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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 262, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
  [SJR: 2.833]   [H-I: 138]   [34 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0269-2813 - ISSN (Online) 1365-2036
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Significant burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with advanced
           fibrosis in the US: a cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2014 National
           Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    • Authors: R. J. Wong; B. Liu, T. Bhuket
      Abstract: BackgroundNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in the US. Understanding the epidemiology of NAFLD, with specific focus on individuals with hepatic fibrosis is important to guide healthcare resource planning.AimTo evaluate prevalence and predictors of hepatic fibrosis among US adults with NAFLD.MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional study using data from the updated 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national, stratified, multistage sampling survey of non-institutionalised US adults age ≥ 20. METAVIR F2 or greater fibrosis among individuals with NAFLD was assessed using AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) score> 0.7. METAVIR F3 or greater fibrosis was assessed using NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS)> 0.676 and FIB-4 score> 3.25. Multivariate logistic regression models evaluated for predictors of fibrosis among individuals with NAFLD.ResultsOverall prevalence of NAFLD among US adults was 21.9% (95% CI 20.6-23.3), representing 51.6 million adults. Among individuals with NAFLD, we observed a 23.8% prevalence of ≥F2 fibrosis, representing 12.2 million individuals, and we observed a 2.3%-9.7% prevalence of ≥F3 fibrosis, representing as many as 5.0 million adults. On multivariate regression analyses, increasing age, obesity and concurrent diabetes mellitus were associated with increased risk of ≥F3 fibrosis.ConclusionsNAFLD represents a major healthcare burden among US adults with as many as 5 million adults estimated to have NAFLD with ≥F3 fibrosis. Age and the components of the metabolic syndrome are independently associated with higher risk of fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:50:42.236623-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14327
       
  • Risk factors for thiopurine-induced myelosuppression and infections in
           inflammatory bowel disease patients with a normal TPMT genotype
    • Authors: M. M. T. J. Broekman; M. J. H. Coenen, G. J. Wanten, C. J. van Marrewijk, O. H. Klungel, A. L. M. Verbeek, P. M. Hooymans, H.-J. Guchelaar, H. Scheffer, L. J. J. Derijks, D. R. Wong, D. J. Jong
      Abstract: BackgroundLeucopenia is a common side effect in patients treated with thiopurines. Variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene are the best-known risk factor, but only explain up to 25% of leucopenia cases.AimTo identify the clinical risk factors for thiopurine-induced leucopenia in patients without a common TPMT variant, and explore if these patients are at increased risk for infections.MethodsPost hoc analysis of the Thiopurine response Optimisation by Pharmacogenetic testing in Inflammatory bowel disease Clinics (TOPIC) trial. For this analysis, patients without a variant in TPMT (*2, *3A or*3C) were included. Uni- and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard models were used to identify risk factors for leucopenia and infections. Leucopenia was defined as a white blood cell (WBC) count
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:40:56.18254-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14323
       
  • Review article: next-generation transformative advances in the
           pathogenesis and management of autoimmune hepatitis
    • Authors: A. J. Czaja
      Abstract: BackgroundAdvances in autoimmune hepatitis that transform current concepts of pathogenesis and management can be anticipated as products of ongoing investigations driven by unmet clinical needs and an evolving biotechnology.AimTo describe the advances that are likely to become transformative in autoimmune hepatitis, based on the direction of current investigations.MethodsPertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms. Full-length articles were selected for review, and a secondary bibliography was developed. The discovery process was repeated, and a tertiary bibliography was identified. The number of abstracts reviewed was 2830, and the number of full-length articles reviewed exceeded 150.ResultsRisk-laden allelic variants outside the major histocompatibility complex (rs3184504, r36000782) are being identified by genome-wide association studies, and their gene products are potential therapeutic targets. Epigenetic changes associated with environmental cues can enhance the transcriptional activity of genes, and chromatin re-structuring and antagonists of noncoding molecules of ribonucleic acid are feasible interventions. The intestinal microbiome is a discovery field for microbial products and activated immune cells that may translocate to the periphery and respond to manipulation. Epidemiological studies and controlled interview-based surveys may implicate environmental and xenobiotic factors that warrant evidence-based changes in lifestyle, and site-directed molecular and cellular interventions promise to change the paradigm of treatment from one of blanket immunosuppression.ConclusionsAdvances in genetics, epigenetics, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and site-directed molecular and cellular interventions constitute the next generation of transformative advances in autoimmune hepatitis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T04:40:53.577777-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14324
       
