout the studied years and when restricting our analyses to a given season. Finally, we found that older mandrills showed on average higher fGCM concentrations than younger ones and that medium-ranked females exhibited the highest levels of fGCMs.DiscussionThe observed patterns suggest that plasticity in mandrills’ metabolism in the form of glucocorticoid production allows them to adjust to predictable changes in climatic, demographic and physiological conditions by mobilizing and redirecting energetic resources toward appropriate, calibrated seasonal responses.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:55:08.22898-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23329
  • Testing inter-observer reliability of the Transition Analysis aging method
           on the William M. Bass forensic skeletal collection
    • Authors: Christina L. Fojas; Jieun Kim, Jocelyn D. Minsky-Rowland, Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt
      Abstract: ObjectivesSkeletal age estimation is an integral part of the biological profile. Recent work shows how multiple-trait approaches better capture senescence as it occurs at different rates among individuals. Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical framework of analysis provides more useful age estimates. The component-scoring method of Transition Analysis (TA) may resolve many of the functional and statistical limitations of traditional phase-aging methods and is applicable to both paleodemography and forensic casework. The present study contributes to TA-research by validating TA for multiple, differently experienced observers using a collection of modern forensic skeletal cases.Materials and methodsFive researchers independently applied TA to a random sample of 58 documented individuals from the William M. Bass Forensic Skeletal Collection, for whom knowledge of chronological age was withheld. Resulting scores were input into the ADBOU software and maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were produced using the forensic prior. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability and agreement. Inaccuracy and bias were measured to gauge the magnitude and direction of difference between estimated ages and chronological ages among the five observers.ResultsThe majority of traits had moderate to excellent agreement among observers (≥0.6). The superior surface morphology had the least congruence (0.4), while the ventral symphyseal margin had the most (0.9) among scores. Inaccuracy was the lowest for individuals younger than 30 and the greatest for individuals over 60. Consistent over-estimation of individuals younger than 30 and under-estimation of individuals over 40 years old occurred. Individuals in their 30s showed a mixed pattern of under- and over-estimation among observers.DiscussionThese results support the use of the TA method by researchers of varying experience levels. Further, they validate its use on forensic cases, given the low error overall.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:03:05.6737-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23342
  • Stable isotope analysis of a pre-Hispanic Andean community: Reconstructing
           pre-Wari and Wari era diets in the hinterland of the Wari empire, Peru
    • Authors: Tiffiny A. Tung; Kelly J. Knudson
      Abstract: ObjectivesStable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis is used to reconstruct diet among a pre-Hispanic population from the Peruvian Andes to evaluate whether local foodways changed with Wari imperial influence in the region. This study also compares local diet to other Wari-era sites.Materials and methodsSamples derive from the site of Beringa in Peru and correspond primarily to pre-Wari (200–600 CE) and Wari (600–1,000 CE). We examine stable carbon isotopes from enamel (n = 29) and bone apatite (n = 22), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from bone collagen (n = 29), and we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data on archaeological and modern fauna (n = 37) and plants (n = 19) from the region.ResultsThere were no significant differences in either δ13C or δ15N from the pre-Wari to Wari era, indicating that those measurable aspects of diet did not change with Wari influence. There were no sex-based differences among juveniles (as inferred from δ13C from enamel carbonates) nor among adults (based on δ13C and δ15N from adult bone collagen). Comparisons to other Wari era sites show that Beringa individuals exhibited significantly lower δ13C values, suggesting that they consumed significantly less maize, a socially valued food. Further, the Froehle et al. (2012) stable isotope model suggests that the majority of the Beringa individuals consumed more C3 than C4 plants, and dietary protein was derived primarily from terrestrial animals and some marine resources.ConclusionsThe similar diets from pre-Wari to Wari times hint at strong local dietary traditions and durable food trade networks during the period of Wari imperial influence. The presence of limited marine foods in the diet suggests a trade network with coastal groups or sojourns to the coast to gather marine resources.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:01:06.015183-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23339
  • Infanticide in chimpanzees: Taphonomic case studies from Gombe
    • Authors: Claire A. Kirchhoff; Michael L. Wilson, Deus C. Mjungu, Jane Raphael, Shadrack Kamenya, D. Anthony Collins
