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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1584 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1584 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
  [SJR: 1.416]   [H-I: 125]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0145-6008 - ISSN (Online) 1530-0277
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1584 journals]
  • Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Exhibit Atypical Gait
    • Authors: Tenille C. Taggart; Roger W. Simmons, Jennifer D. Thomas, Edward P. Riley
      Abstract: BackgroundImpaired motor function in children with histories of prenatal exposure to alcohol has been previously reported but, to date, no studies using quantitatively-based analyses have been performed to assess gait in these children.MethodsGait of children with (n = 18) or without (n = 26) prenatal alcohol exposure was assessed using an electronically instrumented walkway. Children completed blocks of trials traversing the walkway with different combinations of walking condition (increased, self-paced, and decreased cadence) and direction (forward and backward). Gait velocity, cadence, stride length, step width, foot angle, and double support time, as well as the variability of these temporal-spatial markers, were used to assess gait.ResultsResults indicated that, in comparison to typically developing children, alcohol-exposed children produced exaggerated foot angle and increased step width. Additionally, alcohol-exposed children produced greater intra-subject variability of gait velocity and walking cadence while walking forward and backward, and greater variability in step width when walking backward and for all three walking conditions.ConclusionsThe results indicate that selected gait markers are adversely affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Clinicians and front line personnel (e.g., teachers) should provide movement enriched experiences to help ameliorate these alcohol-related deficits.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T07:45:40.2714-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13450
  • Placental Proteomics Reveal Insights into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
    • Authors: Katie L. Davis-Anderson; Sebastian Berger, Emilie R. Lunde-Young, Vishal D. Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A. Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
      Abstract: BackgroundFetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD modelMethodsPregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6.0 g/kg, GD 11-19) or 50% maltose dextrin (isocalorically matched pair-fed controls). On GD 20, placentae were collected, flash frozen, and stored until tissues were homogenized. Protein lysates were denatured, reduced, captured on a 10 kDa spin filter and digested. Peptides were eluted, reconstituted, and analyzed by a Q Exactive™ Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap™ mass spectrometerResultsMass spectrometry analysis identified 2,285 placental proteins based on normalized spectral counts and 2000 proteins by intensity based absolute quantification. 45 placental proteins were significantly (P
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T06:00:21.543917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13448
  • Screening for hazardous drinking in nursing home residents: Evaluating the
           validity of the current cut offs of the Alcohol Use Disorder
           Identification Test – Consumption questions (AUDIT-C) by using ethyl
           glucuronide in hair (HEtG)
    • Authors: Monika Dreher-Weber; Anton-Rupert Laireiter, Anton Kühberger, Isabella Kunz, Michel Yegles, Tina Binz, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Rainer Hoffmann, Verena Schmidt, Siegfried Lang, Friedrich M. Wurst
      Abstract: BackgroundBecause of physiological changes, elderly people are much more exposed to the adverse effects of alcohol. Therefore, hazardous drinking is defined at lower levels as compared to younger adults. This work aims to evaluate the validity of the current cut off levels of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test – Consumption questions (AUDIT-C) to detect hazardous drinking in the elderly by using ethyl glucuronide in hair (HEtG).MethodsIn a border region between Austria and Germany, 344 nursing home residents were included from 33 of the 107 nursing homes. Residents were asked to answer the AUDIT-C questions, hair samples were obtained, and nursing staff members were asked for their assessments of the residents’ alcohol consumption. Hair samples were analyzed for HEtG using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Receiver-operated characteristics curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the validity of cut off values for the AUDIT-C to detect an alcohol consumption of ≥ 10 g of alcohol/day.Results11.3% of nursing home residents (n = 344) drank ≥ 10 g of alcohol/day (4.9%> 60 g of alcohol/day). For the drinking limit of ≥ 10 g of alcohol/day, ROC-curve analysis showed a balanced sensitivity and specificity, with an AUDIT-C cut off of ≥ 4 for men (sensitivity: 70%, specificity: 83.6%; AUC = 0.823, CI = 0.718-0.928, P < 0.001) and ≥ 2 for women (sensitivity: 73.7%, specificity: 81.9%; AUC = 0.783, CI = 0.653-0.914, P < 0.001). Nursing staff (n = 274) underestimated alcohol consumption and evaluated 40% of the chronic-excessive alcohol consumers as being abstinent.ConclusionsOur data suggest that a AUDIT-C cut off of ≥ 4 for men and ≥ 2 for women can be recommended to detect the consumption of ≥ 10 g of alcohol/day in the elderly. Because the nursing staff to a large extent underestimates the alcohol consumption among nursing home residents, further teaching of the staff, improvement of screening instruments for the elderly and the use of objective biomarkers might be helpful for recognizing hazardous drinking and can thus help improve the quality of life of the elderly.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T08:00:21.844255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13449
  • Acute alcohol binge deteriorates metabolic and respiratory compensation
           capability after blunt chest trauma followed by hemorrhagic shock - a new
           research model
    • Authors: Nils Wagner; Niklas Franz, Scott Dieteren, Mario Perl, Katharina Mörs, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
      Abstract: Background and purposeThe clinical relevance of blunt (thoracic) chest trauma (TxT) and hemorrhagic shock is indisputable due to the high prevalence of this injury type, as well as its close association with mortality and/or preventable deaths. Furthermore, there is an ongoing discussion about the influence of alcohol in trauma patients. Thus, we established a model of TxT followed by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (H/R) in alcohol-intoxicated rats.Experimental approachDepending on group allocation, twelve (sub-acute) or two (acute) hours before experimentation, the animals received a single oral dose of alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) or saline (NaCl) followed by TxT, hemorrhagic shock (35 ± 3 mm Hg) and resuscitation (TxT+H/R). Arterial blood gas analyses and continuous monitoring of blood pressure were performed during the experimentation period. Survival during the experimentation procedure was determined.Key resultsSub-acute and acute EtOH group exhibited lower baseline mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) values compared with the corresponding NaCl group, respectively. Both EtOH groups showed lower maximal bleed out volume, which was necessary to induce hemorrhagic shock compared to NaCl groups, and the recovery during the resuscitation period was attenuated. During the experimentation in all groups a trend to acidic pH was observed. Acute EtOH group showed lowest pH values compared to all other groups. Higher pCO2 values were observed in both EtOH groups. All groups developed negative base excess and decreasing HCO3- values until the end of hemorrhagic shock, and showed increasing base excess and HCO3- values during resuscitation. Significantly higher mortality rate was found in the acute EtOH group.Conclusions and ImplicationsThis study indicates that alcohol limits the metabolic and respiratory compensation capability, thereby promoting mortality.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T07:55:51.842324-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13446
  • Factors Associated with Self-Estimated Breath Alcohol Concentration Among
           Bar Patrons
    • Authors: Matthew E. Rossheim; Adam E. Barry, Dennis L. Thombs, Robert M. Weiler, Jenna R. Krall, Caroline J. Stephenson, Scott T. Walters, Mark B. Reed, John D. Clapp, Sumihiro Suzuki, Tracey E. Barnett, M. Brad Cannell
      Abstract: BackgroundFew studies have examined the context in which drinkers underestimate their breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) in natural drinking environments. This study examined factors associated with bar patrons’ self-estimated BrAC in high-risk college town settings.MethodsGuided interview and BrAC data were collected from 510 participants recruited as they exited bars located close to large universities: 1 in Florida and 1 in Texas.ResultsParticipants with the highest measured BrACs underestimated their BrAC levels the most. Findings from multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that BrAC (std β = 0.014, p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T16:00:02.220923-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13428
  • Intermittent Access to Ethanol Drinking Facilitates the Transition to
           Excessive Drinking After Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Vapor Exposure
