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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1582 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Advances in Polymer Technology
  [SJR: 0.344]   [H-I: 31]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0730-6679 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2329
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1582 journals]
  • Design of the printing pattern on film for three-dimensional molded
           interconnect devices
    • Authors: Ren Hao Liu; Wen-Bin Young, Hsu Pe Ming
      Abstract: This article discusses the application of an in-mold decoration (IMD) technology for the development of three-dimensional molded interconnect devices (3D-MID). The 3D-MID process uses the film printing technology to print the circuit pattern on a plastic film, and then deform it to the shape of the component by thermoforming. Then, the plastic film is placed inside the mold cavity for injection molding, and is attached to the surface of the component after molding. Experiments were performed for the 3D-MID process using a semisphere shape. A simple geometric model was also proposed to correlate the printed film patterns before and after the thermoforming. The geometric model will be used to design the required printing pattern on a 2D film for a given 3D pattern on a component.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T06:25:37.76316-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21830
  • Molecularly imprinted fluorescent probe based on hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS
           quantum dots for the detection of methamidophos in fruit and vegetables
    • Authors: Xueyan Liu; Qiurui Liu, Feifan Kong, Xuguang Qiao, Zhixiang Xu
      Abstract: In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-fluorescent probe based on hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS@MIP) was designed and synthesized by bulk polymerization for detecting methamidophos (MAP). The CdSe/ZnS@MIP was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and adsorption properties, and it exhibited good adsorption capacity and fluorescent stability, and excellent selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence showed a good linear decrease in the range of 3.50 × 10−7–0.71 × 10−3 mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The limit of detection of the fluorescent probe was 9.16 × 10−8 mol/L, and the relative standard deviation of the method for nine replicate analyses of 4.0 × 10−6 mol/L MAP was 4.1%. Apple and pear samples spiked with MAP at three levels were extracted and determined by the presented method with good recoveries (89.7%–94.9%). The accuracy of the method was verified by gas chromatography for the detection of kidney beans, leek and cucumber samples, and no significant difference was observed for the results of two methods.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T02:00:32.702102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21838
  • Application of poly(methyl methacrylate
           -co-γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane)/silica modified TiO2
           nanocomposites for anti-pollutant properties
    • Authors: Mehdi Hatami; Nader Djafarzadeh, Hamed Hasanabadi
      Abstract: In this research, the effects of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites as novel nanostructure additives in paint compositions were studied. The silica modified TiO2 nano structure was prepared by using sol–gel method. The TEM analysis indicated that these particles were in the range 10–15 nm. The organo silicone containing polymer was prepared by free radical polymerization process. The prepared polymer/mixed metal oxides nanocomposites were fabricated and demonstrated as nanostructure additives. The prepared nanocomposite was introduced into the road marking material formulation. In the first part of the current study, the prepared samples were evaluated by quality control experiment such as compatibility and color visualization tests. Also specific experiments such as hydrophobicity, adhesion, exposure to weathering conditions, self-cleaning nature of the samples, gloss appearance, hardness of the prepared samples, anti-pollution investigation, moisture resistance, and heat-cold cycle's tests were evaluated. The environmental issue of the road marking material and also the dirtiness removal efficiency by using nanostructure coating was investigated. The prepared samples showed 4–7 mg weight loss per hundred square centimeters during the exposure to 300 h by 313 nm UVB irradiation. The best photocatalytic performance in road marking application was found for NA 3% sample.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T01:40:32.049367-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21842
  • Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of dendronized polymers for cyanine dye
    • Authors: Shiv Kumar; Katharina Achazi, Kai Licha, Priyanka Manchanda, Rainer Haag, Sunil Kumar Sharma
      Abstract: Cyanine 3 is an amphiphilic fluorescent dye used in optical imaging, bioengineering, and for cellular internalization. However, the applications of the dye are limited due to its poor aqueous stability, aggregation tendency, and lack of selectivity. To address these issues, we have developed PEG and azidotriglycerol based dendronized polymers using Novozym 435 as a biocatalyst under solvent free conditions. The resulting polymer having azido and hydroxyl functionalities available in the backbone were further grafted with alkyl chains and polyglycerol dendrons using esterification and ‘Click’ chemistry approach. These polymers form stable micelles at micromolar concentration. All the polymers were characterized from their spectral data and their tendency to encapsulate cyanine 3 dye studied using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity study of the polymers performed against A549 cell lines suggests them to be nontoxic up to a concentration of 500 μg/ml.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T01:07:07.683415-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21839
  • Synthesis and characterization of a high performance polyamide-6 elastomer
           based on poly(ether-block-amide) multiblock copolymer by reactive
           processing in torque rheometer
    • Authors: Yuan Lei; Changbing Li, Xiaowei Fu, Jingxin Lei, Changlin Zhou
      Abstract: The polyamide-6 based poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA) multiblock copolymers were reactively prepared in typical processing equipment, torque rheometer. The reactive processing conditions of PEBA were discussed in details on the base of the tensile strength as the main quantization parameter and the torque rheological curves. The optimized reaction temperature, reaction time, and rotational speed were 150°C, 10 min, and 40 rpm respectively. The chemical structure, tensile properties, thermal transition, thermal stability, water absorption, and solubility in organic solvents of PEBA prepared in optimized reaction conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and soaking testing in water and organic solvents. The tensile strength and elongation at break of PEBA are 35.9 MPa and 580% respectively. The glass transition temperature and melting temperature of soft segment of PEBA are −50 and 15°C, respectively; the glass transition temperature and melting temperature of hard segment of PEBA are 50 and 140°C respectively. Meanwhile, the PEBA has low water absorption, robust organic solvent resistance, and good thermal stability. The optimization process of PEBA will give the deep understanding of reactive processing of polymer materials.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T01:05:04.035672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21837
  • Surface and proton conductivity properties of electrospun poly(vinyl
           butyral)/polyaniline nanofibers
    • Authors: Emre Baştürk; Emrah Çakmakçi, Seyfullah Madakbaş, Memet Vezir Kahraman
      Abstract: Proton-conductive electrospun nanofibers are promising potential materials for several advanced technological applications such batteries, sensors, and fuel cells. In this work, we prepared poly(vinyl butyral)/polyaniline (PVB/PANI) nanofibers via electrospinning and determined their proton conductivities. Structural characterization of the nanofibers was performed by FTIR analysis. Surface morphology of the nanofibers was determined by SEM and AFM. The addition of PANI significantly affected the fiber morphology, and over 90% reduction (with respect to neat PVB nanofibers) in the average nanofiber diameters was observed. Nanofiber mats were doped with polyphosphoric acid. The proton conductivity of the 2 wt.% PANI containing blend nanofibers was found as 18 × 10−6 S/cm at room temperature and at 100% humidity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:33:55.851469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21836
  • Effect of blast furnace slag content on mechanical and slurry abrasion
           behavior of needle-punched nonwoven fabric reinforced epoxy composites
    • Authors: Prabina Kumar Patnaik; Sandhyarani Biswas
      Abstract: This article reports on mechanical and slurry abrasion response of a new class of material developed by reinforcement of blast furnace slag (BFS) in needle-punched nonwoven polyester fabric epoxy composites. These epoxy-based composites are prepared by the hand-lay-up technique with the variation of BFS content (0, 5, 10, and 15 wt. %) and at constant fiber loading. It is observed that the mechanical properties of the composites are improved significantly with the incorporation of filler. However, the properties like tensile, flexural and inter-laminar shear strength are reduced beyond 10 wt. % of filler loading. Abrasive wear behavior of these composites is studied in the slurry environment by a slurry abrasion test rig (ASTM G105). The specific wear rate of composites under a steady-state condition with respect to normal load and sliding velocity is found to decrease with the increase in filler loading. Further, experimental design through Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array is applied to determine the optimal parametric combination which reduces the wear rate. The parametric combination among sliding velocity of 0.93 m/s, normal load of 30 N, sliding distance of 600 m, silica sand size of 100 μm and filler loading of 5 wt. %, produces an optimum specific wear rate. The morphological study is conducted on abraded composite surfaces by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and possible wear mechanisms responsible for wear have been discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:49:51.264891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21835
  • Effect of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene on the flow orientation
           of short glass fiber in molten polypropylene and on tensile properties of
    • Authors: Hideyuki Uematsu; Yu Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Iemoto, Shuichi Tanoue
      Abstract: Composites of polypropylene (PP) and PP blended with maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAPP) reinforced with short glass fibers were prepared via extrusion compounding and injection molding techniques. The fiber length did not significantly change irrespective of the presence of MAPP after compounding and injection molding. However, the tensile strength of PP/fiber showed significant improvement after MAPP addition. The interfacial shear strength between PP and fiber increased with the addition of MAPP. Examination of the failure surface of a dumbbell specimen after tensile testing confirmed that the fiber highly orientated in the flow direction in the PP/MAPP matrix. The tensile strength enhancement was attributed to the improvement of the interfacial shear strength between PP and fiber. Moreover, in the injection molding process, there was high orientation of the fiber in the flow direction when there was MAPP. We concluded that the presence of MAPP causes increased orientation of the fiber.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T11:12:28.713727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21834
