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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1580 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1580 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 243, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Human Biology
  [SJR: 1.018]   [H-I: 58]   [12 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1042-0533 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6300
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1580 journals]
  • Frequency of folate-related polymorphisms varies by skin pigmentation
    • Authors: Patrice Jones; Mark Lucock, Martin Veysey, Nina Jablonski, George Chaplin, Emma Beckett
      Abstract: ObjectivesFolate-mediated 1-carbon transfer processes are vital in human health but are susceptible to independent and interactive influences of genetic variance and environmental exposures. Evidence suggests folate levels may be impacted by genetic variance and environmental UVR, with the effect of UVR levels influenced in part by degree of skin pigmentation. Folate-related genes are also influenced by UVR levels; however, the potential relationship between key folate-related genes and skin pigmentation has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine potential associations between frequencies of key folate variants and degree of skin pigmentation.MethodsAssociation between population prevalence of 17 variants in 9 folate-related genes (MTRR, MTR, MTHFR, CBS, SHMT1, MTHFD1, RFC1, BHMT, TYMS) and the Fitzpatrick skin phototype of populations was assessed via collation of genotypic data from ALFRED (Allele Frequency Database) and 1000 Genomes databases.ResultsA significant association between variant frequency and Fitzpatrick phototype was observed for 16 of 17 examined variants (P 
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:06:43.669545-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23079
       
  • Association between objectively measured sedentary behavior and a
           criterion measure of obesity among adults
    • Authors: Junbae Mun; Youngdeok Kim, James L. Farnsworth, Sunghyeok Suh, Minsoo Kang
      Abstract: ObjectiveResults of published studies on the association between sedentary behavior (SB) and obesity are inconsistent, possibly due to reliance on subjective measures of SB and inappropriate measures of obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured SB and criterion-measured obesity among adults.MethodsA total of 2284 adults (≥18 years) from the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the analysis. The participants were categorized into tertiles of SB time measured by accelerometry. Obesity was determined using body fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsIncreased SB was significantly associated with obesity when controlling for covariates related to demographics, health behaviors, energy intake, and physical activity (P for trends = .025).ConclusionsThis finding suggests that avoiding SB may be beneficial for lowering the risk of obesity in adults.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T00:10:32.383809-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23080
       
  • American Journal Of Human Biology, Volume 29, Issue 6, November/December
           2017
    • PubDate: 2017-11-15T01:41:28.321096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22915
       
  • Secular change in adult stature of modern Greeks
    • Authors: Andreas Bertsatos; Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn Greece, during the late 19th and early 20th century, the rural population adopted a more or less urban lifestyle. Furthermore, the first half of the 20th century finds Greece involved in five major wars, including a civil war, and consequent financial deprivation. This study investigates how the socioeconomic changes in Greece, during this period of time, have affected the stature of its population.MethodsThe Athens collection constitutes our sample with 189 adult individuals (104 males and 85 females). Stature was estimated with regression equations and secular change was evaluated by linear regression of stature with respect to the year of birth. Further analysis of our population sample was based on three time periods to explore the correlation between secular change and historical events.ResultsFrom 1879 to 1965, stature increased for both males and females. The subsequent analysis among different periods revealed that the male group exhibited a small although non-significant decline in stature during the years 1912 to 1950, which coincides with the long inter-war period. However, females appear less affected by the consequent deprivation.ConclusionsOur findings are consistent with earlier studies based on a much smaller time span. The negative effect of the economic and nutritional deprivation on stature as a result of warfare is apparent in our sample, at least for males. Furthermore, the positive effect of economic growth on stature is prominent for the entire population in the postwar period.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T00:06:12.352888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23077
       
  • Hunter–gatherer dental pathology: Do historic accounts of Aboriginal
           
    • Authors: Judith Littleton
      Abstract: ObjectivesStudies of hunter–gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity.MethodsAdult dentitions (n = 115) dating from the mid to late Holocene were recorded for the following conditions: dental wear, caries, periapical voids, calculus, periodontal disease and antemortem tooth loss. Statistical analysis was used to identify patterns of dental pathology and to identify causal relationships between conditions.ResultsDental wear is marked while dental caries rates are extremely low. Other indications of dental pathology are uncommon (
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T00:06:07.887745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23076
       
  • No sex difference in digit ratios (2D:4D) in the traditional Yali of Papua
           and its meaning for the previous hypotheses on the inter-populational
           variability in 2D:4D
    • Authors: Michalina Marczak; Michał Misiak, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Piotr Sorokowski
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe ratio between the 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D) is considered to be a sexually dimorphic trait in humans, with males having on average lower 2D:4D values than females. However, significant inter- and intra-sexual differences in digit ratios across populations have been reported. In order to further explore factors influencing the variability of 2D:4D, we performed a study among the Yali, a traditional population from Papua.MethodsWe measured digit ratios of 79 adults (47 males) from the traditional Yali society, a polygamous group who inhabit a harsh high-mountain environment almost directly on the equator.ResultsStatistical analysis of the data show no significant inter-sexual difference in digit ratios in our sample.ConclusionsWe discuss the results in light of various factors that putatively shape the differences in digit ratios. We conclude that the results of our study contribute to the existing evidence suggesting that digit ratio might not be universally sexually dimorphic in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T01:25:35.193398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23078
       
  • Accounting for measurement error in human life history trade-offs using
           structural equation modeling
    • Authors: Samuli Helle
      Abstract: ObjectivesRevealing causal effects from correlative data is very challenging and a contemporary problem in human life history research owing to the lack of experimental approach. Problems with causal inference arising from measurement error in independent variables, whether related either to inaccurate measurement technique or validity of measurements, seem not well-known in this field. The aim of this study is to show how structural equation modeling (SEM) with latent variables can be applied to account for measurement error in independent variables when the researcher has recorded several indicators of a hypothesized latent construct.MethodsAs a simple example of this approach, measurement error in lifetime allocation of resources to reproduction in Finnish preindustrial women is modelled in the context of the survival cost of reproduction. In humans, lifetime energetic resources allocated in reproduction are almost impossible to quantify with precision and, thus, typically used measures of lifetime reproductive effort (e.g., lifetime reproductive success and parity) are likely to be plagued by measurement error. These results are contrasted with those obtained from a traditional regression approach where the single best proxy of lifetime reproductive effort available in the data is used for inference.ResultsAs expected, the inability to account for measurement error in women's lifetime reproductive effort resulted in the underestimation of its underlying effect size on post-reproductive survival.ConclusionsThis article emphasizes the advantages that the SEM framework can provide in handling measurement error via multiple-indicator latent variables in human life history studies.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:01:54.084529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23075
       
