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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Advanced Materials Interfaces
  [SJR: 1.177]   [H-I: 10]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-7350
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Electrospinning Nanofiber on an Insulating Surface with a Patterned
           Functional Electrolyte Electrode
    • Authors: Geon Hwee Kim; Hyoryung Nam, WooSeok Choi, Taechang An, Geunbae Lim
      Abstract: Electrodes in traditional electrospinning processes have been used to directly collect nanofibers, or to induce a modified electric field to collect aligned nanofibers. In this context, many studies have been carried out to overcome the limitations of simple metal electrodes. In this study, a sub-millimeter-scale electrospun nanofiber patterning technique is proposed, which uses a functional electrolyte as a collector electrode between an electrospun nanofiber and a collector substrate. Adhesion between nanofibers and substrate is promoted by using polydopamine solution as a functional electrolyte. In this method, after the electrospinning process is completed, the electrolyte used as the collector electrode is evaporated so that the nanofiber and the substrate are in direct contact, without any trace of the metal electrode. Nanofibers can also be patterned on a thick insulator using this fabrication method. This fabrication method combines the advantages of conventional wet-electrospinning and electrospinning techniques with metal electrodes in terms of nanofiber patterning.In this research, the electrospinning technique using a patterned functional electrolyte as a collector is developed. The researchers use an adhesion promoter between the nanofibers and the substrate as an example of a functional electrolyte, resulting in superior adhesion performance than patterned nanofibers with other electrolytes.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T03:35:59.873012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701204
  • Phase Inversion Strategy to Fabricate Porous Carbon for Li-S Batteries via
           Block Copolymer Self-Assembly
    • Authors: Soumyadip Choudhury; Dieter Fischer, Petr Formanek, Manfred Stamm, Leonid Ionov
      Abstract: In this paper, an easy, facile way of preparing porous carbon cathode for lithium–sulfur batteries with superior cycle stability is demonstrated. The highly porous cathode is fabricated by using self-assembled nanostructured block copolymer as template. The block copolymer template is formed via phase inversion route followed by filling the empty spaces by oligomeric phenolic resin, thermopolymerization of the resin, and finally by carbonization. Semi-gelled film of self-assembled block copolymer is immersed in solution of nonsolvent mixture. After washing away of low molecular additive, a highly porous mat is generated. After successful filling with carbon precursor inside the template, crosslinking and carbonization under inert atmosphere result in a highly porous carbon material, which is further hybridized with sulfur via melt diffusion of elemental sulfur. This new fabrication route of template formation by phase inversion requires no solvent/thermal annealing step to generate nanostructure aided by block copolymer. The cathode material shows excellent cycle stability over 240 charging–discharging cycles, rate handling over 100 cycles.A new method for fabrication of porous carbon cathode for lithium–sulfur batteries via block copolymer templating assisted by fast and easy phase-inversion method is reported for the first time. This method requires no solvent/thermal annealing step to generate block copolymer nanostructures. The porous carbon–sulfur hybrid shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability over hundreds of cycles.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T12:39:48.632387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701116
  • Superamphiphobic Coatings with Low Sliding Angles from Attapulgite/Carbon
    • Authors: Shuantao Dong; Bucheng Li, Junping Zhang, Aiqin Wang
      Abstract: Preparation of superamphiphobic coatings with low sliding angles (SAs) for liquids of low surface tension is challenging. Here, a simple and sustainable approach for preparation of superamphiphobic coatings with low SAs from attapulgite/carbon (APT/C) composites is reported. The coatings are prepared by hydrolytic condensation of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane with the APT/C composites followed by spray-coating onto substrates. The APT/C composites are prepared by pyrolysis of spent bleaching earth containing APT. The influences of pyrolysis temperature of spent bleaching earth and the APT/C concentration on superamphiphobicity and surface morphology of the coatings are studied. Carbon nanoparticles are formed on the APT nanorods in the pyrolysis process. The APT/C nanorods are wrapped and linked together by a layer of fluorinated polysiloxane (fluoroPOS). The coatings exhibit excellent superamphiphobicity with high contact angles (CAs) and low SAs even for n-decane (CAn-decane = 154.2°, SAn-decane = 11.3°). This is because the new three-tier micro-/nano-/nanostructure is constructed by the combination of APT nanorods, carbon nanoparticles, and fluoroPOS. Also, the superamphiphobic coatings show very good chemical and thermal stability. It is believed that this study will shed light on preparation of superamphiphobic coatings with low SAs via a simple, cost-effective, and sustainable approach.Superamphiphobic coatings with low sliding angles are prepared using attapulgite/carbon composites and versatile silanes. The coatings exhibit excellent superamphiphobicity with low sliding angles even for n-decane (11.3°), because the new three-tier micro-/nano-/nanostructure is constructed by the combination of attapulgite nanorods, carbon nanoparticles, and fluorinated polysiloxane. Also, the superamphiphobic coatings show very good chemical and thermal stability.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T12:38:55.109811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701520
  • PdCo Alloy Nanonetworks−Polyallylamine Inorganic–Organic Nanohybrids
           toward the Oxygen Reduction Reaction
    • Authors: Guang-Rui Xu; Cong-Cong Han, Ying-Ying Zhu, Jing-Hui Zeng, Jia-Xing Jiang, Yu Chen
      Abstract: Rationally controlling the morphology, chemical composition, and interfacial property of metal nanostructures can remarkably enhance their electrocatalytic performance, such as activity, selectivity, and durability. In this work, a facile functional molecule-assisted cyanogel-reduction method is developed to successfully synthesize the polyallylamine (PAA)-functionalized PdCo alloy nanonetworks (PdCo-NNW@PAA) inorganic–organic nanohybrids. The solid, double-metal, and 3D backbone properties of jelly-like K2PdCl4/K3Co(CN)6 cyanogel intermediate contribute to the high alloying degree and network structure of PdCo-NNW@PAA nanohybrids. During the reduction, PAA molecules not only serve as surfactant to decrease the particle size but also act as functional molecule to modify the metal surface. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) polarization and chronoamperometry tests demonstrate that PdCo-NNW@PAA nanohybrids have outstanding electrocatalytic activity, excellent resistance to alcohol crossover effect, and good durability toward the ORR in alkaline media. This work provides a new strategy for synthesizing the chemical functionalized multimetallic alloy nanonetworks at room temperature and reveals that the interfacial property of metal nanocrystals strongly affects their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity.Three dimensionally porous polyallylamine functionalized PdCo alloy nanonetworks nanohybrids with high alloying degree are synthesized by polyallylamine-assisted cyanogel-reduction method. The inorganic-organic nanohybrids show the outstanding electrocatalytic activity, durability, and excellent resistance to ethanol crossover effect towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media due to their porous structure, high alloying degree, and suitable chemical functionalization.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T12:38:15.198819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701322
  • Mussel-Inspired Polymer-Based Universal Spray Coating for Surface
           Modification: Fast Fabrication of Antibacterial and Superhydrophobic
           Surface Coatings
    • Authors: Christoph Schlaich; Mingjun Li, Chong Cheng, Ievgen S. Donskyi, Leixiao Yu, Geonho Song, Ernesto Osorio, Qiang Wei, Rainer Haag
      Abstract: Although mussel-inspired surface chemistry is one of the most utilized strategies for surface functionalization, its practical and/or industrial applications are rather limited, because dip coating can only treat small surface areas and is dependent on the coating vessel. Herein a mussel-inspired, polymer-based, multifunctional, and substrate-independent spray coating strategy for surface modification under extremely mild conditions using mussel-inspired polyglycerol is described. The postfunctionalization of the obtained surface via spray coating with silver nanoparticles results in a nanoparticle embedded coating with excellent, long-term antibacterial properties. Furthermore, a simple method for preparing a superhydrophobic, highly water-repellent coating by coformulation of the mussel-inspired spray coating with hydrophobic nanoparticles is presented.A universal, multifunctional, and substrate-independent spray coating based on mussel-inspired polyglycerol is described. Moreover, the coating process allows the fast construction of antibacterial and superhydrophobic coatings.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T12:37:52.827967-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701254
  • Highly Efficient PVDF-HFP/Colloidal Alumina Composite Separator for
           High-Temperature Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Shamshad Ali; Chao Tan, Muhammad Waqas, Weiqiang Lv, Zhaohuan Wei, Songhao Wu, Bismark Boateng, Jingna Liu, Junaid Ahmed, Jie Xiong, John B. Goodenough, Weidong He
      Abstract: Toward high-temperature lithium-ion batteries, adding inorganic materials are proposed as an effective strategy. However, inorganic particles tend to aggregate in the polymer matrix, causing degradation in battery performance. Here, a PVDF-HFP/colloidal Al2O3 composite separator is prepared with a phase inverse method. The colloidal Al2O3 particles well dispersed in the PVDF-HFP polymer matrix substantially enhance the mechanical strength of the PVDF-HFP separator. The PVDF-HFP/colloidal Al2O3 composite separator owns a high electrolyte uptake of 372%, a high ionic conductivity of 1.3 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 80 °C and delivers high capacity retention of 95.6% after 100 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5 C. In addition, PVDF-HFP/colloidal Al2O3 separator only has a 4.5% thermal shrinkage at 150 °C and exhibits high electrochemical performances upon annealing at 140 °C.A highly efficient,porous and thermally stable composite separator of PVDF-HFP/colloidal alumina is prepared using a phase inverse method. The higher adsorption energy owing to the citrate acid ligand on Al2O3 surface enhances the mechanical strength of the separator and the composite separator exhibits pronounced electrochemical performances, rate capacity, and cycling stability.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T12:37:22.403926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701147
  • Masthead: (Adv. Mater. Interfaces 1/2018)
    • PubDate: 2018-01-10T07:28:15.443276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201870004
  • Flexible Gas Sensors: Room-Temperature Solid-State Grown WO3−δ Film on
           Plastic Substrate for Extremely Sensitive Flexible NO2 Gas Sensors (Adv.
           Mater. Interfaces 1/2018)
    • Authors: Venkateswarlu Annapureddy; Yonghun Kim, Geon-Tae Hwang, Ho Won Jang, Sung-Dae Kim, Jong-Jin Choi, Byungjin Cho, Jungho Ryu
      Abstract: A simple, scalable, and time- and cost efficient approach for enhancement of sensing capability of chemiresistive flexible gas sensors based on nonstoichiometric tungsten oxide (WO3−δ) created using the granule spray in vacuum technique at room temperature is demonstrated. A linear sensor response was achieved for gas concentrations of sub-ppm to tens of ppm with the detection limit 1.88 (±0.128) for NO2 gas. The gas detection response/recovery (17/25 s) time is relatively fast. More details can be found in article number 1700811 by Byungjin Cho, Jungho Ryu and co-workers.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T07:28:15.39546-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201870001
  • Particulate Matter Adsorbants: Renewable Lanthanide Ionic Liquid/Polymer
           Composites for High-Efficient Adsorption of Particulate Matter (Adv.
