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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1582 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Agricultural and Forest Entomology
  [SJR: 0.925]   [H-I: 43]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1461-9555 - ISSN (Online) 1461-9563
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1582 journals]
  • Separating effects of species identity and species richness on predation,
           pathogen dissemination and resistance to invasive species in tropical ant
           communities
    • Authors: Akhmad Rizali; Teja Tscharntke, Damayanti Buchori, Yann Clough
      Abstract: Ants are abundant in natural and managed tropical ecosystems and can have an impact on herbivorous arthropods, as well as plant pathogens. Although it has been shown for plants that the diversity of communities can result in improved ecosystem functioning, it remains uncertain how the species richness of ants affects multiple ecosystem services and disservices.In the present study, we used experimentally enhanced natural gradients in ant species richness on 100 cacao trees in a plantation aiming to analyze the effect of ant species identity and species richness on predation pressure and the incidence of cacao pod borer (CPB), as well as the spread of black pod disease (BPD).Ant species richness did not significantly improve predation of experimentally exposed insects, and was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of CPB. However, the incidence of BPD was higher in ant species rich trees, presumably because more ant species were pathogen vectors. The identity of the dominant ant species affected the incidence of CPB and BPD, as well as predation pressure.Although both ant species richness and identity affected ecosystem services and disservices delivered by the ant community, the results of the present study suggest that the identity of dominant ants is the main driver for ecosystem services in these systems.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T04:41:29.811977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12236
       
  • Assessment of the effects of transgenic Bt cotton Bollgard II on the
           abundance of nontarget arthropods in Burkina Faso
    • Authors: Omer S. A. Héma; Issoufou Ouédraogo, Oumar Traoré, Blaise K. Zagré, Delphine Ouattara
      Abstract: The effect of transgenic cotton Bollgard II on the abundance of nontarget arthropods was assessed under field conditions in three areas in Burkina Faso for four successive years (2010–2013).The experiment was carried out on two 0.5-ha plots of which one was seeded with the Bollgard II and one with the non-Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) isogenic cultivar.Over four collection methods [plastic bagging (28 collections), water trap (28 collections), beat cloth (six collections) and pitfall traps (six collections)] and 4 years, no statistically significant differences were detected between Bollgard II and the conventional control for 45 out of 48 comparisons.Differences detected were rather random and not consistently detected across collection methods, sites and/or years. Thus, these differences were not indicative of a consistent response associated with the trait and are not considered biologically meaningful in terms of an adverse environmental impact (nontarget arthropod abundance) of Bollgard II compared to conventional cotton receiving six insecticide sprays.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:07:48.118225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12232
       
  • Response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to extreme heat
           and dryness
    • Authors: Astrid Eben; Maria Reifenrath, Felix Briem, Sebastian Pink, Heidrun Vogt
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera) is a polyphagous herbivore native to East Asia that develops in cultivated and wild fruits. In 2011, it appeared in Germany. In 2012, economic damage was recorded and, in 2014, the harvest of stone and soft fruits was lost in some regions. By contrast, during 2015, populations remained lower. Record temperatures and dryness might have impeded population growth during that year.To test this hypothesis, flies were exposed to a 4-day simulation. We evaluated the effect of fluctuating temperature and humidity on mortality and reproduction of D. suzukii from three age classes (average age: class 1: 3 days; class 2: 11 days; class 3: 20 days). Maximum temperatures were 27, 33 and 39 °C. Relative humidity oscillated between 18% and 85%.Fly mortality through heat stress ranged from 50% to 80%. Higher rates died of oldest flies and females. Offspring per female did not differ between heat stressed and control groups.Flies of both sexes were not sterilized through heat and dryness. Prior acclimation reduced any negative effects.We concluded that heat waves and extreme dryness during 2015 were one cause of the low population densities of D. suzukii observed under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:07:43.731807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12235
       
  • Landscape context influences leafhopper and predatory Orius spp.
           abundances in maize fields
    • Authors: Agnès Ardanuy; Marina S. Lee, Ramon Albajes
      Abstract: Biological control relies on the periodical colonization of crops by natural enemies from surrounding habitats. In North-East Spain, predatory Orius spp. disperse among cereal, maize and alfalfa according to crop phenology and management.In the present study, we examined (i) the variation of Orius spp. and its leafhopper prey Zyginidia scutellaris populations in co-occurring habitats (maize, alfalfa and semi-natural) for 2 years in three regions and (ii) the effects of agricultural landscape context on their abundance in maize.Variance partitioning revealed that inter-annual variation accounted for the largest proportion of variation for Orius spp. and its prey. Maize leafhopper abundance was positively related to winter cereal cover in the landscape and negatively related to semi-natural habitat across the three regions. Orius spp. were unresponsive to shifts in habitat composition despite being present in maize and associated habitats; however, they were positively related to edge density. Larger-scale variation in Orius spp. abundance was best explained by changes in Z. scutellaris abundance in maize.Leafhopper colonization is responsible for the recruitment of Orius spp. in maize. Orius spp. conservation in intensive agricultural landscapes might require permanent field margins and complementary crops (e.g. alfalfa) that ensure resource continuity in time.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T07:25:26.733839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12231
       
  • Large scale Agriotes spp. click beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) invasion
           of crop land from field margin reservoirs
    • Authors: Rod P. Blackshaw; Robert S. Vernon, Florent Thiebaud
      Abstract: Mark–release–recapture was used to investigate the dispersal of click beetles in spring wheat or fallow fields using edge or centre field releases. Three types of pitfalls were used: gutter traps near field margins, as well as conventional pitfall traps or cross-traps consisting of four gutter trap arms leading to a central pitfall. Capture of naturally occuring beetles was concurrently recorded.In total, 6952 marked Agriotes obscurus (males and females) and Agriotes lineatus (males) were released and 14.74% were recaptured at some time during the present study. Recovery rates ranged from 3.54% to 28.5%.Agriotes obscurus dominated wild populations, with 4011 males and 1672 females trapped compared with 17 males and three females for A. lineatus. Males dominated early in the period, although the sex ratio tended towards equality as the season progressed.Generally, captures of A. obscurus males released in equal numbers at field edges followed a uniform distribution. There were differences for wild beetles caught in the same traps.Spatial trapping patterns of wild and marked beetles across the fields were similar. Within 19 h of release at the field edges A. obscurus males were captured>30 m away.The crop type had a significant interspecific effect on trap counts for males and an intraspecific effect on A. obscurus females, reinforcing the need for caution when using trapping systems to monitor adult stages of these pests.The results of the present study demonstrate that uncropped field margins comprise sources of click beetles. We also conclude that click beetles disperse much further than reported previously.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T04:36:44.684376-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12228
       
  • Comparative development and reproduction of Planococcus ficus and
           Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grapevine under field
           conditions
    • Authors: Arturo Cocco; Alessandra Mura, Enrico Muscas, Andrea Lentini
      Abstract: Mealybugs are major pests in grape-growing areas worldwide, causing direct and indirect crop damage. The vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) is a key pest in most of grape-producing countries, whereas the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) is reported as being destructive in Brazilian and Spanish vineyards.We examined the adaptation of the citrus mealybug to grapevine by investigating its development, reproduction and life-history parameters under Mediterranean field conditions in comparison with those of P. ficus.Both mealybug species developed and reproduced successfully on grapevine. However, P. ficus showed a shorter development time, larger female body size, and higher fecundity, fertility and survival than P. citri.The life-history parameters further highlighted the different growth potential of vine and citrus mealybug populations because P. ficus exhibited a net reproductive rate and an intrinsic rate of increase two- to four-fold higher than that of P. citri. Furthermore, the vine mealybug population doubled its number in approximately half time with respect to the citrus mealybug.Overall, the results of the present study show a better development and reproductive performance and a higher population growth potential of P. ficus compared with P. citri, indicating a higher capacity of the vine mealybug to develop on grapevine in Mediterranean vineyards.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:37:10.106856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12234
       