    • Authors: Adam Kimbrough; Sarah Kim, Maury Cole, Molly Brennan, Olivier George
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcohol binge drinking in humans is thought to increase the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unclear is whether drinking patterns (e.g., bingelike or stable drinking) differentially affect the transition to compulsive-like drinking in dependent individuals. We examined whether chronic bingelike drinking facilitates the transition to compulsive-like drinking in rats.MethodsMale Wistar rats were given 5 months of intermittent access to ethanol (EtOH) (IAE) or continuous access to EtOH (CAE) in a 2-bottle choice paradigm. Then, rats were given chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure. Escalation of EtOH intake and compulsive-like responding for EtOH, using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and quinine-adulterated EtOH, were measured.ResultsIAE rats escalated EtOH drinking after 2 weeks of 2-bottle choice, whereas CAE rats exhibited stable EtOH drinking for 5 months. After 8 weeks of CIE, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats escalated their EtOH intake. However, IAE rats escalated their EtOH intake weeks sooner than CAE rats and exhibited greater EtOH intake. No differences in compulsive-like responding were found between IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats. However, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats showed strong compulsive-like responding compared with rats without prior IAE or CAE.ConclusionsChronic EtOH drinking at stable or escalated levels for several months is associated with more compulsive-like responding for EtOH in rats that are exposed to CIE compared with rats without a prior history of EtOH drinking. Moreover, IAE facilitated the transition to compulsive-like responding for EtOH after CIE exposure, reflected by the escalation of EtOH intake. These results suggest that IAE may facilitate the transition to AUD. This study indicates that despite a moderate level of EtOH drinking, the IAE animal model is highly relevant to early stages of alcohol abuse and suggests that it may be associated with neuroadaptations that produce a faster transition to alcohol dependence.In rats, 5 months of prior intermittent but not continuous access to ethanol facilitated the transition to excessive ethanol drinking during chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. However, either 5 months of prior intermittent access to ethanol or continuous access to ethanol increased compulsive-like ethanol drinking.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T16:00:03.0864-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13434
  • At-Risk Alcohol Use is Associated with Antiretroviral Treatment
           Nonadherence Among Adults Living with HIV/AIDS
    • Authors: Emily W. Paolillo; Assawin Gongvatana, Anya Umlauf, Scott L. Letendre, David J. Moore
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcohol use is a risk factor for nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); however, differences in ART adherence across levels of alcohol use are unclear. This study examined whether “at-risk” alcohol use, defined by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism guidelines, was associated with ART nonadherence among PLWHA.MethodsParticipants were 535 HIV-infected adults enrolled in studies at the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program. ART nonadherence was identified by either self-reported missed dose or plasma viral load detectability (≥50 copies/ml). Potential covariates for multivariable logistic regression included demographics, depression, and substance use disorders.ResultsUsing a stepwise model selection procedure, we found that at-risk alcohol use (OR = 0.64; p = 0.032) and low education (OR = 1.09 per 1 year increase in education; p = 0.009) significantly predict lower ART adherence.ConclusionsA greater focus on the treatment of at-risk alcohol use may improve ART adherence among HIV-infected persons.In a sample of 535 HIV-infected adults, at-risk alcohol drinkers (defined as>3 drinks per day for women, and>4 drinks per day for men) were significantly more likely to be non-adherent to their antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication than not at-risk drinkers. These findings suggest that a greater emphasis on treatments designed to reduce heavy alcohol use among persons living with HIV may, in turn, help with ART adherence and ultimately improve quality of life for these individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T16:00:01.917658-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13433
  • Greater prevalence of proposed ICD-11 alcohol and cannabis dependence
           compared to ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-5 in treated adolescents
    • Authors: Tammy Chung; Jack Cornelius, Duncan Clark, Christopher Martin
      Abstract: BackgroundProposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11) criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) radically simplify the algorithm used to diagnose substance dependence. Major differences in case identification across Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and ICD impact determinations of treatment need and conceptualizations of substance dependence. This study compared the draft algorithm for ICD-11 SUD against DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10, for alcohol and cannabis.MethodsAdolescents (n=339, ages 14-18) admitted to intensive outpatient addictions treatment completed, as part of a research study, a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM SUDs (SCID) adapted for use with adolescents, and which has been used to assess DSM and ICD SUD diagnoses. Analyses examined prevalence across classification systems, diagnostic concordance, and sources of diagnostic disagreement.ResultsPrevalence of any past year proposed ICD-11 alcohol or cannabis use disorder was significantly lower compared to DSM-IV and DSM-5 (ps
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T10:15:27.939081-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13441
  • Combined Catalase and ADH Inhibition Ameliorates Ethanol-induced
           Myocardial Dysfunction Despite Causing Oxidative Stress in Conscious
           Female Rats
    • Authors: Fanrong Yao; Abdel A. Abdel-Rahman
      Abstract: BackgroundEthanol-evoked oxidative stress, which contributes to myocardial dysfunction in proestrus rats, is mediated by increases in NADPH oxidase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Whether these biochemical responses, which are triggered by alcohol-derived acetaldehyde in non-cardiac tissues, occur in proestrus rats’ hearts remains unknown. Therefore, we elucidated the roles of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) and catalase, which catalyze alcohol oxidation to acetaldehyde, in these alcohol-evoked biochemical and hemodynamic responses in proestrus rats.MethodConscious proestrus rats prepared for measurements of left ventricular (LV) function and blood pressure (BP) received ethanol (1.5 g/kg, i.v infusion over 30 min) or saline 30 min after an ADH and CYP2E1 inhibitor, 4-MP (82 mg/kg, i.p), a catalase inhibitor, 3-AT (0.5 g/kg, i.v), their combination or vehicle. LV function and BP were monitored for additional 60 min after ethanol or saline infusion before collecting the hearts for ex vivo measurements of LV reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activity, MDA, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation.ResultsEthanol reduced LV function (dP/dtmax and LVDP) and BP, and increased cardiac NADPH oxidase activity, ROS and MDA levels, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Either inhibitor partially, and their combination significantly, attenuated these responses despite the substantially higher blood ethanol level, and the increased cardiac oxidative stress and reduced BP caused by 3-AT alone or with 4-MP. The inhibitors reduced cardiac MDA level and reversed ethanol effect on cardiac and plasma MDA.ConclusionsEthanol oxidative metabolism plays a pivotal role in the ethanol-evoked LV oxidative stress and dysfunction in proestrous rats. Notably, catalase inhibition (3-AT) caused cardiac oxidative stress and hypotension.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T10:15:26.212693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13442
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-06-29T07:12:14.512569-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13439
  • Interobserver Variability in Scoring Liver Biopsies with a Diagnosis of
           Alcoholic Hepatitis
    • Authors: Bela Horvath; Daniela Allende, Hao Xie, John Guirguis, Jennifer Jeung, James Lapinski, Deepa Patil, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Xiuli Liu