  • Hybrid anion exchange membranes with self-assembled ionic channels
    • Authors: Na Liang; Yufei Tu, Jing Xu, Dongzhi Chen, Hongwei Zhang
      Abstract: A novel strategy for fabricating nanocomposite anion exchange membranes (AEM), which can construct self-assembled ionic channels via in situ Menshutkin reaction, is proposed. The TEM image of a nanocomposite AEM based on chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) and functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) confirms the existence of core-shell clusters. The ionic conductivity of these nanocomposite AEMs shows a notable increase when the content of functionalized POSS exceeds the percolation threshold. Furthermore, the optimized nanocomposite AEM has higher ionic conductivity than the control AEM with similar ion-exchange capacity due to the well-developed morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T04:45:30.818681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21831
  • Synergistic effects of carbon black and carbon nanotubes on the electrical
           resistivity of poly(butylene-terephthalate) nanocomposites
    • Authors: Andrea Dorigato; Marco Brugnara, Alessandro Pegoretti
      Abstract: In this study, novel electrically conductive polymeric nanocomposites based on polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) filled with commercial carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at different relative ratios have been investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis revealed how a good nanofiller dispersion was obtained both by introducing CB and CNT. Melt flow index measurements highlighted that the processability of the nanocomposites was heavily compromised at elevated filler amounts, and the viscosity percolation threshold was established at 3 wt% for CNTs and between 6 and 10 wt% for CB nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements evidenced how the presence of CNT slightly increased the glass transition temperature of the materials, and an increase of 12°C of the crystallization temperature was obtained with a CNT amount of 6 wt%. Also the crystalline fraction was increased upon CNT addition. Electrical resistivity measurements evidenced that the most interesting results were obtained for nanocomposites with a total filler content of 6 wt% and a CNT/CB relative amount equal to 2:1. The synergistic effect obtained with the combination of both nanofillers allowed the achievement of a rapid surface heating through Joule effect even at applied voltages of 2 V.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T23:36:28.295175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21833
  • Tensile and hardness properties of polycarbonate nanocomposites in the
           presence of styrene maleic anhydride as compatibilizer
    • Authors: Richard Eungkee Lee; Atefe Afsari Ghazi, Taher Azdast, Rezgar Hasanzadeh, Sajjad Mamaghani Shishavan
      Abstract: In this study, the tensile strength and M-Rockwell hardness of polycarbonate (PC)-nanoalumina composites are investigated under various processing parameters. For this purpose, PC using a twin-screw extruder is melt compounded with nanoparticle of Al2O3 in the presence of styrene-co-maleic anhydride (SMA) as the compatibilizer. Influences of weight percentage of nanoalumina and injection processing parameters including injection pressure and holding pressure (all in four levels) are investigated on tensile and hardness properties of nanocomposite samples using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results reveal that an appropriate distribution of nanoparticles in polymeric matrix is achieved. According to the results, nanoalumina content is the most effective parameter on tensile strength and hardness with about 51% and 85% contribution, respectively. Results indicate that by addition 1.5 wt% of nanoalumina, the tensile strength and hardness of samples increase as much as 4.5% and 11%, respectively. Also, the results reveal that injection pressure and holding pressure are also effective parameters to change hardness and tensile strength.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T02:15:50.886738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21832
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles decorated oleic acid for high colloidal stability
    • Authors: Chin Wei Lai; Foo Wah Low, Mun Foong Tai, Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid
      Abstract: In the present study, oleic acid (OA)-decorated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized via in situ co-precipitation method using ammonium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. This study aims to determine the optimum loading amount of OA for improving the MNPs colloidal stability. Based on our results obtained, it was found that the zeta potential values of MNPs increased from −29.8 to −58.1 mV after modification of MNPs with 1.2 wt.% of OA. Indeed, results obtained clearly to show that a maximum colloidal stability of MNPs in a basic medium could be significantly improved. As a result, this resultant colloidal suspension performance was approximately 7 times higher (21 days- high colloidal stability against precipitation and agglomeration) than that of the undecorated MNPs sample (3 days). Based on vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis, the resultant OA-decorated MNPs exhibited superparamagnetic behavior with slightly lower saturation magnetization (51–69 emu/g) than that of undecorated MNPs sample (80 emu/g) at room temperature. This behavior was attributed to the sufficient carboxylate ions from the outer layer of the bilayer of OA-decorated MNPs, which promoted the high colloidal stability performance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T04:20:43.810624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21829
  • Superabsorbent nanocomposite based on maize bran with integration of
           water-retaining and slow-release NPK fertilizer
    • Authors: Ali Olad; Hamed Gharekhani, Abdolreza Mirmohseni, Ahmad Bybordi
      Abstract: A novel fertilizer-integrated superabsorbent nanocomposite based on maize bran (MB), acrylic acid (AA), and acrylamide (AAm) was synthesized in an aqueous solution containing montmorillonite (MMT) and NPK fertilizer compound. FTIR spectra indicated that hydroxyl group of the starch molecules in MB composition has participated in grafting reaction with acrylate-based monomers. The swelling behavior of the synthesized hydrogels in different salt and pH solutions was evaluated. Also, the N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and MMT contents were systematically optimized to obtain a highest swelling capacity. Fertilizer release assessments on the NPK-loaded superabsorbent nanocomposite confirmed the effective role of MMT nanolayers in slow-release property of the prepared formulation. Also, the prepared fertilizer formulation exhibited good water retention capacity in soil. As a result, this eco-friendly and economical product can effectively reduce fertilizer loss, improve water utilization efficiency, and prolong irrigation cycles which are benefit for agricultural applications, especially in drought-prone environments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T02:04:23.425843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21825
  • Elastic bending and stress analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced
           composite plate: Experimental, numerical, and simulation
    • Authors: Kulmani Mehar; Subrata Kumar Panda
      Abstract: The deflection behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plate is investigated numerically using the finite-element method and the result accuracy is established via three-point experimental bending test data. The physical composite panel model is realized with the help of new mathematical model based on the higher order kinematic theory and the responses are computed using the in-house computer code in the MATLAB environment. Further, the efficacy of the current higher order finite-element model has been established by comparing the deflection responses with those of the references, simulation values (ANSYS), and the in-house experimentation including the experimental elastic properties. Finally, the effect of different design parameters, such as aspect ratio, thickness ratio, edge constraints including the types of load on the deflection and stress responses of the composite plate has been studied in detail.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T00:35:30.963637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21821
  • Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of
           N,N-Dimethylacrylamide–alkyl acrylate copolymers as novel
           multifunctional additives for lube oil
    • Authors: Raj K. Singh; Aruna Kukrety, Arvind Kumar, Ajay Chouhan, Rakesh C. Saxena, Siddharth S. Ray, Suman L. Jain
      Abstract: Three copolymeric and two homopolymeric additives were synthesized utilizing the C18 alkyl acrylate (C18Ac) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) monomers. Three additives named as additive 1, additive 2, and additive 3 were synthesized by varying the ratio between C18Ac: DMAA as 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 respectively by free radical polymerization using AIBN (azobis(isobutyronitrile)) as initiator, whereas additive 4 and additive 5 were the homopolymers of C18Ac and DMAA, respectively. All the synthesized polymers were characterized by FT-IR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and GPC (gel permeation chromatography) analysis. Performance evaluation of the copolymers as viscosity index improver (VII), pour point depressant (PPD), antiwear, antifriction, and anticorrosion additives in polyol base oil was done by standard methods. As far as the VII, anti-wear, antifriction, and anticorrosive properties are concerned, additive 2 revealed best performance; however, none of the above synthesized additives was found to be suitable for PPD activity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T00:15:25.920243-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21826
  • Preparation and properties of polyvinylidene fluoride/tetra-needle
           like-zinc oxide whisker composites
    • Authors: Ling Weng; Peihai Ju, Xiaorui Zhang, Lizhu Liu
      Abstract: With the rapid development of the electronics industry, dielectric materials with a high-dielectric constant are playing an increasingly important role in the performance of electronic devices. In this study, a composite that employed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a matrix and four-needle zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) for reinforcement was prepared by casting method. The microstructure and crystallization behavior of the PVDF/T-ZnOw were analyzed by SEM, FT-IR and XRD. Thermal stability and electrical properties of the composites, included the dielectric constant, dielectric loss and electrical breakdown strength, were tested. Analysis on microstructures indicated that the T-ZnOw in composites were uniformly dispersed and some of the whisker's tips had penetrated through the surface of the composites because of the special four-needle structure. Experimental results showed that the addition of T-ZnOw significantly improved the thermal stability of the composites. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy test results showed that the dielectric properties and conductivity of the composites significantly improved with the increase in T-ZnOw contents. The dielectric constant of the composites was 113 at 100 Hz when the T-ZnOw content was 20% at weight content.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T23:10:55.496895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21822
