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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1579 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1579 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 407, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 231, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Advanced Materials Interfaces
  [SJR: 1.177]   [H-I: 10]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-7350
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Tuning the Structure and Ionic Interactions in a Thermochemically Stable
           Hybrid Layered Titanate-Based Nanocomposite for High Temperature Solid
    • Authors: Pablo Gonzalez Rodriguez; Roy Lubbers, Sjoerd A. Veldhuis, Olga Narygina, Walter Lette, Dik J. Schipper, Johan E. ten Elshof
      Abstract: Solid inorganic lubricants are thermally stable but they are often limited by their lack of deformability, while organic lubricants have limitations in terms of thermal stability. In this study, a novel solid organic–inorganic nanocomposite lubricant that synergistically combines the thermochemically stable structure of a layered oxide with the relative softness of an organic polymer is presented. The nanocomposite is made by intercalating 11-aminoundecanoic acid in a lepidocrocite-type protonated titanate, H1.07Ti1.73O4. The amino acid molecules rapidly arrange to form a paraffinic bilayer in the gallery region of the layered host. This topotactic reaction yields a well-organized layered nanocomposite consisting of inorganic 2D titanate layers separated by amino acid molecules. Above elevated temperatures, 11-undecanoic acid polymerizes into nylon-11 confined between crystalline titanate monolayers. The lubricating properties of these nanocomposites up to 580 °C are determined using high-temperature pin-on-disc experiments using steel-steel contacts. The lubricative properties are based on the softening of the intercalated polymer above 200 °C. The encapsulation of the polymer chains by the inorganic titanate monolayers protects the organic component from thermal degradation and increases the thermal stability of the system.A novel layered nanocomposite for high temperature solid lubrication is demonstrated. It combines the thermochemically stable structure of a crystalline layered titanium oxide phase with the relative softness of an organic thermoplast and shows coefficients of friction smaller than 0.1 up to 580 °C.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T07:11:00.574951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700047
  • Phosphorus Nanostripe Arrays on Cu(110): A Case Study to Understand the
           Substrate Effect on the Phosphorus thin Film Growth
    • Authors: Jia Lin Zhang; Songtao Zhao, Shuo Sun, Tianchao Niu, Xiong Zhou, Cheng Ding Gu, Cheng Han, Kai Di Yuan, Rui Guo, Li Wang, Zhenyu Li, Wei Chen
      Abstract: Black phosphorus has attracted significant attention as a new emerging 2D material in recent years. Due to its novel and unique properties, new 2D phosphorus nanostructures have also been predicted by theoretical calculations. However, experimental realization of new phosphorus structures has been rarely reported and remains one major challenge. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate phosphorus growth behaviors on different substrates to unravel the growth mechanism and provides useful guidelines for the selection of suitable substrates to synthesis the desired structure. This study reports a molecular-beam-epitaxial growth of phosphorus on Cu(110) by using bulk black phosphorous crystals as precursor, through the combination of in situ low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Atomically resolved STM image and the corresponding DFT simulations reveal the formation of phosphorus monomers and dimmers locating in the valley of the Cu(110) surface. XPS and Bader charge analysis confirm a significant electron transfer from the Cu(110) substrate to P atoms on top.The growth behavior of phosphorus on Cu(110) is systematically investigated. Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy image and the corresponding density functional theory simulations reveal that phosphorus single atoms and dimers are exclusively generated and deterministically anchored into the valley of the Cu(110) surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Bader charge analysis confirm a significant charge transfer from the Cu(110) substrate to P atoms on top.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T07:10:48.980803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601167
  • Designing an All-Solid-State Tungsten Oxide Based Electrochromic Switch
           with a Superior Cycling Efficiency
    • Authors: Gayathri Prabhu T. Ganesh; Biswapriya Deb
      Abstract: There are ongoing efforts to integrate electrochromic device (ECD) technology with other electrochemical systems. ECDs made with safer “solid” polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are prone to performance degradations due to their high relaxation period that is detrimental to highly dynamic switching operations. Here, the fabrication of partially crystalline WO3 based all-solid-state mono-electrochrome switches is reported that shows outstanding optical and electrical stability under prolonged charge–discharge cycles. A free-standing SPE is specially designed by dispersing LiClO4 into polyvinyl alcohol followed by thermochemical cross-linking of the host. Continuous switching of the device shows two primary sources of performance degradations. One is associated with the polarization affecting both working and counter electrode interfaces (SPE-WE and SPE-CE), and the other is due to the irreversible redox reaction caused by total charge flow in the system that exceeds the double layer charge storage capacity of the CE. The conductivity and flexibility of the electrolyte are improved by adding glycerol as the plasticizer. In the CE, a nanocrystalline porous TiO2 buffer is used to avert the interface modifications. The performance of the switches is presented and compared using the spectro-electrochemical and cyclic voltammetry data.In this paper, the fabrication steps involved in engineering a highly robust WO3/“solid” polymer electrolyte mono-electrochrome switch by tuning the underlying electrolyte chemistry are reported. These switches can be safely used for on-the-spot visual monitoring of charge storage levels. With high charge-discharge cycling stability, these devices also exhibit a broad optical modulation and fast response.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T06:06:15.4668-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700124
  • Radiation Tolerant Interfaces: Influence of Local Stoichiometry at the
           Misfit Dislocation on Radiation Damage Resistance of Metal/Oxide
    • Authors: Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan; Samrat Choudhury, Sandeep Manandhar, Tiffany C. Kaspar, Chongmin Wang, Arun Devaraj, Brian D. Wirth, Suntharampilli Thevuthasan, Richard G. Hoagland, Pratik P. Dholabhai, Blas P. Uberuaga, Richard J. Kurtz
      Abstract: The interaction of radiation with materials controls the performance, reliability, and safety of many structures in nuclear power systems. Revolutionary improvements in radiation damage resistance may be attainable if methods can be found to manipulate interface properties to give optimal interface stability and point defect recombination capability. To understand how variations in interface properties such as misfit dislocation density and local chemistry affect radiation-induced defect absorption and recombination, a model system of metallic CrxV1−x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) epitaxial films deposited on MgO(001) single crystal substrates has been explored. By controlling film composition, the lattice mismatch between the film and MgO is adjusted to vary the misfit dislocation density at the metal/oxide interface. The stability of these interfaces under various irradiation conditions is studied experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that, unlike at metal/metal interfaces, the misfit dislocation density does not dominate radiation damage tolerance at metal/oxide interfaces. Rather, the stoichiometry and the location of the misfit dislocation extra half-plane (in the metal or the oxide) drive radiation-induced defect behavior. Together, these results demonstrate the sensitivity of defect recombination to interfacial chemistry and provide new avenues for engineering radiation-tolerant nanomaterials for next-generation nuclear power plants.By controlling CrxV1−x alloy film composition, the lattice mismatch with MgO single crystal is adjusted so that the misfit dislocation density varies at the epitaxial CrxV1−x alloy film/MgO interface. These interfaces are exposed to irradiation and in situ and ex situ results show that the film with a semicoherent interface withstands irradiation up to 100 dpa.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T06:06:01.889381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700037