  • Development of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) on
           Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden
    • Authors: Eliana M. Cuello; Silvia N. López, Andrea V. Andorno, Carmen M. Hernández, Eduardo N. Botto
      Abstract: The red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei is an invasive insect species, native from Australia, that specifically feeds on Eucalyptus trees. It has invaded several countries throughout the world. In Argentina, it was first recorded in 2005, although little is known about its ecology in the region.We assessed G. brimblecombei population development on Eucalypus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus dunnii using samples of branches for the immature stages and yellow sticky traps for the adults. We also identified the meteorological variables associated with changes in the red gum lerp psyllid abundance.The abundance of eggs, nymphs and adults stages of G. brimblecombei was significantly greater on E. camaldulensis than on E. dunnii in the 2 years of the survey.Glycaspis brimblecombei development was complete on E. camaldulensis where all instars were present, even in the unfavourable seasons. The full development of the psyllid population was not observed in E. dunnii where a high mortality of the first and second nymphal instars was detected.Temperature and relative humidity were the variables that mostly affected red gum lerp psyllid abundance, whereas no effect of rainfall was detected.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T09:59:21.774937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12230
       
  • Behavioural response of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) to host plant stimuli augmented with semiochemicals in the
           field
    • Authors: William R. Morrison; McKenzie Allen, Tracy C. Leskey
      Abstract: Although much work has focused on understanding how the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, or Halyomorpha halys, responds to pheromonal stimuli, very little research has explored the response of H. halys to plant volatiles and other host stimuli. The present study aimed to determine (i) whether more acceptable, less acceptable or unacceptable host plants augmented with plant volatile mixes and/or pheromone can enhance the retention capacity of plants for H. halys in the field and (ii) whether plant volatiles [apple, peach or green leaf volatile (GLV) mixtures] can increase attraction to pheromone-baited pyramid traps.The presence of the H. halys pheromone was the primary factor in increasing the retention capacity of tagged, released adults to host plants, although plant volatile mixtures added a small increase in retention. Plant species helped to modulate the effectiveness of both the pheromone and additional plant volatiles in retaining individuals. Plant volatiles did not increase attraction of adults to baited pyramid traps and may have inhibited the attraction of nymphs.Overall, the results of the present study suggest that host plant stimuli, construed broadly, are important for the foraging decisions of H. halys, although further research is needed to identify the most effective stimuli.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T02:10:44.254929-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12229
       
  • Sex-dependent thermal history influences cold tolerance, longevity and
           fecundity in false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera:
           Tortricidae)
    • Authors: Nevill Boersma; Leigh Boardman, Martin Gilbert, John S. Terblanche
      Abstract: Environmental temperature plays a critical role in the field performance of mass-reared insects. For sterile insect technique programmes, the influence of larval (developmental) temperature variation on subsequent adult field performance is generally poorly understood but may be a significant avenue for increasing efficacy.In the present study, we investigated the influence of larval thermal acclimation on several traits of adult performance in the false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick).After larvae were reared at 15, 20 or 25 °C for their full larval developmental period, we determined the effect of different acute (2 h) temperature treatments (10, 15 or 20 °C) during the adult stage on traits of (i) cold tolerance; (ii) fecundity; and (iii) longevity.Cold tolerance of adults was not influenced by larval acclimation temperature but was affected by sex and adult treatment temperature. Adult fecundity and longevity were affected by larval acclimation temperature, adult treatment temperature and the interaction of these factors with sex.These results suggest a complex, sex-dependent interplay of short- and longer- term temperature history across developmental stages for these traits. Exploring the field impacts of this trait variation is essential, coupled with information on how these traits might respond to artificial manipulation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:35:41.921723-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12227
       
  • Effects of landscape cover and local habitat characteristics on visiting
           bees in tropical orchards
    • Authors: Pornpimon Tangtorwongsakul; Natapot Warrit, George A. Gale
      Abstract: Global population declines of insect pollinators highlight the need for a greater ecological understanding of the responses of wild pollinators to local management actions and to human alterations of landscapes, especially in the tropics where crops are highly dependent on wild pollinators.We examined the effects of local and landscape factors on the richness and abundance of bees in farms around Bangkok, Thailand. Bee communities in 24 mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in heavily modified landscapes (61–99% anthropogenic land cover) were compared. We predicted that bees would be more species rich in orchards with higher flower diversity, whereas small-sized bees with non-eusocial and/or below-ground nesting habits would be more sensitive to human disturbance, and hence rare.Twenty-eight species were caught and individuals of genus Apis comprised >92% of 3842 bees sampled and dominated all 24 sites.Habitat effects on bee richness and abundance were stronger at the farm scale than at the landscape scale. At the farm scale, total bee richness and abundance, as well as small, non-eusocial and below-ground nesting bee richness and abundance, were negatively associated with field size and positively associated with flowering plant diversity. The percentage of urban land cover within a 1-km radius was weakly but positively related to total bee richness and small-sized bee richness; total bee abundance was positively associated with wetland cover.A greater diversity of flowering plants retained in smaller fields maintained higher bee richness and abundances, particularly small-sized bees. Farmers can enhance bee populations by maintaining small patches of flowers in their fields.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:41:35.406152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12226
       
  • Micro X-ray computed tomography suggests cooperative feeding among adult
           invasive bugs Leptoglossus occidentalis on mature seeds of stone pine
           Pinus pinea
    • Authors: Ana O. Farinha; Manuela Branco, Manuel F. C. Pereira, Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg, António Maurício, Annie Yart, Vera Guerreiro, Edmundo M. R. Sousa, Alain Roques
      Abstract: The consumption of edible pine seeds of stone pine by the invasive Leptoglossus occidentalis represents a major concern for producers in Mediterranean countries but, to date, little knowledge is available about its feeding process on these seeds.In the present study, we tested whether L. occidentalis is capable of feeding upon mature pine seeds and also estimated the impact that they may induce.Sound pine seeds were offered to bugs under laboratory conditions. Seed content was analyzed via a multitechnique approach using a stereomicroscope, X-rays and microcomputed tomography, which was expected to better characterize the damage caused by this bug.Adults of L. occidentalis were capable of feeding on mature seeds by piercing the hard and thick coat. However, the consumption was low and demonstrated a slow start, presumably as a result of the time and effort taken to drill a feeding hole.A collaborative feeding process was suggested because all bugs in the same box appeared to have fed through the same hole in most cases.Consumption was estimated to be approximately one-fifth of a seed kernel per bug per month. Consumed kernels appeared skunked and wrinkled.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T03:36:03.065193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12225
       
  • Increased trapping efficiency for the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii
           (Matsumura) with synthetic sex pheromone
    • Authors: Zhiwei Zhang; Xianwei Li, Yanhua Xue, Zhiguo Zhao, Jie Li, Ruiyan Ma
      Abstract: Carposina sasakii Matsumura is one of the most serious fruit-damaging pests in Southern East Asia. The management of C. sasakii using sex pheromones has proven to be simple, effective and environmentally friendly with respect to monitoring and controlling this pest.To apply sex pheromone-based pest control techniques effectively, we characterized a range of application parameters, as well as the effects of synthetic sex pheromones, in jujube orchards. Trapping radius was determined by comparing the mean number of trapped individuals at different inter-trap distances, and mating disruption parameters were inferred by comparing the rate of trapping efficiency reduction and the infestation ratio of fruits in the experimental fields by uniformly placing different number/types of lures/100 m2.These studies revealed capture rates with significant differences across 10–50-m inter-trap distances: for example, a 30-m or greater inter-trap distance was suitable for monitoring and mass trapping, whereas distances
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:52.743835-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12222
       
