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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 441, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Andrology
  [SJR: 0.979]   [H-I: 14]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2047-2919 - ISSN (Online) 2047-2927
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Calibration of redox potential in sperm wash media and evaluation of
           oxidation–reduction potential values in various assisted reproductive
           technology culture media using MiOXSYS system
    • Authors: M. K. Panner Selvam; R. Henkel, R. Sharma, A. Agarwal
      Abstract: Oxidation–reduction potential describes the balance between the oxidants and antioxidants in fluids including semen. Various artificial culture media are used in andrology and IVF laboratories for sperm preparation and to support the development of fertilized oocytes under in vitro conditions. The composition and conditions of these media are vital for optimal functioning of the gametes. Currently, there are no data on the status of redox potential of sperm processing and assisted reproduction media. The purpose of this study was to compare the oxidation–reduction potential values of the different media and to calibrate the oxidation–reduction potential values of the sperm wash medium using oxidative stress inducer cumene hydroperoxide and antioxidant ascorbic acid. Redox potential was measured in 10 different media ranging from sperm wash media, freezing media and assisted reproductive technology one‐step medium to sequential media. Oxidation–reduction potential values of the sequential culture medium and one‐step culture medium were lower and significantly different (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T14:30:29.982442-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12461
  • Serum concentration of anti‐Müllerian hormone is not associated
           with semen quality
    • Authors: L. Aksglaede; I. A. Olesen, E. Carlsen, J. H. Petersen, A. Juul, N. Jørgensen
      Abstract: Impaired semen quality is frequent in Western countries and is the main reason or contributing reason in up to 50% of cases of couple infertility. Male factor infertility is mainly determined by examination of semen samples according to the World Health Organization's 2010 guidelines. AMH has both autocrine and paracrine properties through a direct effect via the AMH type II receptor and is therefore thought to be involved in spermatogenesis. We aimed to study the association between the serum concentration of AMH and semen quality in a cross‐sectional study including 970 young Danish men from the general population. All participants provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire including information on lifestyle and medical history. Serum concentrations of reproductive hormones [AMH, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (T), calculated free T, oestradiol (E2) and inhibin B] and semen parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) were determined. We found no association between serum AMH and semen quality, except for a significant (p = 0.011) trend for lower percentage of normal morphology with higher AMH. AMH quartile was positively associated with serum inhibin B (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T15:15:26.502074-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12456
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-12-06T15:00:31.353468-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12458
  • The association between varicocoeles and vascular disease: an analysis of
           U.S. claims data
    • Authors: N. N. Wang; K. Dallas, S. Li, L. Baker, M. L. Eisenberg
      Abstract: S‪tudies have suggested an association between varicocele, hypogonadism, and elevated oxidative stress markers, but no other health risks have been associated with varicoceles. ‬‬‬‬We sought to determine the association between varicocele and incident medical comorbidities. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬Using the Truven Health MarketScan® claims database from 2001 to 2009, we identified 4459 men with varicoceles, and 100,066 controls based on ICD-9 and CPT codes, with an average follow-up of 3.1 person years. Men with varicoceles were classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic based on co-existing diagnoses. Men with medical comorbidities present before or within 1 year of index diagnosis were excluded. Metabolic and cardiovascular outcome variables were identified via ICD-9 codes. A Cox regression analysis was used to assess incident risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease amongst the different groups. Men with varicoceles had a higher incidence of heart disease compared to men who underwent infertility testing (HR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03–1.45), and men who underwent vasectomy (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.13–1.54). The varicoceles group also had a higher risk of diabetes (HR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.37–2.18) and hyperlipidemia (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.28) compared to the vasectomy group. Furthermore, men with symptomatic varicoceles (n = 3442) had a higher risk of heart disease, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia following diagnosis, while men with asymptomatic varicoceles (n = 1017) did not. Given the prevalence of varicoceles, further research is needed to understand the implications of a varicocele to a man's overall health.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T15:00:01.927838-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12437
  • Effect of testosterone supplementation on nitroso-redox imbalance, cardiac
           metabolism markers, and S100 proteins expression in the heart of castrated
           male rats
    • Authors: N. Regouat; A. Cheboub, M. Benahmed, A. Belarbi, F. Hadj-Bekkouche
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of castration and testosterone supplementation on nitroso-redox status, cardiac metabolism markers, and S100 proteins expression in the heart of male rats. 50 male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups with ten animals each: group 1: control intact (CON); group 2: sham operated (Sh-O); group 3: sesame oil-treated rats (S-oil); group 4: gonadoectomized (GDX); and group 5: gonadoectomized rats treated with testosterone (GDX-T) for 8 weeks. Our results showed myofibrillar weaving, apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis (as reflected by increased activity of MMP 9 and MMP 2) in the heart of gonadoectomized rats. Testosterone supplementation restored the normal structure of the heart. In addition, a state of nitroso-redox imbalance was observed in the heart of castrated rats with increased NO (425.1 ± 322.8 vs. 208 ± 67.06, p ˂ 0.05) and MDA (33.18 ± 9.45 vs. 22.04 ± 7.13, p ˂ 0.05) and decreased GSH levels (0.71 ± 0.13 vs. 1.09 ± 0.19, p = 0.001). Testosterone treatment leads to a re-establish of only NO levels (425.1 ± 322.8 vs. 210.4 ± 114.3, p > 0.05). Markers of cardiac metabolism showed an enhancement of LDH activity (12725 ± 4604 vs. 5381 ± 3122, p ˂ 0.05) in the heart of castrated rats. This was inversed by testosterone replacement (12725 ± 4604 vs. 5781 ± 5187, p ˂ 0.05). Furthermore, castration induced heart's accumulation of triglycerides (37.24 ± 6.17 vs. 27.88 ± 6.47, p ˂ 0.05) and total cholesterol (61.44 ± 3.59 vs. 54.11 ± 7.55, p ˂ 0.05), which were significantly reduced by testosterone supplementation (29.03 ± 2.47 vs. 37.24 ± 6.17, p ˂ 0.05) and (47.9 ± 4.15 vs. 61.44 ± 3.59, p ˂ 0.001). Cardiomyocytes of castrated rats showed a decreased immunoexpression of S100 proteins compared to control animals. A restoration of S100 proteins immunostaining in cardiomyocyte cytoplasm was observed after testosterone supplementation. These findings confirm the deleterious effects of testosterone deficiency on cardiac function and highlight the involvement of nitric oxide, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and S100 proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:45:35.34097-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12449
  • The dynamic metabolomic changes throughout mouse epididymal lumen fluid
           potentially contribute to sperm maturation
    • Authors: S.-G. Hu; A.-J. Liang, G.-X. Yao, X.-Q. Li, M. Zou, J.-W. Liu, Y. Sun
      Abstract: Epididymal lumen fluids are directly responsible for sperm maturation. However, very little is known about the molecular details of small molecule metabolites in the epididymal lumen fluids until now. Here we identified and compared the metabolic profiles of mouse caput and cauda epididymal lumen fluids using GC-MS technique. Among 236 metabolites identified in caput and cauda epididymis, 36 were significantly enriched in caput epididymis while 18 were significantly enriched in cauda epididymis. Pathway analysis identified ascorbate and aldarate metabolism and beta-alanine metabolism as most relevant pathways in caput and cauda epididymis, respectively. Ascorbate, dehydroascorbic acid and beta-alanine associated with these two pathways were firstly reported in mouse epididymal lumen fluids and might play important roles in sperm maturation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:41:03.69126-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12434
  • Effects of the insulin-like growth factor system on testicular
           differentiation and function: a review of the literature
    • Authors: R. Cannarella; R. A. Condorelli, S. La Vignera, A. E. Calogero
      Abstract: We recently described the occurrence of cryptorchidism, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, and genital abnormalities in patients with distal 15q chromosome structural abnormalities. This observation brought us to hypothesize that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R), mapping on the 15q 26.3 chromosomal band, may be involved in testicular function. To further evaluate this topic, we reviewed in vitro and in vivo studies exploring the role of the IGF system [IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, insulin receptor substrates (IRS)] at the testicular level both in animals and in humans. In animals, IGF1/IGF1R has been found to be involved in testicular development during embryogenesis, in Sertoli cell (SC) proliferation, and in germ cell (GS) proliferation and differentiation. Interestingly, IGF1R seems to mediate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) effects through the PI3K/AKT pathway. In humans, IGF1 directly increases testicular volume. The molecular pathways responsible for testicular differentiation and IGF1/IGF1R signaling are highly conserved among species; therefore, the IGF system may be involved in FSH signaling also in humans. We suggest a possible molecular pathway occurring in human SCs, which involves both IGF1 and FSH through the PI3K/AKT pathway. The acknowledgment of an IGF1 mediation of the FSH-induced effects may open new ways for a targeted therapy in idiopathic non-FSH-responder oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:40:42.5407-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12444
  • Is immunosuppression, induced by neonatal thymectomy, compatible with poor
           reproductive performance in adult male rats'
    • Authors: M. M. Ommati; N. Tanideh, B. Rezakhaniha, J. Wang, S. Sabouri, M. Vahedi, B. Dormanesh, O. Koohi Hosseinabadi, F. Rahmanifar, S. Moosapour, A. Akhlaghi, R. Heidari, M. J. Zamiri
