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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 262, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Andrology
  [SJR: 0.979]   [H-I: 14]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2047-2919 - ISSN (Online) 2047-2927
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Andrology of male‐to‐female transsexuals: influence of cross‐sex
           hormone therapy on testicular function
    • Abstract: Patients with gender dysphoria are offered cross‐sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to achieve the transition between the sex assigned at birth and gender identity. According to international guidelines, cross‐sex hormone therapy in trans‐women should lead to a psychologically and physiologically healthy body with feminized serum hormone levels, resulting in suppression of spermatogenesis. However, in a recently published multi‐center study, we discovered a high proportion of patients with male serum hormone levels and qualitatively intact spermatogenesis on the day of sex reassignment surgery. The objective of this study was to review the content of 11 publications that focus on the influence of cross‐sex hormone therapy on testicular morphology. These publications were identified based on a PubMed search for the key words transgender/transsexual/gender dysphoria in male‐to‐female persons, cross‐sex hormone therapy, and testicular tissues. Whereas three publications described a marked reduction of the spermatogenic level in all patients examined, eight publications reported inconsistent results. Histological analyses showed highly variable outcomes from qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and undisturbed Leydig/Sertoli cell morphology to full testicular regression with severe cellular damage and hyalinization. Explanations for these heterogeneous findings include insufficient cross‐sex hormone therapy regarding dosage or duration. As complete spermatogenesis is associated with virilized serum hormone levels, these patients may face challenges especially after sex reassignment surgery in adjusting to the abruptly established hypogonadal state following removal of the testes. These findings also suggest that contraception should be discussed, and fertility preservation should be offered during/prior to cross‐sex hormone therapy. There is a need for more individualized and better‐controlled cross‐sex hormone therapy and post‐treatment regimens. Evidence‐based guidelines for attending clinicians need to be established in order to deliver the most appropriate care.
       
  • Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with
           type 2 diabetes—a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether testosterone replacement therapy improves muscle mechanical and physical function in addition to increasing lean leg mass and total lean body mass in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered bio‐available testosterone (BioT) levels. Thirty‐nine men aged 50–70 years with type 2 diabetes and BioT levels
       
  • Comprehensive proteomics analysis of exosomes derived from human seminal
           plasma
    • Abstract: Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry and transfer regulatory bioactive molecules and mediate intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Although seminal exosomes have been identified in human seminal plasma, their exact composition and possible physiologic function remain unknown. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive proteomics analysis of exosomes derived from human seminal plasma. Seminal exosomes were isolated and purified from 12 healthy donors using a 30% sucrose cushion‐based exosome‐isolation protocol, followed by characterization by western blot, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis before performing extensive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics analysis. The identified proteins were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis, and seminal exosomes‐associated proteins were selectively validated by western blot. A total of 1474 proteins were identified in all seminal exosomes samples, with Gene Ontology analysis demonstrating that these identified seminal exosomes‐associated proteins were mostly linked to ‘exosomes,’ ‘cytoplasm,’ and ‘cytosol.’ Bioinformatics analysis indicated that these proteins were mainly involved in biologic processes, including metabolism, energy pathways, protein metabolism, cell growth and maintenance, and transport. Of these identified proteins, PHGDH, LGALS3BP, SEMG1, ACTB, GAPDH, and the exosomal‐marker protein ALIX were validated by western blot. This study provided a more comprehensive description of the seminal exosomes proteome and could also be a resource for further screening of biomarkers and comparative proteomics studies, including those associated with male infertility and prostate cancer.
       
  • Probiotics to improve testicular function (Andrology 5:439–444, 2017)
           – a comment on mechanism of action and therapeutic potential of
           probiotics beyond reproduction
    •  
  • Comparative sperm protein profiling in bulls differing in fertility and
           identification of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4, a potential
           fertility marker
    • Abstract: This study aimed to identify sperm proteomic signatures regulating sperm functions and fertility by: (i) comparing the sperm electrophoretic protein profiles and identifying the differentially abundant proteins among breeding bulls differing in fertility status and (ii) elucidating the possible role of one of the identified novel proteins, PEBP4 on sperm function and fertility. The grouping of bulls as fertile (n = 6) and low fertile (n = 6) was performed based on bull fertility index and infertile (n = 6) based on semen rejection rate (>33%). The sperm motility, fructolysis index, acrosomal reaction, intracellular calcium levels, and seminal plasma fructose and calcium levels were studied among fertility groups. The differentially expressed sperm proteins observed in single- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) were identified using Nano-LC-MS/MS. In the fertile bulls, the expression levels of calmodulin (CALM1), spermadhesinZ13 (SPADH2), and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 (PEBP4) were significantly (p 
       