           Mater. Interfaces 1/2018)
    • Authors: Kang-Xiang Song; Ling He, Lei Zhang, Guo-Hong Tao
      Abstract: Hybrid polymer materials based on lanthanide ionic liquids were prepared and applied as high-efficiency and environmental friendly adsorbing materials for particulate matter (PM) adsorption by Guo-Hong Tao and co-workers in article number 1700448. Ln-10PVP materials can effectively absorb PM2.5 and PM10 in the air with>99% absorption efficiency. They can work at above 90% removal efficiency for 15 hours, and can be regenerated without obvious reduction on PM adsorption capacity.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T07:28:15.34901-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201870002
  • The Next Level of Advanced Interface Research
    • Authors: Peter Gregory; Anna Troeger, Jolke Perelaer
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T07:28:14.084914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701526
  • Photovoltaics: Recent Advances in Spiro-MeOTAD Hole Transport Material and
           Its Applications in Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
           (Adv. Mater. Interfaces 1/2018)
    • Authors: Zafer Hawash; Luis K. Ono, Yabing Qi
      Abstract: Spiro-MeOTAD is the most commonly used hole transport material for perovskite solar cells. Prof. Yabing Qi and co-workers from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in article 1700623 review the various aspects of spiro-MeOTAD including its properties, additives, stability, alternatives, its applications in perovskite solar cells as well as other applications.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T07:28:12.1686-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201870003
  • Ionic Liquid-Assisted Preparation of Sb2S3/Reduced Graphene Oxide
           Nanocomposite for Sodium-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Zhen-Zhen Pan; Yang Yan, Nan Cui, Jin-Cang Xie, Ya-Bo Zhang, Wen-Sheng Mu, Ce Hao
      Abstract: Sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising alternative to lithium ion batteries. However, their application is restricted by the low capacity and poor rate performance of existing anodes. Here, a stibnite/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite is reported, fabricated by an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method, for sodium-ion batteries. The obtained nanocomposite gives a high capacity of 687.7 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1 and an impressive rate performance. The promising electrochemical properties can be attributed to the uniformly distribution of Sb2S3 on reduced graphene oxide layers and the close contact between the two composites, which can be ensured by the addition of ionic liquid during the synthesizing process. This facile method shall pave the way for the production of other graphene-based nanocomposite for sodium ion batteries and other energy storage systems.Ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of uniformly distributed Sb2S3 on reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for sodium-ion batteries.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T02:51:36.559243-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701481
  • Ordering pH-Responsive Polyelectrolyte-Grafted Nanoparticles in a Flow
           Coating Process
    • Authors: Chongfeng Zhang; Thomas Carlson, Siyang Yang, Pinar Akcora
      Abstract: The effects of nanoscale particle interactions on deposition patterns in the flow coating process are investigated using pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-grafted silica nanoparticles. Interactions between nanoparticles are effectively controlled by grafting densities, PAA brush lengths, and pH, in addition to hydrogen bonding between free polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and PAA. Consequently, various intriguing patterns of randomly distributed dots, polygonal networks, meshes, fork-like structures along with highly regulated and densely packed stripes parallel to the moving direction of substrates are fabricated. Per se, the flow coating process is shown to form regulated patterns during evaporation by controlling particle–particle interactions with inherent brush properties and external pH.Various intriguing patterns of nanoparticles are fabricated in a flow coating process by utilizing hydrogen bonding between poly(acrylic acid)-grafted silica nanoparticles and free polyvinylpyrrolidone and altering brush conformations with pH.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T02:50:59.076869-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701318
  • Spatially Resolved Insight into the Chemical and Electronic Structure of
           Solution-Processed Perovskites—Why to (Not) Worry about Pinholes
    • Authors: Claudia Hartmann; Golnaz Sadoughi, Roberto Félix, Evelyn Handick, Hagen W. Klemm, Gina Peschel, Ewa Madej, Alexander B. Fuhrich, Xiaxia Liao, Simone Raoux, Daniel Abou-Ras, Dan Wargulski, Thomas Schmidt, Regan G. Wilks, Henry Snaith, Marcus Bär
      Abstract: The unprecedented speed at which the performance of solar cells based on solution-processed perovskite thin films has increased, in some ways, appears to violate conventional understanding of device optimization. The relatively poor coverage of the TiO2 electron transport layer by the absorber should cause shunting of the cell. This, however, is not the case. In this paper, it is attempted to explain this “discrepancy.” Insights into coverage, morphology, local elemental composition, and spatially resolved electronic structure of CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx perovskite absorbers wet-chemically deposited on planar compact TiO2 electron transport material (ETM) are revealed. Microscopy images indicate an incomplete coverage of the ETM. Depending on the degree of coverage, a variation in iodine oxidation and metallic lead formation is found. With the electronic structure of the absorber and the ETM established experimentally and taking literature on the commonly used hole transport material spiro-MeOTAD into account, it is revealed that excellent charge selectivity occurs at the interfaces between the absorber and both the hole and electron transport layers. It can also be surmised that, crucially, any direct interface between the TiO2 and spiro-MeOTAD would be characterized by a large recombination barrier preventing shunts; to some extent minimizing the negative effects of absorber pinholes.Spatially resolved chemical and electronic structure investigations of CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx/TiO2 samples show an incomplete coverage and inhomogeneous properties. Varying likelihood of iodine oxidation and metallic lead formation, an excellent charge selectivity at the contact interfaces, and a large recombination barrier between electron and hole transport layer are found, minimizing negative pinhole effects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T05:36:56.593116-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701420
  • Graphene-Based Heterostructured Arrays with Tunable Bandgap: A General and
           Forsaken Strategy
    • Authors: Fei Huang; Zhen Li, Aihua Yan, Hui Zhao, Hao Feng, Miao Hu, Qi Li
      Abstract: The pristine graphene is being subjected to zero bandgap and low charge carrier density in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic fields. Designing a versatile platform, constructing perfect interface, and understanding the interface physics in graphene-based hybrids or heterostructures have therefore been one of the most effective paths for applications in foreseeable future. Unfortunately, inhomogeneous chemical composition and weak interface exert unfavorable effects on such systems because graphene tends to irreversibly restack and subside in solutions. Here, a general method for the preparation of Nb3O7F array/graphene (NOFA/G) heterostructures is demonstrated utilizing defect-chemical technique, homogeneous nucleation, and preferential growth. As a distinguishing method, the solution process is an important scalable approach through oxyfluorinated functionalization on the basal plane of graphene. In particular, constructing NOF arrays on graphene platform markedly enhances light-harvesting capacity. Moreover, the adsorption edge and bandgap can be effectively tuned according to the degree of oxyfluorinated functionalization. This general strategy extends the preparation of oxyfluoride array/carbon heterostructures and may open a door to other carbon-based heterostructure, such as oxychloride array/carbon heterostructures, oxysulfide array/carbon heterostructures, etc.Here, a general method for the preparation of Nb3O7F array/graphene heterostructures is demonstrated for the first time. The solution process is an important scalable approach through oxyfluorinated functionalization on the basal plane of graphene. In particular, constructing Nb3O7F arrays on graphene platform markedly enhances light-harvesting capacity and obviously narrows the bandgap according to the degree of oxyfluorinated functionalization.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T05:36:37.368374-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701304
  • Characterization and Manipulation of Interfacial Activity for Aqueous
           Galinstan Dispersions
    • Authors: Amanda Koh; Randy Mrozek, Geoffrey Slipher
      Abstract: Room temperature liquid eutectic metals have the potential to maintain electrical and thermal conductivity during deformation, a combination of properties difficult to obtain. Two such metals, eutectic gallium–indium (EGaIn) and galinstan (eutectic gallium–indium–tin), exhibit similar flow behavior attributed to a thin oxide shell. Understanding the oxide shell is critical for understanding the interactions that influence mixing and stability of the liquid metals in other media. In this paper, the effect of aqueous HCl on the interfacial tension (IFT), interfacial rheology, and dispersibility of galinstan are systematically evaluated. It is determined that the IFT of galinstan/water and galinstan/1 m HCl are similar (≈530 mN m−1), but at 0.001 to 0.5 m HCl IFT decreases to 160 mN m−1. Similar discontinuous behavior is observed in the interfacial rheology. The low IFT coupled with a mechanically strong interface at intermediate acid concentrations suggests a change in interface composition. This is supported by SnO2 particles, present during the dispersion process, producing more stable galinstan dispersions than Ga2O3 or In2O3. Interestingly, SnO2 also improves the dispersion of EGaIn despite its lack of tin. This new interfacial manipulation method enables galinstan dispersions in a range of aqueous and nonaqueous phases to enhance the electrical and thermal properties.The manipulation of acid concentration in an aqueous environment allows for a dramatic decrease in the interfacial tension of galinstan, indicating a change in the chemical composition of the oxide shell. Increased dispersibility of galinstan in water with the addition of tin oxide suggests that an increased tin concentration in the oxide shell is the cause.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T05:35:54.374217-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701240
  • Vapor-Phase Polymerization and Carbonization to Nitrogen-Doped Carbon
           Nanoscale Networks with Designable Pore Geometries Templated from Block
    • Authors: Ang Zhang; Ting Qu, Shubo Cao, Yayuan Li, Yongbin Zhao, Aihua Chen
      Abstract: 3D interconnected nitrogen-doped carbon nanoscale networks (N-CNNs) with designable pore geometries are prepared by vapor-phase polymerization approach and subsequent carbonization using self-assembled block copolymer (BCP) polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with bicontinuous structures as templates. PS-b-P4VP monolithic membranes composed of interconnected micellar fibers or spheres with PS@P4VP core–shell structure are obtained by swelling lamellar supramolecular membranes of PS-b-P4VP and 3-n-pentadecylphenol (PDP) via hydrogen bonding. Importantly, the morphologies of self-assembled BCP can be tuned by just adjusting swelling time for the same PS-b-P4VP(PDP). The vapor-phase polymerization strategy is adopted for the first time to complex iodine to P4VP shell layers and subsequently initiates the polymerization of pyrrole to form polypyrrole on the outside of PS@P4VP core–shell structures. After carbonization, the BCP templates are removed and N-CNNs with different pore geometries are obtained. The interconnected network structures and the introduction of nitrogen in carbon nanoscale networks make them particularly promising in many applications such as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The N-CNN templated from micellar fibers (N-CNN-F), as a metal-free ORR catalyst, displays comparable performance with Pt/C in alkaline media. The study provides not only a new synthesis method, but also important insight into designing 3D networks with open-celled pores for ORR and other applications.Vapor-phase polymerization strategy is conducted for the first time to fabricate 3D nitrogen-doped carbon nanoscale networks (N-CNNs) with controlled pore geometries engineered from polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) composed of interconnected micellar fibers or spheres. In addition, N-CNNs are used as metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and the pore geometry effect of the resulting samples on the electrocatalytic activities is investigated.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T05:30:49.891673-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701390
  • Atomic Structure of Domain and Interphase Boundaries in Ferroelectric HfO2
    • Authors: Everett D. Grimley; Tony Schenk, Thomas Mikolajick, Uwe Schroeder, James M. LeBeau
      Abstract: Though ferroelectric HfO2 thin films are now well characterized, little is currently known about their grain substructure. In particular, the formation of domain and phase boundaries requires investigation to better understand phase stabilization, switching, and phase interconversion. Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy is applied to investigate the atomic structure of boundaries in these materials. It is found that orthorhombic/orthorhombic domain walls and coherent orthorhombic/monoclinic interphase boundaries form throughout individual grains. The results inform how interphase boundaries can impose strain conditions that may be key to phase stabilization. Moreover, the atomic structure near interphase boundary walls suggests potential for their mobility under bias, which has been speculated to occur in perovskite morphotropic phase boundary systems by mechanisms similar to domain boundary motion.Grain substructure of polycrystalline, ferroelectric HfO2 thin films is investigated with electron microscopy. Orthorhombic and monoclinic phases are found to coexist within single grains, and commonly forming coherent interphase boundaries. These complex structures have implications for phase stability and electric field cycling behavior, which are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T07:42:01.153467-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701258
  • Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen and Halogen Dual-Doped Porous Graphene as an
           Advanced Performance Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Huanlong Liu; Yufeng Tang, Wei Zhao, Wei Ding, Jijian Xu, Chenliang Liang, Zhichao Zhang, Tianquan Lin, Fuqiang Huang
      Abstract: Nonmetal-dual doped graphene has attracted considerable attention as high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the synergistic effects of heteroatom dopants. Herein, nitrogen and halogen (including Cl, Br, and I) dual-doped graphene is successfully synthesized by a general wet chemical method and lithium storage performance of N, Cl codoped graphene as anode material for LIBs is investigated in detail. The dual-doped heteroatoms introduce abundant defects and expand the interlayer spacing of graphene to benefit lithium insertion and extraction. When used as a typical anode material, the N and Cl dual-doped porous graphene reveals a high specific capacity of 1200 mA h g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and 1010 mA h g−1 at 1.0 A g−1. The as-prepared sample exhibits superior cycling performance, whose specific capacity remains 95% at 5.0 A g−1 after 1800 cycles. The excellent performance mainly stems from the synergistic effect of structure modification and heteroatom doping, and the capacitive effects are dictated by kinetical analysis. The synthesized nitrogen and halogen dual-doped porous graphene is a promising anode material for LIBs.According to the Wurtz-type reaction, nitrogen and halogen dual-doped porous graphene is synthesized by solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples are applied as anode for lithium-ion batteries. Among them, nitrogen and chlorine dual-doped graphene reveals outstanding performance due to the synergistic effect between doping and porous structure and capacitive effects by kinetical analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T07:37:17.650909-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701261
  • Bioinspired Interfacial Materials: From Binary Cooperative Complementary
           Interfaces to Superwettability Systems
    • Authors: Ruochen Fang; Mingjie Liu, Hongliang Liu, Lei Jiang
      Abstract: In this review, the binary cooperative complementary principle, which applies to two complementary states, has been proposed as a powerful law for construction of novel functional interfacial materials. The idea is to tune the distance between these two complementary components to match the characteristic length of certain physical interactions so that the cooperation between these complementary building blocks becomes dominant and thus endows the interfacial materials with unique properties. Since 2000, the binary cooperative complementarity for design of bioinspired superwettability systems has been applied by regulating the structural roughness to ≈100 nm to match the characteristic length of the hydrophobic interaction. It has been proved that the binary cooperative complementary law gains great success in constructing bioinspired superwettability systems. It is believed that much more novel interfacial materials with unique multifunctions will be generated following the binary cooperative complementary principle.The binary cooperative complementary principle has been a basic law to design novel functional materials when the distance between the two states matches the corresponding parameter. This principle has been used for construction of superwettability systems with unique properties by regulating the structural roughness to about 100 nm to match the characteristic length of the hydrophobic interaction.
      PubDate: 2018-01-02T03:17:40.849081-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701176
  • Surface-Coating-Mediated Electrochemical Performance in CuO Nanowires
           during the Sodiation–Desodiation Cycling
    • Authors: Huihui Liu; He Zheng, Lei Li, Shuangfeng Jia, Shuang Meng, Fan Cao, Yinghao Lv, Dongshan Zhao, Jianbo Wang
      Abstract: The rate performance and cycling numbers of CuO-based sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) suffer from large volume change and the poor conductivity during the ion transportation process. Herein, it is found that the surface coating with C and Au could effectively constrain the nanowire (NW) elongation rate along the 〈110〉 growth direction as well as increase the electrochemical reaction speed, which result in the improved cycling performance. Additionally, the in situ transmission electron microscopy observation of sodiation–desodiation cycling in coated CuO NWs indicates the detailed electrochemical reaction pathways, whereas the CuO shows the irreversible reaction scheme: transform to Cu during the sodiation while CuO and Cu2O coexist after desodiation. The irreversibility contributes to the capacity loss in CuO-based SIBs. In contrast, the fully reversible Na+ insertion and extraction in Au suggest that Au could be an effective material for Na+ storage. Based on the real-time experimental observations, these results reveal the vital role of surface coating in affecting the electrochemical performance of CuO, which may also provide insight into the behavior of other transition oxide electrode materials.The surface-coating materials can constrain the nanowire elongation rate along the 〈110〉 growth direction as well as increase the electrochemical reaction speed, contributing to the improved cycling performance of CuO nanowires. Tracking the real-time morphology and phase transitions of CuO-based electrode reveals its fundamental electrochemical reaction mechanisms during the sodiation–desodiation process.
      PubDate: 2018-01-02T03:13:34.219835-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701255
  • Mechanical Properties of 2D Materials Studied by In Situ Microscopy
    • Authors: Xing Li; Mei Sun, Chongxin Shan, Qing Chen, Xianlong Wei
      Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been demonstrated as promising building blocks in future electronic and their mechanical properties are quite important for various applications. Due to their atomic thickness and planar nature, the investigation of the mechanical properties and related atomic mechanism are quite challenging. This review focuses on the recently developed in situ techniques based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in characterization of the mechanical properties of 2D materials. In situ methods used for studying their elastic properties, fracture behavior, and surface/interface energy are introduced in detail. Specifically, the AFM indentation test and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device are generally used to investigate the elastic properties; the manipulator based methods show their flexibility in studying the fracture, adhesion, cleavage, and friction properties; atomic level fracture mechanism can be revealed with in situ high resolution TEM (HRTEM); the pressurized blister test and the buckle/wrinkle based methods are widely used to measure the surface/interface properties. Moreover, the influence of sample preparation process, defects and layer numbers to their mechanical properties are also discussed. Finally, the extensions of above methods to investigate the strain-modulated physical properties of 2D materials are introduced.Recently developed in situ techniques based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy for the measurement of the mechanical properties of atomic thick 2D materials are introduced. Their elasticity, fracture, adhesion, cleavage, friction behaviors, and atomic level mechanisms investigated with in situ techniques are summarized in this review.