  • Surfactant-Free Synthesis of Graphene-Supported PdCu Nanocrystals with
           High Alloying Degree as Highly Active Catalyst for Formic Acid
    • Authors: Shuni Li; Yanan Zhai, Xinyi Zhang, Douglas R. MacFarlane
      Abstract: In recent years, graphene/metal nanocrystal hybrids have attracted tremendous attention in catalysis and electrocatalysis. This work demonstrates a surfactant-free coprecipitation/coreduction method to synthesize graphene-supported nanocrystalline PdCu (PdCu/GN) hybrids with high alloying degree. The strong interaction between graphene oxide and metal hydrates results in uniform precipitation on the graphene oxide surface, which plays a critical role in excellent dispersion and high alloying degree of PdCu nanocrystals. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements show that nanocrystalline PdCu/GN hybrids have higher activity and durability than commercial Pd/C catalyst for the formic acid oxidation reaction.A surfactant-free coprecipitation/coreduction method is developed for the synthesis of graphene-supported nanocrystalline PdCu (PdCu/GN) hybrids. The strong interaction between graphene oxide and metal hydrates results in uniform precipitation on the graphene oxide surface. The nanocrystalline PdCu/GN hybrids exhibit higher activity and durability than commercial Pd/C catalyst for the formic acid oxidation reaction.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T06:00:56.754334-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700227
  • A General Surface Swelling-Induced Electroless Deposition Strategy for
           Fast Fabrication of Copper Circuits on Various Polymer Substrates
    • Authors: Xueyan Sun; Lijing Zhang, Shengyang Tao, Yongxian Yu, Sijie Li, Han Wang, Jieshan Qiu
      Abstract: A universal, surface swelling-induced strategy-based facile electroless deposition method is developed to prepare copper circuits on various polymer substrates. The circuits are grown on silver catalytic centers written in the form of set patterns, rather than via standard reducing material manufacturing, and can be easily erased and repeatedly deposited three times with only a 15% decrease in conductivity. Polymers with different hardness and flexibility are selected as circuit base boards. In addition to hard acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resins, a flexible polyimide-based copper circuit yields excellent flexural performance, whereas a stretchable silicon rubber-based circuit exhibits different response to different ranges of finger motions. These results demonstrate the significant advantages of this new strategy—namely, low cost, simple operation, and versatility, showing its great potential in the field of flexible electronics.A surface swelling-induced electroless deposition strategy is developed to prepare copper (Cu) circuits on various polymer substrates. The circuits are grown on silver centers in pre-designed patterns and can be easily erased and repeatedly deposited three times with only a 15% decrease in conductivity. The Cu-Polyimide shows excellent flexibility and Cu-Silicon rubber exhibits high bending resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T06:00:47.680882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700052
  • Electrospun Porous Perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Co1–xFexO3–δ Nanofibers for
           Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction
    • Authors: Dongxing Zhen; Bote Zhao, Heon-Cheol Shin, Yunfei Bu, Yong Ding, Gaohong He, Meilin Liu
      Abstract: A series of porous La0.6Sr0.4Co1–xFexO3–δ (x = 0–1) nanofibers with diameters of 54–71 nm are synthesized by electrospinning using appropriate polymers and different processing parameters. When tested as a catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), an La0.6Sr0.4Co0.6Fe0.4O3–δ (LSCF6464) nanofiber catalyst (with a specific surface area of 24.2 m2 g−1) exhibits a potential (vs Ag/AgCl) of 647 mV at 10 mA cm−2disk, which is much smaller than that of a powder-type commercial LSCF (786 mV) and also smaller than that of the state-of-the-art IrO2 catalysts (660 mV). The LSCF6464 nanofiber catalyst further delivers an outstanding durability, with almost no observable change in potential at a current density of 10 mA cm−2disk for more than 3 h. In contrast, the performance of an IrO2 catalyst degrades continuously under the same testing conditions. The findings suggest that the LSCF nanofiber is a promising OER electrocatalyst for metal–air batteries and water electrolysis.A series of porous La0.6Sr0.4Co1–xFexO3–δ (x = 0–1) nanofibers is successfully prepared by electrospinning as catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction. The La0.6Sr0.4Co0.6Fe0.4O3–δ nanofiber catalyst exhibits higher activity and better durability than those of the state-of-the-art IrO2 catalyst.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T01:03:11.157882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700146
  • Low Temperature Epitaxial Barium Titanate Thin Film Growth in High Vacuum
    • Authors: Michael Reinke; Yury Kuzminykh, Felix Eltes, Stefan Abel, Thomas LaGrange, Antonia Neels, Jean Fompeyrine, Patrik Hoffmann
      Abstract: Barium titanate is a promising perovskite material, exhibiting numerous materials properties advantageous for a range of applications, such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, a high dielectric constant, and large electrooptic coefficients. It represents a potential candidate for the implementation of high bandwidth and low energy consuming modulators for optical communication in future integrated systems. Integration of the optical components with electronic circuits on silicon requires, however, suitable low temperature deposition processes for the growth of high quality epitaxial BaTiO3 films, which are still missing. For integration of novel materials into the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor platform, a variety of prerequisites must be fulfilled; among them there is a strict limitation of the thermal budget of the growth process. Furthermore, high growth rates are desirable for enhanced throughput. Many chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes allow growing thin films at high rates, but epitaxial BaTiO3 film formation typically requires high substrate temperatures. It is demonstrated that high vacuum CVD is capable of growing epitaxial barium titanate films on magnesium oxide, strontium titanate, and strontium titanate buffered silicon substrates at process temperatures of 400 °C and growth rates of up to 100 nm h−1 without the need of an additional annealing step; this is the lowest substrate temperature reported for a CVD processes.Epitaxial barium titanate thin films are grown by a low temperature chemical vapor deposition process at high growth rates. Low temperature processes are important for the integration of barium titanate into complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology; here it can act as base component for high performance electrooptic modulators, an important part of optical communication on chip.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T01:03:06.38798-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700116
  • In Situ Growth of Ceria on Cerium–Nitrogen–Carbon as Promoter for
           Oxygen Evolution Reaction
    • Authors: Bingkai Wang; Pinxian Xi, Changfu Shan, Hao Chen, Huajie Xu, Kanwal Iqbal, Weisheng Liu, Yu Tang
