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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Agricultural and Forest Entomology
  [SJR: 0.925]   [H-I: 43]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1461-9555 - ISSN (Online) 1461-9563
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Recent trends in non-native, invertebrate, plant pest establishments in
           Great Britain, accounting for time lags in reporting
    • Authors: Richard M. Smith; Richard H. A. Baker, Dominique W. Collins, Anastasia Korycinska, Chris P. Malumphy, Joe C. Ostojá-Starzewski, Tom Prior, Dan Pye, Sharon Reid
      Abstract: Monitoring the establishment of plant pests enables national plant protection organizations to understand trends in biosecurity threats and thus modify their regulatory and management responses.A dataset of the 267 invertebrate pests establishing in Great Britain was compiled for the period 1970–2013. The number of establishments observed ranged between 1 and 13 per year.A study of time lags between the detection and reporting of new establishments showed that approximately 50% of new plant pests were reported after 2 years and 95% after 10 years. Therefore, the number of very recent establishments (and hence establishment rates) is underestimated.Correcting for the reporting lag, the annual rate of establishment was stable until the late 1980s, at approximately four species per year. Afterwards, the mean annual rate approached nine species per year.Approximately 50% of established species occurred only on hosts in the ornamental sector, approximately 25% in both wild and ornamental situations, and 25% only in the wild. Less than 5% of species pose a threat to economic sectors.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05T01:53:15.929894-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12282
  • Blue and yellow vane traps differ in their sampling effectiveness for wild
           bees in both open and wooded habitats
    • Authors: Mark Hall
      Abstract: Pan trapping is a common method for sampling wild bees, although the use of vane traps is growing globally. Despite this, few studies have tested the effectiveness of different coloured vane traps in attracting bees among different habitat types, and none exist in the southern hemisphere.The present study sampled 192 sites (108 in wooded habitats and 84 in open habitats) within an agricultural region of southern Australia. Pairs of coloured vane traps (one blue and one yellow) were placed at each site for a period of seven days. Combined, 16 348 individuals were collected from four families, comprising 13 genera (21 subgenera) and 55 species.Blue vane taps were most effective, sampling six times as many individuals as yellow vane traps and 96% of total species. Their effectiveness was consistent among open and wooded habitat types.The present study highlights the efficacy of vane traps as a passive sampling technique for wild bees. An added benefit of this technique is that vane traps do not require pheromones or lethal agents.A systematic sampling method best suited to the research question should be incorporated into studies of wild bees. For ecological census and population monitoring within multiple habitat types, the present study supports the use of blue vane taps as a major component of the sampling protocol.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20T00:21:40.154846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12281
  • Successful reproduction and pheromone production by the spruce bark beetle
           in evolutionary naïve spruce hosts with familiar terpenoid defences
    • Authors: Daniel Flø; Hans Ragnar Norli, Bjørn Økland, Paal Krokene
      Abstract: The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus is a damaging pest on spruce in Europe. Beetle interactions with tree species originating outside the natural range of the beetle are largely unknown and may be unpredictable because trees without a co-evolutionary history with the beetle may lack effective defences.The terpenoid composition and breeding suitability for I. typographus of the historic host Norway spruce Picea abies were compared with two evolutionary naïve spruces of North American origin that are extensively planted in North-West Europe: Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis and Lutz spruce Picea glauca x lutzii.The bark of all three species had a similar chemical composition and similar levels of total constitutive terpenoids, although Norway spruce had higher total induced terpenoid levels.Beetles tunnelling in the three spruce species produced similar amounts of aggregation pheromone. Controlled breeding experiments showed that I. typographus could produce offspring in all three species, with a similar offspring length and weight across species. However, total offspring production was much lower in Sitka and Lutz spruce.Overall, the results of the present study suggest that I. typographus will be able to colonize Sitka and Lutz spruce in European plantations and in native spruce forests in North America if introduced there.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05T10:11:31.575996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12280
  • Symbionts in excess' No correlation between symbiont density and the
           ability of mealybug hosts to exploit plant species or tolerate insecticide
    • Authors: Jasmine F. Parkinson; Bruno Gobin, William O.H. Hughes
      Abstract: The acquisition of obligate, nutritional, vertically-transmitted bacteria has been pivotal to the evolution and diversification of many insect taxa.Sap-feeding citrus mealybugs Planococcus citri are an interesting example of obligate nutritional symbiosis, harbouring a pair of symbionts: Tremblaya princeps and Moranella endobia. Hosts can often vary in the densities of their symbionts and symbiont cells will inevitably carry some cost to the hosts, and so it would be predicted that a higher symbiont density will have some form of benefit to the host to outweigh this cost.In the present study, we examine whether populations of citrus mealybugs, with heritably different symbiont densities, differed in their ability to exploit multiple plant species or to tolerate the stress from insecticide exposure.Plant species were found to significantly impact mealybug fitness, but higher symbiont densities did not hold any evident compensation for reduced host-plant suitability and did not correlate with mealybug susceptibility to insecticide treatment. Planococcus citri harbour variable symbiont densities but this did not correlate with the fitness of the host.This apparently sub-optimum symbiont density regulation in an otherwise intricate and tightly-knit tripartite symbiosis could be an evolutionary artefact of previous conflicts of interest.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T01:10:25.676261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12279
  • A simple, light clip-cage for experiments with aphids
    • Authors: Jucelaine Haas; Everton R. Lozano, Guy M. Poppy
      Abstract: Clip-cages are a useful experimental tool for confining small insects to leaves when aiming to study their behaviour and/or other biological parameters. Nonetheless, clip-cages are usually heavy and may damage the leaves, which renders them less useful for numerous research studies. We propose a very simple clip-cage, which is cheap, extremely light, and easy to make and handle, and which has less of the negative, damaging nature of traditional clip-cages.Each clip-cage was prepared using two discs of foam-floating tubes: one for support and one for confining the insects. On the upper surface of the latter, a rectangle of microperforated plastic flower sleeve (8 cm2) was glued using a nontoxic glue stick. To bind the two parts to the leaf, four staples (23/13) were used. We tested the clip-cages by confining Myzus persicae to Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa leaves and then compared the results obtained with those acquired using classic clip-cages.Each foam clip-cage was assembled in less than 2 min. Our experiments confirmed the M. persicae escape rate of 6%, which compared favourably with the escape rate of 40% for the classic clip-cage. Furthermore, the clip-cages did not interfere with the growth rate of the aphids.The foam clip-cages are up to 200% cheaper than the classic clip-cages. They are light, durable, easily put together and transported, and have the potential to be easily used in field experiments.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T08:20:22.255812-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12278
  • Diversity patterns of selected predaceous arthropod groups in maize fields
           and margins in South African Highveld grassland
    • Authors: Monique Botha; Stefan J. Siebert, Johnnie van den Berg, Suria Ellis, Bianca M. Greyvenstein
      Abstract: Conservation biological control focuses on enhancing arthropod predator habitats by increasing the natural resources required for survival and reproduction. However, this requires knowledge about the specific requirements of these predators, which can only be acquired from species-level data.We provide a description of species-level diversity patterns of the arthropod predator groups Araneae, Coccinellidae, Mantodea and Neuroptera from maize agro-ecosystems in South Africa.Predators were sampled by sweep-net at regional and local scales within the Dry Highveld Grassland Bioregion.A list is provided of predators that occurred naturally inside maize agro-ecosystems, which may be good candidates for the biological control of pests.Diversity indices displayed significantly lower values in maize fields compared with uncultivated vegetation. Marginal and rangeland vegetation had similar diversity levels.Predator diversity of maize was probably dependent on source populations from uncultivated vegetation, highlighting the importance of field margins with respect to maintaining predator diversity in pest management regimes for maize fields.Some predators frequented maize fields, suggesting adaptability to agricultural disturbance. Generalists including Cheilomenes lunata, Chrysoperla congrua and Enoplognatha molesta may be suitable for conservation biocontrol because they can persist in annual agro-ecosystems year-round provided that they have access to field margins.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T04:44:14.28805-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12277
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2018-01-04T03:32:58.590855-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12252
  • Symbionts mediate oviposition behaviour in invasive and native woodwasps
    • Authors: Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin, Stefanie A. Kroll, Stefan J. Long
      Abstract: Globalization leads to the introduction of invasive species that are often accompanied by associated microorganisms, and this can lead to homogenization of both introduced hosts and microbes with the native biota. One such example is the invasive Eurasian woodwasp Sirex noctilio, which inoculates pines with an obligate nutritional mutualist, the white rot fungus Amylostereum areolatum.Although S. noctilio has been previously introduced outside of its native range, its arrival in North America was the first time that it was introduced to communities hosting native Sirex species and Amylostereum strains.We conducted experiments aiming to investigate acceptance versus avoidance of native and non-native Amylostereum strains and species during ovipositor drilling by females of S. noctilio and a native congener, Sirex nigricornis.Sirex noctilio preferred wood without prior fungal emplacement, whereas S. nigricornis preferred wood inoculated with one of the strains of Amylostereum that putatively invaded with S. noctilio.Drilling and presumed oviposition by both woodwasp species were highly aggregated.Based on the responses of these two Sirex species to the fungal strains and species included in the present study, the invasive S. noctilio would continue its present symbiont associations, whereas the native S. nigricornis would partly use the strain of fungal symbiont putatively introduced with S. noctilio.
