for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover Aging Cell
  [SJR: 4.374]   [H-I: 95]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1474-9718 - ISSN (Online) 1474-9726
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Kallistatin reduces vascular senescence and aging by regulating
           microRNA-34a-SIRT1 pathway

    • Authors: Youming Guo; Pengfei Li, Lin Gao, Jingmei Zhang, Zhirong Yang, Grant Bledsoe, Eugene Chang, Lee Chao, Julie Chao
      Abstract: Kallistatin, an endogenous protein, protects against vascular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertensive rats and enhancing the mobility and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We aimed to determine the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging using cultured EPCs, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Human kallistatin significantly decreased TNF-α-induced cellular senescence in EPCs, as indicated by reduced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, and elevated telomerase activity. Kallistatin blocked TNF-α-induced superoxide levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and microRNA-21 (miR-21) and p16INK4a synthesis. Kallistatin prevented TNF-α-mediated inhibition of SIRT1, eNOS, and catalase, and directly stimulated the expression of these antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, kallistatin inhibited miR-34a synthesis, whereas miR-34a overexpression abolished kallistatin-induced antioxidant gene expression and antisenescence activity. Kallistatin via its active site inhibited miR-34a, and stimulated SIRT1 and eNOS synthesis in EPCs, which was abolished by genistein, indicating an event mediated by tyrosine kinase. Moreover, kallistatin administration attenuated STZ-induced aortic senescence, oxidative stress, and miR-34a and miR-21 synthesis, and increased SIRT1, eNOS, and catalase levels in diabetic mice. Furthermore, kallistatin treatment reduced superoxide formation and prolonged wild-type C. elegans lifespan under oxidative or heat stress, although kallistatin's protective effect was abolished in miR-34 or sir-2.1 (SIRT1 homolog) mutant C. elegans. Kallistatin inhibited miR-34, but stimulated sir-2.1 and sod-3 synthesis in C. elegans. These in vitro and in vivo studies provide significant insights into the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging by regulating miR-34a-SIRT1 pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:40:28.991669-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12615
       
  • Biochemical isolation of myonuclei employed to define changes to the
           myonuclear proteome that occur with aging

    • Authors: Alicia A. Cutler; Eric B. Dammer, Duc M. Doung, Nicholas T. Seyfried, Anita H. Corbett, Grace K. Pavlath
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle aging is accompanied by loss of muscle mass and strength. Examining changes in myonuclear proteins with age would provide insight into molecular processes which regulate these profound changes in muscle physiology. However, muscle tissue is highly adapted for contraction and thus comprised largely of contractile proteins making the nuclear proteins difficult to identify from whole muscle samples. By developing a method to purify myonuclei from whole skeletal muscle, we were able to collect myonuclei for analysis by flow cytometry, biochemistry, and mass spectrometry. Nuclear purification dramatically increased the number and intensity of nuclear proteins detected by mass spectrometry compared to whole tissue. We exploited this increased proteomic depth to investigate age-related changes to the myonuclear proteome. Nuclear levels of 54 of 779 identified proteins (7%) changed significantly with age; these proteins were primarily involved in chromatin maintenance and RNA processing. To determine whether the changes we detected were specific to myonuclei or were common to nuclei of excitatory tissues, we compared aging in myonuclei to aging in brain nuclei. Although several of the same processes were affected by aging in both brain and muscle nuclei, the specific proteins involved in these alterations differed between the two tissues. Isolating myonuclei allowed a deeper view into the myonuclear proteome than previously possible facilitating identification of novel age-related changes in skeletal muscle. Our technique will enable future studies into a heretofore underrepresented compartment of skeletal muscle.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:55:27.639453-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12604
       
  • Molecular and physiological manifestations and measurement of aging in
           humans

    • Authors: Sadiya S. Khan; Benjamin D. Singer, Douglas E. Vaughan
      Abstract: Biological aging is associated with a reduction in the reparative and regenerative potential in tissues and organs. This reduction manifests as a decreased physiological reserve in response to stress (termed homeostenosis) and a time-dependent failure of complex molecular mechanisms that cumulatively create disorder. Aging inevitably occurs with time in all organisms and emerges on a molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal level with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental modulators. Individuals with the same chronological age exhibit differential trajectories of age-related decline, and it follows that we should assess biological age distinctly from chronological age. In this review, we outline mechanisms of aging with attention to well-described molecular and cellular hallmarks and discuss physiological changes of aging at the organ-system level. We suggest methods to measure aging with attention to both molecular biology (e.g., telomere length and epigenetic marks) and physiological function (e.g., lung function and echocardiographic measurements). Finally, we propose a framework to integrate these molecular and physiological data into a composite score that measures biological aging in humans. Understanding the molecular and physiological phenomena that drive the complex and multifactorial processes underlying the variable pace of biological aging in humans will inform how researchers assess and investigate health and disease over the life course. This composite biological age score could be of use to researchers seeking to characterize normal, accelerated, and exceptionally successful aging as well as to assess the effect of interventions aimed at modulating human aging.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:30:40.972734-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12601
       
  • Short-term rapamycin treatment increases ovarian lifespan in young
           and middle-aged female mice

    • Authors: Xiaowei Dou; Yan Sun, Jiazhao Li, Jing Zhang, Dandan Hao, Wenwen Liu, Rui Wu, Feifei Kong, Xiaoxu Peng, Jing Li
      Abstract: Although age-related ovarian failure in female mammals cannot be reversed, recent strategies have focused on improving reproductive capacity with age, and rapamycin is one such intervention that has shown a potential for preserving the ovarian follicle pool and preventing premature ovarian failure. However, the application is limited because of its detrimental effects on follicular development and ovulation during long-term treatment. Herein, we shortened the rapamycin administration to 2 weeks and applied the protocol to both young (8 weeks) and middle-aged (8 months) mouse models. Results showed disturbances in ovarian function during and shortly after treatment; however, all the treated animals returned to normal fertility 2 months later. Following natural mating, we observed prolongation of ovarian lifespan in both mouse models, with the most prominent effect occurring in mice older than 12 months. The effects of transient rapamycin treatment on ovarian lifespan were reflected in the preservation of primordial follicles, increases in oocyte quality, and improvement in the ovarian microenvironment. These data indicate that short-term rapamycin treatment exhibits persistent effects on prolonging ovarian lifespan no matter the age at initiation of treatment. In order not to disturb fertility in young adults, investigators should in the future consider applying the protocol later in life so as to delay menopause in women, and at the same time increase ovarian lifespan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T05:00:53.309133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12617
       
