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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1584 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1584 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Andrology
  [SJR: 0.979]   [H-I: 14]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2047-2919 - ISSN (Online) 2047-2927
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1584 journals]
  • Sexual dysfunction in subjects treated with inhibitors of 5α-reductase
           for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis
           
    • Authors: G. Corona; G. Tirabassi, D. Santi, E. Maseroli, M. Gacci, M. Dicuio, A. Sforza, E. Mannucci, M. Maggi
      Abstract: Despite their efficacy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the popularity of inhibitors of 5α-reductase (5ARIs) is limited by their association with adverse sexual side effects. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze currently available randomized clinical trials evaluating the rate of sexual side effects in men treated with 5ARIs. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: ‘finasteride’, ‘dutasteride’, ‘benign prostatic hyperplasia’. Only placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials evaluating the effect of 5ARI in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia were considered. Of 383 retrieved articles, 17 were included in this study. Randomized clinical trials enrolled 24,463 in the active and 22,270 patients in the placebo arms, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 99 weeks and mean age of 64.0 years. No difference was observed between trials using finasteride or dutasteride as the active arm considering age, trial duration, prostate volume or International Prostatic Symptoms Score at enrollment. Overall, 5ARIs determined an increased risk of hypoactive sexual desire [OR = 1.54 (1.29; 1.82); p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T15:12:13.398491-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12353
       
  • Effect of B9 and B12 vitamin intake on semen parameters and fertility of
           men with MTHFR polymorphisms
    • Authors: R. Najafipour; S. Moghbelinejad, A. Aleyasin, A. Jalilvand
      Abstract: The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene codes a crucial enzyme which involve in folate metabolism. The effect of MTHFR gene polymorphisms on male fertility status is uncertain and controversial. We evaluated the effect of B vitamin family intake on total homocysteine content and semen parameters of men with MTHFR gene polymorphisms. MTHFR genotypes frequency and serum total homocysteine concentration were measured among 280 men with impaired spermatogenesis (asthenospermia, oligospermia, severe oligospermia and azoospermia) and 85 control participants. B vitamin family dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. In addition, concentrations of vitamins B9 and B12 were evaluated in serum samples of some participants (n = 60). We observed significantly higher frequency of TC or TT genotypes in C677T polymorphism among oligospermic, severe oligospermic and azoospermic men. CC genotype of A1298C polymorphism was significantly higher only in azoospermic men. Also, we observed critical effect of vitamin B9 and B12 intake on decreasing of total homocysteine and improving of semen parameters among the men with T allele of MTHFR C677T polymorphism. Our investigation showed that sufficient consumption of vitamins B9 and B12 influences sperm parameters of men with different MTHFR polymorphisms, especially genotypes with T allele.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:26:16.553694-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12351
       
  • Osteocalcin, a bone-derived hormone with important andrological
           implications
    • Authors: L. De Toni; A. Di Nisio, M. S. Rocca, M. De Rocco Ponce, A. Ferlin, C. Foresta
      Abstract: Increasing evidence disclosed the existence of a novel multi-organ endocrine pathway, involving bone, pancreas and testis, of high penetrance in energy metabolism and male fertility. The main mediator of this axis is undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), a bone-derived protein-exerting systemic effects on tissues expressing the metabotropic receptor GPRC6A. The recognized effects of ucOC are the improvement of insulin secretion from the pancreas, the amelioration of systemic insulin sensitivity, in particular in skeletal muscle, and the stimulation of the global endocrine activity of the Leydig cell, including vitamin D 25-hydroxylation and testosterone production. The supporting evidence of this circuit in both animal and human models is here reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of ucOC on testis function. The possible pharmacological modulation of this hormonal circuit for therapeutic aims is also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T14:50:27.133324-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12359
       
  • Marijuana use and serum testosterone concentrations among U.S. males
    • Authors: J. E. Thistle; B. I. Graubard, M. Braunlin, H. Vesper, B. Trabert, M. B. Cook, K. A. McGlynn
      Abstract: Marijuana has been reported to have several effects on the male reproductive system. Marijuana has previously been linked to reduced adult testosterone, however, a study in Denmark reported increased testosterone concentrations among marijuana users. This study was performed to estimate the effect of marijuana use on testosterone in U.S. males. Data on serum testosterone, marijuana use, and covariates for 1577 men from the 2011–2012 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Information on marijuana use was collected by a self-administered computer-assisted questionnaire. Serum testosterone was determined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of marijuana use on serum testosterone concentrations were examined by frequency, duration, and recency of use. Adjusted means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of serum testosterone across levels of marijuana use were estimated using multiple linear regression weighted by the survey weights. The majority (66.2%) of the weighted study population reported ever using marijuana with 26.6% reporting current marijuana use. There was no difference in serum testosterone between ever users (adjusted mean = 3.69 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.46, 3.93) and never users (adjusted mean = 3.70 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.45, 3.98) upon multivariable analysis. However, serum testosterone was inversely associated with time since last regular use of marijuana (p-value for trend = 0.02). When restricted to men aged 18–29 years, this relationship strengthened (p-value for trend
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T14:50:25.097406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12358
       
  • Are AZFb deletions always incompatible with sperm production?
    • Authors: K. Stouffs; V. Vloeberghs, A. Gheldof, H. Tournaye, S. Seneca
      Abstract: Deletions on the long arm of the Y chromosome are a well-known cause of male infertility and it is generally accepted that deletions involving the AZFb region are not compatible with sperm production. Here, we report on two patients for whom basic diagnostic tests showed a deletion of the AZFb region. Unexpectedly, both patients had some residual sperm production. Subsequently, extension and additional analyses of the AZFb region disclosed an aberrant deletion pattern. Therefore, these results emphasize the need for a detailed and powerful analysis of cases where first-line Yq deletion tests reveal an AZFb deletion. Moreover, our study clearly demonstrated that only a very careful selection of test markers will avoid the pitfall of a ‘no further treatment possible’ wrongful conclusion.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T14:45:24.126816-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12350
       
  • Efficacy of treatment with pseudoephedrine in men with retrograde
           ejaculation
    • Authors: O. Shoshany; N. Abhyankar, J. Elyaguov, C. Niederberger
      Abstract: The use of pseudoephedrine, an alpha agonist, for the treatment of retrograde ejaculation is well-known, however, there is no clear consensus from the literature regarding its efficacy and treatment protocol. We evaluated the efficacy of pseudoephedrine treatment in patients with retrograde ejaculation, utilizing a yet undescribed short-period treatment protocol. Twenty men were medically treated with pseudoephedrine for retrograde ejaculation between January 2010 and May 2016 (12 with complete retrograde ejaculation and 8 with partial retrograde ejaculation). All patients had a semen analysis and post-ejaculatory urinalysis before and after treatment. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 mg of pseudoephedrine every 6 h on the day before semen analysis and two more 60 mg doses on the day of the semen analysis. Diabetes was the most common etiology for complete retrograde ejaculation (60%), whereas an idiopathic cause was the most common etiology for partial retrograde ejaculation (82%). Of the 12 complete retrograde ejaculation patients treated with pseudoephedrine prior to semen analysis, 7 (58.3%) recovered spermatozoa in the antegrade ejaculate, with a mean total sperm count of 273.5 ± 172.5 million. Of the eight patients with partial retrograde ejaculation, five (62.5%) had a ≥50% increase in the antegrade total sperm count. In this group, the mean total sperm count increased from 26.9 ± 8.5 million before treatment to 84.2 ± 24.6 million after treatment, whereas the percentage of spermatozoa in the urine declined from 43.2 ± 9% to 17 ± 10%, respectively (both p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T17:33:33.125394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12361
       
  • The comparison of laparoscopic and microsurgical varicocoelectomy in
           infertile men with varicocoele on paternity rate 12 months after surgery:
           a prospective randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: P. Bryniarski; P. Taborowski, P. Rajwa, Z. Kaletka, M. Życzkowski, A. Paradysz
      Abstract: The best surgical approach for varicocoelectomy is still unknown, however more and more physicians favour subinguinal microsurgery. The aim of this study was to find whether microsurgical approach is superior to laparoscopic varicocoelectomy in terms of pregnancy rate, fertility potential, endocrinological function of the testis, erectile dysfunction and testicle volume increase. It was a prospective, non-masked, parallel-group randomized controlled trial with one to one allocation. It was conducted at authors’ institution and designed as per protocol study. From 2012 till 2015 84 patients were randomly allocated to two groups. First group consisted of 42 patients who underwent laparoscopic varicocoelectomy, whereas patients from the second group underwent microsurgical varicocoelectomy. The indications for varicocoelectomy consisted of infertility >1 year, palpable left-sided varicocoele and at least one impaired semen parameter (sperm concentration
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T16:00:24.52662-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12343
       
  • Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin
    • Authors: R. Iyer; S. F. Mok, S. Savkovic, L. Turner, G. Fraser, R. Desai, V. Jayadev, A. J. Conway, D. J. Handelsman
      Abstract: Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9–2.8 h), dose-dependent (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T14:16:59.70081-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12357
       