      Abstract: Rational design and controlled synthesis of a promoter is a unique and more widely applicable approach to materials development for significant energy applications such as electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction. This study reports a novel promoter based on ceria in situ growth on cerium–nitrogen–carbon (CeO2@CeNC) for an oxygen evolution electrocatalyst. Composited with NiFe-LDH (optimal mass ratio of layer double hydroxide (LDH) and CeO2@CeNC is 2), the hybrid material (NiFe-LDH/CeO2@CeNC) exhibits excellent activity for oxygen evolution superior to those of most nickel-based catalysts and commercial Ir/C (20%) benchmark, achieving current densities of 10 mA cm−2 and 100 mA cm−2 at overpotentials of 235 and 430 mV, respectively. Introducing Ce is the key for the hybrid material with superior activity. This advance might provide some new ideas for the development of new high-efficiency electrocatalysts by assembling promoters for electrochemical water oxidation.In situ growth of ceria on cerium–nitrogen–carbon is demonstrated as a promoter for enhancing the oxygen evolution reaction performance of NiFe-LDH. Ce acts a key role for this system, which exhibits the high activity even outperforming commercial Ir/C (20%), as well as many state-of-the-art nickel-based catalysts, achieving current densities of 10 mA cm−2 at overpotentials of 235 mV.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T01:02:55.649532-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700272
  • Ultralow Friction and Wear of Polymer Composites under Extreme
           Unlubricated Sliding Conditions
    • Authors: Huimin Qi; Ga Zhang, Li Chang, Fuyan Zhao, Tingmei Wang, Qihua Wang
      Abstract: Dependence of the tribological behaviors of polyimide- and polyetheretherketone-based composites on pv (pressure × speed) factors is investigated in air ambience. It is demonstrated that the hybrid composites filled with nanosilica/carbon fibers/graphite exhibit ultralow friction and wear under extreme conditions. In particular, the friction coefficients of the hybrid nanocomposites at 40 MPa m s−1 are in the range of 0.03–0.04, which are even lower than those obtained with poly alpha olefin lubrication. Moreover, the friction coefficients are lower than those of carbon fibers reinforced polymer composites ever reported in literatures. In order to reveal the underlying mechanisms of ultralow friction and wear, tribochemistry and tribofilms' nanostructures are comprehensively analyzed. It is identified that chelation of polymeric molecular radicals with steel counterface occurs enhancing tribofilm's bonding strength. Striking orientation of the molecules of remnant polymer in tribofilm is indicative that the film exhibits an easy-to-shear characteristic under extreme pv conditions. Nanosilica released onto sliding interface and iron oxide particles abraded from the counterface are thereafter tribosintered into a compact layer, which accounts for the high load-carrying capability of the tribofilm.Chelation of polymeric molecular radicals with steel counterface enhances tribofilm's bonding strength. Mechanical mixing of various wear products leads to the formation of the silica-based tribofilm, which allows for a high load-carrying capability of this tribofilm. High orientation of the molecules of remnant polymer in tribofilm is indicative that the film exhibits an easy-to-shear characteristic under extreme pv conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T01:02:39.38486-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601171
  • Undressing a Water Marble on Oil Film
    • Authors: Xiao F. Jiang; Chunying Zhu, Youguang Ma, Huai Z. Li
      Abstract: Due to a great contact angle with substrate as well as low resistance to motion and stable structure of superhydrophobic powder shell, liquid marbles display attractive potential for easy actuation and manipulation. This work shows the dynamical behavior of a rolling liquid marble on oil film. Static liquid marbles display a much larger contact angle than water drops on an oil film. When liquid marbles move on oil film, three consecutive stages are observed. The first stage exhibits a linear relationship versus the remaining time, implying that liquid marbles are rolling on oil film and the attached particles are multilayer. When the particles become locally monolayer, the transient stage begins and the advancing angle is much larger than receding angle. At this time, liquid marble is sliding rather than rolling. Finally, liquid marble is captured by oil film and spreads to be a cap owing to the liquid–liquid contact. This work introduces an approach to partially undress particle layers and disintegrate liquid marbles, expecting to facilitate the optical probing from the transparent bottom of liquid marbles.The dynamical behavior of a rolling water marble on oil film is investigated here. The enveloping superhydrophobic particles are progressively undressed to immobilize the water drop by liquid–liquid friction contact. Three consecutive stages are observed: linear, transient, and attaching. The capture efficiency of water marbles tends to increase with the oil viscosity and decreases with the water drop volume.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T01:02:21.976091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700193
  • Nanocone Decorated ZnO Microspheres Exposing the (0001) Plane and Enhanced
           Photocatalytic Properties
    • Authors: Heather F. Greer; Wuzong Zhou, Guan Zhang, Hervé Ménard
      Abstract: ZnO spherical particles exposing only the (0001) planes are prepared by an established solvothermal method using a water–ethylene glycol (EG) mix as a solvent. It is found that poorly crystalline nanoparticles form first, followed by their aggregation into microspheres consisting of crystallites embedded in EG and precursor molecules/ions. The grown up nanocrystallites and nanocones in the microspheres are all radially aligned. The possible formation mechanisms, in particular, the roles of water molecules, EG, and the intrinsic dipolar field of ZnO crystals, are discussed. X-ray photoelecton spectroscopy experiments indicate that the spherical particles are terminated solely by zinc atoms. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurements in conjunction with the degradation of methylene blue dye data demonstrate that the photocatalytic performance of the ZnO spheres depends on the growth time and is significantly improved compared to traditional ZnO nanorods. This study is a rare example which combines nanostructural characterization of ZnO particles terminated with a single (0001) plane of known Zn2+-polarity with their photocatalytic performance.ZnO spherical particles exposing only Zn2+–(0001) polar planes are prepared via a solvothermal route using a water–ethylene glycol solvent mix. The roles of water molecules, ethylene glycol, and the intrinsic dipolar field of ZnO crystals are discussed. BET measurements in conjunction with the degradation of methylene blue dye data demonstrate their enhanced photocatalytic performance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T00:56:09.352871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601238
  • Contents: (Adv. Mater. Interfaces 8/2017)
    • PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:49:42.736845-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201770037
  • Thin Films: Engineering of Functional Manganites Grown by MOCVD for
           Miniaturized Devices (Adv. Mater. Interfaces 8/2017)
    • Authors: Dolors Pla; Carmen Jimenez, Mónica Burriel
      Abstract: Engineered manganite thin films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition show fascinating optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. These key functionalities convert manganite perovskites in promising materials for the development of novel miniaturized devices. Mónica Burriel and co-workers report state-of-the-art research activities in this field in article number 1600974.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:49:42.658379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201770041
  • Perovskites: Endless Source of “Functionalities”
    • Authors: Graziella Malandrino
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:49:42.563112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700306
  • Perovskites and Related Structures: MOCVD Growth of Perovskite
           Multiferroic BiFeO3 Films: The Effect of Doping at the A and/or B Sites on
           the Structural, Morphological and Ferroelectric Properties (Adv. Mater.