  • Separating the Bruce and Trivers-Willard effects in theory and in human
           data
    • Authors: Ralph Catalano; Alison Gemmill, Joan Casey, Deborah Karasek, Holly Stewart, Katherine Saxton
      Abstract: ObjectivesTheories of reproductive suppression predict that natural selection would conserve mechanisms that abort the gestation of offspring otherwise unlikely to thrive in prevailing environments. Research reports evidence among humans of at least two such mechanisms—the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects. No literature, however, compares the mechanisms nor estimates their relative contribution to observed characteristics of human birth cohorts. We describe similarities and differences between the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects and explore high quality historical data from Sweden to determine which mechanism better describes temporal variation in the ratio of males to females in birth cohorts.MethodsWe measure Trivers-Willard exposures with the death rate among women of reproductive age. We measure Bruce exposures with the death rate among children. We use time-series regression methods to estimate the relative contribution of the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects to temporal variation in historical Swedish secondary sex ratio data.ResultsWe find that the Bruce Effect appears to be a better predictor of the secondary sex ratio than does the Trivers-Willard Effect.ConclusionsAttempts to identify mechanisms by which reproductive suppression affects fetal loss and characteristics of human birth cohorts should consider the Bruce Effect as an alternative to the Trivers-Willard Effect.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T04:17:03.743119-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23074
       
  • A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in
           highland Peru
    • Authors: Kathryn S. Oths; Hannah N. Smith, Max J. Stein, Rodrigo J. Lazo Landivar
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands.MethodsClinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the −2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort.ResultsA significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age.ConclusionsThree possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T04:16:57.494316-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23072
       
  • Stress, sex, and plague: Patterns of developmental stress and survival in
           pre- and post-Black Death London
    • Authors: Sharon N. DeWitte
      Abstract: ObjectivesPrevious research revealed declines in survivorship in London before the Black Death (c. 1346–1353), and improvements in survivorship following the epidemic. These trends indicate that there were declines in general levels of health before the Black Death and improvements thereof afterwards. This study expands on previous research by examining whether changes in survivorship were consistent between the sexes, and how patterns of developmental stress markers changed before and after the Black Death.Materials and MethodsThis study uses samples from London cemeteries dated to one of three periods: Early Pre-Black Death (1000–1200 AD, n = 255), Late Pre-Black Death (1200–1250 AD, n = 247), or Post-Black Death (1350–1540 AD n = 329). Temporal trends in survivorship are assessed via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and trends in tibial length (as a proxy for stature) and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) are assessed using t-tests and Chi-square tests, respectively.ResultsSurvivorship for both sexes decreased before the Black Death and increased afterwards. For males, LEH frequencies increased and stature decreased before the epidemic, and LEH declined and stature increased after the Black Death. For females, the only significant change with respect to developmental stress markers was a decrease in stature after the Black Death.ConclusionsThese results might reflect variation between the sexes in sensitivity to stressors, the effects of nutrition on pubertal timing, disproportionate access to dietary resources for males in the aftermath of the Black Death, the disproportionate deaths of frail individuals during the epidemic, or some combination of these factors.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T02:50:30.844033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23073
       
  • Relationships between the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and
           game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players
    • Authors: Makailah Dyer; Sandra E. Short, Martin Short, John T. Manning, Grant R. Tomkinson
      Abstract: ObjectiveDigit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of sports performance, although this relationship may be weak in open-skill sports such as basketball. The primary aim was to quantify relationships between 2D:4D and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players. The secondary aim was to quantify the differences in mean 2D:4Ds between players based on their position in the starting lineup.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional design, 64 female basketball players who competed in the South Australian Premier League were measured in-season for height, mass, and 2D:4D, with game-related statistics collected end-season. Partial correlations (adjusted for age and body mass index) were used to quantify relationships between right and left 2D:4Ds and game-related statistics. Unpaired t-tests were used to quantify differences in mean 2D:4Ds between starting and reserve players.Results2D:4D was a substantial negative correlate of blocks, rebounds, and field-goal percentage; meaning, females with lower 2D:4Ds were generally better defensively as they recorded more blocks and rebounds, and were more efficient scorers, irrespective of their age and body size. Mean 2D:4D differed by position in the starting lineup, as females with lower 2D:4Ds were more likely to be in the starting lineup.ConclusionsThis study found evidence that 2D:4D was a correlate of performance in an open-skill sport. Female players with lower digit ratios tended to perform better in several aspects of basketball, especially defensively, and were more likely to be starters, suggesting they are the best players on the team in their positions. These results probably reflect the organizational benefits of prenatal testosterone.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T04:50:29.223946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23070
       
  • Short-term resource allocation during extensive athletic competition
    • Authors: Daniel P. Longman; Sean P. Prall, Eric C. Shattuck, Ian D. Stephen, Jay T. Stock, Jonathan C. K. Wells, Michael P. Muehlenbein
      Abstract: ObjectivesFollowing predictions from life history theory, we sought to identify acute trade-offs between reproductive effort (as measured by psychological arousal) and somatic maintenance (via functional measures of innate immunity) during conditions of severe energetic imbalance.MethodsSixty-six male ultramarathon runners (ages 20 to 37 years) were sampled before and after a lengthy race. Saliva and sera were collected for testosterone and immunological analyses (hemolytic complement activity and bacterial killing ability). Lean body mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance, and libido was measured using a slideshow of arousing and neutral images.ResultsFollowing predictions, there was a significant decrease in salivary testosterone levels (109.59 pg/mL versus 97.61 pg/mL, P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T05:00:28.489651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23052
       
  • Validation of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis versus
           dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body fat percentage in
           overweight/obeses Colombian adults
    • Authors: Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Katherine González-Ruíz, Emilio González-Jiménez, Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina, Antonio García-Hermoso, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo verify the validity of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (mBCA) for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in overweight/obese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method.MethodsForty-eight adults participated (54% women, mean age = 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). The Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BIA and BF% assessed by DXA. The concordance between BF% measured by both methods was obtained with Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman difference plots.ResultsMeasures of BF% were estimated as 39.0 (SD = 6.1) and 38.3 (SD = 6.5) using DXA and mBCA, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficient reflected a strong correlation (r =.921, P = .001). The paired t-test showed a significant mean difference between these methods for obese men BF% of −0.6 [(SD 1.95; 95% CI = −4.0 to 3.0), P =.037]. Overall, the bias of the mBCA was −0.6 [(SD 2.2; 95% CI = −5.0 to 3.7), P =.041], which indicated that the mBCA method significantly underestimated BF% in comparison to the reference method. Finally, in both genders, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient showed a strong agreement. More specifically the DXA value was ρc = 0.943 (95% CI = 0.775 to 0.950) and the mBCA value was ρc = 0.948 (95% CI = 0.778 to 0.978).ConclusionsOur analysis showed a strong agreement between the two methods as reflected in the range of BF%. These results show that mBCA and DXA are comparable methods for measuring body composition with higher body fat percentages. However, due to broad limits of agreement, we can only recommend mBCA for groups of populations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07T08:45:22.665615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23071
       