  • Disturbed testicular expression of the estrogen-metabolizing enzymes
           CYP1A1 and COMT in infertile men with primary spermatogenic failure:
           possible negative implications on Sertoli cells
    • Authors: A. Parada-Bustamante; C. Molina, C. Valencia, M. Flórez, M. C. Lardone, F. Argandoña, A. Piottante, M. Ebensperguer, P. A. Orihuela, A. Castro
      Abstract: Estradiol (E2) is normally metabolized to hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols by CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. However, an altered production of these metabolites by a disturbed expression of these enzymes is associated with reproductive and non-reproductive pathologies. In vitro studies suggest that increased hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols intratesticular generation is related to male infertility, but no studies have explored whether infertile men have a disturbed testicular expression of the enzymes that generate these E2 metabolites. The aim of this study was to assess CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT testicular expression at mRNA and protein level in men with spermatogenic impairment. Seventeen men with primary spermatogenic failure (13 with Sertoli cell-only syndrome and four with maturation arrest) and nine controls with normal spermatogenesis were subjected to testicular biopsy. mRNA was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was evaluated using western blot and immunohistochemistry followed by integrated optic density analysis. Besides, the effects of hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols on testosterone-induced transcriptional activity were evaluated in TM4 cells using a luciferase reporter assay system. Our results show that patients with Sertoli cell-only syndrome had significantly elevated COMT expression at the mRNA level, higher COMT immunoreactivity in their seminiferous tubules and increased protein expression of the soluble COMT isoform (S-COMT), whereas patients with maturation arrest had significantly elevated CYP1A1 mRNA levels and higher CYP1A1 immunoreactivity in interstitial space. Finally, 2-hydroxyestradiol decreased testosterone-induced transcriptional activity in Sertoli cells in vitro. In conclusion, male infertility is related to disturbed testicular expression of the enzymes responsible for producing hydroxyestradiols and/or methoxyestradiols. If these changes are related with increased intratesticular hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols concentrations, they could elicit an impaired Sertoli cell function. Our results suggest CYP1A1 and COMT as new potential targets in treating male infertility.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T14:11:10.550214-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12346
       
  • The number of CAG and GGN triplet repeats in the Androgen Receptor gene
           exert combinatorial effect on hormonal and sperm parameters in young men
    • Authors: M. Grigorova; M. Punab, T. Kahre, M. Ivandi, N. Tõnisson, O. Poolamets, V. Vihljajev, B. Žilaitienė, J. Erenpreiss, V. Matulevičius, M. Laan
      Abstract: Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is activated upon binding to testosterone (T) and is implicated in regulating the expression of reproduction-related genes. The human AR gene (Xq11-12) spans 186,588 bp and eight exons. N-terminal transactivation domain of the encoded AR protein harbours two polymorphic stretches of identical amino acids, a polyglutamine tract (encoded by 8-37 CAG-repeats) and a polyglycine tract (encoded by 10-30 GGN-repeats). We set forward to analyse independent and combinatory effects of the length of these repetitive tracts on male reproductive hormones, testicular and sperm parameters in a population-based cohort of Baltic young men (n = 974; aged 20.1 ± 2.1 years). We designed an assay to amplify and detect simultaneously the variants of both polymorphic repeats. The study revealed that elongated AR CAG tract was associated with lower FSH (linear regression: p = 0.0002, effect per repeat −0.056 IU/L). As a novel finding, the carriers of GGN-stretch with ≥24 repeats showed a trend for decreased sperm concentration (p = 0.027). Although neither of the variants exhibited an isolated effect on circulating T, their allelic combinations modulated serum T levels, as well as sperm concentration. The lowest T was measured for men carrying the AR gene with long CAG (n ≥ 25) and short GGN (n ≤ 21) repeat tracts (mean 18.8 vs. 25.5–28.6 nmol/L for the other AR variants, p = 0.017). The lowest sperm concentration was detected among individuals with both elongated repetitive stretches (CAG, n ≥ 25 and GGN, n ≥ 24; mean 49.0 vs. 68.4–72.1 mill/mL for the other variants; p = 0.00059). The innovative study design enabled to clearly demonstrate a combinatory impact of CAG and GGN repeat lengths at male reproductive parameters. As AR regulates transcription of over 900 genes in many tissues and organs, the combinatory effects of these common repeat-length variants on male physiology in the wider context and across lifetime are still to be assessed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T14:11:02.219103-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12344
       
  • Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function
    • Authors: A. Ferramosca; N. Moscatelli, M. Di Giacomo, V. Zara
      Abstract: Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T14:10:56.215333-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12348
       
  • Lactadherin is a candidate oviduct Lewis X trisaccharide receptor on
           porcine spermatozoa
    • Authors: E. Silva; D. Frost, L. Li, N. Bovin, D. J. Miller
      Abstract: A recent study has demonstrated that porcine spermatozoa recognize with high affinity carbohydrate structures containing Lewis X motifs. Sperm adhesion to Lewis X is proposed to mediate sperm binding to the oviduct epithelium to form a reservoir. The objective of this study was to identify Lewis X-binding proteins from porcine spermatozoa as candidate receptors for oviduct glycans. To identify low-abundance proteins typically masked by proteins originating from seminal fluid, Lewis X candidate receptors were enriched from cauda epididymal boar spermatozoa. Plasma membrane preparations from cauda epididymal spermatozoa were subjected to RP-HPLC and glycan blotting assays to isolate and detect proteins that bind Lewis X. Following bottom-up LC-MS/MS analysis, among the two bands that bound sulfated Lewis X, ADAM5, which spermatozoa, was confidently identified. ADAM family members have been established as contributors to sperm entry into the oviduct. A second sulfated Lewis X-binding protein identified was the peripheral membrane protein lactadherin (also known as P47, SED1 and MFG-E8 in different species). The interaction between Lewis X and lactadherin was functionally important because competitive inhibition by soluble recombinant lactadherin reduced sperm binding to the oviduct epithelium. Furthermore, far-western blotting demonstrated that purified lactadherin could bind oviduct cells. In summary, these findings reveal that, in addition to the previously reported glycan affinity of accessory gland proteins that adhere to spermatozoa, multiple proteins intrinsic to spermatozoa have affinity for a specific oviduct glycan. Further, in addition to binding to the zona pellucida, lactadherin is now implicated in binding to oviduct glycans to promote formation of the sperm reservoir.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T10:30:35.553794-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12340
       
  • Short-term FSH treatment and sperm maturation: a prospective study in
           idiopathic infertile men
    • Authors: E. Casamonti; S. Vinci, E. Serra, M. G. Fino, S. Brilli, F. Lotti, M. Maggi, M. E. Coccia, G. Forti, C. Krausz
      Abstract: The standard FSH treatment is based on a 3 months period, after which both quantitative/qualitative improvement of sperm parameters and increased pregnancy rate were reported. In this prospective clinical trial, for the first time, we studied (i) Sperm hyaluronic acid binding capacity after highly purified FSH (hpFSH) treatment; (ii) the effect after short-term and standard treatment on this functional parameter. As secondary objective, we analyzed three SNPs on FSHβ and FSHR genes to define their potential predictive value for responsiveness. From a total of 210 consecutive patients, 40 oligo- and/or astheno- and/or teratozoospermic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Treatment consisted in hpFSH 75 IU/L every other day for 3 months. To avoid potential biases derived from the lack of placebo, we analyzed each patient after 4–6 months of ‘wash-out’ period. After FSH treatment, we observed a statistically significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T10:21:19.463177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12333
       
  • Effect of icariin in combination with daily sildenafil on penile atrophy
           and erectile dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerves
           injury
    • Authors: Y. Xu; H. Xin, Y. Wu, R. Guan, H. Lei, X. Fu, Z. Xin, Y. Yang
      Abstract: The commonly utilized phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors do not lead to satisfactory penile erection after radical prostatectomy mainly because of insufficient nitric oxide drive from the damaged cavernous nerves. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and mechanisms of icariin in combination with daily sildenafil on neurogenic erectile dysfunction and penile atrophy in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerves injury. Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats injected with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (50 mg/kg) at postnatal day 1 for the purpose of tracking endogenous stem cells in penis. Forty-eight rats of bilateral cavernous nerves injury were randomized equally into gavage feeding of vehicle, sildenafil (10 mg/kg), icariin (1.5 mg/kg) and sildenafil + icariin, respectively. Twelve sham-operated rats served as control. The intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure was measured and mid-penile cross sections were histologically examined 5 weeks after surgery. Western blotting of cavernous tissue protein was also performed. Animals treated with sildenafil + icariin had significantly higher mean intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio relative to other rats with bilateral cavernous nerves injury (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:55:31.35451-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12341
       
  • Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the
           evidence is still lacking'
    • Authors: D. Bliatka; S. Lymperi, G. Mastorakos, D. G. Goulis
      Abstract: The so-called “endocrine disruption hypothesis” suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction. Such characteristics include: (i) definition of the exposed and the non-exposed population, (ii) age, (iii) insufficient control for confounders, (iv) ED assay and threshold, (v) time parameters of ED exposure, and (vi) study outcomes. Additional issues are: (i) the late effect of an early exposure, (ii) the multiple exposure effect, and (iii) the fact the same ED may exhibit different modes of action. Unfortunately, the nature of the field precludes the conduction of randomized-controlled trials, which could result to etiological associations between EDs and human male reproduction. Consequently, there is a great need to conduct well-designed studies of case–control or cohort type to evaluate EDs effects on human male reproductive health, and apply possible measures that could limit dangerous exposures.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:30:31.607726-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12339
       