  • Systematic review with meta-analysis: the global recurrence rate of
           Helicobacter pylori
    • Authors: Y. Hu; J.-H. Wan, X.-Y. Li, Y. Zhu, D. Y. Graham, N.-H. Lu
      Abstract: BackgroundUp-to-date information regarding the recurrence rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) after eradication therapy is not available.AimTo evaluate the global recurrence rate following H. pylori eradication therapy and confirm its association with socioeconomic and sanitary conditions.MethodsA systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library was performed to identify potentially relevant publications using the following keywords: “Helicobacter pylori” or “H. pylori” or “Hp” and “recurrence” or “recrudescence” or “reinfection” or “recurrent” or “recurred” or “re-infect*” or “relapse*.”ResultsA total of 132 studies (53 934 patient-years) were analysed. Each study was weighted according to the duration of patient-years. The global annual recurrence, reinfection and recrudescence rate of H. pylori were 4.3% (95% CI, 4-5), 3.1% (95% CI, 2-5) and 2.2% (95% CI, 1-3), respectively. The H. pylori recurrence rate was inversely related to the human development index (HDI) (ie, 3.1% [95% CI, 2-4], 6.2% [95% CI, 4-8] and 10.9% [95% CI, 6-18] in countries with a very high, high and medium or low HDI) (P
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:49:04.290758-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14319
       
  • Review article: the diagnostic approach and current management of chylous
           ascites
    • Authors: B. Lizaola; A. Bonder, H. D. Trivedi, E. B. Tapper, A. Cardenas
      Abstract: BackgroundChylous ascites is rare, accounting for less than 1% of cases. An appropriate and stepwise approach to its diagnosis and management is of key importance.AimTo review the current diagnostic approach and management of chylous ascites.MethodsA literature search was conducted using PubMed using the key words ‘chylous’, ‘ascites’, ‘cirrhosis’, ‘pathophysiology’, ‘nutritional therapy’, ‘paracentesis”, “transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt” and “TIPSS’. Only articles in English were included.ResultsChylous ascites is caused by the traumatic or obstructive disruption of the lymphatic system that leads to extravasation of thoracic or intestinal lymph into the abdominal space and the accumulation of a milky fluid rich in triglycerides. The most common causes are malignancy, cirrhosis and trauma after abdominal surgery. This condition can lead to chyle depletion, which results in nutritional, immunologic and metabolic deficiencies. An ascitic triglyceride concentration above 200 mg/dL is consistent with chylous ascites. Treatment is based on management of the underlying cause and nutritional support.ConclusionsChylous ascites is mostly due to malignancy and cirrhosis in adults, and congenital lymphatic disorders in children. Treatment with nutritional optimization and management of the underlying etiology are the cornerstones of therapy. When conservative measures fail, other interventions such as octreotide/somatostatin analogues, surgical ligation, embolization and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in patients with cirrhosis can be considered.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:47:05.094861-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14284
       
  • Systematic review with meta-analysis: breastfeeding and the risk of
           Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
    • Authors: L. Xu; P. Lochhead, Y. Ko, B. Claggett, R. W. Leong, A. N. Ananthakrishnan
      Abstract: BackgroundBreastfeeding is a modifiable factor that may influence development of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, literature on this has been inconsistent and not accounted for heterogeneity in populations and exposure.AimTo conduct a meta-analysis to examine the association between breastfeeding in infancy and risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).MethodsA systematic search of Medline/PubMed and Embase was performed for full text, English-language literature through November 2016. Studies were included if they described breastfeeding in infancy in patients with CD or UC, and healthy controls. Data were pooled using a random effects model for analysis.ResultsA total of 35 studies were included in the final analysis, comprising 7536 individuals with CD, 7353 with UC and 330 222 controls. Ever being breastfed was associated with a lower risk of CD (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.85) and UC (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.91). While this inverse association was observed in all ethnicity groups, the magnitude of protection was significantly greater among Asians (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.48) compared to Caucasians (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.93; P = .0001) in CD. Breastfeeding duration showed a dose-dependent association, with strongest decrease in risk when breastfed for at least 12 months for CD (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.50) and UC (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.10-0.43) as compared to 3 or 6 months.ConclusionBreastfeeding in infancy protects against the development of CD and ulcerative colitis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:46:11.057408-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14291
       