  • Association of common genetic variants with human skin color variation in
           Indian populations
    • Authors: Anujit Sarkar; Madhusudan R. Nandineni
      Abstract: ObjectivesHuman skin color is one of the most conspicuously variable physical traits that has attracted the attention of physical anthropologists, social scientists and human geneticists. Although several studies have established the underlying genes and their variants affecting human skin color, they were mostly confined to Europeans and Africans and similar studies in Indian populations have been scanty. Studying the association between candidate genetic variants and skin color will help to validate previous findings and to better understand the molecular mechanism of skin color variation.MethodsIn this study, 22 candidate SNPs from 12 genes were tested for association with skin color in 299 unrelated samples sourced from nine geographical locations in India.ResultsOur study establishes the association of 9 SNPs with the phenotype in Indian populations and could explain ∼31% of the variance in skin color. Haplotype analysis of chromosome 15 revealed a significant association of alleles G, A and C of SNPs rs1426654, rs11070627, and rs12913316, respectively, to the phenotype, and accounted for 17% of the variance. Latitude of the sampling location was also a significant factor, contributing to ∼19% of the variation observed in the samples.ConclusionsThese observations support the findings that rs1426654 and rs4775730 located in SLC24A5, and rs11070627 and rs12913316 located in MYEF2 and CTXN2 genes respectively, are major contributors toward skin pigmentation and would aid in further unraveling the genotype-phenotype association in Indian populations. These findings can be utilized in forensic DNA applications for criminal investigations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:20:26.850829-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23068
       
  • The cost of reproduction in women: Reproductive effort and oxidative
           stress in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women
    • Authors: Anna Ziomkiewicz; Amara Frumkin, Yawei Zhang, Amelia Sancilio, Richard G. Bribiescas
      Abstract: ObjectivesLife history theory predicts a trade-off between female investment in reproduction and somatic maintenance, which can result in accelerated senescence. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a causal physiological mechanism for accelerated aging and a possible contributor to this trade-off. We aimed to test the hypothesis for the existence of significant associations between measures of reproductive effort and the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women.MethodsSerum samples and questionnaire data were collected from 63 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (mean age 53.4 years), controls in the Connecticut Thyroid Health Study, between May 2010 and December 2013. Samples were analyzed for levels of 8-OHdG and Cu/Zn-SOD using immunoassay method.ResultsLevels of oxidative damage (8-OHdG) but not oxidative defense (Cu/Zn-SOD) were negatively associated with parity and number of sons in premenopausal women (r = −0.52 for parity, r = −0.52 for number of sons, P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:20:20.668456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23069
       
  • Positive effects of refugee presence on host community nutritional status
           in Turkana County, Kenya
    • Authors: Rieti G. Gengo; Rahul C. Oka, Varalakshmi Vemuru, Mark Golitko, Lee T. Gettler
      Abstract: ObjectivesRefugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region.MethodsParticipants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community. We evaluated nutritional status using summed skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI). Structured interviews provided contextual data.ResultsAge-controlled multiple regression models reveal two distinct skinfold thickness profiles for both sexes: comparatively elevated values in Kakuma and Lorugum, and significantly lower values in Lorengo and Lokichoggio. BMI did not vary significantly by location. Despite better nutritional status, a large proportion of Kakuma residents still report worries about basic needs, including hunger, health, and economic security.ConclusionsKakuma Refugee Camp is associated with better host community energetic status indicators, compared to other relevant, regional sites varying in development and resources. Based on global nutritional standards, observed differences likely represent meaningful disparities in overall health. We suggest that access to cereals via refugee trade networks and employment might mediate this relationship. However, perceptions of refugees as illegitimate interlopers maintain a high psychological burden.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T04:00:28.48637-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23060
       
  • The association of air pollution with height: Evidence from Hong Kong's
           “Children of 1997” birth cohort
    • Authors: Jian V. Huang; Gabriel M. Leung, C. Mary Schooling
      Abstract: ObjectivesWithin populations, height is positively associated with economic success and in economically developed populations inversely associated with health. Recent studies also suggest air pollution may result in higher bone turnover markers among children, which may affect growth. However, few studies have investigated the effect of air pollution on height or growth rate. We therefore assessed the associations of several air pollutants with height at different ages.MethodsWe simultaneously assessed associations of particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in utero, in infancy, and in childhood with height at different ages (∼9, ∼11, ∼13, and ∼15 years), in a population-representative birth cohort “Children of 1997” (n = 8327) from the developed non-Western setting of Hong Kong with relatively high air pollution and short children, using partial least square regression.ResultsAfter considering multiple comparison, higher SO2 in childhood was associated with shorter height at ∼13 years (–0.20 cm, 99% CI −0.32 to −0.06). This difference was not evident at ∼15 years.ConclusionsThese observations suggest that air pollution may affect the trajectory of growth and development rather than final height, with corresponding implications for health in later life.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T07:10:41.543262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23067
       
  • Resting metabolic rate of Indian Junior Soccer players: Testing agreement
           between measured versus selected predictive equations
    • Authors: Keren Susan Cherian; Faaiza Shahkar, Ashok Sainoji, Nagalla Balakrishna, Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt
      Abstract: ObjectivesOwing to a dearth of research related to Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) among adolescent athletes in India, our study aimed to document RMR among junior soccer players (JSP) and to identify suitable RMR predictive models for JSP from nine existing equations.MethodsForty Indian JSP (Boys = 21, Girls = 19) representing the under-12 and under-16 age categories were assessed for body composition (skinfold technique) and RMR (oxycon mobile). Two-way ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to examine the differences across age and sex. Bland-Altman plot was used to test agreement between measured vs. predicted RMR using the equations of Cunningham (, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33), Soares et al. (, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47; 1998, British Journal of Nutrition, 79), Henry (, Public Health Nutrition, 8), and Patil and Bharadwaj (, Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 59) for non-athletic populations and the equations of De Lorenzo et al. (, The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39), Wong et al. (, Singapore Medical Journal, 53), and ten Haaf & Weijs (, PloS One, 9) for adult athletes.ResultsRMR showed significant (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T07:10:21.7955-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23066
       