  • Demography of a genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera:
           Tephritidae): effects of selection based on mating performance
    • Authors: Luis Quintero-Fong; Jorge Toledo, Lorena Ruiz-Montoya, Pedro Rendón, Dina Orozco-Dávila, Javier Valle-Mora, Pablo Liedo
      Abstract: Tapachula-7 is a genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) developed for the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). To improve the sexual performance of this strain, a mass-reared colony was established from males selected for their sexual competitiveness.Males from selected colonies are more sexually competitive than nonselected males. The present study aimed to analyse the demographic changes recorded in the study colony throughout four consecutive generations, comparing this colony with the parental colony and a wild strain.The results obtained showed that, in the selected strain, fecundity increased, whereas survival diminished, compared with the laboratory parental strain. The increases in fecundity rates were observed at the first generation after selection. No changes were observed in the duration of the reproductive period in the selected strain.Compared with wild flies, selected flies had lower life expectancy, earlier and shorter reproductive period, and greater daily fecundity at young ages (10–30 days), although with lower lifetime fecundity rates.The four generations of the selected colony showed similar patterns of survival and reproduction. The better mating performance and the increase in early fecundity suggest that selection could contribute to improve rearing efficiency and SIT effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:48.569862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12223
       
  • Evidence of potential hybridization in the Thaumetopoea
           pityocampa-wilkinsoni complex
    • Authors: Edoardo Petrucco-Toffolo; Andrea Basso, Carole Kerdelhué, Kahraman İpekdal, Zvi Mendel, Mauro Simonato, Andrea Battisti
      Abstract: The winter pine processionary moth complex includes some major defoliating insects of Pinus and Cedrus forests in southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, where they also cause health problems to humans and animals.The complex includes at least two species that were separated recently based on molecular and morphological evidence: Thaumetopoea pityocampa in the west and Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni in the east of the Mediterranean Basin.Individuals from two populations, selected as representative of Th. pityocampa and Th. wilkinsoni, were used to test whether hybridization is possible under controlled conditions.The hybrid offspring showed intermediate morphological and performance traits, whereas heterosis for pupal weight was detected in one of the hybrid lines. The genetic analysis confirmed the crosses.Both species have large phenological plasticity and may come into contact at the edge of their range, where they could hybridize.Based on the evidence accumulated so far, it is recommended that the current species designations are maintained, although a deeper study of the trait variability is required, especially in the contact zones.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:43.367334-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12224
       
  • MALDI-TOF MS identification of microbiota associated with pest insect
           Diabrotica speciosa
    • Authors: Bruno Perlatti; Anderson L. Luiz, Evandro L. Prieto, João B. Fernandes, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes Silva, Douglas Ferreira, Eduardo N. Costa, Arlindo L. Boiça Júnior, Moacir R. Forim
      Abstract: Resistance development in pest insects has guided the advance of cleaner and more effective strategies for pest control. An interesting and promising strategy is the manipulation of insects via their gut microbiota.To evaluate the feasibility of this strategy, Diabrotica speciosa, a highly polyphagous pest insect from South America that causes substantial damage to several important crops, was reared under controlled conditions. Aerobic culturable bacteria were isolated from the gut of D. speciosa and identified using proteomic fingerprints obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), as well as by genomic methods via partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.Seventy-three strains belonging to 17 genera and up to 29 different species were isolated. γ-Proteobacteria of the orders Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were the predominant. A core gut microbiome for the genus Diabrotica could be inferred when microbiotas from different species from the genus were compared. Molecular and spectrometric techniques indicated complete agreement of genera classification, although cluster analysis revealed distinct taxonomic grouping patterns.MALDI-TOF MS provided reliable identification of culturable gut bacteria, demonstrating similar efficacy, with cheaper and faster results relative to partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and also showed an interesting and unexpected phyloproteomic correlation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T05:05:28.659956-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12220
       
  • Comparative biology, predation capacity and effect of an artificial diet
           on reproductive parameters of green lacewing Mallada boninensis
           (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
    • Authors: Azizur Rahman; Gautam Handique, Somnath Roy
      Abstract: Investigations were undertaken to clarify the biology of green lacewing Mallada boninensis on its hosts Helopeltis theivora and Oligonychus coffeae, which are two major arthropod pests of tea crop and on an artificial diet. No significant variations were recorded in terms of preoviposition period, oviposition period, oviposition rate, total eggs, hatching success, larval survival and adult emergence when M. boninensis was reared on both hosts. However, all larval instars and pupal development time, as well as adult longevity, were significantly shorter when M. boninesis was reared on H. theivora.We also provide the first report on the predatory potential of M. boninensis against H. theivora. The feeding efficiency of M. boninensis increased with the advancement of each developmental stage. The third-instar larvae of M. boninensis consumed more H. theivora individuals (28.4 ± 1.50) than the first (7 ± 1.11) and second (24.2 ± 1.81) instars over its entire duration.The artificial diet produced significantly superior results in terms of fecundity, hatching success, larval survival and adult emergence when M. boninensis was reared on it compared with when it was reared on H. theivora and O. coffeae.The findings of the present study indicate that M. boninensis can be effectively utilized in integrated pest management programmes for controlling some major arthropod pests of tea by suitably mass rearing them followed by augmentative release.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T06:36:15.535745-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12221
       
  • Molecular identification and distribution of leatherjackets (Diptera:
           Tipulidae) in U.K. agricultural grassland
    • Authors: Carly M. Benefer; Karzan S. D'Ahmed, Philip J. Murray, Rod P. Blackshaw
      Abstract: DNA barcoding is useful for the identification of morphologically cryptic invertebrates. An important application is for pest species, for which it is critical to determine the distribution, biology and ecology of damaging life stages in order to target management effectively.Tipula paludosa (Meigen) and Tipula oleracea (Linnaeus) leatherjackets, the larvae of crane flies (Diptera: Tipulidae), are pests of agricultural grassland in Europe and the U.S.A. and are difficult to distinguish morphologically.We used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding to identify leatherjackets from 19 permanent grassland fields over 2 sampling seasons on the Rothamsted Research North Wyke Farm Platform, south west UK, to assess species-level distribution and genetic diversity.Most larvae (94%) were found to be T. paludosa, comprising 18 haplotypes that were spread across the sampling site in a panmictic population. However, T. oleracea were found in low abundance (3% of larval samples) and only in the second year of sampling. Other morphologically similar Dipteran larvae (3%) were also found.This dominance of one species suggests that there may be underlying differences in species biology, such as choice of oviposition site and dispersal ability, which is in agreement with other studies and has implications for monitoring and management.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T01:00:31.614599-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12219
       
  • Stump-harvesting for bioenergy probably has transient impacts on
           abundance, richness and community structure of beetle assemblages
    • Authors: Karen D. Shevlin; Roseanne Hennessy, Aoife B. Dillon, Philip O'Dea, Christine T. Griffin, Christopher D. Williams
      Abstract: Harvesting of tree stumps for bioenergy is popular and, although the environmental impact has been considered with respect to ecosystem processes, there have been fewer studies on the impact of stump-harvesting on biodiversity.We carried out pitfall-trap surveys of beetle communities at eight plots across four sites (four plots were clear-fells where stumps remained and four were clear-fells where stumps were harvested). Initially, we recovered 7743 beetles when stumps were extracted but still on site (Year 1). All beetles were identified to family level and ground beetles and wood-associated beetles to species level. One year after stumps were extracted, the survey was repeated. In this collection, 2898 individual beetles were recovered.In Year 1, stump-harvesting had a negative impact on beetle abundance and richness. However, 1 year after stumps were removed, there were no significant differences in these variables at any site.At the community level, stump-harvesting weakly but significantly, affected carabid composition. One year after stumps were removed, stump-harvesting had no effect on community composition.Stump-harvesting initially negatively affects beetle abundance, family-richness and carabid species richness, as well as community structure, although any effects are not large, are site-specific and are probably not persistent.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T01:50:44.436051-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12218
       
