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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1576 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1576 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 392, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 220, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Human Biology
  [SJR: 1.018]   [H-I: 58]   [12 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1042-0533 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6300
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1576 journals]
  • Household fear of deportation in Mexican-origin families: Relation to body
           mass index percentiles and salivary uric acid
    • Authors: Airín D. Martínez; Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A. Granger
      Abstract: ObjectiveFear of deportation (FOD) is a prevalent concern among mixed-status families. Yet, our understanding of how FOD shapes human health and development is in its infancy. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between household FOD, body mass index (BMI) percentiles and salivary uric acid (sUA), a biomarker related to oxidative stress/hypertension/metabolic syndrome, among 111 individuals living in Mexican-origin families.MethodsParticipants were 65 children (2 months-17 years, 49% female) and 46 adults (20-58 years, 71% female) living in 30 Mexican-origin families with at least one immigrant parent in Phoenix, AZ. We recruited families using cluster probability sampling of 30 randomly selected census tracts with a high proportion of Hispanic/Latino immigrants. The head of household completed a survey containing demographic, FOD, and psychosocial measures. All family members provided saliva (later assayed for sUA) and anthropometric measures. Relationships between household FOD, BMI percentile, and sUA levels were estimated using multilevel models.ResultsHigher levels of household FOD were associated with lower BMI percentiles and lower sUA levels between families, after controlling for social support and socioeconomic proxies.ConclusionKey features of the social ecology in which mixed-status families are embedded are associated with individual differences in biological processes linked to increased risk for chronic disease.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:56.173091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23044
       
  • Antioxidant defense and oxidative damage vary widely among high-altitude
           residents
    • Authors: Allison J. Janocha; Suzy A. A. Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S. Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C. Erzurum, Cynthia M. Beall
      Abstract: ObjectivesPeople living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants.MethodsIndividuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage.ResultsHigh-altitude Amhara and Sherpa had the highest SOD activity, while highland Oromo and Nepalis had the lowest among high-altitude populations. High-altitude Amhara had the lowest DNA damage, Sherpa intermediate levels, and high-altitude Oromo had the highest.ConclusionsHigh-altitude residence alone does not associate with high antioxidant defenses; residence length appears to be influential. The single-generation upward migrant sample had the lowest defense and nearly the highest DNA damage. The two high-altitude resident samples with millennia of residence had higher defenses than the two with multiple or single generations of residence.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:39.298696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23039
       
  • GENOMES, EVOLUTION, AND CULTURE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF HUMAN KIND
           Rene J. HerreraRalph Garcia-BertrandFrancisco M. Salzano Hoboken: Wiley
           Blackwell, 2016. 254 pp, $67.00 (Cloth)
    • Authors: Douglas E. Crews
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:23.607814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23045
       
  • Associations between neighborhood food environments and deficient protein
           intake among elderly people in a metropolitan suburb: A case study in
           Kisarazu city, Japan
    • Authors: Yuri Hamamatsu; Chiho Goto, Masaru Nishitani, Riko Shimadate, Junko Ueno, Yoko Kusakari, Masahiro Umezaki
      Abstract: ObjectivesLiving in a poor food environment and its association with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake are increasingly important issues in Japan due to an increase in the elderly population.MethodsThe present study examined the relationships between neighborhood food environment and the protein and fat intakes of elderly Japanese individuals (n = 181) living in the metropolitan Tokyo suburb of Kisarazu.ResultsA logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and shopping behavior variables revealed associations between subjectively evaluated poor neighborhood food environment and deficient protein intake. However, there was no significant association between excessive fat intake and neighborhood food environments.ConclusionThe findings demonstrate that living in a poor neighborhood food environment, which is becoming increasingly prevalent in Japan and other developed countries, has the potential to result in malnutrition, or at least in a low-quality diet, in elderly populations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T04:15:20.640254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23043
       
  • American Journal Of Human Biology, Volume 29, Issue 4, July/August 2017
    • PubDate: 2017-07-16T08:41:59.759602-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22913
       
  • Economic activity and patterns of infant growth in a high altitude
           district of Peru
    • Authors: Morgan K. Hoke
      Abstract: ObjectivesChanging economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru.MethodsThe length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart. z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Growth Reference for children under 5 years of age. Comparisons were made to the reference group and between economic zones to examine the impacts of different economic activities on infant growth.ResultsFemale infants had significantly higher height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) than males (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-16T08:30:30.175709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23038
       
  • Pregnancy and immune stimulation: re-imagining the fetus as parasite to
           understand age-related immune system changes in US women
    • Authors: Anna C. Rivara; Elizabeth M. Miller
      Abstract: ObjectivesPregnancy can increase production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), an immune response more often directed towards parasite infections. An absence of parasitism makes the US population ideal to test the hypothesis that the maternal immune system recognizes a fetus as a parasite. We predict that total IgE levels are positively associated with a history of pregnancy across all ages of adult women, mirroring patterns of IgE in parasitized populations.MethodsReproductive-aged women (n = 2201) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed in a cross-sectional design using complex survey regression and multiple imputation to evaluate associations between total IgE levels, pregnancy history, and interactions between age and pregnancy.ResultsWomen with a history of pregnancy have significantly higher IgE levels and a significantly shallower slope of IgE levels across ages (P = .031).ConclusionsThis research supports the hypothesis that maternal immune systems respond to prior pregnancies as they do to macro-parasitic exposures, and may modify the expected linear declines of IgE levels in women that accompanies aging. These finding have implications for understanding the evolution of internal gestation in mammals.
      PubDate: 2017-07-16T08:30:26.579768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23041
       
  • Scaling children's waist circumference for differences in body size
    • Authors: Alan M Nevill; Michael J. Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Paul Davies, Robinson Ramirez-Velez, Gavin Sandercock
      Abstract: ObjectivesBoth waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height.MethodsUsing two culturally different samples, 1 English (10–15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14–15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a.HTb. The model was linearized using log-transformation, and multiple regression/ANCOVA to estimate the height exponents for WC controlling for age, sex, and any other categorical/population differences.ResultsIn both samples, the power-law height exponent varied systematically with age. In younger children (age 10–11 years), the exponent was approximately unity, suggesting that pre-pubertal children might be geometrically similar. In older children, the height exponent declined monotonically to 0.5 (ie, HT0.5) in 15+ year-olds, similar to the exponent observed in adults. UK children's height-adjusted WC revealed a “u” shaped curve with age that appeared to reach a minimum at peak-height velocity, different for boys and girls. Comparing the WC of two populations (UK versus Colombian 14–15-year-old children) identified that the gap in WC between the countries narrowed considerably after scaling for height.ConclusionsScaling children's WC for differences in height using allometric modeling reveals new insights into the growth and development of children's WC, findings that might well have been be overlooked if body size/height had been ignored.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:21:09.021347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23037
       
  • Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with
           high blood pressure in black South African women
    • Authors: Herculina S. Kruger; Chrisna Botha-Ravyse, Lize Havemann-Nel, Maretha Doubell, Johannes M. van Rooyen
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure.MethodsBlack women aged 29–65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured.ResultsThere was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:20:42.322344-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23042
       
  • Body size of young adult Polish college-age women born before, during, and
           after WWII
    • Authors: Grażyna Liczbińska; Zbigniew Czapla, Robert M. Malina, Janusz Piontek
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare the young adult body size of Polish female university students born before, during, and after WWII.MethodsAge, height, and weight of 492 students measured between 1956 and 1972 were accessed from the Department of Anthropology archives (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań). The sample was divided into three birth year cohorts relative to WWII: before (n = 120), during (n = 196), and after (n = 176). Birth years spanned 1935 through 1952. BMI was calculated. Body size among birth cohorts was compared with age of the student and education level of the father as covariates (ANCOVA).ResultsThe birth cohorts differed significantly in height (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T10:50:28.797138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23040
       
  • Linear and nonlinear relationships between body mass index and physical
           fitness in Brazilian children and adolescents
    • Authors: Vítor P. Lopes; Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Rossana Gómez-Campos3, Miguel de Arruda, Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol, Luis P. Rodrigues
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear and curvilinear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in children and adolescents.MethodsParticipants were 4567 (2505 girls) children aged 6–16 years. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated and adjusted for age and sex using WHO z-scores. Physical fitness was evaluated with the following tests: Yo-Yo test, standing long jump, seated 2-kg medicine ball throw, and 20-m dash. Participants were grouped into two groups according to their maturity status, estimated as years from peak height velocity. Associations were determined with linear and nonlinear quadratic regression models.ResultsThe nonlinear quadratic regression coefficient was significant for the 20-m dash among girls of both maturity status levels, and in maturity status level 1 boys; for the standing long jump among boys of both maturity status levels, and in maturity status level 1 girls. The Yo-Yo test was only significant for maturity status level 1 boys. For the medicine ball throw, the linear regression coefficient was significant for both maturity status levels in both sexes. Almost all physical fitness items were observed to have meaningfully large nonlinear relationships with BMIz, but they were not all significant due to the small sample size, especially in maturity status level 2.ConclusionThe association between BMI and physical fitness is nonlinear in the majority of its components, and those with lower and higher BMI had poorer fitness.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T23:31:14.118746-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23035
       
  • Food insecurity partially mediates associations between social
           disadvantage and body composition among older adults in india: Results
           from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)
    • Authors: Joshua M. Schrock; Heather H. McClure, J. Josh Snodgrass, Melissa A. Liebert, Karen E. Charlton, Perianayagam Arokiasamy, Nirmala Naidoo, Paul Kowal
      Abstract: ObjectiveOur objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556).MethodsAdjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We also tested whether food insecurity mediated the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition.ResultsIn adjusted models, lower household wealth [lowest quintile (Q5) vs highest quintile (Q1): odds ratio (OR) = 13.57, P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T23:31:02.956194-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23033
       