      Abstract: With increasing knowledge that the immune system has a major impact on reproductive ‎health, the potential for cells arising in organs such as the thymus to alleviate oxidative stress ‎has been revealed. This study addresses the impact of neonatal thymectomy on male ‎reproductive function in pubertal and adult animals. Neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were allotted to four treatments consisting of fully thymectomized, partially thymectomized, intact, and sham-operated rats. Half of the rats in each treatment were sacrificed at 40 and the other half at 80 days of age. Testicular volume, ventral prostate and spleen weight, several sperm attributes (concentration, motility, livability, membrane integrity, sperm penetration into mucus, total antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity), plasma superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and testosterone level as well as fertility decreased in thymectomized rats. Adrenal gland weight, sperm malondialdehyde level, indices of oxidative stress, sperm abnormality, testicular and sperm lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and sperm reactive oxygen species generation increased in thymectomized rats. In thymectomized rats, the testes contained high levels of malondialdehyde but low levels of glutathione and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. Epididymal sperm reactive oxygen species, blood lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress indices ‎‎in blood and spermatozoa were highest in fully thymectomized, intermediate ‎in partially thymectomized, and lowest in both pubertal and mature control rats. Blood levels of superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation indices, and ‎testosterone, and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate and ‎dehydrogenase activities in epididymal spermatozoa were lowest in fully thymectomized, ‎intermediate in partially thymectomized, and highest in both pubertal and mature control rats.‎ The data indicated that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction might play a role in the mechanism of immunosuppression-induced testicular and sperm abnormalities.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:40:32.662728-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12448
  • Effect of varicocelectomy and/or mast cells stabilizer on sperm DNA
           fragmentation in infertile patients with varicocele
    • Authors: A. Zaazaa; A. Adel, I. Fahmy, Y. Elkhiat, A. A. Awaad, T. Mostafa
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess the effect of varicocelectomy and/or mast cells (MCs) stabilizer on sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men with varicocele (Vx). Overall, 120 infertile patients were randomized to three equal treatment arms; patients that underwent varicocelectomy, patients on 1 mg ketotifen twice daily for three months, and patients that underwent varicocelectomy followed with 1 mg ketotifen twice daily for three months. These patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, and estimation of sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI). After 3 months, all investigated groups showed significant improvement regarding the mean total sperm count, sperm concentration, total sperm motility, and sperm normal forms percentage compared with the pre-treatment data. As well, the mean sperm DFI was significantly improved compared with the pre-treatment data; in men that underwent varicocelectomy (34.6% vs. 28.3%), in men on MC stabilizer only (33.4% vs. 27.8%), and in men that underwent varicocelectomy followed by MC stabilizer (34.3% vs. 25.1%). Sperm DFI improvement percentages showed the highest improvement in men that underwent varicocelectomy followed with MC stabilizer compared with the other two groups (26.8% vs. 18.2%, 16.8%). Sperm DFI improvement percentages showed significant increases in the infertile patients with Vx grade III compared to Vx grade II in all investigated groups. It is concluded that in infertile men associated with Vx and high sperm DFI, surgical repair followed with MCs stabilizer significantly improve sperm DFI compared with either surgical repair or MCs stabilizer alone.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:40:26.183256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12445
  • Does using testicular sperm retrieval rather than ejaculated spermatozoa
           improve reproductive outcomes in couples with previous ART failure and
           poor ovarian response' A case-controlled study
    • Authors: A.R. Gilman; G. Younes, S. Tannus, W.Y. Son, P. Chan, W. Buckett
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case–control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included. Controls were age and cycle attempt number matched. All patients were included only once. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015, all patients and controls underwent an IVF cycle using ICSI with either testicular spermatozoa or ejaculated spermatozoa, respectively. Outcomes included live birth rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, oocyte number, and embryo transfer (ET) day. The results showed live birth rates, pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates were similar. There were fewer day 2 ETs (8.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.01) and more day 5 blastocyst transfers (25.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.05) in the testicular sperm retrieval group compared to controls and thus an overall suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular sperm group. Overall, however, the use of testicular sperm retrieval appears to add little. Women with poor ovarian response typically have a poor prognosis with respect to live birth rates, and this is further supported in this study. The suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular-retrieved sperm group would need to be further assessed in a larger multicentered study.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:40:23.560273-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12447
  • Long-term penile morphometric alterations in patients treated with
           robot-assisted versus open radical prostatectomy
    • Authors: P. Capogrosso; E. Ventimiglia, W. Cazzaniga, A. Stabile, F. Pederzoli, L. Boeri, G. Gandaglia, F. Dehò, A. Briganti, F. Montorsi, A. Salonia
      Abstract: Neglected side effects after radical prostatectomy have been previously reported. In this context, the prevalence of penile morphometric alterations has never been assessed in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy series. We aimed to assess prevalence of and predictors of penile morphometric alterations (i.e. penile shortening or penile morphometric deformation) at long-term follow-up in patients submitted to either robot-assisted (robot-assisted radical prostatectomy) or open radical prostatectomy. Sexually active patients after either robot-assisted radical prostatectomy or open radical prostatectomy prospectively completed a 28-item questionnaire, with sensitive issues regarding sexual function, namely orgasmic functioning, climacturia and changes in morphometric characteristics of the penis. Only patients with a post-operative follow-up ≥ 24 months were included. Patients submitted to either adjuvant or salvage therapies or those who refused to comprehensively complete the questionnaire were excluded from the analyses. A propensity-score matching analysis was implemented to control for baseline differences between groups. Logistic regression models tested potential predictors of penile morphometric alterations at long-term post-operative follow-up. Overall, 67 (50%) and 67 (50%) patients were included after open radical prostatectomy or robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, respectively. Self-rated post-operative penile shortening and penile morphometric deformation were reported by 75 (56%) and 29 (22.8%) patients, respectively. Rates of penile shortening and penile morphometric deformation were not different after open radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy [all p > 0.5]. At univariable analysis, self-reported penile morphometric alterations (either penile shortening or penile morphometric deformation) were significantly associated with baseline international index of erectile function–erectile function scores, body mass index, post-operative erectile function recovery, year of surgery and type of surgery (all p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:40:21.317899-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12446
  • Surgical correction of Peyronie's disease via tunica albuginea plication:
           long-term follow-up
    • Authors: M. Seveso; S. Melegari, O. De Francesco, A. Macchi, J. Romero Otero, G. Taverna, G. Bozzini
      Abstract: Peyronie's disease (PD) is an acquired connective tissue disorder of the tunica albuginea with fibrosis and inflammation that lead to palpable plaques formation, penile curvature, and pain during erection. Patients report negative effects on main domains such as physical appearance and self-image, sexual function, and performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate plication of the albuginea outcomes after a long-term follow-up period. Between 1998 and 2006, a total of 204 patients with PD underwent surgical correction with albuginea plication technique. We obtained complete long-term follow-up data in 187 cases. The follow-up data included evaluation of curvature correction, penile shortening, sexual function, complications, and patient satisfaction. After a mean follow-up of 141 months, the most common postoperative complications were: loss of length (150 patients had a minimal penile shortening ≤1.5 cm, 37 patient between 1.5, and 3 cm, none>3 cm), recurrent or residual penile curvature (15 patients, without impairing sexual intercourse), erectile dysfunction (15 patients had IIEF-5 
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:35:35.474372-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12431
  • Emerging technologies for home-based semen analysis
    • Authors: S. Yu; M. Rubin, S. Geevarughese, J. S. Pino, H. F. Rodriguez, W. Asghar
      Abstract: With about 70 million cases of infertility worldwide, half of which are caused by male factors, sperm analysis is critical to determine male fertility potential. Conventional semen analysis methods involve complex and manual inspection with a microscope, and these methods are labor intensive and can take several days. Due to unavailability of rapid, convenient, and user-friendly semen analysis tools, many men do not seek medical evaluation, especially in resource-constrained settings. Furthermore, as conventional methods have to be conducted in the laboratories, many men are unwilling to be tested as a result of social stigma in certain regions of the world. One solution can be found in at-home sperm analysis, which allows men to test their semen without the hassle of going to and paying for a clinic. Herein, we examine current at-home sperm analysis technologies and compare them to the traditional laboratory-based methods. In addition, we discuss emerging sperm analysis approaches and describe their limitations and future directions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T12:35:29.011127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12441
  • ‘Easier ways to get a publication’: the problem of low quality
           scientific publications
    • Authors: D. T. Carrell; M. Simoni
      First page: 1
      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:01:43.834-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12460
  • Dietary patterns and semen quality: a systematic review and
           meta‐analysis of observational studies
    • Authors: A. Arab; N. Rafie, M. Mansourian, M. Miraghajani, H. Hajianfar
      First page: 20