  • Is there reproductive diapause in the winterform of pear psylla Cacopsyla
           bidens'
    • Authors: Reut Madar; Yalta Zamir, Anna Litovsky, Victoria Soroker
      Abstract: Seasonal changes in reproductive state were investigated in the pear psylla Cacopsylla bidens (Šulc), with a particular emphasis on the evaluation of reproductive diapause during autumn and winter.Changes in reproductive status were observed in both seasons in populations living at four altitudes: 70, 300, 700 and 730 m. Winterform psylla females exhibited a period of slow ovarian development and a low mating rate. The onset, duration and extent of this period varied among the four sites but terminated synchronously, around December 20th. These changes were consistent within the same population over 3 years.Laboratory and field data suggested that winterform female C. bidens maintain some characteristics of reproductive diapause. By manipulating photoperiod and temperature during psylla development, we showed a major role for photoperiod in the induction of a reproductive diapause-like state. However, as observed under natural conditions, the timing of the decrease in ovarian development and mating was highly dependent on the decrease in temperature.The fact that the initiation of reproductive activity was synchronous and highly predictable is very significant for the design of phenologically based management for this pest.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T04:35:46.737034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12214
       
  • Dominance of spotted stemborer Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera:
           Crambidae) over indigenous stemborer species in Africa's changing
           climates: ecological and thermal biology perspectives
    • Authors: Reyard Mutamiswa; Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
      Abstract: Africa hosts several economically significant lepidopteran cereal stemborer species belonging to the Crambidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae families. The invasive spotted stemborer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe), which is native to Asia, is one of the most damaging cereal stemborers in Africa. The impact of C. partellus on indigenous stemborer species remains unclear, although recent work demonstrates its increasing ecological influence and numerical advantage over Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca in African landscapes.In the present study, we discuss C. partellus dominance under Africa's changing climates and highlight the ecological and thermal physiological factors that may contribute to its dominance over indigenous stemborer species. Chilo partellus is an efficient colonizer and competitor and may have an advantage under limited resources typical under climate change. Its invasion potential may also probably stem from its short generation time, overwintering physiology, temperature and relative humidity resilience, wide host preferences, and asynchrony with its biocontrol agents.Using laboratory experiments, we show that C. partellus has a high basal temperature tolerance and related plasticity compared with S. calamistis and B. fusca. These results indicate that ecophysiology may determine invasion success and thus may explain the relative invasion advantage of C. partellus in African landscapes.We recommend that future climate change work be directed towards more comprehensive stemborer total ecology research, stemborer thermal biology and implications on the efficacy of biocontrol. Specifically, knowledge of stemborer-natural enemy evolutionary potential is vital for understanding how climate change and variability may shape host-natural enemy interactions, with implications for pest forecasts, prediction models and pest management.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T05:00:41.292258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12217
       
  • Tracing the origin of a cryptic invader: phylogeography of the Euwallacea
           fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) species complex
    • Authors: Richard Stouthamer; Paul Rugman-Jones, Pham Q. Thu, Akif Eskalen, Tim Thibault, Jiri Hulcr, Liang-Jong Wang, Bjarte H. Jordal, Chi-Yu Chen, Miriam Cooperband, Ching-Shan Lin, Naoto Kamata, Sheng-Shan Lu, Hayato Masuya, Zvi Mendel, Robert Rabaglia, Sunisa Sanguansub, Hsin-Hui Shih, Wisut Sittichaya, Shixiang Zong
      Abstract: The ambrosia beetle morphologically identified as Euwallacea fornicatus consists of several cryptic species that exhibit large differences in the DNA sequences of several nuclear and mitochondrial gene regions.Based on these differences, we suggest that there are at least three different species each with distinct phylogeography.Members of this cryptic species complex have invaded many areas outside their native range and cause substantial damage to both agriculture (avocado in particular) and other tree species.Three of these cryptic species have invaded the USA: two species in California and a third species in both Florida and Hawaii.Identification of their native range allows directed search for their natural enemies that may be used in biological control of these tree pests.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T11:00:36.383273-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12215
       
  • Effects of host abundance on larch budmoth outbreaks in the European Alps
    • Authors: Claudia Hartl-Meier; Jan Esper, Andrew Liebhold, Oliver Konter, Andreas Rothe, Ulf Büntgen
      Abstract: Outbreaks of the larch budmoth (LBM) in the European Alps are among the most documented population cycles and their historical occurrence has been reconstructed over 1200 years.Causes and consequences of cyclic LBM outbreaks are poorly understood and little is known about populations near the margin of the host's distribution range.In the present study, we quantify historical LBM outbreaks and associated growth reductions in host trees (European larch). Tree-ring data collected from 18 sites between approximately 500 and 1700 m a.s.l. in the Northern pre-Alps are compared with data from the Western Alps and Tatra Mountains, as well as with nonhost Norway spruce.Highly synchronized host and nonhost growth in the Northern pre-Alps shows that periodic LBM outbreaks are largely absent near the distributional limit of larch. By contrast, growth patterns in the Western Alps LBM core region are indicative of LBM events. Although climatic conditions in the Northern pre-Alps and Tatra Mountains would allow LBM outbreaks, low host plant abundance is likely the key driver for the absence of cyclic outbreaks in these regions.The results obtained in the present study suggest that, in addition to the climatic conditions, host-species abundance is critically important for the occurrence of periodic LBM outbreaks and the determination of the respective outbreak range.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T08:43:31.171134-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12216
       
  • Evaluating potential trap crops for managing leaffooted (Hemiptera:
           Coreidae) and phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species in
           peaches
    • Authors: Clement Akotsen-Mensah; Rammohan R. Balusu, Joseph Anikwe, Henry Y. Fadamiro
      Abstract: The leaffooted bug (Leptoglossus spp.) and phytophagous stink bug species (Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula, Chinavia hilare) are the major hemipteran pests of fruit, vegetable, and grain crops in Alabama and other parts of the southeastern U.S.A.The present study evaluated six winter host crops (hairy vetch, oats, rye, triticale, wheat and winter peas) and six summer host crops (buckwheat, brown top millet, grain sorghum, southern pea, pearl millet and sunflower) as potential trap crops for leaffooted and stink bugs in peaches from 2011 to 2013 in Alabama.Experimental plots were arranged around a mature peach orchard in a randomized complete block design, and insect densities, as well as host plant phenology, were recorded at weekly intervals from March to May and July to August each year.Wheat and oats attracted a significantly higher number of target insects than any other treatments evaluated in the winter trials. Sunflower, pearl millet and sorghum recorded a significantly higher number of insects than any other host crops evaluated in the summer. When the insects sampled were totalled across the season, leaffooted bugs (Leptoglossus phyllopus) dominated the pest complex (>70%), followed by brown stink bugs (mainly Euchistus servus Dallas). Target insects colonized the hosts mainly during the reproductive phase (including flowering and seed development) until plant senescence.The results obtained in the present study suggests that a combination of wheat and oats may be used to detect the early presence of leaffooted and stink bugs in the spring, whereas sunflower, pearl millet and sorghum could be utilized during summer to detect and attract colonizing populations away from peach orchards.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T04:27:08.597511-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12213
       