  • Analysis of admixture proportions in seven geographical regions of the
           state of Guerrero, Mexico
    • Authors: José Ángel Cahua-Pablo; Miguel Cruz, Pedro Vidal Tello-Almaguer, Luz Carmen del Alarcón-Romero, Esteban Juan Parra, Salvador Villerías-Salinas, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Vianet Argelia Tello-Flores, Abigail Méndez-Palacios, Claudia Paola Pérez-Macedonio, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro
      Abstract: ObjectiveMexico's current population structure has been defined by admixture between European, Native American, and to some extent African, groups that started in the sixteenth century. The aim of this research was to analyze the relative contributions of these continental population groups to the seven regions of the state of Guerrero, Mexico.MethodsA total of 104 ancestry informative markers were analyzed in 480 unrelated women from the seven regions of the state of Guerrero. The individual ancestry proportions were estimated using the software ADMIXMAP v3.2.ResultsThe relative Native American, European and African ancestral contributions to the whole sample were estimated to be 69%, 27%, and 1.9%, respectively. We observed significant differences in admixture proportions across the regions. The highest average Native American ancestry was found in the Montaña region and the lowest in Costa Grande. Conversely, the highest European contribution was observed in Costa Grande. The highest African contributions were observed in the regions of Costa Chica and Costa Grande.ConclusionsThe genetic structure of the population of Guerrero reflects quite well the historical processes that have occurred in this state. Native American population settlements were mainly in the regions of Montaña, Norte, and Centro, where the highest indigenous genetic contribution is observed today. European settlers came from the center of the state to regions with significant agricultural and mining activities. The highest African contributions are observed in coastal regions, in agreement with historical evidence about slave trade routes in the Americas.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T09:50:20.133665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23032
       
  • A matter of perception: Perceived socio-economic status and cortisol on
           the island of Utila, Honduras
    • Authors: Angela R. García; Michael Gurven, Aaron D. Blackwell
      Abstract: ObjectivesNumerous studies link low objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examine associations between objective and subjective SES and diurnal salivary cortisol, a primary HPA component, as well as demographic and ecological predictors associated with SES perceptions and changes in diurnal cortisol.MethodsParticipants were residents (age 18–79, n = 61) of Utila, a Honduran island where economic disparities are overt and geographically contained. Objective SES was measured as a composite of income, education, and occupation. Subjective SES was measured with a MacArthur ladder and a perceived lifestyle discrepancy (PLD) scale. Salivary cortisol was collected three times per day for two days. Questions addressing demographic, social, and household characteristics were assessed as predictors of PLD.ResultsAssessed independently, objective SES (P = .06) and PLD (P = .003) were associated with the steepness of diurnal cortisol changes, while PLD was also associated with higher cortisol area under the curve (AUC) (P = .036). Modeled together, only PLD predicted diurnal slope and AUC. PLD was associated with household sanitation, immigration status, food scarcity, objective SES, and owing money. Only access to sanitation and owing money had direct associations with cortisol that were not mediated by PLD.ConclusionsFor adults on Utila, perceptions of unmet need outweigh other social and economic status factors in predicting cortisol AUC and slope. In addition, the unmediated effects of access to sanitation and owing money on cortisol suggest that these distinct aspects of inequality are important to consider when seeking to understand how inequality can impact HPA function.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T07:34:35.098759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23031
       
  • Abdominal obesity in adolescents: Development of age-specific waist
           circumference cut-offs linked to adult IDF criteria
    • Authors: Jorge Bravo; Armando M. Raimundo, Diana A. Santos, Rafael Timón, Luís B. Sardinha
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to develop age- and sex-specific waist circumference (WC) cut-off points, linked to older adolescent and adult criteria for abdominal obesity, to be applied to children in the clinical setting.MethodsA total of 16,788 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years were assessed for WC. Smoothed age and sex-specific WC curves were obtained using Cole's LMS method.ResultsPercentiles that corresponded to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recommendations used for older adolescents and adults (16+ years old) were the 97th percentile for boys and the 87th percentile for girls. Using these cutoffs, a total of 368 boys and 1138 girls were categorized as abdominally obese, in contrast to 1654 boys and 987 girls that were identified using the current IDF pediatric criteria (90th percentile).ConclusionsWe provide age- and sex-specific cut-off points that can be used to identify abdominal obesity in adolescents. The present findings provide a tool that can be used in the clinical setting for the early detection and prevention of adult obesity. Population-specific cutoffs may be required for pediatric ages to diagnose children at risk.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T07:34:26.038459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23036
       
  • Evaluation of baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in an
           italian population according to age, sex, smoking habits, and gene
           polymorphisms
    • Authors: Alfredo Santovito; Claudio Gendusa, Piero Cervella
      Abstract: ObjectivesIncreased SCEs frequencies in human lymphocytes are an indicator of spontaneous chromosome instability and could be influenced by different exogenous and endogenous factors. In this study, we evaluated the influence of age, sex, smoking habits, and genetic polymorphisms on the background levels of SCEs in peripheral blood lymphocytes.MethodsTwo hundred-thirty healthy Italian subjects were recruited. Data about age, sex and smoking habits were recorded. Subjects were also genotyped for GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 A/G, CYP1A1 Ile/Val, CYP2C19 G/A, ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC1 Arg194ATrp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and XRCC1Arg208His gene polymorphisms.ResultsThe frequency of SCEs/cell was 5.15 ± 1.87, with females showing a significantly higher SCEs value with respect to males (5.36 ± 2.10 and 4.82 ± 1.39, respectively). Smokers showed significantly increased levels of SCEs with respect to nonsmokers (5.93 ± 1.75 and 4.70 ± 1.79, respectively) whereas no differences were observed between heavy and light smokers. Age correlated with the RI value (P = .01) but not with the SCEs frequency (P = 07), although the 31-40 age group showed a significantly lower SCEs frequency with respect to the other age groups. A significant association was also found between GSTP2C19-AA, GSTT1-null, GSTM1-null, ERCC2/XPD Gln751Gln, and XRCC1 His208His genotypes, and higher frequencies of SCEs.ConclusionWe describe the association between some phase I, phase II, and DNA-repair gene polymorphisms with increased SCEs frequencies, reinforcing the importance of genetic analysis in biomonitoring studies. Sex and age were found to be important endogenous factors that affect the level of genomic damage and the replicative capacity of cells, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T03:15:42.469935-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23034
       
  • Normative data for quantitative calcaneal ultrasound in young males and
           females
    • Authors: María Correa-Rodríguez; Emilio González-Jiménez, Pedro A. García, Blanca Rueda-Medina, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method has been recognized as an optimal screening tool for assessing bone mass status. The aim of this study was to provide standardized values for bone health status measured by the QUS technique based on age, sex, and body mass index (BMI).MethodsThe study population consisted of 1322 healthy individuals (822 females and 500 males) aged 14–25 years. Bone mass in both calcaneus was estimated with QUS to obtain Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) (dB/MHz).ResultsThe linear models revealed statistically significant differences between bone mass status of the calcaneus and age, sex, and BMI (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:10:01.449638-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23030
       
  • Adrenal maturation, nutritional status, and mucosal immunity in Bolivian
           youth
    • Authors: Carolyn R. Hodges-Simeon; Sean P. Prall, Aaron D. Blackwell, Michael Gurven, Steven J.C. Gaulin
      Abstract: ObjectivesHumans—and several other apes—exhibit a unique pattern of post-natal adrenal maturation; however, the causes and consequences of variation in adrenal development are not well understood. In this study, we examine developmental and age-related maturation of the adrenal gland (measured via dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate [DHEA-S]) for potential life-history associations with growth and mucosal immunity in a rural population of immune-challenged Bolivian juveniles and adolescents.MethodsSalivary DHEA-S, anthropometrics, and salivary mucosal immunity (secretory IgA [sIgA]) were measured in 171 males and females, aged 8-23.ResultsMales with greater energy (i.e. fat) stores showed higher DHEA-S levels. Controlling for age and energetic condition (to control for phenotypic correlation), higher DHEA-S was associated with higher mucosal immunity (sIgA) among both males and females. Higher DHEA-S levels were positively associated with growth (i.e. height and strength) in males.ConclusionsIn accordance with predictions derived from life-history theory, males with higher energy stores secrete more adrenal androgens. This suggests that adrenal maturation is costly and subject to constraints; that is, only males with sufficient reserves will invest in accelerated adrenal maturation. Further, DHEA-S appears to have a measureable influence on immunocompetence in adolescent males and females; therefore, deficits in DHEA-S may have important consequences for health and maturation during this period. Adrenal maturation is an important, but understudied component of human growth and development.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:09:56.679158-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23025
       
  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup variation of contemporary mixed South
           Americans reveals prehistoric displacements linked to
           archaeologically-derived culture history
    • Authors: Francisco Rothhammer; Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Giannina Puddu, José Capriles
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to examine South American population structure and prehistoric population displacements prior to the Spanish conquest, utilizing mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of extant mixed populations from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile.MethodRelative frequencies of four pan-American haplogroups, obtained from published databases, were analyzed to evaluate patterns of variations, population structure and possible prehistoric migration pathways.ResultsPatterns of mtDNA variation verify biogeographic drift processes and possible migratory pathways.ConclusionsWe propose an updated model of South American colonization that is fully compatible with previous studies based on autosomal, mtDNA, and Y chromosome variation and with archaeologically-derived culture history.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T04:02:44.212573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23029
       
  • Predictive validity of body fat percentage by bioimpedance compared with
           deuterium oxide dilution in Costa Rican schoolchildren
    • Authors: Juan Diego Zamora Salas; Adriana Laclé-Murray
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to verify the validity of body fat percentage (BF%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in a sample of Costa Rican schoolchildren.MethodsThe sample consisted of 52 male (mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years) and 49 female (mean age 7.5 ± 1.0 years) schoolchildren. Deuterium oxide dilution was the reference method used as the “gold standard” to determine the fat mass (FM) expressed as BF%. Linear regression analyses and paired sample t-tests were used to test the association and mean differences between BIA and deuterium oxide dilution BF%. Concordance between BIA and deuterium oxide dilution BF% was determined by Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Measurement of agreement between the two methods was analyzed using the Bland-Altman procedure.ResultsSignificant associations between BIA and deuterium oxide dilution BF% were found in males (R = 0.97, R2 = 0.95, P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T11:35:19.920988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23028
       
  • Blood pressure and psychological distress among North Africans in France:
           The role of perceived personal/group discrimination and gender
    • Authors: Florence Loose; Marie Tiboulet, Christelle Maisonneuve, Anne Taillandier-Schmitt, Michael Dambrun
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and (physical and mental) health indicators among North African women and men living in France.MethodsThis study included 82 North Africans, aged 18–64 years. Perceived discrimination was measured at both group level (PGD) and personal level (PPD). The physical health indicator was blood pressure. The mental health indicator was self-reported psychological distress.ResultsMultiple regression analyses showed that higher levels of PGD predicted higher blood pressure. PPD was not related to blood pressure. PPD was positively related to psychological distress among women, but not among men.ConclusionPPD and PGD are associated with physical and mental health indicators in different ways among North African women and men in France.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T05:20:24.480964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23026
       