  • Mutual compensation of the effects of religious and ethnic homogamy on
           reproduction
    • Authors: Susanne Huber; Martin Fieder
      Abstract: ObjectivesHomogamy, mating based on similarity, has been demonstrated for a great variety of traits such as age, education, religion, and physical and psychological traits. Recently, pro-fertile effects of religious as well as educational homogamy have been reported. We investigate whether ethnic homogamy also has a pro-fertile effect and whether ethnic and religious homogamy interact in their putative effects on reproduction (in terms of average number of offspring).MethodsWe analyzed the association between ethnic as well as religious homogamy and woman's average number of offspring based on census data from ten countries provided by IPUMS international, encompassing a total of 1,485,433 married women aged 46-60 years (who have thus completed or almost completed reproduction) and their spouses.ResultsWe find a clear pro-fertile but nonadditive effect of both ethnic and religious homogamy, which is most pronounced in the case of double homogamy. Our results further indicate that homogamy for one trait may compensate for heterogamy of the other, albeit countries differ regarding which trait compensates for the other.ConclusionsWe suggest that the interaction between ethnic homogamy, religious homogamy, and reproduction provides an interesting example for gene-culture co-evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T02:15:30.679008-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23064
       
  • Evaluating minimally invasive sample collection methods for telomere
           length measurement
    • Authors: Elisabeth A. Goldman; Geeta N. Eick, Devan Compton, Paul Kowal, J. Josh Snodgrass, Dan T.A. Eisenberg, Kirstin N. Sterner
      Abstract: ObjectivesTelomere length (TL) is a biomarker of aging and age-related decline. Although venous blood is considered the “gold standard” for TL measurement, its collection is often not feasible or desired in nonclinical settings. Saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) have been used as alternatives when venipuncture cannot be performed. However, it is not known whether these sample types yield TL measurements comparable to those obtained from venous blood. We sought to determine whether different samples from the same individual yield comparable TL measurements.MethodsWe extracted DNA from matched buffy coat, saliva (Oragene and Oasis), and DBS (venous and capillary) samples from 40 women aged 18-77 years. We used the monochrome multiplex qPCR (MMQPCR) assay to measure TL in all sample types for each participant and applied quality control measures to retain only high-quality samples for analysis. We then compared TL from buffy coat and saliva to examine how these measurements differ and to test if TL is correlated across sample types.ResultsTL differed significantly across buffy coat, Oragene saliva, and Oasis saliva samples. TL from buffy coat and Oragene saliva was moderately correlated (ρ = 0.48, P = .002) and the most similar in size. Oasis saliva TL was not correlated with buffy coat or Oragene saliva TL, and was the shortest. DBS DNA yields were inadequate for TL measurement using the MMQPCR assay.ConclusionsUsing a matched dataset we demonstrate that sample type significantly influences the TL measurement obtained using the MMQPCR assay.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:00:31.197069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23062
       
  • Biological measures of the human experience Edited by Lynnette Leidy
           SievertDaniel E. Brown 336 pp (2016). Springer $99.00 (cloth), $79.99
           (eBook)
    • Authors: Deborah L. Crooks
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:00:22.212683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23065
       
  • Measuring arterial blood pressure in humans: Auscultatory and automatic
           measurement techniques for human biological field studies
    • Authors: Gary D. James; Linda M. Gerber
      Abstract: Human biologists have been examining arterial blood pressure since they began studying the effects of the environment and culture on the health of diverse populations. The Korotkoff auscultatory technique with a trained observer and aneroid sphygmomanometer is the method of choice for blood pressure measurement in many bioanthropological field contexts. Korotkoff sounds (the first and fifth phases) are the preferred determinants of systolic and diastolic pressure, even in infants, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. Training of observers, positioning of individuals, and selection of cuff size are all essential for obtaining standardized measurements. Automatic electronic devices are increasingly being used for blood pressure measurement in human biological studies. The automatic monitors often use the oscillometric method for measuring pressure, but must be validated before use. The emergence of automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitors has opened another avenue of research on blood pressure in human biology, where allostasis and circadian responses to environmental change and real life behavioral challenges can be defined and evaluated, largely because there is now the ability to make multiple measurements over time and in varying contexts. Stand-alone automatic monitors can also be substituted for manual auscultated readings in field contexts, although in studies where participants measure their own pressure, education about how the devices work and protocol specifics are necessary. Finally, computer-driven plethysmographic devices that measure pressure in the finger are available to evaluate short-term reactivity to specific challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T09:20:56.842742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23063
       
  • Resemblance in physical activity levels: The Portuguese sibling study on
           growth, fitness, lifestyle, and health
    • Authors: S. Pereira; P. T. Katzmarzyk, T. N. Gomes, M. Souza, R. N. Chaves, F. K. Santos, D. Santos, A. Bustamante, T. V. Barreira, D. Hedeker, J. A. Maia
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo investigate the relationships of biological, behavioral, familial, and environmental characteristics with siblings´ physical activity (PA) levels as well as the intrapair resemblance in PA.MethodsThe sample comprises 834 (390 females) biological siblings [brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), brother-sister (BS)] aged 9 to 20 years. Total PA index (TPAI) was estimated by questionnaire. Information on potential behavioral, familial, and environmental correlates was obtained by self-report; body mass index (BMI), biological maturation, and physical fitness were measured. Multilevel models were used to analyze siblings´ clustered data, and sibling resemblance was estimated with the intraclass correlation (ρ).ResultsOn average, younger sibs, those more physically fit, and those with more parental support had greater TPAI. Further, BB pairs had higher TPAI levels than SS or BS pairs, but also had greater within-pair variance. When adjusted for all covariates, SS pairs demonstrated greater resemblance in TPAI (ρ = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.38–0.68) than BS (ρ = 0.26, 95%CI = 0.14–0.43) or BB pairs (ρ = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.06–0.44).ConclusionsAge, physical fitness, and parental support were the best predictors of TPAI levels. A moderate level of resemblance in TPAI was observed in SS pairs, while lower resemblance was found for BS and BB pairs. These findings may be due to differences in the roles of shared genetic factors, familial, and environmental characteristics across different sibling types.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T06:10:59.192843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23061
       