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcoholic hepatitis (AH) is one of the most severe forms of alcoholic liver disease. Recently, a histologic scoring system for predicting prognosis in this patient cohort was proposed as Alcoholic Hepatitis Histologic Score (AHHS). We aimed to assess interobserver variability in recognizing histologic features of AH, and the effect of this variability on the proposed AHHS categories.DesignHematoxylin-eosin and trichrome stained slides from 32 patients diagnosed with AH with liver biopsies within 1 month of presentation (2000-2015), were reviewed by 5 pathologists including 3 liver pathologists and 2 gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists masked to the clinical findings or outcome. Histologic features of AH were assessed, the AHHS was calculated and an AHHS category (mild, moderate, severe) was assigned. The Fleiss’ kappa coefficient (Kappa) analysis was performed to determine the interobserver agreement.ResultsA slight-to-moderate level of interobserver agreement existed among 5 reviewers on histopathological features of AH with kappa value ranging from 0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.46, megamitochondria) to 0.52 [95% CI: 0.40-0.68, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration]. There was only a fair level of agreement in assigning AHHS category (K=0.33, 95% CI: 0.20-0.51). While overall fibrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were comparably evaluated by 3 liver pathologists and 2 GI pathologists, bilirubinostasis and megamitochondria were more consistently diagnosed by liver pathologists. Overall, 18 out of 32 (56%) were uniformly assigned to an AHHS category by all liver pathologists with a kappa value of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22-0.60).ConclusionIn general, features of AH can be recognized with a slight-to-moderate level of interobserver agreement and there was fair interobserver agreement on assigning an AHHS category. Significant interobserver variability among pathologists revealed by the current study can limit its usefulness in everyday clinical practice.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:55:19.960012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13438
  • Problematic Drinking Mediates the Association between Urgency and Intimate
           Partner Aggression During Acute Intoxication
    • Authors: Olivia S. Subramani; Dominic J. Parrott, Christopher I. Eckhardt
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study tested a moderated-mediational model whereby dimensions of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) differentially predict perpetration of physical intimate partner aggression through problematic drinking in intoxicated and non-intoxicated heavy drinkers.MethodsParticipants were 249 heavy drinkers (148 men and 101 women) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical intimate partner aggression perpetration toward their current partner recruited from two metropolitan U.S. cities. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed impulsivity and problematic drinking, consumed an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed a shock-based aggression task in which they were ostensibly provoked by their intimate partnerResultsResults indicated an indirect effect of urgency on intimate partner aggression through problematic drinking that was significantly more positive in intoxicated individualsConclusionsThese findings implicate a tendency to act rashly in response to emotions as the specific dimension of impulsivity associated with problematic drinking, which in turn exacerbates risk for intimate partner aggression perpetration. Results also suggest acute effects of alcohol are key in facilitating this mechanism.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:55:18.472294-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13437
  • Acute Alcohol Exposure and Risk of Mortality of Patients with Traumatic
           Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Qiuping Ding; Zhuo Wang, Meifen Shen, Zhongzhou Su, Liang Shen
      Abstract: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients usually live with significant disability and socioeconomic burdens. Acute exposure to alcohol is considered a major risk factor for TBI. Numerous studies have examined whether alcohol exposure is related to the risk of mortality in patients with TBI, yet the results remain inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to assess whether acute alcohol exposure affects the mortality rate of TBI patients. We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to November 2015 for relevant studies. We screened studies based on their inclusion criteria and selected the studies that reported mortality rate, which included 18 observational studies. We used R to analyze the included data. An initial result showed that the presence of a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) had no significant relation with mortality rate (OR=0.92, 95%CI=0.83-1.01), but there was notable heterogeneity along with variable results according to sensitivity analysis. For the BAC-positive population, low BAC (1-100 mg/dl) carried a higher risk of mortality than moderate BAC (100-230 mg/dl) (OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.09-1.81), moderate and high BAC as a single category (>100 mg/dl) (OR=1.57, 95%CI=1.28-1.94) or high BAC (>230 mg/dl) (OR=1.76, 95%CI=1.76-2.30). However, moderate BAC did not increase the mortality risk when compared with high BAC (OR=1.20, 95%CI=0.89-1.63). Whether positive BAC at the time of admission after TBI reduces mortality rate compared with the rate under negative BAC remains unknown. In addition, low BAC (1-100 mg/dl) poses a risk of mortality compared with higher BAC. Further studies assessing the effect of alcohol between the BAC-positive group and the BAC-negative group are still needed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T09:27:36.238345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13436
  • Maternal Alcohol Use Disorder and Risk of Child Contact with the Justice
           System in Western Australia: A Population Cohort Record Linkage Study
    • Authors: Katherine Hafekost; David Lawrence, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, James Semmens, Stephen R. Zubrick
      Abstract: BackgroundEarly contact with the justice system is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes across the life course. This includes an increased risk of ongoing justice contact, social disadvantage and marginalization, and mental health and substance use issues. Children whose mothers have an alcohol use disorder may be at risk of early justice system contact, and we sought to quantify this relationship in a Western Australian cohort.MethodsThis population cohort study made use of linked administrative data. Those in-scope for the study were women who had a birth recorded on the Midwives Notification System (1983 to 2007). The exposed cohort were mothers who had an alcohol-related diagnosis (ICD9/10), recorded on administrative data. This included mental and behavioral disorders which were alcohol related, diseases which could be entirely attributed to alcohol and other ICD alcohol codes. These women were considered to have an alcohol use disorder, which was a proxy for heavy drinking. The comparison cohort was frequency-matched sample with no alcohol-related diagnosis identified on administrative data sets.ResultsAfter adjusting for potential confounders, children whose mothers had a maternal alcohol use disorder had a significantly increased odds of justice contact when compared to those whose mothers had no diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60 to 1.99). Additional significant maternal factors associated with child justice contact included being Indigenous (OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 4.54 to 5.81), low maternal age, low socioeconomic status, being unmarried, and a history of a mental health problems. Significant child-level factors, which were associated with increased odds of justice contact, included being male, a mental health diagnosis, child protection contact, parity, and academic failure.ConclusionsChildren who were exposed to a maternal alcohol use disorder had significantly increased odds of contact with the justice system. Additional risk was associated with being Indigenous and with markers of social disadvantage. These results suggest that prevention and early intervention services should span across agencies in an effort to reduce risk.With the use of linked administrative data, we identified that, following adjustment for significant confounders, children whose mothers had an alcohol use disorder had a significantly increased odds of having contact with the justice system when compared to other children (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.60 to 1.99). Additional risk factors included being Indigenous, markers of socioeconomic disadvantage, and being male. These results suggest that prevention and early intervention services should span across agencies in an effort to reduce risk.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T17:00:02.164053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13426
  • Alcohol consumption decreases oxytocin neurons in the anterior
           paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in prairie voles
    • Authors: J R Stevenson; K A Young, A E Bohidar, L M Francomacaro, T R Fasold, J M Buirkle, J R Ndem, S C Christian
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcohol use disorders are associated with dysfunctional social relationships and stress responses. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to orchestrate or mediate many aspects of social behavior, stress responses, and ingestive behaviors. Because of the overlap between the effects of alcohol and the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin, we sought to determine if alcohol consumption altered expression of OT and AVP in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), one of the key sites for OT and AVP synthesis.MethodsPair-housed adult male prairie voles were allowed to consume 15% ethanol versus water in the home cage continuously (continuous access group, CA) or every other day for four hours (intermittent access group, IA). Control animals never had access to alcohol. After seven weeks, animals were sacrificed and their brains were removed and immunohistochemical analysis of oxytocin and vasopressin immunopositive neurons was performed.ResultsOxytocin immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in the anterior PVN in the CA but not IA group, relative to control animals, suggesting that continuous alcohol consumption decreases the number of oxytocin neurons. There was no effect of alcohol consumption on posterior PVN oxytocin neurons, and no effect on PVN AVP neurons.ConclusionsThese data show that continuous access voluntary alcohol consumption is associated with decreased oxytocin neurons in the anterior PVN, suggesting that alcohol-induced alterations in the oxytocin system should be investigated as a mechanism for alcohol-related changes in social behavior, stress responses, and exacerbation of alcohol use disorders.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T06:50:27.960607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13430