  • Impairment of insulin signalling in peripheral tissue fails to extend
           murine lifespan

    • Authors: Troy L. Merry; Doreen Kuhlow, Beate Laube, Doris Pöhlmann, Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer, C. Ronald Kahn, Michael Ristow, Kim Zarse
      Abstract: Impaired insulin/IGF1 signalling has been shown to extend lifespan in model organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Here we sought to determine the effect of targeted disruption of the insulin receptor (IR) in non-neuronal tissues of adult mice on the lifespan. We induced hemizygous (PerIRKO+/−) or homozygous (PerIRKO−/−) disruption of the IR in peripheral tissue of 15-weeks-old mice using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre transgenic mouse with only peripheral tissue expression, and subsequently monitored glucose metabolism, insulin signalling and spontaneous death rates over 4 years. Complete peripheral IR disruption resulted in a diabetic phenotype with increased blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in young mice. Although blood glucose levels returned to normal, and fat mass was reduced in aged PerIRKO−/− mice, their lifespan was reduced. By contrast, heterozygous disruption had no effect on lifespan. This was despite young male PerIRKO+/− mice showing reduced fat mass and mild increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity. In conflict with findings in metazoans like Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, our results suggest that heterozygous impairment of the insulin signalling limited to peripheral tissues of adult mice fails to extend lifespan despite increased systemic insulin sensitivity, while homozygous impairment shortens lifespan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T04:55:33.251803-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12610
       
  • Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner

    • Authors: Marianna Sadagurski; Gillian Cady, Richard A. Miller
      Abstract: Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T23:05:53.051596-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12590
       
  • The PPARγ-SETD8 axis constitutes an epigenetic, p53-independent
           checkpoint on p21-mediated cellular senescence

    • Authors: Chieh-Tien Shih; Yi-Feng Chang, Yi-Tung Chen, Chung-Pei Ma, Hui-Wen Chen, Chang-Ching Yang, Juu-Chin Lu, Yau-Sheng Tsai, Hua-Chien Chen, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan
      Abstract: Cellular senescence is a permanent proliferative arrest triggered by genome instability or aberrant growth stresses, acting as a protective or even tumor-suppressive mechanism. While several key aspects of gene regulation have been known to program this cessation of cell growth, the involvement of the epigenetic regulation has just emerged but remains largely unresolved. Using a systems approach that is based on targeted gene profiling, we uncovered known and novel chromatin modifiers with putative link to the senescent state of the cells. Among these, we identified SETD8 as a new target as well as a key regulator of the cellular senescence signaling. Knockdown of SETD8 triggered senescence induction in proliferative culture, irrespectively of the p53 status of the cells; ectopic expression of this epigenetic writer alleviated the extent doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence. This repressive effect of SETD8 in senescence was mediated by directly maintaining the silencing mark H4K20me1 at the locus of the senescence switch gene p21. Further in support of this regulatory link, depletion of p21 reversed this SETD8-mediated cellular senescence. Additionally, we found that PPARγ acts upstream and regulates SETD8 expression in proliferating cells. Downregulation of PPARγ coincided with the senescence induction, while its activation inhibited the progression of this process. Viewed together, our findings delineated a new epigenetic pathway through which the PPARγ-SETD8 axis directly silences p21 expression and consequently impinges on its senescence-inducing function. This implies that SETD8 may be part of a cell proliferation checkpoint mechanism and has important implications in antitumor therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T04:25:44.606816-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12607
       
  • Caveolin-1 deficiency induces premature senescence with mitochondrial
           dysfunction

    • Authors: Dong-Min Yu; Seung Hee Jung, Hyoung-Tae An, Sungsoo Lee, Jin Hong, Jun Sub Park, Hyun Lee, Hwayeon Lee, Myeong-Suk Bahn, Hyung Chul Lee, Na-Kyung Han, Jesang Ko, Jae-Seon Lee, Young-Gyu Ko
      Abstract: Paradoxical observations have been made regarding the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) during cellular senescence. For example, caveolin-1 deficiency prevents reactive oxygen species-induced cellular senescence despite mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to senescence. To resolve this paradox, we re-addressed the role of caveolin-1 in cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts, A549, HCT116, and Cav-1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cav-1 deficiency (knockout or knockdown) induced cellular senescence via a p53-p21-dependent pathway, downregulating the expression level of the cardiolipin biosynthesis enzymes and then reducing the content of cardiolipin, a critical lipid for mitochondrial respiration. Our results showed that Cav-1 deficiency decreased mitochondrial respiration, reduced the activity of oxidative phosphorylation complex I (CI), inactivated SIRT1, and decreased the NAD+/NADH ratio. From these results, we concluded that Cav-1 deficiency induces premature senescence via mitochondrial dysfunction and silent information regulator 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) inactivation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T04:16:45.01602-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12606
       
  • The space where aging acts: focus on the GABAergic synapse

    • Authors: Aleksandra Rozycka; Monika Liguz-Lecznar
      Abstract: As it was established that aging is not associated with massive neuronal loss, as was believed in the mid-20th Century, scientific interest has addressed the influence of aging on particular neuronal subpopulations and their synaptic contacts, which constitute the substrate for neural plasticity. Inhibitory neurons represent the most complex and diverse group of neurons, showing distinct molecular and physiological characteristics and possessing a compelling ability to control the physiology of neural circuits. This review focuses on the aging of GABAergic neurons and synapses. Understanding how aging affects synapses of particular neuronal subpopulations may help explain the heterogeneity of aging-related effects. We reviewed the literature concerning the effects of aging on the numbers of GABAergic neurons and synapses as well as aging-related alterations in their presynaptic and postsynaptic components. Finally, we discussed the influence of those changes on the plasticity of the GABAergic system, highlighting our results concerning aging in mouse somatosensory cortex and linking them to plasticity impairments and brain disorders. We posit that aging-induced impairments of the GABAergic system lead to an inhibitory/excitatory imbalance, thereby decreasing neuron's ability to respond with plastic changes to environmental and cellular challenges, leaving the brain more vulnerable to cognitive decline and damage by synaptopathic diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T02:20:27.368405-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12605
       
  • Enhanced NOLC1 promotes cell senescence and represses hepatocellular
           carcinoma cell proliferation by disturbing the organization of nucleolus