  • Child fosterage and sex-biased nutritional outcomes among Namibian
           pastoralists
    • Authors: Sean P. Prall; Brooke A. Scelza
      Abstract: ObjectivesAcross cultures, fosterage has been shown to impact child health. Contextual factors, such as the reason for fosterage and the relationship between foster parent and child, are known to magnify variance in nutritional outcomes for foster children. Another important, but less studied, factor is the role of gender. Sex-biases in physiology and cultural norms are both known to affect child nutrition, and we posit these effects might be magnified in the presence of fosterage. In this study, we investigate how sex interacts with fosterage to affect nutritional outcomes among Namibian pastoralists.MethodsAnthropometrics for children and adults were collected using standard procedures, and linear models were used to predict the effects of age, sex, and fosterage on height, weight, and body mass index Z-scores. Semi-structured interviews with adults provided context for understanding sex specific reasons for fosterage and biases in investment.ResultsBoys in this population have lower nutritional scores than girls, and fostered boys have lower weight and BMI Z-scores than nonfostered boys. Fostered girls have lower height Z-scores and are more likely to be stunted and underweight than nonfostered girls. These effects extend into adulthood, with fostered women being shorter than their nonfostered counterparts.ConclusionsSex plays a role in the nutritional impact of fosterage among Himba children. These differences could be related to differential child labor demands, investment patterns, and the divergent reasons girls and boys are placed into fosterage. Future studies should consider how fosterage can magnify existing biases, like sex, when studying its impact on child health.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:03:14.043818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23058
       
  • Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native
           Amazonians
    • Authors: Eduardo A. Undurraga; Jere R. Behrman, Susan D. Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R. Leonard, Steven T. Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes-García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A. Godoy
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane').MethodsWe used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ–1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002–2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills.ResultsStunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13–15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18–21% and 15–21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children.ConclusionsThe results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:10:54.306208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23059
       
  • Longitudinal patterns in BMI and percent total body fat from peak height
           velocity through emerging adulthood into young adulthood
    • Authors: Erin Barbour-Tuck; Marta Erlandson, Nazeem Muhajarine, Heather Foulds, Adam Baxter-Jones
      Abstract: ObjectivesEmerging adulthood, a potential critical period, is an understudied period of fat mass accrual. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of fat mass accrual, and weight status, from adolescence, through emerging adulthood, into young adulthood.MethodsOne-hundred-eighteen participants (59 male) were measured repeatedly for 20 years. Annual measures of height, weight, and body composition (DXA) were taken. Calculated measures included: peak height velocity (PHV), biological age (BA; years from PHV), body mass index (BMI), and percent total body fat (%TBF). Weight status groupings (normal NW, and overweight/obese OWO) were created using age and sex specific BMI and %TBF cut-offs. Analysis included t-tests and logistic regression.ResultsBMI and %TBF increased significantly until 8 years post PHV (P  .05), and then began increasing again (P  .05).ConclusionsDuring emerging adulthood, the prevalence of OWO increased. Being NW at PHV was not protective against being overweight in young adulthood. Emerging adulthood appears to be a potential critical period for fat accrual and warrants further attention.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:10:45.091038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23056
       
  • Amerindian ancestry and extended longevity in Nicoya, Costa Rica
    • Authors: Jorge Azofeifa; Edward A. Ruiz-Narváez, Alejandro Leal, Hanna Gerlovin, Luis Rosero-Bixby
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to address the hypothesis that Amerindian ancestry is associated with extended longevity in the admixed population of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica has been considered a “longevity island,” particularly for males.MethodsWe estimated Amerindian ancestry using 464 ancestral informative markers in 20 old Nicoyans aged ≥99 years, and 20 younger Nicoyans (60-65 years). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association of Amerindian ancestry and longevity.ResultsOlder Nicoyans had higher Amerindian ancestry compared to younger Nicoyans (43.3% vs 36.0%, P = .04). Each 10% increase of Amerindian ancestry was associated with more than twice the odds of being long-lived (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03-5.25).Conclusions and ImplicationsTo our knowledge, this is the first time that ancestry is implicated as a likely determinant of extended longevity. Amerindian-specific alleles may protect against early mortality. The identification of these protective alleles should be the focus of future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:30:28.743451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23055
       
  • Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat
    • Authors: J. W. Bea; C-H Hsu, R. M. Blew, A. P. Irving, B. J. Caan, M. L. Kwan, I. Abraham, S. B. Going
      Abstract: ObjectivesAbdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model.MethodsTotal body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50). In alignment with the Prodigy-based study, the following regions of interest (ROI) were assessed from total body scans and compared to the SFF from regional spine scans: total abdominal fat at (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC); (3) total trunk fat; and (4) visceral fat in the android region. Separate linear regression models were used to predict each total body scan ROI from SFF; models were validated by bootstrapping.ResultsThe sample was 84% female, a mean age of 38.5 ± 17.4 years, and mean BMI of 23.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2. The SFF, adjusted for BMI, predicted L2-L4 and L2-IC total abdominal fat (%; Adj. R2: 0.90) and total trunk fat (%; Adj. R2: 0.88) well; visceral fat (%) adjusted R2 was 0.83. Linear regression models adjusted for additional participant characteristics resulted in similar adjusted R2 values.ConclusionsThis replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:30:21.928988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23057
       
  • Fifty years of child height and weight in Japan and South Korea:
           Contrasting secular trend patterns analyzed by SITAR
    • Authors: T. J. Cole; H. Mori
      Abstract: Objectives Japanese and South Koreans have traditionally been shorter than Europeans, but have recently become appreciably taller. The aim was to quantify the secular trend patterns in height and weight growth in the two countries over 50 years using the SITAR growth curve model.Methods Data on mean height and weight by sex in 1-year age groups from 1 to 20 years were obtained by decade in South Korea (1965–2005) and Japan (1950–2010). The data were analyzed using SITAR (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation), which estimates a mean curve and three adjustments–size, timing and intensity–reflecting how the individual surveys differ from the mean. A sensitivity analysis compared results for the Japanese data based on cohort as well as period.Results Growth patterns in the two countries changed dramatically over the study period, affecting not only height and weight but also developmental age, in that the growth period advanced in timing and shrank in duration. SITAR fitted the data well. The trends were larger in South Korea than Japan, and puberty timing in Japan stabilized by 1970. Most of the height increment seen in adults had already accrued by age 1.5 years, whereas the adult weight increment accrued throughout childhood.Conclusions The secular height trend in these countries represents increased growth in the long bones during infancy, so it can be viewed as the inverse of stunting. There are striking country differences in growth pattern, but they are not easily explained by differences in national income, diet or lifestyle.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T05:46:25.585039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23054
       
  • DEMOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF HADZA HUNTER-GATHERERS By Nicholas
           Blurton Jones 508 pp. (2016). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
           $130.00 (paperback)
    • Authors: Herman Pontzer
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T04:50:18.743693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23053
       