  • Significance of measurement of serum trough level and anti-drug antibody
           of adalimumab as personalised pharmacokinetics in patients with Crohn's
           disease: a subanalysis of the DIAMOND trial
    • Authors: H. Nakase; S. Motoya, T. Matsumoto, K. Watanabe, T. Hisamatsu, N. Yoshimura, T. Ishida, S. Kato, T. Nakagawa, M. Esaki, M. Nagahori, T. Matsui, Y. Naito, T. Kanai, Y. Suzuki, M. Nojima, M. Watanabe, T. Hibi,
      Abstract: BackgroundSignificance of monitoring adalimumab trough levels and anti-adalimumab antibodies (AAA) for disease outcome in Crohn's disease (CD) patients remained unclear.AimTo evaluate the association of adalimumab trough levels and AAA at week 26 with clinical remission at week 52, the effect of azathiopurine on AAA and factors influencing trough levels in CD patients in the DIAMOND trial.MethodsWe performed this study using adalimumab trough levels, AAA at week 26 and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) in red blood cells at week 12. A multiple regression model and receiver operating analysis was performed to identify factors influencing adalimumab trough levels and AAA, and adalimumab thresholds for predicting disease activity.ResultsThere was a significant difference of adalimumab trough level at week 26 between patients with disease remission and without at week 52 (7.7 ± 3.3 μg/mL vs 5.4 ± 4.3 μg/mL: P 222.5 p mol/8 ×108 RBCs yielded sensitivity (100%) and specificity (60.6%) for AAA negativity.ConclusionAdalimumab trough levels and AAA occurrence were significantly associated with clinical remission. Higher 6TGN affected AAA negativity. The combination therapy is beneficial in some relevant aspects for CD patients. (UMIN Registration No. 000005146)
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T03:40:24.994004-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14318
       
  • Review article: transient receptor potential channels as possible
           therapeutic targets in irritable bowel syndrome
    • Authors: A. B. Beckers; Z. Z. R. M. Weerts, Z. Helyes, A. A. M. Masclee, D. Keszthelyi
      Abstract: BackgroundAbdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains challenging to treat effectively. Researchers have attempted to elucidate visceral nociceptive processes in order to guide treatment development. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implied in the generation (TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1) and inhibition (TRPM8) of visceral pain signals. Pathological changes in their functioning have been demonstrated in inflammatory conditions, and appear to be present in IBS as well.AimTo provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on TRP channels involved in visceral nociception. In particular, we emphasise the clinical implications of these nociceptors in the treatment of IBS.MethodsEvidence to support this review was obtained from an electronic database search via PubMed using the search terms “visceral nociception,” “visceral hypersensitivity,” “irritable bowel syndrome” and “transient receptor potential channels.” After screening the abstracts the articles deemed relevant were cross-referenced for additional manuscripts.ResultsRecent studies have resulted in significant advances in our understanding of TRP channel mediated visceral nociception. The diversity of TRP channel sensitization pathways is increasingly recognised. Endogenous TRP agonists, including poly-unsaturated fatty acid metabolites and hydrogen sulphide, have been implied in augmented visceral pain generation in IBS. New potential targets for treatment development have been identified (TRPA1 and TRPV4,) and alternative means of affecting TRP channel signalling (partial antagonists, downstream targeting and RNA-based therapy) are currently being explored.ConclusionsThe improved understanding of mechanisms involved in visceral nociception provides a solid basis for the development of new treatment strategies for abdominal pain in IBS.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T03:10:44.211946-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14294
       
  • Ribavirin steady-state plasma level is a predictor of sustained
           virological response in hepatitis C–infected patients treated with
           direct-acting antivirals
    • Authors: M. Tilborg; F. I. Lieveld, E. J. Smolders, K. J. Erpecum, C. T. M. M. Kanter, R. Maan, M. Valk, J. E. Arends, A. S. M. Dofferhoff, H. Blokzijl, M. Bijmolen, J. P. H. Drenth, R. J. Knegt, D. M. Burger,
      Abstract: BackgroundIn the era of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, ribavirin (RBV) is still considered beneficial in certain patients.AimTo assess the association between RBV steady-state plasma levels and sustained virological response (SVR).MethodsConsecutive HCV-infected patients treated with DAAs plus RBV from four Dutch academic medical centres were enrolled. RBV steady-state plasma levels were prospectively measured at treatment week 8 using validated assays. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of RBV steady-state plasma level on SVR, and RBV therapeutic range was explored using area under the ROC curve analyses.ResultsA total of 183 patients were included, of whom 85% had one or more difficult-to-cure characteristics (ie treatment experienced, HCV genotype 3, cirrhosis). The majority was treated with a sofosbuvir-based regimen and 163 (89%) patients achieved SVR. Median RBV dose was 12.9 (interquartile range 11.2-14.7) mg/kg/d, and median RBV steady-state plasma level was 2.66 (1.95-3.60) mg/L. In multivariable analyses, higher RBV steady-state plasma level (adjusted odds ratio 1.79 [95% CI 1.09-2.93]) was an independent predictor of SVR. With regard to the optimal RBV therapeutic range, 2.28 mg/L was the optimal lower cut-off for achieving SVR and 3.61 mg/L was the upper cut-off for preventing significant anaemia (Haemoglobin 
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T03:31:21.111393-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14288
       