  • Brush-type surface modification of kapton with a new approach
    • Authors: Sema Vural; Turgay Seckin
      Abstract: In this study, polystyrene- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyimide films were prepared successfully using click chemistry and the ATRP technique. Firstly, kapton films were prepared from stepwise thermal imidization of polyamic acid. Surface modification of kapton films was then achieved by chloromethylation followed by the azide decoration process. For surface grafting of kapton films, polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) as alkyne functional polymers were prepared with alkyne and bromine double functionality using propargyl-2-bromopropionate as an initiator. A coupling reaction with azide-decorated PI surface and alkyne functional polymers was achieved via the Huisgen-1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. FTIR spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and GPC techniques were used to characterize the grafted polyimides. According to the TG analysis, kapton film was modified at the rate of 8% and 10% with PS and PMMA, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:36.98267-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21827
  • Effect of phase separation on water resistance of green waterborne
           polyurethanes: Unexpected stronger impact compared to hydrophilic segments
    • Authors: Yao Xiao; Lixia Bao, Xiaowei Fu, Bo Wu, Weibo Kong, Changlin Zhou, Jingxin Lei
      Abstract: Effect of phase separation on the water resistance of green waterborne polyurethanes was discussed for the first time. Phase separation was studied through the application of dynamic mechanical analysis. Water resistance was characterized by water absorption ratio and water contact angle. The results showed that the phase separation had stronger effect on water resistance compared with the content of hydrophilic segments of green waterborne polyurethanes; higher phase separation degree led to better water resistance even though the content of hydrophilic segments increased. And, fluorescence microscope images of fluorescent dye inside the green waterborne polyurethane films justified this viewpoint.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T00:05:33.110582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21818
  • Evaluation of thermal resistance and mechanical properties of injected
           molded stereocomplex of poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(d-lactic acid) with
           various molecular weights
    • Authors: Yuzeng Li; Qiao Li, Gesheng Yang, Ruihao Ming, Minmin Yu, Huihui Zhang, Huili Shao
      Abstract: Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactic acid) (PDLA) with various molecular weights (MW) were melt blended in equivalent proportions, and then followed by injection molding to form polylactide stereocomplex (sc-PLA). The crystalline structures, thermal resistance, and mechanical properties of the formed sc-PLA were then investigated in detail. The results showed stereocomplex crystallites (sc) were formed predominantly in all the sc-PLA regardless of the MW of the PLLA or PDLA pellets, and a small amount of homocrystallites (hc) also coexisted in sc-PLA. The MW of PLLA and PDLA pellets displayed significant effects on the crystallinity, thermal resistance, and mechanical properties of sc-PLA. PLLA and PDLA with low and similar MW facilitated the formation of sc, and also improved the onset degradation temperature and Vicat softening temperature of sc-PLA. For a similar degree of crystallinity, high MW was found to be more favorable in improving the thermal performance of sc-PLA. Although sc-PLA prepared from PLLA and PDLA with low MW showed decreased mechanical properties, the mechanical properties of sc-PLA increased with an increase in the MW of the PLLA or PDLA pellet. When PLLA and PDLA pellets with high and similar MW were used, the mechanical properties of sc-PLA could even exceed those of pure PLLA.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25T01:20:28.841665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21824
  • Influence of nitrogen plasma treatment on the wettability of
           polyetheretherketone and deposited chitosan layers
    • Authors: Konrad Terpiłowski; Agnieszka Ewa Wiącek, Małgorzata Jurak
      Abstract: Wettability properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) activated and non-activated by nitrogen plasma have been investigated. Moreover, the PEEK plates were covered with antibacterial chitosan and its wettability properties were also investigated. Surface topography was determined using SEM and optical profilometry and surface composition by FT-IR and XPS. For determination of apparent surface free energy, the hysteresis approach (CAH), acid base (LWAB), and Owens–Wendt (O–W) theory were used. The equilibrium contact angles were calculated from the Tadmor theory and further used for apparent surface energy calculation applying the above-mentioned approaches. Due to the surface plasma activation both the roughness of the surface and the polar component of apparent surface free energy increased. It is shown that nitrogen plasma activation of PEEK surface increases the adhesion of chitosan to the surface due to the combination effect of: (i) the increase in surface roughness, (ii) introducing the polar groups onto the surface.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25T01:15:49.690434-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21813
  • Evaluation of the effective forcespinning parameters
           controlling polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers diameter using
           artificial neural network
    • Authors: Majid Naghibzadeh; Mohsen Adabi, Hamid Reza Rahmani, Mohsen Mirali, Mahdi Adabi
      Abstract: In this research, the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through forcespinning process were successfully produced and the effective parameters for predicting nanofibers diameter using artificial neural network (ANN) were investigated. The various parameters of forcespinning process including rotational speed, orifice, distance to the collector, and polymer concentration were designed to produce PVA nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the produced fibers diameter was in the range of 0.56–1.9 μm. The neural network with four input factors, three hidden layers with 5, 10, 1 nodes in each layers, respectively, and one output layer had the best performance in the testing sets. Moreover, the mean squared error (MSE) and linear regression (R) between observed and predicted nanofibers diameter were about 0.1077 and 0.9387, respectively, demonstrating a suitable performance for the prediction of nanofibers diameter using the selected neural network model.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T01:40:31.808248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21817
  • Hydrophilic films: How hydrophilicity affects blood compatibility and
           cellular compatibility
    • Authors: Zong-Keng Kuo; Mei-Yen Fang, Tu-Yi Wu, Ted Yang, Hsiang-Wen Tseng, Chih-Chen Chen, Chao-Min Cheng
      Abstract: Hydrophilic materials have been used in many fields, but have recently garnered growing attention in biomedicine. To promote the development and use of suitable hydrophilic materials for biomedical applications, we used three hydrophilic films of varying hydrophilicity and examined the effects of their hydrophilicity on blood compatibility, protein adsorption, blood clotting time, hemolytic activity, biocompatibility, and cell attachment. Across the spectrum of hydrophilicity examined, no obvious differences in biocompatibility were observed. While high material hydrophilicity was associated with higher hemolytic activity, it still fit the nonhemolytic criteria. Further, higher hydrophilicity decreased protein adsorption and cell attachment, but increased thromboresistance in our blood clotting time assay (~30% higher blood clotting index at 10 min). These results indicate that hydrophilicity increases blood compatibility with regard to thromboresistance, but reduces cellular compatibility (i.e., cell attachment), characteristics that could be exploited for a wide range of potential applications in various fields, such as glucose electrode test strips.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T01:30:43.613949-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21820
  • Mechanical, interfacial, and fracture characteristics of poly (lactic
           acid) and Moringa oleifera fiber composites
    • Authors: Muhammad R. Islam; Nadia Isa, Ahmad N. Yahaya, Mohammad Dalour Hossen Beg, Rosli M. Yunus
      Abstract: Three different processing techniques, extrusion, injection, and compression, were followed to fabricate poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and Moringa oleifera fiber (MOF) based composites. Chopped fibers of length 3–5 mm were used for the extrusion followed by injection molding, whereas long-length fibers (~100 mm) were used for compression molding process. For compression molding, long-length fibers were spread in single and double layers. The interfacial shear strength of the composites was evaluated by fiber pull-out testing. Composites were characterized for fracture behavior and mechanical properties. Additionally, surface morphology was also observed by scanning electron microscopy, whereas crystalline properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analyses revealed that compression molding with double layers of long-length fibers reinforcement showed better properties than other samples. Tensile strengths of extruded and compression processed samples (double-layered) were 75.5 and 81.1 MPa, which are approximately 33% and 44% higher respectively than neat PLA (56.5 MPa). The crack generation of PLA during applied load was observed and found eliminated for the double-layered sample processed via compression molding. It was found that compression molding with double layer can be considered as easy and less time-consuming method for composite preparation, with nearly 8 wt.% of less fiber consumption compared with extrusion/injection molding.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T01:30:37.257271-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21823
  • Performance and crystallization kinetics of poly (L-lactic acid) toughened
           by poly (D-lactic acid)
    • Authors: Zhongbo Song; Weijun Zhen
      Abstract: Poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) was prepared from D-lactic acid under optimized polymerization conditions of 1 wt% stannous octoate, at 170°C for 12 hr. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and its optical isomer, PDLA, were blended to improve the thermal and mechanical properties. Mechanical testing showed an increase in the impact strength of the PLLA/PDLA (0.3 wt%) by 27.6%. SEM showed more shear zones and fibrillation on the composite surfaces, compared withthe PLLA, suggesting high toughness and shock strength. TGA showed the enhanced thermal stability of PLLA composites. The DSC results indicated that the crystallinity of PLLA/PDLA (0.3 wt%) was increased by 54.31%, compared with pure PLLA. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics suggested the formation of crystal nucleus and the growth rate of PLLA/PDLA (0.3 wt%) increased gradually. Half crystallization time showed a decreasing trend, which could provide a large number of heterogeneous nucleation sites and improved the crystallization rate of PLLA.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T01:20:46.477106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21816
  • Elastic polyurethane foams containing graphene nanoplatelets
    • Authors: Łukasz Piszczyk; Paulina Kosmela, Michał Strankowski