  • Executive Functions, Memory, and Social Cognitive Deficits and Recovery in
           Chronic Alcoholism: A Critical Review to Inform Future Research
    • Authors: Anne-Pascale Le Berre; Rosemary Fama, Edith V. Sullivan
      Abstract: Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision-making, success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Despite evidence for differences in recovery levels of selective cognitive processes, certain deficits can persist even with prolonged sobriety. Herein is presented a review of alcohol-related cognitive impairments affecting component processes of executive functioning, memory, and the recently investigated cognitive domains of metamemory, social cognition, and emotional processing; also considered are trajectories of cognitive recovery with abstinence. Finally, in the spirit of critical review, limitations of current knowledge are noted and avenues for new research efforts are proposed that focus on (1) the interaction among emotion-cognition processes and identification of vulnerability factors contributing to the development of emotional and social processing deficits and (2) the time line of cognitive recovery by tracking alcoholism's dynamic course of sobriety and relapse. Knowledge about the heterochronicity of cognitive recovery in alcoholism has the potential of indicating at which points during recovery intervention may be most beneficial.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T06:50:25.69333-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13431
  • Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol
           Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats
    • Authors: Janice C. Froehlich; Emily R. Nicholson, Julian E. Dilley, Nick J. Filosa, Logan C. Rademacher, Teal N. Smith
      Abstract: BackgroundMost alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. The current study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or “P” rats).MethodsAlcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles.ResultsLow dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles.ConclusionsThe results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with AUD.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T06:50:24.371969-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13432
  • Chronic Ethanol During Adolescence Impacts Corticolimbic Dendritic Spines
           and Behavior
    • Authors: Nicholas J. Jury; Gabrielle A. Pollack, Meredith J. Ward, Jessica L. Bezek, Alexandra J. Ng, Courtney R. Pinard, Hadley C. Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
      Abstract: BackgroundRisk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood is linked to alcohol drinking during adolescence, but understanding of the neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in mice.MethodsC57BL/6J-background Thy1-EGFP mice were CIE-exposed during adolescence or adulthood and examined, as adults, for alterations in the density and morphology of dendritic spines in infralimbic (IL) cortex, prelimbic (PL) cortex, and basolateral amygdala (BLA). In parallel, adolescent- and adult-exposed C57BL/6J mice were tested as adults for 2-bottle EtOH drinking, sensitivity to EtOH intoxication (loss of righting reflex [LORR]), blood EtOH clearance, and measures of operant responding for food reward.ResultsCIE during adolescence decreased IL neuronal spine density and increased the head width of relatively wide-head IL and BLA spines, whereas CIE decreased head width of relatively narrow-head BLA spines. Adolescents had higher EtOH consumption prior to CIE than adults, while CIE during adulthood, but not adolescence, increased EtOH consumption relative to pre-CIE baseline. CIE produced a tolerance-like decrease in LORR sensitivity to EtOH challenge, irrespective of the age at which mice received CIE exposure. Mice exposed to CIE during adolescence, but not adulthood, required more sessions than AIR controls to reliably respond for food reward on a fixed-ratio (FR) 1, but not subsequent FR3, reinforcement schedule. On a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule, break point responding was higher in the adolescent- than the adult-exposed mice, regardless of CIE. Finally, footshock punishment markedly suppressed responding for reward in all groups.ConclusionsExposure to CIE during adolescence altered dendritic spine density and morphology in IL and BLA neurons, in parallel with a limited set of behavioral alterations. Together, these data add to growing evidence that key corticolimbic circuits are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol during adolescence, with lasting, potentially detrimental, consequences for behavior.The neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J Thy1-EGFP mice. Exposure to CIE during adolescence altered dendritic spine density and morphology in infralimbic (IL) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons, in parallel with a set of behavioral alterations. Together, these data add to growing evidence that key corticolimbic circuits are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol during adolescence, with lasting, potentially detrimental, consequences for behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T15:45:23.628427-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13422
  • A Quantitative Analysis of Latino Acculturation and Alcohol Use: Myth
           Versus Reality
    • Authors: Miriam J. Alvarez; Gabriel Frietze, Corin Ramos, Craig Field, Michael A. Zárate
      Abstract: Research on health among Latinos often focuses on acculturation processes and the associated stressors that influence drinking behavior. Given the common use of acculturation measures and the state of the knowledge on alcohol-related health among Latino populations, the current analyses tested the efficacy of acculturation measures to predict various indicators of alcohol consumption. Specifically, this quantitative review assessed the predictive utility of acculturation on alcohol consumption behaviors (frequency, volume, and quantity). Two main analyses were conducted—a p-curve analysis and a meta-analysis of the observed associations between acculturation and drinking behavior. Results demonstrated that current measures of acculturation are a statistically significant predictor of alcohol use (Z = −20.75, p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T15:45:20.783651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13420
  • Facial curvature detects and explicates ethnic differences in effects of
           prenatal alcohol exposure
    • Authors: Michael Suttie; Leah Wetherill, Sandra W. Jacobson, Joseph L. Jacobson, H Eugene Hoyme, Elizabeth R. Sowell, Claire Coles, Jeffrey R. Wozniak, Edward P. Riley, Kenneth L. Jones, Tatiana Foroud, Peter Hammond,
      Abstract: BackgroundOur objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) by developing computer based tools for screening facial form.MethodsAll 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as 1) healthy control (HC), 2) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or 3) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS. 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature based delineations of facial form were introduced.Resultsa.Facial growth in FAS, HE and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts.b.Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for mid-line facial regions and higher for non-mid-line regions.c.Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include.for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals.for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians.for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians.for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals.d.Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians.e.The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for non-mid-line facial regions but not clearly for mid-line structures.f.The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism.ConclusionsFacial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes increased separation of the brain hemispheres with a concomitant increase in orbital separation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T08:11:15.090324-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13429
  • Predischarge Injectable Versus Oral Naltrexone to Improve Postdischarge
           Treatment Engagement Among Hospitalized Veterans with Alcohol Use
           Disorder: A Randomized Pilot Proof-of-Concept Study
    • Authors: Angela Christina Busch; Meenakshi Denduluri, Joseph Glass, Scott Hetzel, Shalu P. Gugnani, Michele Gassman, Dean Krahn, Brienna Deyo, Randall Brown