  • The body composition profile is associated with response to anti-TNF
           therapy in Crohn's disease and may offer an alternative dosing paradigm
    • Authors: N. S. Ding; G. Malietzis, P. F. C. Lung, L. Penez, W. M. Yip, S. Gabe, J. T. Jenkins, A. Hart
      Abstract: BackgroundAnti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)s form a major part of therapy in Crohn's disease and have a primary nonresponse rate of 10%-30% and a secondary loss of response rate of 5% per year. Myopenia is prevalent in Crohn's disease and is measured using body composition analysis tools.AimTo test the hypothesis that body composition can predict outcomes of anti-TNF primary nonresponse and secondary loss of response.MethodsBetween January 2007 and June 2012, 106 anti-TNF naïve patients underwent anti-TNF therapy for Crohn's disease with body composition parameters analysed using CT scans to estimate body fat-free mass. The outcome measures were primary nonresponse and secondary loss of response. COX-regression analysis was used with 3 year follow-up data.ResultsA total of 106 patients were included for analysis with 26 (24.5%) primary nonresponders and 29 (27.4%) with secondary loss of response to anti-TNF therapy. Sex-specific cut-offs for muscle and fat were ascertained by stratification analysis. On univariate analysis, primary nonresponse was associated with low albumin (OR 0.94; 0.88-0.99, P = .04) and presence of myopenia (OR 4.69; 1.83-12.01, P = .001) when taking into account patient's medical therapy, severity of disease and body composition. On multivariate analysis, presence of myopenia was associated with primary nonresponse (OR 2.93; 1.28-6.71, P = .01). Immunomodulator therapy was associated with decreased secondary loss of response (OR 0.48; 0.23-0.98, P = .04). BMI was poorly correlated with lean body mass (r2 = 0.15, P = .54).ConclusionsIn this cohort study, body composition profiles did not correlate well with BMI. Myopenia was associated with primary nonresponse with potential implications for dosing and serves as an explanation for pharmacokinetic failure.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T03:06:20.75482-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14293
       
  • Food elimination diets are effective for long-term treatment of adults
           with eosinophilic oesophagitis
    • Authors: C. C. Reed; C. Fan, N. T. Koutlas, N. J. Shaheen, E. S. Dellon
      Abstract: BackgroundLimited data describe the long-term efficacy of dietary elimination in eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE).AimTo assess the long-term outcomes of food elimination diets for treatment of adults with EoE.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study at our centre analysing all EoE patients receiving a food elimination diet without concomitant steroids. Baseline data were abstracted using standardised collection forms. Follow-up data from a mean 24.9-month period were collected for patients with a histological response to a food elimination diet during and after food reintroduction. The main outcomes were symptomatic, endoscopic and histological responses.ResultsOf 52 patients, 18 received a 6-food food elimination diet, 32 received targeted diet, and two received a 6-food food elimination diet with targeted elimination. There were 21 (40%) patients with an initial histological response. Responders reported less dysphagia after treatment (95% baseline vs 11%; P = .001) and at the end of follow-up (95% baseline vs 33%; P = .008). Significant and durable endoscopic improvements were recorded at the same time points: Endoscopic reference score: 3.2 vs 0.7; P = .001; and 3.2 vs 1.7; P = .06. Histological findings improved after the most restrictive diet in responders (49.8 vs 4.1 eosinophils per high-power field; P = .001) and remained suppressed in the 10 initial responders maintaining compliance at the end of follow-up (5.2 eosinophils per high-power field).ConclusionsAmong EoE patients responding to a food elimination diet and remaining adherent, maintenance dietary therapy produced durable long-term symptomatic, endoscopic and histological disease control. These long-term data confirm that a food elimination diet is an effective maintenance treatment option in select adults with EoE.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:40:11.154533-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14290
       