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe present a study of skeletal damage to four chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infanticide victims from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Skeletal analysis may provide insight into the adaptive significance of infanticide by examining whether nutritional benefits sufficiently explain infanticidal behavior. The nutritional hypothesis would be supported if bone survivorship rates and skeletal damage patterns are comparable to those of monkey prey. If not, other explanations, such as the resource competition hypothesis, should be considered.MethodsTaphonomic assessment of two chimpanzee infants included description of breakage and surface modification, data on MNE, %MNE, and bone survivorship. Two additional infants were assessed qualitatively. The data were compared to published information on monkey prey. We also undertook a review of published infanticide cases.ResultsThe cases were intercommunity infanticides (one male and three female infants) committed by males. Attackers partially consumed two of the victims. Damage to all four infants included puncture marks and compression fractures to the cranium, crenulated breaks to long bones, and incipient fractures on ribs. Compared to monkey prey, the chimpanzee infants had an abundance of vertebrae and hand/foot bones.ConclusionsThe cases described here suggest that chimpanzees may not always completely consume infanticide victims, while reports on chimpanzee predation indicated that complete consumption of monkey prey usually occurred. Infanticidal chimpanzees undoubtedly gain nutritional benefits when they consume dead infants, but this benefit may not sufficiently explain infanticide in this species. Continued study of infanticidal and hunting behavior, including skeletal analysis, is likely to be of interest.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:00:52.802326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23335
  • Secular trend trends are associated with the demographic and epidemiologic
           transitions in an indigenous community in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico
    • Authors: Robert M. Malina; Bertis B. Little, Maria Eugenia Peña Reyes
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that secular changes in body size and age at menarche are related to the demographic and epidemiologic transitions in an indigenous community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico.MethodsData were derived from surveys of a Zapotec-speaking community conducted between 1968 and 2000. Segmented linear regressions of height, weight, BMI and recalled age at menarche on year of birth in cohorts of adults born before and after the demographic transition were used to evaluate secular changes. Corresponding comparisons of body size (MANCOVA controlling for age) and age at menarche (status quo, probit analysis) were done for samples of children and adolescents born before and after the epidemiological transition.ResultsHeight and weight increased in adults born after the demographic transition (mid-1950s), and especially in children and adolescents born after the epidemiological transition (mid-1980s). Age at menarche also decreased significantly in women born after the demographic transition, but at a more rapid estimated rate in adolescents born after the epidemiological transition. Secular gains in body weight were proportional to those for height among children and adolescents, but adults, males more so than females, gained proportionally more weight.ConclusionsThe secular trend in height in adults of both sexes was associated with the decade of the demographic transition in the mid-1950s. Significant secular gains in size attained and age at menarche occurred in children and youth born after the epidemiologic transition which likely reflected improved health and nutritional conditions since the mid-1980s.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:00:32.153931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23326
  • Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for
           short and long-term child growth, development and health
    • Authors: Rihlat Said-Mohamed; John M Pettifor, Shane A Norris
      Abstract: Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms’ strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent–offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals’ cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:00:21.598653-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23340
  • DNA methylation of methylation complex genes in relation to stress and
           genome-wide methylation in mother–newborn dyads
    • Authors: Christopher J. Clukay; David A. Hughes, Nicole C. Rodney, Darlene A. Kertes, Connie J. Mulligan
      Abstract: ObjectivesEarly life stress is known to have enduring biological effects, particularly with respect to health. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are a possible mechanism to mediate the biological effect of stress. We previously found correlations between maternal stress, newborn birthweight, and genome-wide measures of DNA methylation. Here we investigate ten genes related to the methylation/demethylation complex in order to better understand the impact of stress on health.Materials and methodsDNA methylation and genetic variants at methylation/demethylation genes were assayed. Mean methylation measures were constructed for each gene and tested, in addition to genetic variants, for association with maternal stress measures based on interview and survey data (chronic stress and war trauma), maternal venous, and newborn cord genome-wide mean methylation (GMM), and birthweight.ResultsAfter cell type correction, we found multiple pairwise associations between war trauma, maternal GMM, maternal methylation at DNMT1, DNMT3A, TET3, and MBD2, and birthweight.ConclusionsThe association of maternal GMM and maternal methylation at DNMT1, DNMT3A, TET3, and MBD2 is consistent with the role of these genes in establishing, maintaining and altering genome-wide methylation patterns, in some cases in response to stress. DNMT1 produces one of the primary enzymes that reproduces methylation patterns during DNA replication. DNMT3A and TET3 have been implicated in genome-wide hypomethylation in response to glucocorticoid hormones. Although we cannot determine the directionality of the genic and genome-wide changes in methylation, our results suggest that altered methylation of specific methylation genes may be part of the molecular mechanism underlying the human biological response to stress.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:30:33.209363-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23341