  • Temperature-dependent development of the great European spruce bark beetle
           Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and its
           predator Rhizophagus grandis Gyll. (Coleoptera: Monotomidae:
           Rhizophaginae)
    • Authors: Claire A. Gent; David Wainhouse, Keith R. Day, Andrew J. Peace, Daegan J. G. Inward
      Abstract: Dendroctonus micans is an invasive species that has spread throughout Britain, which prompts the question: how is the voltinism of this pest and its biocontrol agent Rhizophagus grandis affected by climate'Dendroctonus micans and R. grandis were reared at a range of constant temperatures. Lower developmental threshold temperature (LDT) and day degree (DD) requirements for the egg, larval and pupal stage of D. micans were estimated to be 7.4 °C 153 DD, 6.6 °C 527 DD and 7.2 °C 126 DD, respectively. At 12.5, 15 and 17.5 °C, prior to prepupal cell formation, fifth-instar larvae underwent a diapause, which has not been observed previously in this species. Prepupal development rate also did not increase linearly with temperature.For R. grandis, the LDT and DD requirements for the egg, larval, prepupal and pupal stages were 5.7 °C 84 DD, 6.2 °C 263 DD, 8.1 °C 90 DD and 6.8 °C 178 DD, respectively. At 12.5 and 15 °C, most prepupae failed to pupate, which is indicative of a facultative diapause.The key developmental parameters reported in the present study may be used to model the phenology of the beetles throughout their range, providing better-timed control strategies or to predict outbreak risk under climate change as a result of reduced biocontrol effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T08:15:28.315055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12212
       
  • Potential impacts of Tuberolachnus salignus (giant willow aphid) in New
           Zealand and options for control
    • Authors: Stephanie L. Sopow; Trevor Jones, Ian McIvor, John A. McLean, Stephen M. Pawson
      Abstract: The giant willow aphid Tuberolachnus salignus was discovered in New Zealand in late 2013. Despite being a recent addition to the New Zealand fauna, the aphid is already widespread and abundant throughout the country.The giant willow aphid is expected to have negative impacts on host trees, primarily willows (Salix spp.), as has been observed elsewhere. All willows are exotic to New Zealand and a few have formal weed status, however many species are valued for multiple purposes, including flood protection, land stabilization, shelterbelts, and as early season pollen and nectar resources for honey bees.Tuberolachnus salignus presents a unique problem for New Zealand's thriving honey and honey products industries. Bees readily forage on the vast quantities of honeydew secreted by the aphid, however the honeydew contains melezitose sugar. The low solubility of this sugar results in honey crystallizing in the comb, making it difficult to extract and thereby reducing yield. It is also considered to be poor food for bees, and has been linked to bee dysentery and low overwintering survival.We elaborate on the potential complications for New Zealand as a result of the arrival of this new species and present options for its control and management.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T07:01:47.483427-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12211
       
  • Nesting ecology and floral resource of Xylocopa augusti Lepeletier de
           Saint Fargeau (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina
    • Authors: Mariano Lucia; María C. Telleria, Pablo J. Ramello, Alberto H. Abrahamovich
      Abstract: A total of 33 nests of Xylocopa augusti was studied during two consecutive seasons.Nesting behaviour and floral resources used by the large carpenter bee X. augusti Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau were studied during the brood production season in an urban area in Argentina.Biological information about nesting aspects inside and outside the nest was considered, paying particular attention to year-long activity, foraging flights throughout the day for nectar and pollen collection, nectar dehydration, oviposition, and pollen preference.In the study area, X. augusti shows an univoltine life cycle, with a peak of nesting between October and December, which coincides with the greatest blooming period of the surrounding flora.From 36 analyzed larval provision samples, 18 pollen types were identified, most of them belonging to ornamental trees or shrubs. Pollen from Eucalyptus-Myrceugenia glaucescens (Cambess.) D. Legrand and Kausel (Myrtaceae), Solanum sp.-Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn. (Solanaceae) and Erythrina crista-galli L. (Fabaceae) was dominant.The ability to obtain pollen from poricidal anthers such as those of Solanum indicate the potential of X. augusti to be an excellent managed pollinator and a good candidate for pollinating Solanaceae, such as Solanum lycopersicum ‘tomato’ and Solanum melongena ‘eggplant’, which are economically important crops in this region.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T02:20:38.666695-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12207
       
  • Firewood collected after a catastrophic wind event: the bark beetle
           (Scolytinae) and woodborer (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae) community present
           over a 3-year period
    • Authors: Kevin J. Dodds; Ryan P. Hanavan, Marc F. DiGirolomo
      Abstract: An EF 3 tornado created a 63-km path through urban and forested areas of western Massachusetts, U.S.A., on 1 June 2011.We collected ash, birch, maple, oak and pine logs from the tornado blowdown, once per year, over a 3-year period and split these into firewood sized pieces. Firewood was then placed into rearing barrels and insects were collected for 1 year.An estimated 38 121 beetles from 42 species of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae and Curculionidae: Scolytinae were reared from firewood over the 3-year period. The most abundant species collected included Hylesinus aculeatus Say (85% of total), Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford) (3.9%) and Monarthrum mali (Fitch) (3.6%).The largest abundance of insects was found from ash in 2012 and 2014, and from maple in 2013. Species richness was highest in oak in 2012 and 2013, and in birch and pine in 2014.Four species of exotic xyleborines [Cyclorhipidion pelliculosum (Eichhoff), X. attenuatus, Xyleborinus saxesenii and Xylosandrus germanus (Bladford)] were reared out of every firewood genus and accounted for a large proportion of the Scolytinae captured.Potential new host associations include the Cerambycidae Astylopsis macula (Say) in red pine, the Scolytinae Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch) in hardwoods, and M. mali, X. attenuatus and X. saxesenii in ash.Firewood harvested from a large scale disturbance in northeastern hardwood forests produced large numbers of insects, even 3 years after the disturbance.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06T03:05:38.033498-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12210
       
  • Prediction model for cabbage stem weevil Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Mrsh.
           occurrence on winter rape based on an artificial neural network
    • Authors: Karel Klem; Tomáš Spitzer
      Abstract: Cabbage stem weevil Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Mrsh. is a important pest of oilseed rape. The impacts of weather conditions and developing a prediction model are key prerequisites for making decisions about chemical plant protection.Based on data from long-term monitoring occurrence of C. pallidactylus (2002–2012), those meteorological parameters with the most significant effects on spring raid intensity were selected and a prediction model based on an artificial neural network was developed.The model was trained using data on the capture of C. pallidactylus between 10 March and 26 April and on weather conditions during January/February and March/April.The winning neural network provides 97% predictive reliability based on mean air temperature for the third March pentad, mean air temperature in the last week of March, mean soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm in the last decade of March, and mean soil temperature at depth of 10 cm for January/February.The occurrence of C. pallidactylus decreased with increasing soil temperature during January/February; in March, the opposite effect was observed. The effect of air temperature on the occurrence of C. pallidactylus uring March has a peak form with a maximum at 3–4 °C and 6–7 °C in mid-March and at the end of March, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05T10:00:35.999631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12209
       