  • Systematic review with meta-analysis: the association between hepatitis E
           seroprevalence and haemodialysis
    • Authors: S. Haffar; F. Bazerbachi, M. D. Leise, J. J. Dillon, R. C. Albright, M. H. Murad, P. S. Kamath, K. D. Watt
      Abstract: BackgroundHepatitis E virus (HEV) infection appears to be more common than previously thought. HEV seroprevalence in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) is unclear with a range from 0% to 44%. In addition, risk factors of transmission of HEV in patients on haemodialysis are unknown.AimTo perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of HEV seroprevalence in HD patients compared with controls.MethodsA systematic search of several databases identified all observational studies with comparative arms. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. A random-effects model was used for pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of positive anti-HEV IgG in both groups. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed with appropriate tests.ResultsWe identified 31 studies from 17 countries between 1994 and 2016. Sixteen studies were judged to have adequate quality and 15 to have moderate limitations. HEV infection was more prevalent in patients on haemodialysis compared with controls (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.79-3.40, I2 = 75.2%, P < .01). We conducted several subgroup analyses without difference in results. Egger regression test did not suggest publication bias (P = .83). Specific risk factors of HEV transmission in patients on haemodialysis were not clearly identified.ConclusionHepatitis E virus infection is more prevalent in patients on haemodialysis compared with non-haemodialysis control groups. Further studies are needed to determine risk factors of acquisition, impact on health, and risk for chronic HEV especially among those patients going to receive organ transplantation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T06:45:44.136244-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14285
       
  • Review article: the human intestinal virome in health and disease
    • Authors: S. R. Carding; N. Davis, L. Hoyles
      Abstract: BackgroundThe human virome consists of animal-cell viruses causing transient infections, bacteriophage (phage) predators of bacteria and archaea, endogenous retroviruses and viruses causing persistent and latent infections. High-throughput, inexpensive, sensitive sequencing methods and metagenomics now make it possible to study the contribution dsDNA, ssDNA and RNA virus-like particles make to the human virome, and in particular the intestinal virome.AimTo review and evaluate the pioneering studies that have attempted to characterise the human virome and generated an increased interest in understanding how the intestinal virome might contribute to maintaining health, and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases.MethodsRelevant virome-related articles were selected for review following extensive language- and date-unrestricted, electronic searches of the literature.ResultsThe human intestinal virome is personalised and stable, and dominated by phages. It develops soon after birth in parallel with prokaryotic communities of the microbiota, becoming established during the first few years of life. By infecting specific populations of bacteria, phages can alter microbiota structure by killing host cells or altering their phenotype, enabling phages to contribute to maintaining intestinal homeostasis or microbial imbalance (dysbiosis), and the development of chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases including HIV infection and Crohn's disease, respectively.ConclusionsOur understanding of the intestinal virome is fragmented and requires standardised methods for virus isolation and sequencing to provide a more complete picture of the virome, which is key to explaining the basis of virome-disease associations, and how enteric viruses can contribute to disease aetiologies and be rationalised as targets for interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T06:26:34.194458-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14280
       
  • Temporal trends, clinical patterns and outcomes of NAFLD-related HCC in
           patients undergoing liver resection over a 20-year period
    • Authors: R. Pais; L. Fartoux, C. Goumard, O. Scatton, D. Wendum, O. Rosmorduc, V. Ratziu
      Abstract: BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. NAFLD-HCC often occurs in noncirrhotic liver raising important surveillance issues.AimTo determine the temporal trends for prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of NAFLD-HCC in patients undergoing liver resection.MethodsConsecutive patients with histologically confirmed HCC who underwent liver resection over a 20-year period (1995-2014). NAFLD was diagnosed based on past or present exposure to obesity or diabetes without other causes of chronic liver disease.ResultsA total of 323 HCC patients were included, 12% with NAFLD. From 1995-1999 to 2010-2014, the prevalence of NAFLD-HCC increased from 2.6% to 19.5%, respectively, P = .003, and followed the temporal trends in the prevalence of metabolic risk factors (28% vs 52%, P = .017), while hepatitis C-HCC decreased (from 43.6% to 19.5%, P = .003). NAFLD-HCC occurred more frequently in the absence of bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis (63% of cases, P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T02:10:30.367251-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14261
       