  • Male urinary paracetamol and semen quality
    • Abstract: The endocrine-disrupting properties of paracetamol have been previously demonstrated in rodent studies of abnormal sperm morphology and diminished testosterone production, in addition to epidemiologic studies of diminished couple fecundity. In this study, we examined the relationship between paracetamol and its metabolite p-aminophenol quantified in a single spot urine and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning for pregnancy. Men provided a urine specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately one month apart and underwent 24-h analysis for 35 semen quality parameters. Paracetamol and p-aminophenol were quantified in urine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relationship between natural-log-transformed urinary paracetamol and p-aminophenol rescaled by their standard deviation and 21 Box-Cox-transformed, 14 non-transformed semen parameters was assessed using linear mixed-effects models. The median concentrations (IQR) of urinary paracetamol and p-aminophenol were 15.5 ng/mL (5.44, 73.5) and 978 ng/mL (500, 1596), respectively. Following adjustment for creatinine and age, a 1-standard deviation increase in log-transformed urinary paracetamol was associated with a reduction in beat cross-frequency and an increase in DNA fragmentation [β (95% CI): −0.59 Hz (−1.16, −0.03) and 0.05% (0.01, 0.09), respectively]. These findings were corroborated in models of categorical chemical concentrations; higher concentrations of paracetamol remained associated with reduced beat cross-frequency and increased DNA fragmentation. A 1-standard deviation increase in log-transformed urinary p-aminophenol was associated with a reduction in sperm head area [β (95% CI): −0.1 μm2 (−0.18, −0.02) and width −0.02 μm (−0.04, −0.01)]. However, only the association with sperm head area remained statistically significant in models of p-aminophenol quartiles. Our findings suggest that adult male urinary paracetamol is associated with sperm motility and DNA fragmentation, while the metabolite, p-aminophenol, is predominantly associated with sperm head morphometry.
       
  • Spontaneous testicular atrophy occurs despite normal spermatogonial
           proliferation in a Tp53 knockout rat
    • Abstract: The tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) has many functions in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair and is also involved in spermatogenesis in the mouse. To evaluate the role of p53 in spermatogenesis in the rat, we characterized testis biology in adult males of a novel p53 knockout rat (SD-Tp53tm1sage). p53 knockout rats exhibited variable levels of testicular atrophy, including significantly decreased testis weights, atrophic seminiferous tubules, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and elevated spermatocyte TUNEL labeling rates, indicating a dysfunction in spermatogenesis. Phosphorylated histone H2AX protein levels and distribution were similar in the non-atrophic seminiferous tubules of both genotypes, showing evidence of pre-synaptic DNA double-strand breaks in leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes, preceding cell death in p53 knockout rat testes. Quantification of the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) proliferation rate with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, in addition to staining with the undifferentiated type A spermatogonial marker GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRA1), indicated that the undifferentiated spermatogonial population was normal in p53 knockout rats. Following exposure to 0.5 or 5 Gy X-ray, p53 knockout rats exhibited no germ cell apoptotic response beyond their unirradiated phenotype, while germ cell death in wild-type rat testes was elevated to a level similar to the unexposed p53 knockout rats. This study indicates that seminiferous tubule atrophy occurs following spontaneous, elevated levels of spermatocyte death in the p53 knockout rat. This phenomenon is variable across individual rats. These results indicate a critical role for p53 in rat germ cell survival and spermatogenesis.
       