  • Changes in periprostatic adipose tissue induced by 5α-reductase
           inhibitors
    • Authors: D. Taussky; M. Barkati, S. Campeau, K. Zerouali, A. Nadiri, F. Saad, G. Delouya
      Abstract: There is increasing interest in periprostatic fat and its influence on prostate cancer aggressiveness. In vitro data suggest that adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs) can increase production of cytokines and growth factors resulting in invasive growth and metastasis in prostate cancer. The objective of the study was to determine the interaction between 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) and periprostatic adipose tissue (PPAT) and factors of prostate cancer aggressiveness. In this retrospective study, we identified 61 patients treated with 5ARIs for a period of ≥12 months before undergoing radiation therapy (brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy). The control group consisted of 117 patients without any exposure to 5ARIs. Prior to being treated, all patients underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT). To measure PPAT, we defined the fat pad anteriorly to the prostate, as well as the intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous tissue (SAT) at the level of L4/L5. All contours were performed manually. These adipose tissue measurements were correlated with the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score using Pearson correlation coefficient. Differences in fat contents were evaluated using Student's t-test. Median time on 5ARIs for the 61 patients was 12 months (range 12–96). Patient on 5ARIs had a significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T13:57:37.447932-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12331
       
  • DNA methylation imprinting errors in spermatogenic cells from maturation
           arrest azoospermic patients
    • Authors: P. I. Marques; S. Fernandes, F. Carvalho, A. Barros, M. Sousa, C. J. Marques
      Abstract: Imprinting errors have been described in spermatozoa from infertile patients with oligozoospermia and azoospermia. However, little is known about methylation of imprinted genes in other spermatogenic cells from azoospermic patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the methylation status of single CpGs located in the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of two imprinted genes, one paternally (H19) and one maternally (MEST) methylated, in primary spermatocytes of azoospermic patients presenting complete (MAc, n = 7) and incomplete (MAi, n = 8) maturation arrest, as well as in other spermatogenic cells from MAi patients that presented focus of complete spermatogenesis in some seminiferous tubules. We observed H19 imprinting errors in primary spermatocytes from one MAi patient and MEST imprinting errors in one MAi and two MAc patients. Additionally, H19 imprinting errors were observed in elongated spermatids/spermatozoa from one MAi patient. Nevertheless, no statistical differences were found for H19 and MEST global methylation levels (percentage of methylated and unmethylated CpGs, respectively) between patients with complete and incomplete MA and also between MA groups and a control group. These results provide further evidence that imprinting errors occur in spermatogenic cells from patients presenting impaired spermatogenesis, as we and others have previously described in ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa. As paternal imprinting errors can be transmitted to the embryo by the sperm cell, they can provide a possible explanation for poor embryo development and/or low pregnancy rates as correct expression of imprinted genes is crucial for embryo and placental development and function. Therefore, in cases with male factor infertility where unsuccessful in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments are recurrent, analysis of imprinting marks in spermatozoa might be a useful diagnostic tool.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T13:52:41.694656-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12329
       
  • Elevated seminal plasma myeloperoxidase is associated with a decreased
           sperm concentration in young men
    • Authors: J. M. Pullar; A. C. Carr, S. M. Bozonet, P. Rosengrave, A. J. Kettle, M. C. M. Vissers
      Abstract: Myeloperoxidase is a major neutrophil protein which generates oxidants that are highly reactive, and if present in seminal fluid, could be potentially damaging to spermatozoa. We recruited young males aged 18–35 years, unscreened for fertility status, for a pilot study measuring seminal plasma myeloperoxidase. On three occasions, over a 3-month period, we measured parameters of semen quality and correlated these with seminal myeloperoxidase protein and activity. After baseline measurement, participants were supplemented daily with 250 mg of vitamin C, a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species with antiinflammatory activities. Seminal plasma from eight of the 12 participants had measurable concentrations of myeloperoxidase protein, across a broad range (15–250 ng/mL). Median myeloperoxidase protein concentrations were ~45-fold higher in semen samples with low vs. high sperm concentrations. Seminal plasma myeloperoxidase protein concentration was inversely correlated with the percentage of rapidly motile spermatozoa assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis, and the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate, but positively correlated with sperm maturity, measured by DNA staining ability. We measured an inverse correlation between semen vitamin C concentration and seminal plasma myeloperoxidase protein concentration, although vitamin C supplementation had no effect on semen quality. Our pilot data suggest that high concentrations of myeloperoxidase were present in the seminal plasma of many of our young participants, and that this may be associated with decreases in semen quality. A larger study is required to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T13:47:41.167284-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12327
       
  • Characteristics of symptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis – A
           Danish cross-sectional questionnaire study
    • Authors: M. R. Pedersen; H. Møller, S. R. Rafaelsen, M. M. B. Jørgensen, P. J. Osther, P. Vedsted
      Abstract: Testicular microlithiasis (TML) is an incidental finding at ultrasonography of the scrotum. A link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer has been suggested. However, the majority of studies are retrospective using ultrasonography with minor data on health status and life style characteristics. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle and health are associated with TML. In 2014, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey including 1538 men, who all due to testicular/scrotal symptoms had an ultrasound investigation of the scrotum during 2004–2013. The men were divided into men with TML and men without. The 23-items questionnaire included items on age, height, weight, lifestyle (alcohol consumptions, smoking habits, workload, exercise and food), previous diseases in the testicles, pain and consumption of analgesics. The prevalence of TML was 12.8%. Overall, lifestyle factors did not vary between men with or without TML. However, men with TML did consume more crisp than men without. Development of TML was not associated to classic life style factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, or mothers smoking during pregnancy. Also, age and height could not be linked to presence of TML. We did find, however, that men with TML experienced less physical activity and consumed more crisp than men without TML. Since ingestion of crisps has potential carcinogenic effect (acrylamide), this finding needs confirmation in a separate study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T15:45:27.58304-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12326
       
  • The great opportunity of the andrological patient: cardiovascular and
           metabolic risk assessment and prevention
    • Authors: C. Foresta; A. Ferlin, A. Lenzi, P. Montorsi,
      Abstract: Andrologists, cardiologists and diabetologists (and general practitioners) have the great opportunity to collaborate and find shared clinical workup for the benefit of a large number of men. Several evidence established a link between erectile dysfunction (ED), cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Not only these conditions share many risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms but also an emerging paradigm indicates that ED is, in fact, an independent marker of cardiovascular disease risk, CV events and CV mortality. However, there is no consensus on the best cardiologic investigation in men with ED with no known CVD and, on the contrary, on what is the clinical and prognostic role of detecting ED during cardiovascular investigation and CVD risk assessment. Only vasculogenic ED, which represents the most common type of organic ED, indeed represents a harbinger of CVD, especially for younger patients, and might be diagnosed by dynamic penile color doppler ultrasonography, which represents a real cardiovascular imaging technique that give evidence on the presence of systemic endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, assessment of glucose and lipid metabolism is warranted as first step workup in all ED patients, and diabetologists should ask their patients for erectile function, address ED patients to andrologists, and consider vasculogenic ED in the context of the cardiovascular and metabolic workup and in the context of diabetic complications. Sexual symptoms (and testosterone levels) should sound as harbinger for cardiovascular and metabolic investigation and cardiologists and diabetologists have the opportunity to have a symptom (erectile dysfunction) and a vascular test (penile color doppler) that help them in better management of patients, their comorbidities and complications.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T15:45:25.962248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12342
       
  • The association of a probiotic with a prebiotic (Flortec, Bracco) to
           improve the quality/quantity of spermatozoa in infertile patients with
           idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia: a pilot study
    • Authors: C. Maretti; G. Cavallini
      Abstract: The hypothesis that the assumption of a probiotic associated with a prebiotic (Flortec, Bracco; one sachet contains: Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 5 × 109 cells + arabinogalctan 1243 mg + oligo-fructosaccharides 700 mg + l-glutamine 500 mg) could improve the quality and quantity of spermatozoa in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia (iAOT) patients to a larger extent than a control substance (starch) was tested. Forty-one patients with no chromosomal aberrations were randomized into two groups: 20 received Flortec, one sachet per day for 6 months, whereas 21 received the control substance. The following data were collected: clinical history, scrotal Doppler scans, Y microdeletion, karyotype and cystic fibrosis screens, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and prolactin (PRL) levels, and two semen analyses. Both the Flortec and the starch groups underwent two semen analyses and one FSH, LH, T, E2, and PRL measurement in the blood, at the beginning of the study, and after 6 months. The comparisons were carried out using a non-parametric (Wilcoxon signed rank) test. The side effects were assessed and compared using the chi-squared test. Group 1 (Flortec) had their sperm count improved: volume of the ejaculate (median from 2.4 to 3.1 mL; p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T13:00:23.191628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12336
       