      PubDate: 2018-01-02T03:12:54.560228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701246
  • Sulfur Immobilization by “Chemical Anchor” to Suppress the Diffusion
           of Polysulfides in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
    • Authors: Zhipeng Zeng; Xingbo Liu
      Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is considered to be one of the most promising contenders for the next generation high-energy storages due to their high theoretical energy density (≈2600 Wh kg−1), which is nearly five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. However, a series of issues especially for the dissolution of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) and their “shuttle effect” greatly limit their widely commercial applications. Starting from a brief overview of conventional methods to solve these problems, the achievements spotlighted in this review mainly show that the diffusion of LiPSs can be effectively suppressed by forming strong “chemical anchor” between LiPSs and host materials. The synthetic methods and characterization techniques are reviewed according to different types of chemical bonding between LiPSs and the host materials. Theoretical calculation methods are also summarized here to further understanding the role of these “chemical anchors.” Proposing with some perspectives and future research efforts, this review is hoped to provide an in-depth understanding and offer avenues in the rational design of Li–S batteries with long cycle life and high energy/power density in the near future.To comprehensively improve the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries, extensive efforts are devoted to developing smart electrodes materials, novel electrolytes, and separators. This review significantly focuses on the “chemical anchors” employed in these three components to suppress the diffusion of polysulfides with the hope of providing an in-depth understanding and offering avenues in the rational design for the batteries.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T02:05:51.112386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701274
  • An Integrative Mesh with Dual Wettable On–Off Switch
           of Water/Oil
    • Authors: Shile Feng; Yan Xing, Siyan Deng, Weifeng Shang, Dan Li, Miaoxin Zhang, Yongping Hou, Yongmei Zheng
      Abstract: Smart dual selective water/oil separation mode appears on an integrative mesh, which is fabricated via combined anodic oxidation and cathodic electrode-deposition methods. Due to the different transport directions of oil and water, oil–water mixture can be separated completely using tailor-made device. Extrusion pressure, acting as a critical pressure that depends on liquid surface tension, substrate microstructures, and wetting properties, can be a major factor to determine the passing or blocking mode. These remarkable water/oil separation properties of the integrative mesh can bring about novel applications in fluid rectifying, microchemical reaction manipulation, advanced separation, biomedical materials, purifying industrial wastewater, etc.Janus integrative mesh successfully achieves dual selective water or oil delivery for a high efficiency via putting oil–water mixture on both sides of janus integrative mesh simultaneously and orderly uplifting the right or left of tailor-made device.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:56:27.015688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701193
  • Nanocasting of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Films with Ordered
    • Authors: Katrin Kraffert; Anke Kabelitz, Konrad Siemensmeyer, Roman Schmack, Denis Bernsmeier, Franziska Emmerling, Ralph Kraehnert
      Abstract: Maghemite and magnetite show superparamagnetic behavior when synthesized in a nanostructured form. The material's inducible magnetization enables applications ranging from contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging to drug delivery systems, magnetic hyperthermia, and separation. Superparamagnetic iron oxides with templated porosity have been synthesized so far only in the form of hard-templated powders, where silicon retained from the template severely degrades the material's magnetic properties. Here, for the first time, the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxides with soft-templated mesopore structure is reported. The synthesis of nanostructured maghemite and magnetite films succeeds using micelles of amphiphilic block-copolymers as templates. A thermal treatment of the initially formed mesoporous ferrihydrite in nitrogen produces maghemite, which can be partly reduced to magnetite via thermal treatment in hydrogen while retaining the templated mesopore structure. The resulting materials feature a unique combination of high surface area, controlled pore diameter, and tunable magnetic properties.The synthesis of mesoporous superparamagnetic maghemite and magnetite films succeeded using amphiphilic block-copolymer micelles as soft-templates. Thermal treatment of the initially formed mesoporous ferrihydrite in nitrogen produces maghemite, which is partly reduced to magnetite via reduction in hydrogen while retaining the mesoporous structure. The resulting materials feature a unique combination of high surface area, controlled pore diameter, and tunable magnetic properties.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:56:04.292191-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700960
  • In Situ Electrical Properties’ Investigation and Nanofabrication of
           Ag/Sb2Te3 Assembled Multilayers’ Film
    • Authors: Zhenhua Wu; Xiang Chen, Yan Zhang, Chaochao Dun, David L. Carroll, Zhiyu Hu
      Abstract: Nanopatterned fabrication and electrical properties of Ag/Sb2Te3 layer-by-layer assembled films are systematically investigated by a conductive atomic force microscope. Multilayers’ film composed by alternating Ag and Sb2Te3 with respective thicknesses of 5 and 10 nm shows a bipolar resistive switching behavior contributed by the silver conductive filaments. Designed cross-plane nanofilament arrays with reconfigurable patterns are fabricated, which show a potential application in memristor and nanofabrication. Multilayers with the same thickness of Ag but increased thickness of Sb2Te3 (up to 20 nm) present a Fowler–Nordheim tunneling-dominated current and show in-plane snowflake silver dendrite on the surface. Further studies on the silver dendrite may bring potential applications in extensive fields such as multifunctional data storage and neuromorphic. By controlling the type (Sb2Te3, Bi2Te3, etc.) and thickness of solid electrolyte materials, electronic devices with specific functions and applications can be designed.Sb2Te3 has attracted great attention for its particular properties of thermoelectric conversion and topological insulator. Investigation of nanopatterned fabrication and electrical properties of Ag/Sb2Te3 layer-by-layer assembled films with different thicknesses of Sb2Te3 layer shows different behaviors. The multilayers’ films present a potential application in memristor, nanofabrication, and further in extensive fields.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22T06:35:14.738179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701210
  • Recent Progress in Porous Graphene and Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based
           Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
    • Authors: Wytse Hooch Antink; Yejung Choi, Kwang-dong Seong, Jong Min Kim, Yuanzhe Piao
      Abstract: Graphene-based nanocomposites are characterized by high mechanical strength, excellent electrical conductivity, and outstanding thermal and chemical stability. Additionally, the combination of versatile functionalization chemistry and simplicity of large-scale synthesis makes graphene ideal for electrode materials for energy storage devices. To improve the electrochemical performance even further, recent research has focused on the preparation of porous graphene structures, either by creating holes in the graphene sheets or by assembling them into a 3D porous framework. Porous graphene and reduced graphene oxide allow for rapid ion diffusion and display high real surface area. In this review paper, the conventional methods for the preparation of porous graphene are summarized and recent progress in porous graphene-based nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage devices is discussed.The different ways porous graphene can be synthesized and its application in energy storage devices are summarized in this review. Porous graphene-based electrodes display enhanced performance over normal graphene, since the pores allow for rapid ion diffusion. Particular focus is given to porous graphene-based batteries and supercapacitors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T10:53:01.890629-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701212
  • The Significant Role of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Interfaces in
           Graphene-Based 1D Heterostructures for Highly Enhanced Electron Emission
    • Authors: Bohr-Ran Huang; Deepa Kathiravan, Chao-wei Tu, Adhimoorthy Saravanan
      Abstract: The role of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrate with graphene is crucial to define the interfacial properties of graphene (G)-based heterostructures in the field of electronic device applications. Herein, the novel strategy of graphene wrapped hydrophilic/hydrophobic silicon nanowires (SiNWs) heterostructure is reported for highly enhanced electron field emission (EFE) studies with low turn-on field. The combined effect of sharp edged graphene layers induced by different kinds of SiNWs is envisioned to enhance field enhancement factors and turn-on voltage. The systematic results show the best EFE properties of hydrophilic SiNWs-G based field emitters, with a lower turn-on voltage of 0.53 V µm−1, a current density of 2.7 mA cm−2, and a higher field enhancement factor (β) of 14825. In addition, both the SiNWs-G-based field emitters are tested as the practical flat panel displays, where the hydrophilic-based display exhibits at low voltage as 210 V. The superior EFE performance of hydrophilic SiNWs-G based field emitters are ascribed to their large distortion field. Since more electrons can be trapped for easy tunneling, this increases the emission sites, and thereby contributes to a high enhancement field. This striking result from hydrophilic SiNWs-G field emitters can be tailored for high-performance EFE device applications.A novel strategy of hydrophilic and hydrophobic silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-graphene heterostructures is devised to achieve electron field emission with low turn-on voltage and high field enhancement factor. The morphological analyses reveal that the surface coverage on hydrophilic SiNWs has more curled edges. Moreover, the test of present device as flat panel displays exhibits low voltage, attributed to FN tunneling.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T06:21:50.120341-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701148
  • Enhanced NOx Gas Sensing Properties of Ordered Mesoporous WO3/ZnO Prepared
           by Electroless Plating
    • Authors: Ji Han; Tian-yang Wang, Tian-tian Li, Hui Yu, Ying Yang, Xiang-ting Dong
      Abstract: A kind of novel n–n combined ordered mesoporous WO3/ZnO (OM-WO3/ZnO) sensor are successfully fabricated in this study. A soft-template method is used to synthesize the ordered mesoporous ZnO matrix. Surfaces of the ZnO matrix are innovatively modified using silane coupling agent (mark as: OM-ZnO-Si), and then a layer of WO3 film is assembled on the surfaces of the OM-ZnO-Si by chemical plating method for the first time, and the OM-WO3/ZnO material is obtained. The prepared OM-WO3/ZnO sample shows a kind of regular hexagon-sheet structure. The prepared OM-WO3/ZnO sensor shows the much better response, much shorter response time, much lower detection limit, and the more excellent selectivity toward NOx gas. When oxynitride (NOx) gas concentration is 100 ppm, the response reaches to 82.64%, the response time is only 6 s at room temperature. The detection limit is only 0.01 ppm. The unique loose porous structure and the synergistic effect of the n–n heterojunction structure endow the prepared OM-WO3/ZnO material with the superior gas sensing properties. The n–n combined OM-WO3/ZnO material shows the vast development potential in gas sensor field.A soft-template method is used to synthesize the ordered mesoporous ZnO matrix, whose surfaces are innovatively modified, and then a layer of WO3 film is assembled on the surfaces of the modified matrix by chemical plating method for the first time, and a kind of novel ordered mesoporous WO3/ZnO (OM-WO3/ZnO) n–n combined semiconductor gas sensoring material is fabricated.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T06:19:58.800156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701167
  • Wetting State Transitions over Hierarchical Conical Microstructures
    • Authors: Il Woong Park; Maria Fernandino, Carlos A. Dorao
      Abstract: Advancing in a better understanding of the physics of wetting requires to be able to develop surfaces with well-controlled roughness by controlling the microstructure morphology. In this study, patterned truncated cones and hierarchical conical structures are fabricated. The wetting properties of the fabricated surfaces are measured for identifying the importance of the geometrical parameters on the wetting states ranging from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic. In particular, the wetting transition from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel state and its dependence on the geometrical parameters is investigated. It is observed that the transition is dependent on the center-to-center distance and the height of the structures.The wetting transition from Cassie–Baxter state to Wenzel state is observed in the microconical structures. Two well-fabricated samples which are patterned truncated cones and hierarchical conical structures show different characteristics on wetting. The sharp Cassie–Wenzel transition is possible to observe in varying center-to-center distance and height, in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T06:16:55.457482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701039
  • Roles of Polymer Layer in Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite
           Solar Cells via Interface Engineering
    • Authors: Fengjiu Yang; Hong En Lim, Feijiu Wang, Masashi Ozaki, Ai Shimazaki, Jiewei Liu, Nur Baizura Mohamed, Keisuke Shinokita, Yuhei Miyauchi, Atsushi Wakamiya, Yasujiro Murata, Kazunari Matsuda
      Abstract: Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted intensive attention as the most promising next-generation photovoltaic technology because they both enable accelerated development of photovoltaic performance and are compatible with low-cost fabrication methods. The strategy of interface engineering of the perovskite layer in PSCs is expected to result in further enhancement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs via minimizing the charge recombination loss. Here, a high current–voltage (stabilized power output) PCE of 20.4% (19.9%) in CH3NH3PbI3 PSCs under reverse scanning conditions is demonstrated by incorporating a solution-processed polymer layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) between the perovskite photoactive layer and the hole transport layer. Moreover, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy are used to reveal the mechanism of the enhancement of the photovoltaic performance and its stability by the PMMA layer in a CH3NH3PbI3 PSC device. The morphology modification, surface passivation, and protection of the perovskite layer by the insulating PMMA layer substantially contribute to the enhancement of photovoltaic performance and its stability, despite a slight reduction of the charge extraction efficiency. The demonstrated high PCEs and insights obtained into the working mechanism of the PMMA layer pave the way for the industrial application of CH3NH3PbI3 PSCs.Enhanced surface quality of perovskite photoactive layer is demonstrated by incorporation of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) engineered passivating layer, which results in highly enhanced power conversion efficiency from 16.8 to 20.4% of standard and PMMA-incorporated perovskite solar cells, respectively, and reveals the working mechanism of PMMA layer in the perovskite solar cell device.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T05:36:34.221231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701256
  • Effects of Grain Boundary Density on the Gas Sensing Properties of
           Triethylsilylethynyl-Anthradithiophene Field-Effect Transistors
    • Authors: Yena Seo; Jung Hun Lee, John E. Anthony, Ky V. Nguyen, Yeon Hoo Kim, Ho Won Jang, Sunglim Ko, Younghoon Cho, Wi Hyoung Lee
      Abstract: In this study, triethylsilylethynyl-anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) films with different density of grain boundaries are used for systematic investigation of effects of grain boundary density on gas sensing properties of TES-ADT field-effect transistors (FETs). Grain boundary density is simply controlled by changing mixing time of TES-ADT solution. Higher mixing time leads to higher grain boundary density, and field-effect mobility decreases with increased grain boundary density. However, gas sensing properties exhibit the opposite behavior. Drain current and field-effect mobility of FETs based on TES-ADT film with higher grain boundary density increase much more upon exposure of NO2 with electron withdrawing character. In addition, dynamic gas sensing tests reveal that response rate and sensitivity of a TES-ADT sensor are enhanced remarkably by an increase of grain boundary density in TES-ADT films. Grain boundaries provide a pathway for diffusion of gas molecules into channel regions and thus increase of grain boundary density is beneficial for development of highly sensitive OFET gas sensors.Triethylsilylethynyl-anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) films with different density of grain boundaries are used for systematic investigation of effects of grain boundary density on gas sensing properties. Sensitivity of a TES-ADT sensor is enhanced remarkably by an increase of grain boundary density. Grain boundaries provide a pathway for diffusion of gas molecules into channel regions, thereby enhancing performances of TES-ADT gas sensors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T05:22:06.639071-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701399