      PubDate: 2017-12-16T02:06:51.459145-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12276
  • Environmental and genetic influences on the dispersal propensity of spruce
           budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana)
    • Authors: Brian Van Hezewijk; Debra Wertman, Don Stewart, Catherine Béliveau, Michel Cusson
      Abstract: For many species, dispersal among populations has profound impacts on local dynamics and the spread of outbreaks. Understanding the environmental and genetic triggers of density-dependent dispersal is important for improving population models and developing reliable management strategies.We hypothesized that moth dispersal in the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) is triggered by reductions in larval food availability and mediated by the expression of the for gene, which affects movement and dispersal activity in Drosophila and other species. Late-stage larvae were reared under different food-limitation treatments. Dispersal of adults was assessed using three measures of flight performance on flight mills: maximum velocity, 1-h flight distance and maximum sustained flight time. Accumulation of for transcripts was measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction on moths from each treatment.Flight activity was positively related to moth size and, although food limitation caused reductions in moth size, it also had an independent and positive effect on maximum velocities, sustained flight times and flight distances. Food limitation had no effect on expression of the for gene.We conclude that reductions in food availability will produce moths that are smaller but exhibit increased flight activity, potentially increasing the population of dispersing individuals. The physiological basis for this effect remains unknown.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T09:40:34.471338-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12275
  • Domestication of tomato has reduced the attraction of herbivore natural
           enemies to pest-damaged plants
    • Authors: Xiaohong Li; Michael Garvey, Ian Kaplan, Baoping Li, Juli Carrillo
      Abstract: Plant domestication can alter species interactions and influence novel associations among crops and insects. We performed a series of preference and performance experiments to test predator and herbivore attraction to domesticated and wild plants and to evaluate the efficacy of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) across a domestication gradient in tomato, including wild relatives, landraces and domesticated commercial cultivars.We employed a tri-trophic system consisting of the specialist lepidopteran herbivore Manduca sexta and two of its natural enemies: an egg predator, the stilt bug Jalysus wickhami, and a larval parasitoid, the wasp Cotesia congregata.In olfactometer trials, natural enemies consistently preferred HIPVs of wild tomatoes over domesticated cultivars, with landraces in between. Plant-domestication effects were also apparent in terms of decision speed: predators were slower to orient towards damaged crops than to damaged wild relatives.By contrast, M. sexta moths were more likely to oviposit on domesticated than on wild or landrace tomatoes, indicating that insect responses to plant odours vary with trophic level. Field trials confirmed olfactory preference tests: caterpillars recovered from wild tomato relatives were more likely to be parasitized than those recovered from landraces or domesticated tomatoes.The results of the present study suggest that tomato domestication has reduced the efficacy of HIPVs in attracting predators compared with wild relatives and also that this decreased attraction leads to lower attack rates by enemies in the field. This outcome has implications for understanding the specificity of tri-trophic plant defences and the compatibility of natural enemies for biocontrol in agro-ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T03:06:15.731044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12271
  • Effects of grapevine bunch exposure to sunlight on berry surface
           temperature and Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg laying,
           hatching and larval settlement
    • Authors: Fatemeh Kiaeian Moosavi; Elena Cargnus, Francesco Pavan, Pietro Zandigiacomo
      Abstract: Bunch-zone leaf removal reduced infestation by Lobesia botrana, although the mechanism responsible for this effect is unknown.Based on the mortality of eggs and newly-hatched larvae exposed to high temperatures (≥37 °C) in the laboratory, the present study aimed to assess the influence of (i) bunch-zone leaf removal and grapevine-row orientation on berry surface temperature and (ii) bunch exposure to sunlight on egg and larval mortality.Berry temperatures were measured using a noncontact infrared thermometer in two vineyards and showed that, in direct sunlight, the temperatures of berry surfaces were 9 °C or more above air temperature, and the highest mean temperatures occurred on southwest-side bunches followed by west- and south-side bunches.The results of four two-choice field assays, carried out confining fertile females in cages with two bunches, one exposed and one non-exposed to sunlight, showed that: (i) the females did not avoid laying eggs on sun-exposed bunches and (ii) the lowest percentages of both egg-hatching and larval settlement occurred on sun-exposed bunches.The hypothesis that the high temperatures reached by sun-exposed berries cause egg and especially larval mortality is confirmed.Bunch-zone leaf removal combined with optimized grapevine-row orientations can improve L. botrana control.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T01:07:11.711023-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12274
  • Oviposition site preference of Barbitistes vicetinus (Orthoptera,
           Tettigoniidae) during outbreaks
    • Authors: Giacomo Cavaletto; Massimo Faccoli, Lorenzo Marini, Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Luca Mazzon
      Abstract: Barbitistes vicetinus is an endemic bush-cricket of north-east Italy that causes heavy damage to woody vegetation and crops. Because the species was described in the late 1990s and outbreaks occurred only in the last decade, no data are currently available on pest biology and ecology. Female oviposition preference, in particular, is a key factor for understanding species habitat use, as well as for developing species monitoring and control programmes.We tested the influence of vegetation type (forest, vineyard and hedgerow) and soil cover (broadleaf litter and grass) on the oviposition preference of the species. A 3-year study was conducted and 18 sites across the outbreak area were sampled with emergence traps.A higher nymph density was recorded in woody vegetation than in vineyards without a density gradient from the inner forest to the edge. Moreover, a significantly lower density was found under grass cover (approximately three individuals per trap) compared with broadleaf litter (approximately 39 individuals per trap).Although B. vicetinus is commonly found in vineyards, where it can cause severe damage, these habitats did not offer to the species suitable oviposition sites. These results provide useful insights with respect to the management of B. vicetinus outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T08:10:30.377877-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12273
  • Predators and competitors of the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus
           ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in stands of changing forest
           composition associated with elevation
    • Authors: Adam M. Krause; Philip A. Townsend, Young Lee, Kenneth F. Raffa
      Abstract: The mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an irruptive tree-killing bark beetle native to pine stands in western North America. The primary hosts are lodgepole and ponderosa pines. Recent rising temperatures, however, have allowed these beetles to survive at higher elevations more commonly than in the past, thus threatening whitebark pine, a keystone species of high elevation ecosystems and a highly susceptible host.The extent to which risk in whitebark pine stands may be mitigated by predators or competitors is unknown. We compared the communities of coleopteran predators and competitors of D. ponderosae in sites of varying elevation and species composition in Montana and Wyoming, U.S.A. Sites were selected for low to moderate levels of tree mortality, where the potential of natural enemies to prevent D. ponderosae from transitioning into outbreaks would be most relevant. Insect populations were evaluated using unbaited flight-intercept panel traps and pheromone-baited multiple funnel traps.Only the predatory beetle species Thanasimus undatulus (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was captured in these non-outbreak stands. Based on the pheromone-baited traps, predator load was higher at low-elevation stands dominated by lodgepole pine than high-elevation stands dominated by whitebark pine.Phloeophagous insects were more prevalent in the mid- and higher-elevation sites, although most of the species captured would not likely compete substantially for resources with D. ponderosae. We also observed differences in species assemblages between the Montana and Wyoming sites, as well as differing utilities of baited and unbaited traps at low versus moderate tree mortality levels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T01:55:30.656613-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12272
  • Does habitat heterogeneity affect the diversity of epigaeic arthropods in
    • Authors: Fátima Gonçalves; Cristina Carlos, José Aranha, Laura Torres