  • Inter- and intra-laboratory standardization of TUNEL assay for assessment
           of sperm DNA fragmentation
    • Authors: S. Ribeiro; R. Sharma, S. Gupta, Z. Cakar, C. De Geyter, A. Agarwal
      Abstract: One of the challenges with the sperm DNA fragmentation results is the inconsistency and the large variability in the results obtained by different techniques. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay quantifies the incorporation of fluoresceinated dUTP into single- and double-strand DNA breaks by labeling the 3′-OH terminal with TdT. The goal of this study was optimize the TUNEL protocol for assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation by standardization of the method and comparison of the data across two reference laboratories (i) at Basel, Switzerland and (ii) Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA. Semen samples from 31 subjects grouped into three cohorts. Sperm DNA fragmentation was data measured by two experienced operators at two different laboratories using identical semen samples, assay kit, protocol and acquisition settings using identical flow cytometers (BD Accuri C6). No significant differences were observed between the duplicates in any of the experiments performed. By including an additional washing step after fixation in paraformaldehyde, a high correlation was seen between the two laboratories (r = 0.94). A strong positive correlation was observed between the average sperm DNA fragmentation rates (r = 0.719). The mean sperm DNA fragmentation measured in each laboratory was similar. Both flow cytometers were identical in their settings and performance. This inter- and intra-laboratory study establishes that TUNEL is a reproducible assay when utilizing a standardized staining protocol and flow cytometer acquisition settings. Standardization and consensual guidelines for TUNEL validate the assay and establishes TUNEL as a robust test for measuring sperm DNA fragmentation especially in a multicenter setting.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T12:56:04.874676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12334
       
  • Chromosomal anomalies and sperm retrieval outcomes of patients with
           non-obstructive azoospermia: a case series
    • Authors: T. Takeda; S. Iwatsuki, T. Hamakawa, K. Mizuno, H. Kamiya, Y. Umemoto, H. Kubota, Y. Kubota, S. Sasaki, T. Yasui
      Abstract: Some preoperative factors affecting the outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have been previously evaluated. However, other than Klinefelter syndrome (KS), no other chromosomal anomalies have been discussed in the context of sperm retrieval outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe chromosomal anomalies and their relationship with sperm retrieval outcomes in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Of the 197 NOA patients whose clinical records were retrospectively reviewed, 144 (73.1%) had normal 46,XY karyotype, 40 (20.3%) had KS (47,XXY), and 13 (6.6%) had other chromosomal anomalies (autosomal in seven cases and sex-chromosomal anomalies in six). Of the seven patients with autosomal anomalies, two had the reportedly normal variant 46,XY,inv(9)(p12;q13). Testicular volume and serum hormone levels (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and total testosterone) of the patients with chromosomal anomalies other than KS were comparable to those of the patients with normal karyotype. The sperm retrieval rate of the patients with 46,XY karyotype, KS, or other chromosomal anomalies were 27.1%, 22.5%, and 15.4%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference. However, among the samples collected from the 13 patients with chromosomal anomalies other than KS, only those from the two patients with the normal variant 46,XY,inv(9)(p12;q13) contained spermatozoa. Among our series of NOA patients, the incidence of autosomal anomalies was higher than that generally noted among neonates, which suggests that not only sex-chromosomal anomalies but also autosomal anomalies may affect the development of NOA. Furthermore, our findings suggest that sperm retrieval outcome is more unfavorable in NOA patients with chromosomal anomalies than in NOA patients with 46,XY karyotype or KS, despite the use of micro-TESE.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T17:35:24.689959-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12338
       
  • Activin and follistatin interactions in the male reproductive tract:
           activin expression and morphological abnormalities in mice lacking
           follistatin 288
    • Authors: R. Wijayarathna; M. A. Sarraj, R. Genovese, J. E. Girling, V. Michel, H. Ludlow, K. L. Loveland, A. Meinhardt, D. M. Kretser, M. P. Hedger
      Abstract: Activin A is an important regulator of testicular and epididymal development and function, as well as inflammation and immunity. In the adult murine reproductive tract, activin A mRNA (Inhba) expression levels are highest in the caput epididymis and decrease progressively towards the distal vas deferens. The activin-binding protein, follistatin (FST), shows the opposite expression pattern, with exceptionally high levels of the Fst288 mRNA variant in the vas deferens. This unique pattern of expression suggests that activin A and follistatin, in particular FST288, play region-specific roles in regulating the epididymis and vas deferens. The cellular distribution of activin and follistatin and structural organization of the male reproductive tract was examined in wild-type and transgenic (TghFST315) mice lacking FST288. Compared to wild-type littermates, TghFST315 mice showed a 50% reduction in serum follistatin and a significant elevation of both activin A and B. Testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weights were reduced, but intra-testicular testosterone was normal. A decrease in the epididymal duct diameter in the corpus and thickening of the peritubular smooth muscle in the cauda, together with increased coiling of the proximal vas deferens, were observed in TghFST315 mice. No immune cell infiltrates were detected. Immunohistochemistry indicated that epithelial cells are the main source of activins and follistatin in the epididymis and vas deferens. Activin A, but not activin B, was also localized to sperm heads in the lumen of the epididymis and vas deferens. Expression of Inhba and another immunoregulatory gene, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (Ido-1), was increased approximately twofold in the TghFST315 caput epididymis, but several other genes associated with immunoregulation, inflammation or fibrosis were unaffected. Our novel data indicate that disruption of follistatin expression has significant effects on the testis and epididymis, and suggest an association between activin A and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the caput epididymis, with implications for the epididymal immunoenvironment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T17:30:37.190715-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12337
       
  • shRNA mediated ablation of prostate and testis expressed (Pate) messenger
           RNA results in impaired sperm function and fertility
    • Authors: A. Rajesh; S. Yenugu
      Abstract: Spermatogenesis and sperm maturation are complex processes mediated by a variety of proteins present in the testicular and epididymal mileu. In the recent years, functional characterization of these proteins is being studied by genetic manipulations that involve targeted over expression or knock down of specific genes. In this study, we adopted FuGENE 6-based in vivo transfection of rat cauda epididymis with pGFP-V-RS plasmid that encodes shRNA to knock down Pate mRNA levels to implicate a possible role for this gene in sperm function. The mRNA levels of Pate gene were significantly decreased in HEK cells as well as in cauda of rats upon transfection with pGFP-V-RS plasmid that encodes shRNA targeting Pate gene. Spermatozoa obtained from the transfected cauda displayed impairment in capacitation and acrosome reaction. Furthermore, rats subjected to in vivo transfection to knock down Pate mRNA levels had compromised fertility. Results of our study indicate a role for Pate gene in sperm function and can be exploited as a potential male contraceptive target.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T23:41:16.477105-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12321
       
  • It is time for a more standardized approach to identifying surgical
           outcome of non-obstructive azoospermia
    • Authors: S.-H. Song
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T23:40:56.345942-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12325
       
  • The relationship between the second-to-fourth digit ratios and lifelong
           premature ejaculation: a prospective, comparative study
    • Authors: D. Bolat; G. U. Kocabas, T. Kose, T. Degirmenci, M. E. Aydin, C. Dincel
      Abstract: To investigate the relationship between the fetal androgen exposure and lifelong premature ejaculation by using the ratio of the second (index)-to-fourth (ring) digits (2D : 4D) which is the marker for higher prenatal androgen exposure. Totally 65 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation and 65 control cases without any ejaculatory complaints were enrolled in the study. A detailed medical history was obtained and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times were recorded. Ejaculation function was evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. The lengths of the second and fourth digits of both hands were measured and 2D : 4Ds were calculated. The mean 2D : 4D values were 0.964 ± 0.024 vs. 0.978 ± 0.032 (p = 0.004) for the right hand and 0.966 ± 0.023 vs. 0.979 ± 0.032 (p = 0.006) for the left hand in lifelong premature ejaculation and control groups, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the digit ratios and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (r = 0.258, p = 0.003 for right hand; r = 0.240, p = 0.06 for left hand), and between the digit ratios and total Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool scores (r = −0.263, p = 0.003 for right hand; r = −0.238, p = 0.06 for left hand). Individuals with lower digit ratios have higher risks of shorter intravaginal ejaculatory latency times. These results suggest that increased fetal androgen exposure may be a new risk factor for the development of lifelong premature ejaculation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T23:30:22.198503-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12318
       
  • Impact of various progestins with or without transdermal testosterone on
           gonadotropin levels for non-invasive hormonal male contraception: a
           randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: M. Zitzmann; J. Rohayem, J. Raidt, S. Kliesch, N. Kumar, R. Sitruk-Ware, E. Nieschlag
      Abstract: Although several progestins have been tested for hormonal male contraception, the effects of dosage and nature of various progestins on gonadotropin suppression combined with and without additional testosterone has not been performed in a comparative trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential impact of four oral or transdermal progestins on the suppression of gonadotropins in healthy men: oral: cyproterone acetate (CPA), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethisterone acetate (NETA), and transdermal: Nestorone® (NES), all in combination with transdermal testosterone (T). Randomized clinical trial testing was performed with four progestins at two doses each. After a 2-week progestin-only treatment, transdermal T was added for further 4 weeks and was followed by a 3-week recovery period. Progestin-dose per day: CPA 10 mg/20 mg, NES 2 mg/3 mg/dose e.g. 200/300 μg/day absorbed, NETA 5 mg/10 mg, LNG 120 μg/240 μg. From an andrology outpatient clinic, 56 healthy men aged 18–50 years, with body mass index ≤33 kg × m−2 were included in the study. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were studied. Secondary outcome measure included were serum testosterone concentrations, sperm concentrations, and safety parameters. Intergroup comparisons demonstrated that CPA and LNG had the strongest effect on LH/FSH suppression. Nevertheless, every substance showed significant inhibitory effects on gonadotropin secretion, especially in combination with transdermal T. A decrease in hematocrit and insulin sensitivity as well as cholesterol subfractions and triglycerides was uniformly seen for every group. The combination of oral or transdermal progestins with a transdermal testosterone preparation is able to suppress gonadotropins. Further dose titration studies with sperm suppression as an end-point should be conducted to determine the lowest effective dose for hormonal male contraception.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T19:10:33.826644-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12328
       