  • Pathogenic role of ADGRG2 in CBAVD patients replicated in Chinese
           population
    • Abstract: Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is an important cause of obstructive azoospermia and male infertility worldwide. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are the main pathogenic cause, although a proportion of cases are still unexplained. Recently, adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G2 (ADGRG2) gene, a novel pathogenic gene for CBAVD was identified. We did a single population replication study in Chinese CBAVD patients to replicate its role in CBAVD developing. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 18 unrelated CBAVD patients and identified two missense variants in two patients (c.G1709A, p.C570Y; and c.A2968G, p.K990E). Both variants were predicted to be deleterious and highly conserved in silico. The p.C570Y variant is located in the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteolysis site domain, which is functionally necessary for autoproteolysis, while the p.K990E variant is in the N-terminal fragment that may regulate activity of the adhesion GPCR. We did not find any potential pathogenic CFTR variants, implying the ADGRG2 variants are the genetic cause in these patients. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first two ADGRG2 variants to be identified in Chinese CBAVD patients, which further validate the disease-causing role of ADGRG2 in this congenital defect.
       
  • Penile neurovascular structure revisited: immunohistochemical studies with
           three-dimensional reconstruction
    • Abstract: Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction. Immunofluorescent staining of penile tissue was performed with antibodies against CD31 (an endothelial cell marker), smooth muscle α -actin (SMA, a smooth muscle cell marker), NG2 (a pericyte marker), or βIII-tubulin (a neuronal marker). We reconstructed three-dimensional images of penile vascular or neurovascular system from stacks of two-dimensional images, which allows volume rendering and provides reliable anatomic information. CD31-positive endothelial cells, SMA-positive smooth muscle cells, and NG2-positive pericytes were evenly distributed and composed sinusoidal or venous wall. However, the endothelial layer of the cavernous artery or dorsal artery was mainly covered with smooth muscle cells and rarely associated with pericytes. The reconstructed three-dimensional images clearly visualized typical wavy appearance of nerve fibers that evenly innervate to cavernous sinusoids, cavernous artery, dorsal vein, and dorsal artery. We observed a significant decrease in CD31-positive endothelial cells, NG2-positive pericytes, and βIII-tubulin-positive nerve fibers in the penis of diabetic mice compared with those in normal condition. Our protocol for immunofluorescent staining with three-dimensional reconstruction will allow a better understanding of the penile neurovascular anatomy and may constitute a standard technique to determine the efficacy of candidate therapeutics targeting therapeutic angiogenesis or neural regeneration.
       
  • Onion (Allium cepa L.) peel extract (OPE) regulates human sperm motility
           via protein kinase C-mediated activation of the human voltage-gated proton
           channel
    • Abstract: Onion (Allium cepa L.) and quercetin protect against oxidative damage and have positive effects on multiple functional parameters of spermatozoa, including viability and motility. However, the associated underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of onion peel extract (OPE) on voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels, which play a critical role in rapid proton extrusion. This process underlies a wide range of physiological processes, particularly male fertility. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the changes in Hv1 currents in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human Hv1 (HVCN1). The effects of OPE on human sperm motility were also analyzed. OPE significantly activated the outward-rectifying proton currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with an EC50 value of 30 μg/mL. This effect was largely reversible upon washout. Moreover, OPE induced an increase in the proton current amplitude and decreased the time constant of activation at 0 mV from 4.9 ± 1.7 to 0.6 ± 0.1 sec (n = 6). In the presence of OPE, the half-activation voltage (V1/2) shifted in the negative direction, from 20.1 ± 5.8 to 5.2 ± 8.7 mV (n = 6), but the slope was not significantly altered. The OPE-induced current was profoundly inhibited by 10 μm Zn2+, the most potent Hv1 channel inhibitor, and was also inhibited by treatment with GF109203X, a specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. Furthermore, sperm motility was significantly increased in the OPE-treated groups. OPE exhibits protective effects on sperm motility, at least partially via regulation of the proton channel. Moreover, similar effects were exerted by quercetin, the major flavonoid in OPE. These results suggest OPE, which is rich in the potent Hv1 channel activator quercetin, as a possible new candidate treatment for human infertility.
       