  • Interindividual differences in embodied marginalization: Osteological and
           stable isotope analyses of antebellum enslaved individuals
    • Authors: Sophia C. Dent
      Abstract: ObjectivesThrough pathological and stable isotope analyses, this study probes the stressors, disease ecology, and diets of enslaved individuals from an antebellum plantation cemetery. The study aims to highlight how interindividual isotopic differences reveal that marginalization is not uniformly experienced or embodied.MethodsThe cemetery population consists of 16 individuals; dental and skeletal pathological indicators were collected for all individuals, and light stable isotope ratios (δ15N, δ13C) were generated from the collagen and hydroxyapatite of nine individuals.ResultsThe analyzed individuals have high frequencies of enamel defects—similar to contemporaneous enslaved cemetery individuals—and particularly high frequencies of carious lesions. Skeletal analysis shows evidence of chronic conditions among several individuals, two of whom likely have tuberculosis. Although the sample size is small, stable isotope values display interesting trends: there is interindividual heterogeneity in δ13C values, and most subadults from the cemetery have lower δ15N and higher δ13C values than the sampled adults. These relationships can be tested with larger datasets and have the potential to reveal important information about slave foodways and the broader experience of enslavement.ConclusionsThe results of this study suggest that racial discrimination, enslavement, and age do not fully account for the heterogeneity in degree of embodied stressors. There are likely other factors at play, intersecting with the aforementioned, that influenced the lived experience of slavery and the degree of marginalization.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T09:40:20.904829-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23021
       
  • In memoriam: Derek F. Roberts (1925–2016)
    • Authors: C. G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:36.748589-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23027
       
  • Waist-to-height ratio and its association with TV viewing in a sample of
           Portuguese children aged 7–9 years
    • Authors: Aristides M. Machado-Rodrigues; João Valente-dos-Santos, Romulo Fernandes, Augusta Gama, Isabel Mourao, Helena Nogueira, Vitor Marques, Cristina Padez
      Abstract: IntroductionDuring the past decades, increased TV viewing and reduced physical activity (PA) levels may have contributed to the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity. This study aimed to analyze the association between TV viewing and central adiposity risk in Portuguese children.MethodsThe sample comprised 3987 children (1997 girls and 1990 boys) aged 7–9 years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated as the ratio of waist/height with a cut-off of 0.5 used to define risk of abdominal obesity. WHtR does not depend on sex- or age-specific reference criteria. TV viewing and PA were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions were used, with adjustments for age, PA, and parental education.ResultsThis study revealed a positive significant association between central adiposity risk and sedentary behaviors in Portuguese boys. In addition, the final model showed an important inverse association between PA and the risk of abdominal obesity in both boys and girls (males: β = −0.01 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.00; females: β = −0.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00).ConclusionFindings revealed that associations between TV viewing and obesity risk could be highly influenced by socioeconomic factors. Future research should extend a similar design to children in other geographic contexts, and incorporate other behavioral variables in the statistical models, to confirm or not some of the aforementioned findings.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T04:31:08.541754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23024
       
  • GIVE A MAN A FISH: REFLECTIONS ON THE NEW POLITICS OF DISTRIBUTION James
           Ferguson Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 2015. 280 pp. $24.93
           (paperback), $13.99 (e-book)
    • Authors: Craig Hadley; Tatenda Mangurenje, Anna Grace Tribble
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T04:31:07.056024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23020
       
  • Introduction: Humans in marginal environments: Adaptation among living and
           ancient peoples
    • Authors: Elizabeth Berger; Sara L. Juengst
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:01:24.217037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23022
       
  • Maternal-infant interaction as an influence on infant adiposity
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Holdsworth; Lawrence M. Schell
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this research is to identify whether specific aspects of the early life psychosocial environment such as quality of home and maternal-infant interaction are associated with increased infant adiposity, in a disadvantaged population in the United States.MethodsData on 121 mother-infant pairs from the Albany Pregnancy and Infancy Lead Study were analyzed using three multiple linear regression models with subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), and weight z-scores at 12 months of age as outcome variables. Maternal-infant interaction was indexed by the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scales (NCATS) and home environment quality was indexed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME).ResultsIn models including infant birth weight, cigarette use in second trimester, infant caloric intake at 9–12 months, size at birth for gestational age, infant sex, and mother's prepregnancy BMI, specific subscales of NCATs predicted infant adiposity z-scores. Poorer mother's response to infant distress was associated with greater SST (β = −0.20, P = .02), TST (β = −0.19, P = .04), and weight (β = −0.14, P = .05). Better maternal sensitivity to infant cues was associated with larger SST (β = 0.25, P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-11T10:20:21.708585-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23023
       
  • COSTLY AND CUTE: HELPLESS INFANTS AND HUMAN EVOLUTION Edited by Wenda R.
           Trevathan Karen R. Rosenberg AlbuquerqueUniversity of New Mexico Press.
           2016. 328 pp. $49.95 (paperback)
    • Authors: Michelle A. Rodrigues; Kathryn B.H. Clancy
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T04:00:41.841925-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23019
       
  • Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as markers of dietary variation
           among sociocultural subgroups of Inuit in Greenland
    • Authors: Peter Bjerregaard; Christina V. L. Larsen, Inger K. Dahl-Petersen, Bjørn Buchardt
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups.MethodsAs a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland during 2005–2010, we analyzed the isotope composition of toenails from 1025 adult Inuit and meat of common species hunted for food. Information on diet and sociocultural variables was collected by interviews.ResultsWeighted by sex and place of residence to the total population of Inuit in Greenland, the average δ13C value in toenails was −20.2‰ and the δ15N value was 12.0‰ which are higher than in a general Danish omnivorous population. Both isotopes were significantly associated with other biomarkers of marine food and with results of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The percentage of marine food in the diet was estimated at 21% from the mean δ13C value, 25% from the mean δ15N value, and 23% from the FFQ.ConclusionNail samples for analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were convenient to collect during a large population health survey among the Inuit. Isotope enrichment levels showed statistically significant associations with other biomarkers for consumption of marine food and with results of an FFQ and were used to estimate the percentage of marine food in the diet. Isotope levels were significantly associated with a novel score of sociocultural transition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T02:15:36.05569-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23018
       
  • Association between T102C 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism and 5-year
           mortality risk among Brazilian Amazon riparian elderly population
    • Authors: Tális O. Silva; Ivo Jung, Alexis Trott, Cláudia G. Bica, Jeferson N. Casarin, Paola C. Fortuna, Euler E. Ribeiro, Fernanda D. de Assis, Guilherme C. Figueira, Fernanda Barbisan, Maria Fernanda Manica-Cattani, Beatriz S. R. Bonadiman, Lucien J. Houenou, Pedro Antônio S. do Prado-Lima, Ivana B. M. da Cruz
      Abstract: ObjectiveSerotonin (5-HT) is a pleiotropic molecule that exerts several functions on brain and peripheral tissues via different receptors. The gene for the 5-HT2A receptor shows some variations, including a T102C polymorphism, that have been associated with increased risk of neuropsychiatric and vascular disorders. However, the potential impact of 5-HT2A imbalance caused by genetic variations on the human lifespan has not yet been established.MethodsWe performed a prospective study involving an Amazon riparian elderly free-living population in Maués City, Brazil, with a 5-year follow-up. Out of a cohort of 637 subjects selected in July, 2009, we genotyped 471 individuals, including 209 males (44.4%) and 262 females (55.6%), all averaging 72.3 ± 7.8 years of age (ranging from 60 to 100 years).ResultsThe T102C-SNP genotypic frequencies were 14.0% TT, 28.0% CC, and 58.0% CT. From 80 elderly individuals who died during the period investigated, we observed significantly (P = .005) higher numbers of TT carriers (27.3%) and CC carriers (21.2%), compared to heterozygous CT carriers (12.5%). Cox-regression analysis showed that association between the T102C-SNP and elderly survival was independent of age, sex, and other health variables.ConclusionsOur findings strongly suggest that imbalance in 5-HT2A may cause significant disturbances that lead to an increased susceptibility to death for individuals who are over 60 years of age.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:46.591075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23016
       
  • An assessment of postcranial indices, ratios, and body mass versus
           eco-geographical variables of prehistoric Jomon, Yayoi agriculturalists,
           and Kumejima Islanders of Japan
    • Authors: Noriko Seguchi; Conrad B. Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000–2500 BP), the Yayoi agriculturalists (2500–1700 BP) of Japan, and the Kumejima Islanders of the Ryukyus (1600–1800 AD) with 11 geographically diverse skeletal postcranial samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America using brachial-crural indices, femur head-breadth-to-femur length ratio, femur head-breadth-to-lower-limb-length ratio, and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that variation in limb proportions seen in Jomon, Yayoi, and Kumejima is a complex interaction of genetic adaptation; development and allometric constraints; selection, gene flow and genetic drift with changing cultural factors (i.e., nutrition) and climate.MethodsThe skeletal data (1127 individuals) were subjected to principle components analysis, Manly's permutation multiple regression tests, and Relethford-Blangero analysis.ResultsThe results of Manly's tests indicate that body proportions and body mass are significantly correlated with latitude, and minimum and maximum temperatures while limb proportions were not significantly correlated with these climatic variables. Principal components plots separated “climatic zones:” tropical, temperate, and arctic populations. The indigenous Jomon showed cold-adapted body proportions and warm-adapted limb proportions. Kumejima showed cold-adapted body proportions and limbs. The Yayoi adhered to the Allen-Bergmann expectation of cold-adapted body and limb proportions. Relethford-Blangero analysis showed that Kumejima experienced gene flow indicated by high observed variances while Jomon experienced genetic drift indicated by low observed variances.ConclusionsThe complex interaction of evolutionary forces and development/nutritional constraints are implicated in the mismatch of limb and body proportions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:44.261339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23015
       