  • Rifaximin treatment is associated with reduced risk of cirrhotic
           complications and prolonged overall survival in patients experiencing
           hepatic encephalopathy
    • Authors: S. H. Kang; Y. B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J. Y. Nam, Y. Chang, H. Cho, J.-J. Yoo, Y. Y. Cho, E. J. Cho, S. J. Yu, M. Y. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. K. Baik, J.-H. Yoon
      Abstract: BackgroundRifaximin might decrease the risk of portal hypertension-related complications by controlling small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.AimTo evaluate whether rifaximin was associated with the risk of death and cirrhotic complications.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective study that included 1042 patients experiencing hepatic encephalopathy (HE): 421 patients without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; the non-HCC cohort) and 621 patients with HCC (the HCC cohort). The primary endpoint was overall survival and secondary endpoints were recurrence of HE and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) and variceal bleeding.ResultsIn the non-HCC cohort, 145 patients received rifaximin plus lactulose (the rifaximin group) and 276 patients received lactulose alone (the control group). The multivariate analysis revealed that rifaximin was significantly associated with lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.697; P = .024) and reduced the risk of recurrent HE (aHR, 0.452; P < .001), SBP (aHR, 0.210; P < .001) and variceal bleeding (aHR, 0.425; P = .011) but not HRS (aHR, 0.598; P = .08). In the HCC cohort, 173 patients received rifaximin plus lactulose and 448 patients received lactulose. Rifaximin was not associated with the risk of death (aHR, 1.177; P = .121). Rifaximin was associated with lower risk of SBP (aHR, 0.323; P < .001) but not with variceal bleeding (aHR, 0.660; P = .104) or recurrent HE (aHR, 0.689; P = .057). The risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea was not different between the groups (aHR, 0.028; P = .338).ConclusionsIn patients without HCC, rifaximin treatment was significantly associated with prolonged overall survival and reduced risks of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, variceal bleeding and recurrent hepatic encephalopathy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T06:25:26.686544-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14275
       
  • Systematic review: cost-effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals for
           treatment of hepatitis C genotypes 2-6
    • Authors: T. He; M. A. Lopez-Olivo, C. Hur, J. Chhatwal
      Abstract: BackgroundThe availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically changed the landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy; however, the cost and budget requirements for DAA treatment have been widely debated.AimsTo systematically review published studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of DAAs for HCV genotype 2-6 infections, and synthesise and re-evaluate results with updated drug prices.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search of various electronic databases, including Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library and EconLit for cost-effectiveness studies published from 2011 to 2016. Studies evaluating DAAs for genotypes 2-6 were included. Reported costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were abstracted. We re-estimated ICERs by varying the price of DAAs from $20 000 to $100 000, and estimated the threshold price at which DAA regimens would be deemed cost-effective (ICER≤$100 000/QALY).ResultsA total of 92 ICERs for 7 different DAA regimens from 10 published articles were included. Among the abstracted 92 ICERs, 20 were for genotype 2, 40 for genotype 3, 30 for genotype 4, 2 for genotype 5 and none for genotype 6; therefore, only genotypes 2-5 were analysed. At the discounted price of $40 000, 87.0% analyses found DAA regiments to be cost-effective, and 7.6% found to be cost-saving. The median threshold price below which DAAs would be deemed cost-effective was between $144 400 and $225 000, and cost-saving between $17 300 and $25 400.ConclusionsHCV treatment with DAAs is highly cost-effective in patients with HCV genotypes 2-5 at a $100 000/QALY threshold. Timely HCV treatment would be an optimal strategy from both a public health and economic perspective.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T03:35:39.801072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14271
       
  • The higher prevalence of truncal obesity and diabetes in American than
           Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C might contribute to more rapid
           progression to advanced liver disease
    • Authors: H. Rao; E. Wu, S. Fu, M. Yang, B. Feng, A. Lin, R. Fei, R. J. Fontana, A. S. Lok, L. Wei
      Abstract: SummaryBackgroundChronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States (US) and an emerging cause in China.AimTo compare the clinical characteristics of hepatitis C patients in the US and China, and factors influencing disease stage.MethodsProspective study of 2 cohorts of HCV patients recruited at 1 site in the US and 3 sites in China. Standardised questionnaire on risk factors and medical history were used and diagnosis of cirrhosis and HCC was based on pre-defined criteria.ResultsOne thousand nine hundred and fifty seven patients (1000 US and 957 China) were enrolled. US patients were more likely to be men (61.4% vs 48.5%), older (median age 57 vs 53 years), obese (38.4% vs 16.8%) and diabetic (21.8% vs 10.8%). A significantly higher per cent of US patients had cirrhosis (38.2% vs 16.0%) and HCC (14.1% vs 2.7%). Investigator estimated time at infection in US was 10 years earlier than in Chinese patients but US patients were more likely to have advanced disease even after stratifying for duration of infection. Study site in the US, older age, truncal obesity, diabetes and prior HCV treatment were significant predictors of advanced disease on multivariate analysis.ConclusionsHCV patients in the US had more advanced liver disease than those in China. We speculate that underlying fatty liver disease may be a major contributor to this difference, and management of glycometabolic abnormalities should occur in parallel with anti-viral therapy to achieve optimal outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T05:10:24.718764-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14273
       