  • Mendelian randomisation analysis provides no evidence for a relationship
           between adult height and testicular cancer risk
    • Abstract: Observational studies have suggested anthropometric traits, particularly increased height are associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer (testicular germ cell tumour). However, there is an inconsistency between study findings, suggesting the possibility of the influence of confounding factors. To examine the association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour using an unbiased approach, we performed a Mendelian randomisation study. We used genotype data from genome wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumour totalling 5518 cases and 19,055 controls. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were created and used to evaluate associations with testicular germ cell tumour risk per one standard deviation (s.d) increase in genetically-defined adult height, adult BMI, adult waist hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), adult hip circumference adjusted for BMI (HIPadjBMI), adult waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCadjBMI), birth weight (BW) and childhood obesity. Mendelian randomisation analysis did not demonstrate an association between any anthropometric trait and testicular germ cell tumour risk. In particular, despite good power, there was no global evidence for association between height and testicular germ cell tumour. However, three SNPs for adult height individually showed association with testicular germ cell tumour (rs4624820: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.41–1.55, p = 2.7 × 10−57; rs12228415: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11–1.22, p = 3.1 × 10−10; rs7568069: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07–1.18, p = 1.1 × 10−6). This Mendelian randomisation analysis, based on the largest testicular germ cell tumour genome wide association dataset to date, does not support a causal etiological association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour aetiology. Our findings are more compatible with confounding by shared environmental factors, possibly related to prenatal growth with exposure to these risk factors occurring in utero.
       
  • Preliminary results of a new tool to evaluate cavernous body fibrosis
           following radical prostatectomy: penile elastography
    • Abstract: Development of cavernous tissue fibrosis due to neurovascular bundle damage during radical prostatectomy has been shown in many trials with invasive methods. In this study, we evaluated the changes in cavernous tissue elasticity by elastography in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with or without neurovascular bundle preservation. Data from 65 patients underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy between April 2014 and December 2015 was collected prospectively. Patients were grouped with respect to nerve-sparing status (non-, unilateral, and bilateral nerve sparing). International Index of Erectile Function scores, penile lengths, and elasticity scores were recorded at preoperative and postoperative follow-up visits (at 3rd and 6th months). The primary endpoint of the study was to evaluate the changes of the elasticity scores in all groups. Elasticity scores were measured with real-time elastography by a single experienced radiologist. Mean age, baseline total testosterone level, IIEF-5 score, elasticity scores of the cavernous body, and penile length were comparable in all groups. At postoperative 3rd and 6th months, statistically significant higher (in favor for fibrosis) mean cavernous body elasticity scores (p = 0.0001), lower mean IIEF-5 scores (p = 0.0001), and shorter penile lengths (p 
       
  • Erectile function recovery in men treated with phosphodiesterase type 5
           inhibitor administration after bilateral nerve-sparing radical
           prostatectomy: a systematic review of placebo-controlled randomized trials
           with trial sequential analysis
    • Abstract: The impact of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) treatment modality (on-demand vs. daily), PDE5I half-life and time from surgery to PDE5I prescription on the achievement of drug-assisted erectile function (EF) recovery is uncertain. We systematically reviewed published randomized clinical trials (RCTs). We performed meta-analyses of data on 2317 men treated with PDE5Is after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). A PubMed and SCOPUS search was performed for trials published from 1 January 1969 to 30 June 2016. PDE5Is are effective in achieving drug-assisted recovery of erectile function (EF). From a statistical standpoint, these studies were subjected to Trial Sequential Analysis to determine whether the pooled data were adequately powered to verify the study outcomes. On-demand treatment with PDE5Is was significantly better than daily treatment in recovering drug-assisted EF. This effect was maintained even when the drugs were stratified according with half-life. Although not based on head-to-head trials, Avanafil used on-demand was the most effective PDE5I in recovering drug-assisted EF. Whereas tadalafil was equally effective when used both on-demand and daily, vardenafil significantly improved drug-assisted EF recovery only when used on-demand. The start of PDE5I treatment six months or more after surgery compared to treatment started earlier did not negatively affect the rate of drug-assisted EF recovery or the possibility to have successful intercourse based on the Sexual Encounter Profile question-3 (SEP-3). Current trials do not support the hypothesis that PDE5I use recovers drug-unassisted EF, although chronic low-dose tadalafil administration may help to preserve erectile tissue integrity. Potential shortcomings in the trials design may partially explain these disappointing results and several questions concerning the recovery of drug-unassisted EF remain unanswered. Thus, there is a need for well-designed new RCTs requiring changes in the timing of PDE5I administration as well as in the dose and the treatment duration.
       