  • Feminization of the fat distribution pattern of children and adolescents
           in a recent German population
    • Authors: Christiane Scheffler; Melanie Dammhahn
      Abstract: ObjectivesDuring the early 1990s, the economic and political situation in eastern Germany changed overnight. Here, we use the rare chance of an experiment-like setting in humans and aim to test whether the rapid change of environmental conditions in eastern Germany in the 1990s led to a change in the sex-specific fat distribution pattern, an endocrine-influenced phenotypic marker.MethodsBased on a cross-sectional data set of 6- to 18-year-old girls and boys measured between 1982–1991 and 1997–2012, we calculated a skinfold ratio of triceps to subscapular and percentage of body fat. Using linear regressions, we tested for differences in percentage of body fat and skinfold ratio between these two time periods.ResultsWe found that the percentage of body fat increased in boys and girls, and they accumulated relatively more fat on extremities than on the trunk in all BMI groups measured after 1997 as compared to those measured between 1982 and 1991.ConclusionsConcurrent with drastic and rapid changes of environmental conditions, the body fat distribution of children and adolescents changed to a more feminized pattern during the early 1990s in an East German population. The changes in this endocrinologically mediated pattern might be associated with the increased exposure of individuals to endocrine-disrupting chemicals which are known to influence the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems in animals and humans.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:30.315177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23017
       
  • Body fat attenuates muscle mass catabolism among physically active humans
           in temperate and cold high altitude environments
    • Authors: Cara J. Ocobock
      Abstract: ObjectiveTypical diet plans are based on an individual's body mass; however, body composition may be important to consider when an individual is in a negative energy balance. This study examines if high initial body fat and dietary macronutrient content reduce muscle mass catabolism during excursions in temperate and cold high altitude environments.MethodsSubjects—53 healthy, un-acclimated volunteers (37 males and 16 females)—took part in 12-16 week-long outdoor education courses in moderately high altitude temperate and cold climates in the western United States. Body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured before and after each excursion. Total energy expenditure and dietary intake were also measured.ResultsIn temperate and cold environments, both sexes lost significant amounts of body mass. In temperate climates both sexes lost a significant amount of fat mass, but not muscle mass. In cold climates, there was no significant change in fat mass for either sex; however, females gained muscle mass while males lost muscle mass. In both climates subjects with lower initial body fat percentages lost significantly more muscle mass than subjects with higher initial body fat percentages. There was no significant relationship between macronutrient intake and muscle mass loss for either sex.ConclusionThese results suggests that during a negative energy balance dietary macronutrient content cannot abate the loss of muscle mass, but body fat may have a protective effect. This information should be used to improve individualized diets based on body composition, not body mass.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T07:15:43.217568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23013
       
  • Body frame size in school children is related to the amount of adipose
           tissue in different depots but not to adipose distribution
    • Authors: Francisco J. Guzmán-de la Garza; Alejandra E. González Ayala, Marisol Gómez Nava, Leislie I. Martínez Monsiváis, Ana M. Salinas Martínez, Erik Ramírez López, Alvaro Mathiew Quirós, Francisco Garcia Quintanilla
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body frame size is related to the amount of fat in different adipose tissue depots and to fat distribution in schoolchildren.MethodsChildren aged between 5 and 10 years were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 565). Body frame size, adiposity markers (anthropometric, skinfolds thickness, and ultrasound measures), and fat distribution indices were analyzed. Correlation coefficients adjusted by reliability were estimated and analyzed by sex; the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients was assessed using the Fisher z-transformation.ResultsThe sample included primarily urban children; 58.6% were normal weight, 16.1% overweight, 19.6% obese, and the rest were underweight. Markers of subcutaneous adiposity, fat mass and fat-free mass, and preperitoneal adiposity showed higher and significant correlations with the sum of the biacromial + bitrochanteric diameter than with the elbow diameter, regardless of sex. The fat distribution conicity index presented significant but weak correlations; and visceral adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis, and the waist-for-hip ratio were not significantly correlated with body frame size measures.ConclusionsBody frame size in school children was related to the amount of adipose tissue in different depots, but not adipose distribution. More studies are needed to confirm this relationship and its importance to predict changes in visceral fat deposition during growth.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T23:54:47.899064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23014
       
  • Identifying signatures of positive selection in pigmentation genes in two
           South Asian populations
    • Authors: Manjari Jonnalagadda; Neeraj Bharti, Yatish Patil, Shantanu Ozarkar, Sunitha Manjari K, Rajendra Joshi, Heather Norton
      Abstract: ObjectivesSkin pigmentation is a polygenic trait showing wide phenotypic variations among global populations. While numerous pigmentation genes have been identified to be under positive selection among European and East populations, genes contributing to phenotypic variation in skin pigmentation within and among South Asian populations are still poorly understood. The present study uses data from the Phase 3 of the 1000 genomes project focusing on two South Asian populations—GIH (Gujarati Indian from Houston, Texas) and ITU (Indian Telugu from UK), so as to decode the genetic architecture involved in adaptation to ultraviolet radiation in South Asian populations.MethodsStatistical tests included were (1) tests to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima's D, Fay and Wu's H and Fu and Li's D* and F*), (2) tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb), and (3) tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL).ResultsTwenty-two pigmentation genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the GIH population, 5 of which (LYST, OCA2, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, and TYR) have been previously associated with normal variation in skin, hair, or eye color. In comparison, 17 genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the ITU population. Twelve loci which are identified as outliers in the ITU scan were also identified in the GIH population.ConclusionsThese results suggest that selection may have affected these loci broadly across the region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:51:51.691791-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23012
       
  • VDR gene methylation as a molecular adaption to light exposure: Historic,
           recent and genetic influences
    • Authors: Emma L Beckett; Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G. Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects.MethodsEighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP.ResultsPhotoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r2 = 0.17; P = .001). Within this model, photoperiod at conception and plasma 25(OH)D independently predicted methylation density at the VDR-CpG island. Recent UV exposure at 305 nm led to a fivefold increase in mean methylation density (P = .02). Again, UV exposure and plasma 25(OH)D independently predicted methylation density at the VDR-CpG island. In the presence of the BsmI mutant allele, methylation density was increased (P = .01), and in the presence of the TaqI or FokI mutant allele, methylation density was decreased (P = .007 and .04 respectively). Multivariate modelling suggests plasma 25(OH)D, photoperiod at conception, recent solar irradiance, and VDR genotype combine as independent predictors of methylation at the VDR-CpG island, explaining 34% of the variance in methylation (R2 = 0.34, P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T01:35:39.160799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23010
       
  • Conditional random slope: A new approach for estimating individual child
           growth velocity in epidemiological research
    • Authors: Michael Leung; Diego G. Bassani, Amy Racine-Poon, Anna Goldenberg, Syed Asad Ali, Gagandeep Kang, Prasanna S. Premkumar, Daniel E. Roth
      Abstract: ObjectivesConditioning child growth measures on baseline accounts for regression to the mean (RTM). Here, we present the “conditional random slope” (CRS) model, based on a linear-mixed effects model that incorporates a baseline-time interaction term that can accommodate multiple data points for a child while also directly accounting for RTM.MethodsIn two birth cohorts, we applied five approaches to estimate child growth velocities from 0 to 12 months to assess the effect of increasing data density (number of measures per child) on the magnitude of RTM of unconditional estimates, and the correlation and concordance between the CRS and four alternative metrics. Further, we demonstrated the differential effect of the choice of velocity metric on the magnitude of the association between infant growth and stunting at 2 years.ResultsRTM was minimally attenuated by increasing data density for unconditional growth modeling approaches. CRS and classical conditional models gave nearly identical estimates with two measures per child. Compared to the CRS estimates, unconditional metrics had moderate correlation (r = 0.65–0.91), but poor agreement in the classification of infants with relatively slow growth (kappa = 0.38–0.78). Estimates of the velocity-stunting association were the same for CRS and classical conditional models but differed substantially between conditional versus unconditional metrics.ConclusionThe CRS can leverage the flexibility of linear mixed models while addressing RTM in longitudinal analyses.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:22:04.303837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23009
       
  • Maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy among young women in Cebu,
           Philippines
    • Authors: Ruby L. Fried; Nanette L. Mayol, Thom W. McDade, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesEvidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines.MethodsFasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines). Cross-sectional relationships between metabolites and hormones and gestational and lactational status were evaluated. Among the subset of currently pregnant women, associations between maternal glucose and triglycerides and offspring BW were also examined.ResultsWomen in their second and third trimesters had significantly lower fasting glucose and adiponectin compared to nulliparous women, and leptin levels and triglyceride levels were notably higher late in pregnancy (all P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:17:47.24787-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23011
       
  • Secular change in adult stature associated with modernization in Vanuatu
    • Authors: Kathryn M. Olszowy; Cheng Sun, Harold Silverman, Alysa Pomer, Kelsey N. Dancause, Chim W. Chan, Gwang Lee, Len Tarivonda, Akira Kaneko, Charles Weitz, J. Koji Lum, Ralph M. Garruto
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo determine whether: (1) there is a secular increase in adult stature in Vanuatu, and (2) whether adult stature is positively associated with modernization in Vanuatu.MethodsThis study reports on stature measurements collected on 650 adult (age > 17 years) men and women from four islands of varying economic development in Vanuatu. Measurements were collected as part of the Vanuatu Health Transitions Research Project in 2007 and 2011.ResultsStature increased significantly in adults born between the 1940s and 1960s in Vanuatu, before leveling off in those born between the 1970s and 1990s. Adults are significantly taller on Efate, the most modernized island in the study sample, than on the less economically developed islands.ConclusionsModernization is likely associated with improvements in child growth in Vanuatu, as assessed by gains in adult stature.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14T05:00:23.507016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23008
       
  • Bioarchaeological profile of stress and dental disease among ancient high
           altitude Himalayan communities of Nepal
    • Authors: Jacqueline T. Eng; Mark Aldenderfer
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examines biological indicators of dental disease and nonspecific stress in human remains of three high altitude Himalayan archaeological sites to test whether shared ecological constraints led to similar bioarchaeological profiles in these markers.MethodsSamples (n = 170) derive from three sites in Nepal dating to two periods (400–50 BCE and c. 400–650 CE). Dental diseases (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and abscesses) were assessed by both the number of individuals and the number of elements observed, while childhood stress markers included observation of growth disruptions (enamel hypoplasia and adult femur length/stature) and cranial porosities. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for categorical data and ANOVA and t-tests for metric data.ResultsThere are significant differences between the sites and sexes in frequencies of dental diseases in the adult samples. There are low frequencies of childhood stress markers overall and the femur length data show no significant differences across sites, but significant sexual dimorphism within each site. Females have reduced stature compared to contemporary Tibetan samples residing at a similar elevation.ConclusionsVariations in dental disease frequencies between the sites may be due to local variations in microenvironment, cultural, and/or temporal differences in resource availability, food consumption and preparation, as well as the age structure of the samples. The low frequencies of markers for nonspecific stress may be indicative of the ability of these ancient Himalayan groups to successfully meet the challenges posed by the extreme conditions of high altitude living through biocultural adaptations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T10:46:00.986969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22998
       