    • Authors: Fuwen Yuan; Yu Zhang, Liwei Ma, Qian Cheng, Guodong Li, Tanjun Tong
      Abstract: The nucleolus is a key organelle that is responsible for the synthesis of rRNA and assembly of ribosomal subunits, which is also the center of metabolic control because of the critical role of ribosomes in protein synthesis. Perturbations of rRNA biogenesis are closely related to cell senescence and tumor progression; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report that cellular senescence-inhibited gene (CSIG) knockdown up-regulated NOLC1 by stabilizing the 5′UTR of NOLC1 mRNA, and elevated NOLC1 induced the retention of NOG1 in the nucleolus, which is responsible for rRNA processing. Besides, the expression of NOLC1 was negatively correlated with CSIG in the aged mouse tissue and replicative senescent 2BS cells, and the down-regulation of NOLC1 could rescue CSIG knockdown-induced 2BS senescence. Additionally, NOLC1 expression was decreased in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and the ectopic expression of NOLC1 repressed the proliferation of HCC cells and tumor growth in a HCC xenograft model.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T23:11:01.937446-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12602
       
  • Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase 2 is elevated in long-lived primate as
           well as rodent species and extends fly mean lifespan

    • Authors: Andrew M. Pickering; Marcus Lehr, Christi M. Gendron, Scott D. Pletcher, Richard A. Miller
      Abstract: In a survey of enzymes related to protein oxidation and cellular redox state, we found activity of the redox enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) to be elevated in cells from long-lived species of rodents, primates, and birds. Elevated TXNRD activity in long-lived species reflected increases in the mitochondrial form, TXNRD2, rather than the cytosolic forms TXNRD1 and TXNRD3. Analysis of published RNA-Seq data showed elevated TXNRD2 mRNA in multiple organs of longer-lived primates, suggesting that the phenomenon is not limited to skin-derived fibroblasts. Elevation of TXNRD2 activity and protein levels was also noted in liver of three different long-lived mutant mice, and in normal male mice treated with a drug that extends lifespan in males. Overexpression of mitochondrial TXNRD2 in Drosophila melanogaster extended median (but not maximum) lifespan in female flies with a small lifespan extension in males; in contrast, overexpression of the cytosolic form, TXNRD1, did not produce a lifespan extension.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T02:00:36.748008-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12596
       
  • Quantitative identification of senescent cells in aging and disease

    • Authors: Anat Biran; Lior Zada, Paula Abou Karam, Ezra Vadai, Lior Roitman, Yossi Ovadya, Ziv Porat, Valery Krizhanovsky
      Abstract: Senescent cells are present in premalignant lesions and sites of tissue damage and accumulate in tissues with age. In vivo identification, quantification and characterization of senescent cells are challenging tasks that limit our understanding of the role of senescent cells in diseases and aging. Here, we present a new way to precisely quantify and identify senescent cells in tissues on a single-cell basis. The method combines a senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay with staining of molecular markers for cellular senescence and of cellular identity. By utilizing technology that combines flow cytometry with high-content image analysis, we were able to quantify senescent cells in tumors, fibrotic tissues, and tissues of aged mice. Our approach also yielded the finding that senescent cells in tissues of aged mice are larger than nonsenescent cells. Thus, this method provides a basis for quantitative assessment of senescent cells and it offers proof of principle for combination of different markers of senescence. It paves the way for screening of senescent cells for identification of new senescence biomarkers, genes that bypass senescence or senolytic compounds that eliminate senescent cells, thus enabling a deeper understanding of the senescent state in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T23:22:09.691772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12592
       
  • Autophagy compensates impaired energy metabolism in CLPXP-deficient
           Podospora anserina strains and extends healthspan

    • Authors: Laura Knuppertz; Heinz D. Osiewacz
      Abstract: The degradation of nonfunctional mitochondrial proteins is of fundamental relevance for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The heteromeric CLPXP protein complex in the mitochondrial matrix is part of this process. In the fungal aging model Podospora anserina, ablation of CLPXP leads to an increase in healthy lifespan. Here, we report that this counterintuitive increase depends on a functional autophagy machinery. In PaClpXP mutants, autophagy is involved in energy conservation and the compensation of impairments in respiration. Strikingly, despite the impact on mitochondrial function, it is not mitophagy but general autophagy that is constitutively induced and required for longevity. In contrast, in another long-lived mutant ablated for the mitochondrial PaIAP protease, autophagy is neither induced nor required for lifespan extension. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into the capacity of different forms of autophagy to compensate impairments of specific components of the complex mitochondrial quality control network and about the biological role of mitochondrial CLPXP in the control of cellular energy metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T12:20:53.684724-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12600
       
  • Endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis impairment in aging

    • Authors: Gabriela Martínez; Claudia Duran-Aniotz, Felipe Cabral-Miranda, Juan P. Vivar, Claudio Hetz
      Abstract: Perturbed neuronal proteostasis is a salient feature shared by both aging and protein misfolding disorders. The proteostasis network controls the health of the proteome by integrating pathways involved in protein synthesis, folding, trafficking, secretion, and their degradation. A reduction in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network during aging may increase the risk to undergo neurodegeneration by enhancing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. As almost one-third of the proteome is synthetized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), maintenance of its proper function is fundamental to sustain neuronal function. In fact, ER stress is a common feature of most neurodegenerative diseases. The unfolded protein response (UPR) operates as central player to maintain ER homeostasis or the induction of cell death of chronically damaged cells. Here, we discuss recent evidence placing ER stress as a driver of brain aging, and the emerging impact of neuronal UPR in controlling global proteostasis at the whole organismal level. Finally, we discuss possible therapeutic interventions to improve proteostasis and prevent pathological brain aging.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T20:10:32.178017-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12599
       
  • Genetic interplay between human longevity and metabolic pathways — a
           large-scale eQTL study

    • Authors: Robert Häsler; Geetha Venkatesh, Qihua Tan, Friederike Flachsbart, Anupam Sinha, Philip Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Kaare Christensen, Lene Christiansen, Almut Nebel
      Abstract: Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental components. Unraveling the contribution of genetic vs. nongenetic factors to longevity is a challenging task. Here, we conducted a large-scale RNA-sequencing-based expression quantitative trait loci study (eQTL) with subsequent heritability analysis. The investigation was performed on blood samples from 244 individuals from Germany and Denmark, representing various age groups including long-lived subjects up to the age of 104 years. Our eQTL-based approach revealed for the first time that human longevity is associated with a depletion of metabolic pathways in a genotype-dependent and independent manner. Further analyses indicated that 20% of the differentially expressed genes are influenced by genetic variants in cis. The subsequent study of twins showed that the transcriptional activity of a third of the differentially regulated genes is heritable. These findings suggest that longevity-associated biological processes such as altered metabolism are, to a certain extent, also the driving force of longevity rather than just a consequence of old age.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:00:38.870491-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12598
       