      Abstract: The aims of this research performed in vineyards within the Douro Demarcated Region were to determine the species composition of vineyard epigaeic arthropods assemblages and to determine the influence of certain factors on their activity densities and diversity: (i) landscape composition in buffers (125, 250, 500 and 750 m) around each study site; (ii) adjacent vegetation; and (iii) vineyards' ground cover. Arthropods' were assessed using pitfall traps located inside the vineyards at three distances from adjacent vegetation (5, 50 and 100 m).Activity densities and diversity increased from spring to summer for all the studied trophic groups (omnivores, detritivores, predators, phytophages), thus showing them to be affected by season.The activity densities of phytophages were always higher at a distance of 5 m from the adjacent vegetation, which suggests that, although they could originate from these habitats, they do not move too far into the vineyard. Predators reported higher activity densities at 5 m during spring. Meanwhile, in summer, no significant differences were found with the increasing distance from the edge. This result suggests that these habitats could serve both as a refuge and a hibernation habitat, from which predators could colonize the vineyard.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T09:20:52.207158-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12270
  • Invertebrate biodiversity in apple orchards: agrichemical sprays as
           explanatory variables for inter-orchard community differences
    • Authors: Louise A. Malone; Elisabeth P. J. Burgess, Emma I. Barraclough, Joanne Poulton, Jacqui H. Todd
      Abstract: Invertebrates are important providers of ecosystem services to orchards and the orchards may benefit where there is greater biodiversity. Previous research has shown that apple orchards using organic or integrated pest management support different invertebrate communities, as can different orchards within the same management system.In the present study, we examined the potential for agrichemical usage to explain inter-orchard invertebrate community differences in 10 New Zealand apple orchards under integrated pest management.Multiple regression models were used to examine relationships between spray diary data and invertebrates collected by branch tapping, pitfall and sticky traps in 2011/2012. Insecticides, fungicides, plant growth regulators and fertilizers were used as explanatory variables in these models and the most parsimonious models were identified.Plant growth regulators were significant in most of the models for inter-orchard variability in total invertebrate diversity. Insecticides featured strongly in models explaining pest assemblages, although not so strongly for models for their natural enemies. Fungicide and fertilizer use featured in models explaining communities of decomposers and fungivores.The results generated several hypotheses about the impacts of specific agrichemicals on invertebrate biodiversity, which, if tested, could establish the feasibility of customizing spray schedules to meet both biodiversity and production goals.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T04:20:50.080497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12269
  • Forest edge orientation influences leaf-cutting ant abundance and plant
           drought stress in the Brazilian Atlantic forest
    • Authors: Jônatas L. G. da Silva; Isabelle L. de Holanda Silva, José D. Ribeiro-Neto, Rainer Wirth, Inara R. Leal
      Abstract: The release from bottom-up control is a key process promoting the proliferation of leaf-cutting ants (LCA) along neotropical rainforest edges. Considering the preference of LCA for drought-stressed plants, edge-induced drought-stress in plants could be one of the mechanisms behind this bottom-up response. We hypothesized that plants growing along the forest edge suffer higher levels of drought stress, which makes them a more suitable food resource for LCA and affects LCA colony density in a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnant. Additionally, we investigated whether this effect is stronger in north-facing edges because the radiation load is higher in this edge aspect in the southern hemisphere.We examined LCA colony density and plant relative water content (RWC) by relating them to edge distance and edge orientation.We recorded 57 LCA colonies in which the density showed an approximately six-fold increase within the first 50 m of the forest compared with distances> 150 m. North-facing edges presented an approximately four-fold higher colony density compared with other edge aspects. Among the 296 plant individuals sampled, the average RWC was unrelated to edge distance, although plants growing near north-facing edges had approximately 10% lower RWC values compared with in south-facing edges. We also found that, considering edge orientation, the lower the average RWC, the higher the LCA colony density.We conclude that drought stress-induced osmoregulation of plants varies with edge orientation and also that LCA may profit from changes in leaf quality in terms of an increased population density along edges, where plant individuals face higher drought stress levels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T01:50:26.871486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12268
  • The lifecycle of Agrilus biguttatus: the role of temperature in its
           development and distribution, and implications for Acute Oak Decline
    • Authors: Katy Reed; Sandra Denman, Simon R. Leather, Jack Forster, Daegan J. G. Inward
      Abstract: The two spotted oak buprestid, Agrilus biguttatus Fabricus, is implicated in oak decline events across Europe, and is strongly linked to Acute Oak Decline in the U.K., although its role in the syndrome remains under investigation. In the U.K., the beetle is restricted to south and central England. The present study aimed to improve our understanding of the beetle's life history and thermal requirements, intending to explain its U.K. distribution, and to collect data for lifecycle modelling.Novel methods were developed to collect and culture the beetle in the laboratory, which enabled experiments to be carried out, providing data on the beetle's sex ratio, longevity and fecundity, and the development rates of eggs, larvae and pupae at constant temperatures.On average, females lived for 63 days and laid 82 eggs. Larvae developed through four instars. Sex ratio varied by site, with no overall trend apparent.The development rates of eggs, larvae and pupae (to adult emergence) had linear relationships with temperature, with lower developmental thresholds of 12.1, 11.9 and 15.1 °C, respectively. For each life stage, degree-day values were calculated. Beetles appeared to have an obligatory prepupal diapause at all temperatures studied, up to and including 25 °C.The implications of the developmental findings for the beetle's current distribution, as well as the possible effects of climate change, are discussed. The beetle appears to be thermally limited in the U.K. and, if so, its distribution, and perhaps that of Acute Oak Decline, may alter under climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T06:15:38.061779-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12266
  • Influence of shaded systems on Xylosandrus compactus infestation in
           Robusta coffee along a rainfall gradient in Uganda
    • Authors: Hannington Bukomeko; Laurence Jassogne, Godfrey H. Kagezi, David Mukasa, Philippe Vaast
      Abstract: We investigated the relationship between characteristics of coffee shade systems and coffee pest infestation by the black coffee twig borer Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff. The pest deprives Uganda of $40 millions annually, yet its control remains inadequate.The present study considered three rainfall zones in Central Uganda and 50 coffee plots that were randomly selected from each rainfall zone. Data were collected on X. compactus infestation and key shade indicators: canopy cover, tree-species densities, diameter at breast height (DBH) and ratio of coffee to banana.Cluster analysis revealed two coffee shade systems: a matured shade tree (MST) system and a young poly-culture (YPC) system. Xylosandrus compactus infestations were significantly less in the MST system than in the YPC system and significantly less in the low rainfall zone than in the high rainfall zone. An increase in the density of Carica papaya and Albizia chinensis significantly reduced and increased X. compactus infestation, respectively. A higher average DBH of individual trees and a higher density of trees that exude sap significantly lowered X. compactus infestation.Suppressing X. compactus infestation requires bigger trees, a high density of sap-exuding trees and no Albizia chinensis. Further research should aim to investigate X. compactus flight activity and microclimate influencing X. compactus population dynamics.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:10:24.758699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12265
  • Performance of the tree-killing bark beetles Ips typographus
           and Pityogenes chalcographus in non-indigenous lodgepole pine and their
           historical host Norway spruce
    • Authors: Martin Schroeder; Dragoş Cocoş