  • Uniformity of petroleum-derived spray oils: lethal and sublethal effects
           on a herbivore pest and its parasitoid
    • Authors: Alejandro Tena; Laura Planes, Alberto Urbaneja
      Abstract: Petroleum-derived spray oils (PDSO) are widely used and recommended in many integrate pest management programmes and in organic agriculture against several pests. However, there are numerous discrepancies in their efficacy against pests and, more interestingly, in their side effects on natural enemies.In the present study, we used the citrus key pest Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and its main parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinedae) as models to evaluate both the lethal and sublethal effects of four commercial PDSO on different instars of the herbivore, as well as on the adult and immature stages of the parasitoid.The four PDSOs displayed similarly high mortalities against young instars of A. aurantii. However, most adult females survived all PDSO applications, and the fecundity of the surviving females was not altered.PDSOs were harmless to the parasitoid A. melinus because the survival (acute toxicity), longevity and fecundity of the surviving adults (sublethal effects) were not affected. Similarly, immature emergence was not affected by any of the four PDSOs after spraying the parasitized hosts.Overall, the results of the present study confirm the environmental-friendly profile of PDSOs against natural enemies and demonstrate a similar performance for PDSOs when they were correctly sprayed under the same conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T02:00:27.174303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12208
       
  • Using the waggle dance to determine the spatial ecology of honey bees
           during commercial crop pollination
    • Authors: Nicholas J. Balfour; Francis L. W. Ratnieks
      Abstract: Managed honey bees play an important role in global crop pollination. Maximizing their potential is likely to be of increasing importance to the human food supply.We explored the potential of waggle dance data to determine the spatial ecology of honey bees sited in a crop under commercial pollination. Over two springs, we video recorded and then decoded 834 waggle dances from colonies located in two apple and pear farms in Kent, U.K. We also obtained pollen samples from returning foragers and quantified the insects visiting apple and pear flowers.The vast majority (84%) of dances were for locations outside of the orchards in which our colonies were located. Accounting for the distance of orchards and oilseed rape fields from the study colonies, the amount of foraging per hectare in oilseed rape fields was greater than in orchards.The results of the present study indicate that maximizing the pollination services of managed honey bee colonies requires an landscape level approach that takes into account farm and foraging scale, as well as competing floral sources. The data also suggest that oilseed rape is a significant competitor to apple and pear flowers for honey bee visits.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T01:55:25.253944-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12204
       
  • Assessing the biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea
           solstitialis L): prospective analysis of the impact of the rosette weevil
           (Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger))
    • Authors: Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Luigi Ponti, Massimo Cristofaro, Lincoln Smith, Michael J. Pitcairn
      Abstract: Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L) (YST) is an invasive weed native to the Mediterranean region with a geographical centre of diversity in Turkey. It is widely established in Chile, Australia, and western North America. It arrived in California as a contaminant in alfalfa seed in 1859 and, by 2002, had infested>7.7 million hectares in the U.S.A.Biological control of YST using capitula feeding weevils, picture wing flies and a foliar rust pathogen has been ongoing in the western U.S.A. for more than three decades with limited success. Modelling and field research suggest natural enemies that kill whole plants and/or reduce seed production of survivors are good candidates for successful biological control. A candidate species with some of these attributes is the rosette weevil Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger).In the present study, a model of the rosette weevil is added to an extant system model of YST and its capitula feeding natural enemies and, in a GIS context, is used to assess YST control in the Palearctic region and the weevil's potential impact on YST in western U.S.A.The results obtained suggest densities of mature YST plants in western U.S.A. would be reduced by 70–80% in many areas.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T05:55:39.167012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12205
       
  • Pollination services of Africanized honey bees and native Melipona
           beecheii to buzz-pollinated annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the neotropics
    • Authors: Aristeo Caro; Humberto Moo-Valle, Rita Alfaro, J. Javier G. Quezada-Euán
      Abstract: Africanized honey bees (AHBs) are the predominant flower visitors of many plants in the neotropics, although little evidence is available on their efficiency as pollinators on native crops.Annatto (Bixa orellana) is a buzz-pollinated neotropical tree. We compared the pollination service provided by AHBs and native Melipona beecheii (Mb) to annatto in the Yucatan. As a result of the different abilities of both species to sonicate, a prediction of the present study is that AHBs on individual visits would result in less efficient pollinators on this crop.A higher frequency of AHBs on flowers (73.8%) compared with Mb (21.3%) was found. However, AHBs deposited significantly less pollen on the stigma and produced less fruits, with fewer seeds and weight, than Mb. A higher pollination index efficiency was obtained for Mb (0.9) compared with AHBs (0.6).AHBs did not sonicate annatto and gleaned the pollen released after Mb visits, which suggests that they act as commensals of the latter.By acting as commensals, AHBs, despite their high abundance, appear to marginally contribute to the pollination of annatto. Studies conducted under scenarios with a differential abundance of AHBs and efficient sonicating species are necessary to test this hypothesis on annatto and other buzz-pollinated plants in the neotropics.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20T08:20:25.870713-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12206
       
  • Assessment of cues potentially mediating host selection of Leptoglossus
           occidentalis on Pinus contorta
    • Authors: Tamara A. Richardson; Ward B. Strong, Brian H. Aukema, Stephen Takàcs, Tracy Zahradnik, B. Staffan Lindgren
      Abstract: Leptoglossus occidentalis causes significant damage in conifer seed orchards. Host selection by L. occidentalis is not completely understood. Earlier research has demonstrated a preference for certain clones of Pinus contorta, indicating that L. occidentalis responds to chemical or physical cues.The present study aimed to test whether L. occidentalis shows clonal preference across years, and to examine whether the host cues responsible for this could be identified.Surveys were conducted in a lodgepole pine seed orchard in British Columbia in 2008 and 2009. Clones were ranked based on the proportion of their ramets on which L. occidentalis was observed. Ramets were divided into three classes: (i) preferred clones with seed bugs; (ii) preferred clones without seed bugs; and (iii) nonpreferred clones with zero or very low numbers of seed bugs. From each clone, we measured infrared radiation emitted from cones, cone monoterpenes, cone size and numbers of cones per tree.Clone preference was consistent between 2008 and 2009. Clone preference classes differed significantly in α-pinene and δ-3 carene and limonene.Leptoglossus occidentalis was found more frequently on clones with cones of greater diameter and weight.Infrared radiation did not differ between clone preference classes, indicating that it is not used in host acceptance.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T15:41:04.806424-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12203
       
  • Influence of neighbouring companion plants on the performance of aphid
           populations on sweet pepper plants under greenhouse conditions
    • Authors: Refka Ben Issa; Hélène Gautier, Laurent Gomez
      Abstract: Companion plants (CPs) may affect the performance of pests on their hosts because of their potential to emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their effectiveness depends not only on the species, but also on their arrangement in the crop system.The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of intercropping rosemary, lavender or basil on the performance of Myzus persicae populations on sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annum) under greenhouse conditions.In a first set of experiments, sweet pepper plants were neighboured by either one or two CPs. In another set of experiments, rosemary was tested at three distances (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m) from the host plant.The first set of experiments showed similar patterns of aphid performance (i.e. number of females and nymphs) when a sweet pepper plant was surrounded by one or two companion plants. However, aphid performance was affected more when sweet pepper plants were intercropped with rosemary compared with lavender or basil.The effect of the companion plant decreased significantly with distance. Rosemary was most effective at 0.5 m, although its effectiveness decreased at 1.5 m, becoming insignificant at 2.5 m.The results suggest that a CP may be effective under greenhouse conditions provided that it is located near the target plant.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T01:15:25.119195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12199
       