      Abstract: BackgroundInjectable naltrexone for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been efficacious in several studies. It has not been (i) compared head-to-head with oral naltrexone or (ii) examined in the hospital setting as an intervention that might facilitate treatment attendance after hospital discharge.MethodsFifty-four hospitalized veterans identified as having DSM-IV-TR alcohol dependence were randomized to receive (i) a 50 mg oral naltrexone plus a 30-day prescription or (ii) a 380 mg intramuscular naltrexone injection prior to discharge. Of 113 veteran inpatients deemed eligible based on screening criteria, 54 met final eligibility criteria and were enrolled and randomized. Baseline data included demographics, alcohol consumption, and comorbidity. Measures of treatment initiation and engagement and alcohol consumption were reassessed at 14- and 45-day follow-ups.ResultsThirty-five participants (64.8%) completed the entire study protocol (received a study medication and completed 14- and 45-day follow-ups). Among those who received a study medication (n = 45), 77.8% completed all follow-up interviews. This pilot study was not designed to have sufficient statistical power for hypothesis testing, and thus, as expected, there were no significant differences between groups in medication adherence (self-report of>80% of daily doses taken in oral group; receipt of second injection in the injection group), treatment engagement (at least treatment 3 visits in the 30 days postdischarge, and 2 or more visits per month in each of the 3 months following discharge) or alcohol consumption at 14 or at 45 days (p > 0.05). The median number of drinks among the entire cohort in the 2 weeks prior to hospitalization (128 drinks) was significantly higher than at day 14 (0 drinks, p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T16:00:02.209411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13410
  • Development and Initial Validation of the Alcohol Expectancy Task (AET)
    • Authors: Emmanuel Kuntsche; Sandra Kuntsche
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough studies have shown that alcohol expectancies are prominent predictors of alcohol initiation and subsequent drinking levels, the questionnaires used to assess these expectancies among young adolescents have been criticized as being time-intensive, biased and inappropriate.MethodsIn response, we developed the Alcohol Expectancy Task (AET), in which eight scenarios featuring adults in everyday situations and in different emotional states, accompanied by photos of a range of beverages (four alcoholic, eight non-alcoholic) are displayed on a tablet screen, and participants are then asked to tap on the beverage they think the given person had been drinking.ResultsIn a first study among 184 adults (75.1% women; mean age=37.8, SD=12.2), results from a repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a strong correspondence between the emotions depicted in the scenarios and how the participants interpreted them. In a second study, this time among 283 third and fourth graders (50.2% girls; mean age=10.6, SD=0.69), a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the four-factor structure of the AET. The results from a logistic regression analysis showed that the more often young adolescents assigned alcohol to the adults in an arousal-positive mood than to those in a sedation-negative mood, the more likely they were to have already consumed alcohol more than twice. Questionnaire-assessed expectancies were unrelated to adolescents’ drinking and did not affect the associations of the AET.ConclusionsThe AET has the advantage of being time-efficient and convenient and could overcome certain limitations associated with questionnaire-based assessments of alcohol expectancy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-04T12:40:24.121785-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13427
  • Age-Specific Prevalence of Binge and High-Intensity Drinking Among U.S.
           Young Adults: Changes from 2005 to 2015
    • Authors: Megan E. Patrick; Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, Richard A. Miech, John E. Schulenberg, Patrick M. O'Malley, Lloyd D. Johnston
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study examined changes during the past decade, from 2005 to 2015, in binge and high-intensity drinking in 7 separate age groups of U.S. 12th graders and young adults.MethodsNational longitudinal data (N = 6,711) from Monitoring the Future were used to examine trends in consuming 5+, 10+, and 15+ drinks on the same occasion in the past 2 weeks from ages 18 to 29/30 overall and by gender. Results were compared with trends in past 12-month and 30-day alcohol use for the same age groups.ResultsBetween 2005 and 2015, binge (5+) and high-intensity drinking (10+, 15+) generally decreased for individuals in their early 20s, remained somewhat stable for individuals in their mid-20s, and increased for individuals at the end of young adulthood (age 29/30). The observed historical trends in binge and high-intensity drinking were similar to those for past 12-month and past 30-day alcohol use for those aged 18 to 20, but diverged for most other age groups in young adulthood. Trends were generally similar for men and women, except that the increase in prevalence began earlier in young adulthood for women than for men.ConclusionsBinge and high-intensity drinking among U.S. 12th graders and young adults are dynamic phenomena. Prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing the harms resulting from 5+, 10+, and 15+ drinking should acknowledge and focus on differences in trends in these behaviors by age and gender.Between 2005 and 2015 among US young adults, participation in binge (5+ drinks per occasion) and high-intensity (10+, 15+ drinks per occasion) drinking was highest for individuals aged 21/22 to 25/26. Binge and high-intensity drinking generally decreased for individuals in their early 20s, remained somewhat stable during their mid-20s, and increased at the end of young adulthood (ages 29/30). Trends were generally similar for men and women, but increases were observed at earlier ages for women than men.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T16:00:01.964036-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13413
  • Sarcopenia in alcoholic liver disease: clinical and molecular advances
    • Authors: Jaividhya Dasarathy; Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
      Abstract: Despite advances in treatment of alcohol use disorders that focus on increasing abstinence and reducing recidivism, alcoholic liver disease is projected to be the major cause of cirrhosis and its complications. Malnutrition is recognized as the most frequent complication in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and despite the high clinical significance, there are no effective therapies to reverse malnutrition in ALD. Malnutrition is a relatively imprecise term and sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss, the major component of malnutrition, is primarily responsible for the adverse clinical consequences in patients with liver disease. It is, therefore, critical to define the specific abnormality (sarcopenia) rather than malnutrition in ALD, so that therapies targeting sarcopenia can be developed. Skeletal muscle mass is maintained by a balance between protein synthesis and proteolysis. Both direct effects of ethanol and its metabolites on the skeletal muscle and the consequences of liver disease result in disturbed proteostasis (protein homeostasis) and consequent sarcopenia. Once cirrhosis develops in patients with alcoholic liver disease, abstinence is unlikely to be effective in completely reversing sarcopenia, since other contributors including hyperammonemia, hormonal and cytokine abnormalities aggravate sarcopenia and maintain a state of anabolic resistance initiated by ethanol. Cirrhosis is also a state of accelerated starvation, with increased gluconeogenesis that requires amino acid diversion from signaling and substrate functions. Novel therapeutic options are being recognized that are likely to supplant the current “deficiency replacement” approach and instead focus on specific molecular perturbations, given the increasing availability of small molecules that can target specific signaling components. Myostatin antagonists, leucine supplementation, and mitochondrial protective agents are currently in various stages of evaluation in preclinical studies to prevent and reverse sarcopenia, in cirrhosis in general, and alcoholic liver disease, specifically. Translation of these data to human studies and clinical application requires priority for allocation of resources.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T11:10:23.969715-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13425
  • Characterization of self-defining memories in individuals with severe
           alcohol use disorders after mid-term abstinence: the impact of the
           emotional valence of memories
    • Authors: Jean-Louis Nandrino; Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe
      Abstract: BackgroundSelf-defining memories (SDM) are distinguished from other autobiographical memory (AM) processes to delineate those associated with the sense of personal identity and continuity in one's individual history. With chronic alcohol consumption, the construction of such memories may be modified in terms of specificity, valence, meaning-making and evoked topics. The present study sought to characterize SDM in a population of 27 patients with AUD who had been abstinent for at least 2 months compared with 28 control participants.MethodsBesides cognitive and clinical assessment, participants were told to describe verbally and date five SDM and their narratives were recorded. For each memory, five dimensions were evaluated: level of specificity, emotional valence, integration of meaning, topics, and distance of memory in time.ResultsOverall, SDM of participants with AUD were specifically characterized by 1) low specificity, 2) low integration, 3) a predominance of memories with negative emotional valence and a low frequency of positive memories, 4) a low frequency of topics related to success. When different dimensions of the SDM were crossed, their characteristics depended mainly on the valence of the memory. Negative memories were more frequent, more specific and more integrated, while positive SDM were less frequent, less specific and less integrated.ConclusionsThe results underline the construction of a form of SDM with drinking problems that is mainly characterized by the disruption of positive memory and the presence of highly specific and integrated negative experiences. A disruption of the integration process modulated by the valence of memories could have repercussions on maintaining a sense of personal identity, the pursuit of personal goals and on social adaptability, and could constitute one of the main risks associated with persistent drinking problems. These results highlight the relevance of developing autobiographical memory training programs for patients with AUD.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:20:24.191924-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13424
  • In Memoriam Professor Jean Pierre von Wartburg (1931-2017)
    • Authors: Helmut K. Seitz
      Abstract: On April 11, 2017, Professor Jean Pierre von Wartburg passed away in his home in Bollingen, near Bern, Switzerland. In addition to being one of the pioneers in alcohol research, he was one of the leading scientists in the field of enzymology and alcohol metabolism. Between 1965 and 1990, he was a giant who dominated the field.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T07:45:21.882999-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13423
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: In the article by Xia et al., “Alterations of Rat Corticostriatal Synaptic Plasticity After Chronic Ethanol Exposure and Withdrawal,” 2006, 30:819–824, there was an error in some of the author names. Jian Xun Xia should be Jianxun Xia, Xiao Hu Zhang should be Xiaohu Zhang, Yin Bing Ge should be Yinbing Ge, and Xiao Ru Yuan should be Xiaoru Yuan. We apologize for this error.ReferenceXia J, Li J, Zhou R, Zhang X, Ge Y, Yuan X (2006) Alterations of rat corticostriatal synaptic plasticity after chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:819–824.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T07:00:37.739696-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13418
  • Evidence of Altered Mitochondrial Protein Expression After Chronic Ethanol
           Consumption in the Aged Estrogen-Deficient Female Rat Heart
    • Authors: Alexandra M. Garvin; J. L. Miller-Lee, D. R. Sharda, G. M. Kanski, J. C. Hunter, Donna H. Korzick
      Abstract: BackgroundEstrogen loss has been implicated to increase the risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to identify novel mitochondrial protein targets for the treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in aged women using a state-of-the-art proteomics approach. We hypothesized that chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion exacerbates maladaptive mitochondrial protein expression in the aged female heartMethodsAdult (3 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were randomly assigned an EtOH or control Lieber-DeCarli ‘all liquid’ diet for 20 wks. Proteomic analyses were conducted in mitochondria isolated from left ventricles using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) 8plex labeling and mass spectrometry (n=3-5/group).ResultsAfter EtOH, significant differences (false discovery rate < 5%) were observed in electron transport chain components (NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2) as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism (2,4 dienoyl-CoA reductase) and cellular defense (catalase), suggesting a possible link to congestive heart failure. Directional changes in protein levels were confirmed by Western blotting. Additionally, EtOH significantly reduced state 3 mitochondrial respiration in all groups, yet only reduced respiratory control index (RCI) in the aged OVX rat heart (p
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T08:00:25.85737-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13421
  • Nalmefene prevents alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and alcohol drinking
           preference in adolescent female mice: role of TLR4
    • Authors: Jorge Montesinos; Anabel Gil, Consuelo Guerri
      Abstract: BackgroundWe previously showed that, by activating innate immune receptors toll-like 4 (TLR4), adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure causes neuroinflammation, myelin damage and behavioral dysfunctions. Recent findings reveal that clinically-used opioid antagonists naltrexone (NT) and naloxone (NX) inhibit opioid-induced TLR4 signaling, and that NT, NX and nalmefene (NF), the 6-methylene derivative of NX, are able to reduce alcohol drinking escalation.MethodsNF (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 1 h prior to ethanol (3 g/kg, i.p.) following intermittent treatment in female (PND35) adolescent mice. Inflammatory molecules, myelin proteins and apoptotic markers were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum/nucleus accumbens (STR/NAcc). The effect of NF on alcohol drinking preference was evaluated in both the WT and TLR4-knock out adolescent mice. Using astroglial cells, the inhibitory potential of NT, NX and NF on LPS, or the ethanol-triggered TLR4 response, was compared.ResultsOur findings indicate that NF prevents the up-regulation of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-17A, TNF-α), chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1, KC) and pro-inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2), along with myelin damage and apoptotic events, in both PFC and STR/NAcc. NF also abolishes ethanol-induced escalation of alcohol preference/consumption, but has no effect when administered to TLR4-KO mice. In vitro experiments indicate that NX and NF inhibit TLR4 activation upon LPS or ethanol stimulation. Immunofluorescence studies and lipid rafts isolation show that NF is able to prevent TLR4 translocation to lipid rafts/caveolae in astrocytes.ConclusionsThese results suggest that NF prevents neuroinflammation and brain damage by blocking the TLR4 response, and also support the role of central pro-inflammatory immune signaling in the modulation of alcohol consumption/addiction.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:46:41.347455-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13416
  • Aripiprazole Suppression of Drinking in a Clinical Laboratory Paradigm:
           Influence of Impulsivity and Self-Control
    • Authors: Raymond F. Anton; Joseph P. Schacht, Konstantin E. Voronin, Patrick K. Randall
      Abstract: BackgroundAspects of impulsivity have been implicated in the development, or maintenance, of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). The brain dopamine system is implicated in both reward processing/memory (typically subcortical) and in brain inhibitory control mechanisms (typically cortical). Using a validated clinical lab paradigm, the dopamine/serotonin “stabilizing” drug, aripiprazole was evaluated in non-treatment-seeking AUD individuals based on their level of impulsivity/ self-control.MethodsNinety-nine individuals (77% male; mean age 27; 7.5 drinks per day; 83% heavy drinking days) meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence were randomized to aripiprazole (N=47 evaluable) or placebo (N=48 evaluable) based on their Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) score (above or below 68). Aripiprazole, or similar placebo, was titrated to 15mg over 8 days. Drinking was recorded over 6 days under natural conditions. On day 8, after one day of required abstinence, individuals participated in a bar-lab paradigm that included a priming drink (BAC target 0.02-0.03 g/dL) and free-choice consumption of up to 8 drinks (max BAC 0.1 g/dL) in exchange for a “bar-credit” of $2 per drink (max $16). Endpoints were drinks per day under natural conditions and drinks consumed in the bar-lab after the priming drink.ResultsThere was no significant main effect of aripiprazole or interaction with BIS-11 score during the natural drinking period. However, there was a main effect of aripiprazole on bar-lab drinking (p=0.04) and aripiprazole reduced the total number of drinks consumed more among individuals with low self-control (p=0.034) and increased latency to consume those drinks (p=0.045) more among those with high impulsivity. Relative to placebo, aripiprazole caused more side effects and increased alcohol-induced sedation, but neither significantly influenced its interaction with impulsivity/self-control scores on drinking.ConclusionsThis paradigm forced a choice between immediate drinking reward and delayed monetary reward. In those with high impulsivity and/or low self-control, aripiprazole shifts the balance away from immediate drinking towards a later reward. Medications targeting cortical dopamine/serotonin balance might show clinical benefit of reduced drinking, among individuals with impulsivity/low self-control.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:46:29.583207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13417
  • Association of Anticipated and Laboratory-Derived Alcohol Stimulation,
           Sedation, and Reward
    • Authors: Daniel J. Fridberg; Sandra Y. Rueger, Patrick B.S. Smith, Andrea C. King