  • DNA damage and senescence in osteoprogenitors expressing Osx1 may cause
           their decrease with age

    • Authors: Ha-Neui Kim; Jianhui Chang, Lijian Shao, Li Han, Srividhya Iyer, Stavros C. Manolagas, Charles A. O'Brien, Robert L. Jilka, Daohong Zhou, Maria Almeida
      Abstract: Age-related bone loss in mice results from a decrease in bone formation and an increase in cortical bone resorption. The former is accounted by a decrease in the number of postmitotic osteoblasts which synthesize the bone matrix and is thought to be the consequence of age-dependent changes in mesenchymal osteoblast progenitors. However, there are no specific markers for these progenitors, and conclusions rely on results from in vitro cultures of mixed cell populations. Moreover, the culprits of such changes remain unknown. Here, we have used Osx1-Cre;TdRFP mice in which osteoprogenitors express the TdRFP fluorescent protein. We report that the number of TdRFP-Osx1 cells, freshly isolated from the bone marrow, declines by more than 50% between 6 and 24 months of age in both female and male mice. Moreover, TdRFP-Osx1 cells from old mice exhibited markers of DNA damage and senescence, such as γH2AX foci, G1 cell cycle arrest, phosphorylation of p53, increased p21CIP1 levels, as well as increased levels of GATA4 and activation of NF-κB – two major stimulators of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Bone marrow stromal cells from old mice also exhibited elevated expression of SASP genes, including several pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines, and increased capacity to support osteoclast formation. These changes were greatly attenuated by the senolytic drug ABT263. Together, these findings suggest that the decline in bone mass with age is the result of intrinsic defects in osteoprogenitor cells, leading to decreased osteoblast numbers and increased support of osteoclast formation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:42:10.859643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12597
       
  • Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of human genes differentially expressed
           with age are enriched for determinants of longevity

    • Authors: George L. Sutphin; Grant Backer, Susan Sheehan, Shannon Bean, Caroline Corban, Teresa Liu, Marjolein J. Peters, Joyce B. J. Meurs, Joanne M. Murabito, Andrew D. Johnson, Ron Korstanje,
      Abstract: We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported. The five genes with the greatest impact on lifespan (>20% extension) encode the enzyme kynureninase (kynu-1), a neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein (iglr-1), a tetraspanin (tsp-3), a regulator of calcineurin (rcan-1), and a voltage-gated calcium channel subunit (unc-36). Knockdown of each gene extended healthspan without impairing reproduction. kynu-1(RNAi) alone delayed pathology in C. elegans models of Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Each gene displayed a distinct pattern of interaction with known aging pathways. In the context of published work, kynu-1, tsp-3, and rcan-1 are of particular interest for immediate follow-up. kynu-1 is an understudied member of the kynurenine metabolic pathway with a mechanistically distinct impact on lifespan. Our data suggest that tsp-3 is a novel modulator of hypoxic signaling and rcan-1 is a context-specific calcineurin regulator. Our results validate C. elegans as a comparative tool for prioritizing human candidate aging genes, confirm age-associated gene expression data as valuable source of novel longevity determinants, and prioritize select genes for mechanistic follow-up.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:35:55.838489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12595
       
  • Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging:
           implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend
           healthspan

    • Authors: Daniel W. Belsky; Avshalom Caspi, Harvey J. Cohen, William E. Kraus, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E. Moffitt
      Abstract: Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans’ pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972–73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members’ Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members’ adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members’ retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants’ early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:16:11.47942-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12591
       
  • Age-related decline in BubR1 impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    • Authors: Zhongxi Yang; Heechul Jun, Chan-II Choi, Ki Hyun Yoo, Chang Hoon Cho, Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Ambrosia J. Simmons, Seonhee Kim, Jan M. Deursen, Darren J. Baker, Mi-Hyeon Jang
      Abstract: Aging causes significant declines in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and leads to cognitive disability. Emerging evidence demonstrates that decline in the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 level occurs with natural aging and induces progeroid features in both mice and children with mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome. Whether BubR1 contributes to age-related deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis is yet to be determined. Here we report that BubR1 expression is significantly reduced with natural aging in the mouse brain. Using established progeroid mice expressing low amounts of BubR1, we demonstrate these mice exhibit deficits in neural progenitor proliferation and maturation, leading to reduction in new neuron production. Collectively, our identification of BubR1 as a new and critical factor controlling sequential steps across neurogenesis raises the possibility that BubR1 may be a key mediator regulating aging-related hippocampal pathology. Targeting BubR1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for age-related cognitive deficits.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:35:44.128095-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12594
       
  • Rapamycin inhibits the secretory phenotype of senescent cells by a
           Nrf2-independent mechanism

    • Authors: Rong Wang; Zhen Yu, Bharath Sunchu, James Shoaf, Ivana Dang, Stephanie Zhao, Kelsey Caples, Lynda Bradley, Laura M. Beaver, Emily Ho, Christiane V. Löhr, Viviana I. Perez
      Abstract: Senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology and loss of function, and their selective removal improves physiological function and extends longevity. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell senescence in vitro and increases longevity in several species. Nrf2 levels have been shown to decrease with aging and silencing Nrf2 gene induces premature senescence. Therefore, we explored whether Nrf2 is involved in the mechanism by which rapamycin delays cell senescence. In wild-type (WT) mouse fibroblasts, rapamycin increased the levels of Nrf2, and this correlates with the activation of autophagy and a reduction in the induction of cell senescence, as measured by SA-β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and p16 and p21 molecular markers. In Nrf2KO fibroblasts, however, rapamycin still decreased β-gal staining and the SASP, but rapamycin did not activate the autophagy pathway or decrease p16 and p21 levels. These observations were further confirmed in vivo using Nrf2KO mice, where rapamycin treatment led to a decrease in β-gal staining and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and fat tissue; however, p16 levels were not significantly decreased in fat tissue. Consistent with literature demonstrating that the Stat3 pathway is linked to the production of SASP, we found that rapamycin decreased activation of the Stat3 pathway in cells or tissue samples from both WT and Nrf2KO mice. Our data thus suggest that cell senescence is a complex process that involves at least two arms, and rapamycin uses Nrf2 to regulate cell cycle arrest, but not the production of SASP.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T23:10:46.96043-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12587
       