  • No change in energy efficiency in lactation: Insights from a longitudinal
           study
    • Authors: Richard L. Bender; Heather S. Williams, Darna L. Dufour
      Abstract: ObjectivesLactation is the most energy-demanding phase of reproduction for human females, but it is still unclear how women in different environments are able to meet this additional energy demand. Previous studies have investigated whether changes in metabolism could have an energy-sparing effect in lactation, with conflicting results. Here, we asked whether increased energy efficiency in physical activity serves as an energy-sparing mechanism in lactation.MethodsWe used a longitudinal design with a control group. Participants were 33 well-nourished, exclusively breastfeeding women and 29 non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL) controls aged 32 ± 4 years. Lactating women were measured at peak- and post-lactation. NPNL controls completed a baseline measurement and a follow-up visit. Energy efficiency in physical activity was assessed using a graded submaximal exercise test and calculated as delta efficiency (change in work accomplished over change in energy expended) and gross efficiency (work accomplished over energy expended).ResultsThere was no significant change in either delta efficiency or gross efficiency from peak to post lactation in lactating women, and no significant difference in delta efficiency between lactating women and NPNL controls at any time period. However, lactating women showed greater between-visit variation in delta efficiency than the NPNL controls. Additionally, 79% of lactating participants lost weight between visits (mean weight loss −3.6 ± 2.3kg), consistent with a mobilization of body tissues to support lactation.ConclusionWe found no support for the idea that lactating women undergo an increase in energy efficiency to support the energy costs of lactation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T06:00:23.724046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23051
       
  • In memoriam Alexander Francis Roche (1921–2017)
    • Authors: Steven B. Heymsfield
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T04:35:18.358106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23050
       
  • Secular trend and social variation in age at menarche among polish
           schoolgirls before and after the political transformation
    • Authors: Aleksandra Gomula; Slawomir Koziel
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the biological results of the political and economic transformations that took place in Poland between 1966 and 2012, based on an analysis of age at menarche, and to determine changes across social groups.MethodsData were collected in 1966, 1978, 1988, and 2012 in several districts of Poland. The study included 34,940 schoolgirls. Age at menarche was assessed with the use of status quo method. Definition of socioeconomic status was based on 4 factors: urbanization level, mother and father education, and family size.ResultsWhen the political and economic situation in Poland improved, a decrease in age at menarche was observed, whereas in years of crisis it increased. The same social differentiation in menarcheal age observed before the political transformation continued to be present in 2012.DiscussionSocioeconomic changes were significantly associated with age at menarche. Social inequalities, reflected in menarcheal age, continue to be present in Poland.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T05:51:10.506522-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23048
       
  • Is early postnatal growth velocity, a proxy of minipubertal androgen
           action, related to adult second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios in men'
           A test in Cebu, Philippines
    • Authors: Alexander V. Georgiev; Calen P. Ryan, Judith B. Borja, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) of the hand is often used as an index of prenatal androgen exposure but it might also be affected by androgens during “minipuberty,” a period of temporarily high testosterone (T) production in the first few months of life. To examine this, we tested the prediction that men with lower 2D:4D ratios had greater weight growth velocities during the first months of life—a metric recently shown to correlate with concurrent T levels.MethodsWe related early growth data to 2D:4D ratios of both hands measured in 756 men (25–26 years) from Cebu, The Philippines.ResultsBirth-to-fourth-month (B4M) weight gain velocity (a proxy of early postnatal androgen action) was not associated with adult 2D:4D ratios of either hand, when the latter was measured continuously. When comparing men with more male-typical digit ratios (
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T08:02:58.976631-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23047
       
  • Genetic-genealogy approach reveals low rate of extrapair paternity in
           historical Dutch populations
    • Authors: Maarten H. D. Larmuseau; Sofie Claerhout, Leen Gruyters, Kelly Nivelle, Michiel Vandenbosch, Anke Peeters, Pieter van den Berg, Tom Wenseleers, Ronny Decorte
      Abstract: ObjectiveEvolutionary theory has shown that seeking out extrapair paternity (EPP) can be a viable reproductive strategy for both sexes in pair-bonded species, also in humans. As yet, estimates of the contemporary or historical EPP rate in human population are still rare. In the present study, we estimated the historical EPP rate in the Dutch population over the last 400 years and compared the rate with those obtained for other human populations to determine the evolutionary, cultural, and socio-demographic factors that influence human cuckoldry behavior.MethodsWe estimated the historical EPP rate for the Dutch population via the “genealogical pair method”, in which the EPP rate is derived from Y-chromosome mismatches between pairs of individuals that, based on genealogical evidence, share a common paternal ancestor.ResultsBased on the analysis of 68 representative genealogical pairs, separated by a total of 1013 fertilization events, we estimated that the historical EPP rate for the Dutch population over the last 400 years was 0.96% per generation (95% confidence interval 0.46%-1.76%).ConclusionThe Dutch EPP rate fits perfectly within the range reported for other contemporary and historical populations in Western Europe and was highly congruent with that estimated for neighboring Flanders, despite the socio-economic and religious differences between both populations. The estimated low EPP rate challenges the “dual mating strategy hypothesis” that states that women could obtain fitness benefits by securing investment from one man while cuckolding him to obtain good genes from an affair partner.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T08:50:21.503227-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23046
       
  • Household fear of deportation in Mexican-origin families: Relation to body
           mass index percentiles and salivary uric acid
    • Authors: Airín D. Martínez; Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A. Granger
      Abstract: ObjectiveFear of deportation (FOD) is a prevalent concern among mixed-status families. Yet, our understanding of how FOD shapes human health and development is in its infancy. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between household FOD, body mass index (BMI) percentiles and salivary uric acid (sUA), a biomarker related to oxidative stress/hypertension/metabolic syndrome, among 111 individuals living in Mexican-origin families.MethodsParticipants were 65 children (2 months-17 years, 49% female) and 46 adults (20-58 years, 71% female) living in 30 Mexican-origin families with at least one immigrant parent in Phoenix, AZ. We recruited families using cluster probability sampling of 30 randomly selected census tracts with a high proportion of Hispanic/Latino immigrants. The head of household completed a survey containing demographic, FOD, and psychosocial measures. All family members provided saliva (later assayed for sUA) and anthropometric measures. Relationships between household FOD, BMI percentile, and sUA levels were estimated using multilevel models.ResultsHigher levels of household FOD were associated with lower BMI percentiles and lower sUA levels between families, after controlling for social support and socioeconomic proxies.ConclusionKey features of the social ecology in which mixed-status families are embedded are associated with individual differences in biological processes linked to increased risk for chronic disease.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:56.173091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23044
       