      Abstract: A number of studies have examined the association between dietary patterns and semen quality, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis of observational studies to assess the association between dietary patterns and semen quality. PubMed, Cochrane library, Science direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ISI web of science databases were searched up to August 2016 for observational studies assessing the association between common dietary patterns and sperm quality markers. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method with random effects and expressed as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochrane Q‐statistic) and quantified (I2‐statistic). The Newcastle‐Ottawa Scale assessed study quality. Six eligible studies, involving 8207 participants, were included in our systematic review and meta‐analysis. The pooled mean difference of sperm concentration for the healthy dietary pattern versus unhealthy dietary pattern intake was mean difference: 0.66; 95% CI, 0.305–1.016; p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T11:15:24.876689-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12430
  • Testosterone does not affect agrin cleavage in mobility‐limited older
           men despite improvement in physical function
    • Authors: T. Gagliano-Jucá; T. W. Storer, K. M. Pencina, T. G. Travison, Z. Li, G. Huang, S. Hettwer, P. Dahinden, S. Bhasin, S. Basaria
      First page: 29
      Abstract: In a subset of men, sarcopenia and physical dysfunction occur due to destabilization of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which is manifested by elevated serum concentrations of C‐terminal agrin fragment (CAF). Testosterone administration improves physical function in some studies; however, its effects on serum circulating CAF concentrations remain unknown. Here we evaluate the effects of testosterone administration on circulating CAF levels in mobility‐limited men with low testosterone aged 65 or older participating in the Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations (TOM) Trial. We analyzed the difference in change in serum CAF levels between testosterone and placebo groups, as well as its association with muscle strength and physical function. Association of change in serum CAF levels with serum total (TT) and free testosterone (FT) was also evaluated. Men randomized to testosterone experienced significant improvement in muscle strength and physical function (assessed by loaded stair‐climbing power). However; testosterone administration was not associated with a reduction in serum CAF levels (effect size = −50.3 pm; 95% CI = −162.1 to 61.5 pm; p = 0.374); there was no association between changes in CAF levels with changes in TT (p = 0.670) or FT (p = 0.747). There was no association between changes in serum CAF levels with improvement in either muscle strength or stair‐climbing power. In conclusion, testosterone treatment in mobility‐limited older men with low to low‐normal testosterone levels did not reduce serum CAF levels. Additionally, testosterone‐induced improvements in muscle strength and physical function were not associated with changes in serum CAF concentrations. These findings suggest that improvement in physical function with testosterone replacement in older men with mobility limitations and elevated CAF levels is mediated by mechanisms other than stabilization of the NMJ.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T16:06:18.584146-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12424
  • Effects of testosterone supplementation therapy on lipid metabolism in
           hypogonadal men with T2DM: a meta‐analysis of randomized controlled
    • Authors: K.-S. Zhang; M.-J. Zhao, Q. An, Y.-F. Jia, L.-L. Fu, J.-F. Xu, Y.-Q. Gu
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Testosterone supplementation may be effective for the treatment of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is inconclusive. We aimed to systematically summarize results from intervention studies and assess the effects of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) on lipid metabolism in RCTs of hypogonadal men with T2DM by meta‐analysis. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies reporting the effect of TST on lipid metabolism in hypogonadal men with T2DM until December 31, 2016. Seven RCTs from 252 trials, enrolling a total of 612 patients in the experimental and control groups with a mean age of 58.5 years, were included in this study. The pooled results of the meta‐analysis demonstrated that TST significantly decreased TC and TG levels in hypogonadal men with T2DM compared with the control group, with mean differences (MDs) of −6.44 (95% CI: −11.82 to −1.06; I2 = 28%; p = 0.02) and −27.94 (95% CI: −52.33 to −3.54; I2 = 76%; p = 0.02). Subgroup analyses revealed that the heterogeneity (I2 = 76%) of TG originated from different economic regions, in which economic development, genetic and environmental factors, and dietary habits affect lipid metabolism of human, with a decrease (I2 = 45%) in developed countries. Additionally, subgroup analyses showed that TST increased HDL‐C level in developing countries compared with the control group (MD = 2.79; 95% CI: 0.73 to 4.86; I2 = 0%; p = 0.008), but there was no improvement in developed countries (MD = 1.02; 95% CI: −4.55 to 6.60; I2 = 91%; p = 0.72). However, LDL‐C levels were not improved consistently. Because the relationship between lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis is unequivocal, TST, which ameliorates lipid metabolism, may decrease the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease in hypogonadal men with T2DM by preventing atherogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T16:05:38.633881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12425
  • A rare ANOS1 variant in siblings with Kallmann syndrome identified by
           whole exome sequencing
    • Authors: D. M. Lopategui; A. J. Griswold, H. Arora, R. I. Clavijo, M. Tekin, R. Ramasamy
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Kallmann syndrome is a rare genetic condition causing congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It presents with delayed puberty, anosmia, and infertility. Here, we set out to identify a causative DNA variant for Kallmann syndrome in two affected brothers of Hispanic ancestry. The male siblings presented with a clinical diagnosis of Kallmann syndrome (anosmia, delayed puberty, azoospermia, and undetectable luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels). Genetic variations were investigated by whole exome sequencing. Potentially pathogenic variants were filtered and prioritized followed by validation by Sanger sequencing in the two brothers and their mother. A pathogenic variant was identified in the ANOS1 gene on the X chromosome: c.1267C>T; both brothers were hemizygous, and their mother was heterozygous for the variant. The variant is a single nucleotide change that introduces a stop codon in exon 9 (p.R423*), likely producing a truncated variant of the protein. This variant has only been reported twice in the literature, in the setting of finding genetic causes for other conditions. This result supports the clinical value of whole exome sequencing for identification of genetic pathogenic variants. Genetic diagnosis is the essential first step for genetic counseling, preimplantation diagnosis, and research for a potential treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T15:00:34.345642-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12432
  • Clinical and biochemical correlates of male hypogonadism in type 2
    • Authors: A. Herrero; M. Marcos, P. Galindo, J. M. Miralles, J. J. Corrales
      First page: 58
      Abstract: The origin of hypogonadism, a condition including both symptoms and biochemical criteria of androgen deficiency, in type 2 diabetes is poorly known. In a cross‐sectional study of 267 unselected patients, we analyzed the potential correlation of several clinical and biochemical variables as well as chronic micro‐ and macrovascular diabetic complications with hypogonadism. Hypogonadism was present in 46 patients (17.2%) using a cutoff of total testosterone 10.4 nmol/L and in 31 (11.6%) with a cutoff of 8 nmol/L. Among these patients, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was the most prevalent form (82.6%). Compared to eugonadal subjects, hypogonadal men had significantly lower glomerular filtration rate (67.1 ± 23.4 vs. 78.4 ± 24.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.005) and higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease (43.5% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.002), abnormal liver function tests (26.7% vs. 12%, p = 0.019), and psychiatric treatment (23.9% vs. 10.4%, p = 0.025). Total testosterone levels correlated inversely with age (R = −0.164, p = 0.007), fasting blood glucose (R = −0.127, p = 0.037), and triglycerides (R = −0.134, p = 0.029) and directly with glomerular filtration rate (R = 0.148, p = 0.015). Calculated free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone correlated directly with hemoglobin (R = 0.171, p = 0.015 and R = 0.234, p = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for relevant confounding variables, showed that age >60 years (OR = 3.58, CI 95% = 1.48–8.69, p = 0.005), body mass index >27 kg/m2 (OR = 2.85, CI 95% = 1.14–7.11, p = 0.025), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.16, CI 95% = 1.05–4.41, p = 0.035), glomerular filtration rate
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T17:50:35.571-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12433
  • Muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone
           administration: data from testosterone dose–response study in young
           healthy men
    • Authors: J. Tapper; S. Arver, K. M. Pencina, A. Martling, L. Blomqvist, C. Buchli, Z. Li, T. Gagliano-Jucá, T. G. Travison, G. Huang, T. W. Storer, S. Bhasin, S. Basaria
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Testosterone dose‐dependently increases appendicular muscle mass. However, the effects of testosterone administration on the core muscles of the trunk and the pelvis have not been evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on truncal and pelvic muscles in a dose–response trial. Participants were young healthy men aged 18–50 years participating in the 5α‐Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone production and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5aR inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Muscles of the trunk and the pelvis were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5‐Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose effect of testosterone on changes in the psoas major muscle area was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included changes in paraspinal, abdominal, pelvic floor, ischiocavernosus, and obturator internus muscles. The association between changes in testosterone levels and muscle area was also assessed. Testosterone dose‐dependently increased areas of all truncal and pelvic muscles. The estimated change (95% confidence interval) of muscle area increase per 100 mg of testosterone enanthate dosage increase was 0.622 cm2 (0.394, 0.850) for psoas; 1.789 cm2 (1.317, 2.261) for paraspinal muscles, 2.530 cm2 (1.627, 3.434) for total abdominal muscles, 0.455 cm2 (0.233, 0.678) for obturator internus, and 0.082 cm2 (0.003, 0.045) for ischiocavernosus; the increase in these volumes was significantly associated with the changes in on‐treatment total and free serum testosterone concentrations. In conclusion, core muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration. Future trials should evaluate the potential role of testosterone administration in frail men who are predisposed to falls and men with pelvic floor dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:01:46.802522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12454