      Abstract: Elastic polyurethane foams were produced from two-component polyurethane systems (SPECFLEX NE 113 izocyjanian/NR 816 poliol system—SPC and Elastic MBMarket company system POLYOL ET MB 500/ISO ET MB 800—ET) by using a one-step method. The foams were a graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the amount ranging from 1 to 2 wt.%. The effect of the nanofiller on polyurethane matrix was determined by analyzing the chemical structure, static and dynamic mechanical properties, and thermal stability of reinforced foams. The application of the carbon nanofiller resulted in increased density and hardness of the obtained composites. The addition of the nanofiller caused a shift in glass transition temperature toward lower temperature values, and an increase in the Young's modulus, but did not significantly affected the thermal stability of the obtained composites. The research results showed that graphene nanoplatelets nanofiller can be successfully used as a modifier of mechanical and thermal properties in elastic polyurethane foams.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T23:51:26.108714-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21819
  • Numerical simulation and experimental study of filling process of micro
           prism by isothermal hot embossing in solid-like state
    • Authors: Jingyao Sun; Daming Wu, Ying Liu, Le Dai, Chong Jiang
      Abstract: Filling process of micro prism array by isothermal hot embossing in solid-like state (IHESS) with different mold temperature, pressure, and holding time were simulated by DEFORM. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) samples processing by IHESS were tested to validate the numerical simulation results and select the best processing condition. The reliability of simulation was tested quantitatively and qualitatively by comparing the cross-profile and its developing trend separately. It was found that the cross-profiles from the simulations and experiments were in high agreement. The simulated and experimental developing trends of cross-profiles were also the same. These results proved the reliability of simulation and its guidance to the experiments. In order to show the advantages of IHESS, a brief introduction and comparison of IHESS and traditional hot embossing were made.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T03:25:38.089871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21815
  • Effect of processing techniques on new poly(ε-caprolactone)-embelin
           microparticles of biomedical interest
    • Authors: Pablo R. Cortez Tornello; Gabriela E. Feresin, Alejandro Tapia, Monika Dzieciuch, Teresita R. Cuadrado, Gustavo A. Abraham
      Abstract: Poly(ε-caprolactone) microparticles containing embelin (PCLE) are prepared by electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) and emulsion-solvent evaporation techniques. Microparticles are characterized in terms of drug state, drug-loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency, morphology and in vitro release in different mediums. Physicochemical, morphological, and thermal characterization is presented. Kinetic analysis is performed. EHDA microparticles present higher size, surface area, and encapsulation efficiency. The release profiles combine a high initial release, followed by a slow-controlled release stage. Electrosprayed PCLE presented characteristics such as size (3.14 ± 0.05 μm), zeta potential (−49.22 ± 2.88 mV) and release profiles that could be attractive for the development of microcarriers for pulmonary administration of embelin.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T23:51:04.51552-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21814
  • Non-terminal behavior as a finger print to follow droplet deformation
    • Authors: Roozbeh Hajiraissi; Yousef Jahani
      Abstract: It is well-established that rheology can trace structural dynamics and conjectures the forming/formed morphology. The objective of this work is to trace the droplet deformation via conducting fiber spinning process. In this regard, two types of polymer blends Polypropylene (PP)/Polyamide6 (PA6) and Polypropylene/Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) with various ratios (99/1, 94/6, 90/10, and 80/20) were melt-blended on co-rotating twin screw extruder and thereafter, were spun. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images represent a droplet and fibrillar morphologies for as-extruded samples and spun blend fibers respectively. Unlike PA6 as dispersed phase, PTT droplets in PP/PTT blend system shows improved spinnability. Linear melt viscoelastic data were gathered by performing rheological approaches in linear region. Conducting frequency sweep at 240°C is revealed a terminal behavior for Gʹ and a Newtonian plateau for η* at low frequencies. However, at 195°C dynamic rheological data pertinent to fibers represent a non-terminal trend for Gʹ and viscosity upturn at low frequencies respectively. These distinguishable characteristics can be considered as spinnability of droplets which reflect fibrillation mechanism, and fibrillar growth can be followed by scanning the viscoelastic responses at low frequency region which enhanced upon fibril growth. According to SEM and rheological test results, PTT, as an engineering plastics, manifests higher capability of forming nano fibrils.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T00:45:38.895212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21810
  • Effect of operating conditions on the tribological performance
           of polyether ether ketone (PEEK)
    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan Fareed
      Abstract: Tribological performance of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) subjected to various heat treatments namely, annealing, normalizing, water quenching and oil quenching, respectively, after being heated to a temperature of 250°C is evaluated. It is observed that the different cooling rates have a significant effect on the crystallinity of PEEK which is found to be a governing factor in determining its mechanical and tribological properties. Micro hardness testing and ball-on-disk wear test results showed that both hardness and wear resistance increased with an increase in the crystallinity of PEEK. It is observed that the annealed samples showed the highest wear resistance when compared with the water-quenched samples which is attributed to the increased crystallinity in the case of the annealed samples.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25T02:15:31.329504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21812
  • Selective localization of organic montmorillonite nanoparticles in
           multilayered high-density polyethylene/polyamide 6 composites
    • Authors: Gaoyi Xie; Jie Yu, Shuhao Qin, Jing Sun, Zhao Yang, Liangqiang Wei, Yubi Ji, Wentao He, Guomin Xu
      Abstract: To achieve a selective localization of nanoparticles in multilayered two-component polymer blends, an intentional two-step process, first pre-compounding and then co-extruding, was employed to prepare multilayered high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH)/organic montmorillonite (OMMT)-polyamide 6 (PA6) nanocomposites. The dispersion of OMMT was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the localization of OMMT was tunable with different content of PE-g-MAH. By comparing the localization of OMMT in a single-layered nanocomposite with that in the multilayered nanocomposites, as well as by theoretically calculating wetting coefficients of the multilayered nanocomposites, the migration mechanism of OMMT was revealed. As demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission rate measurement and tensile test, the selective localization of OMMT in the multilayered nanocomposites could increase crystallinity degree of the two-polymer components, enhancing oxygen barrier property and tensile strength of the nanocomposties.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:40:32.462813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21811
  • A novel fiber-reinforced silicone rubber composite with Al particles for
           enhanced dielectric and thermal properties
    • Authors: Xuezhen Sui; Wenying Zhou, Lina Dong, Zijun Wang, Xiangrong Liu, Anning Zhou, Jiangtao Cai, Qingguo Chen
      Abstract: Aluminum (Al) reinforced silicone rubber (SR) composites were prepared, and the effects of the content, particle size, shape, and surface modification of Al particles on the dielectric properties and thermal conductivity of the Al/SR were investigated. Dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor and thermal conductivity of the Al/SR increase with increasing the filler content. The dissipation factors still remain at a low level at high filler content because of the insulating alumina shell on the surface of core Al. Decrease in particle size and surface modification of Al can increase the dielectric permittivity and thermal conductivity of the Al/SR composites. Compared with spherical Al/SR, the flaky Al/SR composites present higher dielectric permittivity and thermal conductivity. Dielectric permittivity and thermal conductivity of the Al/carbon fiber (CF)/SR composites reach 72.1 and 2.01 W/m K at 75 wt% of the total filler content, respectively, suggesting that the ternary composites has potential applications in electromechanical actuators because of their high dielectric permittivity and thermal conductivity but low dissipation factor, and good elasticity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T23:41:29.107038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21809
  • pH-responsive alginate–pectin polymeric rafts and their
    • Authors: Muhammad Hanif; Ghulam Abbas
      Abstract: Aim of the present work was to develop alginate–pectin rafts by using box behnken design to provide symptomatic relief from gastroesophageal reflux disorders by forming floating gel or raft on the top of gastric contents. Sodium alginate and pectin were used as raft-forming polymers, sodium bicarbonate as gas-generating substance, and calcium carbonate for generation of calcium ions. Physical test of all compressed formulations were within pharmacopoeial limits. Effect of pH of medium on raft formation was observed by placing the formulation in different pH mediums. Raft was characterized by their strength, weight, volume, resilience, reflux resistance, thickness, buffering capacity, neutralizing capacity, floating lag time (FLT) and total floating time (TFT). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to check the interaction between the polymers and other excipients. Raft was effectively formed at pH 1.2. Raft strength, reflux resistance, and thickness of optimized formulation APR15 were 9.71 ± 0.013 g, 2670 ± 0.987 g, and 5.1 ± 0.045 cm, respectively. Raft resilience for the APR15 was found to be greater than 480 min. TFT of APR15 was greater than 8 hr with 50 s FLT. Buffering and neutralizing capacity were 12.70 ± 1.21 meq and 7.0 ± 0.34 meq, respectively. FTIR spectra showed no interactions between sodium alginate, pectin, and other excipients. This study demonstrated that alginate–pectin rafts are suitable for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T23:25:47.782154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21808
  • Influence of grafting content on the properties of cured natural rubber
           grafted with PMMAs using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent
    • Authors: Ekwipoo Kalkornsurapranee; Wanida Yung-Aoon, Bencha Thongnuanchan, Anoma Thitithammawong, Charoen Nakason, Jobish Johns
      Abstract: In this work, we present an easy way to vulcanize natural rubber using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The effect of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) grafting along with cross-linking of natural rubber on the mechanical, thermal, and oil resistance properties was studied. The main objective of this work was to improve the properties of cured natural rubber (NR) based on glutaraldehyde (GA) as a curing agent by using modified NR. Cured NR-g-PMMA with different grafting levels were studied systematically and compared with cured natural rubber. A remarkable improvement in the properties of natural rubber was obtained by grafting PMMA. Higher tensile strength without much reduction in elongation at break can be achieved by curing NR-g-PMMA with glutaraldehyde. The natural rubber grafted with PMMA and subsequently cured with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent was found to be a useful technique for improving the properties of natural rubber products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T04:46:16.620411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21806