           Interfaces 8/2017)
    • Authors: Maria Rita Catalano; Giuseppe Spedalotto, Guglielmo Guido Condorelli, Graziella Malandrino
      Abstract: Perovskites and related structures, ABX3, represent an amazing class of materials due to the huge variety of functional properties they may possess as a consequence of the great flexibility in selecting the A and B cations. Thus we can consider perovskites as a Saint Patrick's well of functionalities, where we can pick up the properties we want by tailoring the perovskite composition. Graziella Malandrino, Professor of inorganic chemistry at the Università degli Studi di Catania, has worked on perovskites since 1990, starting on TlBaCaCuO high Tc superconducting films, and is the guest editor of this Special Issue Section.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:49:42.504837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201770038
  • Physisorption: Effect of Graphene Oxidation Rate on Adsorption of
           Poly-Thymine Single Stranded DNA (Adv. Mater. Interfaces 8/2017)
    • Authors: Ho Shin Kim; Barry L. Farmer, Yaroslava G. Yingling
      Abstract: In article number 1601168, Ho Shin Kim, Yaroslava G. Yingling, and co-workers investigate the effect of graphene oxidation on the adsorption of poly-thymine single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) via all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The cover illustrates the conformational changes of folded ssDNA on graphene and graphene oxide surfaces. This study found that oxidation rate of graphene surface is correlated to the ssDNA structural stability.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:49:41.183438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201770036
  • Masthead: (Adv. Mater. Interfaces 8/2017)
    • PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:49:39.672692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201770040
  • Masthead: (Adv. Mater. Interfaces 8/2017)
    • PubDate: 2017-04-21T06:49:39.610218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201770039
  • Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes Supported on Macroporous Carbon
           Hollow Fibers by Fluidic Processing Techniques
    • Authors: Kiwon Eum; Chen Ma, Dong-Yeun Koh, Fereshteh Rashidi, Zhong Li, Christopher W. Jones, Ryan P. Lively, Sankar Nair
      Abstract: This study addresses the challenge of generalizable fabrication of metal-organic framework (particularly zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF)) hollow fiber membranes that can allow a broader range of separations including hydrocarbon (“petrochemical”) as well as organics/water (“biorefining”) separations. We report a novel strategy that combines fluidic membrane processing with chemically inert carbon hollow fibers to produce robust ZIF membranes. Macroporous carbon hollow fibers are successfully fabricated by pyrolytic conversion of cross-linked polymer hollow fibers. This step allows the use of a wide range of relatively aggressive fluidic processing solvents and conditions. Using these inert fiber supports, the fabrication of ZIF-90 membranes is demonstrated and their butane isomer separations are investigated for the first time. Furthermore, ZIF membranes on carbon hollow fibers can be used in the separation of water/organic mixtures without the issue of fiber swelling or dissolution as seen in ZIF/polymer hollow fiber membranes. ZIF-8/carbon membranes show stable operation spanning several days for dehydration of furfural and ethanol, with high water permeances and separation factors. In all cases, the ZIF membranes are prepared without any seeding, support modification, or postsynthesis procedures, thereby simplifying the fabrication process and increasing the potential for larger-scale membrane fabrication.Robust and selective zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes are synthesized by interfacial fluidic processing on macroporous carbon fibers. Such a generalized ZIF membrane synthesis process overcomes issues of stability and enables the use of ZIF membranes in a wide range of molecular separations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T08:21:41.773636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700080
  • Porous Co3V2O8 Nanosheets with Ultrahigh Performance as Anode Materials
           for Lithium Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Qiang Zhang; Jian Pei, Gang Chen, Changfeng Bie, Jingxue Sun, Jian Liu
      Abstract: In order to realize high performance electrode for long-lived lithium ion batteries (LIBs), engineering microstructures of electrode materials, especially porous, hollow, and hierarchical nanostructures, holds great promise in preventing the capacity fading stem from mechanical stress and volume change. Here, this paper reports a facile strategy to fabricate porous Co3V2O8 nanosheets with large surface-to-volume ratio via a dehydration process using Co2V2O7·3.3H2O as precursor. Benefiting from layer-to-layer nanosheets with mesoporous structure created form electrochemical reconstruction, the Co3V2O8 electrode exhibits ever-increasing lithium storage capacity after a period of fading. When cycled at high current density of 1 A g−1, it demonstrates an unprecedented rate capacity with long cycle stability (2190 mAh g−1 after 750 cycles). This paper emphasizes the synergetic effect of in situ electrochemical reconstruction and interfacial lithium storage, which not only offers a new conception for understanding the self-recover capacity phenomenon, but also opens up possibilities for designing high-performance electrodes for LIBs.Porous Co3V2O8 nanosheets show excellent electrochemical performance with an ultrahigh capacity of 2190 mAh g−1 due to the synergetic mechanism of in situ electrochemical reconstruction and interfacial lithium storage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T07:21:59.546812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700054
  • Controllable Superhydrophobic Coating on Cotton Fabric by UV Induced
           Thiol-ene Reaction for Wettability Patterning and Device Metallization
    • Authors: Shu Deng; Jianying Huang, Zhong Chen, Yuekun Lai
      Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces in nature have attracted a great deal of interest not only for fundamental understanding but also for practical applications through mimicking the nature. Fluorochemicals, due to their intrinsic low surface energy, have been widely applied as artificial superhydrophobic functionalization materials with excellent performance. However, the use of these materials for practical applications might be restricted due to the relative high cost and potential hazards to human health. In this work, a low-cost and environmentally friendly short silane chain material is developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces. A transparent photoactive coating is obtained by polycondensation of trichlorovinylsilane on cotton fabrics. The coating shows excellent superhydrophobicity. After being grafted with vinyl group, the coating can be easily functionalized using a photoclick thiol-ene reaction. The thiol-ene reaction has resulted in highly uniform polymer networks, which makes it possible to realize the rapid wettability switch from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic state. Such ability makes it potentially viable to prepare well-defined cotton patterning by printing, and realize flexible electronic devices when electrodes are printed on the fabrics.A special controllable superhydrophobic surface is constructed on cotton fabric. After thiol treatment and UV irradiation, the surface quickly changes to superhydrophilic state. The fast wettabiltiy switch can be applied for surface patterning and device metallization.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T07:21:52.949349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700268
  • Abrasion-Resistant, Hot Water-Repellent and Self-Cleaning Superhydrophobic
           Surfaces Fabricated by Electrophoresis of Nanoparticles in
           Electrodeposited Sol–Gel Films
    • Authors: Xue-Fen Zhang; Ji-Peng Zhao, Ji-Ming Hu