  • Testosterone replacement therapy: improved sexual desire and erectile
           function in men with type 2 diabetes following a 30-week randomized
           placebo-controlled study
    • Abstract: Although testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) can improve sexual function in many hypogonadal (HG) men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), some show either no improvement or only in a limited number of domains. Indeed, it is often difficult for the clinician to offer an indication of the likely efficacy of TRT as little data exist on the proportion of TRT-treated men who will demonstrate improvement in domains such as sexual desire (SxD) and erectile function (EF). We describe in men with T2DM: firstly, the likelihood of improved sexual desire (SxD) and erectile function (EF) following TRT at various time points, and secondly, if probability of SxD change predicted likelihood of subsequent EF change. During a 30-week randomized controlled study of testosterone undecanoate (TU), 199 T2DM men with HG (189 men completing) identified from primary care registers (placebo (P): 107, TU: 92) were stratified using baseline total testosterone (TT)/free testosterone (FT) into Mild (TT 8.1–12 nmol/L or FT 0.18–0.25 nmol/L) and Severe HG groups (TT ≤8 nmol/L and FT ≤0.18 nmol/L) and placebo (P)- and TU-treated groups. Associations between TU, SxD and EF were investigated using chi-square and logistic regression analysis. The proportion of men with improved SxD after 6 weeks and EF improvement after 30 weeks was significantly higher following TU treatment compared to P, this particularly evident in Severe HG men. Changes in SxD and EF were significantly associated in all groups. Logistic regression showed that SxD change at 6 weeks predicted of EF change after 30 weeks. Our study confirms TRT leads to changes in SxD and EF at different time points and suggests SxD and EF changes are related. SxD change after 6 weeks predicting EF change at 30 weeks is possibly a useful clinical finding.
       
  • Calorie restriction reverses age-related alteration of cavernous
           neurovascular structure in the rat
    • Abstract: Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet. The ad libitum group had free access to both food and water, and CR groups were fed 60% of the food intake of their ad libitum littermates, starting from 6 weeks before sacrifice. The penis was harvested and stained with antibodies to von Willebrand factor, smooth muscle α-actin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, phospho-eNOS, nNOS, and neurofilament. We also performed Masson trichrome staining and TUNEL assay. The blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total testosterone level. The contents of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and neuronal cells as well as serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in the penis of aged rats than in their young littermates. CR significantly restored cavernous endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and neuronal cell contents and decreased cavernous endothelial cell apoptosis and fibrosis in both young and aged rats. CR also increased serum testosterone level in aged rats, but not in young rats. CR successfully improved age-related derangements in penile neurovascular structures and hormonal disturbance. Along with a variety of lifestyle modifications, our study gave us a scientific rationale for CR as a non-pharmaceutical strategy to reprogram damaged erectile tissue toward neurovascular repair in aged men.
       
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is present in human spermatozoa and is
           related with sperm motility. The use of recombinant FGF2 to improve motile
           sperm recovery
    • Abstract: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) regulate several functions of somatic cells. In a previous work, we reported FGFR expression in human spermatozoa and their involvement in motility. This study aimed to evaluate the presence and localization of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in human spermatozoa, to determine the relationship of FGF2 levels with conventional semen parameters and to assess the effect of recombinant FGF2 (rFGF2) on sperm recovery in a selection procedure. Western immunoblotting analysis using an antibody against FGF2 revealed an 18-kDa band in sperm protein extracts. The protein was immunolocalized in the sperm flagellum and acrosomal region, as well as in all germ cells. Sperm FGF2 levels, assessed by flow cytometry, showed a positive (p 
       