  • The relationship of vulcanization and structural
           characteristics-dispersion of organoclay-mechanical properties
           in (butadiene rubber/natural rubber) based nanocomposite
    • Authors: Ahmad Zarei; Azam Jalali-Arani
      Abstract: Nanocomposites based on (organoclay [OC]/butadiene rubber [BR]/natural rubber [NR]) containing different ratio of (sulfur/accelerator [dibenzothiazyl disulfide (MBTS)] or N-Oxydiethyl-2-benzthiazolsulfenamid (NOBS)) were prepared. Evaluation of the vulcanization characteristics showed that the curing system and the type of the used accelerator affected the impact of the OC on the scorch and cure times. The crosslink density and the percentage of polysulfide bonds of the compounds were enhanced by using OC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the type of curing system and the used accelerator affected the network structure as well as the expansion of the interlayer space of the OC. In nanocomposites with less crosslink density and less polysulfide bonds, greater expansion of the OC interlayer spaces was observed. The use of the OC and its effect on the level of crosslink density and percent of polysulfide bonds affected the tensile properties and abrasion loss of the samples.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T04:40:37.221495-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21805
  • Synergistic effect of phosphorus-containing silane coupling agent with
           alumina trihydrate in ethylene-vinyl acetate composites
    • Authors: Bo Wu; Weibo Kong, Kai Hu, Xiaowei Fu, Jingxin Lei, Changlin Zhou
      Abstract: A new interfacial modifier containing silicon and phosphorus has been developed to improve the flame retardancy and mechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)/alumina trihydrate (ATH) composites. The EVA/ATH composites were prepared via blending EVA pellets with different kinds of ATH particles. The results showed a synergistic effect of phosphorus-containing silane coupling agent (DOSA) and ATH particles on the flame retardancy of EVA composites. When compared with pure EVA of 19.1, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was increased to 31.4. This was the result of the formation of a charred layer and the enhanced compatibilities between inorganic particles and polymer matrix. The experimental results also showed that the modified ATH particles by using synthesized DOSA led to an increase in mechanical properties. The improvement on the mechanical and thermal properties of EVA composites was mostly attributed to the better dispersion ability of the modified ATH particles in the polymer matrix and a synergistic effect between the DOSA and ATH particles. The char-formation ability of EVA composites has also been analyzed and the synthesized DOSA has shown a positive effect.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T05:21:09.632957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21804
  • High-performance reactive silver-ion adsorption and reductive performance
           of poly(N-methylaniline)
    • Authors: Shun-Hua Jiang; Jun-Xiong Wu, Jing Zhou, Qiu-Feng Lü
      Abstract: Self-assembled poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) microspheres were prepared in a facile way by an unstirred polymerization of N-methylaniline monomers with ammonium persulfate as an oxidizing agent at different temperatures. The polymers were characterized by FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, adsorption property of PNMA microspheres for silver ions from aqueous solution was investigated by batch experiments. The results revealed that PNMA showed a high-performance adsorption for silver ions by chelation and redox reaction. The maximum adsorption capacity was up to 2.460 g/g for silver ions on PNMA microspheres prepared at 0°C, at an initial silver ion concentration of 160 mmol/L at 25°C for 48 hr. The adsorption process fits the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm models. Moreover, the PNMA microspheres exbihit high reductive performances for Au(III) and Pd(II) ions. Therefore, the PNMA microspheres have great potential application in removal and recovery of metal ions from industrial wastewater.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T01:27:02.091507-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21807
  • Preparation of novel xGNPs/SBS composites with enhanced dielectric
           constant and thermal conductivity
    • Authors: Jun-Jun Chen; Shi-Hao Qin, Qun-Chen Lv, Dong-Liang Shi, Xu-Min Zheng, Hui-Jun Wu, Hua-Kun Huang, Liu-Guang Lian, Fu-An He, Kwok-Ho Lam
      Abstract: Polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene triblock copolymer (SBS) has the potential to be used as a dielectric elastomer for actuator, sensor, energy harvesting, and so on, but its low dielectric constant and thermal conductivity seriously limit this application. In this study, novel exfoliated graphite nanoplates (xGNPs)/SBS composites were prepared by a solution-blending method using N,N-dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran as co-solvents. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurement confirms that xGNPs have been incorporated into SBS. Furthermore, the result of scanning electron microscopy shows that xGNPs disperse well in the SBS matrix. The effects of xGNPs on the dielectric constant and thermal conductivity of the resultant xGNPs/SBS composites were investigated. The dielectric constant at 1,000 Hz significantly increased from 2.72 for pure SBS to 15.96 and 40.94 for xGNPs/SBS composite containing 1.19 and 1.27 vol.% of xGNPs, respectively. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of the xGNPs/SBS composite containing 1.27 vol.% of xGNPs has been improved from 0.18 to 0.41 W/m·K in comparison with that of pure SBS.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T06:55:37.269004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21797
  • Semi-intrinsic self-healing performance of liquid-cored microcapsules in
           epoxy matrix
    • Authors: Cagatay Yilmaz; Mehmet Yildiz, Yusuf Menceloglu
      Abstract: We present an experimental study on the microcapsule-based semi-intrinsic self-healing behavior of low viscosity epoxy resin used in Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process. The microcapsules containing RTM epoxy resin are prepared using in situ polymerization of urea-formaldehyde. Single type of microcapsules with six different agitation rates is prepared, resulting in microcapsules with a mean diameter ranging from 52 to 202 μm. The thermal characteristics of each microcapsule batch are investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). In addition to thermal characterization tools, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is also used as a qualitative technique to determine the composition of microcapsules. The mechanical properties of the self-healing specimen such as Mode-I fracture toughness and flexure strength are assessed by a universal testing machine, and the obtained results are compared with the findings in literature.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T00:05:31.228962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21802
  • Dual-drug release from chitin-based core–shell microspheres
           fabricated by coaxial electrospray
    • Authors: Yu Shang; Fuyuan Ding, Jian Liu, Ling Xiao, Hongbing Deng, Yumin Du, Xiaowen Shi
      Abstract: Polymeric core–shell microspheres have been widely applied in dual-drug release system for their convenience to treat diseases through multiple therapies. In this contribution, acrylamide-modified chitin (AMC)/chitosan (CS) core–shell microspheres were prepared by a coaxial electrospray method under mild conditions. The dimension of the microspheres and thickness of the layer can be delicately controlled by changing the feed rate of spray solutions and the applied voltage. The core–shell structure of the microspheres was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and stereo fluorescence microscope. To investigate the dual-drug release behavior of the core–shell microspheres, small molecular FITC-dextran and macromolecular dextran blue 2000 were chosen as model drugs. The release rate of small molecular FITC-dextran was higher than macromolecular dextran blue 2000 regardless of the location of FITC-dextran in the microspheres. The biocompatibility, biodegradability, and dual-drug release behavior of the core–shell microspheres endow it with potential applications in combination therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T00:00:51.091649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21795
  • Antibacterial PVA membranes containing TiO2/N-halamine nanoparticles
    • Authors: Wei Ma; Lin Li, Jing Li, Xuehong Ren, Zhi-Guo Gu, Tung-Shi Huang
      Abstract: Inorganic–organic composites have received considerable attention due to their combined properties. In this study, a N-halamine precursor poly[5,5-dimethyl-3-(3′-triethoxysilylpropyl)-hydantoin] (PSPH) was synthesized and used for the production of inorganic–organic hybrid particles after reacting with nano-TiO2 by a sol–gel process. The hybrid particles were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, and TGA-DTG. After chlorinated in the dilute sodium hypochlorite solution, antibacterial Cl-PSPH-TiO2 nanoparticles (NPS) could be obtained and used for production of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite membranes. The synthesized PSPH-TiO2/PVA composite membranes were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD, and TGA-DTG. Meanwhile, antibacterial property, UV light stability, mechanical properties, and storage stability of the composite membranes were tested. The antibacterial composite membranes with Cl-PSPH-TiO2 could inactivate 99.97% of Staphylococcus aureus (3.03 logs) and 100% of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (6.12 logs) within 30 min. The antibacterial composite membranes also showed good UV light stability, regeneration ability, and excellent storage stability.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T00:25:39.514046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21798
  • Thermal behavior of injection- and compression-molded custom-built
           polylactic acids
    • Authors: Massimiliano Barletta; Patrizia Moretti, Elisa Pizzi, Michela Puopolo, Silvia Vesco, Vincenzo Tagliaferri
      Abstract: In recent time, the quest for renewable materials for the development of packaging items is constantly increasing. The class of polylactic acids (PLAs) is the most promising one, although a broader scale commercial expansion of these polymers cannot leave unceasing enhancement of their functional properties aside, especially toughness and thermal stability. Similarly, continuous innovation in prototyping competitive easy-route solutions for material processing is another key to successful industrial applications of PLAs. In this respect, this study deals with the design and formulation of innovative custom-built PLAs for injection and compression molding, which are compostable, suitable for food contact, and characterized by a good compromise of mechanical properties and thermal resistance. Therefore, a commercial grade PLA was modified by reactive compounding extrusion with maleic anhydride (MAH)-grafted PLA (PLA-MA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-grafted PLA (PLA-GMA) and micro-lamellar talc. Material structure and thermal response of the compounds were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental findings show that material structure and, especially, crystallization of the PLA can be controlled by fine-tuning the compound formulation. In addition, achievement of the appropriate crystallization degree in the polymer can lead to compostable composite materials with good thermal stability. Accordingly, the custom-built PLA formulations feature the potential to expand significantly the fields of application of compostable biopolymers, thus posing a valid alternative to both durable not compostable bioplastics and conventional plastics in injection and compression molding process.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T06:15:43.567683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21803