      Abstract: The North American lodgepole pine Pinus contorta has been planted on 660 000 ha in Sweden.We compared the performance of Ips typographus and Pityogenes chalcographus in storm-felled and standing pheromone-baited trees of the historical host species Norway spruce (Picea abies) and lodgepole pine.In the first summer after a storm, I. typographus colonized 0.2% and P. chalcographus colonized 2.4% of the storm-felled lodgepole pines compared with 31% and 25%, respectively, of the storm-felled Norway spruces. In the second summer 1.6% and 41.5% of the lodgepole pines were colonized by I. typographus and P. chalcographus, respectively. The reproductive success of I. typographus was five-fold higher in Norway spruce than in lodgepole pine. Other species colonizing lodgepole pine were Ips duplicatus, Orthotomicus proximus, Orthotomicus laricis, Monochamus sutor and Pissodes pini.The male attack densities of both bark beetle species required to overcome defences of standing pheromone-baited trees were much higher in lodgepole pine than in Norway spruce. The reproductive success of I. typographus and P. chalcographus was approximately five- and 14-fold higher, respectively, in Norway spruce than in lodgepole pine.Larvae of the most important groups of bark beetle enemies were present in both storm-felled and standing pheromone-baited lodgepole pines colonized by I. typographus and P. chalcographus. In the standing trees, the densities of enemy larvae were lower in lodgepole pine than in Norway spruce, whereas the opposite was true for storm-felled trees.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T03:30:50.997596-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12267
  • Linking climate change and insect pest distribution: an example using
           Agriotes ustulatus Shall. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
    • Authors: Maja Čačija; Antonela Kozina, Jasminka Igrc Barčić, Renata Bažok
      Abstract: Agriotes ustulatus (Schaller, 1873) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is an economically important agricultural pest. Recently, changes in the distribution and abundance of this species in Croatia have been established.The present study aimed: (i) to determine the abundance and dominance of A. ustulatus in four regions in Croatia; (ii) to test the effect of temperature and rainfall on dominance and distribution; and (iii) to determine the flight activity of the A. ustulatus adults (peak and swarming period).From 2001 until 2010, five Agriotes species were captured by pheromone traps placed in 17 fields within four counties. Differences in air temperature and rainfall were determined between regions.The highest dominance of A. ustulatus was recorded in the warmest eastern county and the species was classified as eudominant. High dominance was also observed in the western county, confirming that A. ustulatus occurs in higher population in this area. Species was subdominant where the mean air temperature was the lowest.The increase in dominance in the west could be explained by the significant positive correlation found between air temperature and dominance.The seasonal activity of the adults was from June to mid-August, with peak flight at the end of June.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T01:50:59.327513-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12259
  • The first record of subtropical insects (Thysanoptera) in central Europe:
           long-distance transport of airborne thrips, applying three-dimensional
           backward trajectories
    • Authors: László Makra; Károly Bodnár, Andrea Fülöp, Szilvia Orosz, Ágnes Szénási, Zoltán Csépe, Gábor Jenser, Gábor Tusnády, Donát Magyar
      Abstract: The present study reports the first occurrence and flight period of three species, namely Scolothrips tenuipennis zur Strassen 1965, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom, 1910 and Zurstrassenia figuratus zur Strassen, 1968 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Hungary. A fourth, undescribed species belonging to the genus Caliothrips was also captured.The distribution area of these species is North Africa and it is hypothesized that they are transported to Hungary via long-distance air currents.Data for a suction trap are examined in South–East Hungary, in the 3-year period 2002–2004 from May to September. A three-dimensional back-trajectory analysis based on the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) transport and dispersion model was performed for the observation days to determine the origin and path of air masses and evaluate of the possibility of long-distance transport of thrips species.Surprisingly, the analysis showed that only a few percent of the back trajectories originated or passed over North Africa. The results suggest that the captured thrips species could survive long-distance transport at low-level trajectories and establish new populations in Western Europe, the eastern part of Europe and Northern Central Europe, which together serve as source areas for the long-range transport of thrips to the target station.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T04:18:36.476707-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12260
  • Interaction effects between local flower richness and distance to natural
           woodland on pest and beneficial insects in apple orchards
    • Authors: Manu E. Saunders; Gary W. Luck
      Abstract: Local and landscape factors interact to influence animal populations and, ultimately, crop yields in agroecosystems. Yet few studies have considered interactions and trade-offs between these factors within a single agroecosystem.We sampled insect communities (fruit-damaging pests and Diptera and Hymenoptera pollinator and natural enemy taxa) associated with focal apple trees in south-eastern Australian orchards across a single growing season. We also measured marketable fruit yields on netted (preventing access to vertebrates) and open branches on each focal tree. We focused on relationships with local (ground cover attributes) and landscape (proximity to natural woodland) factors.Importantly, we found that local flower richness in orchard understoreys may buffer the negative effects that isolation from natural woodland has on wild bee and natural enemy communities and the ecosystem services they provide.The results of the present study suggest that floral diversity may be more effective in supporting beneficial insects in crop interiors, rather than at edges near natural vegetation.More studies are needed that identify how local and landscape vegetation structure interact to influence communities of pest and beneficial taxa, and relevant ecosystem functions, in agroecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:45:41.098681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12258
  • Attraction of red turpentine beetle and other Scolytinae to ethanol,
           3-carene or ethanol + 3-carene in an Oregon pine forest
    • Authors: Rick G. Kelsey; Douglas J. Westlind
      Abstract: Red turpentine beetle Dendroctonus valens LeConte is a non-aggressive bark beetle in North America that attacks weakened or recently dead pines, as well as their fresh logs or stumps. Fire-injured ponderosa pines releasing stress-induced ethanol are often attacked. The oleoresin from these trees frequently contains 3-carene as a major component mixed with α- or β-pinene. 3-Carene lures usually attract more D. valens than α- or β-pinene lures or 1 : 1 : 1 mixtures, whereas the attraction of ethanol + 3-carene lures has never been tested.Funnel traps with ethanol, 3-carene or ethanol + 3-carene lures, and a no lure blank, were set-up as a randomized complete block design in a pine forest near La Pine, Oregon, U.S.A., from 23 April until 11 June 2015.Dendroctonus valens, Hylastes nigrinus, Hylurgops reticulatus, Hylurgops porosus and Hylastes gracilis exhibited similar responses, with highest numbers captured in traps with ethanol + 3-carene. The response by the first three species was confirmed as synergistic.Ips spp., Pityogenes spp., Gnathotrichus spp., Pachysquamus subcostulatus and Hylastes macer composed a second group whose numbers captured with ethanol lures were similar or greater than the 3-carene or ethanol + 3-carene lures. A reduced H. macer response to ethanol + 3-carene was confirmed as an interruption.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T08:35:19.969722-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12257
  • Climate warming effects on grape and grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana)
           in the Palearctic region
    • Authors: Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Luigi Ponti, Gianni Gilioli, Johann Baumgärtner
      Abstract: The grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is the principal native pest of grape in the Palearctic region. In the present study, we assessed prospectively the relative abundance of the moth in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin using linked physiologically-based demographic models for grape and L. botrana. The model includes the effects of temperature, day-length and fruit stage on moth development rates, survival and fecundity.Daily weather data for 1980–2010 were used to simulate the dynamics of grapevine and L. botrana in 4506 lattice cells across the region. Average grape yield and pupae per vine were used as metrics of favourability. The results were mapped using the grass Geographic Information System ( model predicts a wide distribution for L. botrana with highest populations in warmer regions in a wide band along latitude 40°N.The effects of climate warming on grapevine and L. botrana were explored using regional climate model projections based on the A1B scenario of an average +1.8 °C warming during the period 2040–2050 compared with the base period (1960–1970). Under climate change, grape yields increase northwards and with a higher elevation but decrease in hotter areas. Similarly, L. botrana levels increase in northern areas but decrease in the hot areas where summer temperatures approach its upper thermal limit.