  • Host range and genetic strains of leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae)
           in eastern Brazil reveal a new divergent clade of Liriomyza sativae
    • Authors: Jorgiane B. Parish; Gislaine A. Carvalho, Rodrigo S. Ramos, Elenir A. Queiroz, Marcelo C. Picanço, Raul N. C. Guedes, Alberto S. Corrêa
      Abstract: Leafminer flies are phytophagous and cosmopolitan pests. Leafminer fly outbreaks and damage to cultivated plants have steadily increased in several regions in the world.In the present study, we report host range, geographical distribution, Wolbachia infection and mitochondrial strains of leafminer fly species from eastern Brazil.Four leaf miner fly species were identified using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I DNA barcoding. Liriomyza sativae is the main pest as a result of its high polyphagy and wide distribution. Liriomyza brassicae, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Calycomyza malvae are important in Brassicaceae, Curcubitaceae and Malvaceae crops, respectively.There is no relationship among host range, geographical distribution and mitochondrial strains of leafminer fly species. We did not find Wolbachia infection in any of the specimens collected.Phylogeographical analyses suggests that there are four strains of L. sativae in the world, one of which is endemic from Brazil. The lack of shared haplotypes between Brazilian specimens and those from other world regions indicates the absence of recent gene flow of leafminer flies from Brazil with specimens from Americas and Old world. The exception is L. brassicae, which exhibits one haplotype shared among Brazil, Philippines and Sri Lanka.The host range identification and geographical isolation of leafminer fly species from Brazil comprise useful information for quarantine and pest management purposes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T00:20:23.862678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12202
       
  • Implications of early production in an invasive forest pest
    • Authors: Christy Leppanen; Daniel Simberloff
      Abstract: First-instar hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae nymphs were observed on eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis in Blount County, Tennessee, 3 months earlier than all previous worldwide accounts and during the warmest recorded December (2015) in North America.Subsequent quantification of maturing nymphs, adults and egg-laying adults, followed by the hatching and development of first-instar nymphs into egg-laying adults and implantation of their offspring, indicates newly documented, early A. tsugae reproduction in Blount and Knox Counties, Tennessee, shifted in time and with life stages overlapping within an earlier and shorter window.Warm winter temperatures may accelerate the A. tsugae life cycle, contributing offspring to A. tsugae populations outside of recognized cycles and possibly confounding management.Historic warm winter temperatures throughout the introduced range of A. tsugae in eastern North America may have contributed to its escalation from ‘introduced’ to ‘invasive’.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T00:15:23.040671-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12198
       
  • Genetic diversity and differentiation of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say
           (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) populations in China
    • Authors: Canxing Duan; Zhendong Zhu, Wanchang Li, Shiying Bao, Xiaoming Wang
      Abstract: Bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say is one of the most destructive pests of bean seeds. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we studied the genetic diversity and differentiation of 13 geographical populations.A total of 79 alleles were detected, with an average of 7.900 alleles per locus. The gene flow and genetic differentiation rate values at the 10 loci varied from 0.376 to 1.560 and 13.8–39.9%, with averages of 0.774% and 24.4%, respectively. Among the 13 populations, the effective number of alleles and observed heterozygosity ranged from 1.865 to 2.848 and 0.457 to 0.646, respectively. Shannon's information index ranged from 0.684 to 1.104.In all comparisons, the fixation index (FST) values ranged from 0.021 to 0.463, with a total FST value of 0.228 among the 13 populations, indicating a moderate level of genetic differentiation among these populations. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic variation within populations accounted for 67.7% of the total genetic variation.Using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis, 13 populations were clustered into three distinct genetic groups. The pattern of the three concentrated groups from principal component analysis showed a similar result to cluster, although some individuals interpenetrated with one another.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T02:25:51.788553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12187
       
  • Potential effects of climate warming on the survivorship of adult
           Monochamus galloprovincialis
    • Authors: Guillaume David; Brice Giffard, Dominique Piou, Alain Roques, Hervé Jactel
      Abstract: Ecologists have explored widely the consequences of climate change on insect species distribution and fitness. Although most studies have assessed the effect of increasing mean temperatures on individual performances, the response to temporal thermal variations, including the magnitude and frequency of extreme temperatures, has often been overlooked.In the present study, we hypothesized that insect performances increase with increasing mean temperatures but decrease under more variable thermal conditions. We used a manipulative experiment to compare the longevity and weight variation of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under three climatic conditions in which the mean and variance of daily temperatures were both controlled. This insect is vector of the invasive nematode, Bursapheluncus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of the pine wilt disease, one of the major threats to pine forests in Europe.Our results showed that an increase of 2.5 °C in average temperature had no effect on the survivorship and weight variations of the beetle. By contrast, larger fluctuating variations of temperature across year resulted in significantly lower longevity, whereas weight remained unchanged.The results of the present study suggest that the effect of global warming on the survival of M. galloprovincialis is likely to be driven by change in temperature stability rather than by change in mean temperature.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T04:35:39.894742-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12200
       
  • Grass abundance maintains positive plant–arthropod diversity
           relationships in maize fields and margins in South Africa
    • Authors: Monique Botha; Stefan J. Siebert, Johnnie van den Berg
      Abstract: The large-scale cultivation of crops may lead to biodiversity decreases as a result of habitat loss and degradation of natural habitats. A popular strategy for enhancing insect diversity in intensively cultivated habitats involves maintaining plant diversity in field margins by means of sown grass and wildflower strips.Despite extensive cultivation of maize/corn (approximately 3.1 million ha) in the grassy biomes of South Africa, little effort has been made to understand whether plant groups maintain insect biodiversity within these agro-ecosystems.The diversity relationships between three prominent guilds of arthropods (herbivores, parasitoids and predators) and three large plant families (Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae) are described at regional scale across the Grassland and Savanna Biomes of South Africa.The results obtained indicate general positive relationships between plant and arthropod diversity of the lower vegetation layers (≤2 m).An increased abundance of members of the grass family (Poaceae) led to significantly higher invertebrate numbers in maize fields and adjacent vegetation. This suggests that grasses play a significant role in supporting arthropod diversity within these agro-ecosystems.When considering farm design in maize-agro-ecosystems, our results indicate that maintaining grassy natural vegetation patches adjacent to actively cultivated maize fields may be sufficient to maintain and conserve arthropod diversity within agricultural landscapes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T04:35:33.779754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12195
       
  • Spatial patterns at host and forest stand scale and population regulation
           of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa
    • Authors: Carla S. Pimentel; Claudia Ferreira, Marcia Santos, Teresa Calvão
      Abstract: Different spatial processes are likely to generate variability at different scales. Thus, the explanation of patterns may be facilitated by knowledge about the spatial scales where variation in patterns occurs. In the present study, the link between spatial patterns of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae) at two different scales, as well as its population dynamics, was assessed.First, the spatial patterns of T. pityocampa population were assessed at the forest stand scale by surveying the distribution of larval colonies within the pine forest, indicative of adult dispersion. Second, egg-laying patterns across individual host-plants, indicative of female oviposition choices, were assessed, as well as their impact on the survival of immature stages.It was found that T. pityocampa presents a gregarious distribution in homogeneous pine forests, over distances of a few dozen metres. At the pine tree scale, females tend to aggregate their egg batches, whereas aggregation increases with population density. Natural enemies such as parasitoids do not appear to play an important role in regulating the population dynamics of the species. At the same time, aggregation in individual hosts leads to increased mortality in the period from hatching to the third instar, which is notable at high population densities.A patchy distribution in the landscape over short distances has a potentially positive effect on population dynamics of the species, avoiding the Allee effect, and allowing for a rapid increase in population, even where initial numbers are low, leading to localized outbreaks. At the same time, increased mortality as a result of egg-batch clumping at high population densities is a potential density-dependent mechanism of population regulation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T03:36:15.473449-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12201
       