  • Relationship between testosterone in serum, saliva and urine during
           treatment with intramuscular testosterone undecanoate in gender dysphoria
           and male hypogonadism
    • Authors: Y. Lood; E. Aardal-Eriksson, C. Webe, J. Ahlner, B. Ekman, J. Wahlberg
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Long‐term testosterone replacement therapy is mainly monitored by trough levels of serum testosterone (S‐T), while urinary testosterone (U‐T) is used by forensic toxicology to evaluate testosterone doping. Testosterone in saliva (Sal‐T) may provide additional information and simplify the sample collection. We aimed to investigate the relationships between testosterone measured in saliva, serum and urine during standard treatment with 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) every 12th week during 1 year. This was an observational study. Males with primary and secondary hypogonadism (HG; n = 23), subjects with gender dysphoria (GD FtM; n = 15) and a healthy control group of men (n = 32) were investigated. Sal‐T, S‐T and U‐T were measured before and after TU injections. Sal‐T was determined with Salimetrics® enzyme immunoassay, S‐T with Roche Elecsys® testosterone II assay and U‐T by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry. Sal‐T correlated significantly with S‐T and calculated free testosterone in both controls and patients (HG men and GD FtM), while Sal‐T to U‐T showed weaker correlations. Trough values of Sal‐T after 12 months were significantly higher in the GD FtM group (0.77 ± 0.35 nmol/L) compared to HG men (0.53 ± 0.22 nmol/L) and controls (0.46 ± 0.15 nmol/L), while no differences between S‐T and U‐T trough values were found. Markedly elevated concentrations of salivary testosterone, 7–14 days after injection, were observed, especially in the GD FtM group. This study demonstrates that Sal‐T might be a useful clinical tool to monitor long‐term testosterone replacement therapy and might give additional information in forensic cases.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T17:55:35.530979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12435
  • Increased risk of autoimmune disorders in infertile men: analysis of US
           claims data
    • Authors: W. D. Brubaker; S. Li, L. C. Baker, M. L. Eisenberg
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Aberrations in reproductive fitness may be a harbinger of medical diseases in men. Existing data suggest that female infertility is associated with autoimmune disorders; however, this has not been examined in men. As immune surveillance and hormonal factors can impact male fertility and autoimmunity, we sought to determine the association between male infertility and incident autoimmune disorders. We analyzed subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan claims database from 2001 to 2008. Infertile men were identified through diagnosis and treatment codes. We examined the most common immune disorders, which were identified by ICD9 diagnosis codes. Men diagnosed with an immune disorder at baseline or within 1 year of follow‐up were excluded. Infertile men were compared to vasectomized men (i.e., men who are likely fertile) and to age‐matched control (10 : 1) group using Cox regression analysis. A total of 33,077 infertile men (mean age of 33 years), 77,693 vasectomized men (mean age 35), and 330,770 age‐matched control men (mean age 33) were assembled with a total follow‐up of 1.49 M person‐years. Overall, immune disorders were rare in the group with the individual conditions occurring in
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:05:24.081346-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12436
  • Dietary habits and semen parameters: a systematic narrative review
    • Authors: E. Ricci; S. Al-Beitawi, S. Cipriani, A. Alteri, F. Chiaffarino, M. Candiani, S. Gerli, P. Viganó, F. Parazzini
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Semen quality and male fertility are declining worldwide. As it was observed that physiologic and pathologic processes of spermatogenesis can be influenced by diet, the relation between dietary habits and semen parameters has been the focus of much interest. To review the human observational studies on this issue, we performed a systematic literature search, up to November 2016 (MEDLINE and EMBASE). We included all observational full‐text papers reporting the relation between dietary habits and semen parameters. Article selection was carried out in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses. Twenty‐three observational studies were included. Overall, 8477 healthy men and 1204 men presenting at Fertility Clinics were included in the selected studies. Even if some inconsistencies are present, possibly due to the different effect of nutrients in fertile and infertile men, results support the hypothesis that diets including fruit and vegetables, for their contents in vitamins, and fish or low‐fat dairy products as the main source of proteins, are associated with better semen quality. Recommendations may be confidently provided because of the many beneficial effects of a healthy diet, although further studies are needed to clarify the currently inconsistent findings and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T15:10:37.748933-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12452
  • Grafts for Peyronie's disease: a comprehensive review
    • Authors: B. Garcia-Gomez; D. Ralph, L. Levine, I. Moncada-Iribarren, R. Djinovic, M. Albersen, E. Garcia-Cruz, J. Romero-Otero
      First page: 117
      Abstract: The difficulty implicit in combining all the characteristics that an ideal patch to treat Peyronie's disease with a lengthening procedure should have, together with the challenges of comparing results from different series, means that the ideal patch has yet to be determined. Our objective with this review was to determine whether any given patch type is preferable to the others based on the evaluation of the results of published studies. A systematic search of the literature was conducted from PubMed until December 2016. Articles reporting basic research, animal research, reviews or meta‐analyses and studies in children were eliminated. Series with patients undergoing some kind of other surgical intervention were only included if results were reported separately. Case reports and series of five patients were excluded. Five variables were selected to evaluate the results: number of patients, follow‐up period, straightening rate, shortening rate and post‐operative ED rate. For this purpose, 69 papers were included for review, and the outcomes of the use of autologous dermis, tunica vaginalis, dura mater, fascia, saphenous vein, tunica albuginea, buccal mucosa, porcine intestinal submucosa, pericardium, TachoSil® and synthetic materials were presented and analysed separately. The different series published are extremely variable and heterogeneous in terms of the number of patients included, patient selection, follow‐up periods, and in the measurement and interpretation of the outcomes analysed. Given these facts, it is not possible to draw any definitive conclusion, homogeneous, prospective studies using validated tools are required to determine which the ideal graft is.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T15:10:30.143884-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12421
  • Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens as an atypical form of
           cystic fibrosis: reproductive implications and genetic counseling
    • Authors: D. A. S. Souza; F. R. Faucz, L. Pereira-Ferrari, V. S. Sotomaior, S. Raskin
      First page: 127
      Abstract: Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is found in 1% to 2% of males with infertility and is present in 6% of obstructive azoospermia cases. Nearly 95% of men with cystic fibrosis (CF, an autosomal recessive disorder) have CBAVD. There are genetic links between CBAVD and CF. Some mutations in the gene encoding cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can lead to CBAVD as a monosymptomatic form of CF. With the use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), especially testicular or epididymal sperm aspiration, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and in vitro fertilization, it is possible that men with CBAVD can produce offspring. Therefore, genetic counseling should be offered to couples undergoing ART to discuss the probability of having offspring that carry CFTR gene mutations. The aim of this review was to present the main cause of CBAVD, to call attention to its implications for assisted reproduction, and to show the importance of genetic counseling for couples where men have CBAVD, as they can have offspring with a lethal disease.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:21:00.189666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12450
  • Contributors to the substantial variation in on‐treatment testosterone
           levels in men receiving transdermal testosterone gels in randomized trials
    • Authors: S. Bhasin; T. G. Travison, L. O'Brien, J. MacKrell, V. Krishnan, H. Ouyang, K. Pencina, S. Basaria
      First page: 151
      Abstract: There is substantial inter‐individual variability in serum testosterone levels in hypogonadal men treated with testosterone gels. We aimed to elucidate participant‐level factors that contribute to inter‐individual variability in testosterone levels during testosterone therapy. An exploratory aim was to determine whether polymorphisms in genes encoding testosterone‐metabolizing enzymes could explain the variation in on‐treatment testosterone concentrations in men who were randomized to testosterone arm in TOM Trial. We used data from three randomized trials that used 1% transdermal testosterone gels and had testosterone levels measured 2–4 weeks after randomization for dose adjustment: Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitation (TOM), Effects of Testosterone on Pain Perception (TAP), and Effects of Testosterone on Atherosclerosis Progression (TEAAM). Forty‐seven percent, 38%, and 9% of participants in TAP, TEAAM, and TOM trials, respectively, failed to raise testosterone levels >400 ng/dL; 6, 8, and 30% of participants had on‐treatment testosterone levels >1000 ng/dL. Even after dose adjustment, there was substantial variation in on‐treatment levels at subsequent study visits. Baseline characteristics (age, height, weight, baseline testosterone, SHBG, hematocrit, and creatinine) accounted for only a small fraction of the variance (
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T11:25:23.621676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12428
  • Roles of histone H3.5 in human spermatogenesis and spermatogenic disorders
    • Authors: K. Shiraishi; A. Shindo, A. Harada, H. Kurumizaka, H. Kimura, Y. Ohkawa, H. Matsuyama
      First page: 158