  • Lower face asymmetry as a marker for developmental instability
    • Authors: Philippe P. Hujoel; Erin E. Masterson, A-M Bollen
      Abstract: ObjectivesFluctuating asymmetries in the craniofacial skeleton have been shown to be predictive for mortality from degenerative diseases. We investigate whether lower face asymmetries are a potential marker for the developmental origins of health and disease.MethodsThe lower face of a representative sample of 6654 12- to 17-year old United States (US) adolescents (1966-1970, National Health Examination Survey III) was classified as asymmetric when the mandibular teeth occluded prognathically (forward) or retrognathically (backward) on one side of the face only. It was investigated whether these lower face asymmetries were directional (preferentially to the left or the right) or fluctuating (random left-right distribution) in the US population.ResultsLower face asymmetries affected 1 in 4 of the US adolescents. Unilateral retrognathic dental occlusions were fluctuating asymmetries, had a US prevalence of 17.0% (95% confidence interval: 15.5-18.4) and were associated with race/ethnicity (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T05:36:16.206201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23005
       
  • Change in postmenarche anthropometric indicators in indigenous and
           nonindigenous adolescents from Chile
    • Authors: Macarena Lara; Patricia Bustos, Hugo Amigo
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo analyze the change in anthropometric indicators between menarche and 36 months after menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents from the Araucanía Region of Chile.MethodThis was a concurrent cohort study. Of 8,504 girls interviewed, 114 indigenous adolescents and 123 nonindigenous adolescents who had recently experienced menarche were selected. Body mass index (BMI), BMI by age (BMI z-score), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%) were evaluated at menarche and 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months postmenarche. Linear models estimated with generalized estimating equations were used to quantify disparities adjusted for baseline anthropometric values, age at menarche, place of residence, and socioeconomic level.ResultsIndigenous girls presented menarche 4 months later than nonindigenous girls and had significantly higher BMI (1.5 kg/m2), BMI z-score (0.4), WC (2.9 cm), and BF% (1.7%) at menarche. Adjusted results did not show an association between being indigenous and post-menarche anthropometric variables: BMI = 0.1 kg/m2 (CI = −0.3; 0.5), BMI z-score = 0 (CI = −0.1; 0.1), WC = 0.7 cm (CI = −0.6; 2.0), and BF% = 0.5% (CI = −0.2; 1.3). It is important to mention that the mean BMI z-score of both groups were in the overweight category.ConclusionAt menarche, indigenous girls had higher values than nonindigenous girls for all anthropometric variables, and this trend remained after menarche, with no further change in ethnic disparity over the subsequent three years. This reinforces the need to implement interventions to prevent or control excess weight prior to menarche, with emphasis on indigenous girls.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:10:46.388123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23006
       
  • What is significant about a single nursing session' An exploratory
           study
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Miller
      Abstract: ObjectivesResearchers and clinicians specializing in breastfeeding often rely on measuring one nursing session to characterize the breastfeeding relationship. However, less is known about the descriptive or statistically predictive characteristics of one nursing session. The purposes of this study are twofold: (1) to explore the relationships between variables in a single nursing session; and (2) to study the association between variables in a single nursing session and infant length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ).MethodsIn 63 nursing mother-infant pairs in the United States, anthropometric measurement and observation of a single nursing session revealed six nursing session variables: fore milk fat percent, hind milk fat percent, infant milk intake, duration of session, time since last session, and time of day of session.ResultsA principle factor analysis, undertaken to explore latent variables underlying the six session variables, revealed two factors: (1) loaded highly on fore and hind milk fat percentage, reflecting the overall fat percent in a feed; and (2) loaded highly on milk intake and hind milk fat percentage, indicating the process of breast emptying. In multivariate analyses of all session variables on infant LAZ and WAZ, only hind milk fat percentage was significantly negatively associated with LAZ (β = −0.14, P = .01 (two-tailed), R2 = 0.070), confirmed by a significant negative association between LAZ and factor one (β = −0.32, P = .05 (two-tailed), R2 = 0.090).ConclusionsThis research describes the dynamics of a single nursing session, and has the potential to help explain variation in infant growth and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:10:35.246819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23004
       
  • The ecology of population dispersal: Modeling alternative basin-plateau
           foraging strategies to explain the Numic expansion
    • Authors: Kate E. Magargal; Ashley K. Parker, Kenneth Blake Vernon, Will Rath, Brian F. Codding
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe expansion of Numic speaking populations into the Great Basin required individuals to adapt to a relatively unproductive landscape. Researchers have proposed numerous social and subsistence strategies to explain how and why these settlers were able to replace any established populations, including private property and intensive plant processing. Here we evaluate these hypotheses and propose a new strategy involving the use of landscape fire to increase resource encounter rates.MethodsImplementing a novel, spatially explicit, multi-scalar prey choice model, we examine how individual decisions approximating each alternative strategy (private property, anthropogenic fire, and intensive plant processing) would aggregate at the patch and band level to confer an overall benefit to this colonizing population. Analysis relies on experimental data reporting resource profitability and abundance, ecological data on the historic distribution of vegetation patches, and ethnohistoric data on the distribution of Numic bands.ResultsModel results show that while resource privatization and landscape fires produce a substantial advantage, intensified plant processing garners the greatest benefit. The relative benefits of alternative strategies vary significantly across ecological patches resulting in variation across ethnographic band ranges. Combined, a Numic strategy including all three alternatives would substantially increase subsistence yields.ConclusionsThe application of a strategy set that includes landscape fire, privatization and intensified processing of seeds and nuts, explains why the Numa were able to outcompete local populations. This approach provides a framework to help explain how individual decisions can result in such population replacement events throughout human history.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:56:12.10212-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23000
       
  • A call for action: Why anthropologists can (and should) join the
           discussion on climate change through education
    • Authors: Lauren N. Butaric; Lydia E. O. Light, Sara L. Juengst
      Abstract: Anthropologists, human biologists, and researchers in related fields have been investigating the human-environment interaction and its effects on health for decades. While there have been numerous studies from the medical- and health-sectors pointing to the connection between climate change and health needs, as well as studies advocating for the incorporation of appropriate curricula addressing these needs in medical schools and health-professional programs, this connection is not being systematically taught to our future healthcare professionals. Here, we first briefly summarize research highlighting the interaction between environment and health; we follow this with discussion about why this interaction is important for current and future medical professionals to understand, particularly in light of the current issues of climate change. We specifically address how anthropologists and human biologists have contributed to the literature on marginal environments and climate change, and how anthropological research may be incorporated in health-oriented and medical classrooms to aid in this discussion. Through interdisciplinary collaboration between anthropologists, human biologists, medical-health professionals, and researchers in other fields, we can learn from our past and play a part in piecing together our future health care issues and needs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T04:00:22.971581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23002
       
  • 2D:4D digit ratio is associated with cognitive decline but not frailty in
           community-dwelling older adults
    • Authors: Celina Gonçalves; Tiago Coelho, Sérgio Machado, Nuno Barbosa Rocha
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo understand the relation between 2D:4D ratio, frailty, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly people.MethodsA total of 175 community-dwelling elderly people were included. To determine frailty, participants completed the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-FI). Cognitive functioning was determined using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). 2D and 4D finger lengths of each hand were measured using a scanner. Barthel Index, Lawton, and Brody scale were also completed for each participant to determine the level of daily living functioning.ResultsWe did not find any correlations between 2D:4D ratio and frailty measures. We found a significant correlation between 2D:4D ratio and MMSE scores in the women sampled.ConclusionsWe cannot ascertain any contribution of prenatal exposure to androgens to the frailty status of community-dwelling elderly people. We found that reduced prenatal exposure to testosterone in women may contribute to the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly women.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T04:21:05.235588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23003
       
  • The fat-but-fit paradigm within the context of cognitive function
    • Authors: Meghan K. Edwards; Paul D. Loprinzi
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo evaluate the association of the Fat-but-Fit paradigm with cognitive function in an older adult population.MethodsData from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,336 adults 60–85 yrs). Physical activity was assessed via open-ended questions asking about participation in 48 leisure-time activities over the previous 30 days. Using Metabolic Equivalent of Task calculations for each activity, participants were classified as either active or inactive. Participants were then classified into one of six groups (Normal BMI and Inactive [referent], Overweight BMI and Inactive, Obese BMI and Inactive, Normal BMI and Active, Overweight BMI and Active, Obese BMI and Active), based on their activity status and body mass index (BMI). The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was employed to assess cognitive function.ResultsCompared to those who had a normal BMI and were inactive (referent), those who had a normal BMI and were active had a 4-unit higher DSST score (β = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.0–6.9; P = 0.009); those with an overweight BMI and active had a 4.5-unit higher DSST score (β = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.3–7.6; P = 0.008); and those who had an obese BMI and active had a 3.7-unit higher DSST score (β = 3.7; 95% CI: 0.96–6.4; P = 0.01).ConclusionBeing active, regardless of weight classification (normal, overweight, or obese) was positively associated with cognitive function in this sample of older adults. This suggests that perhaps the best strategy to promote cognitive health in this population may be to encourage adequate levels of physical activity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T04:21:01.997014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23001
       
  • Heavier birth weight associated with taller height but not age at menarche
           in US women born 1991-1998
    • Authors: Megan Workman; Karina Kelly
      Abstract: ObjectivesHeavier birth weight predicts taller adult height, but it remains unknown the extent to which this additional height increment results from a faster average growth rate versus an extension of the growth period. Aiming to distinguish these effects, this study examined associations between birth weight (BW), age at menarche (an established proxy for growth duration), and near-adult height in a cohort of US young women born in the 1990s.MethodsMultiple regression evaluated age-adjusted height as an outcome of BW, age at menarche, indicators of family socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders in a sample of US teens who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2012 (N = 342). Relevant interactions were also evaluated.ResultsMean ± SD was 11.9 ± 1.2 years and 3262 ± 592 g for age at menarche and BW, respectively. BW did not predict age at menarche (β = –.01, p = .838). Girls were 1.3 cm taller per year delay in menarche (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T14:00:27.102782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22999
       