  • A multicenter study to evaluate oxidative stress by oxidation–reduction
           potential, a reliable and reproducible method
    • Abstract: Seminal oxidative stress (OS) is well-known to affect male fertility status. The discrepancy in OS measurement has hindered its clinical use as a quality indicator for semen. Some tests measured single markers of oxidants or reductants, leading to lack of standardization of results. Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) is a better representative for OS as it provides an overall measure of the activity of both oxidants and reductants. ORP assessment by MiOXSYS has been introduced as a measure of OS with high specificity in differentiating fertile from infertile semen samples. This is a retrospective study comparing data from semen analysis and ORP measurements between two andrology laboratories in the USA and Qatar over a period of 12 months. The same protocol was followed by both laboratories. The USA dataset contained 194 patients and 51 fertile donors, while the Qatar dataset contained 400 patients and 50 fertile donors. In both datasets and in the combined dataset, the infertile group had significantly lower sperm concentration, total and progressive motility, and normal morphology as well as higher ORP levels compared to fertile men (p 
       
  • Effects of eupatilin on the contractility of corpus cavernosal smooth
           muscle through nitric oxide-independent pathways
    • Abstract: Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the main compounds present in Artemisia species. Eupatilin has both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and a relaxation effect on vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function. We evaluated the relaxant effects of eupatilin on the corpus cavernosum (CC) of rabbits and the underlying mechanisms of its activity in human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) cells. Isolated rabbit CC strips were mounted in an organ bath system. A conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to measure activation of calcium-sensitive K+-channel currents in human CCSM cells. The relaxation effect of eupatilin was evaluated by cumulative addition (10−5 m ~ 3 × 10−4 m) to CC strips precontracted with 10−5 m phenylephrine. Western blotting analysis was performed to measure myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for heterotrimeric myosin light chain phosphatase of 17-kDa (CPI-17) expression and to evaluate the effect of eupatilin on the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway. Eupatilin effectively relaxed the phenylephrine-induced tone in the rabbit CC strips in a concentration-dependent manner with an estimated EC50 value of 1.2 ± 1.6 × 10−4 m (n = 8, p 
       
  • Effects of testosterone therapy on BMI, blood pressure, and laboratory
           profile of transgender men: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Testosterone is the main hormonal agent used for cross-sex hormone therapy in female-to-male transgender persons. Our aim was to systematically review the literature concerning the effects of testosterone on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, lipid profile, and liver enzymes in transgender men. PUBMED and EMBASE were searched for studies published until March 2017. Studies were included if they reported interventions with any dose of testosterone and comparison of variables before and during treatment. Of 455 potentially eligible articles, 13 were reviewed. Study duration ranged from 6 to 60 months, sample size ranged from 12 to 97 patients, and the most common treatment was parenteral testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg/12 weeks. Slight but significant increases in BMI were reported (from 1.3 to 11.4%). Three out of seven studies assessing the impact of different testosterone formulations on blood pressure detected modest increases or clinically irrelevant changes in this variable. In another study, however, two patients developed hypertension, which was resolved after cessation of testosterone therapy. Decreases in HDL-cholesterol and increases in LDL-cholesterol were consistently observed. Eight studies observed a relationship between testosterone and increased hemoglobin (range: 4.9–12.5%) and hematocrit (range: 4.4–17.6%), but discontinuation of androgen therapy was not necessary. In one study, two patients developed erythrocytosis (hematocrit >52%) after 9 and 12 months of treatment. One study analyzing testosterone formulations observed smaller increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit with testosterone gel. Six studies assessing liver function showed slight or no changes. Overall, the quality of evidence was low, given the lack of randomized clinical/controlled trials and the small sample sizes. In conclusion, exogenous testosterone administration to transgender men was associated with modest increases in BMI, hemoglobin/hematocrit, and LDL-cholesterol, and with decreases in HDL-cholesterol. Long-term studies are needed to assess the long-term risks of testosterone therapy, particularly as they relate to cardiometabolic risks such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome.
       