  • Aging of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix drives a stem cell
           fibrogenic conversion

    • Authors: Kristen M. Stearns-Reider; Antonio D'Amore, Kevin Beezhold, Benjamin Rothrauff, Loredana Cavalli, William R. Wagner, David A. Vorp, Alkiviadis Tsamis, Sunita Shinde, Changqing Zhang, Aaron Barchowsky, Thomas A. Rando, Rocky S. Tuan, Fabrisia Ambrosio
      Abstract: Age-related declines in skeletal muscle regeneration have been attributed to muscle stem cell (MuSC) dysfunction. Aged MuSCs display a fibrogenic conversion, leading to fibrosis and impaired recovery after injury. Although studies have demonstrated the influence of in vitro substrate characteristics on stem cell fate, whether and how aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects stem cell behavior has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the direct effect of the aged muscle ECM on MuSC lineage specification. Quantification of ECM topology and muscle mechanical properties reveals decreased collagen tortuosity and muscle stiffening with increasing age. Age-related ECM alterations directly disrupt MuSC responses, and MuSCs seeded ex vivo onto decellularized ECM constructs derived from aged muscle display increased expression of fibrogenic markers and decreased myogenicity, compared to MuSCs seeded onto young ECM. This fibrogenic conversion is recapitulated in vitro when MuSCs are seeded directly onto matrices elaborated by aged fibroblasts. When compared to young fibroblasts, fibroblasts isolated from aged muscle display increased nuclear levels of the mechanosensors, Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), consistent with exposure to a stiff microenvironment in vivo. Accordingly, preconditioning of young fibroblasts by seeding them onto a substrate engineered to mimic the stiffness of aged muscle increases YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation and promotes secretion of a matrix that favors MuSC fibrogenesis. The findings here suggest that an age-related increase in muscle stiffness drives YAP/TAZ-mediated pathogenic expression of matricellular proteins by fibroblasts, ultimately disrupting MuSC fate.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T23:11:52.77104-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12578
       
  • Aging-associated dysregulation of homeostatic immune response termination
           (and not initiation)

    • Authors: Goutham Pattabiraman; Karol Palasiewicz, John P. Galvin, David S. Ucker
      Abstract: Immunosenescence is a state of unbalanced immune responsiveness, characterized by a diverse repertoire of seemingly discreet and paradoxical alterations in all aspects of immunity arising in an aging-associated manner. We asked whether aging-associated alterations in the ability of apoptotic cells to elicit immunomodulatory responses (innate apoptotic immunity; IAI) or in IAI responses themselves might underlie the confounding aging-associated anomalies of immunosenescence. We explored this question by examining, as a function of animal age, responsiveness of murine macrophages on the single cell level. We monitored the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines cytofluorimetrically in response to pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and anti-inflammatory treatment with apoptotic cells. While we found no alterations with age in the potency of apoptotic cells or in the initiation and magnitude of IAI responses, we did identify a cell-intrinsic deficiency in anti-inflammatory IAI response termination linked with age and preceding manifestations of immunosenescence. Further, we found that an aging-associated deficiency in response termination also is evident following TLR stimulation. These surprising observations reveal that a loss of homeostatic immune control with animal age results from the dysregulation of response termination (as distinct from response initiation) and is exerted on the level of transcription. We suggest that, with advancing age, cells become locked into relatively longer-lived response states. Aging-associated immune dysfunctions may reflect a diminution in the cellular nimbleness of immune responsiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T23:11:26.588155-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12589
       
  • Residual Cdk1/2 activity after DNA damage promotes senescence

    • Authors: Erik Müllers; Helena Silva Cascales, Kamila Burdova, Libor Macurek, Arne Lindqvist
      Abstract: In response to DNA damage, a cell can be forced to permanently exit the cell cycle and become senescent. Senescence provides an early barrier against tumor development by preventing proliferation of cells with damaged DNA. By studying single cells, we show that Cdk activity persists after DNA damage until terminal cell cycle exit. This low level of Cdk activity not only allows cell cycle progression, but also promotes cell cycle exit at a decision point in G2 phase. We find that residual Cdk1/2 activity is required for efficient p21 production, allowing for nuclear sequestration of Cyclin B1, subsequent APC/CCdh1-dependent degradation of mitotic inducers and induction of senescence. We suggest that the same activity that triggers mitosis in an unperturbed cell cycle enforces senescence in the presence of DNA damage, ensuring a robust response when most needed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T19:45:30.381415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12588
       
  • Disruption of the Cx43/miR21 pathway leads to osteocyte apoptosis and
           increased osteoclastogenesis with aging

    • Authors: Hannah M. Davis; Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Emily G. Atkinson, Lucas R. Brun, Arancha R. Gortazar, Julia Harris, Masahiro Hiasa, Surajudeen A. Bolarinwa, Toshiyuki Yoneda, Mircea Ivan, Angela Bruzzaniti, Teresita Bellido, Lilian I. Plotkin
      Abstract: Skeletal aging results in apoptosis of osteocytes, cells embedded in bone that control the generation/function of bone forming and resorbing cells. Aging also decreases connexin43 (Cx43) expression in bone; and osteocytic Cx43 deletion partially mimics the skeletal phenotype of old mice. Particularly, aging and Cx43 deletion increase osteocyte apoptosis, and osteoclast number and bone resorption on endocortical bone surfaces. We examined herein the molecular signaling events responsible for osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast recruitment triggered by aging and Cx43 deficiency. Cx43-silenced MLO-Y4 osteocytic (Cx43def) cells undergo spontaneous cell death in culture through caspase-3 activation and exhibit increased levels of apoptosis-related genes, and only transfection of Cx43 constructs able to form gap junction channels reverses Cx43def cell death. Cx43def cells and bones from old mice exhibit reduced levels of the pro-survival microRNA miR21 and, consistently, increased levels of the miR21 target phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and reduced phosphorylated Akt, whereas PTEN inhibition reduces Cx43def cell apoptosis. miR21 reduction is sufficient to induce apoptosis of Cx43-expressing cells and miR21 deletion in miR21fl/fl bones increases apoptosis-related gene expression, whereas a miR21 mimic prevents Cx43def cell apoptosis, demonstrating that miR21 lies downstream of Cx43. Cx43def cells release more osteoclastogenic cytokines [receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL)/high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)], and caspase-3 inhibition prevents RANKL/HMGB1 release and the increased osteoclastogenesis induced by conditioned media from Cx43def cells, which is blocked by antagonizing HMGB1-RAGE interaction. These findings identify a novel Cx43/miR21/HMGB1/RANKL pathway involved in preventing osteocyte apoptosis that also controls osteoclast formation/recruitment and is impaired with aging.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T21:16:07.252551-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12586
       
  • Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering
           mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    • Authors: Hyun Tae Kang; Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Gyu Ree Kim, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
      Abstract: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T21:15:47.648079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12584
       
  • The DrugAge database of aging-related drugs

    • Authors: Diogo Barardo; Daniel Thornton, Harikrishnan Thoppil, Michael Walsh, Samim Sharifi, Susana Ferreira, Andreja Anžič, Maria Fernandes, Patrick Monteiro, Tjaša Grum, Rui Cordeiro, Evandro Araújo De-Souza, Arie Budovsky, Natali Araujo, Jan Gruber, Michael Petrascheck, Vadim E. Fraifeld, Alexander Zhavoronkov, Alexey Moskalev, João Pedro Magalhães
      Abstract: Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (http://genomics.senescence.info/drugs/), a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug–gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs. Enriched terms include various functional categories related to glutathione and antioxidant activity, ion transport and metabolic processes. In addition, we found a modest but significant overlap between targets of lifespan-extending drugs and known aging-related genes, suggesting that some but not most aging-related pathways have been targeted pharmacologically in longevity studies. DrugAge is freely available online for the scientific community and will be an important resource for biogerontologists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T00:45:54.50077-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12585
       
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency exacerbates hypertension-induced
           cerebral microhemorrhages in mice, mimicking the aging phenotype

    • Authors: Stefano Tarantini; Noa M. Valcarcel-Ares, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Zsolt Springo, Gabor A. Fulop, Nicole Ashpole, Tripti Gautam, Cory B. Giles, Jonathan D. Wren, William E. Sonntag, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari
      Abstract: Clinical and experimental studies show that aging exacerbates hypertension-induced cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs), which progressively impair neuronal function. There is growing evidence that aging promotes insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency, which compromises multiple aspects of cerebromicrovascular and brain health. To determine the role of IGF-1 deficiency in the pathogenesis of CMHs, we induced hypertension in mice with liver-specific knockdown of IGF-1 (Igf1f/f + TBG-Cre-AAV8) and control mice by angiotensin II plus l-NAME treatment. In IGF-1-deficient mice, the same level of hypertension led to significantly earlier onset and increased incidence and neurological consequences of CMHs, as compared to control mice, as shown by neurological examination, gait analysis, and histological assessment of CMHs in serial brain sections. Previous studies showed that in aging, increased oxidative stress-mediated matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation importantly contributes to the pathogenesis of CMHs. Thus, it is significant that hypertension-induced cerebrovascular oxidative stress and MMP activation were increased in IGF-1-deficient mice. We found that IGF-1 deficiency impaired hypertension-induced adaptive media hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling, which together with the increased MMP activation likely also contributes to increased fragility of intracerebral arterioles. Collectively, IGF-1 deficiency promotes the pathogenesis of CMHs, mimicking the aging phenotype, which likely contribute to its deleterious effect on cognitive function. Therapeutic strategies that upregulate IGF-1 signaling in the cerebral vessels and/or reduce microvascular oxidative stress, and MMP activation may be useful for the prevention of CMHs, protecting cognitive function in high-risk elderly patients.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T04:40:58.377316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12583
       
  • Parallel evolution of genes controlling mitonuclear balance in short-lived
           annual fishes

    • Authors: Arne Sahm; Martin Bens, Matthias Platzer, Alessandro Cellerino
      Abstract: The current molecular understanding of the aging process derives almost exclusively from the study of random or targeted single-gene mutations in highly inbred laboratory species, mostly invertebrates. Little information is available as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for natural lifespan variation and the evolution of lifespan, especially in vertebrates. Here, we investigated the pattern of positive selection in annual (i.e., short-lived) and nonannual (i.e., longer-lived) African killifishes to identify a genomic substrate for evolution of annual life history (and reduced lifespan). We identified genes under positive selection in all steps of mitochondrial biogenesis: mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication, transcription from mt promoters, processing and stabilization of mt RNAs, mt translation, assembly of respiratory chain complexes, and electron transport chain. Signs of paralleled evolution (i.e., evolution in more than one branch of Nothobranchius phylogeny) are observed in four out of five steps. Moreover, some genes under positive selection in Nothobranchius are under positive selection also in long-lived mammals such as bats and mole-rats. Complexes of the respiratory chain are formed in a coordinates multistep process where nuclearly and mitochondrially encoded components are assembled and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane. The coordination of this process is named mitonuclear balance, and experimental manipulations of mitonuclear balance can increase longevity of laboratory species. Our data strongly indicate that these genes are also casually linked to evolution lifespan in vertebrates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:10:41.662357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12577
       
  • Pathophysiology of heart failure and frailty: a common inflammatory
           origin'

    • Authors: Lavanya Bellumkonda; Daniel Tyrrell, Scott L. Hummel, Daniel R. Goldstein
      Abstract: Frailty, a clinical syndrome that typically occurs in older adults, implies a reduced ability to tolerate biological stressors. Frailty accompanies many age-related diseases but can also occur without overt evidence of end-organ disease. The condition is associated with circulating inflammatory cytokines and sarcopenia, features that are shared with heart failure (HF). However, the biological underpinnings of frailty remain unclear and the interaction with HF is complex. Here, we describe the inflammatory pathophysiology that is associated with frailty and speculate that the inflammation that occurs with frailty shares common origins with HF. We discuss the limitations in investigating the pathophysiology of frailty due to few relevant experimental models. Leveraging current therapies for advanced HF and current known therapies to address frailty in humans may enable translational studies to better understand the inflammatory interactions between frailty and HF.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T04:55:29.077961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12581
       
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c orchestrates metabolic
           remodeling of white adipose tissue by caloric restriction