  • Ethnic derivation of the Ainu inferred from ancient mitochondrial DNA data
    • Authors: Noboru Adachi; Tsuneo Kakuda, Ryohei Takahashi, Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Ken-ichi Shinoda
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Ainu, the indigenous people living on the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, have long been a focus of anthropological interest because of their cultural, linguistic, and physical identity. A major problem with genetic studies on the Ainu is that the previously published data stemmed almost exclusively from only 51 modern-day individuals living in Biratori Town, central Hokkaido. To clarify the actual genetic characteristics of the Ainu, individuals who are less influenced by mainland Japanese, who started large-scale immigration into Hokkaido about 150 years ago, should be examined. Moreover, the samples should be collected from all over Hokkaido.Materials and methodsMitochondrial DNA haplogroups of 94 Ainu individuals from the Edo era were successfully determined by analyzing haplogroup-defining polymorphisms in the hypervariable and coding regions. Thereafter, their frequencies were compared to those of other populations.ResultsOur findings indicate that the Ainu still retain the matrilineage of the Hokkaido Jomon people. However, the Siberian influence on this population is far greater than previously recognized. Moreover, the influence of mainland Japanese is evident, especially in the southwestern part of Hokkaido that is adjacent to Honshu, the main island of Japan.DiscussionOur results suggest that the Ainu were formed from the Hokkaido Jomon people, but subsequently underwent considerable admixture with adjacent populations. The present study strongly recommends revision of the widely accepted dual-structure model for the population history of the Japanese, in which the Ainu are assumed to be the direct descendants of the Jomon people.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:02:47.369242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23338
  • Further consideration of the curvature of the Neandertal Femur
    • Authors: Tara Chapman; Victor Sholukha, Patrick Semal, Stéphane Louryan, Serge Van Sint Jan
      Abstract: ObjectivesNeandertal femora are particularly known for having a marked sagittal femoral curvature. This study examined femoral curvature in Neandertals in comparison to a modern human population from Belgium by the use of three-dimensional (3D) quadric surfaces modeled from the bone surface. 3D models provide detailed information and enabled femoral curvature to be analyzed in conjunction with other morphological parameters.Materials and Methods3D models were created from CT scans of 75 modern human femora and 7 Neandertal femora. Quadric surfaces (QS) were created from the triangulated surface vertices in all areas of interest (neck, head, diaphyseal shaft, condyles) extracted from previously placed anatomical landmarks. The diaphyseal shaft was divided into five QS shapes and curvature was measured by degrees of difference between QS shapes. Each bone was placed in a local coordinate system enabling each bone to be analyzed in the same way.ResultsThe use of 3D quadric surface fitting allowed the distribution of curvature with similarly curved femora to be analyzed and the different patterns of curvature between the two groups to be determined. The Neandertals were shown to have a higher degree of femoral curvature and a more distal point of femoral curvature than the modern human population from Belgium.ConclusionsMorphological aspects of the Neandertal femur are different from this modern human population although mainly seem unrelated to femoral curvature. The relative lack of correlations with other femoral bony morphological factors suggests femoral curvature variations may be related to other aspects.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:02:42.116107-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23334
  • AnthropMMD: An R package with a graphical user interface for the mean
           measure of divergence
    • Authors: Frédéric Santos
      Abstract: The mean measure of divergence is a dissimilarity measure between groups of individuals described by dichotomous variables. It is well suited to datasets with many missing values, and it is generally used to compute distance matrices and represent phenograms. Although often used in biological anthropology and archaeozoology, this method suffers from a lack of implementation in common statistical software. A package for the R statistical software, AnthropMMD, is presented here. Offering a dynamic graphical user interface, it is the first one dedicated to Smith's mean measure of divergence. The package also provides facilities for graphical representations and the crucial step of trait selection, so that the entire analysis can be performed through the graphical user interface. Its use is demonstrated using an artificial dataset, and the impact of trait selection is discussed. Finally, AnthropMMD is compared to three other free tools available for calculating the mean measure of divergence, and is proven to be consistent with them.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T06:40:40.001018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23336
  • Dental microwear textural analysis as an analytical tool to depict
           individual traits and reconstruct the diet of a primate
    • Authors: Alice M. Percher; Gildas Merceron, Gontran Nsi Akoue, Jordi Galbany, Alejandro Romero, Marie JE Charpentier