  • The second epidemiologic transition on the brink: What we can learn from
           the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century
    • Authors: Dana M. Schmidt; Lisa Sattenspiel
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions.MethodsWe examined official provincial death records (n = 65,394) and census materials from 1900 to 1939 for three rural districts (Burgeo-La Poile, Bonavista, and Twillingate) and the large city of St. John's. Life expectancies, infant mortality rates, survival curves, and proportionate mortality from communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were calculated.ResultsIn all districts, old age mortality increased while infant and childhood mortality decreased, with corresponding increases in life expectancy. Proportionate mortality from communicable causes decreased while deaths from NCDs increased. These changes occurred earlier in urban St. John's than in outlying districts, suggesting rural–urban differences played a significant role in Newfoundland's second epidemiologic transition. However, the transition was significantly delayed relative to other Western nations.ConclusionsWe suggest that observed mortality patterns were the result of complex interactions between the poor economy, malnutrition, high prevalence of tuberculosis, and limited health and social services. These factors contribute to the delayed onset of the second epidemiologic transition in Newfoundland relative to other Western nations and the earlier onset in St. John's than in rural areas.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T06:36:11.156445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22997
       
  • Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control
    • Authors: Michael E. Andrew; John M. Violanti, Ja K. Gu, Desta Fekedulegn, Shengqiao Li, Tara A. Hartley, Luenda E. Charles, Anna Mnatsakanova, Diane B. Miller, Cecil M. Burchfiel
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV).MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity.ResultsThere were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = −0.273, P = .04).ConclusionsThis study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T03:10:32.01394-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22996
       
  • Family history of cardiovascular disease and parental lifestyle behaviors
           are associated with offspring cardiovascular disease risk markers in
           childhood
    • Authors: Danilo R. Silva; André O. Werneck, Paul J. Collings, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Décio S. Barbosa, Enio R. V. Ronque, Luís B. Sardinha, Edilson S. Cyrino
      Abstract: IntroductionCardiovascular disease risk markers have become more prevalent in childhood. To provide increased understanding of the etiology of this public health issue, we investigated associations between family characteristics with cardiovascular disease risk markers in adolescents from a developing nation.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study data for fasting glucose, lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglycerides, and total cholesterol were collected from 991 adolescents aged 10–17 who were recruited from public schools in Londrina city, Southern Brazil. Family history of cardiovascular disease and parental engagement in risk behavior (alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking) were collected using a self-reported parental questionnaire. Socioeconomic status, adolescent physical activity (estimated by Baecke questionnaire), self-reported tobacco and alcohol intake, and somatic maturation (age at peak height velocity) were used as covariates. Logistic regression was used for the main analyses.ResultsIndependent of adolescent lifestyle behaviors, associations (ORadj [95% CI]) were found between: (1) paternal family history of cardiovascular disease with increased likelihood of high adolescent offspring BMI (1.53 [1.01 to 2.32]) and high triglycerides (2.93 [1.04 to 8.27]); (2) maternal family history of cardiovascular disease with heightened odds of high adolescent offspring triglycerides (2.84 [1.02 to 7.91]); (3) maternal cardiovascular disease with higher odds of high fasting glucose (2.16 [1.13 to 4.14]), and (4) maternal smoking with increased odds of high LDL-C (1.78 [1.14 to 2.79]) and high total cholesterol (1.77 [1.01 to 3.10]) in adolescent offspring.ConclusionFamily history of cardiovascular disease and maternal tobacco smoking are related to increased cardiovascular risk in adolescents, potentially independent of their own lifestyle behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T12:05:28.607768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22995
       
  • How much impact do gains in height have on shoulder breadths within
           Taiwanese families'
    • Authors: Bruce Floyd
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study investigates allometric changes in shoulder breadths relative to changes in stature arising from rapidly changing developmental circumstances within 107 Taiwanese families. It speaks to broader issues related to the extent of phenotypic plasticity of body breadths humans are capable of in response to reductions in developmental stressors.MethodsAn examination of relationships between shoulder breadth and height within individuals in each generation was followed by evaluation of patterns of difference between same-sex parent–offspring pairs in height and shoulder breadth.ResultsHeight was similarly positively correlated with shoulder breadth within fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters (P ≤ 0.002). Variance accounted for ranged from an adjusted R2 of 0.201 among fathers to 0.151 for sons, with mothers' and daughters' values being 0.187 and 0.181, respectively. Comparisons of differences within families indicate that parents who were shorter than their same-sex offspring also tended to have modestly narrower biacromial breadths (father–son pairs: adjusted R2 = 0.112; t = 2.82, P = .007; mother–daughter pairs: adjusted R2 = 0.135; t = 2.97, P = 0.005).ConclusionsTaken as a whole, results here support the view that secular changes in stature are not accompanied by similar changes in body breadths, perhaps so that responses to developmental environmental improvements do not alter thermoregulatory equilibria that reflect long-term evolutionary processes. These results indirectly constrain plausible hypotheses about how ancestors of Austronesian speakers altered their body size and shape as they voyaged to Fiji, Western Polynesia, and beyond.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T04:31:09.343071-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22991
       
  • Pubertal testis volume, age at pubertal onset, and adolescent blood
           pressure: Evidence from Hong Kong's “Children of 1997” birth cohort
    • Authors: Man Ki Kwok; Gabriel M. Leung, C. Mary Schooling
      Abstract: ObjectivesA warning from Health Canada suggests that testosterone increases blood pressure (BP). No evidence from large randomized controlled trials is available, and observational studies are confounded by ill-health lowering serum testosterone. To address the evidence gap, we assessed the association of pubertal testicular volume, as a reflection of testosterone production, with BP.MethodsWe examined whether testicular volume was associated with sex-, age-, and height-standardized BP z-score at ∼13 years in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort (n = 5195, 63% follow-up). We used age at pubertal onset, determined as the earliest age when Tanner stage II for genitalia, breast, or pubic hair, or testicular volume of 4 mL occurred, as control exposures. These exposures were expected to produce findings different from testicular volume because they are not direct measures of testosterone. They were used to ascertain specificity of exposure and to detect residual confounding.ResultsGreater testicular volume was associated with higher systolic BP by 0.03 z-score, which is equivalent to 1.40 mm Hg per standard deviation of testicular volume (95% CI 0.02–0.04), adjusted for infant characteristics, socioeconomic position, and childhood body mass index. Similarly adjusted, earlier pubertal onset was not associated with higher systolic BP z-score in boys or girls.ConclusionsGreater pubertal testicular volume is related to higher BP, consistent with a potential role of androgens in the higher BP in boys than girls that emerges during puberty. Our finding provides preliminary evidence supportive of more definitive studies to clarify the warning on testosterone from Health Canada.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T11:25:25.835982-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22993
       
  • High altitude agriculture in the Titicaca basin (800 BCE–200 CE):
           Impacts on nutrition and disease load
    • Authors: Sara L. Juengst; Dale L. Hutchinson, Sergio J. Chávez
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study investigates the biological impacts of sedentism and agriculture on humans living in the high altitude landscape of the Titicaca Basin between 800 BCE and CE 200. The transition to agriculture in other global areas resulted in increases in disease and malnutrition; the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin could have exacerbated this. Our objective is to test whether the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin created a marginal environment for early agriculturalists living there, reflected through elevated rates of malnutrition and/or disease.MethodsTo test this, we analyzed human remains excavated from seven archaeological sites on the Copacabana Peninsula for markers of diet and disease. These markers included dental caries, dental abscesses, cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal reactions, osteomyelitis, and linear enamel hypoplasia.ResultsResults showed that markers of diet did not support malnutrition or micronutrient deficiencies but instead, indicated a relatively diverse diet for all individuals. Markers of disease also did not vary significantly but were common, indicating circulation of pathogens or chronic bodily stress.ConclusionsWe interpret these results as an indication that while diets remained nutritious, investment in the landscape exposed populations to issues of sanitation and disease. The high-altitude of the Titicaca Basin did not exacerbate the biological impacts of agriculture in terms of increased malnutrition. Additionally, disease load was likely related to problems faced by many sedentary groups as opposed to unique challenges posed by high altitude. In sum, despite the high elevation, the Titicaca Basin is not truly a marginal environment for humans.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T04:15:56.690362-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22988
       
  • Shape change and obesity prevalence among male UK offshore workers after
           30 years: New insight from a 3D scanning study
    • Authors: A. D. Stewart; R. L. Ledingham, G. Furnace, H. Williams, A. M. Nevill
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn 1984, male UK offshore workers had greater overweight and obesity prevalence and fat content than the general population. Since then, body weight has increased by 19%, but, without accompanying anthropometric measures, their size increase, current obesity, and fatness prevalence remain unknown. This study therefore aimed to acquire contemporary anthropometric data, profile changes since the original survey, and assess current obesity prevalence in the male offshore workforce.MethodsA total of 588 men, recruited via quota sampling to match the workforce weight profile, underwent stature, weight, and 3D photonic scanning measurements from which anatomical girths were extracted, enabling computation of body mass index (BMI), total fat, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT).ResultsOn average, UK male offshore workers are now 8.1 y older, 3.1 cm taller, 13.9 kg heavier, and have greater girths than in 1984, which are>97% attributable to increased weight, and
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T04:15:48.87531-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22992
       
  • Nutrition and physical activity transitions in the Ecuadorian Andes:
           Differences among urban and rural-dwelling women
    • Authors: Christopher L. Melby; Fadya Orozco, Diana Ochoa, Maria Muquinche, Manuel Padro, Fabian N. Munoz
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe nutrition and physical activity transitions, characterized by increased consumption of high energy density foods and more sedentary lifestyles, are associated with increased obesity and hypertension in Ecuador. These transitions have been characterized primarily in urban areas, which may neglect variation in specific rural areas of Ecuador. Therefore we examined the extent of the differences in dietary and activity patterns, obesity prevalence, and blood pressure (BP) in urban and rural-dwelling women in the Ecuadorian central highlands.MethodsUrban-dwelling women (UW, n = 198, mean age = 44 years) from three areas of a city of 250,000 residents and rural women (RW; n = 202, mean age = 47 years) from three remote communities in the same province (Chimborazo) were randomly selected and surveyed for dietary and activity practices, BP, and anthropometrics.ResultsNinety percent of UW reported obtaining their food primarily from markets while 65% of RW women obtained their food primarily from their own cultivation. Cookies, cakes, candies, ice cream, and French fries were consumed more frequently by UW. RW reported lower consumption of beef, poultry, and chicken, as well as fruits, milk, and white rice. UW compared to RW women spent less time walking and in strenuous work activities. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) (UW = 18.7% vs RW = 9.2%) and hypertension (UW = 15.7%, RW= 3.0%) were more common in UW. Average systolic and diastolic BP was significantly higher in UW.ConclusionsThe nutrition and physical activity transitions appear more evident in urban- compared to rural-dwelling women, and are associated with more obesity and higher BP.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T07:01:57.683182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22986
       