      Abstract: Histone H3.5 (H3.5) is a newly identified histone variant highly expressed in the human testis. We have reported the crystal structure, instability of the H3.5 nucleosome and accumulation around transcription start sites, mainly in primary spermatocytes, but its role in human spermatogenesis remains poorly understood. Testicular biopsy specimens from 30 men (mean age: 35 years) with non‐obstructive azoospermia (NOA) who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction and 23 men with obstructive azoospermia (OA) were included. An H3.5‐specific mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing an H3.5‐specific synthetic peptide was generated, and immunohistological staining for H3.5 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed on Bouin's solution‐fixed sections. Expression and localization of H3.5 were compared with patient background, germinal stage, and PCNA expression. In testes of patients with normal spermatogenesis, differentially expressed H3.5 was specifically localized in either spermatogonia or preleptotene/leptotene‐stage primary spermatocytes, especially during germinal stages VI–X. In NOA testes, mRNA expression of H3.5 (H3F3C) was significantly reduced compared with other H3 histone family members, and expression of H3.5 was significantly lower than that in OA. Additionally, the number of H3.5‐positive germ cells was higher in hypospermatogenesis or late maturation arrest than in early maturation arrest in NOA testes (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:06:54.581948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12438
  • Naringenin attenuates highly active antiretroviral therapy‐induced sperm
           DNA fragmentations and testicular toxicity in Sprague‐Dawley rats
    • Authors: M. Y. Adana; E. N. Akang, A. I. Peter, A. I. Jegede, E. C. S. Naidu, C. Tiloke, A. A. Chuturgoon, O. O. Azu
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has evolved over the years, leading to a boost in the quality of life in people living with HIV and AIDS. However, growing evidence has shown that highly active antiretroviral therapy has deleterious effects on the testes and the overall reproductive capacity. Therefore, this study is to determine the adjuvant potential of Naringenin on highly active antiretroviral therapy‐induced perturbations in fertility of male Sprague‐Dawley rats. Thirty adult male Sprague‐Dawley rats were divided into six groups viz – Control; H: 30 mg/kg of highly active antiretroviral therapy (EFV, 600 mg + FTC, 200 mg + TDF, 300 mg); N40: Naringenin, 40 mg/kg; N80: Naringenin, 80 mg/kg; HN40: highly active antiretroviral therapy + Naringenin, 40 mg/kg; HN80: highly active antiretroviral therapy + Naringenin, 80 mg/kg. The rats were euthanized after 4 weeks. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in sperm count (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:05:32.48352-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12439
  • Is the FSHR 2039A>G variant associated with susceptibility to
           testicular germ cell cancer'
    • Authors: A. K. Bang; A. S. Busch, K. Almstrup, J. Gromoll, S. Kliesch, E. Rajpert-De Meyts, N. E. Skakkebæk, A. Juul, F. Tüttelmann, N. Jørgensen
      First page: 176
      Abstract: Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is derived from germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS), which arises due to niche disturbances affecting the Sertoli cells. It is believed that exogenous endocrine factors have a crucial role in governing neoplastic transformation but on a strong hereditary background. Follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH) is the major regulatory hormone of the Sertoli cells. FSH signalling‐related single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to affect FSH action in men at different levels. We aimed to investigate whether three FSH‐related SNPs (FSHR 2039A>G, FSHR ‐29G>A and FSHB ‐211G>T) are associated with development of TGCC. A total of 752 Danish and German patients with TGCC from two tertiary andrological referral centres were included. Three control groups comprising 2020 men from the general population, 679 fertile men and 417 infertile men, were also included. Chi‐squared test was performed to compare genotype‐ and allele frequencies. Kruskal–Wallis test was performed to compare age at diagnosis. Patients with TGCC had a higher frequency of the A‐allele of FSHR 2039A>G compared to the group of fertile men with an AA‐genotype frequency of 30.2% vs. 22.0%, respectively, p = 0.002. This variant is associated with higher FSH receptor activity. The distribution of the FSHR 2039A>G did not differ significantly between the patients with TGCC and the infertile or the general population. The frequency of the two other SNPs did not differ between patient with TGCC and any of the control groups. No differences were detected between genotypes and age distribution or histological subtype of the tumours. In conclusion, we observed that a genetic variant associated with FSHR activity may modulate the susceptibility to TGCC.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:10:26.502899-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12440
  • Testosterone replacement in transgenic sickle cell mice controls priapic
           activity and upregulates PDE5 expression and eNOS activity in the penis
    • Authors: B. Musicki; S. Karakus, W. Akakpo, F. H. Silva, J. Liu, H. Chen, B. R. Zirkin, A. L. Burnett
      First page: 184
      Abstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD)‐associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5. Adult male transgenic Berkeley sickle cell (Sickle) and wild‐type (WT) mice were implanted with testosterone pellets, which release 1.2 μg testosterone/day for 21 days, or vehicle. After 21 days, animals underwent erectile function assessment followed by collection of blood for serum testosterone measurements, penes for molecular analysis, and seminal vesicles as testosterone‐responsive tissue. Serum testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay; protein expressions of PDE5, α‐smooth muscle actin, eNOS and nNOS, and phosphorylation of PDE5 at Ser‐92, eNOS at Ser‐1177, neuronal (n) NOS at Ser‐1412, and Akt at Ser‐473 were measured by Western blot in penile tissue. Testosterone treatment reversed downregulated serum testosterone levels and increased (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T17:58:06.370461-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12442
  • Expression of oestrogen receptors (GPER, ESR1, ESR2) in human ductuli
           efferentes and proximal epididymis
    • Authors: V. Rago; F. Romeo, F. Giordano, R. Malivindi, V. Pezzi, I. Casaburi, A. Carpino
      First page: 192
      Abstract: Oestrogen targeting in the human genital ducts is still not well‐known. In fact, to date, the localization of oestrogen receptors, ESR1 and ESR2, is controversial and the presence of the membrane oestrogen receptor GPER (G protein‐coupled oestrogen receptor) is unexplored. This study has investigated the expression of GPER, ESR1, ESR2 in human ductuli efferentes and proximal caput epididymis by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the presence of PELP1 (proline–glutamic acid–leucine‐rich protein 1), a co‐regulator of the oestrogen receptors, was also evaluated. In ductuli efferentes, GPER and ESR1 were clearly localized in all epithelial cells, while ESR2 was evidenced only in ciliated cells. Conversely, the epithelial cells of proximal caput epididymis revealed moderate GPER immunoreactivity, the absence of ERS1 and the occasional presence of ESR2. Furthermore, PELP1 was observed in ciliated cells of ductuli efferentes and in principal cells of proximal caput epididymis. Therefore, this study firstly demonstrated the expression of GPER in human male genital ducts, revealing a new mediator of oestrogen action in these anatomical sites. ESR1 and ESR2 were differentially localized in the two genital tracts together with PELP1, but cell sites of ERs and their co‐regulator were not homogeneous. So, a different regional/cellular association of GPER with the classical oestrogen receptors was highlighted, suggesting that oestrogen action could be mediated by GPER, ESR1, ESR2 in ductuli efferentes, while by GPER and, occasionally by ESR2, in proximal caput epididymis. This study suggests that the specific oestrogen‐mediated functions in human genital ducts might result from the different local interactions of oestrogens with oestrogen receptors and their co‐regulators.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T17:56:06.440523-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12443
  • Exposures of male rats to environmental chemicals [bisphenol A and di
           (2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate] affected expression of several proteins in the
           developing epididymis
    • Authors: F. M. Abdel-Maksoud; R. Knight, K. Waler, N. Yaghoubi-Yeganeh, J. O. Olukunle, H. Thompson, J. R. Panizzi, B. T. Akingbemi
      First page: 214
      Abstract: Hormonally active agents are released into the environment from industrial and manufacturing activity. Evidence in the literature indicates that impaired reproductive capacity in wildlife and laboratory species is associated with chemical exposures. In particular, bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) have generated public interest due to their presence in several consumer products. In this study, we determined that expression of steroid hormone receptors (estrogen and androgen receptors), Wnt4, and β‐catenin was greater (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:01:48.20651-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12451
  • The impact of Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum on semen parameters: a
           prospective pre–post‐treatment study
    • Authors: T. Meštrović; B. Bedenić, J. Wilson, S. Ljubin-Sternak, M. Sviben, M. Neuberg, R. Ribić, G. Kozina, Z. Profozić
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum (C. glucuronolyticum) is a rare isolate that is only recently being acknowledged as a potential urogenital pathogen. The bibliographical references on this bacterial species are scarce, and its influence on all semen parameters was hitherto unknown – therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on a range of sperm quality parameters. A prospective approach to compare semen parameters before and after treatment was used in this study. C. glucuronolyticum in semen specimens was identified using analytical profile index biotyping system (API Coryne) and additionally confirmed by matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization time‐of‐flight mass‐spectrometry (MALDI‐TOF MS), with the determination of antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby–Bauer method. Semen analysis was performed according to the criteria from the World Health Organization (with the use of Tygerberg method of sperm morphology categorization). Very strict inclusion criteria for participants also included detailed medical history and urological evaluation. From a total of 2169 screened semen specimens, the inclusion rate for participants with C. glucuronolyticum that satisfied all the criteria was 1.01%. Antibiogram‐guided treatment of the infection with ensuing microbiological clearance has shown that the resolution of the infection correlates with statistically significant improvement in the vitality of spermatozoa, but also with a lower number of neck and mid‐piece defects. Parameters such as sperm count, motility and normal morphology were not affected. In addition, susceptibility testing revealed a trend towards ciprofloxacin resistance, which is something that should be considered when selecting an optimal treatment approach. Albeit it is rarely encountered as a monoisolate in significant quantities, C. glucuronolyticum may negatively influence certain sperm parameters; therefore, it has to be taken into account in the microbiological analysis of urogenital samples.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:21:33.720898-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12453
  • Evaluation of sperm DNA quality in men presenting with testicular cancer
           and lymphoma using alkaline and neutral Comet assays
    • Authors: K. Kumar; S. Lewis, S. Vinci, A. Riera-Escamilla, M.-G. Fino, L. Tamburrino, M. Muratori, P. Larsen, C. Krausz
      First page: 230