      PubDate: 2017-08-26T01:46:17.555553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12256
  • Intercropping flowering plants in maize systems increases pollinator
    • Authors: Stuart L. Norris; Rod P. Blackshaw, C. Nigel R. Critchley, Robert M. Dunn, Kate E. Smith, John Williams, Nicola P. Randall, Philip J. Murray
      Abstract: Maize is a poorly competitive crop. Accordingly, soil preparation and high application rates of herbicides are required to reduce early competition with weeds. This leaves a large amount of bare ground with few flowering weeds, providing a poor farmland habitat for pollinators.The present study evaluates the effect of four different maize management regimes on pollinator diversity and community composition.Flowering plants intercropped with maize attracted pollinators, helping to support pollinator communities. Similar intercropping techniques using a grass ground cover did not increase pollinator density, demonstrating that pollinator richness, density and diversity is intrinsically linked to the presence of flowering plants.A maize system with a diverse intercrop may make it possible for pollinators to thrive; however, these systems may only be sufficiently attractive to bring pollinators in temporarily from the surrounding areas.These results show that there can be significant improvements to pollinator diversity, density and community composition as a result of modifying maize cultivation practices; however, these benefits must be balanced with yield penalties of approximately 60% to farmers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T04:40:22.215399-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12251
  • Annual variation of oilseed rape habitat quality and role of grassy field
           margins for seed eating carabids in arable mosaics
    • Authors: Sarah Labruyere; Sandrine Petit, Benoit Ricci
      Abstract: Promoting the weed seed predation service by carabids requires an understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of carabid species during the cropping season.In the present study, we analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of three abundant seed-eating carabid species in oilseed rape (OSR) and its adjacent habitat (cereal crop or grassy field margin) with four indicators: activity density, nutritional state, the use of the interface with the adjacent habitat, and the proportion of carabids leaving OSR.The activity density and nutritional state of Poecilus cupreus decreased after harvest, comprising a period related to a decrease of resource availability and the end of life cycle. We detected a tendency of movement from OSR to the adjacent habitat after harvest for Amara similata, although this was not as strong as expected. The presence of grassy field margins influenced the spatio-temporal dynamics of Pseudoophonus rufipes and A. similata, suggesting that spillover processes exist for these two species but not for P. cupreus.Monitoring four complementary indicators gave a more thorough understanding of the perception of local and adjacent habitats by carabids, which is a prerequisite for the identification of landscape configurations that enhance the activity density of these natural enemies within crops.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T05:36:08.627842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12250
  • Determination of Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) sex pheromone
           attraction range using target male behavioural responses
    • Authors: Roderick P. Blackshaw; Willem G. van Herk, Robert S. Vernon
      Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the attractive range of traps baited with Agriotes obscurus pheromone to male beetles in both still air and wind conditions. This information is crucial for evaluating the potential of mass trapping when aiming to reduce beetle populations.Groups of 10 beetles were released at 14 points spaced 1 m apart along a linear track, at one end of which was a pheromone and wind source. Beetle response to the pheromone and/or wind was recorded 150 s after release and characterized as orienting either towards or away from the pheromone and/or wind source.Data analysis indicated the attraction range of the sex pheromone is
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T05:20:51.814091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12249
  • Insect community response to switchgrass intercropping and stand age of
           loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations
    • Authors: Myung-Bok Lee; Joshua W. Campbell, Darren A. Miller, James A. Martin
      Abstract: Intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) between rows in managed pine stands is a potential, emerging method for biofuel feedstock production in forestry systems. Switchgrass intercropping likely alters vegetation characteristics within a stand by increasing herbaceous vegetation cover and thus influences insect communities positively. However, its effect may vary with stand age, which often determines canopy closure and vegetation structure within a stand: effects of switchgrass intercropping may be stronger in old pine stands with a closed canopy than in young pine stands with an open canopy.We examined how switchgrass intercropping and stand age, namely 3–4-year-old pine (YPine) and 8–9-year-old pine (OPine), influenced insect abundance and diversity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in Mississippi, U.S.A., during May to August 2013–2014. We captured insects at 36 locations throughout 12 stands (three stands per each of four treatments; intercropping and non-intercropping treatment in YPine and OPine stands), using pan traps.Abundance and family level richness were greater in YPine stands and Shannon–Wiener diversity and evenness at family level was higher in OPine stands both years. However, insect abundance and diversity did not differ between intercropping and non-intercropping treatments. Community composition was also influenced by stand age, which explained> 90% of constrained inertia, rather than switchgrass intercropping.Our findings suggest that switchgrass intercropping is unlikely to significantly affect insect communities in managed pine stands, whereas stand age, as well as associated successional changes, can be a main factor affecting insects, as often observed in other animal taxa in managed pine landscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T05:20:42.713316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12247
  • Parasitoid assemblage associated with a North American pine weevil in
           South Africa
    • Authors: Mesfin Wondafrash; Bernard Slippers, Jeff Garnas, Brett P. Hurley
      Abstract: The weevil Pissodes sp. was first reported as an introduced pest on exotic Pinus spp. in South Africa in 1942. It is only recently that the native wasp Pycnetron pix Prinsloo was described from South Africa as a parasitoid of this weevil.We estimated the frequency and distribution of the association between P. pix and Pissodes sp., as well as the occurrence of possible other natural enemies. Parasitoids were reared from Pissodes-infested Pinus radiata D. Don and Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham logs collected from major Pinus-growing regions.The identity of parasitoids was confirmed using morphological and molecular techniques. Parasitism was confirmed by analyzing gut content sequences of parasitoids.Pycnetron pix was found parasitizing Pissodes sp. throughout major Pinus-growing provinces of the country. Another native parasitoid, Cratocnema sp., is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Pissodes sp. Rhopalicus tutela (Walker), a known parasitoid of Pissodes spp. in their native range, was also detected and confirmed to be of European origin.Although characterized by an erratic distribution and a low parasitism rate, an accruing suite of natural enemies was documented, suggesting that there is potential for augmentative biological control of Pissodes sp. in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T05:16:13.936255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12246
  • Ecosystem services in agriculture: understanding the multifunctional role
           of invertebrates
    • Authors: Manu E. Saunders
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T05:15:30.543148-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12248
  • Time course study of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae
           predation in soil: the effect of landscape structure and soil condition
    • Authors: Marta Ortega; Ismael Sánchez-Ramos, Manuel González-Núñez, Susana Pascual
      Abstract: Environmentally friendly control measures are necessary for the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi). Predation of pupae in soil should be better understood because it contributes to the natural control of pest populations.A time course field trial was carried out in 2015 and 2016 in 15 olive orchards selected to represent a gradient of landscape complexity. Exclusion cages were used to estimate predation rate. A combination of tillage intensity and soil coverage by herbaceous vegetation, hereafter referred to as soil condition, was also assessed as a factor affecting predation rate. The viability of the pupae recovered from the field was also evaluated.Predation was higher in the autumn than in late winter–early spring, although predation rate values were generally quite low.Landscape structure affected predation. In the autumn, the area of Mediterranean scrublands promoted predation in the olive groves. In late winter–early spring, weak tendencies were registered.Soil condition affected predation in autumn as well. The intense tillage and poor soil coverage were related to lower values of predation rate.To favour conservation biological control of B. oleae by pupae predation, it is advisable to reduce the intensity of soil management, especially in autumn, and to preserve areas of scrublands surrounding the olive groves.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T09:21:19.775735-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12245
  • Population dynamics and seasonal variation in the embryonic dormancy of
           Pilophorus gallicus (Hemiptera: Miridae): ‘don't put all your eggs in
           one basket'
    • Authors: Maria José Ramírez-Soria; Elena López-Gallego, Michelangelo La-Spina, Juan A. Sanchez
      Abstract: Pilophorus gallicus Remane is a generalist predator in southern European pear orchards. Nymphs and adults are present in orchards from March to November; their winter absence suggests either migration to other hosts or embryonic dormancy on pear trees to overcome the adverse period. In addition, it has been hypothesized that aestivation takes place to cope with extreme summer conditions.The present study aimed to investigate the reproductive strategy of P. gallicus to overcome unfavourable periods. Accordingly, (i) its population dynamics were followed during several years and (ii) females were sampled in three different seasons to study the condition (diapausing or nondiapausing) of the laying.The results obtained show that nymphs were always the first mobile instar to show up in pear orchards and the presence of adults was delayed, indicating egg overwintering. Nondiapausing eggs prevailed in spring and summer, whereas the autumn eggs were mainly diapausing. Aestivation was rejected.Worthy of note are: (i) the presence of diapausing eggs under favourable conditions and (ii) the existence of females laying both diapausing and nondiapausing eggs; thus, ‘not laying all the eggs in one basket’. The reproductive strategy of P. gallicus is considered as bet-hedging for the short- and long-term survival of the species.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T08:55:52.10799-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12243