      Abstract: The present work reports on a new strategy for fabrication of mechanically stable and environmental-friendly superhydrophobic surfaces. First, a novel cost-effective approach is developed to synthesize superhydrophobic SiO2 (SH-SiO2) nanoparticles at room temperature through the reaction between the surface reactive groups on commercial SiO2 nanoparticles and the long-chain alkyl fluorine-free organosilane. Then, the superhydrophobic films are constructed by electrophoresis of SH-SiO2 nanoparticles into a matrix of robust and highly porous electrodeposited silica film. The as-prepared superhydrophobic composite surfaces exhibit high abrasion resistance, excellent repellency even to hot water droplet, and good self-cleaning properties in either air or oil environment.A new moderate synthesis route is developed to fabricate superhydrophobic SiO2 (SH-SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Robust superhydrophobic films are constructed by embedding the above SH-SiO2 NPs into electrochemically generated SiO2 (e-SiO2) film skeleton under the additional driving force of electrophoresis. The superhydrophobic films show improved abrasion resistance, excellent repellency to hot water, and self-cleaning properties in either air or oil.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T07:21:43.025371-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700177
  • Large-Area 2D Layered MoTe2 by Physical Vapor Deposition and Solid-Phase
           Crystallization in a Tellurium-Free Atmosphere
    • Authors: Jyun-Hong Huang; Kuang-Ying Deng, Pang-Shiuan Liu, Chien-Ting Wu, Cheng-Tung Chou, Wen-Hao Chang, Yao-Jen Lee, Tuo-Hung Hou
      Abstract: Molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) has attracted considerable interest for nanoelectronic, optoelectronic, spintronic, and valleytronic applications because of its modest band gap, high field-effect mobility, large spin–orbit-coupling splitting, and tunable 1T′/2H phases. However, synthesizing large-area, high-quality MoTe2 remains challenging. The complicated design of gas-phase reactant transport and reaction for chemical vapor deposition or tellurization is nontrivial because of the weak bonding energy between Mo and Te. This study reports a new method for depositing MoTe2 that entails using physical vapor deposition followed by a postannealing process in a Te-free atmosphere. Both Mo and Te are physically deposited onto the substrate by sputtering a MoTe2 target. A composite SiO2 capping layer is designed to prevent Te sublimation during the postannealing process. The postannealing process facilitates 1T′-to-2H phase transition and solid-phase crystallization, leading to the formation of high-crystallinity few-layer 2H-MoTe2 with a field-effect mobility of ≈10 cm2 V−1 s−1, the highest among all nonexfoliated 2H-MoTe2 currently reported. Furthermore, 2H-MoS2 and Td-WTe2 can be deposited using similar methods. Requiring no transfer or chemical reaction of metal and chalcogen reactants in the gas phase, the proposed method is potentially a general yet simple approach for depositing a wide variety of large-area, high-quality, 2D layered structures.Physical vapor deposition followed by a postannealing process in a Te-free atmosphere is developed to deposit high-crystallinity 2H-molybdenum ditelluride with a high field-effect mobility. The proposed method is potentially a general yet simple approach for depositing a wide variety of large-area, high-quality, 2D layered structures.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T07:21:35.785055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700157
  • The Formation and Evolution of Creased Morphologies Using Reactive
           Diffusion in Ultrathin Polymer Brush Platforms
    • Authors: Karson Brooks; Mir Jalil Razavi, Evan M. White, Xianqiao Wang, Jason Locklin
      Abstract: Precisely controlling the morphology in thin film coatings has emerged as an important tool used to tune surface properties in a wide variety of applications. Previously, a method is reported to fabricate nanoscale surface creases with a high degree of control over crease size and shape using microcontact printing to perform post-polymerization modification on reactive polymer brush surfaces. In this work, this approach has been expanded to manipulate crease morphology in reactive thin films, using only a drop of a reactive, viscous polymer, and crease formation has been investigated with a combination of experimental observations and computational validations. The effects of various rate constants of the reactive polymer brush scaffold, hydrostatic pressure within the droplet of reactive polymer, diffusion profile, and the evolution of the creased morphologies with reaction time are examined in order to better understand crease formation in ultrathin films.Creases are fabricated and controlled in reactive polymer brush platforms through manipulation of experimental variables including reaction time and reactivity of the polymer brush platform. This lends greater understanding to crease formation in reactive thin polymer films.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T07:21:30.151203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700084
  • Low-Temperature Plasma Processing of Platinum Porphyrins for the
           Development of Metal Nanostructured Layers
    • Authors: Alejandro Nicolas Filippin; Juan Ramon Sanchez-Valencia, Jesús Idígoras, Manuel Macias-Montero, Maria Alcaire, Francisco Javier Aparicio, Juan Pedro Espinos, Carmen Lopez-Santos, Fabian Frutos, Angel Barranco, Juan Antonio Anta, Ana Borras
      Abstract: This article establishes the bases for a vacuum and plasma supported methodology for the fabrication at mild temperatures of nanostructured platinum in the form of porous layers and nanocolumns using platinum octaethylporphyrin as precursor. In addition, the application of these materials as tunable optical filters and nano-counterelectrodes is proved. On one hand, the transparency in the ultraviolet–visible–near infrared range can be adjusted precisely between 70% and 1% by tuning the deposition and processing conditions, obtaining a high spectral planarity. Deviations of the spectra from an ideal flat filter are below 4%, paving the way to the fabrication of neutral density filters. The transparency limit values yield a sheet resistivity of ≈1350 and 120 Ω □−1, respectively. On the other hand, the catalytic properties of the nanostructures are further demonstrated by their implementation as counterelectrodes of excitonic solar cells surpassing the performance of commercial platinum as counterelectrode in a 20% of the overall cell efficiency due to simultaneous enhancement of short-circuit photocurrent and open-circuit photovoltage. One of the most interesting features of the developed methodology is its straightforward application to other metal porphyrins and phthalocyanines readily sublimable under mild vacuum and temperature conditions.A low-temperature approach for the development of tunable optical filters and platinum nanoelectrodes is presented. The fabrication is carried out by vacuum and plasma processing of the platinum octaethylporphyrin precursor. Nanostructured counterelectrodes have been tested within an excitonic solar cell demonstrating a superior catalytic performance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:21:18.931023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601233
  • Direct Synthesis of Electrowettable Carbon Nanowall–Diamond Hybrid
           Materials from Sacrificial Ceramic Templates Using HFCVD
    • Authors: Eduardo L. Silva; Yogendra Kumar Mishra, António J. S. Fernandes, Rui F. Silva, Julian Strobel, Lorenz Kienle, Rainer Adelung, Filipe J. Oliveira, Mikhail L. Zheludkevich
      Abstract: Carbon-on-carbon materials carry the potential to be a major disruptive technology in fields like energy storage and electronics. In the present work, hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) is used to synthesize carbon nanowall (CNW) tetrapods coupled to nanocrystalline diamond in a 3D hybrid network form. The CNW/diamond phase proportion as well as the structural morphology can be easily adjusted by the CVD parameters, allowing a single-step synthesis of CNW micro- and nanopillars or CNW/diamond 3D hybrid materials, in the powder form or as interconnected free-standing specimens. Additionally, the direct incorporation of SnO2 catalyst particles during the one-step CVD process is demonstrated. µ-Raman and electron microscopy are used to understand the evolution of the morphological characteristics associated to the growth mechanism. The electrowettability behavior of the novel CNW/diamond hybrid material is demonstrated by electrochemical polarization studies. Such multifunctional carbon-based hybrid 3D nanomaterials can find promising applications in advanced technologies such as energy storage.The fabrication of 3D hybrid carbon materials is presented, with carbon nanowalls (CNW)-on-diamond as main focus. To the knowledge, this is the first time that such coupling between CNW and diamond is demonstrated. These carbon hybrids are disclosed in the powder form or as interconnected free-standing specimens, while showing also the possibility of direct incorporation of SnO2 catalyst particles.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T06:35:57.364935-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700019