  • Association between blood pressure and magnesium and uric acid levels in
           indigenous Argentinean children at high altitude
    • Authors: V. Hirschler; C. González, G. Maccallini, C. Molinari, L. Castano,
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo determine the association between nontraditional risk factors such as magnesium and uric acid with blood pressure (BP) in Indigenous children.MethodsA total of 263 school-aged indigenous children living at high altitude were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in November 2011. Prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension (HTN) were defined by systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90th to
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T07:00:22.189909-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22989
       
  • Measuring material wealth in low-income settings: A conceptual and how-to
           guide
    • Authors: Bonnie N. Kaiser; Daniel Hruschka, Craig Hadley
      Abstract: Although wealth is consistently found to be an important predictor of health and well-being, there remains debate as to the best way to conceptualize and operationalize wealth. In this article, we focus on the measurement of economic resources, which is one among many forms of wealth. We provide an overview of the process of measuring material wealth, including theoretical and conceptual considerations, a how-to guide based on the most common approach to measurement, and a review of important theoretical and empirical questions that remain to be resolved. Throughout, we emphasize considerations particular to the settings in which anthropologists work, and we include variations on common approaches to measuring material wealth that might be better suited to anthropologists' theoretical questions, methodological approaches, and fieldwork settings.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25T12:30:32.17234-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22987
       
  • Variations in estimates of underweight, overweight, and obesity in
           pregnant women from Argentina comparing two reference charts
    • Authors: Agustina Malpeli; María G. Ferrari, Horacio F. González
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe prevalence of low weight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity in a sample of Argentinian pregnant women using two reference charts, the Rosso and Mardones (RM) and the Calvo Chart were compared.MethodsA descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study of data from pregnant women beneficiaries of food aid programs collected in the period 2003–2010 in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed.ResultsEvaluations with the Calvo and RM charts showed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of all nutritional conditions (low weight, 22% vs. 28%; normal weight, 45% vs. 28%; overweight, 21% vs. 15%; obesity, 11% vs. 29%, respectively). Such differences were more marked in normal weight and obese pregnant women.ConclusionsChanges in prevalences as a result of replacing the RM with the Calvo Chart should be borne in mind to avoid misinterpretations about changes in the nutritional condition of pregnant women.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25T12:30:28.733019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22990
       
  • Molecular polymorphisms of the ABO locus as informative markers of
           ancestry in Central Argentina
    • Authors: María Pía Tavella; Angelina García, Maia Pauro, Darío A. Demarchi, Rodrigo Nores
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of molecular polymorphisms of the ABO gene in four population samples from the province of Córdoba, in Central Argentina, and to compare them with other worldwide populations.MethodsA total of 110 buccal swab samples from autochthonous individuals of Córdoba were typified. Molecular characterization of the allelic variants was performed by the analysis of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene using PCR-RFLP analysis. Additionally, the Native American AIM O1v542 was characterized by direct sequencing.ResultsThe four Córdoba populations did not show significant geographic structure, although the frequency of the O1v542 haplotype, detected in all the populations studied, ranged from 0.019 to 0.222. The principal component analysis based on O allele distribution showed that the populations from Córdoba clustered close to the admixed populations of Santiago and Mexico City, and at intermediate distances between European and Native American populations, while being distant from the African population.ConclusionsThe results demonstrate that the analysis of the ABO system constitutes a useful tool for the study of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of human populations, reflecting accurately the relative contribution of parental continental contribution to the gene pool of admixed populations.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T03:40:22.158155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22982
       
  • Breast shape (ptosis) as a marker of a woman's breast attractiveness and
           age: Evidence from Poland and Papua
    • Authors: Agata Groyecka; Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Michał Misiak, Maciej Karwowski, Piotr Sorokowski
      Abstract: ObjectivesA women's breast is a sex-specific and aesthetic bodily attribute. It is suggested that breast morphology signals maturity, health, and fecundity. The perception of a woman's attractiveness and age depends on various cues, such as breast size or areola pigmentation. Conducted in Poland and Papua, the current study investigated how breast attractiveness, and the further estimate of a woman's age based on her breast's appearance, is affected by the occurrence of breast ptosis (ie, sagginess, droopiness).MethodsIn the Polish sample, 57 women and 50 men (N = 107) were presented with sketches of breasts manipulated to represent different stages of ptosis based on two different breast ptosis classifications. The participants were asked to rate the breast attractiveness and age of the woman whose breasts were depicted in each sketch. In Papua, 45 men aged 20 to 75 years took part in the study, which was conducted using only one of the classifications of breast ptosis.ResultsRegardless of the classification used, the results showed that the assessed attractiveness of the breasts decreased as the estimated age increased with respect to the more ptotic breasts depicted in the sketches. The results for Papuan raters were the same as for the Polish sample.ConclusionsBreast ptosis may be yet another physical trait that affects the perception and preferences of a potential sexual partner. The consistency in ratings between Polish and Papuan raters suggests that the tendency to assess ptotic breasts with aging and a loss of attractiveness is cross-culturally universal.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T03:39:05.90163-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22981
       
  • Segmented sleep in a nonelectric, small-scale agricultural society in
           Madagascar
    • Authors: David R. Samson; Melissa B. Manus, Andrew D. Krystal, Efe Fakir, James J. Yu, Charles L. Nunn
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe studied sleep in a rural population in Madagascar to (i) characterize sleep in an equatorial small-scale agricultural population without electricity, (ii) assess whether sleep is linked to noise levels in a dense population, and (iii) examine the effects of experimentally introduced artificial light on sleep timing.MethodsUsing actigraphy, sleep–wake patterns were analyzed for both daytime napping and nighttime wakefulness in 21 participants for a sum total of 292 days. Functional linear modeling was used to characterize 24-h time-averaged circadian patterns and to investigate the effect of experimentally introduced mobile field lights on sleep timing. We also obtained the first polysomnography (PSG) recordings of sleep in a traditional population.ResultsIn every measure of sleep duration and quality, the Malagasy population experienced shorter and lower quality sleep when compared to similarly measured postindustrial values. The population slept for a total of 6.5 h per night and napped during 89% of recorded days. We observed a peak in activity after midnight for both sexes on 49% of nights, consistent with segmented sleep. Access to mobile field lights had no statistical effect on nighttime sleep timing. From PSG, we documented relatively short rapid eye movement (14%), poor sleep efficiency (66%), and high wake after sleep onset (162 min).ConclusionsSleep in this population is segmented, similar to the “first” sleep and “second” sleep reported in the historical record. Moreover, although average sleep duration and quality were lower than documented in Western populations, circadian rhythms were more stable across days.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T07:45:39.007238-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22979
       
  • Bioelectrical impedance vector reference values for assessing body
           composition in a Spanish child and adolescent population
    • Authors: M. P. Redondo-del-Río; M. A. Camina-Martín, J. M. Marugán-de-Miguelsanz, B. de-Mateo-Silleras
      Abstract: ObjectivesReference values of the bioelectrical impedance vector for the Spanish child and adolescent population are needed for assessing body composition and hydration status in this population. The aim of this study is to provide reference values of the bioelectrical impedance vector in Spanish children and adolescents aged 4-18 years from Castilla y León.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 4401 Spanish healthy children and adolescents aged 4-18 years (2265 boys and 2136 girls). Resistance and reactance were measured with a single-frequency impedance analyzer at 50 kHz (tetrapolar analysis). The values of resistance and reactance normalized by height were used to plot the bivariate 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of the population by age group. Mean impedance vectors were compared with Hotelling's T2 test for vector analysis (differences being considered significant if p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:03:07.94974-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22978
       
  • Equation-derived body fat percentage indicates metabolic abnormalities
           among normal-weight adults in a rural Chinese population
    • Authors: Xin Liu; Yaling Zhao, Qiang Li, Shaonong Dang, Hong Yan
      Abstract: ObjectivesObesity classification using body mass index (BMI) may miss subjects with elevated body fat percentage (BF%) and related metabolic risk factors. We aimed to evaluate whether BF% calculated by equations could provide more information about metabolic risks, in addition to BMI classification, in a cross-sectional rural Chinese population.MethodsA total of 2,990 men and women aged 18–80 years were included in this study. BF% was calculated using previously validated Chinese-specific equations. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Panel III criteria for Asian Americans.ResultsIn total, 33.6% men and 32.9% women were overweight/obese according to BMI classification. Among those within the normal BMI range, 25.4% men and 54.7% women were indicated as overweight or obese given their elevated BF% (men: BF% ≥ 20%; women: BF% ≥ 30%). In both men and women, compared with those with normal BMI and BF% (NBB), subjects with normal BMI but elevated BF% (NBOB) were more likely to carry abnormal serum lipid profile and to have higher risks of metabolic syndrome. The multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome were 5.45 (2.37–9.53, P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-05T12:50:33.776769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22964
       
  • Weight, gender, and depressive symptoms in South Korea
    • Authors: A. A. Brewis; S. Y. Han, C. L. SturtzSreetharan
      Abstract: ObjectivesObesity consistently predicts depression risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Body concerns are proposed as key. South Korean society is characterized by extremely high levels of explicit weight stigma, possibly the highest globally. Using cross-sectional Korean 2014 National Health Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, we test this proposition in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults (N = 5,632).MethodsDepressive symptoms (outcome variable), was based on the PHQ-9. Weight status (predictor variable), was based on direct measures of height and weight converted to BMI. Weight concern was self-reported. Mediation analyses tested how weight concern mediated the influence of weight status on depressive symptoms for women and men.ResultsCurrent weight status influenced depressive symptoms in Korean adults, but not always directly. Concerns of being “fat” mediated that relationship. The effect increased significantly as BMI increased within “normal” and overweight/obese categories for women, and in overweight/obese categories for men. Even though women classified as underweight were significantly more depressed than those in other weight categories, there was no similar mediation effect related to weight concerns.ConclusionFor South Koreans, the stress of adhering to social norms and avoiding stigma related to body weight seems to explain the relationship between higher body weight and more depressive symptoms. Women are more vulnerable overall, but men are not immune. This study demonstrates that body concerns help explain why weight predicts depression, and more broadly supports the proposition that widespread weight-related stigma is a potentially major, if unrecognized, driver of population-level health disparities.
      PubDate: 2017-02-05T12:50:32.297375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22972
       