  • Genetics-based methods for agricultural insect pest management
    • Authors: Nina Alphey; Michael B. Bonsall
      Abstract: The sterile insect technique is an area-wide pest control method that reduces agricultural pest populations by releasing mass-reared sterile insects, which then compete for mates with wild insects. Contemporary genetics-based technologies use insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct rather than being sterilized by irradiation.Engineered strains of agricultural pest species, including moths such as the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella and fruit flies such as the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, have been developed with lethality that only operates on females.Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins are widely used; the economic benefits of these crops would be lost if toxin resistance spread through the pest population. The primary resistance management method is a high-dose/refuge strategy, requiring toxin-free crops as refuges near the insecticidal crops, as well as toxin doses sufficiently high to kill wild-type insects and insects heterozygous for a resistance allele.Mass-release of toxin-sensitive engineered males (carrying female-lethal genes), as well as suppressing populations, could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance. These transgenic insect technologies could form an effective resistance management strategy.We outline some policy considerations for taking genetic insect control systems through to field implementation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T06:05:49.563471-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12241
  • Response of maize stemborers and associated parasitoids to the spread of
           grasses in the rainforest zone of Kisangani, DR Congo: effect on
           stemborers biological control
    • Authors: Onésime M. Kankonda; Benjamin D. Akaibe, Ntambo M. Sylvain, Bruno-Pierre Le Ru
      Abstract: The challenge with respect to nourishing the human population should be met in the context of global environmental change. Land-use change has the potential to affect insect pest–natural enemy interactions.In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the rainforest zone is subjected to intense anthropogenic disturbances that lead to the spread of habitats with a higher proportion of grasses in the landscape. Such a land-use change raises the question of its effects on the biological control of insect pests.The proximity of varying vegetation types around agroecosystems is expected to influence species fitting differently and hence the population dynamics of insect pests and their biological control.Thus, the response of maize stemborers and their parasitoids to the spread of habitats with a higher proportion of grasses was assessed along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the rainforest zone of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.The present study identified a decreased density of stemborers and infestation rates on maize as a result of an increased larval/pupal parasitism in wild habitats as the amount of grasses increased in the landscape. This effect was attributed to an increased parasitoid diversity subsequent to the settlement of an abundant and diverse stemborer community in wild habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T06:00:57.058357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12238
  • Drought stress increased survival and development of emerald ash borer
           larvae on coevolved Manchurian ash and implicates phloem-based traits in
    • Authors: David N. Showalter; Caterina Villari, Daniel A. Herms, Pierluigi Bonello
      Abstract: Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is causing widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality as it invades North America and Eastern Europe. Resistance of its coevolved hosts, including Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.), is considered to limit EAB outbreaks and ash mortality in its native Asia, although an understanding of resistance mechanisms is still developing. Such knowledge may facilitate breeding for resistance and management of EAB in its invaded ranges.In the present study, controlled egg inoculations were used to investigate resistance mechanisms impacting larval performance, as well as to characterize the effects of water and nutrient availability on inter- and intra-specific variation in resistance phenotypes based on larval outcomes.Larval survival and growth rates were lower on coevolved Manchurian ash than on evolutionarily naïve white ash (Fraxinus americana L.).Water stress decreased tree growth and resistance of Manchurian ash to EAB, although it had little effect on resistance of the already highly susceptible white ash. High nutrient availability increased tree growth but had no effect on larval performance.These results show that the higher resistance of Manchurian ash to EAB is conferred by phloem traits that decrease larval performance, in addition to lower oviposition preference.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T04:07:32.542926-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12240
  • Can spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirky) pheromone trap catches
           or stand conditions predict Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex
           Engelm.) tree mortality in Colorado'
    • Authors: José F. Negrón; John B. Popp
      Abstract: Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) can cause extensive tree mortality in forests dominated by their hosts. Among these, the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) is one of the most important beetles in western North America causing Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) tree mortality.Although pheromone traps with attractants are commonly used to monitor spruce beetle populations, the relationship between the numbers of beetles caught in pheromone traps and subsequent tree mortality has not been investigated adequately.We used pheromone traps to catch spruce beetles in plots throughout the insect flight period, quantified subsequent tree mortality, and modelled spruce tree mortality as a function of spruce beetle trap catches and stand conditions.The number of beetles caught was not different between years. It was also positively associated with tree mortality, as was the amount of available host. The year of sampling was significant in all models as a result of different mortality levels between years.We conclude that, although the models had good fit, the difference in mortality between the years with a similar beetle catch negates reliable estimates of tree mortality across years. Managers and forest health specialists will be better served by continued monitoring of spruce beetle populations with pheromone traps and the use of stand variables to identify susceptible stands.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T02:01:50.419638-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12239
  • Wind-modulated landscape effects on colonization of Brussels sprouts by
           insect pests and their syrphid antagonists
    • Authors: Martin Ludwig; Hella Schlinkert, Rainer Meyhöfer
      Abstract: Most crop fields are annually cleared, including arthropod populations. Recolonization depends on the source habitat presence in the landscape and often is affected by weather conditions.The present study identified source habitats and the effects of temperature and prevailing wind direction on colonization of Brussels sprouts by pests and their natural enemies. We sampled arthropods on standardized monitoring plants in 18 landscapes with different areas of potential source habitats.Most abundant pests and antagonists were Aleyrodes proletella, Brevicoryne brassicae, Plutella xylostella and syrphid larvae. Variation in A. proletella colonization was best explained by the upwind area of oilseed rape (positive effect) and temperature (negative effect). Variation in B. brassicae colonization was best explained by the downwind area of oilseed rape (positive effect), whereas no effects on P. xylostella were found. Syrphid colonization was affected by prey abundance only (positive effect).The results of the present study suggest that A. proletella was transported downwind, whereas B. brassicae located host plants during an upwind flight for approximately 1 km. This is remarkable for aphids with often limited upwind flight ability. Consideration of prevailing wind directions improves forecasting of the colonization intensity by pests from important source habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T04:50:22.073096-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12237
  • Genetic structure and demographic history of the melon fly Zeugodacus
           cucurbitae (Coquillet) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand
    • Authors: Chonticha Kunprom; Pairot Pramual
      Abstract: The melon fly Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is among the most economically important pests of fruits and fleshy vegetables.The genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of Z. cucurbitae in Thailand were investigated based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences.Low genetic variation was found in populations of Z. cucurbitae in Thailand, which is consistent with other studies of this species. Demographic history analysis detected a signal of population expansion dating back to 140 000 years ago, which possibly followed increases in host plants after climatic recovery of the penultimate Pleistocene glaciation.Population genetic structure analysis found that 51% of pairwise comparisons are genetically significantly different. Because populations that contributed markedly to genetic structuring possessed very low haplotype diversity, the effect of genetic drift could be a factor driving population differentiation.Comparisons of genetic differentiation between flies from different host plant species found no evidence of isolation. However, most haplotypes are unique for each host plant species, indicating that there are some degrees of isolation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T02:00:50.291346-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12242
  • Ecobiology of Anaphothrips obscurus, a new dweller of citrus orchards
           brought in by more sustainable pest management practices
    • Authors: María A. Gómez-Martínez; Ernestina Aguilar-Fenollosa, Josep A. Jaques, Tatiana Pina