  • Big clinical problem, big advancement, big questions to still address: the
           status of microTESE
    • Authors: D. T. Carrell; M. Simoni
      Pages: 399 - 400
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:11.355744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12367
       
  • A call for standardized outcomes in microTESE
    • Authors: C. F. S. Jensen; J. M. Dupree, J. Sonksen, D. Ohl, J. M. Hotaling
      Pages: 403 - 403
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:11.463625-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12356
       
  • Primary, secondary and compensated hypogonadism: a novel risk
           stratification for infertile men
    • Authors: E. Ventimiglia; S. Ippolito, P. Capogrosso, F. Pederzoli, W. Cazzaniga, L. Boeri, I. Cavarretta, M. Alfano, P. Viganò, F. Montorsi, A. Salonia
      Pages: 505 - 510
      Abstract: Recently, the cohort of men from the European Male Ageing Study has been stratified into different categories distinguishing primary, secondary and compensated hypogonadism. A similar classification has not yet been applied to the infertile population. We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling 786 consecutive Caucasian-European infertile men segregated into eugonadal [normal serum total testosterone (≥3.03 ng/mL) and normal luteinizing hormone (≤9.4 mU/mL)], secondary (low total testosterone, low/normal luteinizing hormone), primary (low total testosterone, elevated luteinizing hormone) and compensated hypogonadism (normal total testosterone; elevated luteinizing hormone). In this cross-sectional study, logistic regression models tested the association between semen parameters, clinical characteristics and the defined gonadal status. Eugonadism, secondary, primary and compensated hypogonadism were found in 80, 15, 2, and 3% of men respectively. Secondary hypogonadal men were at highest risk for obesity [OR (95% CI): 3.48 (1.98–6.01)]. Primary hypogonadal men were those at highest risk for azoospermia [24.54 (6.39–161.39)] and testicular volume
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:07.203698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12335
       
  • Testosterone level and endothelial dysfunction in patients with
           vasculogenic erectile dysfunction
    • Authors: Y. A. Omar; S. E. Younis, I. Y. Ismail, A. I. El-Sakka
      Pages: 527 - 534
      Abstract: The association between endothelial dysfunction and late onset hypogonadism (LOH) in patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is not yet well settled. Our objective was to assess the association between LOH and endothelial dysfunction in patients with vasculogenic ED. Throughout 2014–2015 a total of 90 men were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. Of them 60 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ED were further subdivided into two equal groups: patients with vasculogenic ED and LOH (A); patients with vasculogenic ED and euogonadal (B). Thirty age-matched men with no ED or hypogonadism were enrolled as control group (C). All patients were subjected to detailed medical and sexual history, total testosterone (TT), calculated free (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT), flow cytometric evaluation for endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (CD45negative/CD34positive/CD144positive) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) (CD45negative/CD144positive/annexin V positive). The mean age ± SD of the three groups A, B and C were 51.3 ± 11.1, 53.6 ± 10.6 and 48.3 ± 5 years, respectively, with insignificant age differences (p = 0.089). The diagnostic criteria of LOH were adapted according to European male aging study, 2010. The means of TT(ng/mL) were 2.32 ± 0.21, 6.43 ± 0.36 and 5.37 ± 0.30 in groups A, B and C, respectively. There were highly significant differences between group A and groups B and C (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:11.553799-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12347
       
  • The roles of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, prostate volume, and
           their zone-adjusted derivatives in predicting prostate cancer in patients
           with PSA less than 20.0 ng/mL
    • Authors: P. Shen; J. Zhao, G. Sun, N. Chen, X. Zhang, H. Gui, Y. Yang, J. Liu, K. Shu, Z. Wang, H. Zeng
      Pages: 548 - 555
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nomograms for predicting prostate cancer and its zonal location using prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives. A total of 928 consecutive patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 20.0 ng/mL, who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal 12-core prostate biopsy at West China Hospital between 2011 and 2014, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly split into training cohort (70%, n = 650) and validation cohort (30%, n = 278). Predicting models and the associated nomograms were built using the training cohort, while the validations of the models were conducted using the validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed. Then, new nomograms were generated based on multivariate regression coefficients. The discrimination power and calibration of these nomograms were validated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the calibration curve. The potential clinical effects of these models were also tested using decision curve analysis. In total, 285 (30.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Among them, 131 (14.1%) and 269 (29.0%) had transition zone prostate cancer and peripheral zone prostate cancer. Each of zone-adjusted derivatives-based nomogram had an AUC more than 0.75. All nomograms had higher calibration and much better net benefit than the scenarios in predicting patients with or without different zones prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives have important roles in detecting prostate cancer and its zonal location for patients with PSA 2.5–20.0 ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nomogram using these parameters to predict outcomes of 12-core prostate biopsy. These instruments can help clinicians to increase the accuracy of prostate cancer screening and to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:04.009729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12322
       
  • Prevalence of varicocoele and its association with body mass index among
           39,559 rural men in eastern China: a population-based cross-sectional
           study
    • Authors: J. Liu; S. Zhang, M. Liu, Q. Wang, H. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yan
      Pages: 562 - 567
      Abstract: Varicocoele is a common cause of male infertility. We undertook a population-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of varicocoele among rural men in eastern China and its association with body mass index. A total of 39,559 rural men in six counties in Beijing, Guangdong and Shandong provinces were recruited from 2011 to 2012. The presence and severity of varicocoele were measured by physical examinations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between varicocoele and body mass index after adjusting for possible confounders. Varicocoele was diagnosed in 1911 of 39,559 participants with an overall prevalence of 4.83%. The prevalence of varicocoele was highest in underweight (6.29%) and lowest in obese patients (3.71%, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:09.902522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12345
       
  • Comparison of markers predicting litter size in different pig breeds
    • Authors: W.-S. Kwon; M. S. Rahman, D.-Y. Ryu, A. Khatun, M.-G. Pang
      Pages: 568 - 577
      Abstract: To overcome the limitations of conventional analysis of male fertility in animals and humans, proteomic studies have been performed to develop fertility-related biomarkers for prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility. However, the studies were focused on specific species or breeds. Therefore, a study is required to validate whether fertility-related markers would apply to other breeds in pigs. In this study, previously developed fertility-related biomarkers from Landrace were validated to use for prognosis of male fertility in commercially available breeds. Expression level of eight biomarkers in non-capacitated and capacitated (C) spermatozoa from Yorkshire and Duroc boars was analyzed. And then, to explore the validity of these markers for prognosis of male fertility, i.e. litter size, artificial insemination was performed. Among them, RAB2A (NC) and UQCRC1 (NC) turned out to be highest efficient markers for Yorkshire. RAB2A (C) was most efficient marker for Duroc. Average litter size has increased as much as 1.41 live born after prediction using eight fertility-related biomarkers in Yorkshire. In addition, average 2.52 litter size was increased after prediction using eight fertility-related biomarkers in Duroc. Average litter sizes were especially highly increased after prediction of fertility using RAB2A (NC) in Yorkshire (1.57 piglets) and TPI (NC) in Duroc (3.14 piglets), respectively. As a result, all biomarkers were significantly correlated with litter size. However, overall accuracy to predict litter size in three breeds was different in response with each marker. Average litter size after artificial insemination was also significantly affected by marker selection. Therefore, this study suggests that developed fertility-related markers may be used for prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility irrespective of breed. However, selection of efficient markers for breeds should be considered to obtain more accurate and efficient outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:07.545788-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/andr.12332
       
  • Effects of testosterone therapy on BMI, blood pressure, and laboratory
           profile of transgender men: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Testosterone is the main hormonal agent used for cross-sex hormone therapy in female-to-male transgender persons. Our aim was to systematically review the literature concerning the effects of testosterone on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, lipid profile, and liver enzymes in transgender men. PUBMED and EMBASE were searched for studies published until March 2017. Studies were included if they reported interventions with any dose of testosterone and comparison of variables before and during treatment. Of 455 potentially eligible articles, 13 were reviewed. Study duration ranged from 6 to 60 months, sample size ranged from 12 to 97 patients, and the most common treatment was parenteral testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg/12 weeks. Slight but significant increases in BMI were reported (from 1.3 to 11.4%). Three out of seven studies assessing the impact of different testosterone formulations on blood pressure detected modest increases or clinically irrelevant changes in this variable. In another study, however, two patients developed hypertension, which was resolved after cessation of testosterone therapy. Decreases in HDL-cholesterol and increases in LDL-cholesterol were consistently observed. Eight studies observed a relationship between testosterone and increased hemoglobin (range: 4.9–12.5%) and hematocrit (range: 4.4–17.6%), but discontinuation of androgen therapy was not necessary. In one study, two patients developed erythrocytosis (hematocrit >52%) after 9 and 12 months of treatment. One study analyzing testosterone formulations observed smaller increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit with testosterone gel. Six studies assessing liver function showed slight or no changes. Overall, the quality of evidence was low, given the lack of randomized clinical/controlled trials and the small sample sizes. In conclusion, exogenous testosterone administration to transgender men was associated with modest increases in BMI, hemoglobin/hematocrit, and LDL-cholesterol, and with decreases in HDL-cholesterol. Long-term studies are needed to assess the long-term risks of testosterone therapy, particularly as they relate to cardiometabolic risks such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome.
       