  • Filtration-Assisted Fabrication of Large-Area Uniform and Long-Term Stable
           Graphene Isolated Nano-Ag Array Membrane as Surface Enhanced Raman
           Scattering Substrate
    • Authors: Lei Ouyang; Yesheng Wang, Lihua Zhu, Joseph Irudayaraj, Heqing Tang
      Abstract: In this research, a facile strategy to obtain graphene isolated uniform Ag array membrane that are stable for long-term use as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates is demonstrated. The fabrication process consisted of three main steps: interfacial assembly of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) into an array, transferring the Ag array to a membrane, and tightly wrapping the Ag array with graphene. The fabricated Ag array and graphene layer structure is tightly packed with effective electromagnetic coupling and electron transferring as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectra and Raman analysis. Owing to the uniform and effective electromagnetic coupling between Ag NPs and chemical enhancement from tightly wrapped graphene, this hierarchical membrane exhibited excellent SERS enhancing ability (an enhancement factor of 7.3 × 108) and large area uniformity (with relative standard deviation less than 5.91% for 50 times of detection over an area up to 9 cm2). Due to the protection effect by graphene as both an isolation layer and an electron shuttle, this substrate showed out-standing long-term stability (stable more than 25 weeks). Specific functions of graphene in fluorescence quenching and photo-bleaching inhibition further contributed to intrinsic Raman information access. The obtained flexible membrane based multi-layer architecture is also easy of use for real application.A straight forward strategy is proposed for the fabrication of graphene wrapped Ag array based SERS substrate with good sensitivity, homogeneity and long-term stability. The flexible membrane contains densely assembled Ag array to produce uniformly distributed hot spots, and tightly wrapped graphene cover could also act as a electron shuttle to protect Ag from reaction and direct interaction with targets.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T05:21:18.075613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701221
  • Formation of Polysaccharide Membranes by Splitting of Evaporative
           Air–LC Interface
    • Authors: Kosuke Okeyoshi; Gargi Joshi, Maiko K. Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko
      Abstract: Self-assembly methods for colloidal crystals are widely developed by using the evaporative interface and capillary forces. Recently, a distinct phenomenon is discovered of macrospace partitioning by a polysaccharide membrane formed in a limited space by drying its aqueous liquid crystalline solution. Differing from typical fingering patterns, here, the viscous solution is in a nonequilibrium process between the polymer deposition and hydration during drying. By drying in limited space with a narrow gap, the nonequilibrium state causes accumulation of small depositions at several specific points and the deposited polymer bridging the substrates. Here, the split meniscus should make the area of the evaporative interface larger. To describe the correlation between the interfacial curve and the partitioning, the geometric effects of the evaporation front are discussed experimentally and numerically. By controlling the evaporation front three dimensionally, the necessary conditions for the vertical membrane formation are verified multilaterally. In future, this approach will help deposition control of not only the polysaccharides but also other biopolymers exhibiting microrod assembly.To clarify the correlation between the interfacial curve and splitting of evaporative air–liquid crystallinity interface of a polysaccharide solution, the geometric effects of the evaporation front are discussed experimentally and numerically. By controlling the front three dimensionally, the necessary conditions for the splitting are verified multilaterally. This approach will help deposition control of not only polysaccharides but also other biopolymers.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T12:41:08.029095-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701219
  • Injection Current Barrier Formation for RbF Postdeposition-Treated
           Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells
    • Authors: Thomas Paul Weiss; Shiro Nishiwaki, Benjamin Bissig, Romain Carron, Enrico Avancini, Johannes Löckinger, Stephan Buecheler, Ayodhya N. Tiwari
      Abstract: Among the thin-film solar cell technologies, Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells demonstrate the highest efficiencies, where the recent boost in efficiency is triggered by a KF postdeposition treatment (PDT). In this contribution, Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells are fabricated using RbF PDTs after absorber layer growth with varying substrate and RbF source temperature. The electronic charge transport properties of the solar cell devices are investigated using temperature-dependent current–voltage analysis and admittance spectroscopy. To investigate the observed transport barriers, a novel concept based on the differential series resistance is proposed. This approach is supported by simulations of current–voltage curves, which reproduce qualitatively experimental data. Experimentally, two parallel conduction paths are found, which act as barriers with different activation energies and impede the charge carrier transport. Both the thickness and height of these barriers increase with an increasing amount of incorporated Rb and can lead to losses in the fill factor and power conversion efficiency at room temperature. Etching in HCl prior to CdS buffer layer deposition reduces the barrier width and can recover these losses.Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells are treated in situ with RbF, leading to an increased open-circuit voltage. However, with an increased amount of Rb, a transport barrier for the injection current is observed by temperature-dependent I–V measurements and admittance spectroscopy. HCl etching of the absorber hints to a barrier at the front contact.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T02:31:28.038762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701007
  • Tiling of Solar Cell Surfaces: Influence on Photon Management and
    • Authors: Asman Tamang; Hitoshi Sai, Vladislav Jovanov, Koji Matsubara, Dietmar Knipp
      Abstract: Microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells prepared on hexagonal tiled surfaces exhibit record short-circuit current densities and energy conversion efficiencies. However, it remains unclear if hexagonal textured substrates represent the best possible substrate tiling. In this study, hexagonal tiled substrates are compared with square and triangular tiled substrates in terms of photon management and microstructure. The 3D interface morphology of the individual layers of the solar cells is calculated and used as input parameters for the prediction of microcracks in the film and the simulation of 3D optical wave propagation. A comparison of the calculated interface morphologies with experimental results exhibits a good agreement for solar cells on hexagonal textured substrates, permitting calculations for solar cells on square and triangular textured substrates. The investigation of the crack formation process indicates that the square and the triangular textured substrates are superior to the hexagonal textured substrates. Finally, crack-free triangular textured solar cells exhibit increased short-circuit current densities compared to hexagonal and square textured solar cells.Solar cells prepared on different tiled surfaces are compared in terms of photon management and microstructure. The better tiled surfaces are proposed for the enhancement of the photon management in the solar cells.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:32:26.270719-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700814
  • Enhanced Negative Photoconductivity in InAs Nanowire Phototransistors
           Surface-Modified with Molecular Monolayers
    • Authors: Lifan Shen; SenPo Yip, Changyong Lan, Lei Shu, Dapan Li, Ziyao Zhou, Chun-Yuen Wong, Edwin Y. B. Pun, Johnny C. Ho
      Abstract: Negative photoconductivity (NPC) mechanisms are widely investigated for high-performance InAs nanowire (NW) phototransistors, where these mechanisms are usually attributed to severe carrier scattering centers, light-assisted hot electron trapping in the surface oxide, and/or defects induced photogating layer. However, further insights into their photodetecting mechanisms, as well as corresponding performance enhancement of these NW phototransistors, are still very limited. This work reports the NPC behavior in surface-modified InAs NW phototransistors based on photoexcitation induced majority electron trapping in the bonded sulfur monolayer under optical illumination. In order to enhance hot electron trapping ability of the bonded sulfur layer, aromatic thiolate (ArS−)-based molecular monolayer with strong electron-withdrawing group is employed using simple wet chemistry for the surface modification of InAs NW phototransistors. The magnitude of the photoexcitation induced hot electron trapping is increased by the stronger electron-withdrawing ability of the ArS−-based molecular monolayer, enabling the hot electrons to be trapped and released more efficiently, resulting in NW phototransistors with good sensitivity, fast photoresponse, and long-term stability to low intensity visible light. These results confirm the potential of InAs NW phototransistors surface-passivated with molecular monolayers in the application and realization of high-sensitive and long-term stable room temperature nanoscale photodetectors.The negative photoconductivity in monolayer-modified InAs nanowire (NW) phototransistors based on photoexcitation induced majority electron trapping is investigated. Under optical illumination, a high photoconductive gain and a fast response time are obtained at room temperature. Aromatic thiolate (ArS−)-based molecular monolayer with stronger electron-withdrawing group is used for surface modification by simple wet chemistry to further enhance the performances of the NW phototransistors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:30:18.820359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701104
  • Highly Conductive and Fatigue-Free Flexible Copper Film Electrode
           Fabricated by a Facile Dry Transfer Technique
    • Authors: Shengfei Shen; Wei Zhu, Yuncheng Peng, Fengxun Hai, Jingjing Feng, Yuan Deng
      Abstract: The flexible electrodes with excellent electrical and mechanical performance play critical and fundamental roles in the wearable electronics. In this work, highly conductive and fatigue-free flexible copper thin-film electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate substrate are successfully fabricated by a facile, nondestructive, and heat-resistant dry transfer technique. Before the transfer process, the interface adhesive strength and electrical resistivity of Cu films on SiO2+Si substrates are weakened and optimized. The flexible copper film electrode exhibits extremely low electrical resistivity (ρ = 3.1 µΩ cm), which is much superior to the flexible film electrodes fabricated through using the paste agent. Additionally, the fatigue experimental results show that the film electrode possesses excellent flexibility with a bending radius of 10 mm over 500 cycles due to the formation of the special microwavy structure, and is competent for a service environment with alternating temperature (−40–110 °C). It presents that the outstanding performance of flexible Cu film electrode is competent for most wearable electronics. The preparation of the advanced film electrode accelerates progress of the flexible electronics.Highly conductive and fatigue-free flexible copper thin-film electrode on polyethylene terephthalate substrate is fabricated through a facile and nondestructive dry transfer technique. The whole process is solution free, scatheless, and effective. A feasible strategy to prepare the high-performance flexible metal film electrode is provided in this work, which effectively promotes the development of the flexible electrons.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:29:08.470022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701038
  • X-ray Radiography to Visualize the Rebar–Cementitious Matrix Interface
           and Judge the Delay in Corrosion through Self-Repair by Encapsulated
    • Authors: Kim Van Tittelboom; Bjorn Van Belleghem, Matthieu N. Boone, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Nele De Belie
      Abstract: Corrosion of steel reinforcement is one of the most detrimental attack mechanisms for reinforced concrete structures. The presence of cracks, which are inextricably linked to reinforced concrete, accelerates this attack mechanism. The aim of this study is to heal cracks by an autonomous mechanism, which is triggered upon crack appearance. With an accelerated corrosion test on mortar samples with embedded reinforcement bars, it is shown that the presence of cracks indeed accelerates the onset and propagation of corrosion at the interface between the rebar and the cementitious matrix. Moreover, it is shown that crack healing in both the traditional, manual way and the proposed autonomous way, with an encapsulated one-component polyurethane, delays the onset and propagation of corrosion. The difference in corrosion behavior is proven by visual evaluation of the rebar surface and by X-ray radiographic analysis, which is proposed as a successful technique to evaluate the crack healing efficiency and more specifically the potential to delay corrosion.The efficiency of autonomous crack healing to delay corrosion is shown for both orthogonally and longitudinally oriented cracks. A mechanically triggered self-healing approach is used and the efficiency is compared against manual crack healing. Next to a visual analysis, X-ray radiography is used to study the evolution of the rebar–cementitious matrix interface due to corrosion.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:28:32.081181-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701021
  • High-Intensity Triboelectrification-Induced Electroluminescence by
           Microsized Contacts for Self-Powered Display and Illumination
    • Authors: Xiao Yan Wei; Leipeng Liu, Hai Lu Wang, Shuang Yang Kuang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Zhong Lin Wang, Yihe Zhang, Guang Zhu
      Abstract: The conversion of kinetic energy into light emission can produce real-time self-powered luminescence. In this work, high-intensity triboelectrification-induced electroluminescence (TIEL) is obtained from microsized contacts that have relative sliding motion. The microsized structure significantly promotes the changing rate of the electric field within a luminescent layer. As a result, the produced luminescence intensity is enhanced by two folds compared with a plain-surface contact. Besides, each microsized contact unit acts as a luminescence pixel. A collection of the contacts can be either designed into patterns or arranged into an array. Therefore, the high-intensity TIEL presented can be potentially used in self-powered display and illumination.High-intensity triboelectrification-induced electroluminescence is obtained from microsized contacts, which promote the changing rate of the electric field within a luminescent layer. Each microsized contact unit acts as a luminescence pixel. Thus, a collection of the contacts can either be designed into patterns or arranged into an array. Therefore, the high-intensity triboelectrification-induced electroluminescence can be potentially used in self-powered display and illumination.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:20:05.065137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701063
  • Nanocomposite Capacitors with Significantly Enhanced Energy Density and
           Breakdown Strength Utilizing a Small Loading of Monolayer Titania
    • Authors: Rongmei Wen; Junmeng Guo, Chunlin Zhao, Yanqing Liu
      Abstract: The dielectric capacitor with high electric energy density is demanded for modern electronic and electrical power systems. However, their energy density is considerably limited by a low dielectric constant and low breakdown strength. Here, thin flexible polymer nanocomposites with high energy density are obtained by only adding a small loading of 2D monolayer titania along with concurrent improvements of dielectric constant and breakdown strength. This work not only first reveals that monolayer titania is an excellent filler that can be comparable to existing fillers in nanocomposite capacitors but also provides a facile approach to thin flexible compact dielectric films with ultrahigh energy density and breakdown strength for energy storage applications.High energy density polymer nanocomposites are obtained by only adding a small loading of 2D monolayer titania. This work first reveals that monolayer titania is an excellent filler comparable or even superior to the existing fillers and provides a facile approach to thin flexible compact dielectric films with ultrahigh energy density and breakdown strength for energy storage.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:18:45.044435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701088
  • Liquid Shaping Based on Liquid Pancakes
    • Authors: Xiaoguang Li; Haixiao Shi, Yiqi Wang, Renxian Wang, Shuai Huang, Junchao Huang, Xingguo Geng, Duyang Zang