    • Authors: Namiki Fujii; Takumi Narita, Naoyuki Okita, Masaki Kobayashi, Yurika Furuta, Yoshikazu Chujo, Masahiro Sakai, Atsushi Yamada, Kanae Takeda, Tomokazu Konishi, Yuka Sudo, Isao Shimokawa, Yoshikazu Higami
      Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) can delay onset of several age-related pathophysiologies and extend lifespan in various species, including rodents. CR also induces metabolic remodeling involved in activation of lipid metabolism, enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, and reduction of oxidative stress in white adipose tissue (WAT). In studies using genetically modified mice with extended lifespans, WAT characteristics influenced mammalian lifespans. However, molecular mechanisms underlying CR-associated metabolic remodeling of WAT remain unclear. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c), a master transcription factor of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis, is responsible for the pathogenesis of fatty liver (steatosis). Our study showed that, under CR conditions, Srebp-1c enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis via increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and upregulated expression of proteins involved in FA biosynthesis within WAT. However, via Srebp-1c, most of these CR-associated metabolic alterations were not observed in other tissues, including the liver. Moreover, our data indicated that Srebp-1c may be an important factor both for CR-associated suppression of oxidative stress, through increased synthesis of glutathione in WAT, and for the prolongevity action of CR. Our results strongly suggested that Srebp-1c, the primary FA biosynthesis-promoting transcriptional factor implicated in fatty liver disease, is also the food shortage-responsive factor in WAT. This indicated that Srebp-1c is a key regulator of metabolic remodeling leading to the beneficial effects of CR.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:10:55.19747-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12576
       
  • Aging yeast gain a competitive advantage on non-optimal carbon sources

    • Authors: Stephen Frenk; Grazia Pizza, Rachael V. Walker, Jonathan Houseley
      Abstract: Animals, plants and fungi undergo an aging process with remarkable physiological and molecular similarities, suggesting that aging has long been a fact of life for eukaryotes and one to which our unicellular ancestors were subject. Key biochemical pathways that impact longevity evolved prior to multicellularity, and the interactions between these pathways and the aging process therefore emerged in ancient single-celled eukaryotes. Nevertheless, we do not fully understand how aging impacts the fitness of unicellular organisms, and whether such cells gain a benefit from modulating rather than simply suppressing the aging process. We hypothesized that age-related loss of fitness in single-celled eukaryotes may be counterbalanced, partly or wholly, by a transition from a specialist to a generalist life-history strategy that enhances adaptability to other environments. We tested this hypothesis in budding yeast using competition assays and found that while young cells are more successful in glucose, highly aged cells outcompete young cells on other carbon sources such as galactose. This occurs because aged yeast divide faster than young cells in galactose, reversing the normal association between age and fitness. The impact of aging on single-celled organisms is therefore complex and may be regulated in ways that anticipate changing nutrient availability. We propose that pathways connecting nutrient availability with aging arose in unicellular eukaryotes to capitalize on age-linked diversity in growth strategy and that individual cells in higher eukaryotes may similarly diversify during aging to the detriment of the organism as a whole.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T02:20:36.890239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12582
       
  • Expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells with aging in the bone
           marrow of mice through a NF-κB-dependent mechanism

    • Authors: Rafael R. Flores; Cheryl L. Clauson, Joonseok Cho, Byeong-Chel Lee, Sara J. McGowan, Darren J. Baker, Laura J. Niedernhofer, Paul D. Robbins
      Abstract: With aging, there is progressive loss of tissue homeostasis and functional reserve, leading to an impaired response to stress and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A key mediator of the cellular response to damage and stress is the transcription factor NF-κB. We demonstrated previously that NF-κB transcriptional activity is upregulated in tissues from both natural aged mice and in a mouse model of a human progeroid syndrome caused by defective repair of DNA damage (ERCC1-deficient mice). We also demonstrated that genetic reduction in the level of the NF-κB subunit p65(RelA) in the Ercc1−/∆ progeroid mouse model of accelerated aging delayed the onset of age-related pathology including muscle wasting, osteoporosis, and intervertebral disk degeneration. Here, we report that the largest fraction of NF-κB -expressing cells in the bone marrow (BM) of aged (>2 year old) mice (C57BL/6-NF-κBEGFP reporter mice) are Gr-1+CD11b+myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was a significant increase in the overall percentage of MDSC present in the BM of aged animals compared with young, a trend also observed in the spleen. However, the function of these cells appears not to be compromised in aged mice. A similar increase of MDSC was observed in BM of progeroid Ercc1−/∆ and BubR1H/H mice. The increase in MDSC in Ercc1−/∆ mice was abrogated by heterozygosity in the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB. These results suggest that NF-κB activation with aging, at least in part, drives an increase in the percentage of MDSCs, a cell type able to suppress immune cell responses.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T00:11:03.038958-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12571
       
  • Evidence that a mitochondrial death spiral underlies antagonistic
           pleiotropy

    • Authors: Michael Stern
      Abstract: The antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory posits that aging occurs because alleles that are detrimental in older organisms are beneficial to growth early in life and thus are maintained in populations. Although genes of the insulin signaling pathway likely participate in AP, the insulin-regulated cellular correlates of AP have not been identified. The mitochondrial quality control process called mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), which is inhibited by insulin signaling, might represent a cellular correlate of AP. In this view, rapidly growing cells are limited by ATP production; these cells thus actively inhibit mitophagy to maximize mitochondrial ATP production and compete successfully for scarce nutrients. This process maximizes early growth and reproduction, but by permitting the persistence of damaged mitochondria with mitochondrial DNA mutations, becomes detrimental in the longer term. I suggest that as mitochondrial ATP output drops, cells respond by further inhibiting mitophagy, leading to a further decrease in ATP output in a classic death spiral. I suggest that this increasing ATP deficit is communicated by progressive increases in mitochondrial ROS generation, which signals inhibition of mitophagy via ROS-dependent activation of insulin signaling. This hypothesis clarifies a role for ROS in aging, explains why insulin signaling inhibits autophagy, and why cells become progressively more oxidized during aging with increased levels of insulin signaling and decreased levels of autophagy. I suggest that the mitochondrial death spiral is not an error in cell physiology but rather a rational approach to the problem of enabling successful growth and reproduction in a competitive world of scarce nutrients.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T22:05:27.296237-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12579
       
  • Detecting senescence: a new method for an old pigment

    • Authors: Hanna Salmonowicz; João F. Passos
      Abstract: Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest induced by different types of cellular stresses. The field of senescence has made significant advances in the understanding of many of the mechanisms governing this phenomenon; however, a universal biomarker that unambiguously distinguishes senescent from proliferating cells has not been found. In this issue of Aging Cell, Evangelou and colleagues developed a sensitive method for identification of senescent cells in different types of biological material based on the detection of lipofuscin using an analogue of Sudan Black B (SBB) histochemical dye coupled with biotin, which they named GL13. The authors propose that this method is more sensitive and versatile than using SBB alone. Lipofuscin, a nondegradable oxidation product of lipids, proteins and metals, is found in senescent cells. Detection of lipofuscin using GL13 staining may be a more feasible method than others currently used for identification of senescent cells both in cell culture and tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T22:00:25.055742-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12580
       