  • Winter warming effects on overwinter survival, energy use, and spring
           emergence of Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    • Authors: Emily A. Berzitis; Heather A. Hager, Brent J. Sinclair, Rebecca H. Hallett, Jonathan A. Newman
      Abstract: Bean leaf beetle Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a pest of soybean in the U.S.A. and is becoming a concern in Canada. The projected increase in winter temperatures under climate change could affect overwinter survival, timing of spring emergence and, ultimately, the severity of this pest.We assessed the potential effects of warmer winters in field experiments performed in three consecutive years. Three warming levels were applied: (i) heated approximately 4 °C above ambient; (ii) unheated with snow cover left intact; and (iii) unheated with snow cover removed. Survival and date of emergence were assessed in all years, and beetle lipid content was analyzed in 1 year to determine rates of energy use.Overwinter survival was 6.5–14.5% among years. Winter warming inconsistently affected overwinter survival: increasing survival in one winter, decreasing survival in the warmest winter and having no effect in one winter. Beetles that received supplemental winter warming emerged approximately 2 weeks earlier in spring, and lipid content did not differ among treatment groups.Earlier spring emergence may allow for the production of an additional generation per year of C. trifurcata under future climate change. However, further experiments are required to establish the relationship between overwinter survival and subsequent beetle population growth to determine potential pest status and best management practices under future climate conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:06:55.703209-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12196
       
  • Patterns of habitat use by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, as
           influenced by abiotic and biotic growing conditions
    • Authors: Kirsten S. Pelz-Stelinski; Xavier Martini, Heather Kingdom-Gibbard, Lukasz L. Stelinski
      Abstract: The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus throughout Asia and the Americas because it transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is the presumed causal agent of citrus greening disease.We investigated whether biotic and abiotic characteristics can be used to predict Diaphorina citri population abundance and assessed whether agricultural intensity explained the distribution of D. citri populations during winter dormant periods (December to March).Over two consecutive winters, we examined the abundance of D. citri in groves throughout Florida in response to four different management regimes, defined as: conventional, intermittent, unmanaged and organic.During both years, the winter abundance of D. citri in groves with intermittent management was greater than in groves with other management regimes. Latitude and row orientation both had a significant effect on psyllid density during winter. Diaphorina citri abundance was higher when more than 20% of the surrounding landscape was urbanized.These findings suggest that only conventional management of groves reduced D. citri populations during winter periods. By contrast, intermittent management was associated with higher D. citri populations. These results might be of some concern in light of the economic and environmental costs of repeated insecticide applications and the dramatic decline of citrus production in the U.S.A.
      PubDate: 2016-10-16T23:50:47.067779-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12197
       
  • Effect of habitat type and soil moisture on pupal stage of a Mediterranean
           forest pest (Thaumetopoea pityocampa)
    • Authors: Lucía Torres-Muros; José A. Hódar, Regino Zamora
      Abstract: Habitat selection is especially important for pupae of holometabolous insects because this stage is usually immobile and to a certain extent unable to react to environmental changes. In the present study, we analyze how habitat and soil moisture determine the fate of pupae of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, a defoliator pest in pine woodlands of Europe and the Circunmediterranean region. The pine processionary moth pupates buried in the soil and can spend up to 9 years in an extra-long diapause.We considered the impact that different habitats, as well as the manipulation of soil water conditions in the preferred habitat (i.e. in bare ground with null or sparse herbaceous vegetation), can exert on pupation.Less than half of the buried larvae successfully pupated, even in the most favourable habitats and soil water conditions, whereas, on average, 2.5% underwent extra-long pupae diapause (2 years after pupation).Although habitat influenced mainly pupation success and pupal survival, changing moisture conditions in the preferred habitat affected primarily the phenology of emergence, whereas pupal survival remained unaffected.The results of the present study reveal the importance of both habitat and soil moisture on the pupal stage, providing valuable information with respect to adequately forecasting the effects of changes in climate or land use on the population dynamic of this important forest pest.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30T08:32:06.06285-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12188
       
  • Differences in photoperiod-induced diapause plasticity among different
           populations of the bark beetle Ips typographus and its predator Thanasimus
           formicarius
    • Authors: Martin Schroeder; Peter Dalin
      Abstract: Photoperiod is a common cue for diapause induction in insects. In a warmer climate, the photoperiod-sensitive life stage can be expected to be reached earlier in the season, when day length is still long, thereby increasing the probability of an additional generation.Populations from four latitudes in Sweden of the tree-killing bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) and its predator Thanasimus formicarius (L.) (Coleoptera, Cleridae) were reared at day lengths from 8 to 23.5 h. Ips typographus adults were classified as being reproductive or in diapause by dissection. Thanasimus formicarius new generation adults were classified as direct developers, whereas last-instar larvae in pupal chambers were classified as in developmental diapause.The frequency of reproductive diapause among new generation I. typographus adults was negatively correlated with day length and positively correlated with latitude of population origin. The two northernmost populations included a considerable proportion of individuals that entered reproductive diapause even at the longest day lengths. By contrast, diapause entry in the predator T. formicarius was generally independent of photoperiod and geographical origin.In a warmer climate, two generations per year may be more common for I. typographus in Sweden. The predator is less likely to increase voltinism.
      PubDate: 2016-09-27T04:26:52.290759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12189
       
  • Do natural enemies really make a difference' Field scale impacts of
           parasitoid wasps and hoverfly larvae on cereal aphid populations
    • Authors: Mark Ramsden; Rosa Menendez, Simon Leather, Felix Wäckers
      Abstract: Naturally occurring predators and parasitoids are known to reduce the abundance of pest invertebrates in arable crops, yet current treatment thresholds do not account for such a contribution to pest management.In the present study, we provide evidence for the presence of natural enemies correlating with a subsequent reduction in pest population growth.The abundance of cereal aphid pests and two key aphidophagous natural enemies, parasitoid wasps (Aphidiinae) and hoverfly larvae (Syrphinae), was assessed at field boundaries and interiors in southeast England.The highest rate of aphid population growth was associated with locations where no natural enemies were found. The presence of either Aphidiinae wasps or predatory Syrphinae larvae was associated with a reduction in the rate of aphid population growth, irrespective of location within the field, and overall aphid population growth was negatively correlated with increasing natural enemy abundance.The results of the present study indicate that natural enemies contribute significantly to pest control, and provide further evidence supporting the use of management strategies for promoting natural enemies in agro-ecosystems.Aphid predators and parasitoids make an important contribution to aphid pest control within cereal fields, and thresholds for insecticide application should account for this to avoid unnecessary treatments.
      PubDate: 2016-09-27T04:26:45.083755-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12191
       
  • Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of
           arthropods associated with ash tree boles in Maryland, U.S.A.
    • Authors: David E. Jennings; Jian J. Duan, Dick Bean, Kimberly A. Rice, Gaye L. Williams, Steven K. Bell, Aaron S. Shurtleff, Paula M. Shrewsbury
      Abstract: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native woodboring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Identifying the arthropod community associated with ash trees has been highlighted as an important research requirement in understanding the wider effects of EAB.We harvested live ash trees infested with EAB at 37 sites in Maryland from 2011 to 2014 and collected a total of 2031 arthropods. All arthropods were identified to order and 94.6% were identified to family or below. The community comprised 13 orders, 60 families and 41 genera, with 28 arthropod species identified. Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera accounted for 98.3% of arthropods collected.Data on changes in richness and diversity over time were fitted to second-order polynomial models, corresponding with a transition in the dominant taxa from woodboring beetles (Cerambycidae) to parasitoids (Braconidae and Eulophidae). This resulted in changes to community composition as the EAB infestation intensified.The findings of the present study provide further evidence of the diversity of arthropods at risk from EAB. Given the number of invasive non-native insects threatening North American forests, establishing what taxa are present is important for predicting the likely broader impacts of these invasions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T01:40:26.705326-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/afe.12186
       
 
 
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