  • Inflammatory reaction found in prostate-specific material – method
           standardization and proposed optimal cut-off points
    • Abstract: Prostatitis classification as well as treatment decisions are primarily based on differentiation of the inflammatory status in prostate-specific material. At the same time, methods used for detection of inflammation are semi-quantitative and not finally standardized. The main aim of this study was to suggest more precise methods for detection of prostate inflammatory status. Additional aims were to define optimal cut-off points of various tests in order to discriminate between inflammatory and non-inflammatory condition and to analyze the prevalence of inflammatory prostatitis in the groups of symptomatic prostatitis, lower urinary tract symptoms and control subjects. This prospective study included 541 patients (with prostatitis symptoms, with lower urinary tract symptoms and controls) at Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Leukocyte counts in first-void urine, expressed prostatic secretion and post-massage urine as well as interleukin-6 in prostate secretion specimens were determined. Based on ROC curve analysis, we detected potential normal values for leukocytes in expressed prostatic secretion (
       
  • Effects of testosterone administration (and its 5-alpha-reduction) on
           parenchymal organ volumes in healthy young men: findings from a
           dose-response trial
    • Abstract: Animal data shows that testosterone administration increases the volume of some parenchymal organs. However, the effects of exogenous testosterone on solid abdominal organs in humans remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on the volume of liver, spleen and kidneys in a dose-response trial. Young healthy men aged 18–50 years participating in the 5α-Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300 or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate, and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5 α-reductase inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Liver, spleen and kidney volumes were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose-effect of testosterone on changes in the volume of parenchymal organs was evaluated by linear regression model. The association between changes in total testosterone (TT) levels and changes in organ volumes were assessed. Testosterone administration increased liver volume dose-dependently (17.4 cm3 per 100 mg of weekly testosterone enanthate; p = 0.031); the increase in liver volume was positively associated with changes in TT levels (R2 = 0.08, p = 0.024). A dose-dependent, but non-significant, increase in kidney volumes was also seen. Inclusion of dutasteride use into the models showed an independent association of randomization to dutasteride group with liver volume increase. In conclusion, Testosterone administration increased the liver volume in a dose-dependent manner. The potential changes in parenchymal organs should be considered when interpreting apparent changes in lean mass in response to anabolic interventions.
       
  • Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age'
           A cohort study
    • Abstract: Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort study of a general population random sample (N = 2366) aged 30–60 years was performed. Participants were ultrasound screened for gallstones in 1982–84 and again in 1993–94. Lifestyle data and blood samples were obtained and re-analyzed in 2004. Changes with age in physiology (body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipids, self-rated health), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity level), and indices of reproductive function (number of births, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, male reproductive hormones) were explored in females and males separately. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Incident gallstones (gallstones and cholecystectomy) at ultrasound examination in participants initially free of gallstones at baseline occurred in 9.9% of the study population. In females, increasing alcohol consumption (odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.90; 0.98]) and the cessation of hormone replacement therapy (OR 0.29, 95% CI [0.10; 0.83]) inversely determined incident gallstones. In males, increasing levels of SHBG (OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.94; 0.998]) inversely determined incident gallstones. Other changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were not associated. High baseline free testosterone determined incident gallstones in males (OR 1.15, 95% CI [1.02; 1.30]). To conclude, changes with age in alcohol consumption in females and in reproductive hormones determined incident gallstones. Male reproductive hormones seem to have an impact on incident gallstones. Sex differences should be explored further in future studies.
       
  • Copy number variants of Ras/MAPK pathway genes in patients with isolated
           cryptorchidism
    • Abstract: Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital disorder in boys, but the cause for most cases remains unknown. Patients with Noonan Syndrome are characterized by a typical face, growth retardation, congenital heart defects, learning disabilities and cryptorchidism. Copy number variations of Ras/MAPK pathway genes are unusual in patients with several clinical features of Noonan Syndrome; however, they have not been studied in patients with only one feature of this condition, such as cryptorchidism. Our aim was to determine whether patients with isolated cryptorchidism exhibit Ras/MAPK pathway gene copy number variations (CNVs). Fifty-nine patients with isolated cryptorchidism and negative for mutations in genes associated with Noonan Syndrome were recruited. Determination of Ras/MAPK pathway gene CNVs was performed by Comparative Genome Hybridization array. A CNV was identified in two individuals, a ~175 kb microduplication at 3p25.2, partially including RAF1. A similar RAF1 microduplication has been observed in a patient with testicular aplasia. This suggests that some patients with isolated cryptorchidism may harbor Ras/MAPK pathway gene CNVs.
       