  • Inflammatory reaction found in prostate-specific material – method
           standardization and proposed optimal cut-off points
    • Abstract: Prostatitis classification as well as treatment decisions are primarily based on differentiation of the inflammatory status in prostate-specific material. At the same time, methods used for detection of inflammation are semi-quantitative and not finally standardized. The main aim of this study was to suggest more precise methods for detection of prostate inflammatory status. Additional aims were to define optimal cut-off points of various tests in order to discriminate between inflammatory and non-inflammatory condition and to analyze the prevalence of inflammatory prostatitis in the groups of symptomatic prostatitis, lower urinary tract symptoms and control subjects. This prospective study included 541 patients (with prostatitis symptoms, with lower urinary tract symptoms and controls) at Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Leukocyte counts in first-void urine, expressed prostatic secretion and post-massage urine as well as interleukin-6 in prostate secretion specimens were determined. Based on ROC curve analysis, we detected potential normal values for leukocytes in expressed prostatic secretion (
       
  • Effects of testosterone administration (and its 5-alpha-reduction) on
           parenchymal organ volumes in healthy young men: findings from a
           dose-response trial
    • Abstract: Animal data shows that testosterone administration increases the volume of some parenchymal organs. However, the effects of exogenous testosterone on solid abdominal organs in humans remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on the volume of liver, spleen and kidneys in a dose-response trial. Young healthy men aged 18–50 years participating in the 5α-Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300 or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate, and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5 α-reductase inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Liver, spleen and kidney volumes were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose-effect of testosterone on changes in the volume of parenchymal organs was evaluated by linear regression model. The association between changes in total testosterone (TT) levels and changes in organ volumes were assessed. Testosterone administration increased liver volume dose-dependently (17.4 cm3 per 100 mg of weekly testosterone enanthate; p = 0.031); the increase in liver volume was positively associated with changes in TT levels (R2 = 0.08, p = 0.024). A dose-dependent, but non-significant, increase in kidney volumes was also seen. Inclusion of dutasteride use into the models showed an independent association of randomization to dutasteride group with liver volume increase. In conclusion, Testosterone administration increased the liver volume in a dose-dependent manner. The potential changes in parenchymal organs should be considered when interpreting apparent changes in lean mass in response to anabolic interventions.
       
  • Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age'
           A cohort study
    • Abstract: Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort study of a general population random sample (N = 2366) aged 30–60 years was performed. Participants were ultrasound screened for gallstones in 1982–84 and again in 1993–94. Lifestyle data and blood samples were obtained and re-analyzed in 2004. Changes with age in physiology (body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipids, self-rated health), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity level), and indices of reproductive function (number of births, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, male reproductive hormones) were explored in females and males separately. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Incident gallstones (gallstones and cholecystectomy) at ultrasound examination in participants initially free of gallstones at baseline occurred in 9.9% of the study population. In females, increasing alcohol consumption (odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.90; 0.98]) and the cessation of hormone replacement therapy (OR 0.29, 95% CI [0.10; 0.83]) inversely determined incident gallstones. In males, increasing levels of SHBG (OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.94; 0.998]) inversely determined incident gallstones. Other changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were not associated. High baseline free testosterone determined incident gallstones in males (OR 1.15, 95% CI [1.02; 1.30]). To conclude, changes with age in alcohol consumption in females and in reproductive hormones determined incident gallstones. Male reproductive hormones seem to have an impact on incident gallstones. Sex differences should be explored further in future studies.
       
  • Copy number variants of Ras/MAPK pathway genes in patients with isolated
           cryptorchidism
    • Abstract: Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital disorder in boys, but the cause for most cases remains unknown. Patients with Noonan Syndrome are characterized by a typical face, growth retardation, congenital heart defects, learning disabilities and cryptorchidism. Copy number variations of Ras/MAPK pathway genes are unusual in patients with several clinical features of Noonan Syndrome; however, they have not been studied in patients with only one feature of this condition, such as cryptorchidism. Our aim was to determine whether patients with isolated cryptorchidism exhibit Ras/MAPK pathway gene copy number variations (CNVs). Fifty-nine patients with isolated cryptorchidism and negative for mutations in genes associated with Noonan Syndrome were recruited. Determination of Ras/MAPK pathway gene CNVs was performed by Comparative Genome Hybridization array. A CNV was identified in two individuals, a ~175 kb microduplication at 3p25.2, partially including RAF1. A similar RAF1 microduplication has been observed in a patient with testicular aplasia. This suggests that some patients with isolated cryptorchidism may harbor Ras/MAPK pathway gene CNVs.
       
  • Sperm morphology: assessment, pathophysiology, clinical relevance, and
           state of the art in 2017
    • Abstract: For over 30 years, sperm morphology assessment has been one of the most common tests in evaluation of fertility. This review examines the clinical relevance of sperm morphology assessment in the diagnosis of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology, as well as its analytical reliability. Publications on the pathophysiology, the analytical reliability of the test and its clinical relevance in diagnosis and in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) were evaluated. This review compared and discussed study methodologies and results, including patient characteristics, preparation, smear staining methods and classification systems. The assessment of the percentage of some abnormalities such as for example thin head, amorphous head, or bent or asymmetrical neck is of little clinical use, and their pathophysiology is not well explained as most are physiological traits. Some studies have highlighted correlations between the percentage of normal forms and functional sperm abnormalities, as well as correlations with ability to conceive in vivo and, in some situations, with the success of intra-uterine insemination (IUI) or conventional IVF. However, except in the case of some specific sperm defects (easy to detect with 99 or 100% of spermatozoa affected) and which are often linked to genetic disorders (globozoospermia, macrocephaly, decapitated sperm syndrome and fibrous sheath dysplasia), sperm morphology assessment has very poor sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infertility. Moreover, there is very little evidence that indices of multiple sperm defects [sperm deformity index (SDI), teratozoospermia index (TZI), and multiple abnormalities index (MAI)] are relevant. Above all, many publications report a major lack of analytical reliability of this test, mainly in assessment of the details of sperm abnormalities. Many questions arise concerning how and when sperm morphology should be assessed, and how to interpret the thresholds of normal forms. Questions are raised on the real clinical impact of this test.
       
  • Reproductive endocrine issues in men with sickle cell anemia
    • Abstract: In patients with sickle cell anemia, the sickling of red blood cells is known to cause end-organ damage by infarction. In some men who are affected by sickle cell anemia, the obstruction of venous outflow of the penis causes priapism, which could lead to erectile dysfunction. There is also evidence that the disease is linked to other reproductive issues in men—specifically delayed puberty, low testosterone, and sperm abnormalities—although the causes of these problems are less clear. Treatment of sickle cell anemia can have effects on the reproductive system as well. This review summarizes the findings from various publications pertaining to reproductive endocrinology, along with their conclusions and discrepancies.
       
  • Sperm DNA damage measured by sperm chromatin structure assay in men with a
           history of undescended testes
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare sperm DNA damage between men with a history of congenital undescended testis (UDT) and men with a history of acquired UDT. A long-term follow-up study of men with previous UDT was performed. Fifty men with congenital UDT who had undergone orchiopexy at childhood age, 49 men with acquired UDT after a ‘wait-and-see’-protocol (e.g. awaiting spontaneous descent until puberty and perform an orchiopexy in case of non-decent), and 22 healthy proven fertile men were included. The DNA fragmentation index (DFI) using sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to express the level of sperm DNA damage. Decreased fertility potential was considered if DFI was above 30%. Sperm DNA damage was not statistically different between cases of congenital and acquired UDT. DFI was significantly more often >30% in the complete group of men with congenital UDT (9/50; 18%) and in the subgroup with bilateral congenital UDT (3/7; 43%) in comparison with the controls (none) (p-value 0.049 and 0.01, respectively). Age at orchiopexy in congenital UDT had no statistical effect on DNA damage. In men with acquired UDT, DFI did not statistically differ between those having undergone orchiopexy and those experiencing spontaneous descent. This study supports the hypothesis that UDT is a spectrum representing both congenital UDT and acquired UDT. Sperm DNA damage at adult age is not influenced by age at orchiopexy in congenital UDT cases and by orchiopexy or spontaneous descent in acquired UDT cases.
       
  • Successful delivery derived from cryopreserved rare human spermatozoa with
           novel cryopiece
    • Abstract: Herein, we report the clinical outcomes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with cryopiece cryopreserved rare human spermatozoa from severe male factor infertility patients. We established a novel cryopiece system on the basis of previous studies. In this study, 126 spermatozoa from four patients with non-obstructiveazoospermia (NOA) or severe oligozoospermia were stored in cryopiece and then thawed on the day of the oocyte retrieval, 88 (83%) spermatozoa were recovered with a 47.5% (38 of 80) motile rate. Routine ICSI were performed in enrolled 30 MII oocytes from their spouse with their own spermatozoa, respectively. Twenty-two (73%) fertilization and 19 (86%) zygote cleavage were observed. Finally, a total of 11 embryos were achieved and each female patient received a transplantation of two fresh embryos. Four healthy babies were born at term. In conclusion, our novel cryopiece can be applied in assisted reproduction through ICSI with an effective motile spermatozoa recovery rate, high fertilization rate, and successful pregnancy result.
       