      Abstract: Liquid marbles with quasi-spherical shapes have great application potential as miniature containers. Recently, their shape modification is investigated, revealing great possibilities in broadening the uses for such containers. Current methods have demonstrated shape designability, but fine control of the final shape, important in applications, has remained a problem. Here, a facile method, based on a gravity-induced liquid pancake coated with a nanoparticle monolayer, is proposed that allows continuous segmentation of the liquid. As a result, well-shaped liquids, as structured liquid marbles with accurate target profiles, are formed. The density of interfacial particles is found to determine the segmentation feasibility and to affect the shaped liquid profile. Additionally, the maximum bifurcation is positively related to the initial particle density. This work basically achieves fine control of the liquid shape, enhancing the foundation for the development of liquid-based smart containers.Water in milliliter order forms a pancake shape on a superhydrophobic surface. Subjecting such a pancake to interfacial jamming of nanoparticles allows a segmenting manipulation of the coated liquid pancake. Based on this mechanism, liquid shaping is realized with the resulting product, as liquid plasticine, characterized with accurate profile, large size, and high transparency.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:14:50.229368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701139
  • Normal and Frictional Force Hysteresis between Self-Assembled
           Fluorosurfactant Micelle Arrays at the Nanoscale
    • Authors: Jinjin Li; Jianbin Luo
      Abstract: Nanoscale friction is usually related to the adhesion hysteresis between monolayer-coated surfaces. In the letter, we report the hysteresis in the normal and frictional forces between self-assemble fluorosurfactant micelle arrays at the nanoscale. It originates from a unique phenomenon wherein the two compressed surfaces immersed in the surfactant solution are pushed away spontaneously under a contact pressure of 43 MPa. The push-out process is related to the self-healing of micelles through the reorganization of the surfactant molecules trapped in the contact zone. The mechanism underlying the push-out phenomenon can be attributed to the transformation of Gibbs free energy for micellar reorganization into mechanical energy to separate the two compressed surfaces. Our finding provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying nanoscale boundary lubrication as well as possible approaches to produce and store mechanical energy at the nanoscale.Hysteresis appears in the normal and frictional forces between self-assemble fluorosurfactant micelle arrays at the nanoscale. It originates from a phenomenon wherein the two compressed surfaces with the adsorbed surfactant molecules are pushed away spontaneously under a contact pressure of 43 MPa. The mechanism is attributed to the transformation of Gibbs free energy for micellar reorganization into mechanical energy.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:12:05.826283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700802
  • Tailored Porous ZnCo2O4 Nanofibrous Electrocatalysts for
           Lithium–Oxygen Batteries
    • Authors: Jae-Chan Kim; Gwang-Hee Lee, Seun Lee, Seung-Ik Oh, Yongku Kang, Dong-Wan Kim
      Abstract: Lithium-oxygen batteries are considered a next-generation technology owing to their extremely high theoretical energy density despite many challenges such as low round-trip efficiency and poor cyclability. The air-cathode structure and pore properties play a key role in solving these problems. In this study, we fabricate ZnCo2O4 nanofibers and design a porous nanostructure using a facile electrospinning process and selective etching of ZnO as the cathode material in lithium-oxygen batteries. First, non-porous ZnCo2O4 nanofiber electrodes accomplish high catalytic activity and good cycling stability during 116 cycles with a limited capacity of 1000 mA h g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1. For enhanced catalytic activity and cyclability, ZnO included ZnCo2O4 nanofibers are prepared using a Zn-excess electrospun solution and porous ZnCo2O4 nanofibers are fabricated via selective etching of ZnO. Porous ZnCo2O4 nanofiber electrodes exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and cyclability for 226 cycles with a limited capacity of 1000 mA h g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1. The exceptional catalytic properties explain the synergistic effect of the one-dimensional nanostructure and porous structure with an appropriate pore diameter, providing a large active site and an efficient electron pathway during the Li2O2 formation/decomposition process.Porous ZnCo2O4 nanofibrous electrocatalysts are fabricated via single nozzle electrospinning and selective etching process. This optimal 1D and mesoporous nanostructure offers the synergistic effect on electrochemical performances for Li–O2 batteries. ZnCo2O4 nanofiber electrocatalysts exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and cyclability for 226 cycles with a limited capacity of 1000 mA h g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:07:49.809232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701234
  • Functional and Switchable Amphiphilic PMMA Surface Prepared by 3D
           Selective Modification
    • Authors: Olga Guselnikova; Pavel Postnikov, Petr Sajdl, Roman Elashnikov, Vaclav Švorčík, Oleksiy Lyutakov
      Abstract: The design and creation of switchable amphiphilicity on the surface of thin poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films are described. Amphiphilic properties are achieved through the 3D surface spatially selective modification using the membrane-assisted diazonium approach. Proposed technique allows simple grafting with the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds in the surface valleys or tops, depending on the order of modification steps. Thermally controllable hydro- and oleophilicity are achieved by the in-plane and height distinguished grafting of PMMA films with bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains. Sample surface at different stages of the modification is characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also the range of temperature-dependent wettability tests (with water, hexadecane, and ethyleneglycol) is performed. The temperature controlled amphiphilicity switching is proved to be fully reversible and proceeding in seconds.The design and realization of 3D spatially selective modified poly(methylmethacrylate) surface with switchable amphiphilicity are described. The smart amphiphilic response is achieved through the in-plane and height distinguished grafting of highly hydrophobic 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl groups and temperature controlled hydrophilic/phobic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:06:43.6235-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701182
  • Facile Synthesis of Ag-Decorated Ni3S2 Nanosheets with 3D Bush Structure
           Grown on rGO and Its Application as Positive Electrode Material in
           Asymmetric Supercapacitor
    • Authors: Jiqiu Qi; Yuan Chang, Yanwei Sui, Yezeng He, Qingkun Meng, Fuxiang Wei, Yaojian Ren, Yunxue Jin
      Abstract: A facile and cost-effective route is developed for synthesizing 3D bush structure of Ag nanoparticles-decorated Ni3S2 grown on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for the first time. In this composite, Ni3S2 exhibits nanosheet networks with porous feature. The electrochemical measurements display that the as-prepared rGO/Ag/Ni3S2 composite possesses a superior areal capacitance of 5920 mF cm−2 at current density of 5 mA cm−2. 77.5% of the initial areal capacitance is retained as current density increased from 5 to 20 mA cm−2. Encouragingly, this electrode exhibits excellent cycle performance with 94% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles at a current density of 30 mA cm−2, whereas for rGO/Ni3S2 composite electrode, only 84.7% of the initial value is maintained. The enhanced conductivity and unique structure of rGO/Ag/Ni3S2 composite attribute to its superior electrochemical performance. In addition, an aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using rGO/Ag/Ni3S2 composite as positive electrode and the nitrogen-doped graphene as negative electrode. The assembled device delivers high energy density of 28.7 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 425 W kg−1. This work may prompt the development and application of active materials decorated with highly conductive nanoparticles in supercapacitors.3D bush structure of Ag nanoparticles-decorated Ni3S2 grown on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is reported for the first time. rGO/Ag/Ni3S2 composite exhibits super electrochemical performance with high areal capacitance of 5920 mF cm−2 at 5 mA cm−2 as well as good cycling stability of 94% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles at 30 mA cm−2.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T08:21:23.954353-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700985
  • Synergistic Exploitation of the Superoxide Scavenger Properties of Reduced
           Graphene Oxide and a Trityl Organic Radical for the Impedimetric Sensing
           of Xanthine
    • Authors: Gonca Seber; Jose Muñoz, Stefania Sandoval, Concepció Rovira, Gerard Tobias, Marta Mas-Torrent, Núria Crivillers
      Abstract: This work is based on synergetically exploiting the activity of graphene-based materials and trityl free radicals to sense xanthine (X) by their combined scavenging properties for superoxide anion radical (O2•−). For this, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO covalently functionalized with a perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical derivative (rGO@PTM) are synthesized, characterized, and casted on an electrode surface to achieve a highly sensitive electrochemical recognition platform for xanthine determination. The electrochemical analysis is based on impedimetrically monitoring a radical-involved reaction on the graphene-based electrode surface after reacting with such O2•− derived from the xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzymatic system. The presented strategy yields to determine X at nm levels, decreasing the detection limit 100 times with respect to previously reported (bio)sensors.A significant enhancement of the detection limit for Xanthine determination is achieved by employing reduced graphene oxide with a clear catalytic effect upon its chemical modification with a trityl organic radical.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T08:20:55.918716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701072
  • Passivation of Interfaces in Thin Film Solar Cells: Understanding the
           Effects of a Nanostructured Rear Point Contact Layer
    • Authors: Pedro M. P. Salomé; Bart Vermang, Rodrigo Ribeiro-Andrade, Jennifer P. Teixeira, José M. V. Cunha, Manuel J. Mendes, Sirazul Haque, Jêrome Borme, Hugo Águas, Elvira Fortunato, Rodrigo Martins, Juan C. González, Joaquim P. Leitão, Paulo A. Fernandes, Marika Edoff, Sascha Sadewasser
      Abstract: Thin film solar cells based in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) are among the most efficient polycrystalline solar cells, surpassing CdTe and even polycrystalline silicon solar cells. For further developments, the CIGS technology has to start incorporating different solar cell architectures and strategies that allow for very low interface recombination. In this work, ultrathin 350 nm CIGS solar cells with a rear interface passivation strategy are studied and characterized. The rear passivation is achieved using an Al2O3 nanopatterned point structure. Using the cell results, photoluminescence measurements, and detailed optical simulations based on the experimental results, it is shown that by including the nanopatterned point contact structure, the interface defect concentration lowers, which ultimately leads to an increase of solar cell electrical performance mostly by increase of the open circuit voltage. Gains to the short circuit current are distributed between an increased rear optical reflection and also due to electrical effects. The approach of mixing several techniques allows us to make a discussion considering the different passivation gains, which has not been done in detail in previous works. A solar cell with a nanopatterned rear contact and a 350 nm thick CIGS absorber provides an average power conversion efficiency close to 10%.In this work ultrathin 350 nm Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells with passivated rear contact are studied and characterized. The rear interface passivation is achieved using an Al2O3 nanopatterned point structure and an average power conversion efficiency close to 10% is achieved due to chemical passivation and increased light trapping.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T08:05:52.157642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701101
  • Achieving Totally Local Anticoagulation on Blood Contacting Devices
    • Authors: Rana Gbyli; Anna Mercaldi, Harihara Sundaram, Kagya A. Amoako
      Abstract: The recent years have witnessed an increased activity in biocompatibility research aimed at limiting biomaterial-induced blood coagulation. From 2008 to 2016, a total of $36 946 764.00 USD has been awarded in grants to 213 research proposals and as large as 50.4% ($18 627 854.00) of that award monies have been distributed to 101 proposals over the fiscal years of FY14 to FY16 alone. However, the complexity in blood responses to biomaterials, variability in blood function between individuals and animal species, and differences in medical device application and test setting all continue to pose difficulties in making a breakthrough in this field. This review focuses on the remaining challenges in the context of biomaterial surface interaction with blood, biomaterial properties and their influence on coagulation, old and new surface anticoagulation methods, main test systems (complement and platelet function) for evaluating those methods, limitations of modification techniques, and the current state of systemic anticoagulation usage as adjunctive therapy for controlling blood coagulation on biomaterials. Finally, ingredients necessary for advancing the field toward achieving totally local surface anticoagulation on blood contacting devices including standardization of in vitro and in-vivo test methods are proposed. Some highlights of recent forward-looking work and articles on local anticoagulation are also presented.Biomaterials have and continue to play an important role in how to support and treat patients with various diseases through their use in tissue and blood interacting medical devices and drug delivery systems. This review focuses on outstanding challenges and new directions of anticlotting biomaterials research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T11:31:28.471836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700954
  • Growth and Characterization of 3D Flower-Like β-NiS on Carbon Cloth: A
           Dexterous and Flexible Multifunctional Electrode for Supercapattery and
           Water-Splitting Applications
    • Authors: Subramani Surendran; Ramakrishnan Kalai Selvan
      Abstract: Evolution of 3D nanostructures is luring a great deal of importance owing to their eccentric structures that create plenty of rooms to grasp massive volume of charges. Here, a distinct multifunctional binder-free flexible electrode is developed by arrays of flower-like β-NiS nanostructures over flexible carbon cloth (β-NiS@CC) by the in situ hydrothermal method. It unveils an ultimate areal capacity of 1.654 C cm−2 (827 C g−1) at 1 mA cm−2, which seems to be the highest among the reported NiS so far. The fabricated flexible supercapattery gadget delivers a remarkable energy density of 38 µWh cm−2 at a power density of 800 µW cm−2. Due to immense mechanical strength and resilience of 3D flower-like morphology, it is further exposed as an economical bifunctional electrocatalyst. Both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) exhibit a significant burst of the enormous quantity of gas bubbles at the low overpotentials of 320 and 278 mV, respectively, to achieve a current density of 20 mA cm−2. Further, the developed laboratory scale water electrolyzer offers a low cell voltage of 1.65 V to accomplish a water-splitting current density of 10 mA cm−2. Henceforth, the multifunctional 3D flower-like β-NiS electrode is demonstrated by defining its potential use in real-world appliances.Flower-like β-NiS is a promising multifunctional electrode for the two most intriguing flexible, supercapattery and water-splitting, applications, and it renders a new direction to develop high-performance flexible energy storage and conversion system based on the binder-free NiS materials for various applications.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T11:27:13.699777-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701056
  • Controlling Wrinkle Propagation in the Bilayer System with
    • Authors: Jongcheon Lim; Se-Jin Choi, Pilnam Kim
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel strategy to control the orientation of nanowrinkles by applying a thickness-gradient to a bilayer-system is presented. Surface modification by plasma treatment on ultraviolet light-curable polysiloxane-based resin applies biaxial compressive strain, resulting in the formation of randomly oriented nanowrinkles over a large-area. The thickness-gradient of the resin, given by the meniscus formed between the groove made with patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) after spin-coating of the resin, directed wrinkle propagation. Given the propagation orientation, nanowrinkles were well aligned over a large-area using a simple and accessible method.A strategy to align nanowrinkles on a large-area with simple steps is introduced. With the existence of thickness-gradient of the polymer substrate, critical strain for wrinkling varies with different thickness of substrate. When the surface is oxidated by the plasma treatment, nanowrinkles propagate with controlled orientation even though biaxial stress is applied in the process.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T11:25:54.503683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701109