      Abstract: BackgroundLaboratory alcohol challenges are the “gold standard” for obtaining accurate measurements of subjective alcohol stimulation, sedation, and reward. However, these approaches are time- and resource-intensive. The present study examined the extent to which self-reported anticipated alcohol stimulation, sedation, and reward corresponded with those same responses measured with the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES), Brief-BAES (B-BAES), and Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) during a controlled laboratory alcohol challenge.MethodsParticipants were 106 light-to-heavy social drinkers (58.5% male; mean ± SD age = 35.8 ± 3.2 years) who completed the Anticipated BAES and DEQ, as well as laboratory-derived versions of these scales 30- and 60-minutes after consuming placebo and 0.8 g/kg alcohol on separate days as part of laboratory sessions in the Chicago Social Drinking Project.ResultsAnticipated BAES/B-BAES and anticipated DEQ alcohol effects were strong predictors of their corresponding laboratory-derived responses during both the rising limb and at peak breath alcohol concentrations. Effects were significant even when accounting for age, sex, past month heavy drinking frequency, and laboratory session order (placebo or alcohol first).ConclusionsThe present study provides strong preliminary support for measuring anticipated alcohol effects with the Anticipated BAES/B-BAES and Anticipated DEQ as a proxy of subjective responses experienced during a controlled laboratory alcohol challenge. The findings lend support for these measures as viable alternatives to other anticipatory scales when laboratory-derived alcohol response measurement is not feasible.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:46:24.672631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13415
  • Determinants of BDNF blood levels in patients with alcohol-use disorder
    • Authors: Philippe Nubukpo; Nicolas Ramoz, Murielle Girard, Dominique Malauzat, Philip Gorwood
      Abstract: BackgroundBlood Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol-use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population.MethodsWe assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of six months, for the AUDIT score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs. The Beck Depression Inventory and information on current tobacco and alcohol use, suicidal ideation, BMI, age, gender, and psychotropic treatments were also collected. Serum BDNF (ELISA) and two genetic polymorphisms of the BDNF gene (Val33Met and rs962369) were analyzed.ResultsThe presence of the Met allele, two markers of the history of alcohol dependence (γGT and the number of past treatments in detoxification programs), and the presence of a depressive episode (but not depressive score) were significantly associated with the two blood levels of BDNF at baseline and after six months. After controlling for baseline BDNF levels, the presence of the Met allele and an ongoing depressive episode were the only variables associated with changes of BNDF levels after six months.ConclusionsLow serum BDNF levels are associated with characteristics related to alcohol consumption and mood disorders, and variants of the BDNF gene in alcohol-use disorder patients. The factors which most strongly influenced changes in serum BDNF levels following treatment in an alcohol detoxification program were variants of the BDNF gene and ongoing depression.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T09:40:48.361199-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13414
  • FDA and EMA Need Homology on Alcohol Outcome Measures – Semper:
           Simplicitas est purius modum
    • Authors: Bankole A. Johnson
      Abstract: Litten et al. (2017) continue to propose important points, which also emanated from my initial commentary (Johnson, 2017) on the paper by Witkiewitz et al. (2017), which call for: a) homology between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) criteria to be used for determining efficacy in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD); b) measures that have clinical relevance with respect to the health-related consequences of AUD; and c) the establishment that such measures be sensitive enough to detect clinically significant change in pharmacotherapy trials for AUD.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T07:50:27.99091-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13412
  • Letter to Editor in Response to Johnson's Commentary (2017) on the
           Witkiewitz et al. (2017) Article
    • Authors: Raye Z. Litten; Daniel E. Falk, Stephanie S. O'Malley, Katie Witkiewitz, Karl F. Mann, Raymond F. Anton
      Abstract: Dr. Bankole Johnson's commentary (Johnson, 2017) on the recent article by Witkiewitz et al. (2017) was a thoughtful piece, emphasizing several important points that should be considered when developing evidence-based regulatory guidelines for conducting alcohol treatment trials. In particular, Dr. Johnson reiterated the importance of 1) having the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) endorse comparable primary endpoints, 2) developing an endpoint that accurately reflects a reduction in the behavioral and medical risk levels of drinking, and 3) defining more sensitive clinical trial endpoints to detect differences between the experimental medication and placebo groups. The latter point is particularly important because medications showing efficacy in alcohol treatment trials generally have small effect sizes (Falk et al., 2010; Litten et al, 1996 and 2005; Zindel and Kranzler, 2014).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T07:50:25.495154-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13411
  • Genetic variability in adenosine deaminase-like contributes to variation
           in alcohol preference in mice
    • Authors: Heidi M.B. Lesscher; Alexis Bailey, Louk J.M.J. Vanderschuren
      Abstract: BackgroundA substantial part of the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is determined by genetic factors. We previously used chromosome substitution (CSS) mice, to identify a QTL for alcohol preference on mouse chromosome 2. The aim of this study was to identify candidate genes within this QTL that confer the risk for alcohol preference.MethodsIn order to delineate the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol consumption, we expanded on the QTL approach to identify candidate genes for high alcohol preference in mice. We narrowed down a QTL for alcohol preference on mouse chromosome 2, that we previously identified using chromosome substitution (CSS) mice, to four candidate genes in silico. Expression levels of these candidate genes in prefrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens, brain regions implicated in reward and addiction, were subsequently compared for the CSS-2 and the C57BL/6J host strain.ResultsWe observed increased expression of adenosine deaminase-like (Adal) in all three regions in CSS-2 mice. Moreover, we found that the adenosine deaminase inhibitor EHNA reduced the difference in alcohol preference between CSS-2 and C57Bl/6J mice.ConclusionThe current study identifies Adal as a genetically protective factor against alcohol consumption in mice, in which elevated Adal levels contribute to low alcohol preference.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T16:03:21.679483-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13409
  • Findings from the Families on Track intervention pilot trial for children
           with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and their families
    • Authors: Christie L. M. Petrenko; Mary E. Pandolfino, Luther K. Robinson
      Abstract: BackgroundIndividuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multi-component intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation.MethodsThirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled. Families were randomized to either the Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention or an active control of neuropsychological assessment and personalized community referrals. The 30-week intervention integrates scientifically validated bi-monthly, in-home parent behavioral consultation and weekly child skills groups. Outcomes measured at baseline and follow-up post-intervention included intervention satisfaction, child emotional and behavioral functioning, child self-esteem, caregiver knowledge of FASD and advocacy, caregiver attitudes, use of targeted parenting practices, perceived family needs met, social support, and self-care. Data analysis emphasized calculation of effect sizes and was supplemented with analysis of variance techniques.ResultsAnalyses indicated that families participating in the intervention reported high program satisfaction. Relative to comparison group outcomes, the intervention was associated with medium to large effects for child emotion regulation, self-esteem, and anxiety. Medium-sized improvements in disruptive behavior were observed for both groups. Medium and large effects were seen for important caregiver outcomes: knowledge of FASD and advocacy, attributions of behavior, use of antecedent strategies, parenting efficacy, family needs met, social support, and self-care.ConclusionsThis pilot study yielded promising findings from the multicomponent Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention for child and caregiver outcomes. An important next step is to complete a randomized control trial of the Families on Track program with a larger sample fully representative of this underserved clinical population with built-in study of implementation parameters.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T10:21:24.661254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13408
  • A Prospective Comparison of How the Level of Response to Alcohol and
           Impulsivity Relate to Future DSM-IV Alcohol Problems in the COGA Youth