      Abstract: The abundance and frequency of Anaphothrips obscurus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) increased in a cover of Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae) when this plant was used to improve the biological control of the clementine key pest Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).To unveil the ecological role of A. obscurus in this system, we re-explored field data and performed laboratory studies aiming to determine its demographic parameters and feeding habits, as well as its role as a prey of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) occurring in the Spanish citrus agreoecosystem.Field studies indicate that T. urticae populations decreased, whereas those of A. obscurus and phytoseiids, as a whole, increased.Reproductive and demographic parameters of macropterous and brachypterous morphs of A. obscurus were different and confirmed the host status of F. arundinacea.Anaphothrips obscurus could compete with T. urticae as a result of its higher intrinsic rate of increase in F. arundinacea. However, A. obscurus zoophagy on T. urticae eggs and the host status of citrus can be discarded.Anaphothrips obscurus can be a prey for Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus barkeri and Neoseiulus californicus (three phytoseiids preying on T. urticae), suggesting that apparent competition between A. obscurus and T. urticae could occur in citrus orchards.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T03:57:32.318264-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12233
  • Separating effects of species identity and species richness on predation,
           pathogen dissemination and resistance to invasive species in tropical ant
    • Authors: Akhmad Rizali; Teja Tscharntke, Damayanti Buchori, Yann Clough
      Abstract: Ants are abundant in natural and managed tropical ecosystems and can have an impact on herbivorous arthropods, as well as plant pathogens. Although it has been shown for plants that the diversity of communities can result in improved ecosystem functioning, it remains uncertain how the species richness of ants affects multiple ecosystem services and disservices.In the present study, we used experimentally enhanced natural gradients in ant species richness on 100 cacao trees in a plantation aiming to analyze the effect of ant species identity and species richness on predation pressure and the incidence of cacao pod borer (CPB), as well as the spread of black pod disease (BPD).Ant species richness did not significantly improve predation of experimentally exposed insects, and was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of CPB. However, the incidence of BPD was higher in ant species rich trees, presumably because more ant species were pathogen vectors. The identity of the dominant ant species affected the incidence of CPB and BPD, as well as predation pressure.Although both ant species richness and identity affected ecosystem services and disservices delivered by the ant community, the results of the present study suggest that the identity of dominant ants is the main driver for ecosystem services in these systems.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T04:41:29.811977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12236
  • Response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to extreme heat
           and dryness
    • Authors: Astrid Eben; Maria Reifenrath, Felix Briem, Sebastian Pink, Heidrun Vogt
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera) is a polyphagous herbivore native to East Asia that develops in cultivated and wild fruits. In 2011, it appeared in Germany. In 2012, economic damage was recorded and, in 2014, the harvest of stone and soft fruits was lost in some regions. By contrast, during 2015, populations remained lower. Record temperatures and dryness might have impeded population growth during that year.To test this hypothesis, flies were exposed to a 4-day simulation. We evaluated the effect of fluctuating temperature and humidity on mortality and reproduction of D. suzukii from three age classes (average age: class 1: 3 days; class 2: 11 days; class 3: 20 days). Maximum temperatures were 27, 33 and 39 °C. Relative humidity oscillated between 18% and 85%.Fly mortality through heat stress ranged from 50% to 80%. Higher rates died of oldest flies and females. Offspring per female did not differ between heat stressed and control groups.Flies of both sexes were not sterilized through heat and dryness. Prior acclimation reduced any negative effects.We concluded that heat waves and extreme dryness during 2015 were one cause of the low population densities of D. suzukii observed under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:07:43.731807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12235
  • Landscape context influences leafhopper and predatory Orius spp.
           abundances in maize fields
    • Authors: Agnès Ardanuy; Marina S. Lee, Ramon Albajes
      Abstract: Biological control relies on the periodical colonization of crops by natural enemies from surrounding habitats. In North-East Spain, predatory Orius spp. disperse among cereal, maize and alfalfa according to crop phenology and management.In the present study, we examined (i) the variation of Orius spp. and its leafhopper prey Zyginidia scutellaris populations in co-occurring habitats (maize, alfalfa and semi-natural) for 2 years in three regions and (ii) the effects of agricultural landscape context on their abundance in maize.Variance partitioning revealed that inter-annual variation accounted for the largest proportion of variation for Orius spp. and its prey. Maize leafhopper abundance was positively related to winter cereal cover in the landscape and negatively related to semi-natural habitat across the three regions. Orius spp. were unresponsive to shifts in habitat composition despite being present in maize and associated habitats; however, they were positively related to edge density. Larger-scale variation in Orius spp. abundance was best explained by changes in Z. scutellaris abundance in maize.Leafhopper colonization is responsible for the recruitment of Orius spp. in maize. Orius spp. conservation in intensive agricultural landscapes might require permanent field margins and complementary crops (e.g. alfalfa) that ensure resource continuity in time.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T07:25:26.733839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12231
  • Large scale Agriotes spp. click beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) invasion
           of crop land from field margin reservoirs
    • Authors: Rod P. Blackshaw; Robert S. Vernon, Florent Thiebaud
      Abstract: Mark–release–recapture was used to investigate the dispersal of click beetles in spring wheat or fallow fields using edge or centre field releases. Three types of pitfalls were used: gutter traps near field margins, as well as conventional pitfall traps or cross-traps consisting of four gutter trap arms leading to a central pitfall. Capture of naturally occuring beetles was concurrently recorded.In total, 6952 marked Agriotes obscurus (males and females) and Agriotes lineatus (males) were released and 14.74% were recaptured at some time during the present study. Recovery rates ranged from 3.54% to 28.5%.Agriotes obscurus dominated wild populations, with 4011 males and 1672 females trapped compared with 17 males and three females for A. lineatus. Males dominated early in the period, although the sex ratio tended towards equality as the season progressed.Generally, captures of A. obscurus males released in equal numbers at field edges followed a uniform distribution. There were differences for wild beetles caught in the same traps.Spatial trapping patterns of wild and marked beetles across the fields were similar. Within 19 h of release at the field edges A. obscurus males were captured>30 m away.The crop type had a significant interspecific effect on trap counts for males and an intraspecific effect on A. obscurus females, reinforcing the need for caution when using trapping systems to monitor adult stages of these pests.The results of the present study demonstrate that uncropped field margins comprise sources of click beetles. We also conclude that click beetles disperse much further than reported previously.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T04:36:44.684376-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12228
  • Comparative development and reproduction of Planococcus ficus and
           Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grapevine under field
    • Authors: Arturo Cocco; Alessandra Mura, Enrico Muscas, Andrea Lentini
      Abstract: Mealybugs are major pests in grape-growing areas worldwide, causing direct and indirect crop damage. The vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) is a key pest in most of grape-producing countries, whereas the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) is reported as being destructive in Brazilian and Spanish vineyards.We examined the adaptation of the citrus mealybug to grapevine by investigating its development, reproduction and life-history parameters under Mediterranean field conditions in comparison with those of P. ficus.Both mealybug species developed and reproduced successfully on grapevine. However, P. ficus showed a shorter development time, larger female body size, and higher fecundity, fertility and survival than P. citri.The life-history parameters further highlighted the different growth potential of vine and citrus mealybug populations because P. ficus exhibited a net reproductive rate and an intrinsic rate of increase two- to four-fold higher than that of P. citri. Furthermore, the vine mealybug population doubled its number in approximately half time with respect to the citrus mealybug.Overall, the results of the present study show a better development and reproductive performance and a higher population growth potential of P. ficus compared with P. citri, indicating a higher capacity of the vine mealybug to develop on grapevine in Mediterranean vineyards.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:37:10.106856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12234
  • Development of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) on
           Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden
    • Authors: Eliana M. Cuello; Silvia N. López, Andrea V. Andorno, Carmen M. Hernández, Eduardo N. Botto
      Abstract: The red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei is an invasive insect species, native from Australia, that specifically feeds on Eucalyptus trees. It has invaded several countries throughout the world. In Argentina, it was first recorded in 2005, although little is known about its ecology in the region.We assessed G. brimblecombei population development on Eucalypus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus dunnii using samples of branches for the immature stages and yellow sticky traps for the adults. We also identified the meteorological variables associated with changes in the red gum lerp psyllid abundance.The abundance of eggs, nymphs and adults stages of G. brimblecombei was significantly greater on E. camaldulensis than on E. dunnii in the 2 years of the survey.Glycaspis brimblecombei development was complete on E. camaldulensis where all instars were present, even in the unfavourable seasons. The full development of the psyllid population was not observed in E. dunnii where a high mortality of the first and second nymphal instars was detected.Temperature and relative humidity were the variables that mostly affected red gum lerp psyllid abundance, whereas no effect of rainfall was detected.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T09:59:21.774937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12230