  • Laser Irradiation-Induced SiC@Graphene Sub-Microspheres: A Bioinspired
           Core–Shell Structure for Enhanced Tribology Properties
    • Authors: Ting Luo; Xinchun Chen, Ping Wang, Cuncheng Li, Bingqiang Cao, Haibo Zeng
      Abstract: Friction generally happening among all moving material interfaces wastes nearly one-third of total mechanical energy in the world each year, although different kinds of lubricants are adopted. Particle additives, like diamond, inorganic fullerene, and graphene, can enter tribological contacts to reduce friction and protect surfaces from wear. However, the growth of such additives with spherical morphology and high dispersibility in oil without molecular ligands is a major problem. Inspired by the impressive dispersion stability of Noctiluca scientillans in ocean, one novel core–shell composite constructed with superhard SiC sub-microsphere as core and exclusive floating flat-blade graphene sheet as shell (SiC@G) is designed. These core–shell SiC@G sub-micropheres are synthesized for the first time by in situ pulsed laser irradiating commercial SiC powders in liquid at ambient conditions. Both laser-stimulated surface tension energy release and photothermal decomposition involved in the laser irradiation process assure the reshaping of SiC particles and the formation of graphene sheets derived from SiC surface. Due to the synergistic effect of SiC spheres changing effectively sliding friction into rolling friction and flexible self-lubricating graphene forming a tribofilm easily, such composites as additives remain well dispersed in lubricating oil and exhibit enhanced antiwear and friction-reduction performance.SiC sub-microspheres decorated by floating flat-blade graphene nanosheets (SiC@G) are grown by a simple one-step laser irradiation method at ambient conditions. Due to the significant synergistic effect of superhard SiC spheres changing sliding friction into rolling friction and self-lubricating graphene preventing metal-to-metal direct contact, such core–shell SiC@G sub-microspheres as lubricant additives exhibit enhanced tribology properties.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T08:01:06.805991-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700839
  • A Combined Electrochemical-Microfluidic Strategy for the Microscale-Sized
           Selective Modification of Transparent Conductive Oxides
    • Authors: Francesco Lamberti; Stefano Salmaso, Alessandro Zambon, Laura Brigo, Alessio Malfanti, Teresa Gatti, Stefano Agnoli, Gaetano Granozzi, Giovanna Brusatin, Nicola Elvassore, Monica Giomo
      Abstract: Surface chemical functionalization of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) is helpful for a wide range of technological applications, ranging from solar cells to biomedical devices, as it allows to tune the electrical, optical, and morphological properties of TCOs toward the desired goal. The electrochemical grafting technique is a surface modification methodology affording robust coatings with tuneable properties and has the potential to be exploited for modifying TCO surfaces. However, due to technical limitations, like the use of a 3-electrode cell and the need for low pH-solutions, this approach has not been recurrently applied. Here a novel electrochemical-microfluidic combined methodology is used where the use of a microchannel drives the spatially controlled covalent grafting of reagents on a TCO surface. To corroborate the validity of this approach in producing more complex chemical structures localized on selected microscale-sized areas, where a first electrochemical grafting step takes place, an electrochemical glucose biosensor is realized through a layer-by-layer approach that shows a remarkable limit of detection in the micromolar concentration range. The sensing mechanism is based on an efficient electron transfer from glucose to the functionalized TCO surface. Biosensor performance is conveniently tuned by acting on the number of enzymatic units loaded onto the biosensor-tree.An electrochemical-microfluidic combined methodology to modify transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) is proposed. The production of complex molecular structures, selectively localized in the microscale-sized areas where electrochemical grafting has taken place is demonstrated by realizing an electrochemical biosensor through a layer-by-layer approach. This strategy offers a method to produce customizable TCOs for different applications requiring defined patterning.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T08:00:39.392642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701222
  • Advances in Interfaces between Li Metal Anode and Electrolyte
    • Authors: Xue-Qiang Zhang; Xin-Bing Cheng, Qiang Zhang
      Abstract: Lithium metal has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials in high-energy-density rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high specific capacity and very low reduction potential of all possible candidates. However, the mysterious interfacial phenomena of lithium metal anode in long-term cycles, especially Li dendrite formation and low Coulombic efficiency, have greatly plagued the practical applications of Li metal in secondary batteries. The complex interface between Li metal and electrolyte plays a very important role in regulating Li deposition and enhancing the cycling stability of a full battery. In this review, recent advances in interfacial science and engineering are summarized to afford a fundamental understanding in Li deposition behavior and present design principles in constructing robust interface to stabilize Li metal anode in a working battery. Further investigations and directions are also included to promote the exploration of Li metal anodes. In particular, the rational combination of different Li metal protection strategies is strongly commended for practically applying Li metal anode in high-energy-density rechargeable batteries.The interfacial science and engineering of Li metal anode and electrolyte are summarized to afford a fundamental understanding in Li deposition behavior and present design principles in constructing robust interface to stabilize Li metal anode in a working battery. The rational combination of different Li metal protection strategies is strongly commended for their practical applications in high-energy-density batteries.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T07:22:54.382673-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701097
  • Strong SERS Performances of Ultrathin α-Co(OH)2 Nanosheets to the Toxic
           Organophosphorus Molecules and Hydrogen Bond-Induced Charge Transfer
    • Authors: Qian Zhao; Guangqiang Liu, Hongwen Zhang, Yue Li, Weiping Cai
      Abstract: The ultrathin α-Co(OH)2 nanosheets are fabricated via homogeneous precipitation from the cobalt nitrate solution. The nanosheet-built film is used as the substrate for Raman detection of toxic organophosphorus molecules. Such nanosheets are of strong surface enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) effect to the molecules that can be captured by the hydroxyls on the nanosheets. The enhancement factor is up to 2.0 × 103. Typically, for the triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPPO) and 3,3-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTCI) which both can be used as hydrogen bond acceptors and form hydrogen bonds with α-Co(OH)2 on the nanosheets' surface, the detection are to 0.35 ppm. The Raman peak intensity shows a linear relation with logarithmic DTTCI concentration, due to Temkin adsorption of DTTCI molecules on the nanosheets, and exhibits a linear double logarithmic relation with TPPPO concentration, due to Freundlich-type adsorption. Further analysis reveal that such enhancement effect is attributed to the hydrogen bond-induced formation of new excited state in the test molecules, which induces the charge transfer and hence magnifies the test molecules' polarizability. This work not only provides an effective substrate for SERS-based detection of toxic organophosphorus molecules but also presents a new approach to design of the highly efficient nonmetal SERS-active materials.The ultrathin α-Co(OH)2 nanosheets are used as the substrate for Raman detection of organic molecules. It is found that such nanosheets are of strong surface enhancement Raman scattering effect to the toxic organophosphorus molecules, exhibiting a linear double logarithmic relation between Raman intensity and concentration, which is attributed to the hydrogen bond-induced charge transfer mechanism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T04:05:53.338262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700709
  • Cu-Decorated ZnO Nanorod Array Integrated Structured Catalysts for
           Low-Pressure CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol
    • Authors: Shoucheng Du; Wenxiang Tang, Xingxu Lu, Sibo Wang, Yanbing Guo, Pu-Xian Gao
      Abstract: CO2 conversion into valuable chemicals and fuels, such as methanol, is one of the most practical routes for utilizing emitted CO2 and mitigating global warming. Herein, a 3D Cu-decorated ZnO nanorod array based structured catalysts for efficient thermochemical CO2 hydrogenation to methanol at relatively low pressures (
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T03:06:52.370789-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700730
  • General Strategy for Synthesis of Pd3M (M = Co and Ni) Nanoassemblies as
           High-Performance Catalysts for Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction
    • Authors: Yifan Chen; Xian Jiang, Yueyang Li, Pei Li, Qicheng Liu, Gengtao Fu, Lin Xu, Dongmei Sun, Yawen Tang
      Abstract: Nanoassemblies have attracted considerable attention because of their unique structural advantages, such as the high porosity, abundant surface defects, and low-coordinated atomic steps, which are of importance to improve electrocatalytic activity and stability. However, developing effective and general synthetic methods for preparation of well-defined Pd-based nanoassemblies remains a challenge. Herein, a facile, effective, and general synthetic strategy for fabrication of high-quality Pd3M (M = Co and Ni) nanoassemblies is developed. It is identified that arginine is pivotal for control of the nucleation and growth process of nanocrystals, where there is strong self-assembly capacity between arginine molecules as well as effective coordination interaction between guanidine group of arginine with metal ions, endowing its unique dual-function for the structure-controllable synthesis of Pd3M alloy. The electrocatalytic performances of Pd3M nanoassemblies for the oxygen reduction reaction are studied through the rotating ring-disk electrode technique. As expected, both Pd3Co and Pd3Ni nanoassemblies exhibit the more positive onset reduced-overpotentials and the better catalytic stabilities compared to their counterparts. This work opens a new and general guideline for designing PdM alloy nanoassemblies with exclusive active sites for boosting energy electrocatalysis.Two kinds of Pd3M (M = Co and Ni) nanoassemblies by a facile, effective, and general synthetic strategy are reported, taking advantage of the unique coordination and self-assembly properties of arginine molecules. The resulting Pd3M catalysts exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reactions under alkaline media.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T03:06:11.580335-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701015
  • Flexible WS2@CNFs Membrane Electrode with Outstanding Lithium Storage
           Performance Derived from Capacitive Behavior
    • Authors: Chen Wu; Xiaohui Zeng, Pingge He, Libao Chen, Weifeng Wei
      Abstract: Flexible electrodes have recently elicited attention due to their potential to be woven into textiles as flexible power supplies for wearable electronic devices. However, contemporary flexible electrodes generally suffer from the limited reaction kinetics and inferior stability. Here, a flexible WS2@CNFs membrane electrode is facilely fabricated via hydrothermal method and subsequent electrospinning to embed WS2 nanosheets into interconnected framework of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Benefitting from 3D porous architecture and good conductivity of CNFs, WS2@CNFs composites exhibit outstanding cycling stability and rate capability as self-supported binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. Especially, WS2@CNFs with 60.3 wt% of WS2 displays a discharge specific capacity as high as 545 mA h g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 after 800 cycles. Even at 2 A g−1, it maintains 62.4% of specific capacity at 0.1 A g−1, and stably cycles back at 0.1 A g−1. Kinetic analysis confirms that the capacitive mechanism is dominant in the Li-ion storage process, which is derived mainly from the structure evolution from WS2 nanosheets to WS2/W nanoparticles during extended cycling. The reduced nanoparticles also enhance electrochemical activity, conductivity, and reversibility of the conversion reaction, resulting in the increasing capacity with cycles.Flexible WS2@CNFs membrane electrode demonstrates a superior cycling performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries. Kinetic analysis confirms that the capacitive mechanism is dominant in the Li-ion storage process, which is derived mainly from the structure evolution from WS2 nanosheets to WS2/W nanoparticles. It also enhances electrochemical activity, conductivity, and reversibility of conversion reaction, resulting in the increasing capacity with cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T03:01:41.309314-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701080
  • Combining Light-Gated and pH-Responsive Nanopore Based on PEG-Spiropyran
    • Authors: Tianji Ma; Martin Walko, Mathilde Lepoitevin, Jean-Marc Janot, Emmanuel Balanzat, Armagan Kocer, Sebastien Balme
      Abstract: To mimic the selectivity and properties of biological channels and pumps, adaptive systems can be designed using artificial membranes. One big advantage of those membranes is that they are able to respond to several stimuli at the same time. Here, it is proposed to tailor conical nanopores by grafting polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-spiropyrans in order to combine both light- and pH-responsive properties. The study of the ionic transport reveals that after UV irradiation the nanopore is open while after visible irradiation, it is closed. This gating property is due to the self-assembly of PEG-spiropyran. The reversibility of the assembly inside the nanopore strongly depends on the solvent. Indeed, water blocks the photoswitchable molecule in its zwitterionic form, while ethanol favors the conformational switching. Under UV irradiation, the pH can control the nanopore selectivity. It is demonstrated that at acidic pH, the nanopore is selective to anion while at neutral pH the cation transport is favored.This work aims to tune original light-gated and pH response nanopore. To do so, PEG-spiropyrans is grafted inside conical nanopores. The study of the ionic transport shows that light irradiation permits to control the nanopore opening and its pH selectivity. However the reversibility depends on solvent polarity due to the presence of PEG chain.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T03:01:12.088923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701051
  • Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Incorporated Metal Oxides for the Fabrication
           of Printable, Flexible Nickel-Zinc Batteries
    • Authors: Zhiqian Wang; Xianyang Meng, Kun Chen, Somenath Mitra
      Abstract: The development of printable composite electrodes embedded with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for flexible nickel-zinc batteries is presented. The cathode and the anode comprised of Ni(OH)2-CNT and ZnO-CNT respectively are prepared by coprecipitation of the metal oxides on CNTs. High loading ratio of electroactive materials increases the amount of active materials in electrode, but causes a lower material utilization efficiency due to decrease in overall electrode conductivity. The direct loading of active materials onto CNTs enhances contact where the CNTs serve the pathways for electron transport leading to higher performance than physical mixing of active ingredients. The cells show good performance even under bending conditions and the overall technology is scalable by printing methods.Carbon nanotube incorporated metal oxides are synthesized by a coprecipitation method for the fabrication of flexible nickel-zinc batteries. Binders and additives are added to make inks for flexible electrodes. The cells show no performance drop under bending condition and the overall technology is scalable by printing methods.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T03:00:49.559625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701036
  • Superamphiphilic Polyurethane Foams Synergized from Cellulose Nanowhiskers
           and Graphene Nanoplatelets
    • Authors: Xiaotan Zhang; Dongyan Liu, Guoxin Sui