  • Development of a chemiluminescence sensor based on molecular imprinting
           technology for the determination of trace monocrotophos in vegetables
    • Authors: Shoumin Wang; Peng Zhao, Ningyang Li, Xuguang Qiao, Zhixiang Xu
      Abstract: In this study, a new sensor of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with flow-injection chemiluminescence for the detection of monocrotophos was fabricated. The molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized by the bulk polymerization, using monocrotophos, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the template molecule, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The adsorption and recognition ability of the imprinted polymer toward monocrotophos was investigated. Factors influencing preconcentration of the analytes and sensitivity of the method were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the chemiluminescence intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of monocrotophos range from 0.0023 to 10 mg/L, and the limit of detection of the method was 0.001 mg/L. Rape (Brassica napus) and pakchoi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) samples spiked with monocrotophos at three levels were analyzed by the developed method with recoveries between 89.3% and 105.9%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of monocrotophos in spinach samples, and the results were verified by gas chromatography method.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T23:35:39.76993-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21799
  • A facile route to develop hydrophilicity on the polyolefin surface for
           biomedical applications
    • Authors: Akhtar J. Siddiqa; Somnath Maji, Koel Chaudhury, Basudam Adhikari
      Abstract: In this study, the surface of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was functionalized with maleic anhydride (MA) using solution grafting method in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO), an initiator. The surface chemistry of the grafted LDPE was characterized using different characterization tools. The effect of MA grafting for analysis of bulk properties such as the change in mechanical strength and thermal properties was studied. Further, the nanoindentation study was performed to analyze the surface mechanical property after MA grafting. Biocompatibility studies were carried out using NIH-3T3 cells through MTT assay test. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of carboxylic groups on LDPE surface. The contact angle value was found to be 44 ± 3°, which confirms the development of hydrophilicity in LDPE. Cell viability was found>75% in MTT assay. These results suggested that the prepared hydrophilic LDPE is a potential candidate for biomedical applications and surface coatings with other polar polymer.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T23:25:36.506674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21800
  • Durability of alkali and heat-treated kenaf fiber/unsaturated polyester
           composite fabricated by resin transfer molding under natural weathering
    • Authors: Dody Ariawan; Muhamad S. Salim, Razaina Mat Taib, Mohammad Z. Ahmad Thirmizir, Zainal A. Mohammad Ishak
      Abstract: Nonwoven kenaf fiber (KF) mat-reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites were exposed to a natural weathering environment for 12 months. The composites were prepared using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (RTM). Prior to molding, the KF mat was treated by immersing it in 6% NaOH solution for 3 hrs and by heating it at 140°C for 10 hrs, respectively. The influences of weathering exposure on the composites with respect to the different treatments were investigated using flexural properties, fracture toughness, Fourier transform infrared, thermal stability, color and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Natural weathering reduced the flexural and fracture toughness due to damage to composite structures, the formation of microcracks on the sample surface, discoloration, and chemical content alteration. A relatively better durability in terms of flexural properties was exhibited by alkali-treated KF composites, although poor durability in fracture toughness was observed due to the improved fiber–matrix adhesion.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T00:36:05.283216-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21801
  • Poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO)-grafted carbon nanotubes for preparing
           PTMO-based polyurethane films with enhanced storage moduli
    • Authors: Hossein Behniafar; Mojtaba Yazdi
      Abstract: In this article, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT's) were coated by poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) soft layer. PTMO was used for preparing segmented polyurethane (PU) films as well. PTMO-grafted CNT was utilized for loading into the PTMO-based segmented PU films in three different contents, i.e., 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 wt.%. All PU-CNT nanocomposites were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The resulting nanocomposites were also investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). DTMA results showed a significant increase in the storage moduli, especially at temperatures
      PubDate: 2017-01-03T01:01:43.921134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21796
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 133 - 136
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:07.652799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21765
  • News from the Polymer Processing Institute
    • Pages: 261 - 264
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T13:19:04.954341-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21764
  • Naphthalene-based polyimide electrolytes for lithium-ion battery
    • Authors: Raife D. Toker Öztürk; Mustafa H. Uğur, Atilla Gungor, Nilhan Kayaman-Apohan
      Abstract: The preparation of 2,6-Bis(m-amino phenoxy) benzoyl naphthalene-based polyimides for solid polymer electrolytes was reported. Li-salt and PEO bearing polyimide membranes were prepared. Thermo-gravimetric analysis results reveal that the PI/PEO/LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte membranes are thermally stable up to 500°C. The “Tg” values are in the range 167–221.5°C according to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The conductivities of Li-salt and PEO containing PI membranes are in the range of 10−7–10−5 S/cm. The conductivity increases with incorporation of PEO and Li+ concentration. The linear sweep voltammetry experiments showed that no peaks were observed between 1.75 and 4.5 V.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T01:02:04.468022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21794
  • Compatibilized low-density polyethylene/linear low-density
           polyethylene/nanoclay nanocomposites: II. Opposing effects of nanofiller
           on quiescent and shear-induced crystallization
    • Authors: Farkhondeh Hemmati; Omid Yousefzade, Hamid Garmabi
      Abstract: Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization processes of polyolefin nanocomposites based on low-density polyethylene/linear low-density polyethylene/nanoclay have been investigated, and the effects of nanoclay loading and dispersion state have been studied. Moreover, the isothermal crystallization of polyethylene chains has been evaluated in the quiescent and shear-induced conditions. In quiescent crystallization, adding 1 wt% nanofiller improves the crystallization rate, whereas an increment in the organoclay loading retards the crystallization process. However, an opposing effect of nanoparticles is observed in the shear-induced crystallization. The findings show that the incorporation of 5 wt% nanoclay in good dispersion state considerably accelerates the shear-induced crystallization process. This influence is found even for very weak shear flow fields. The synergistic effects of nanoclay addition and shear field presence on the crystallization process are of major significance particularly for polyolefin products, which are commonly manufactured by using melt processing methods.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T01:01:28.919956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21793
  • A sensor of m-cresol nanopolymer/Pt-electrode film for detection of lead
           ions by potentiometric methods
    • Authors: El-Said M. Sayyah; Mohamed Shaban, Mohamed Rabia
      Abstract: A sensor of m-cresol polymer film-coated platinum electrode has been fabricated for the detection of lead (II) ions (Pb2+) in aqueous solutions. The study was carried out by the simple potentiometric method by measuring its potentiometric response slope and was confirmed by the cyclic voltammetry technique. The effects of the polymer film thicknesses and the pH of Pb2+ solution on the response of the sensor were studied. Moreover, the stability, sensitivity, and selectivity of the m-cresol sensor were studied. The best thickness of polymer film was about three cyclic voltammetric runs. This film has Nernstian response slope of 26.5 mV/decade with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10−7 M at 293 K by the simple potentiometric method. Also, it has a sensitivity of 1.1 × 10−6/AM with a detection limit of 7.0 × 10−7 M by the cyclic voltammetry method. Moreover, the sensor is selective to Pb2+ ions in the presence of other ions, such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Also, the highest response of the sensor to the Pb2+ ions is achieved over a pH range of 4.0–5.3. The lifetime of the sensor is more than 1 month. The sensor was applied on two natural samples, and the results were compared to the analyses of the atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01T23:16:08.329983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21788
  • Effect of graphene platelets on the thermal and conducting properties of
           poly(ethyl methacrylate)
    • Authors: Fanismita Mohanty; Sarat K. Swain
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to convert nonconducting polyethyl methacrylate (PEMA) matrix to thermally stable conducting composites with the reinforcement of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). PEMA/rGO nanocomposites were prepared by low-cost in situ technique. The interaction between PEMA and rGO was shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction study. The structural properties of PEMA/rGO composites were studied with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The surface roughness of composite was 40 nm, which was calculated from atomic force microscope . The thermal stability of PEMA was considerably enhanced due to the incorporation of nano-filler. It was noticed that the remaining residue of composites was 32% at 600°C due to dispersion of 5 wt% of r-GO. The electrical properties of PEMA/rGO composites were studied by conductivity measurement. The electrical percolation was achieved at 3 wt% of nano-filler loading. The synthesized material has achieved conducting behavior with improvement in thermal properties which is suitable for devices with conducting filler.