  • A Novel Approach to Fabricate Protective Layered Double Hydroxide Films on
           the Surface of Anodized Mg-Al Alloy
    • Authors: Gen Zhang; Liang Wu, Aitao Tang, Shuo Zhang, Bo Yuan, Zhicheng Zheng, Fusheng Pan
      Abstract: In this work, anodic films consisted of a mixed oxide of aluminum and magnesium are developed on magnesium alloy by anodizing process. Then, MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) films are prepared by using this anodic film as a source of cations, without the introduction of any kinds of trivalent metal salts. After that, inhibitor anions of vanadate are intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LDHs through anion-exchange process. LDH conversion films are investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrum, X-ray diffractometer, and Fourier transform infrared, respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance of LDH conversion films are studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in NaCl solution, respectively. The results show that uniform and fine LDH films are successfully fabricated by using only anodic films, and the pores in anodic films are successfully sealed by LDHs. Moreover, the vanadate loaded LDHs exhibit better corrosion resistance compared to LDHs without vanadate.Magnesium alloy of low Al is anodized in a mixture solution of NaOH and NaAlO2. The obtained anodic film is used as the source of cations to fabricate Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs), without the introduction of any kind of extra trivalent cations. The pores in anodic film are successfully sealed by LDHs and the vanadate loaded LDH film exhibits better corrosion resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T03:01:18.352335-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700163
  • Redox-Additive-Enhanced High Capacitance Supercapacitors Based on Co2P2O7
    • Authors: Ziyauddin Khan; Baskar Senthilkumar, Seongdong Lim, Ravi Shanker, Youngsik Kim, Hyunhyub Ko
      Abstract: Cobalt pyrophosphate (Co2P2O7) has emerged as an attractive material due to its high specific energy and redox behavior of cobalt, however, problems associated with its poor specific capacitance and cyclic stability have prevented its realization. Here, the authors circumvent these problems by hydrothermally synthesizing layered Co2P2O7 nanosheets (lateral size ≈300 nm with average thickness ≈15 nm) and demonstrate significant improvements in the specific capacitance of Co2P2O7 nanosheets by the addition of a redox additive (K3Fe(CN)6) into KOH aqueous electrolyte. Without the additive, Co2P2O7 nanosheets show specific capacitance of 286 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 current density. However, by introducing 0.1 m redox additive to the electrolyte the specific capacitance of Co2P2O7 nanosheets increased more than twofolds (580 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 current density), which is due to the improvement of redox reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the enhanced ionic conductivity of electrolyte. Furthermore, with the redox additive, Co2P2O7 nanosheets show an excellent cyclic stability (96% retention of its initial capacitance) and coulombic efficiency (99% retention) up to 5000 cycles at high current density 10 A g−1.Cobalt pyrophosphate nanosheets, synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, are studied for supercapacitor application in aqueous electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of nanosheets is enhanced more than twice using low amount of redox additive. With redox additive, prepared nanosheets display 580 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 current density in 0.68 V potential window with exceptional cyclic stability up to 5000 cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T03:00:53.629185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700059
  • One-Pot Fabrication of Hollow Polymer@Ag Nanospheres for Printable
           Translucent Conductive Coatings
    • Authors: Sajjad Husain Mir; Bungo Ochiai
      Abstract: Development of printable conductive inks for applications in printable electronics by facile methods is important. Here, this study demonstrates a robust and facile one-pot approach for printable polymer@Ag nanospheres with well-defined hollow morphology. The polymer@Ag nanospheres are fabricated through metal-complexation induced phase separation assisted by a functionalized graft copolymer consisting of an Ag-complexing stem chain and side chains for stabilization of the nanosphere. Enough length of the grafted chains is necessary to attain the formation of the hollow polymer@Ag nanosphere. Translucent thin layers with excellent conductivity can be obtained by spray-coating of the nanostructure dispersion on a glass substrate. Translucent grid patterns with excellent horizontal conductivity (8.5 × 105 S m−1) on multiple substrates are also prepared by ink-jet printing without annealing.A translucent printable coating of hollow AgNP/polymer nanospheres with conductivity of 8.5 × 105 S m−1 is developed through a facile one-pot protocol. Hollow AgNP/polymer nanospherers are constructed through metal-complexation induced phase separation in functionalized graft copolymer. The nanosphere ink can be inkjet printed on multiple substrates without removing of organic parts.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T03:00:33.125271-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601198
  • Anisotropic Wetting of Water on Patterned Asymmetric Nanostructure Arrays
    • Authors: Peng Ge; Shuli Wang, Wendong Liu, Tieqiang Wang, Nianzuo Yu, Peihong Xue, Hongxu Chen, Huaizhong Shen, Junhu Zhang, Bai Yang
      Abstract: This paper reports the directional wetting behavior of water on a patterned heterogeneous surface, which is integrated by two asymmetric nanostructures with different directions. The asymmetric nanostructures are Janus silicon cylinder arrays (Si-CAs) modified by molecules with distinct surface energies on two sides. Through a photolithography process, the two asymmetric nanostructures are integrated in a single surface to form chessboard patterns with different directions. When water is injected onto the patterned surface, water droplets wet in a unidirectional manner, and the wetting direction is along resultant direction of the two wetting directions of water on the two asymmetric patterns. This paper investigates the factors which may influence the wetting behavior of water on the surface, experimental results show that patterned asymmetric surfaces prepared from different chessboard pattern size, Si-CAs with different diameters, and different morphology-symmetric structures do not affect the wetting property, but the molecules modified on two sides do. Larger surface energy difference between the modified molecules improves the ability of the surfaces induce water moving. It is believed that the patterned asymmetric nanostructure arrays provide a new strategy to modulate the wetting behavior of water, which will show potential applications in microfluidics and others involving unidirectional liquid manipulation.Two asymmetric nanostructures arrays with different directions are integrated in a single surface. Water shows unidirectional wetting on it toward resultant direction of the two wetting directions, which provides a strategy to modulate the wetting behavior of water.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T10:51:53.017387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700034
  • Correlation of Optical Properties, Electronic Structure, and
           Photocatalytic Activity in Nanostructured Tungsten Oxide
    • Authors: Min Ling; Christopher S. Blackman, Robert G. Palgrave, Carlos Sotelo-Vazquez, Andreas Kafizas, Ivan P. Parkin