  • Sperm morphology: assessment, pathophysiology, clinical relevance, and
           state of the art in 2017
    • Abstract: For over 30 years, sperm morphology assessment has been one of the most common tests in evaluation of fertility. This review examines the clinical relevance of sperm morphology assessment in the diagnosis of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology, as well as its analytical reliability. Publications on the pathophysiology, the analytical reliability of the test and its clinical relevance in diagnosis and in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) were evaluated. This review compared and discussed study methodologies and results, including patient characteristics, preparation, smear staining methods and classification systems. The assessment of the percentage of some abnormalities such as for example thin head, amorphous head, or bent or asymmetrical neck is of little clinical use, and their pathophysiology is not well explained as most are physiological traits. Some studies have highlighted correlations between the percentage of normal forms and functional sperm abnormalities, as well as correlations with ability to conceive in vivo and, in some situations, with the success of intra-uterine insemination (IUI) or conventional IVF. However, except in the case of some specific sperm defects (easy to detect with 99 or 100% of spermatozoa affected) and which are often linked to genetic disorders (globozoospermia, macrocephaly, decapitated sperm syndrome and fibrous sheath dysplasia), sperm morphology assessment has very poor sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infertility. Moreover, there is very little evidence that indices of multiple sperm defects [sperm deformity index (SDI), teratozoospermia index (TZI), and multiple abnormalities index (MAI)] are relevant. Above all, many publications report a major lack of analytical reliability of this test, mainly in assessment of the details of sperm abnormalities. Many questions arise concerning how and when sperm morphology should be assessed, and how to interpret the thresholds of normal forms. Questions are raised on the real clinical impact of this test.
       
  • Risk of low bone mineral density in testicular germ cell cancer survivors:
           association with hypogonadism and treatment modality
    • Abstract: The cure rate of testicular cancer exceeds 95%, but testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at increased risk of hypogonadism (HG). It has been suggested that TCS have reduced bone mineral density (BMD), but it is unclear whether this is related to HG or a direct effect of cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TCS have decreased BMD, and if BMD is related to HG and/or the cancer treatment given. We investigated 91 TCS (mean age at diagnosis: 31 years; mean 9.3 years follow-up) and equal number of age matched controls (mean age at inclusion 40.3 years and 41.2 years, respectively). Total testosterone and LH were measured. BMD was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Low BMD (LBD) was defined as Z-score
       
  • Spermatozoa from males with reduced fecundity exhibit differential DNA
           methylation patterns
    • Abstract: Infertility affects 10–15% of couples, and approximately 50% of cases are linked to male factor infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DNA methylation patterns in spermatozoa from males who are suffering from a reduction in fecundity. Thirty samples were subjected to 450K arrays as a screening study to evaluate the variation in sperm DNA methylation levels between cases and controls groups, and then four CpG sites (cg05799088, cg07227024, cg16338278, and cg08408433) underwent to deep bisulfite sequencing to validate the observed methylation differences in 111 samples (56 proven fertile males as ‘controls’ and 55 males suffering from a reduction in fecundity as ‘cases’). A significant difference in the mean methylation level was found between cases and controls in the CpGs of PRICKLE2 gene-related amplicon (CpG1, p ≤ 0.002, and CpG2, p ≤ 0.004) and CpG of ALS2CR12 gene-related amplicon (CpG1, p ≤ 0.015, and CpG2, p ≤ 0.009). Besides, a significant difference was found at seven from thirteen CpGs tested in the ALDH3B2 gene amplicon CpG2, CpG6, CpG9, CpG10, CpG11, CpG12, and CpG13 (p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.012, p ≤ 0.028, p ≤ 0.012, p ≤ 0.009, and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results showed that nine CpGs out of the twenty-six within the PTGIR gene-related amplicon (CpG4, CpG6, CpG8, CpG9, CpG11, CpG15, CpG19, CpG23, and CpG26) had a significant difference in their mean methylation level (p ≤ 0.006, p ≤ 0.009, p ≤ 0.003, p ≤ 0.003, p ≤ 0.007, p ≤ 0.002, p ≤ 0.018, p ≤ 0.018, and p ≤ 0.040, respectively) in the case vs. control group. In conclusion, an alteration in the methylation levels of sperm DNA from males with reduced fecundity was observed. In addition, an association between changes in the methylation level for these CpGs and different semen parameters has been found.
       
 
 
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