      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:30:31.353067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21790
  • Preparation and characterization of compression-molded green composite
           sheets made of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) reinforced with long pita fibers
    • Authors: Sergio Torres-Giner; Nestor Montanes, Vicent Fombuena, Teodomiro Boronat, Lourdes Sanchez-Nacher
      Abstract: Novel green composites were successfully prepared from bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and pita fibers derived from the agave plant (Agave americana). Various weight contents (10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.-%) of pita fibers at different lengths (5, 15, and 20 mm) were successfully incorporated into PHB by compression molding. The newly prepared PHB/pita fibers composite sheets were characterized in terms of their mechanical and thermomechanical properties and then related to their morphology after fracture. Attained results indicated that the mechanical stiffness of PHB significantly improved with both the content and length of pita fibers, although ductile properties were reduced. In particular, the elastic modulus of the 40 wt.-% PHB composite sheets containing 20-mm-long pita fibers was approximately 55% higher than the unfilled PHB sheet. Shore D hardness also improved, achieving the shortest pita fibers the highest improvement. Pita fibers with lengths of 15 and 20 mm also increased the Vicat softening point and heat deflection temperature (HDT) by 38 and 21°C, respectively. Due to their optimal shape, it is concluded that pita fibers with lengths above 15 mm can potentially reinforce and improve the performance of PHB biopolymer. In addition, the compression-molding methodology described in this research work represents a cost-effective pathway to feasibly prepare long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (LFRTs) fully based on renewable raw materials. Resultant green composite sheets can be of interest for the development of sustainable parts in the automotive industry and other advanced applications in polymer technology.
      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:25:40.490424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21789
  • Effect of annealing on the properties of polylactide/poly(butylene
           carbonate) blend
    • Authors: Feng Ge; Xuemei Wang, Xianghai Ran
      Abstract: The microstructure evolution of partial miscible polylactide/poly(butylene carbonate) (PLA/PBC) blend during annealing, including the variation in crystalline structure of PLA and PBC, the morphologies of PBC particles, and the relaxation of chain segments in the amorphous region of PLA, is investigated in detail. Based on the significant difference in melting temperature, phase separation arises as a result of the occurrence of crystallization of PLA and is further enhanced due to the crystallization of PBC. The glass transition temperature Tg of the PLA phase in the phase separation blend is significantly higher than that of the pure PLA due to increasing crystallinity. The increasing annealing time resulted in enhanced phase separation, as reflected in the harsher morphology, the decrease of molecular dynamics, and the reduction amount of the amorphous domain. It can be verified by the interaction parameter C values at various annealing conditions from the yield stress data. Therefore, blend is aptitude to elongation decrease and the toughening micromechanism changes, while the plastic deformation is the important energy dissipation process for quenched PLA/PBC blend. Debonding of the PBC particles followed by plastic void growth of the PLA matrix is the major toughening micro-mechanisms for phase separation blend.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26T04:07:09.796593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21792
  • Investigation of the effect of graphene oxide on the properties of
           epoxy-phthalonitrile nanocomposites
    • Authors: Kumudha Kaliavaradhan; Balasubramanian Rukmanikrishnan, Sarojadevi Muthusamy
      Abstract: A novel keto-ene containing phthalonitrile (PN) monomer was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared from natural graphite using Hummer's method. The effect of the addition of GO with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and phthalonitrile in the presence of diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) as a curing agent has been investigated. The mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of GO/epoxy-phthalonitrile (EP-PN) nanocomposites as a function of different weight percentage of GO (0, 1, 3, and 5 wt%) are reported. Dynamic mechanical analysis reveals that a maximum glass transition temperature (166.5°C) and storage modulus (3.3 GPa at 25°C) values are obtained for 3 wt% of GO content. FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectral techniques were employed to characterize the prepared GO and its extent of exfoliation in EP-PN nanocomposites. The dispersion of GO in the fractured surface of the composites was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. GO/EP-PN nanocomposites show dramatic increase in dielectric properties compared to the neat EP-PN nanocomposites. All the prepared nanocomposites fabricated with GO show excellent thermal stability in nitrogen atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26T04:06:58.805475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21785
  • Enhanced mechanical properties of styrene–butadiene rubber with low
           content of bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers
    • Authors: Biao Yin; Geng Li, Dongni Wang, Liping Wang, Jingyi Wang, Hongbing Jia, Lifeng Ding, Dongping Sun
      Abstract: Styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) nano-composites were prepared through mixing SBR latex with bacterial cellulose whiskers (BCWs). BCWs were extracted from the residual bacterial cellulose (BC) that was treated with acid hydrolysis. A rod-like nanofiber structure of BCWs was observed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. BCWs maintained the crystal structure in BCWs/SBR nano-composites as confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The dispersion of BCWs in SBR matrix was further detected with field emission scan electron microscope. BCWs acted as a multifunctional physical cross-linker in the SBR matrix, the combination of BCW reinforcement and increased effective cross-linking density of the rubber network with incorporating BCWs would cause a more effective transfer of stresses from matrix to filler. Compared with neat SBR, the tensile strength and tear strength of SBR/BCW nano-composite with 2.5 phr (parts per hundred rubber) BCWs were increased by 319% and 182%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T01:55:44.288409-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21791
  • Organoclay enabled nanofiber formation from a polyolefin elastomer
    • Authors: Balakrishnamurthy Sachin Kumar; Alankaru Narayana Prakrthi, Thangaraj Senthil, Kuruveri Udaya Bhat, Srinivasan Anandhan
      Abstract: The solution electrospinning of polyolefins has not been deeply studied mainly due to the difficulty in dissolving these polymers in appropriate solvents. In this study, composite nanofibers of organically modified montmorillonite/ethylene-octene random copolymer were produced for the first time with a mixture of cyclohexane and xylene as a solvent by solution electrospinning. Montmorillonite was used as an additive to increase the electrical charge density of the polymer solution. The influence of solution and process parameters on the electrospun ethylene-octene copolymer fibers' morphology and diameter was investigated using the design of experiment. Multiple regression analysis was used for the optimization of the electrospinning parameters. Ultrafine fibers, with diameters in the range of 150–350 nm were obtained; these nanofibers exhibited an excellent hydrophobicity over a period of 10 min as revealed by contact angle measurements.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T02:12:16.108001-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21787
  • Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of novel pH-sensitive poly
           (2-methoxyethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid) microgels
    • Authors: Zermina Rashid; Nazar M. Ranjha, Rabia Razzaq, Hina Raza
      Abstract: The present work focused on the synthesis and evaluation of cross-linked poly(2-methoxyethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid) [p(MEMA-co-IA)] microgels for controlled and extended drug delivery, in an attempt to improve the bioavailability of the drugs and to get maximum therapeutic benefits. A series of p(MEMA-co-IA) microgels were prepared by modified free-radical suspension polymerization using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. Characterization was performed through FTIR, TGA, DSC, XRD, DLS and SEM. pH responsiveness was evaluated by equilibrium swelling studies in phosphate buffer solutions of different pH values (pH 1.2, 4, 6.5, and 7.4) with constant ionic strength. To demonstrate the potential use of microgels for drug delivery, esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate (EMT) was loaded as model drug and in vitro dissolution studies were performed. FTIR and thermal analysis confirmed the formation of cross-linked p(MEMA-co-IA) microgels. XRD indicated dispersion of drug into the network at molecular level. SEM illustrated smooth, round and uniformly distributed microspheres. A remarkably higher swelling at higher pH values (pH 6.5 and 7.4) compared to pH 1.2 demonstrated the pH-responsive nature of the microgels. All the formulations showed pH-dependent drug release following Higuchi with non-fickian mechanism of drug diffusion. In light of the results obtained from this study, it was concluded that p(MEMA-co-IA) microgels have potential to release drug in controlled manner responsive to pH of the external environment.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T23:50:54.395988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21786
  • Sulfonated gamma-irradiated blend poly(styrene/ethylene-vinyl acetate)
           membrane and their electrical properties
    • Authors: Mohamed Mohamady Ghobashy; Ehab Khozemey
      Abstract: A compatibilized blend membrane of polystyrene (PS)/polyethylene-vinyl acetate (PEVA) (50: 50) wt % was produced by compression molded at 180°C after irradiated by gamma ray at 50-kGy dose. The influence of gamma radiation on the properties of the blend (PS/PEVA) membrane was investigated. The irradiated samples showed an increase in the degree of crystallinity due to the presence of additional chemical bonds as observed by X-ray diffraction. As a result of irradiation, the miscibility of the two polymer matrix is enhanced by interfacial adhesion between the components in the blend polymer without any voids as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, electrical conductivity in the blend (PS/PEVA) membrane was enhanced by introducing SO3H groups. Sulfonation process converts the blend from noncontact (5 × 10−8 S cm−1) to semi-contact (3.8 × 10−3 S cm−1) by AC current at wet condition, and this can find applications in the fuel cells.