  • Antioxidant defense and oxidative damage vary widely among high-altitude
           residents
    • Authors: Allison J. Janocha; Suzy A. A. Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S. Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C. Erzurum, Cynthia M. Beall
      Abstract: ObjectivesPeople living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants.MethodsIndividuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage.ResultsHigh-altitude Amhara and Sherpa had the highest SOD activity, while highland Oromo and Nepalis had the lowest among high-altitude populations. High-altitude Amhara had the lowest DNA damage, Sherpa intermediate levels, and high-altitude Oromo had the highest.ConclusionsHigh-altitude residence alone does not associate with high antioxidant defenses; residence length appears to be influential. The single-generation upward migrant sample had the lowest defense and nearly the highest DNA damage. The two high-altitude resident samples with millennia of residence had higher defenses than the two with multiple or single generations of residence.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:39.298696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23039
       
  • Associations between neighborhood food environments and deficient protein
           intake among elderly people in a metropolitan suburb: A case study in
           Kisarazu city, Japan
    • Authors: Yuri Hamamatsu; Chiho Goto, Masaru Nishitani, Riko Shimadate, Junko Ueno, Yoko Kusakari, Masahiro Umezaki
      Abstract: ObjectivesLiving in a poor food environment and its association with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake are increasingly important issues in Japan due to an increase in the elderly population.MethodsThe present study examined the relationships between neighborhood food environment and the protein and fat intakes of elderly Japanese individuals (n = 181) living in the metropolitan Tokyo suburb of Kisarazu.ResultsA logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and shopping behavior variables revealed associations between subjectively evaluated poor neighborhood food environment and deficient protein intake. However, there was no significant association between excessive fat intake and neighborhood food environments.ConclusionThe findings demonstrate that living in a poor neighborhood food environment, which is becoming increasingly prevalent in Japan and other developed countries, has the potential to result in malnutrition, or at least in a low-quality diet, in elderly populations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T04:15:20.640254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23043
       
  • Economic activity and patterns of infant growth in a high altitude
           district of Peru
    • Authors: Morgan K. Hoke
      Abstract: ObjectivesChanging economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru.MethodsThe length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart. z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Growth Reference for children under 5 years of age. Comparisons were made to the reference group and between economic zones to examine the impacts of different economic activities on infant growth.ResultsFemale infants had significantly higher height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) than males (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-16T08:30:30.175709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23038
       
  • Pregnancy and immune stimulation: re-imagining the fetus as parasite to
           understand age-related immune system changes in US women
    • Authors: Anna C. Rivara; Elizabeth M. Miller
      Abstract: ObjectivesPregnancy can increase production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), an immune response more often directed towards parasite infections. An absence of parasitism makes the US population ideal to test the hypothesis that the maternal immune system recognizes a fetus as a parasite. We predict that total IgE levels are positively associated with a history of pregnancy across all ages of adult women, mirroring patterns of IgE in parasitized populations.MethodsReproductive-aged women (n = 2201) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed in a cross-sectional design using complex survey regression and multiple imputation to evaluate associations between total IgE levels, pregnancy history, and interactions between age and pregnancy.ResultsWomen with a history of pregnancy have significantly higher IgE levels and a significantly shallower slope of IgE levels across ages (P = .031).ConclusionsThis research supports the hypothesis that maternal immune systems respond to prior pregnancies as they do to macro-parasitic exposures, and may modify the expected linear declines of IgE levels in women that accompanies aging. These finding have implications for understanding the evolution of internal gestation in mammals.
      PubDate: 2017-07-16T08:30:26.579768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23041
       
  • Scaling children's waist circumference for differences in body size
    • Authors: Alan M Nevill; Michael J. Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Paul Davies, Robinson Ramirez-Velez, Gavin Sandercock
      Abstract: ObjectivesBoth waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height.MethodsUsing two culturally different samples, 1 English (10–15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14–15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a.HTb. The model was linearized using log-transformation, and multiple regression/ANCOVA to estimate the height exponents for WC controlling for age, sex, and any other categorical/population differences.ResultsIn both samples, the power-law height exponent varied systematically with age. In younger children (age 10–11 years), the exponent was approximately unity, suggesting that pre-pubertal children might be geometrically similar. In older children, the height exponent declined monotonically to 0.5 (ie, HT0.5) in 15+ year-olds, similar to the exponent observed in adults. UK children's height-adjusted WC revealed a “u” shaped curve with age that appeared to reach a minimum at peak-height velocity, different for boys and girls. Comparing the WC of two populations (UK versus Colombian 14–15-year-old children) identified that the gap in WC between the countries narrowed considerably after scaling for height.ConclusionsScaling children's WC for differences in height using allometric modeling reveals new insights into the growth and development of children's WC, findings that might well have been be overlooked if body size/height had been ignored.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:21:09.021347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23037
       
  • Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with
           high blood pressure in black South African women
    • Authors: Herculina S. Kruger; Chrisna Botha-Ravyse, Lize Havemann-Nel, Maretha Doubell, Johannes M. van Rooyen
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure.MethodsBlack women aged 29–65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured.ResultsThere was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:20:42.322344-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23042
       
  • Body size of young adult Polish college-age women born before, during, and
           after WWII
    • Authors: Grażyna Liczbińska; Zbigniew Czapla, Robert M. Malina, Janusz Piontek
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare the young adult body size of Polish female university students born before, during, and after WWII.MethodsAge, height, and weight of 492 students measured between 1956 and 1972 were accessed from the Department of Anthropology archives (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań). The sample was divided into three birth year cohorts relative to WWII: before (n = 120), during (n = 196), and after (n = 176). Birth years spanned 1935 through 1952. BMI was calculated. Body size among birth cohorts was compared with age of the student and education level of the father as covariates (ANCOVA).ResultsThe birth cohorts differed significantly in height (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T10:50:28.797138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23040
       
  • Linear and nonlinear relationships between body mass index and physical
           fitness in Brazilian children and adolescents
    • Authors: Vítor P. Lopes; Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Rossana Gómez-Campos3, Miguel de Arruda, Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol, Luis P. Rodrigues
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear and curvilinear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in children and adolescents.MethodsParticipants were 4567 (2505 girls) children aged 6–16 years. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated and adjusted for age and sex using WHO z-scores. Physical fitness was evaluated with the following tests: Yo-Yo test, standing long jump, seated 2-kg medicine ball throw, and 20-m dash. Participants were grouped into two groups according to their maturity status, estimated as years from peak height velocity. Associations were determined with linear and nonlinear quadratic regression models.ResultsThe nonlinear quadratic regression coefficient was significant for the 20-m dash among girls of both maturity status levels, and in maturity status level 1 boys; for the standing long jump among boys of both maturity status levels, and in maturity status level 1 girls. The Yo-Yo test was only significant for maturity status level 1 boys. For the medicine ball throw, the linear regression coefficient was significant for both maturity status levels in both sexes. Almost all physical fitness items were observed to have meaningfully large nonlinear relationships with BMIz, but they were not all significant due to the small sample size, especially in maturity status level 2.ConclusionThe association between BMI and physical fitness is nonlinear in the majority of its components, and those with lower and higher BMI had poorer fitness.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T23:31:14.118746-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23035
       