      Abstract: Tungsten trioxide nanorod arrays are deposited using aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition. The electronic structure, defect chemistry, optical bandgap, and photocatalytic activity are found to vary progressively with nanorod length. Nanorods less than 1 µm in length show a widening of the optical bandgap (up to 3.1 eV), more disorder states within the bandgap, an absence of reduced tungsten cation states, and increased photocatalytic activity for destruction of a test organic pollutant (stearic acid) compared to nanorods of 2 µm length or greater which possessed bandgaps close to the bulk value for tungsten oxide (2.6–2.8 eV), the presence of reduced tungsten states (W4+), and lower photocatalytic activity. The results indicate that for maximum photocatalytic performance in organic pollutant degradation, tungsten oxide should be engineered such that the bandgap is widened relative to bulk WO3 to a value above 3 eV; although less photons are expected be absorbed, increases in the overpotential for oxidation reactions appear to more than offset this loss. It is also desirable to ensure the material remains defect free, or the defect concentration minimized, to minimize carrier recombination.The electronic structure, defect chemistry, optical bandgap, and photocatalytic activity are found to vary progressively with nanorod length and width of tungsten trioxide nanorod arrays deposited using aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T09:59:14.532281-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700064
  • Growth-Induced Strain in Chemical Vapor Deposited Monolayer MoS2:
           Experimental and Theoretical Investigation
    • Authors: Satender Kataria; Stefan Wagner, Teresa Cusati, Alessandro Fortunelli, Giuseppe Iannaccone, Himadri Pandey, Gianluca Fiori, Max C. Lemme
      Abstract: Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising 2D material for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. The large-area growth of MoS2 has been demonstrated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a wide range of deposition temperatures from 600 to 1000 °C. However, a direct comparison of growth parameters and resulting material properties has not been made so far. Here, a systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of optical properties of monolayer MoS2 grown at different temperatures is presented. Micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal observable inhomogeneities in optical properties of the as-grown single crystalline grains of MoS2. Close examination of the Raman and PL features clearly indicate that growth-induced strain is the main source of distinct optical properties. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to describe the interaction of growing MoS2 layers with the growth substrate as the origin of strain. This work explains the variation of bandgap energies of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2, extracted using PL spectroscopy, as a function of deposition temperature. The methodology has general applicability to model and predict the influence of growth conditions on strain in 2D materials.Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence data of chemical vapor deposited single-layer MoS2 are found to be dependent on the growth temperature. Experiments and simulations reveal that the observed changes in optical properties can be attributed to growth-induced strain via substrate interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T09:56:35.787282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700031
  • An Efficient Route to Polymeric Electrolyte Membranes with Interparticle
           Chain Microstructure Toward High-Temperature Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Luhan Ye; Xinyi Shi, Zuoxiang Zhang, Jingna Liu, Xian Jian, Muhammad Waqas, Weidong He
      Abstract: The application of current polymer lithium-ion batteries is still challenged with the limited electrochemical performance and thermal stability of polymeric electrolyte membranes as battery separators. In this report, an efficient route to polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene electrolyte membranes with interparticle chain microstructure is presented. The structure is capable of hosting sufficient electrolyte for efficient migration of electrolyte salts. The electrolyte uptake ratio is up to 188.4% and the highest ionic conductivity reaches 1.08 mS cm−1 at room temperature. In particular, the membrane exhibits higher thermal resistance compared with traditional separators, only giving rise to a subtle shrinkage at 175 °C and allows for efficient battery operation for a record number of charge/discharge cycles at 110 °C. The electrolyte membrane through such a single-step method shows promising application potentials in electric vehicles and wearable electronics, especially in extreme operation conditions.In this work, a novel polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene separator membrane with interparticle structure with a two-step dissolving method without extract solvent is designed. The interparticle chain (I-C) membrane shows excellent high temperature resistance. The assembled lithium-ion batteries own a capacity of 175 mAh g−1 at 110 °C and endure thermal treatment at 165 °C.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T09:54:09.578642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601236
  • Optimization of the Photo-Electrochemical Performance of Mo-Doped BiVO4
           Photoanode by Controlling the Metal–Oxygen Bond State on (020) Facet
    • Authors: Yuyu Bu; Jing Tian, Zhiwei Chen, Qiang Zhang, Weibing Li, FengHui Tian, Jin-Ping Ao
      Abstract: Oxygen vacancy on semiconductor has been usually considered as donor contributor which can improve the charge transfer capacity of the photoanode. However, oxygen vacancy has also been found to perform as recombination center for the photogenerated charges. Herein, electrochemical reduction method is employed to treat the surface of Mo-doped BiVO4 (BiMoVO) photoanode. Experimental data indicate that when the reduction potential is located at −0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), quasioxygen vacancy is formed on the (020) facet (only BiO bonds crack), the electron mobility and photo-electrochemical (PEC) current density of the BiMoVO photoanode are increased dramatically. However, with the reduction potential increasing to −1.2 V, oxygen vacancy is formed on the surface of (020) facet (both BiO and VO bonds crack simultaneously), the PEC current density is decreased obviously. Further density functional theory calculation data point out that a moderate level of reduction is a key factor for the adjustment of photoanode performance. Thus, these results demonstrate first that oxygen vacancy actually is not the positive factor to improve the PEC performance of a BiVO4 photoelectrode, but the quasioxygen vacancy forming on the surface of the active facet is.Oxygen vacancy on the surface of BiVO4 photoanode is a double-edged sword for the photo-electrochemical performance. It can increase the free charge density of BiVO4, but inducing the recombination of free photogenerated carriers. This article demonstrates that quasioxygen vacancy forming on the surface of the BiVO4 active facet is the true reason to improve the photo-electrochemical performance of it.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T09:53:54.133643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601235
  • Combined Macro/Nanoscale Investigation of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of
           Fe from Fe(CO)5
    • Authors: Ioannis G. Aviziotis; Thomas Duguet, Constantin Vahlas, Andreas G. Boudouvis
      Abstract: Experiments and computations are performed to model the chemical vapor deposition of iron (Fe) from iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO)5). The behavior of the deposition rate is investigated as a function of temperature, in the range 130–250 °C, and pressure in the range 10–40 Torr. Furthermore, the evolution of the surface roughness is correlated with the deposition temperature. By combining previously published mechanisms for the decomposition of Fe(CO)5, a predictive 3D macroscale model of the process is built. Additionally, a nanoscale and a multiscale framework are developed for linking the evolution of the surface of the film with the operating conditions at the reactor scale. The theoretical predictions from the coupled macro/nanoscale models are in very good agreement with experimental measurements indicating poisoning of the surface from carbon monoxide and decrease of the film roughness when temperature increases.Chemical vapor deposition of Fe from Fe(CO)5 involves ten individual chemical reactions. The deposition is controlled by two major mechanisms: the decomposition rate of the precursor in the gas phase and the poisoning of the surface by CO adsorbates. The resulting computational model successfully reproduces experimental measurements as a function of process temperature (left) and pressure (right).