      PubDate: 2016-11-14T04:20:52.104332-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21781
  • Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Testing of Geogrid Reinforcements Using
           Single-Rib and Wide-Rib Specimen
    • Authors: R. Hegazy; G. M. Mahmoud, Ebtisam H. Hasan
      Abstract: A geogrid is geosynthetic high-density polyethylene material used to reinforce soils and similar materials. It is valuable tool in transportation and civil construction. Geogrids allow engineers to build where it otherwise would not be possible or would be cost prohibitive using traditional methods. The tensile test of the geogrid is the most important test of this product. ISO 10319 “Geosynthetics-Wide-Width tensile test” uses wide-width specimen 20 mm wide; the gripping of this wide sample is difficult and need special gripping. This study aims to develop and validate a method for testing single-rib specimen, instead of wide specimen using 150 samples of geogrids, and six different speeds. The statistical analysis of the results showed that testing of single rib at the speed of 100 mm/min (method under validation) gave matched and compatible results of wide-rib specimen testing at the speed of 25 mm/min (reference method), where the variance value of these two methods is not significant.
      PubDate: 2016-11-11T02:00:31.112268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21778
  • Cross-linked Chitosan/Corn Cob Biocomposite Films with Salicylaldehyde on
           Tensile, Thermal, and Biodegradable Properties: A Comparative Study
    • Authors: Ming Yeng Chan; Seong Chun Koay, Salmah Husseinsyah, Sung Ting Sam
      Abstract: The focus of this research paper was to study the properties of uncrosslinked and cross-linked chitosan (CS)/corn cob (CC) biocomposite films with salicylaldehyde (SAL). The uncrosslinked and cross-linked CS/CC biocomposite films with SAL were prepared through solvent casting method. The SAL is used as cross-linking agent in biocmposite films. The effect of CC content and SAL on the tensile, thermal, biodegradation properties, and morphological study of CS/CC biocomposite films are investigated. The tensile strength and elongation at break of CS/CC cob biocomposite films decreases, but modulus of elasticity increases with increasing CC content. However, the addition of SAL showed 59.47% and 25.18% of improvement in average tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of cross-linked CS/CC biocomposite films, respectively, as compared to uncrosslinked biocomposite films. The cross-linked biocomposite films exhibited higher thermal stability than uncrosslinked biocomposite films. Moreover, the cross-linked biocomposite films with SAL cross-linking agent showed lower weight loss in enzyme and soil biodegradation as compared to uncrosslinked biocomposite films. As a comparison, the cross-linked biocomposite films with SAL showed the highest properties compared to others cross-linking agent such as glutaraldehyde and epichlorohydrin as reported in our previous study.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T06:05:31.447425-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21784
  • Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles as
           Protein Delivery System
    • Authors: Yunfei Han; Qian Duan, Yanwei Li, Yanhui Li, Jian Tian
      Abstract: In this study, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan-poly (l-lysine) (mPEG-CS-PLL) was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). mPEG-CS-PLL nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking with tripolyphosphate (TPP) under mild conditions and used as a carrier for protein. To demonstrate the feasibility of mPEG-CS-PLL as a protein carrier, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein and encapsulated in the mPEG-CS-PLL nanoparticles by electrostatic binding. The system showed very high encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for BSA which was up to 78% and 42%, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zeta potential study were further used to measure the size, morphology, and Zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The results indicated that the nanoparticles were spherical with a homogeneous size below 300 nm, and the system was positively charged about +21.78 mV. Moreover, the protein cumulative release from the protein delivery system could reach to 82.5% after 54-h incubation in PBS (pH 7.2) at 37°C. Cell viability tests against L929 cells showed that the cytotoxicity of mPEG-CS-PLL polymers was very low, which was favorable to practical applications. It can be suggested from the above results that the mPEG-CS-PLL can be used as a safe and effective carrier for protein delivery.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T02:05:25.596347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21782
  • High Surface Area Nano-Boehmite as Effective Nano-Filler for Preparation
           of Boehmite-Polyamide-6 Nanocomposites
    • Authors: Gholamhossein Mohammadnezhad; Mohammad Dinari, Afshin Nabiyan
      Abstract: Modified high surface area nano-boehmite particles (mB), as effective nano-filler, and polyamide-6, as a polymer matrix, were used for preparation of new nanocomposites. In this regards, bulk interaction method was used for such an objective and 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane was selected as a modifier. In this method, the modified boehmite-polyamide-6 nanocomposites (mB-PA6 NCs) were prepared under reflux condition and sonication subsequently. The prepared novel NCs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed an increase in onset of decomposition temperature for the NCs to that of pristine polyamide-6. Furthermore, as the amount of mB was increased the onset of decomposition temperature shifts more toward higher temperatures. However, TEM images of mB-PA6 NCs display exactly and clearly that mB particles are present in the quantum dots scale in PA6 matrix.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T05:10:53.844365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21783
  • Fouling Resistance and Physicochemical Properties of Polyamide Thin-Film
           Composite Membranes Modified with Functionalized Cyclodextrins
    • Authors: Bhekani S. Mbuli; Sabelo D. Mhlanga, Bhekie B. Mamba, Edward N. Nxumalo
      Pages: 249 - 260
      Abstract: Thermal and mechanical properties and fouling resistance of polyamide thin-film composite (PA-TFC) membranes modified with amino-cyclodextrins and diethylamino-cyclodextrins are investigated. It was found that the decomposition temperatures of the modified membranes were 500°C and were not significantly different with those of the unmodified membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed that the modified membranes with heating melting temperatures in the range 112.5–113.8°C were more crystalline than the unmodified membranes due to the presence of cyclodextrin derivatives on the interfacial layer. The crystallization temperatures (Tc) were found to range between 128.75 and 129.03°C and the glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranged between 78.67 and 79.33°C. The modified PA-TFC membranes were found to have comparable ultimate tensile strengths (UTS) to the unmodified membranes, except for the membranes modified with amino-β-CDs, with a UTS of 20.00 ± 0.50 MPa. The PA-TFC membranes had a lower water uptake percentage due to their enhanced crystallinity. However, these materials had a higher water permeate flux due to the hydrophilic nature of the modified membranes enhanced by the rich hydroxyl groups on the CDs. The modified PA-TFC membranes also exhibited high MgSO4 salt rejection and fouling resistance capacities compared to unmodified membranes. Different pH levels resulted in different fouling resistance patterns of the membranes. Therefore, the membranes modified with functionalized CDs were thermally and mechanically stable, had enhanced crystallinity, high divalent salt rejection and fouling resistance under different pH conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T05:50:40.804642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adv.21720
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