  • Changes in medical management and colectomy rates: a population-based
           cohort study on the epidemiology and natural history of ulcerative colitis
           in Örebro, Sweden, 1963-2010
    • Authors: C. Eriksson; Y. Cao, S. Rundquist, Y. Zhulina, I. Henriksson, S. Montgomery, J. Halfvarson
      Abstract: BackgroundWhether the epidemiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) has changed during recent decades is partly unknown.AimTo depict temporal trends in the epidemiology and medical treatment of UC as well as the long-term risk of progression in disease extent and colectomy, during 1963-2010.MethodsPatients were identified by evaluation of all medical records in the archive of the Colitis Clinic, Örebro University Hospital. Comparisons were made between three time periods, 1963-1975, 1976-1990 and 1991-2005.ResultsThe annual age-standardised incidence increased from 3.5 to 18.5 per 100 000 during the study period (P < .01). Correspondingly, the prevalence increased from 44 to 474 per 100 000 between 1965 and 2010. A higher proportion of males than females had extensive colitis at diagnosis (odds ratio: 1.55; 95% CI 1.17-2.05; P < .01). The risk for progression in disease extent was 34.5% and 18.5% at 10 years, for patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis, respectively (P < .01). The use of 5-aminosalicylates, within 10 years, rise from 79% to 92% between 1963-1975 and 1976-1990 (P < .01). Thiopurine use increased from 7% in 1976-1990 to 34% during 1991-2005 (P < .01). The colectomy rate at 10 years was 13.5% (95% CI 11.1%-15.8%), and the risk was lower among patients diagnosed in 1991-2005 compared to 1963-1975 (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% CI 0.39-0.94; P = .02).ConclusionThe incidence and prevalence of UC increased over time, and the observed prevalence in 2010 is among the highest reported. In parallel, a decrease in colectomy rates was observed during the most recent decades, potentially reflecting improved medical treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T21:25:53.164633-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14268
       
  • Lenalidomide as second-line therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma:
           exploration of biomarkers for treatment efficacy
    • Authors: Y.-Y. Shao; B.-B. Chen, D.-L. Ou, Z.-Z. Lin, C.-H. Hsu, M.-J. Wang, A.-L. Cheng, C. Hsu
      Abstract: BackgroundLenalidomide has immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic effects and showed moderate anti-tumour efficacy in patients with. advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)AimTo explore potential biomarkers of lenalidomide efficacy as second-line therapy for HCC.MethodsEligible patients were diagnosed with advanced HCC, documented progression on sorafenib, and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Patients received 25 mg/day lenalidomide orally on days 1-21 every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was 6 month progression-free survival rate. Early α-fetoprotein response was defined as a> 20% decline of α-fetoprotein levels from baseline within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Vascular response, evaluated using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, was defined as a> 40% decline in Ktrans after 2 weeks of treatment. The percentage of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were also analysed.ResultsFifty-five patients were enrolled. The response rate was 13%, and the disease-control rate was 53%. The 6 month progression-free survival rate was 9.1%. The median progression-free and overall survival was 1.8 months and 8.9 months respectively. Early α-fetoprotein response was significantly associated with higher disease-control rate (76% vs 22%, P = .001) and longer progression-free survival (P = .020). Vascular response was not associated with any treatment outcomes. Patients with a high pre-treatment B cell percentage were more likely to have disease control (70% vs 36%, P = .010) and exhibited longer progression-free survival (P < .001) and overall survival (P = .042).ConclusionsLenalidomide exhibited moderate activity as second-line therapy for advanced HCC. Its immunomodulatory effects should be further explored (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01545804).
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T02:31:09.694384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14270
       