      Abstract: Despite more cancers in young men over the past two decades, improvements in therapies give a greater chance to live full lives following treatment. Sperm genomic quality is variable following cancer diagnosis, so its assessment is important if sperm cryopreservation is being considered. Here, we evaluated DNA damage using two DNA damage assays: an alkaline and for the first time, a neutral Comet assays in men presenting with testicular cancer (n = 19 for alkaline and 13 for neutral group) and lymphoma (n = 13 for alkaline and 09 for neutral group) compared with fertile donors (n = 20 for alkaline and 14 for neutral group). No significant differences were observed in any semen analysis parameters. In contrast, sperm DNA damage was higher in men with testicular cancer than in donors as assessed by both the alkaline (12.4% vs. 37.4%, p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T16:05:22.865652-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12429
  • Carnitine partially improves oxidative stress, acrosome integrity, and
           reproductive competence in doxorubicin‐treated rats
    • Authors: R. E. L. Cabral; T. B. Mendes, V. Vendramini, S. M. Miraglia
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Doxorubicin has been largely used in anticancer therapy in adults, adolescents, and children. The efficacy of l‐carnitine as an antioxidant substance has been confirmed both in humans and rats. Carnitine, present in testis and epididymis, is involved in sperm maturation. It is also effective in infertility treatment. As a continuation of a previous study, we evaluated whether some spermatic qualitative parameters, DNA integrity, chromatin structure, and fertility status, could be ameliorated by the carnitine treatment in adult rats, which were subsequently exposed to doxorubicin at pre‐puberty. Pre‐pubertal male rats were distributed into four groups: Sham Control; Doxorubicin; l‐carnitine; l‐carnitine + Doxorubicin (l‐carnitine injected 1 h before doxorubicin). At 100 days of age, all groups were reassigned into two sets: One set was submitted to the evaluation of sperm motility, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, sperm chromatin structure analysis (SCSA), and evaluation of the oxidative stress. The other set of rats was destined to the evaluation of reproductive competence. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosome integrity was higher in the Carnitine+Doxorubicin group when compared with the Doxorubicin group. However, sperm motility and mitochondrial activity were not improved by carnitine pre‐treatment. Both values of malondialdehyde and nitrite (indirect measurement of nitric oxide) concentrations were statistically higher in the only doxorubicin‐treated group when compared to the Carnitine + Doxorubicin group. Fertility index and implantation rate were lower in Doxorubicin group, when compared to Carnitine + Doxorubicin group. Moreover, the percentage of spermatozoa with damaged DNA was higher in the Doxorubicin‐treated group when compared to the Carnitine+Doxorubicin group. l‐carnitine, when administered before doxorubicin, partially preserved the acrosome integrity, an important feature related to sperm fertilization ability that positively correlated with the reproductive competence and sperm DNA integrity at adulthood. In conclusion, l‐carnitine attenuated the long‐term alterations caused by doxorubicin in the germ cells and improved male reproductive capacity in adulthood.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T15:40:26.266008-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12426
  • European Academy of Andrology Newsletter
    • Authors: Csilla Krausz
      First page: 256
      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:01:46.267888-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12455
  • Erratum
    • First page: 260
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T15:00:29.660334-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12457
  • Impact of sexual debut on culturable human seminal microbiota
    • Abstract: Micro‐organisms are tightly integrated into host‐microbiota ecosystem. Microbiota of human semen has been studied so far mostly in case of infertility or prostatitis. We aimed to reveal possible impact of sexual debut on seminal microbiota in healthy young men. The study group included 68 young healthy men, of them 12 men without sexual experience, 11 men with single lifetime sexual partner and 45 men with multiple lifetime sexual partners. Basic semen parameters were similar for all subgroups, and no correlation between sexual experience and WBC counts in semen was found. A man could harbour one to nine different bacteria in his semen; the total concentration of bacteria ranged from 2.3 to 7.3 log10 CFU/mL of semen. Lower total bacterial concentration and lower bacterial diversity was observed in men without sexual experience than in sexually experienced men (p 
  • The impact of histones linked to sperm chromatin on embryo development and
           ART outcome
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the proportion of sperm chromatin linked to remaining histone and assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome. A prospective cohort study was performed on couples undergoing ART process at the Department of Reproduction Medicine (HFME, Bron, France). The histone‐to‐protamine ratio (HPR) was measured using the method described by Wykes & Krawetz (2003) J Biol Chem 278, 29471. The correlations with sperm DFI, blastocyst formation, pregnancy rate, and delivery rate were investigated. A total of 291 ART cycles were included (42 c‐IVF and 249 ICSI procedures): 3870 oocytes were punctured and 2211 embryos were obtained, among which 507 were transferred and 336 frozen. The mean HPR was 18.9%. A significant negative correlation was found between HPR and DFI (r = −0.12, p 
  • EAA clinical guideline on management of bone health in the andrological
           outpatient clinic
    • Abstract: Male osteoporosis is now a well‐recognized medical disorder with established clinical guidelines for both diagnosis and management. Prevention as well as management of osteoporosis in men consulting the andrological outpatient clinic because of low testosterone, however, is not well established. This gap of knowledge is—at least partly—explained by the controversy with respect to the threshold of testosterone needed for skeletal maintenance. However, testosterone deficiency may be clearly associated with bone loss as well as frailty in men. If anything, andrologists should therefore be aware of the potential silent presence of osteoporosis in men with confirmed hypogonadism. Therefore, the management of patients with potential hypogonadism should include a complete bone health assessment, besides clinical and biochemical evaluation of gonadal status. Such bone health assessment should include specific items in medical history and physical examination related to fracture risk. Furthermore, dual‐energy absorptiometry is indicated to evaluate fracture risk in men with confirmed clinical hypogonadism. Regarding treatment, besides general measures to prevent or manage male osteoporosis testosterone replacement can be initiated (as described in guidelines for hypogonadism), but data on its efficacy in preventing fractures are lacking. Thus, additional anti‐osteoporotic may be needed, especially in men with very low testosterone who are at high risk of bone loss and/or in men not able to receive testosterone replacement.
  • Semen quality associated with subsequent hospitalizations – Can the
    • Abstract: Semen quality is suggested to be a universal biomarker for future health. Previous studies have mostly been registry based excluding the possibility to address the importance of lifestyle, fertility status, health and socio‐economic status. We aimed to investigate whether the association between semen quality and subsequent risk of hospitalization could be explained by differences in occupation, education, fertility, cryptorchidism, BMI or smoking; 1423 men with first semen sample at Fertility Clinic, Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark, from 1977 to 2010 responded to a questionnaire in 2012 about current health, lifestyle, educational level and occupation. They were followed in the Danish National Patient Registry to first‐time hospitalizations using ICD‐8 and ICD‐10 classification. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazard regression models to adjust for the possible confounding factors. We found a significant higher risk of being hospitalized with decreasing sperm concentrations (0–15 mill/mL: HR1.78, 95% CI:1.51–2.09; 16–50 mill/mL: HR 1.37 95% CI: 1.17–1.60; 51–100 mill/mL: HR1.25 95% CI: 1.07–1.45). Same significant association of being hospitalized with decreasing total sperm counts was seen. The dose–response increase in risk in hospitalization with decreasing sperm concentration and total sperm count remained constant after further individual adjustment for occupation, marital status, fertility, cryptorchidism, BMI or smoking. The association between semen quality and subsequent morbidity was not explained by differences in lifestyle, behavioural or fertility status. We were unable to adjust for all possible confounders simultaneously due to limited sample size, and reverse causation is a possible explanation as information about education and lifestyle was obtained after semen analysis and hospitalizations occurred and may have changed as consequence of both. Semen quality may be a universal biomarker for future health not explained by lifestyle and socio‐economic status, but this needs to be addressed further in future studies.
  • The neuropeptide orexin A – search for its possible role in regulation
           of steroidogenesis in adult mice testes
    • Abstract: Orexin A, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, regulates food intake and sleep‐wake cycle by binding to orexin receptor 1. Besides brain, orexin A and orexin receptor 1 are also present in peripheral organs. In our earlier studies, localization and expression of orexin A and orexin receptor 1 have been shown in adult mouse testis, and further their role in testicular development in neonatal mouse was also demonstrated. In this study, role of orexin A and orexin receptor 1 in the testis of adult mouse by blocking binding of orexin A to orexin receptor 1 using an orexin receptor 1 antagonist, SB‐334867, was investigated under in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Mice were given a single bilateral intratesticular injection of the antagonist at doses of 4 and 12 μg/mouse and were sacrificed 24 h post‐injection. The antagonist treatment caused degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules in the testis and also caused alterations in steroidogenesis, with a concomitant decrease in the level of testosterone (T) and an increase in the level of 17β‐estradiol (E2) in serum and in testis. Further, expressions of SF1, StAR, P450scc and 17β‐HSD were downregulated, while the expressions of 3β‐HSD and P450arom were upregulated in antagonist‐treated mice compared with controls. Also, the oxidative stress in the testis was increased in treated mice. In ex vivo study, antagonist treatment to the testis caused a marked decrease in the level of T and an increase in the level of E2 in the media, accompanied by downregulated expression of SF1, StAR, P450scc and 17β‐HSD and an upregulation in the expression of 3β‐HSD and P450arom, indicating a direct role of orexin A in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis. The results of ex vivo study supported the findings of in vivo study. In conclusion, the results suggest potential involvement of orexin A and orexin receptor 1 in regulation of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis of adult Parkes mice.