      Abstract: Superamphiphilic materials are attracting significant attention because of their unique affinity to both water and oil. It is generally accepted that graphene-based assemblies are hydrophobic. Here, novel superamphiphilic polyurethane (PU) foams by the synergetic effect of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) and graphene nanosheets (GNs) are reported. This process involves the creation of CNWs' base coating on the surface of PU network prior to GN coatings to obtain superamphiphilic surfaces by the simple dip-coating method. Wetting behaviors of the foams start to turn from hydrophobicity into superamphiphilicity by increasing the concentration of the CNWs up to 0.5 wt%. The hydrophobicity recovers when the concentration of CNWs reaches 1.0 wt%. The superamphiphilic foam (CNWs' concentration is 0.75 wt%) exhibits high storage capacity for water and various organic solvents up to 22–24 times of its own weight. Moreover, the coated foams can be reused for absorbing liquids for more than 20 cycles without losing their superamphiphilicity, exhibiting good reusability and durability. The discovery of this superamphiphilic foam is of great significance for the development of superwetting materials and finding their applications in oil emulsions purifying and catalyst anchoring fields.In this paper a novel superamphiphilic graphene-based material prepared through a simple dip-coating method, which is different from the conventionally coating graphene on polyurethane foams via reduction of graphene oxide is reported. Wetting behavior can be controlled by increasing the amount of cellulose nanowhiskers. The superamphiphilic foams can be reused for adsorbing liquids for more than 20 cycles without losing their superamphiphilicity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:58:01.902876-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701094
  • Tuning Electrical Properties of 2D Materials by Self-Assembled Monolayers
    • Authors: Wi Hyoung Lee; Yeong Don Park
      Abstract: Tuning of electrical properties of 2D materials by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is reviewed in this article. When 2D materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are in contact with SAMs, end functional group in SAMs governs dipole moment in SAMs, thereby affecting shift of Fermi level for instantaneous doping of 2D materials. Accordingly, carrier density, work function, and/or field-effect mobility of 2D materials are changed by the SAMs contact. Recent advances in the SAMs-induced changes of electrical properties in 2D materials are introduced by considering two types of 2D materials-SAMs contacts: 1) 2D materials on SAMs and 2) SAMs on 2D materials. 2D materials from graphene to TMDs are fully discussed in the context of SAMs-induced doping.Recent advances in the changes of electrical properties of 2D materials by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are reviewed in this paper. When 2D materials (i.e., graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides) are in contact with SAMs having different end groups, alkyl chain lengths, and linker groups, their electrical properties are changed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:56:40.863468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700316
  • A Novel Multiple Interface Structure with the Segregation of Dopants in
           Lead-Free Ferroelectric (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Thin Films
    • Authors: Chao Li; Lingyan Wang, Wen Chen, Lu Lu, Hu Nan, Dawei Wang, Yijun Zhang, Yaodong Yang, Chun-Lin Jia
      Abstract: Interfaces in oxides are found to possess different properties and can be engineered for modifying local structure and properties of nearby area. In this work, it is reported that the interfaces can be formed in Ba/Zr (BZ)-doped (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN) thin films by cycles of chemical solution deposition using same precursor solution. In the films, a novel and special cross-sectional structure is observed with periodic distribution of Ba-rich and Zr-rich layers. The Ba-rich and Zr-rich layers exhibit different strain, lattice parameters, and crystal structure, leading to an obvious effect on the general ferroelectric properties of the KNN-based thin films. Moreover, the self-polarization is also observed, which can be understood to originate from the formed built-in field by layered distribution of Ba and Zr in the KNN-BZ thin films.A novel multiple interface structure is characterized with periodic distribution of Ba-rich and Zr-rich layers in lead-free ferroelectric (K,Na)NbO3-Ba/Zr (KNN-BZ) thin films, which enhances the ferroelectricity of the KNN-BZ thin films. The interfaces can be realized by combining multiple cycles of chemical solution deposition with the long-range electrostatic potential effects of substrate.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:51:34.651936-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700972
  • Anisotropic Raman-Enhancement Effect on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube
    • Authors: Juanxia Wu; Shuchen Zhang, Dewu Lin, Bangjun Ma, Liangwei Yang, Shuqing Zhang, Lixing Kang, Nannan Mao, Na Zhang, Lianming Tong, Jin Zhang
      Abstract: The charge transfer between molecules and materials can modulate the polarizability tensor of the molecules and lead to an enhancement of the Raman scattering. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on in-plane anisotropic layered materials has suggested the crystalline-axis-dependent charge interactions between molecules and materials. However, the full understanding of the anisotropic charge transfer process is still lacking. The rigorous anisotropic nature and structural diversity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) provide an ideal platform to systematically study the anisotropic charge transfer process. The present work reports the anisotropic Raman enhancement effect of molecules on horizontally aligned SWNT arrays and attribute it to the charge transfer efficiency that depends on the laser polarization direction and the resonance of SWNTs. The Raman signal of probe molecules on SWNT arrays is enhanced and reaches the maximum intensity when the incident laser is polarized along the SWNT axial direction, and the intensity is the minimum if they are perpendicular to each other. The different efficiencies of charge transfer are further confirmed by polarized optical absorption measurements and the energy alignment analysis. The present work provides a sensitive way to study the tunable charge interactions between molecules and anisotropic low-dimensional materials, which are also important for polarization-controlled optoelectronic applications.Anisotropic surface-enhanced Raman scattering on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) arrays: The rigorous anisotropic structure and electronic structure of SWNT lead to the anisotropic charge interaction between SWNT and probe molecules, resulting in the anisotropic Raman enhancement, that is, Raman enhancement factor of molecules on SWNT arrays depends on the relative angle between laser polarization direction (ei) and SWNT axial direction.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:50:48.388208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700941
  • Lithographically Designed Conical Microcarriers for Programed Release of
           Multiple Actives
    • Authors: Kwanghwi Je; Ju Hyeon Kim, Tae Soup Shim, Minhee Ku, Jaemoon Yang, Shin-Hyun Kim
      Abstract: The programed release of multiple ingredients is important in the therapeutics and pharmaceutical fields. A variety of core–shell microcarriers have been designed to fulfill the release function; however, encapsulating multiple actives in their own compartments and releasing them in a programed manner remains a challenge due to restrictions on the material sets that may be used to form the compartments. In this work, the development of lithographically featured core–shell microcarriers composed of double cones and a cap that encapsulate and release various combinations of multiactives in a predefined fashion is reported. Active-free caps are first prepared on a photomask using conventional photolithography. Onto each cap, sequentially, an active-loaded small cone and large cone in two steps of reaction–diffusion-mediated photolithography (RDP) are formed. The release kinetics of the actives stored in the inner and outer cones are controlled by tailoring the crosslinking density of the photocured polymers that composed each compartment. The cap prevents direct diffusion from the inner cone to the surrounding. The RDP-based lithographic means for creating core–shell microcarriers provides new opportunities for delivering synergistic combinations of drugs in pharmacotherapy.Conical microcarriers are lithographically prepared to have core–shell structures for encapsulation and release of multiple actives. Multisteps of lithography produces multicones on a cap, of which cones can load distinct actives. This lithographic approach allows the use of various combinations of materials and the control of permeability. Therefore, microcarriers can be designed to release multiple actives in a programed fashion.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:47:41.967477-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701163
  • Photovoltaic–Pyroelectric Coupled Effect Based Nanogenerators for
           Self-Powered Photodetector System
    • Authors: Jia Qi; Nan Ma, Ya Yang
      Abstract: Ferroelectric material BiFeO3 with narrow bandgap of 2.67 eV can be more suitable to fabricate photodetectors instead of solar energy harvesters because of low energy conversion efficiency. Herein, a BiFeO3 film-based self-powered photodetector is reported by using the photovoltaic–pyroelectric coupled effect to enable a fast sensing of 450 nm light illumination. Compared with photovoltaic effect, the photosensitivity parameters including photoconductive gain, responsivity, and specific detectivity can be enhanced by more than 9.7 times at light intensity of 0.86 mW cm−2 by utilizing light-induced photovoltaic–pyroelectric coupled effect. Moreover, a self-powered photodetector array system is achieved to detect 450 nm light by analyzing the real-time recorded output voltage signals as a mapping figure. In this work a new route to realize the performance enhancement of photodetector via photovoltaic–pyroelectric coupled effect on ferroelectric materials, which has great significance in extending the field of self-powered photodetectors is described.A self-powered photodetector by utilizing the light-induced photovoltaic–pyroelectric coupled effect in BiFeO3 is designed for detecting 450 nm light illumination, resulting in a dramatic enhancement of photosensitivity parameters by more than 9.7 times as compared with that of photovoltaic effect.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:47:09.920566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701189
  • Detecting and Tuning the Interactions between Surfactants and Carbon
           Nanotubes for Their High-Efficiency Structure Separation
    • Authors: Xiang Zeng; Dehua Yang, Huaping Liu, Naigen Zhou, Yanchun Wang, Weiya Zhou, Sishen Xie, Hiromichi Kataura
      Abstract: The selective interaction is systematically explored between the surfactants (sodium deoxycholate (DOC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium cholate (SC)) and the single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by the gel chromatography technique. The results show that DOC preferentially interacts with small-diameter semiconducting SWCNTs (S-SWCNTs), exhibiting the strongest interaction strength for the SWCNTs, and the highest structural selectivity. The surfactant SC shows high selectivity toward the chiral angles of the SWCNTs. Its interaction strength and structural recognition ability are slightly higher than that of SDS but lower than that of DOC. Combining with the proved selectivity of SDS in the adsorption onto the S-SWCNTs with small CC bond curvature, it is discovered that the synergistic effect of the triple surfactants amplified the interaction difference among the different SWCNTs and the gel, and thus dramatically improved the separation efficiency and structural purity of the SWCNTs, achieving the separation of distinct (n, m) single-chirality species and their enantiomers in one step. This work not only provides deeper insights into the separation mechanism of SWCNTs with the surfactant sorting techniques, but also has a profound significance in studying the interaction between the SWCNTs and other small molecules.One-pot separation of single-chirality carbon nanotubes and their enantiomers is achieved by a cosurfactant system, in which the different selectivity of sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate toward the chiral angles, diameters, and C-C bond curvatures of the nanotubes is used to synergistically enhance the structural recognition of the distinct (n, m) species.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:46:46.834162-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700727
  • MoSexOy-Coated 1D TiO2 Nanotube Layers: Efficient Interface for
           Light-Driven Applications
    • Authors: Siowwoon Ng; Milos Krbal, Raul Zazpe, Jan Prikryl, Jaroslav Charvot, Filip Dvořák, Lukas Strizik, Stanislav Slang, Hanna Sopha, Yuliia Kosto, Vladimir Matolin, Fong Kwong Yam, Filip Bures, Jan M. Macak
      Abstract: Ultrathin molybdenum oxyselenide (MoSexOy) coatings are made first ever by atomic layer deposition (ALD) within anodic 1D TiO2 nanotube layers for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic applications. The coating thickness is controlled through varying ALD cycles from 5 to 50 cycles (corresponding to ≈1–10 nm). In the ultraviolet region, the coatings have enhanced up to four times the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), and the highest IPCE is recorded at 32% at (at λ = 365 nm). The coatings notably extend the photoresponse to the visible spectral region and remarkable improvement of photocurrent densities up to ≈40 times is registered at λ = 470 nm. As a result, the MoSexOy-coated-TiO2 nanotube layers have shown to be an effective photocatalyst for methylene blue degradation, and the optimal performance is credited to a coating thickness between 2 and 5 nm (feasible only by ALD). The enhancement in photoactivities of the presented heterojunction is mainly associated with the passivation effect of MoSexOy on the TiO2 nanotube walls and the suitability of bandgap position between MoSexOy and TiO2 interface for an efficient charge transfer. In addition, MoSexOy possesses a narrow bandgap, which favors the photoactivity in the visible spectral region.Atomic layer deposition–synthesized oxyselenide coatings on 1D TiO2 nanotubes layers act as efficient co-photocatalyst. Increased light absorption, reduced optical bandgap, and formation of core-shell-like heterojunction due to ultrathin and uniform coatings within TiO2 nanotubes are accounted for enhanced photoelectrochemical activity of the resulting heterojunction and strongly enhanced photocatalytic activity in visible spectral region.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T02:45:40.063365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701146
  • Room-Temperature Solid-State Grown WO3−δ Film on Plastic Substrate for
           Extremely Sensitive Flexible NO2 Gas Sensors
    • Authors: Venkateswarlu Annapureddy; Yonghun Kim, Geon-Tae Hwang, Ho Won Jang, Sung-Dae Kim, Jong-Jin Choi, Byungjin Cho, Jungho Ryu
      Abstract: Due to the increased world-wide threat to health from air pollution, as well as the need for personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring of exhaled breath, flexible gas sensor nodes have become an emerging area of critical importance for wearable electronics applicable. In this study, WO3−δ films are prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature using a single-step, solid-state deposition, granule spray in vacuum (GSV) process. The GSV-WO3−δ films are successfully utilized to fabricate an ultrasensitive flexible gas sensor. The performance of the sensor can be enhanced by its increased surface area and large number of defect sites on the surface utilizing high-impulse hollow sphere granules. The gas sensor is extremely responsive and selective to low concentration of NO2. The gas-sensing responses are linear for the concentrations ranging from sub-ppm to tens of ppm with detection limit of 1.88 (±0.128) for NO2. The response time is on the order of few seconds for gas detection (17 s) and recovery (25 s). Beyond this sensing performance, the GSV-WO3−δ film is highly advantageous in terms of production cost and time for the realization of mass production of flexible sensing devices, compared to conventional gas sensors that require high-cost and time-consuming processes.A simple, scalable, time- and cost-efficient approach for enhancement of sensing capability of chemiresistive flexible gas sensors based on nonstoichiometric tungsten oxide (WO3–δ) created using the granule spray in vacuum technique at room temperature is demonstrated. A linear sensor response is achieved for gas concentrations of sub-ppm to tens of ppm for NO2 gas.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T09:21:56.096533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700811
  • Exploration of Chirality and Achirality of Self-Assembled Monolayer Formed
           by Unsymmetrically Substituted Fluorenone Derivative at the Liquid/Solid
    • Authors: Yi Hu; Kai Miao, Meiqiu Dong, Li Xu, Bao Zha, Xinrui Miao, Wenli Deng
      Abstract: The self-assemblies of 2-decyloxy-7-pentadecyloxy-9-fluorenone (DPF) are characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy at the liquid/solid interface. Achiral Dimer and chiral S-like structures are observed in 1-octanoic acid. The solvent molecule takes part in the self-assembly via forming COOH⋯OC and COOH⋯COOH hydrogen bonds. When 1-phenyloctane and n-tetradecane are used as the solvents, DPF self-assembles into chiral Z-like structure, which are classified into Types I–IV according to the packing styles. For the purpose of exploring the effect of solvent and the competition between these three structures, the self-assemblies of DPF in mixed solvents and on dry surface are investigated. The results show that S-like structure is preferred in mixed solvents, while the Z-like structure has priority when the function of solvent is excluded. DPF molecule shows polarity thus dipole−dipole interaction plays significant roles on forming stable adlayers by forming antiparallel dipole pairs. Furthermore, density functional theory calculation is performed to reveal the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. In light of the popularity of studying chirality at the liquid/solid interface, it is believed that the findings will provide implications for designing chiral systems and will promote the exploration of self-assembly in the field of surface science.Induction and fabrication of chirality have received intense attention in natural science because chirality affects the performance of many chemical, physical, and biological systems. In this work asymmetrically substituted fluorenone derivative which possesses solvent-induced chiral and achiral self-assemblies at the liquid/solid interface, thus be potential to be used in nanoscience and nanotechnology are explored.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:52:29.199622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700611