  • Long-term follow-up of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection-conceived
           offspring compared with in vitro fertilization-conceived offspring: a
           systematic review of health outcomes beyond the neonatal period
    • Abstract: The use of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has increased significantly worldwide, often chosen instead of in vitro fertilization (IVF), yet long-term health outcomes are unknown and health differences between ICSI and IVF conceptions have not been comprehensively assessed. A systematic review of health outcomes of ICSI-conceived offspring beyond the neonatal period compared to IVF-conceived offspring was carried out. PubMed, OVID Medline/Embase, Informit, Web of Science and Proquest databases were searched on 9 November 2016 for studies reporting on health outcomes in ICSI-conceived offspring beyond 28 days after birth. Physical and psychosocial health were the main outcome measures. The search strategy yielded 2781 articles; 2539 were not relevant or did not meet inclusion criteria and 137 were duplicates. One hundred and five full-text papers were evaluated further and 34 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Studies comparing ICSI- and IVF-conceived children suggest their neurodevelopment is comparable. Growth and aspects of physical health are also similar; however, studies are few and limited to childhood. ICSI-conceived children may be at increased risk of autism and intellectual impairment. No difference in risk of childhood cancer was reported in one study. Whilst the neurodevelopment of ICSI-conceived children appears comparable to those of IVF conception, data relating to neurodevelopmental disorders, growth, physical health and childhood cancer are inconclusive. Further research into health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood is required before conclusions can be drawn about the long-term safety of ICSI compared to IVF. Until then, ICSI might be better reserved for its original intended use, male-factor infertility.
       
  • Ethical, moral, and theological insights into advances in male pediatric
           and adolescent fertility preservation
    • Abstract: The successful treatment of boys with cancer has led to increasing attention to preserving their quality of life after completing cancer therapy. One of the top priorities for living a full life is keeping open the opportunity to have children. While sperm banking for males facing sterilizing cancer treatment can be effective, this approach requires subsequent use of reproductive procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) to achieve a pregnancy. Advances in fertility preservation techniques may allow pre-pubertal boys to conceive using advanced stem cell technologies and stem cell transplantation in the future. This review summarizes the ethical positions of leading medical societies and explores the religious and moral stances of major religious institutions regarding these options.
       
  • miR-2909 regulates ISGylation system via STAT1 signalling through negative
           regulation of SOCS3 in prostate cancer
    • Abstract: One of the well-document strategies adopted by tumour cells for progression is to evade immune surveillance mechanisms. An understanding of the tight interaction between immunity and progression of cancer can provide novel treatment options for different malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we have shown that AATF genome encoded miR-2909, known to play role both in immunity and cancer upregulates various interferon stimulating genes (ISGs) including ISGylation system through STAT1. Our results revealed that miR-2909 up-regulates STAT1 through negative regulation of SOCS3 and not through up-regulation of Type 1 interferon (IFN) production. It was observed that inhibition of ISGylation reduced the proliferation potential of PCa cells. Furthermore, androgens were found to negatively regulate ISGylation in LNCaP cells through androgen receptor signalling independently of miR-2909. TGF-β mediated SMAD3 signalling was also seen to be suppressed by miR-2909 through induction of SMAD7 via enhanced STAT1 expression. Collectively, these studies suggest that miR-2909 could play a vital role in prostate carcinogenesis through modulation of ISGylation system and TGFβ signalling via STAT1.
       
  • Magnetic-activated cell sorting before density gradient centrifugation
           improves recovery of high-quality spermatozoa
    • Abstract: Recent studies have evaluated the use of magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) to reduce apoptotic spermatozoa and improve sperm quality. However, the efficiency of using MACS alone, before or after sperm processing by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) has not yet been established. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal protocol of MACS in assisted reproduction techniques (ART). Thus, we compared sperm quality obtained by DGC alone (DGC), DGC followed by MACS (DGC-MACS), MACS followed by DGC (MACS-DGC), and MACS alone (MACS), and found that the combined methods (MACS-DGC and DGC-MACS) led to retrieval of less spermatozoa with fragmented DNA compared to the single protocols. However, MACS-DGC protocol led to a significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility and normal morphology than DGC-MACS protocol. These findings suggest the potential clinical value of using MACS-DGC to improve sperm quality in seminal preparation for ART.
       
  • The impact of drugs on male fertility: a review
    • Abstract: Beside cytotoxic drugs, other drugs can impact men's fertility through various mechanisms. Via the modification of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis hormones or by non-hormonal mechanisms, drugs may directly and indirectly induce sexual dysfunction and spermatogenesis impairment and alteration of epididymal maturation. This systematic literature review summarizes existing data about the negative impact and associations of pharmacological treatments on male fertility (excluding cytotoxic drugs), with a view to making these data more readily available for medical staff. In most cases, these effects on spermatogenesis/sperm maturation/sexual function are reversible after the discontinuation of the drug. When a reprotoxic treatment cannot be stopped and/or when the impact on semen parameters/sperm DNA is potentially irreversible (Sulfasalazine Azathioprine, Mycophenolate mofetil and Methotrexate), the cryopreservation of spermatozoa before treatment must be proposed. Deleterious impacts on fertility of drugs with very good or good level of evidence (Testosterone, Sulfasalazine, Anabolic steroids, Cyproterone acetate, Opioids, Tramadol, GhRH analogues and Sartan) are developed.
       
  • Spermatozoa with numerical chromosomal abnormalities are more prone to be
           retained by Annexin V-MACS columns
    • Abstract: Colloidal super-paramagnetic microbeads conjugated with annexin V are effective for separating apoptotic spermatozoa by MACS as a result of the high affinity of annexin V for externalized PS molecules. The effectiveness of the procedure in reducing the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA and abnormal morphology has also been reported. However, it is still unknown if it could decrease the percentage of aneuploid spermatozoa. The objective of our prospective study, performed on 16 males with abnormal FISH on spermatozoa, was to assess if MACS columns were useful tools to retain spermatozoa carrying chromosomal abnormalities in semen samples processed after density gradient centrifugation (DGC). The pellet obtained after DGC was subjected to MACS, and sperm FISH analyses were performed both in the eluded fraction and in the fraction retained in the column. The observed frequencies of disomy and nullisomy 13, 18, and 21, X and Y, as well as the diploidy rates in the MACS eluded fraction and the fraction retained in the MACS column were recorded. We observed that the frequencies of aneuploidies in the eluded fraction were lower than in the fraction retained in the MACS column (0.59% vs. 0.75%; p = 0.010). DGC determined a significant reduction in sperm concentration (z-ratio = 2.83; p = 0.005) and a significant increase in sperm progressive motility (z-ratio = −3.5; p 
       
  • Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer
           survivors and their biological brothers
    • Abstract: Testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to healthy controls. However, because of the fetal etiology of testicular cancer, familial unrelated healthy men might not be an optimal control group. The objective of this study was to clarify if testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to their biological brothers. A cross-sectional study of testicular cancer survivors (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240966) was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Of 158 testicular cancer survivors included, 24 had a biological brother who accepted to participate in the study. Serum levels of reproductive hormones and prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation Criteria and National Cholesterol Education Program (Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria comprised the main outcome measures of the study. Median age was similar in testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers [44 years (IQR 39–50) vs. 46 (40–53) years respectively (p = 0.1)]. In testicular cancer survivors, follow-up since treatment was 12 years (7–19). Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were elevated (p ≤ 0.001), while total testosterone, free testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were lower (p ≤ 0.001) in testicular cancer survivors than in their biological brothers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar and apart from HDL-cholesterol, which was lower in testicular cancer survivors (p = 0.01); there were no differences in the individual components of the metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their brothers. In conclusion, gonadal function was impaired in testicular cancer survivors, while we did not detect any difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers.
       
  • Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function
           and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving
           reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization
    • Abstract: Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls.
       