  • The SET protein promotes androgen production in testicular Leydig cells
    • Abstract: Approximately 40% of middle‐aged men exhibit symptoms of late‐onset hypogonadism (LOH). However, the mechanism of androgen deficiency is still currently unclear. As shown in our previous studies, the SET protein is expressed in testicular Leydig cells and ovarian granule cells. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the SET protein on androgen production in Leydig cells. The AdCMV/SET and AdH1siRNA/SET adenoviruses were individually transduced into a cultured mouse Leydig cell line (mLTC‐1) with or without human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulation in vitro. The primary mouse Leydig cells were used to confirm the main data from mLTC‐1 cells. The SET protein was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of mLTC‐1 cells. Testosterone production was significantly increased in mLTC‐1 cells overexpressing the SET protein compared with the control group (p 
  • High‐quality human and rat spermatozoal RNA isolation for functional
           genomic studies
    • Abstract: Sperm RNA is a sensitive monitoring endpoint for male reproductive toxicants, and a potential biomarker to assess male infertility and sperm quality. However, isolation of sperm RNA is a challenging procedure due to the heterogeneous population of cells present in the ejaculate, the low yield of RNA per spermatozoon, and the absence of 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA subunits. The unique biology of spermatozoa has created some uncertainty in the field about RNA isolation methods, indicating the need for rigorous quality control checks to ensure reproducibility of data generated from sperm RNA. Therefore, we developed a reliable and effective protocol for RNA isolation from rat and human spermatozoa that delivers highly purified and intact RNA, verified using RNA‐specific electrophoretic chips and molecular biology approaches such as RT‐PCR and Western blot analysis. The sperm RNA isolation technique was optimized using rat spermatozoa and then adapted to human spermatozoa. Three steps in the sperm isolation procedure, epididymal fluid collection, sperm purification, and spermatozoon RNA extraction, were evaluated and assessed. The sperm RNA extraction methodology consists of collection of rat epididymal fluid with repeated needle punctures of the epididymis, somatic cell elimination using detergent‐based somatic cell lysis buffer (SCLB) and the use of RNA isolation Kit. Rat sperm heads are more resistant to disruption than human spermatozoa, necessitating the addition of mechanical lysis with microbeads and heat in the rat protocol, whereas the human sperm protocol only required lysis buffer. In conclusion, this methodology results in reliable and consistent isolation of high‐quality sperm RNA. Using this technique will aid in translation of data collected from animal models, and reproducibility of clinical assessment of male factor fertility using RNA molecular biomarkers.
  • Sperm morphological normality under high magnification is correlated to
           male infertility and predicts embryo development
    • Abstract: Human sperm morphology has been described as an essential parameter for the diagnosis of male infertility and a prognostic indicator of natural or assisted pregnancies. Nevertheless, standard morphological assessment remains a subjective analysis and its impact on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is also of limited value. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) can improve semen analysis by better defining male infertility and providing a better prognosis for ICSI up to a year later. Data were obtained from 483 patients undergoing conventional semen analysis from June 2015 to June 2017 in a private university‐affiliated in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. The correlation of MSOME with seminal parameters was evaluated. One hundred and thirty patients underwent ICSI up to a year later, and the correlation between MSOME and ICSI outcomes was established. Except for volume, all seminal parameters were positively correlated with MSOME I+II. MSOME was also distinct between World Health Organization (WHO) classification groups, with normozoospermic and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic presenting the higher and the lower proportion of MSOME I+II, respectively. MSOME I+II was prognostic for fertilization rate, high‐quality cleavage‐stage embryos rate, and blastocyst rate. The normality cutoff value based on blastocyst rate was MSOME I+II≥ 5.5%. MSOME could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of infertility severity as it is correlated with sperm morphology, motility, and concentration. Men who had higher MSOME I+II had better ICSI outcomes. The future use of MSOME as a routine method for semen analysis may be a reliable form of assessing male infertility.
  • Male infertility is associated with altered treatment course of men with
    • Abstract: This study aims to evaluate whether cancer treatments differ in infertile men compared to men who have undergone vasectomy and age‐matched controls. We analyzed subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan Claims database from 2001 to 2009. Infertile men were identified through diagnosis and treatment codes. Comparison groups included vasectomized men and an age‐matched cohort who were not infertile and had not undergone vasectomy. We considered cancer types previously associated with infertility that were diagnosed after the diagnosis of infertility. The treatment regimens were determined based on the presence of claims with CPT codes for chemotherapy (CTX), radiation (RTX) or surgical treatment (ST) for each entity in all study groups. Cases with multimodal treatments were also identified. As a result, CTX was similarly distributed among the infertile, vasectomized, and control groups. In contrast, RTX treatment length was shorter in infertile men. The frequency of multimodal treatment (i.e., radiation and chemotherapy) was twofold lower in men with infertility compared to other men. By focusing on treatment patterns for each cancer type among these groups, the duration of RTX and CTX was shorter in infertile men diagnosed with NHL compared to controls. We conclude that Infertile men diagnosed with cancer and specific cancer types experience different treatment courses, with shorter RTX and less combined RTX/CTX compared to fertile and vasectomized men. These differences could reflect differences in stage at presentation, biological behavior, or treatment responses in infertile men.
  • Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the origin and incidence of
           sperm intranuclear cytoplasmic retention in fertile and teratozoospermia
    • Abstract: The human sperm nucleus contains cytoplasm. However, the origin and incidence of human sperm intranuclear cytoplasmic retention (INCR) remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to observe the morphological origin of INCR within the seminiferous epithelium and investigate the incidence of INCR in fertile and teratozoospermia men using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By TEM, INCR initially appeared in elongating round spermatid nuclei and varied in size, number, shape, content, location and distribution within sperm nuclei. The teratozoospermia group (n = 16) demonstrated a higher incidence of INCR than did the fertile group (n = 16) (17.6 ± 5.2% vs. 9.7 ± 3.4%; p = 0.000). In the fertile group, no correlations were found between the incidence of INCR and abnormal sperm morphology, nuclear vacuole, acrosome integrity, motility or concentration (p > 0.05). However, the incidence of INCR exhibited a positive relationship with sperm abnormal morphology in the teratozoospermia group (r = 0.616, p = 0.011). These results demonstrate that INCR occurs in the early process of spermatogenesis and is an alteration found in the nucleus. Spermatozoa from teratozoospermia men contained more INCRs than those from fertile males. More attention should be paid to the possibility of spermatozoa containing INCR when using spermatozoa with abnormal head morphology for clinical or diagnostic purposes.
  • Endocrine and psychological aspects of sexual dysfunction in Klinefelter
    • Abstract: Klinefelter syndrome is a frequent cause of hypogonadism, but despite hundreds of publications on different aspects of Klinefelter syndrome, only a few studies dealt with sexual dysfunction. In particular, testosterone is critical for various aspects of sexual response, but its role on sexuality in Klinefelter syndrome patients is debatable and no studies have evaluated the efficacy of testosterone treatment on sexual dysfunction in these subjects. Furthermore, the impact of psychological and relational aspects on sexual function of Klinefelter syndrome subjects is poorly defined. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence and type of sexual dysfunctions in Klinefelter syndrome subjects; to correlate them with testosterone levels and psychosexological and relational domains; and to evaluate the effects of testosterone therapy. We studied 62 non‐mosaic naïve Klinefelter syndrome patients and 60 age‐matched controls by means of medical history, psychosexological history, 15‐item International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, endocrine assessment, and dynamic penile color Doppler ultrasound. Twenty‐five hypogonadal Klinefelter syndrome patients were studied after 6 months of testosterone replacement therapy. Klinefelter syndrome subjects have reduced 15‐item International Index of Erectile Function scores regarding sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with respect to controls, and these aspects were significantly associated with testosterone levels. Klinefelter syndrome subjects had also higher prevalence of erectile dysfunction, but no relation with testosterone levels was evident. A high prevalence of a range of psychological disturbances was present in Klinefelter syndrome subjects with erectile dysfunction with respect to those without erectile dysfunction. No statistical difference in the prevalence of premature and delayed ejaculation was observed between Klinefelter syndrome and control subjects. Testosterone replacement therapy improved sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction scores, but had no effect on erectile function. Penile color Doppler ultrasound was normal in all subjects. This study shows that sexual dysfunction in Klinefelter syndrome is multifactorial and related only in part to hypogonadism and largely to psychological disturbances. Evaluation and therapy of sexual dysfunction should include a combined andrological and psychosexological approach.
  • Association between two common transitions of H2BFWT gene and male
           infertility: a case–control, meta, and structural analysis
    • Abstract: H2BFWT is one of the testis‐specific histones that plays a fundamental role in spermatogenesis, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene may result in male infertility. This study aimed to investigate the association between −9C>T and 368A>G transitions of H2BFWT gene and male infertility through a case–control, meta‐analysis, and a bioinformatics approach. In this case–control study, 490 subjects including 240 idiopathic infertile men and 250 healthy controls were included. The −9C>T and 368A>G SNPs genotyping were performed by a PCR–RFLP method. To find eligible studies for meta‐analysis, we searched valid scientific databases. The odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated to find the strength of these associations. Furthermore, the influences of two common transitions on the molecular features of H2BFWT were assessed by in silico tools. Our case–control data revealed that −9C>T is not associated with male infertility. But, there was a significant association between 368A>G and male infertility. In the meta‐analysis, five eligible studies were included. Our data revealed significant associations between −9C>T, 368A>G, and male infertility in overall and stratified analyses. Moreover, structural analysis showed that 368A>G could affect the protein structure (SNAP prediction: non‐neutral, score: 42, expected accuracy: 71%; SIFT prediction: deleterious, score: −2.55), while −9C>T may affect the binding nucleotide in the promoter region. Based on these findings, two aforementioned polymorphisms were associated with increased risk of male infertility. However, studies with larger sample size and different ethnicities are needed to obtain more accurate conclusions.