      Abstract: ObjectivesDental microwear is a promising tool to reconstruct animals' diet because it reflects the interplay between the enamel surface and the food items recently consumed. This study examines the sources of inter-individual variations in dietary habits in a free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) using a combination of feeding monitoring and in vivo dental microwear textural analysis (DMTA).MethodsWe investigated the impact of seasonality and individual traits on four DMTA parameters. In parallel, we further studied the influence of the physical properties of the food items consumed on these four parameters, using three proxies (mechanical properties, estimates of phytolith and external grit contents).ResultsWe found that seasonality, age, and sex all impact DMTA parameters but those results differ depending on the facet analyzed (crushing vs. shearing facets). Three DMTA parameters (anisotropy, complexity, and heterogeneity of complexity) appear sensitive to seasonal variations and anisotropy also differs between the sexes while textural fill volume tends to vary with age. Moreover, the physical properties of the food items consumed vary seasonally and also differ depending on individual sex and age.ConclusionConsidering the interplay between the tested variables and both dental microwear and diet, we reaffirm that food physical properties play a major role in microwear variations. These results suggest that DMTA parameters may provide valuable hints for paleoecological reconstruction using fragmentary fossil dental remains.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T09:10:42.422503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23337
  • A newborn infant chimpanzee snatched and cannibalized immediately after
           birth: Implications for “maternity leave” in wild chimpanzee
    • Authors: Hitonaru Nishie; Michio Nakamura
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate “maternity leave” from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery.Materials and methodsThe subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. The case of cannibalism was observed on December 2, 2014. We used the long-term daily attendance record of the M group chimpanzees between 1990 and 2010 to calculate the lengths of “maternity leave,” a perinatal period during which a mother chimpanzee tends to hide herself and gives birth alone.ResultsWe observed a very rare case of delivery in a wild chimpanzee group. A female chimpanzee gave birth in front of other members, and an adult male snatched and cannibalized the newborn infant immediately after birth. Using the long-term data, we demonstrate that the length of “maternity leave” is longer than that of nonmaternity leave among adult and adolescent female chimpanzees.DiscussionWe argue that this cannibalism event immediately after birth occurred due to the complete lack of “maternity leave” of the mother chimpanzee of the victim, who might lack enough experience of delivery. We suggest that “maternity leave” taken by expecting mothers may function as a possible counterstrategy against infanticide soon after delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T00:30:02.191818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23327
  • The development of feeding behavior in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes
    • Authors: Joel Bray; Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin N. Muller, Richard W. Wrangham, Zarin P. Machanda
      Abstract: ObjectivesPrimates have an extended period of juvenility before adulthood. Although dietary complexity plays a prominent role in hypotheses regarding the evolution of extended juvenility, the development of feeding behavior is still poorly understood. Indeed, few studies have investigated the timing and nature of feeding transitions in apes, including chimpanzees. We describe general patterns of feeding development in wild chimpanzees and evaluate predictions of the needing-to-learn hypothesis.Materials and MethodsWe analyzed 4 years of behavioral data (2010–2013) from 26 immature chimpanzees and 31 adult chimpanzees of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Specifically, we examined milestones of nutritional independence (first consumption of solid food and cessation of suckling) as well as developmental changes in feeding time, diet composition, diet breadth, and ingestion rates.ResultsChimpanzees first fed on solid food at 5.1 months and, on average, suckled until 4.8 years. Daily feeding time of immature individuals reached adult levels between 4 and 6 years, while diet composition showed minor changes with age. By juvenility (5–10 years), individuals had a complete adult diet breadth. Ingestion rates for five ripe fruit species remained below adult levels until juvenility but continued to show absolute increases into adolescence.DiscussionChimpanzees acquired adult-like patterns on all feeding measures by infancy or juvenility. These data are inconsistent with the needing-to-learn hypothesis; moreover, where delays exist, alternatives hypotheses make similar predictions but implicate physical constraints rather than learning as causal factors. We outline predictions for how future studies might distinguish between hypotheses for the evolution of extended juvenility.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:30:25.921051-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23325
  • Cover & Editorial Board
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:45:19.758023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23390
  • One hundred years and counting
    • Authors: Peter T. Ellison
      Pages: 3 - 3
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:45:18.545767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23377
  • Issue Information – Table of Contents
    • Pages: 207 - 208
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:45:18.614682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23391
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