  • Impact of beta-blockers on cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients
           with advanced liver disease
    • Authors: M. P. Wallen; A. Hall, K. A. Dias, J. S. Ramos, S. E. Keating, A. J. Woodward, T. L. Skinner, G. A. Macdonald, R. Arena, J. S. Coombes
      Abstract: BackgroundPatients with advanced liver disease may develop portal hypertension that can result in variceal haemorrhage. Beta-blockers reduce portal pressure and minimise haemorrhage risk. These medications may attenuate measures of cardiopulmonary performance, such as the ventilatory threshold and peak oxygen uptake measured via cardiopulmonary exercise testing.AimTo determine the effect of beta-blockers on cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables in patients with advanced liver disease.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional analysis of 72 participants who completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test before liver transplantation. All participants remained on their usual beta-blocker dose and timing prior to the test. Variables measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing included the ventilatory threshold, peak oxygen uptake, heart rate, oxygen pulse, the oxygen uptake efficiency slope and the ventilatory equivalents for carbon dioxide slope.ResultsParticipants taking beta-blockers (n = 28) had a lower ventilatory threshold (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T05:41:01.439179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14265
       
  • Helicobacter pylori infection and serum level of pepsinogen are associated
           
    • Authors: Y. Kwon; S. Jeon, S. Nam, I. Shin
      Abstract: BackgroundPatients who have undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancers (EGCs) are at risk for metachronous gastric neoplasm.AimTo determine whether serum level of pepsinogen (PG), a marker of gastric atrophy, can determine which patients who have undergone endoscopic submucosal dissection for EGC are at risk for metachronous gastric neoplasm. We also investigated the effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on metachronous gastric neoplasm incidence.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of 590 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for EGC, from January 2008 to May 2013 at a tertiary centre in South Korea; serum levels of PG were measured at the time of endoscopic submucosal dissection and H. pylori infection status were recorded. In case of proven presence of current H. pylori infection, eradication treatment was provided. Patients underwent follow-up endoscopies at 3 months, 9 months, and each year after the procedure to detect neoplasms and were tested for H. pylori infection; serum levels of PG were measured at these time points from 442 of the patients. The main and sub-cohorts were assessed for baseline characteristics, H. pylori infection, serum level of PG, and metachronous gastric neoplasm lesions.ResultsDuring a median follow-up period of 47.7 months, 64 patients developed metachronous gastric neoplasms. In multivariate analysis of the main cohort (n = 590), risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasm included persistent H. pylori infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.532; P = .022) and serum ratio of PGI:PGII of three or less at the time of endoscopic submucosal dissection (HR, 1.881; P = .018). Among patients with serum PG measurements, persistent H. pylori infection (odds ratio [OR], 4.404; P = .009) and persistent decrease in mean serum ratio of PGI:PGII to 3 or less were associated with increased risk of metachronous gastric neoplasm (OR, 2.141; P = .039).ConclusionsIn a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent endoscopic resection of EGCs, eradication of H. pylori infection reduced risk for metachronous gastric neoplasm. Serum ratio of PGI:PGII of 3 or less also increase risk of metachronous gastric neoplasm after endoscopic submucosal dissection. ClinicalTrials.gov. registry number, NCT02682446.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T02:40:47.525492-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14263
       
  • Letter: Cuban immigrants to the US developing IBD have a progressive
           shortening of the lag between time of arrival and disease onset
    • Authors: G. C. Actis; R. Pellicano
      Pages: 768 - 768
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T05:36:16.726552-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14249
       
  • Letter: Cuban immigrants to the US developing IBD have a progressive
           shortening of the lag between time of arrival and disease onset.
           Authors’ reply
    • Authors: O. Damas; M. T. Abreu
      Pages: 768 - 769
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T05:36:16.28068-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14278
       
  • Letter: lipid-lowering effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in chronic
           hepatitis B—more evidence is needed
    • Authors: R. Huang; J. Wang, J. Xia, X. Yan, C. Wu
      Pages: 769 - 770
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T05:36:17.34788-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14266
       
  • Letter: lipid-lowering effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in chronic
           hepatitis B—more evidence is needed. Authors’ reply
    • Authors: A. A. Shaheen; M. Al-Mattooq, S. Yazdanfar, K. W. Burak, M. G. Swain, S. E. Congly, M. A. Borman, S. S. Lee, R. P. Myers, C. S. Coffin
      Pages: 770 - 771
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T05:36:16.784963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apt.14282
       
 
 
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