  • What happens to the unsuccessful spermatozoa'
    • Abstract: To study apoptosis as a functional pathway in mature spermatozoa and apoptosis correlated to the acrosome reaction via the intracellular calcium concentration, semen samples from 27 healthy human donors were treated with inducers of apoptosis (betulinic acid, thapsigargin), inducers of the acrosome reaction (thapsigargin, calcium ionophore) or hydrogen peroxide to produce reactive oxygen species with and without prior incubation with a calcium chelator. Computer‐assisted sperm analysis, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to analyze changes in the acrosomal status and in apoptotic features. Betulinic acid, thapsigargin, and the calcium ionophore treatment resulted in an increased number of sperm cells with caspase 9 and caspase 3 activation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and a reacted acrosome. Sperm motility was decreased in all cases. Transmission electron analyses showed ultra‐morphological changes, such as membrane integrity, membrane blebbing, the formation of head vacuoles, defects of the nuclear envelope, nuclear fragmentation, and the acrosome reaction. Acrosome reaction and apoptotic features decreased due to the reduction in intracellular calcium by the calcium chelator NP‐EGTA, AM. Therefore, apoptotic cell death in acrosome‐reacted sperm cells mediated by high intracellular calcium levels is possible.
  • Treatment of semen samples with α‐chymotrypsin alters the expression
           pattern of sperm functional proteins—a pilot study
    • Abstract: Semen hyperviscosity delays the liquefaction of semen sample and is subjected to limited proteolysis by addition of α‐chymotrypsin to reduce the viscosity. α‐Chymotrypsin is a proteolytic enzyme involved in degradation of the proteins and polypeptides. Even though α‐chymotrypsin improves the handling of hyperviscous samples, its effect on the sperm proteins is not clear. This study was aimed to evaluate the alteration in the expression of sperm functional proteins in samples treated with α‐chymotrypsin. Among all the proteins examined in both donor and patient samples, HSPA2 (70 KDa), BAG6 (150 KDa), HIST1H2BA (14 KDa), SPA17 (17 KDa formed after cleavage of C‐terminal calmodulin‐binding domain), and OXPHOS complexes were undetectable in α‐chymotrypsin‐treated samples, while the expression of the native SPA17 (20 KDa) was significantly decreased in the α‐chymotrypsin‐treated samples in comparison with controls. The use of α‐chymotrypsin for liquefaction of hyperviscous samples degrades functional proteins of spermatozoa. Intracellular proteins, such as OXPHOS complexes and HIST1H2BA, and sperm surface proteins (HSPA2, BAG6, and SPA17) were degraded in all treated samples. Whether treatment of samples with α‐chymotrypsin affects the global proteomic outcome is unclear. More in‐depth calibration studies are required to determine the appropriate concentration of α‐chymotrypsin for processing hyperviscous semen samples without compromising its protein expression and function. Similarly, the effects of altered protein function on assisted reproductive techniques (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome, are not known and require further research.
  • Leydig cell insufficiency in hypospermatogenesis: a paracrine effect of
           activin–inhibin signaling'
    • Abstract: Clinical findings and a variety of experimental models indicate that Leydig cell dysfunction accompanies damage to the seminiferous tubules with increasing severity. Most studies support the idea that intratesticular signaling from the seminiferous tubules to Leydig cells regulates steroidogenesis, which is disrupted when hypospermatogenesis occurs. Sertoli cells seem to play a pivotal role in this process. In this review, we summarize relevant clinical and experimental observations and present evidence to support the hypothesis that testicular activin signaling and its regulation by testicular inhibin may link seminiferous tubular dysfunction to reduced testosterone biosynthesis.
  • Differential expression profiles of conserved Snail transcription factors
           in the mouse testis
    • Abstract: Snail transcription factors are key regulators of cellular transitions during embryonic development and tumorigenesis. The closely related SNAI1 and SNAI2 proteins induce epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), acting predominantly as transcriptional repressors, while the functions of SNAI3 are unknown. An initial examination of Snai2‐deficient mice provided evidence of deficient spermatogenesis. To address the hypothesis that Snail proteins are important for male fertility, this study provides the first comprehensive cellular expression profiles of all three mammalian Snail genes in the post‐natal mouse testis. To evaluate Snail transcript expression profiles, droplet digital (dd) PCR and in situ hybridization were employed. Snai1, 2 and 3 transcripts are readily detected at 7, 14, 28 days post‐partum (dpp) and 7 weeks (adult). Unique cellular expression was demonstrated for each by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry using Western blot‐validated antibodies. SNAI1 and SNAI2 are in the nucleus of the most mature germ cell types at post‐natal ages 10, 15 and 26. SNAI3 is only detected from 15 dpp onwards and is localized in the Sertoli cell cytoplasm. In the adult testis, Snai1 and Snai2 transcripts are detected in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, while Snai3 is in both germ and Sertoli cells. SNAI1 protein is evident in nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids and elongated spermatids (Stages IX–XII). SNAI2 is present in the nuclei of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, with a faint signal detected in round spermatids. SNAI3 was detected only in Sertoli cell cytoplasm, as in juvenile testes. Additionally, colocalization of SNAI1 and SNAI2 with previously identified key binding partners, LSD1 and PRC2 complex components, provides strong evidence that these important functional interactions are conserved during spermatogenesis to control gene activity. These distinct expression profiles suggest that each Snail family member has unique functions during spermatogenesis.
  • Impaired sperm function in infertile men relies on the membrane sterol
    • Abstract: Membrane cholesterol removal appears a key step for the gain of fertility potential during sperm maturation. However, the membrane sterol pattern in sperm cells from infertile patients, with impaired sperm parameters, has been poorly investigated. To elucidate a causative link between sperm membrane composition in male fertility, here we have investigated the levels of cholesterol and its oxidized derivatives 7β‐hydroxycholesterol and 7‐keto‐cholesterol in sixteen infertile patients with oligo‐asthenozoospermia and 16 normozoospermic (N) fertile subjects. Furthermore, ten of 16 N fertile subjects agreed to receive a defined testicular thermal challenge by adhering to a programme of sauna sessions for 1 month. Semen samples were obtained from each of the participants, and sperm parameters were assessed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Sperm levels of cholesterol, 7β‐hydroxycholesterol and 7‐keto‐cholesterol were quantified by ultra‐pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that oligo‐asthenozoospermia patients had a huge amount of cholesterol content compared with fertile subjects (12.40 ± 6.05 μg/106 cells vs. 0.45 ± 0.28 μg/106 cells, p 
  • Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on
           stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during
           storage at 5 °C
    • Abstract: Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility‐enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity. The diet of five stallions was supplemented with 20 g of Maca powder daily for a total of 60 days. A control group of five stallions received the same diet without Maca. Semen was collected once before the administration of Maca (D0), twice during the administration at 30 and 60 days (D30 and D60), and finally twice at 30 and 60 days after the end of the administration (D90 and D120). Ejaculates were processed for cooled shipping at 5 °C and evaluated in the laboratory for total and progressive motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation after collection and after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. Dietary supplementation with Maca improved sperm concentration (from 213 ± 80.4 to 447 ± 73.1 × 106 spz/mL) and total sperm count (from 10,880 ± 4377 to 24,783 ± 4419 × 106 spz). The beneficial effects of Maca supplementation on motility and acrosome integrity in the raw semen were detected from the end of treatment with Maca (D60) until the end of the study (D120). Furthermore, during cooling storage, total motility, progressive motility, and acrosome integrity declined more slowly in the Maca‐treated group than in the control group. Lipid peroxidation did not change during cooling storage in either group and did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In this study, the dietary supplementation with Maca increased sperm production and stabilized semen quality during chilled storage.
  • Seminal SIRT1 expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men
           with varicocoele
    • Abstract: In a case‐controlled study, we assessed the expressed seminal NAD‐dependent protein deacetylase (SIRT1) expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men associated with varicocoele. Our study involved 81 men, recruited from the University hospitals, after ethical approval and informed consent. They were allocated into fertile normozoospermic men (n = 23), infertile OAT men without varicocoele (n = 23) and infertile OAT men with varicocoele (n = 35). Inclusion criteria consisted of confirmation of abnormal semen parameters and normal female partners whereas exclusion criteria were leukocytospermia, tobacco smoking, hormonal therapy, immunological disorders, dyslipidemia, hypogonadism, cardiovascular disorders, morbid obesity, and hepatic or renal failures. All participants had an interview to assess clinical history, clinical examination, semen analysis, and estimation of seminal SIRT1 expression. Seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in infertile OAT men than fertile men. Among infertile OAT men, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in those with varicocoele than in those without. Additionally, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in varicocoele grade III cases compared with other grades. Seminal SIRT1 expression was positively correlated with sperm concentration (r = 0.327, p = 0.001), total sperm motility (r = 0.532, p = 0.001), and sperm normal forms (r = 0.469, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that seminal SIRT1 expression has a role of male infertility being significantly decreased in infertile OAT men in general and in infertile OAT men associated with varicocoele in particular.
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