  • Muscle strength mediates the relationship between mitochondrial energetics
           and walking performance

    • Authors: Ariel C. Zane; David A. Reiter, Michelle Shardell, Donnie Cameron, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Kenneth W. Fishbein, Stephanie A. Studenski, Richard G. Spencer, Luigi Ferrucci
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity declines with age and negatively affects walking performance, but the mechanism for this association is not fully clear. We tested the hypothesis that impaired oxidative capacity affects muscle performance and, through this mechanism, has a negative effect on walking speed. Muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity was measured by in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis rate, kPCr, in 326 participants (154 men), aged 24–97 years (mean 71), in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Muscle strength and quality were determined by knee extension isokinetic strength, and the ratio of knee extension strength to thigh muscle cross-sectional area derived from computed topography, respectively. Four walking tasks were evaluated: a usual pace over 6 m and for 150 s, and a rapid pace over 6 m and 400 m. In multivariate linear regression analyses, kPCr was associated with muscle strength (β = 0.140, P = 0.007) and muscle quality (β = 0.127, P = 0.022), independent of age, sex, height, and weight; muscle strength was also a significant independent correlate of walking speed (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T00:05:34.871517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12568
       
  • Aging and caloric restriction impact adipose tissue, adiponectin, and
           circulating lipids

    • Authors: Karl N. Miller; Maggie S. Burhans, Josef P. Clark, Porsha R. Howell, Michael A. Polewski, Tyler M. DeMuth, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Mary J. Lindstrom, James M. Ntambi, Rozalyn M. Anderson
      Abstract: Adipose tissue expansion has been associated with system-wide metabolic dysfunction and increased vulnerability to diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A reduction in adiposity is a hallmark of caloric restriction (CR), an intervention that extends longevity and delays the onset of these same age-related conditions. Despite these parallels, the role of adipose tissue in coordinating the metabolism of aging is poorly defined. Here, we show that adipose tissue metabolism and secretory profiles change with age and are responsive to CR. We conducted a cross-sectional study of CR in adult, late-middle-aged, and advanced-aged mice. Adiposity and the relationship between adiposity and circulating levels of the adipose-derived peptide hormone adiponectin were age-sensitive. CR impacted adiposity but only levels of the high molecular weight isoform of adiponectin responded to CR. Activators of metabolism including PGC-1a, SIRT1, and NAMPT were differentially expressed with CR in adipose tissues. Although age had a significant impact on NAD metabolism, as detected by biochemical assay and multiphoton imaging, the impact of CR was subtle and related to differences in reliance on oxidative metabolism. The impact of age on circulating lipids was limited to composition of circulating phospholipids. In contrast, the impact of CR was detected in all lipid classes regardless of age, suggesting a profound difference in lipid metabolism. These data demonstrate that aspects of adipose tissue metabolism are life phase specific and that CR is associated with a distinct metabolic state, suggesting that adipose tissue signaling presents a suitable target for interventions to delay aging.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T02:35:35.666862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12575
       
  • The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IX. Global
           metabolomic screen reveals modulation of carnitines, sphingolipids and
           bile acids in the liver of C57BL/6 mice

    • Authors: Cara L. Green; Sharon E. Mitchell, Davina Derous, Yingchun Wang, Luonan Chen, Jing-Dong J. Han, Daniel E. L. Promislow, David Lusseau, Alex Douglas, John R. Speakman
      Abstract: Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust intervention to extend lifespan and improve health span. Using a global mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach, we identified 193 metabolites that were significantly differentially expressed (SDE) in the livers of C57BL/6 mice, fed graded levels of CR (10, 20, 30 and 40% CR) compared to mice fed ad libitum for 12 h a day. The differential expression of metabolites also varied with the different feeding groups. Pathway analysis revealed that graded CR had an impact on carnitine synthesis and the carnitine shuttle pathway, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling and methionine metabolism. S1P, sphingomyelin and L-carnitine were negatively correlated with body mass, leptin, insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and major urinary proteins (MUPs). In addition, metabolites which showed a graded effect, such as ceramide, S1P, taurocholic acid and L-carnitine, responded in the opposite direction to previously observed age-related changes. We suggest that the modulation of this set of metabolites may improve liver processes involved in energy release from fatty acids. S1P also negatively correlated with catalase activity and body temperature, and positively correlated with food anticipatory activity. Injecting mice with S1P or an S1P receptor 1 agonist did not precipitate changes in body temperature, physical activity or food intake suggesting that these correlations were not causal relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T03:01:00.571394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12570
       
  • Issue Information

    • Pages: 429 - 431
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T21:58:07.144576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12533
       
  • Hyaluronan keeps mesenchymal stem cells quiescent and maintains the
           differentiation potential over time

    • Authors: Tzyy Yue Wong; Chiung-Hsin Chang, Chen-Hsiang Yu, Lynn L. H. Huang
      Pages: 451 - 460
      Abstract: Hyaluronan (HA), an abundant polysaccharide found in human bodies, plays a role in the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) maintenance. We had previously found that HA prolonged the lifespan, and prevented the cellular aging of murine adipose-derived stromal cells. Recently, we had also summarized the potential pathways associated with HA regulation in human MSCs. In this study, we used the human placenta-derived MSCs (PDMSC) to investigate the effectiveness of HA in maintaining the PDMSC. We found that coating the culture surface coated with 30 μg cm−2 of HA (C) led to cluster growth of PDMSC, and maintained a higher number of PDMSC in quiescence compared to those grown on the normal tissue culture surface (T). PDMSC were treated for either 4 (short-term) or 19 (long-term) consecutive passages. PDMSC which were treated with HA for 19 consecutive passages had reduced cell enlargement, preserved MSCs biomarker expressions and osteogenic potential when compared to those grown only on T. The PDMSC transferred to T condition after long-term HA treatment showed preserved replicative capability compared to those on only T. The telomerase activity of the HA-treated PDMSC was also higher than that of untreated PDMSC. These data suggested a connection between HA and MSC maintenance. We suggest that HA might be regulating the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins on cell spreading in the event of quiescence to preserve MSC stemness. Maintenance of MSCs stemness delayed cellular aging, leading to the anti-aging phenotype of PDMSC.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T21:58:06.803186-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12567
       
  • Announcement

    • Pages: 605 - 605
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T21:58:09.195373-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12614
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.162.19.123
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016