    • Authors: Marc A. Schuckit; Tom L. Smith, George Danko, Robert Anthenelli, Lara Schoen, Mari Kawamura, John Kramer, Danielle M. Dick, Zoe Neale, Samuel Kuperman, Vivia McCutcheon, Andrey P. Anokhin, Victor Hesselbrock, Michie Hesselbrock, Kathleen Bucholz
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcohol problems reflect both environmental and genetic characteristics that often operate through endophenotypes like low levels of response (low LRs) to alcohol and higher impulsivity. Relationships of these preexisting characteristics to alcohol problems have been studied, but few analyses have included both low LR and impulsivity in the same model.MethodsWe extracted prospective data from 1,028 participants in the Prospective Youth Sample of the Collaborative Study for the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). At Time 1 (age 18) these drinking but non-alcohol dependent males and females completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and the Self Report of the Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire regarding drinks required for effects the first 5 times of drinking (SRE5-LR). Two years later, they reported perceived drinking patterns of peers (PEER), their own alcohol expectancies (EXPECT), and their drinking to cope with stress (COPE). Subsequently, at Time 3, participants reported numbers of up to 11 DSM-IV alcohol criterion items experienced in the 2 years since Time 2 (ALC PROBS). Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).ResultsIn the SEM, Baseline SRE5-LR and impulsivity were weakly related and did not interact in predicting later ALC PROBS. LR was directly linked to Time 3 ALC PROBS, and to PEER, but had no direct path to EXPECT, with partial mediation to ALC PROBS through PEER to EXPECT and via COPE. Impulsivity did not relate directly to ALC PROBS or PEER, but was directly related to EXPECT and COPE, with effects on ALC PROBS also operating through EXPECT and COPE.ConclusionsLow LRs and impulsivity related to Time 3 ALC PROBS through somewhat different paths. Education- and counseling-based approaches to mitigate future alcohol problems may benefit from emphasizing different potential mediators of adverse alcohol outcomes for youth with low LRs versus those with high impulsivity or both characteristics.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T10:00:58.416135-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13407
  • Role of the Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor System in the Motivational
           Effects of Ethanol
    • Authors: Rachel I. Anderson; Howard C. Becker
      Abstract: Evidence has demonstrated that dynorphin (DYN) and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system contribute to various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, and addiction. More recently, this endogenous opioid system has received increased attention as a potential therapeutic target for treating alcohol use disorders. In this review, we provide an overview and synthesis of preclinical studies examining the influence of alcohol (ethanol) exposure on DYN/KOR expression and function, as well as studies examining the effects of DYN/KOR manipulation on ethanol's rewarding and aversive properties. We then describe work that has characterized effects of KOR activation and blockade on ethanol self-administration and ethanol dependence/withdrawal-related behaviors. Finally, we address how the DYN/KOR system may contribute to stress-ethanol interactions. Despite an apparent role for the DYN/KOR system in motivational effects of ethanol, support comes from relatively few studies. Nevertheless, review of this literature reveals several common themes: (1) rodent strains genetically predisposed to consume more ethanol generally appear to have reduced DYN/KOR tone in brain reward circuitry; (2) acute and chronic ethanol exposure typically upregulate the DYN/KOR system; (3) KOR antagonists reduce behavioral indices of negative affect associated with stress and chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal; and (4) KOR antagonists are effective in reducing ethanol consumption, but are often more efficacious under conditions that engender high levels of consumption, such as dependence or stress exposure. These results support the contention that the DYN/KOR system plays a significant role in contributing to dependence- and stress-induced elevation in ethanol consumption. Overall, more comprehensive analyses (on both behavioral and mechanistic levels) are needed to provide additional insight into how the DYN/KOR system is engaged and adapts to influence the motivation effects of ethanol. This information will be critical for the development of new pharmacological agents targeting KORs as promising novel therapeutics for alcohol use disorders and comorbid affective disorders.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T02:36:41.978093-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13406
  • Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Disrupted protein balance and impaired
           cardiomyocyte contractility
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Steiner; Charles H. Lang
      Abstract: Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) can develop after consumption of relatively large amounts of alcohol over time or from acute binge drinking. Of the many factors implicated in the etiology of ACM, chronic perturbation in protein balance has been strongly implicated. This review focuses on recent contributions (since 2010) in the area of protein metabolism and cardiac function related to ACM. Data reviewed include that from in vitro and preclinical in vivo animal studies where alcohol or an oxidative metabolite was studied and outcome measures in either cardiomyocytes or whole heart pertaining to protein synthesis or degradation were reported. Additionally, studies on the contractile properties of cardiomyocytes were also included to link signal transduction with function. Methodological differences including the potential impact of sex, dosing and duration/timing of alcohol administration are addressed. Acute and chronic alcohol consumption decreases cardiac protein synthesis and/or activation of proteins within the regulatory mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) pathway. Albeit limited, evidence suggests that myocardial protein degradation via the ubiquitin pathway is not altered, while autophagy may be enhanced in ACM. Alcohol impairs ex vivo cardiomyocyte contractility in relation to its metabolism and expression of proteins within the growth factor pathway. Dysregulation of protein metabolism, including the rate of protein synthesis and autophagy, may contribute to contractile deficits and is a hallmark feature of ACM meriting additional sex-inclusive, methodologically consistent studies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T01:10:56.548592-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13405
  • A 5-year Follow-up of a Cohort of Italian Alcoholics: Hospital Admissions
           and Overall Survival
    • Authors: Gabriele Bardazzi; Ines Zanna, Marco Ceroti, Benedetta Bendinelli, Adriana Iozzi, Saverio Caini, Gabriella Nesi, Calogero Saieva
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcohol-use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse defined according to specific DSM-IV and ICD-X criteria, can be potentially lethal, since they are associated with several medical and psychiatric conditions. This study aims to describe the causes of hospitalization of a large cohort of subjects with alcohol dependence (alcoholics) enrolled in Florence (Italy) over a 5-year follow-up period and to evaluate the effect of hospitalization on overall survival.MethodsEleven-hundred-thirty (1,130) alcoholics, newly diagnosed from 1997-2001, were linked to the Regional Mortality Registry for update of vital status as of December 31, 2006 and to the Hospital Discharge electronic archives of the Regional Health System of Tuscany to verify hospital admissions during the 5-year post cohort enrollment follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate any association of hospital admission with overall survival.ResultsA total of 3,916 new hospitalizations occurred during the 5-year follow-up. Most alcoholics (70.6%) reported at least 1 new hospitalization, with a first hospitalization rate of 61.7 per 100 person-years in the first year of follow-up. The mean number of hospitalizations per admitted subject was 4.87 (SD:7.4) and mean length of hospital stay was 8.5 days (SD:11.3). The main causes of hospitalization were mental disorders and diseases of the digestive system, as well as accidents or violence. Among those alcoholics alive after 1 year of follow-up, a significantly increased risk of dying in the following years could be predicted by early hospitalization in the 12 months preceding (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.15-2.60) or following (HR 3.59; 95% CI 2.31-5.61) enrollment in the cohort.ConclusionsOur results confirm the association of AUDs with several serious medical conditions. This fact may be responsible for a high impact on health resource utilization and high social costs. Early hospitalization significantly predicts vital status at 5 years.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T01:10:49.637672-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13404
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1239 - 1242
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T00:32:04.816815-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13191
  • Articles of Public Interest
    • Pages: 1243 - 1243
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T00:32:05.400905-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acer.13435
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