  • Sex-dependent thermal history influences cold tolerance, longevity and
           fecundity in false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera:
    • Authors: Nevill Boersma; Leigh Boardman, Martin Gilbert, John S. Terblanche
      Abstract: Environmental temperature plays a critical role in the field performance of mass-reared insects. For sterile insect technique programmes, the influence of larval (developmental) temperature variation on subsequent adult field performance is generally poorly understood but may be a significant avenue for increasing efficacy.In the present study, we investigated the influence of larval thermal acclimation on several traits of adult performance in the false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick).After larvae were reared at 15, 20 or 25 °C for their full larval developmental period, we determined the effect of different acute (2 h) temperature treatments (10, 15 or 20 °C) during the adult stage on traits of (i) cold tolerance; (ii) fecundity; and (iii) longevity.Cold tolerance of adults was not influenced by larval acclimation temperature but was affected by sex and adult treatment temperature. Adult fecundity and longevity were affected by larval acclimation temperature, adult treatment temperature and the interaction of these factors with sex.These results suggest a complex, sex-dependent interplay of short- and longer- term temperature history across developmental stages for these traits. Exploring the field impacts of this trait variation is essential, coupled with information on how these traits might respond to artificial manipulation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:35:41.921723-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12227
  • Effects of landscape cover and local habitat characteristics on visiting
           bees in tropical orchards
    • Authors: Pornpimon Tangtorwongsakul; Natapot Warrit, George A. Gale
      Abstract: Global population declines of insect pollinators highlight the need for a greater ecological understanding of the responses of wild pollinators to local management actions and to human alterations of landscapes, especially in the tropics where crops are highly dependent on wild pollinators.We examined the effects of local and landscape factors on the richness and abundance of bees in farms around Bangkok, Thailand. Bee communities in 24 mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in heavily modified landscapes (61–99% anthropogenic land cover) were compared. We predicted that bees would be more species rich in orchards with higher flower diversity, whereas small-sized bees with non-eusocial and/or below-ground nesting habits would be more sensitive to human disturbance, and hence rare.Twenty-eight species were caught and individuals of genus Apis comprised >92% of 3842 bees sampled and dominated all 24 sites.Habitat effects on bee richness and abundance were stronger at the farm scale than at the landscape scale. At the farm scale, total bee richness and abundance, as well as small, non-eusocial and below-ground nesting bee richness and abundance, were negatively associated with field size and positively associated with flowering plant diversity. The percentage of urban land cover within a 1-km radius was weakly but positively related to total bee richness and small-sized bee richness; total bee abundance was positively associated with wetland cover.A greater diversity of flowering plants retained in smaller fields maintained higher bee richness and abundances, particularly small-sized bees. Farmers can enhance bee populations by maintaining small patches of flowers in their fields.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:41:35.406152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12226
  • Micro X-ray computed tomography suggests cooperative feeding among adult
           invasive bugs Leptoglossus occidentalis on mature seeds of stone pine
           Pinus pinea
    • Authors: Ana O. Farinha; Manuela Branco, Manuel F. C. Pereira, Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg, António Maurício, Annie Yart, Vera Guerreiro, Edmundo M. R. Sousa, Alain Roques
      Abstract: The consumption of edible pine seeds of stone pine by the invasive Leptoglossus occidentalis represents a major concern for producers in Mediterranean countries but, to date, little knowledge is available about its feeding process on these seeds.In the present study, we tested whether L. occidentalis is capable of feeding upon mature pine seeds and also estimated the impact that they may induce.Sound pine seeds were offered to bugs under laboratory conditions. Seed content was analyzed via a multitechnique approach using a stereomicroscope, X-rays and microcomputed tomography, which was expected to better characterize the damage caused by this bug.Adults of L. occidentalis were capable of feeding on mature seeds by piercing the hard and thick coat. However, the consumption was low and demonstrated a slow start, presumably as a result of the time and effort taken to drill a feeding hole.A collaborative feeding process was suggested because all bugs in the same box appeared to have fed through the same hole in most cases.Consumption was estimated to be approximately one-fifth of a seed kernel per bug per month. Consumed kernels appeared skunked and wrinkled.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T03:36:03.065193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12225
  • Demography of a genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera:
           Tephritidae): effects of selection based on mating performance
    • Authors: Luis Quintero-Fong; Jorge Toledo, Lorena Ruiz-Montoya, Pedro Rendón, Dina Orozco-Dávila, Javier Valle-Mora, Pablo Liedo
      Abstract: Tapachula-7 is a genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) developed for the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). To improve the sexual performance of this strain, a mass-reared colony was established from males selected for their sexual competitiveness.Males from selected colonies are more sexually competitive than nonselected males. The present study aimed to analyse the demographic changes recorded in the study colony throughout four consecutive generations, comparing this colony with the parental colony and a wild strain.The results obtained showed that, in the selected strain, fecundity increased, whereas survival diminished, compared with the laboratory parental strain. The increases in fecundity rates were observed at the first generation after selection. No changes were observed in the duration of the reproductive period in the selected strain.Compared with wild flies, selected flies had lower life expectancy, earlier and shorter reproductive period, and greater daily fecundity at young ages (10–30 days), although with lower lifetime fecundity rates.The four generations of the selected colony showed similar patterns of survival and reproduction. The better mating performance and the increase in early fecundity suggest that selection could contribute to improve rearing efficiency and SIT effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:48.569862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12223
  • Evidence of potential hybridization in the Thaumetopoea
           pityocampa-wilkinsoni complex
    • Authors: Edoardo Petrucco-Toffolo; Andrea Basso, Carole Kerdelhué, Kahraman İpekdal, Zvi Mendel, Mauro Simonato, Andrea Battisti
      Abstract: The winter pine processionary moth complex includes some major defoliating insects of Pinus and Cedrus forests in southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, where they also cause health problems to humans and animals.The complex includes at least two species that were separated recently based on molecular and morphological evidence: Thaumetopoea pityocampa in the west and Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni in the east of the Mediterranean Basin.Individuals from two populations, selected as representative of Th. pityocampa and Th. wilkinsoni, were used to test whether hybridization is possible under controlled conditions.The hybrid offspring showed intermediate morphological and performance traits, whereas heterosis for pupal weight was detected in one of the hybrid lines. The genetic analysis confirmed the crosses.Both species have large phenological plasticity and may come into contact at the edge of their range, where they could hybridize.Based on the evidence accumulated so far, it is recommended that the current species designations are maintained, although a deeper study of the trait variability is required, especially in the contact zones.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:43.367334-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12224
  • Behavioural response of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) to host plant stimuli augmented with semiochemicals in the
    • Authors: William R. Morrison; McKenzie Allen, Tracy C. Leskey
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Although much work has focused on understanding how the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, or Halyomorpha halys, responds to pheromonal stimuli, very little research has explored the response of H. halys to plant volatiles and other host stimuli. The present study aimed to determine (i) whether more acceptable, less acceptable or unacceptable host plants augmented with plant volatile mixes and/or pheromone can enhance the retention capacity of plants for H. halys in the field and (ii) whether plant volatiles [apple, peach or green leaf volatile (GLV) mixtures] can increase attraction to pheromone-baited pyramid traps.The presence of the H. halys pheromone was the primary factor in increasing the retention capacity of tagged, released adults to host plants, although plant volatile mixtures added a small increase in retention. Plant species helped to modulate the effectiveness of both the pheromone and additional plant volatiles in retaining individuals. Plant volatiles did not increase attraction of adults to baited pyramid traps and may have inhibited the attraction of nymphs.Overall, the results of the present study suggest that host plant stimuli, construed broadly, are important for the foraging decisions of H. halys, although further research is needed to identify the most effective stimuli.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T02:10:44.254929-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12229
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