  • MoS2/WS2 Quantum Dots as High-Performance Lubricant Additive in
           Polyalkylene Glycol for Steel/Steel Contact at Elevated Temperature
    • Authors: Xinhu Wu; Kuiliang Gong, Gaiqing Zhao, Wenjing Lou, Xiaobo Wang, Weimin Liu
      Abstract: Herein, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) quantum dots (QDs) are prepared by a facile and green technique, and characterized by microscopy and spectroscopy. The resulting products display exceptional stability in polyalkylene glycol (PAG) base oil, and are used for the first time as friction reducing and antiwear additives in PAG for steel/steel contact. Tribological measurements indicate that the stable dispersion consisting of PAG mixed with MoS2/WS2 QDs exhibits significant tribological properties compared with pure PAG and PAG containing MoS2/WS2 QDs nanosheets under different loads at elevated temperatures. The excellent tribological behaviors of MoS2/WS2 QDs are attributed to the formation of a boundary lubrication film, which can be generated not only by the physical entrapment of MoS2/WS2 QDs at the ball-disk contact surfaces, but also by tribochemical reaction between MoS2/WS2 and the iron atoms/iron oxide species.MoS2/WS2 quantum dots (QDs) is used for the first time as lubricating oil additive. Benefiting from the smaller particle size and higher special surface area, MoS2/WS2 QDs displays excellent dispersion stability in polyalkylene glycol (PAG). Tribological measurements indicate that MoS2/WS2 QDs added in PAG can significantly improve the friction reduction and antiwear properties of the base oil at elevated temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T09:40:09.811977-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700859
  • Wetting Models and Working Mechanisms of Typical Surfaces Existing in
           Nature and Their Application on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: A Review
    • Authors: Jiaqiang E; Yu Jin, Yuanwang Deng, Wei Zuo, Xiaohuan Zhao, Dandan Han, Qingguo Peng, Zhiqing Zhang
      Abstract: Surfaces of plants and animals are evolved to optimal states to accommodate environments better after billions of years of natural selection. As the development of further study on bionics, surfaces with special wetting properties in nature are discovered, extremely related to the micro-/nanostructures on surface. The wetting models and wetting mechanism of several surfaces in nature are investigated, followed by lifting the veil of superhydrophobic field. Various facile, effective, and convenient methods for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces are obtained and optimized in scientific research and practice. The possibility of wide application for superhydrophobic surface on production and life is improved via the promotion in fabrication ability. This paper is ranged from four main parts, including wetting models, wetting mechanism on various typical surfaces in nature, frequently used fabricating methods for superhydrophobic surfaces in recent years, and application of superhydrophobic material surfaces in three main aspects. It is really hoped that this review article can provide a useful guide for development of superhydrophobic surface in further study.Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown great potential value for future applications. For enhancing systematical understanding on superhydrophobic surfaces, classifications and summaries of classical wetting models, mechanism on typical surfaces in nature, frequently used fabricating methods for superhydrophobic surfaces in recent years, and applications of superhydrophobic material surfaces in three main aspects are presented as important issues.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T10:05:23.758668-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701052
  • Nanostructured, Highly Anisotropic, and Mechanically Robust Polymer
           Electrolyte Membranes via Holographic Polymerization
    • Authors: Derrick M. Smith; Qiwei Pan, Shan Cheng, Wenda Wang, Timothy J. Bunning, Christopher Y. Li
      Abstract: Solid polymer electrolytes have shown to be a promising solution to suppressing dendrite growth for safer and higher performance lithium batteries. This article reports the fabrication and characterization of a series of nanostructured polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) comprised of poly(ethylene glycol)/bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium electrolyte and acrylate–thiol-ene crosslinked resin using a holographic polymerization (HP). Nanoscale long-range order is observed and this unique structure imposes intriguing mechanical and ion-conducting properties of the PEMs. The modulus of the holographically polymerized PEMs can be tuned to vary from 150 to 1300 MPa while room temperature conductivities of ≈2 × 10−5 S cm−1 and 90 °C conductivity of ≈5 × 10−4 S cm−1 are achieved. The HP nanostructure is also capable of directing ion transport either parallel or perpendicular to the membrane surface; an unprecedented ionic conductivity anisotropy as high as 3 × 105 is achieved. It is anticipated that these PEMs may be excellent candidates for lithium battery applications.Nanostructured solid polymer electrolytes are fabricated. The membranes show tunable mechanical properties from MPa to Gpa range. The membranes show an ionic conductivity anisotropy of ≈30 000.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T12:42:53.495322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700861
  • Precise Patterning of Large-Scale TFT Arrays Based on Solution-Processed
           Oxide Semiconductors: A Comparative Study of Additive and Subtractive
    • Authors: Minmin Li; Jiwen Zheng, Huihua Xu, Zhaogui Wang, Qian Wu, Bolong Huang, Hang Zhou, Chuan Liu
      Abstract: Precise patterning of solution-processed oxide semiconductors is critical for cost-effective, large-scale, and high throughput fabrication of circuits and display application. In this paper, demonstration and comparison are made using the additive and subtractive patterning strategies to precisely fabricate wafer-scale thin film transistor arrays (1600 devices), which are based on high-quality solution-processed indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO). The IZO and IGZO TFTs exhibit field-effect mobility up to 8.0 and 5.2 cm2 V−1 s−1 when using the additive method, whereas the highest mobility of 24.2 and 13.7 cm2 V−1 s−1 for IZO and IGZO TFTs is achieved when using the subtractive method. The X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy studies and quantitative 2D device simulations together reveal that good device performance is attributed to moderate shallow donor-like states (providing electrons) from oxygen vacancy and few accepter-like states (trapping electrons) resulted from the dense structural framework of MO bonds. After examining the uniformity and reliability of the devices, the solution-patterned inverters are demonstrated using negative-channel metal oxide semiconductors, which show full swing output transfer characteristics and thus provide a promising method for solution-based fabrications of circuits.A comparative study of additive and subtractive approaches are systematically analyzed with wafer-scale solution-processed InGaZnO and InZnO thin film transistor arrays. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies and quantitative 2D device simulations together reveal that the better device performance is attributed to moderate shallow donor-like states (providing electrons) from oxygen vacancy and few accepter-like states (trapping electrons) because of dense structural frame work of MO bonds.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T12:37:49.49491-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700981
  • Recent Advances in Spiro-MeOTAD Hole Transport Material and Its
           Applications in Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
    • Authors: Zafer Hawash; Luis K. Ono, Yabing Qi
      Abstract: 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) hole transport material (HTM) is a milestone in the history of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Proper choice of HTMs is key factor for efficient charge extraction and stability in solar cells. Spiro-MeOTAD is proven to be the most suitable HTM for testing PSCs due to its facile implementation and high performance. Similarly, spiro-MeOTAD is receiving attention in other applications other than in solar cells due to its desirable properties. However, spiro-MeOTAD is under debate regarding the topics of cost-performance, long-term stability, degradation issues (induced by temperature, additives, film quality, and environmental conditions), coating technologies compatibility, reliance on additives, and hysteresis. In this review, the advent of spiro-MeOTAD, and related aforementioned issues about spiro-MeOTAD are discussed. In addition, spiro-MeOTAD properties, alternative and new additives, other applications, and new HTMs that is comparable or outperforms spiro-MeOTAD in PSCs are summarized. In the outlook, the future research directions based on reported results that warrant further investigations are outlined.Spiro-MeOTAD is the most commonly used hole transport material for perovskite solar cells. In this article, various aspects of spiro-MeOTAD including its properties, additives, stability, alternatives, its applications in perovskite solar cells as well as other applications are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T10:15:12.921146-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700623
  • Influence of Dopant Concentration and Steric Bulk on Interlayer Diffusion
           in OLEDs
    • Authors: Jake A. McEwan; Andrew J. Clulow, Andrew Nelson, Renjie Wang, Paul L. Burn, Ian R. Gentle
      Abstract: The performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) can change when they are subjected to thermal stress after manufacture. The effect of heat on OLED film stacks is studied, in which the emissive layer (EML) comprises either a phosphorescent iridium(III) dopant blended in a host at different concentrations or materials with alkyl substituents to increase the steric bulk of the host and/or dopant. Neutron reflectometry with in situ photoluminescence measurements shows that interdiffusion between the emissive and hole transport layers within the films occurs on thermal annealing. Interdiffusion occurs independent of dopant concentration or steric bulk of the EML components. Importantly, when held at relatively low temperatures, the EML materials are found to only partially diffuse into an adjacent charge transport layer. The movement of materials is found to correlate with the change in luminescence from the hole transport material and an initial enhancement of the emission from the iridium(III) dopant. The results provide an explanation for the burn-in often observed for OLEDs as well as the need to change the driving characteristics over time to ensure that pixels can be held at the requisite brightness.Neutron reflectometry with in situ photoluminescence measurements shows that interdiffusion between organic light-emitting diode (OLED) emissive and hole transport layers occurs on thermal annealing. Interdiffusion occurs independent of dopant concentration or steric bulk of the emissive layer components and is correlated with the change in film luminescence. The results provide an explanation for the burn-in often observed for OLEDs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T10:12:52.937411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700872
  • Atomic Layered Titanium Sulfide Quantum Dots as Electrocatalysts for
           Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
    • Authors: Yang Liu; Chenglu Liang, Jingjie Wu, Tiva Sharifi, Hui Xu, Yusuke Nakanishi, Yingchao Yang, Cristiano F. Woellne, Amir Aliyan, Angel A. Martí, Banghu Xie, Robert Vajtai, Wei Yang, Pulickel M. Ajayan
      Abstract: The overall electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction for layered transition metal dichalcogenides is governed by their intrinsic activity, the corresponding density of active sites, and the electron transfer resistance. Here, nanoengineering strategies to scale down both the lateral size and thickness of layered 1T-TiS2 powder to quantum dots (QDs) by bath sonication and probing sonication incision are employed. Uniform lateral size of 3–6 nm in the resulting QDs enhances the density of edge sites while the atomic layer thickness (1–2 nm) facilitates the electron transfer from the substrate to the edge sites. The obtained TiS2 QDs exhibit superior hydrogen evolution reaction activity over TiS2 nanosheets and MoS2 QDs prepared by the same method. The turnover frequency of TiS2 QDs with a small loading of 0.7 ng cm−2 in an optimal deposition on electrode reached ≈2.0 s−1 at an overpotential of −0.2 V versus RHE, several orders of magnitude higher than TiS2 nanosheets (0.01 s−1) and MoS2 QDs (0.07 s−1).The nanoengineering of TiS2 to quantum dots (QDs) increases the active sites of electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction. Compared with TiS2 nanosheets and MoS2 QDs, more active sites and inherent metallicity of TiS2 QDs perform higher turnover frequency reaching to 2.01 s−1.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T10:12:34.87368-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700895
  • Renewable Lanthanide Ionic Liquid/Polymer Composites for High-Efficient
           Adsorption of Particulate Matter
    • Authors: Kang-Xiang Song; Ling He, Lei Zhang, Guo-Hong Tao
      Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is becoming a serious environmental threat to public health globally. The removal of PM, particularly the most harmful PM2.5, is a great challenge for industrialized countries. Hybrid polymer materials have extensive applications in many areas. Herein, types of hybrid polymers obtained from lanthanide ionic liquids and polyvinyl pyrrolidone have excellent PM adsorption capacity especially for PM2.5. The highest adsorption efficiency can exceed 99% for both PM2.5 and PM10. The removal efficiency of PM can be maintained above 90% for 15 h, which can be recycled more than five times without the decline of adsorption efficiency. An introduced luminescent lanthanide can be used to survey the adsorption process by the change of fluorescence intensity. After simple treatment, the PM adsorption capacity of the hybrid polymer can be recovered to be similar with the new one. Besides, the hybrid polymers have favorable thermal stability to adapt to different working conditions. Therefore, the hybrid polymers have potential applications in a high-efficiency and environmental friendly PM removal filter.Hybrid polymer materials based on lanthanide ionic liquids are prepared and applied as potential adsorbing materials for particulate matter (PM) adsorption. Among them, Ln-10PVP can effectively absorb PM2.5 and PM10 in the air with>99% absorption efficiency. The removal efficiency can be maintained above 90% for 15 h. The PM adsorption capacity of Ln-10PVP has no obvious reduction after five times cycle.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T03:31:00.466908-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700448
  • Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells: Marriage of Convenience or True
           Love Story' – An Overview
    • Authors: Jérémie Werner; Bjoern Niesen, Christophe Ballif
      Abstract: Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells have reached efficiencies above 25% in just about three years of development, mostly driven by the rapid progress made in the perovskite solar cell research field. This review aims to give an overview of the achievements made in this timeframe toward the goal of developing high-efficiency perovskite/silicon tandem cells with sufficiently large area and long lifetime to be commercially interesting. The developments that led to the recent progress in tandem cell efficiency, as well as the factors currently still limiting their performance, including parasitic absorption, reflection losses, and the nonideal perovskite absorber layer bandgap, are discussed. Based on this discussion, guidelines for future developments are given. In addition, crucial aspects to enable the commercialization of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells are reviewed, such as device stability and upscaling. Finally, economic considerations show how the number of steps and/or the costs associated to these steps for realizing the perovskite cell must be kept to a minimum to keep up with progress in the field of silicon photovoltaics.Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells have the potential for efficiencies above 30%, at low manufacturing costs. This review article summarizes the development of this emerging technology during recent years, highlighting the progress made on tandem cell performance and analyzing crucial aspects for future developments towards commercialization, such as stability, up-scaling, toxicity, and production costs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:15:58.8064-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700731
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