  • Risk of low bone mineral density in testicular germ cell cancer survivors:
           association with hypogonadism and treatment modality
    • Abstract: The cure rate of testicular cancer exceeds 95%, but testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at increased risk of hypogonadism (HG). It has been suggested that TCS have reduced bone mineral density (BMD), but it is unclear whether this is related to HG or a direct effect of cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TCS have decreased BMD, and if BMD is related to HG and/or the cancer treatment given. We investigated 91 TCS (mean age at diagnosis: 31 years; mean 9.3 years follow-up) and equal number of age matched controls (mean age at inclusion 40.3 years and 41.2 years, respectively). Total testosterone and LH were measured. BMD was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Low BMD (LBD) was defined as Z-score
       
  • Maintenance of the contractile phenotype in corpus cavernosum smooth
           muscle cells by Myocardin gene therapy ameliorates erectile dysfunction in
           bilateral cavernous nerve injury rats
    • Abstract: The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction post radical prostatectomy is not clearly clarified, and the low efficacy of traditional PDE5i treatment remains a major complaint in contemporary practice. This study aimed to demonstrate phenotypic modulation in bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) rats within 7 days, and subsequently validate gene therapy with Myocardin (Mycod) by maintaining a contractile phenotype in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells. Initially, 36 male rats were randomly divided into BCNI and negative control (NC) groups for histological and phenotypic molecular measurements at 3, 5, and 7 days. Afterwards, an additional 30 rats received a single intra-cavernous injection of 50 μL PBS, Ad-Myocd (1 × 1011 pfu/ml) or Ad-vector for 10 animals each, namely the NC+PBS, BCNI+Ad-Myocd, and BCNI+Ad-vector groups. Finally, the validity and mechanism of Myocd transfection was explored at 21 days in vivo and 48 h in vitro. Western blotting showed canonical declines in Myocd, α-SMA, and Calponin expression, as well as elevated Osteopontin (OPN) expression, before corporeal morphological and SM-to-collagen ratio changes at day 5 after injury. Overexpression of Myocd maintained the contractile phenotype of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells, ameliorated bilateral cavernous nerve injury rat erectile dysfunction, as well as promoted cell contractility and suppressed proliferative capacity. Simultaneously, confocal imaging revealed up-regulation and co-localization of serum response factor in gene-transferred cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to investigate corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells phenotypes in the early stages of cavernous injury model rats, and Myocd reversed phenotypic modulation by activating serum response factor. The experimental results demonstrated the validity of gene therapy for erectile dysfunction.
       
  • Spermatozoa from males with reduced fecundity exhibit differential DNA
           methylation patterns
    • Abstract: Infertility affects 10–15% of couples, and approximately 50% of cases are linked to male factor infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DNA methylation patterns in spermatozoa from males who are suffering from a reduction in fecundity. Thirty samples were subjected to 450K arrays as a screening study to evaluate the variation in sperm DNA methylation levels between cases and controls groups, and then four CpG sites (cg05799088, cg07227024, cg16338278, and cg08408433) underwent to deep bisulfite sequencing to validate the observed methylation differences in 111 samples (56 proven fertile males as ‘controls’ and 55 males suffering from a reduction in fecundity as ‘cases’). A significant difference in the mean methylation level was found between cases and controls in the CpGs of PRICKLE2 gene-related amplicon (CpG1, p ≤ 0.002, and CpG2, p ≤ 0.004) and CpG of ALS2CR12 gene-related amplicon (CpG1, p ≤ 0.015, and CpG2, p ≤ 0.009). Besides, a significant difference was found at seven from thirteen CpGs tested in the ALDH3B2 gene amplicon CpG2, CpG6, CpG9, CpG10, CpG11, CpG12, and CpG13 (p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.012, p ≤ 0.028, p ≤ 0.012, p ≤ 0.009, and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results showed that nine CpGs out of the twenty-six within the PTGIR gene-related amplicon (CpG4, CpG6, CpG8, CpG9, CpG11, CpG15, CpG19, CpG23, and CpG26) had a significant difference in their mean methylation level (p ≤ 0.006, p ≤ 0.009, p ≤ 0.003, p ≤ 0.003, p ≤ 0.007, p ≤ 0.002, p ≤ 0.018, p ≤ 0.018, and p ≤ 0.040, respectively) in the case vs. control group. In conclusion, an alteration in the methylation levels of sperm DNA from males with reduced fecundity was observed. In addition, an association between changes in the methylation level for these CpGs and different semen parameters has been found.
       
  • An in vitro model demonstrates the potential of neoplastic human germ
           cells to influence the tumour microenvironment
    • Abstract: Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT. Three different co-culture approaches were employed: direct contact during culture to simulate in situ cellular interactions occurring within seminomas (n = 9); indirect contact using well inserts to mimic GCNIS, in which a basement membrane separates the neoplastic germ cells and immune cells (n = 3); and PBMC stimulation prior to direct contact during culture to overcome the potential lack of immune cell activation (n = 3). Transcript levels for key cytokines in PBMC and TCam-2 cell fractions were determined using RT-qPCR. TCam-2 cell fractions showed an immediate increase (within 24 h) in several cytokine mRNAs after direct contact with PBMC, whereas immune cell fractions did not. The high levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) mRNA and protein associated with TCam-2 cells implicate this cytokine as important to seminoma physiology. Use of PBMCs from different donors revealed a robust, repeatable pattern of changes in TCam-2 and PBMC cytokine mRNAs, independent of potential inter-donor variation in immune cell responsiveness. This in vitro model recapitulated previous data from clinical TGCT biopsies, revealing similar cytokine expression profiles and indicating its suitability for exploring the in vivo circumstances of TGCT. Despite the limitations of using a cell line to mimic in vivo events, these results indicate how neoplastic germ cells can directly shape the surrounding tumour microenvironment, including by influencing local immune responses. IL6 production by seminoma cells may be a practical target for early diagnosis and/or treatment of TGCT.
       
  • Altered secretion of Sertoli cells hormones in 2-year-old prepubertal
           cryptorchid boys: a cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: In cryptorchid boys, failures in germ cell development have been clearly established. Some studies reported some abnormalities in Sertoli cells morphology but the results regarding their endocrine secretion remain controversial. To compare testicular hormone levels in young boys with and without cryptorchidism, we performed a cross-sectional hospital-based study. From surgery appointment records, we identified a case group of boys with unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and a control group undergoing dental care, minor osteoarticular or dermal surgery. Blood samples were withdrawn during the surgical procedure to perform testosterone, inhibin B and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) immunoassays. We included 27 cryptorchid boys and 27 controls aged of 26.6 vs. 24.2 months, respectively (p = 0.172) far from the post-natal mini-puberty and the corresponding hormonal surges. Age-adjusted AMH and inhibin B levels were significantly lower in cryptorchid than in control boys (AMH: 87 ng/mL vs. 135 ng/mL; p = 0.009, inhibin B: 97 pg/mL vs. 133 pg/mL; p = 0.019, respectively). Moreover, AMH and inhibin B levels were significantly lower in the bilateral cryptorchid subgroup, being 50% lower than in the controls (p = 0.011 and 0.019, respectively) and while both hormones levels were independent in controls, they became strongly correlated in bilateral cryptorchid boys (R² = 0.75, p = 0.001). In addition, testosterone levels were still detectable in some boys, with significantly lower levels in cryptorchid group than in controls. Overall, 2-year-old cryptorchid patients presented a simultaneous and significant drop in AMH and inhibin B levels, suggesting a functional defect of Sertoli cells. This deficiency appeared more pronounced in bilateral cryptorchidism and thus, regarding the pivotal role of Sertoli cells in germ cell development, it may explain the compromised fertility found later in men born with such a malformation.
       
  • Hypogonadism in testicular cancer patients is associated with risk factors
           of cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome
    • Abstract: More than 95% of testicular cancer are cured but they are at increased long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. The risk of cardiovascular disease and treatment intensity was reported, but it is unknown whether this effect of cancer therapy is direct or indirect, mediated through androgen deficiency. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate whether testicular cancer patients have increased the prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular disease and if these risk factors are associated with hypogonadism and/or the cancer treatment given. In 92 testicular cancer patients (mean 9.2 years follow-up) and age-matched controls, blood samples were analysed for lipids, total testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), glucose and insulin. An estimate of insulin resistance, HOMAir was calculated. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone  10 IU/L and/or androgen replacement. In testicular cancer men with hypogonadism, compared with eugonadal patients, higher insulin (mean difference: 3.10 mIU/L; p = 0.002) and HOMAir (mean difference: 0.792; p = 0.007) were detected. Hypogonadism group presented with increased risk (OR = 4.4; p = 0.01) of metabolic syndrome. Most associations between the treatment given and the metabolic parameters became statistically non-significant after adjustment for hypogonadism. In conclusion, testicular cancer patients with signs of hypogonadism presented with significantly increased risk of metabolic syndrome and investigation of endocrine and metabolic parameters is warranted in these patients.
       
  • Neonatal hypothyroidism affects testicular glucose homeostasis through
           increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice: effects on GLUT3, GLUT8
           and Cx43
    • Abstract: Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in maintaining the link between metabolism and reproduction and the altered THs status is associated with induction of oxidative stress in various organs like brain, heart, liver and testis. Further, reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in regulation of glucose homeostasis in several organs, and glucose utilization by Leydig cells is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and thus is largely dependent on glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8). Glucose uptake by Sertoli cells is mediated through glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) under the influence of THs to meet energy requirement of developing germ cells. THs also modulate level of gap junctional protein such as connexin 43 (Cx43), a potential regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium. Although the role of transient neonatal hypothyroidism in adult testis in terms of testosterone production is well documented, the effect of THs deficiency in early developmental period and its role in testicular glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress with reference to Cx43 in immature mice remain unknown. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on testicular glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress at postnatal days (PND) 21 and 28 in relation to GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43. Hypothyroidism induced by 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) markedly decreased testicular glucose level with considerable reduction in expression level of GLUT3 and GLUT8. Likewise, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and intratesticular concentration of lactate were also decreased in hypothyroid mice. There was also a rise in germ cell apoptosis with increased expression of caspase-3 in PTU-treated mice. Further, neonatal hypothyroidism affected germ cell proliferation with decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cx43. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters testicular glucose homeostasis via increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice, thereby affecting germ cell survival and proliferation.
       
  • Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and
           late-onset type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p 
       
 
 
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