  • Food insecurity partially mediates associations between social
           disadvantage and body composition among older adults in india: Results
           from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)
    • Authors: Joshua M. Schrock; Heather H. McClure, J. Josh Snodgrass, Melissa A. Liebert, Karen E. Charlton, Perianayagam Arokiasamy, Nirmala Naidoo, Paul Kowal
      Abstract: ObjectiveOur objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556).MethodsAdjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We also tested whether food insecurity mediated the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition.ResultsIn adjusted models, lower household wealth [lowest quintile (Q5) vs highest quintile (Q1): odds ratio (OR) = 13.57, P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T23:31:02.956194-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23033
       
  • Analysis of admixture proportions in seven geographical regions of the
           state of Guerrero, Mexico
    • Authors: José Ángel Cahua-Pablo; Miguel Cruz, Pedro Vidal Tello-Almaguer, Luz Carmen del Alarcón-Romero, Esteban Juan Parra, Salvador Villerías-Salinas, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Vianet Argelia Tello-Flores, Abigail Méndez-Palacios, Claudia Paola Pérez-Macedonio, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro
      Abstract: ObjectiveMexico's current population structure has been defined by admixture between European, Native American, and to some extent African, groups that started in the sixteenth century. The aim of this research was to analyze the relative contributions of these continental population groups to the seven regions of the state of Guerrero, Mexico.MethodsA total of 104 ancestry informative markers were analyzed in 480 unrelated women from the seven regions of the state of Guerrero. The individual ancestry proportions were estimated using the software ADMIXMAP v3.2.ResultsThe relative Native American, European and African ancestral contributions to the whole sample were estimated to be 69%, 27%, and 1.9%, respectively. We observed significant differences in admixture proportions across the regions. The highest average Native American ancestry was found in the Montaña region and the lowest in Costa Grande. Conversely, the highest European contribution was observed in Costa Grande. The highest African contributions were observed in the regions of Costa Chica and Costa Grande.ConclusionsThe genetic structure of the population of Guerrero reflects quite well the historical processes that have occurred in this state. Native American population settlements were mainly in the regions of Montaña, Norte, and Centro, where the highest indigenous genetic contribution is observed today. European settlers came from the center of the state to regions with significant agricultural and mining activities. The highest African contributions are observed in coastal regions, in agreement with historical evidence about slave trade routes in the Americas.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T09:50:20.133665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23032
       
  • Abdominal obesity in adolescents: Development of age-specific waist
           circumference cut-offs linked to adult IDF criteria
    • Authors: Jorge Bravo; Armando M. Raimundo, Diana A. Santos, Rafael Timón, Luís B. Sardinha
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to develop age- and sex-specific waist circumference (WC) cut-off points, linked to older adolescent and adult criteria for abdominal obesity, to be applied to children in the clinical setting.MethodsA total of 16,788 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years were assessed for WC. Smoothed age and sex-specific WC curves were obtained using Cole's LMS method.ResultsPercentiles that corresponded to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recommendations used for older adolescents and adults (16+ years old) were the 97th percentile for boys and the 87th percentile for girls. Using these cutoffs, a total of 368 boys and 1138 girls were categorized as abdominally obese, in contrast to 1654 boys and 987 girls that were identified using the current IDF pediatric criteria (90th percentile).ConclusionsWe provide age- and sex-specific cut-off points that can be used to identify abdominal obesity in adolescents. The present findings provide a tool that can be used in the clinical setting for the early detection and prevention of adult obesity. Population-specific cutoffs may be required for pediatric ages to diagnose children at risk.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T07:34:26.038459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23036
       
  • Evaluation of baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in an
           italian population according to age, sex, smoking habits, and gene
           polymorphisms
    • Authors: Alfredo Santovito; Claudio Gendusa, Piero Cervella
      Abstract: ObjectivesIncreased SCEs frequencies in human lymphocytes are an indicator of spontaneous chromosome instability and could be influenced by different exogenous and endogenous factors. In this study, we evaluated the influence of age, sex, smoking habits, and genetic polymorphisms on the background levels of SCEs in peripheral blood lymphocytes.MethodsTwo hundred-thirty healthy Italian subjects were recruited. Data about age, sex and smoking habits were recorded. Subjects were also genotyped for GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 A/G, CYP1A1 Ile/Val, CYP2C19 G/A, ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC1 Arg194ATrp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and XRCC1Arg208His gene polymorphisms.ResultsThe frequency of SCEs/cell was 5.15 ± 1.87, with females showing a significantly higher SCEs value with respect to males (5.36 ± 2.10 and 4.82 ± 1.39, respectively). Smokers showed significantly increased levels of SCEs with respect to nonsmokers (5.93 ± 1.75 and 4.70 ± 1.79, respectively) whereas no differences were observed between heavy and light smokers. Age correlated with the RI value (P = .01) but not with the SCEs frequency (P = 07), although the 31-40 age group showed a significantly lower SCEs frequency with respect to the other age groups. A significant association was also found between GSTP2C19-AA, GSTT1-null, GSTM1-null, ERCC2/XPD Gln751Gln, and XRCC1 His208His genotypes, and higher frequencies of SCEs.ConclusionWe describe the association between some phase I, phase II, and DNA-repair gene polymorphisms with increased SCEs frequencies, reinforcing the importance of genetic analysis in biomonitoring studies. Sex and age were found to be important endogenous factors that affect the level of genomic damage and the replicative capacity of cells, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T03:15:42.469935-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23034
       
  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup variation of contemporary mixed South
           Americans reveals prehistoric displacements linked to
           archaeologically-derived culture history
    • Authors: Francisco Rothhammer; Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Giannina Puddu, José Capriles
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to examine South American population structure and prehistoric population displacements prior to the Spanish conquest, utilizing mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of extant mixed populations from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile.MethodRelative frequencies of four pan-American haplogroups, obtained from published databases, were analyzed to evaluate patterns of variations, population structure and possible prehistoric migration pathways.ResultsPatterns of mtDNA variation verify biogeographic drift processes and possible migratory pathways.ConclusionsWe propose an updated model of South American colonization that is fully compatible with previous studies based on autosomal, mtDNA, and Y chromosome variation and with archaeologically-derived culture history.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T04:02:44.212573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23029
       
 
 
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