  • Not just a fallback food: global patterns of insect consumption related to
           geography, not agriculture
    • Authors: Julie J. Lesnik
      Abstract: ObjectivesInsects as food are often viewed as fallback resources and associated with marginal environments. This study investigates the relationship between insect consumption and noncultivated landscapes as well as with other independent variables including latitude, area, population, and gross domestic product.MethodsData were obtained from online databases including the World List of Edible Insects, the World Bank, and the World Factbook.ResultsA logistic regression model found that latitude could correctly predict the presence of edible insects 80% of the time and that arable land and gross domestic product showed no effect. Spearman rank-order correlation with number of insect species found significant relationships between area and population (but not density) and per capita gross domestic product as well as latitude. Further analysis of latitude using paired Mann-Whitney tests identified a general gradient pattern in reduction of edible insects with increased latitude.ConclusionsResults suggest that insect consumption represents a dynamic human-environment interaction, whereby insects are utilized in some of the world's lushest environments as well as areas where people have had great impact on the ecosystem. The concept that insects are a fallback food is an oversimplification that is likely rooted in Western bias against this food source.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T09:30:44.748555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22976
       
  • Bioarchaeology of adaptation to a marginal environment in bronze age
           Western China
    • Authors: Elizabeth Berger; Hui Wang
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examines human adaptation to the 4000 BP climate change event, which is said to have increased the marginality of Inner Asian environments. We propose to define “marginal” environments not in relation to a specific economic activity (e.g., agriculture), but in relation to whether humans living there are physiologically stressed.MethodsThree sites in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu were studied, one from the early and two from the late Bronze Age (N = 125). The study includes three indicators of physiological stress: linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH); tibial periosteal lesions; and fertility. The early and late Bronze Age groups were compared to examine whether human physiological stress increased.ResultsThe percent of individuals with LEH declined dramatically, indicating fewer growth disruptions. Tibial periosteal reactions also changed, from mostly active to mostly healing at the time of death, indicating that frailty declined. Fertility, which is sensitive to changes in population health and resource availability, did not change significantly.ConclusionsCounter to the dominant narrative of environmental deterioration and subsistence system collapse, the Bronze Age residents of the Hexi Corridor show no skeletal evidence that they suffered from resource shortages or struggled to adapt in the fluctuating climate that pertained after the 4000 BP climate event. In fact, this study found that people suffered from less frailty and fewer growth disruptions after the unstable climate had persisted for some time. Therefore, in human biological terms, the Hexi Corridor did not become more marginal for human habitation during the Bronze Age.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T10:50:35.648259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22956
       
  • Early life infection, but not breastfeeding, predicts adult blood telomere
           lengths in the Philippines
    • Authors: Dan T. A. Eisenberg; Judith B. Borja, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesTelomeres are repetitive DNA at chromosomes ends that shorten with age due to cellular replication and oxidative stress. As telomeres shorten, this can eventually place limits on cell replication and contribute to senescence. Infections are common during early development and activate cellular immune responses that involve clonal expansion and oxidative stress. As such, a high infectious disease burden might shorten blood telomere length (BTL) and accelerate the pace of immune senescence.MethodsTo test this, BTL measured in young adults (21.7 ± 0.3 years old) from the Philippines (N = 1,759) were linked to prospectively collected early life data on infectious burden.ResultsAs predicted, increased early life diarrheal prevalence was associated with shorter adult BTL. The association was most marked for infections experienced from 6 to 12 months, which corresponds with weaning and maximal diarrheal burden. A standard deviation increase in infections at 6–12 m predicts a 45 bp decrease in BTL, equivalent to 3.3 years of adult telomeric aging in this population. Contrary to expectations, breastfeeding duration was not associated with BTL, nor did effects vary by sex.ConclusionsThese findings show that infancy diarrheal disease predicts a marker of cellular aging in adult immune cells. These findings suggest that early life infectious burden may influence late life health, or alternatively, that short TL in early life increases infectious disease susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T10:25:24.517438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22962
       
  • Trends in cardiometabolic parameters among Spanish children from 2006 to
           2010: The Cuenca study
    • Authors: Paola Arellano-Ruiz; Antonio García-Hermoso, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Fernando Salcedo-Aguilar, Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Montserrat Solera-Martinez
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the trends in cardiometabolic risk factors among schoolchildren in Cuenca, Spain, from 2006 to 2010.MethodsData were taken from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2006 and 2010 among schoolchildren aged 8–12 years from 20 public schools in the province of Cuenca. The final sample consisted of 2148 participants with measured anthropometric variables, biochemical assessment, and blood pressure.ResultsWe observed an increase in mean serum total cholesterol (8.5 mg/dL and 10.7 mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (13.7 mg/dL and 17.3 md/dL), triglycerides (3.6 mg/dL and 2.6 md/dL), fasting insulin (1.2 µU/mL and 0.3 µU/mL) and HOMA-IR (0.2 and 0.02) and a decrease in mean serum HDL-cholesterol (4.4 mg/dL and 5.7 mg/dL), systolic blood pressure (3.8 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (0.8 mmHg and 2.0 mmHg) in both sexes. In girls, mean arterial pressure (3.2 mmHg) also decreased in this period. In addition, we found an increase in the prevalence of adverse total cholesterol concentration (≥200 mg/dL) (7.8% and 8.9%), HDL-cholesterol concentration (
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T23:10:25.739124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22970
       
  • Duration of puberty in preterm girls
    • Authors: L. L. Hui; H. S. Lam, G. M. Leung, C. M. Schooling
      Abstract: ObjectivesPreterm birth is associated with altered pubertal timing, but the effect on pubertal duration has rarely been assessed. Here, we tested the hypothesis that preterm birth is associated with shorter duration of puberty among girls in Hong Kong where preterm birth has little social patterning.MethodsIn the population-representative Chinese birth cohort “Children of 1997”, we used multivariable linear regression to assess the association of preterm status (≤36 completed gestational weeks, n = 170; term birth 37–42 gestational weeks, n = 3476) with duration of puberty, adjusted for parent's highest education, mother's place of birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and mother's age of menarche.ResultsThe mean duration from thelarche to menarche was 2.53 years. Preterm girls had a shorter duration from thelarche to menarche by 2.6 months, 95% confidence interval 0.5–4.7 months. Age of menarche did not differ by preterm status but preterm girls had later thelarche. Preterm birth was not associated with a shorter duration from pubarche to menarche.ConclusionsPreterm births may be associated with shorter duration of puberty from thelarche to menarche, possibly through effects of in utero estrogen exposure, the drivers of thelarche, or the drivers of pubertal duration/progression, with potential implications for subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and hormonal cancers.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:47.284511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22963
       
  • Nutritional, inflammatory, and ecological correlates of maternal retinol
           allocation to breast milk in agro-pastoral Ariaal communities of northern
           Kenya
    • Authors: Masako Fujita; Yun-Jia Lo, Eleanor Brindle
      Abstract: ObjectivesVitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient required for a range of biological functions throughout life. VA deficiency (VAD) claims an estimated 1 million preschool children's lives annually. Human milk is enriched with VA (retinol) from the maternal blood, which originates from the hepatic reserve and dietary intake. Secreting retinol into milk will benefit the nursing infant through breast milk, but retaining retinol is also important for the maternal health. Previous studies found that the public health intervention of high-dose VA supplementation to lactating mothers did not significantly lower child mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently acknowledged that our understanding about the principle of VA allocation within the maternal system and the secretion into milk is too incomplete to devise an effective intervention.MethodsWe present a secondary analysis of data collected among lactating mothers in VAD endemic northern Kenya (n = 171), examining nutritional, inflammatory, and ecological factors that might associate with maternal retinol allocation. Regression models were applied using the outcome milk-retinol allocation index: milk retinol/(milk retinol + serum retinol).ResultsTen percent of the sample was identified as VAD. The average milk retinol concentration was 0.1 μmo/L, grossly below what is considered minimally necessary for an infant (1 μmol/L). VAD mothers and mothers with inflammation did not seem to compromise their milk retinol even though their serum retinol was lower than non-VAD and noninflammation mothers. Breast milk fat concentration positively correlated with milk retinol but not with serum retinol.ConclusionsThis exploratory study contributes toward an understanding of maternal retinol allocation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T11:30:29.54385-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22961
       
  • A comparison of skeletal maturity assessed by radiological and ultrasonic
           methods
    • Authors: Katinka Utczas; Agota Muzsnai, Noel Cameron, Annamaria Zsakai, Eva B. Bodzsar
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe estimation of skeletal maturity is a useful tool in pediatric practice to determine the degree of delay or advancement in growth disorders and the effectiveness of treatment in conditions that influence linear growth. Skeletal maturity of children is commonly assessed using either Greulich–Pyle (GP) or Tanner–Whitehouse methods (TW2 and TW3). However, a less invasive ultrasonic method, that does not use ionizing radiation, has been suggested for use in epidemiological studies of skeletal maturity. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the accuracy of an ultrasonic method based on the GP maturity indicators compared to the standard GP radiographic method.MethodsSkeletal maturity of 1502 healthy children, aged from 6 to 18 years, was estimated by quantitative ultrasound and compared to GP bone ages estimated from left hand and wrist radiographs of a subsample of 47 randomly selected participants.ResultsThe ultrasonic bone age estimation demonstrated very strong correlations with all the radiological age estimations. The correlation coefficients ranged between 0.895 and 0.958, and the strongest correlation of ultrasonic skeletal maturity estimation was found with the Tanner–Whitehouse RUS method. The ultrasonic bone age estimation is suggested for use between the chronological ages of 8.5–16.0 years in boys and 7.5–15.0 years in girls.ConclusionsThe ultrasonic bone age estimation is suggested for use in epidemiological surveys since the sensitivity for screening for not normal bone development is appropriate, at least within the 8–15 years age interval.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T11:30:21.988989-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22966
       
 
 
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