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T07:42:32.22277-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601185
  • Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanosheets from
           Agaric for High-Performance Symmetric Supercapacitors
    • Authors: Yufeng An; Zhimin Li, Yuying Yang, Bingshu Guo, Ziyu Zhang, Hongying Wu, Zhongai Hu
      Abstract: Hierarchically porous, nitrogen-doped, and interconnected carbon nanosheets (HPN-CS) have been prepared from agaric through a one-step method, that is, simultaneous carbonization, activation, and nitrogen-doping. Potassium hydroxide infiltrated into the cell walls of agaric acts as an in-built activating agent to induce a unique architecture of the resultant material. HPN-CS have average pore diameter of 2.6 nm, specific surface area of 1565.6 m2 g−1, and high volume fraction of macro/mesopores (71.7%). It is noted that a lot of micropores with the simple pore structure are homogeneously distributed on the interconnected carbon nanosheets. The symmetric supercapacitor based HPN-CS achieve a high operation voltage of 2.0 V and energy density of 27.2 Wh kg−1 (at a power density of 1 kW kg−1) in aqueous electrolyte of 2 m Li2SO4. Even at the power density of 50 kW kg−1 (50 times increase, a full charge–discharge within 3.2 s), energy density still holds at 20.8 Wh kg−1, indicating an excellent energy storage/release performance. In addition, the single device is able to easily light 60 light-emitting diodes (working voltage 2.0–2.2 V) in parallel after charging for only 10 s, showing an outstanding potential in the practical applications.Optimization of the high surface area, pore size, structure, and distribution is an effective strategy to improve the capacitive performance of carbon-based materials. The symmetric supercapacitor based hierarchically porous, nitrogen-doped, and interconnected carbon nanosheets exhibit high energy density, good rate capability, and high power density.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T04:11:32.752865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700033
  • Tuning Contact Barrier Height between Metals and MoS2 Monolayer through
           Interface Engineering
    • Authors: Jian Wei Chai; Ming Yang, Martin Callsen, Jun Zhou, Tong Yang, Zheng Zhang, Ji Sheng Pan, Dong Zhi Chi, Yuan Ping Feng, Shi Jie Wang
      Abstract: Creating an electrical contact to 2D semiconductors with low resistance is a challenging task. In this study, by combining photoemission spectroscopy measurements and first-principles calculations, it has been shown that a significant interfacial reaction occurring between the high work function metal Ni and an MoS2 monolayer leads to a metallic MoS2 monolayer and a high contact barrier height. By introducing an additional MoS2 layer as a buffer layer, both of these effects can be remedied, resulting in the desired semiconducting channel layer and a reduced contact barrier height. Further applying this strategy to the low work function metal Ti interfaced with an MoS2 monolayer, the contact barrier height can be decreased to about 0.29 eV. The results of this study provide an improved understanding of the interfacial interaction between metals and 2D semiconductors. In addition, a technically less demanding way to tune the contact barrier height is demonstrated.Based on first-principles calculations, it has been shown that the interaction between metals and MoS2 monolayer can be tuned by interface engineering. By using an additional MoS2 layer as a buffer layer, the strong interfacial interaction is reduced, which results in a significantly lowered Schottky barrier height and a semiconducting MoS2 channel layer.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:20:57.287003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700035
  • Synergistically Controlled Stemness and Multilineage Differentiation
           Capacity of Stem Cells on Multifunctional Biointerfaces
    • Authors: Chih-Yu Wu; Hui-Yu Liu, Chao-Wei Huang, Shu-Yun Yeh, Nai-Chen Cheng, Shih-Torng Ding, Hsien-Yeh Chen
      Abstract: Demonstrations of defined and controlled stem cell culture or differentiation advance fundamental life science research and the possibility of curing diseases. Here, the multifunctional concept of using defined matrix/interface modifications to support cell culture is demonstrated to provide synergistic coupling of concurrently immobilized fibroblast growth factor 2 and chitosan, and the resulting cell culture matrix/interface enables the proliferation of spheroids of adipose stem cells with enhanced stemness and the capacity to (trans-)differentiate into multiple cell lineages in the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm. The modification and the coimmobilization are performed using a straightforward one-step vapor-based coating technology applicable to a wide range of cell culture materials. The coating technology raises the important prospect of designing a material interface that incorporates effective and sustainable factors to determine stem cell fate through the use of a facile multicomponent modification approach on culture substrates.A multifunctional matrix/interface is created using a novel multicomponent coating to provide synergistic coupling of fibroblast growth factor 2 and chitosan with defined composition. The resultant cell culture matrix/interface enables the proliferation of spheroids of adipose stem cells with enhanced stemness and the capacity to (trans-)differentiate into multiple cell lineages in the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T08:50:37.2677-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700243
  • Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Tungsten Carbide: Nanoscaled Solidoid
           Synthesis, Nonfaradaic Pseudocapacitive Property, and Electrode Material
    • Authors: Wei-Bin Zhang; Xue-Jing Ma, Ling-Bin Kong
      Abstract: A capacitive electrode material of nanocrystalline intermetallic W2C has been synthesized and studied for electrochemical capacitors. A specific capacitance of 158.2 F g−1 is found in 1 mol dm−3 H2SO4 (aq) at a specific current density of 1 A g−1, and 99.5% of capacitance remains after 5000 cycles of charging–discharging. 88.9% of the initial value remains at a current density of 10 A g−1. W2C exhibits a high electrochemical capacitance that may be attributed to the electrical conductivity, which can promote the electrochemical performance more observably and ensure a long life cycle and fast electrical charge transfer rate. Based on the specific surface areas and specific capacitances, the sub-surface space nonfaradaic pseudocapacitive mechanism is proposed. In addition, the assembled asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor of W2C//activated carbon shows a high energy density and accompanying power density of 19.2 and 8976.6 W kg−1, facilitating high duty applications.An intermetallic of tungsten carbide is synthesized by nanoscaled solidoid. Specific surface areas are ruled by heating rates of pyrolysis of precursor. The tungsten carbide is used for capacitive electrode material successfully. Pseudocapacitive property is investigated by surface area and capacitance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T14:45:50.723972-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700099
  • Origin of Capacity Increasing in a Long-Life Ternary Sn–Fe3O4@Graphite
           Anode for Li-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Hanyin Zhang; Renzong Hu, Yuxuan Liu, Jiangwen Liu, Zhongchen Lu, Min Zhu
      Abstract: The electrode–electrolyte interface plays a key role in the energy density and safety of the Li-ion battery. The interfaces evolution induces the capacity increasing in many metal oxide anodes and attracts much attention. Here, the origin of the capacity increasing is verified by our long-life Sn–Fe3O4@graphite composite anode. By analyzing the electrochemical curves, the Coulombic efficiency and interface/surface chemistry, the capacity increasing comes from the formation and dissolution of growing solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The dissolution process only happens in certain high potential and under the effect of the sufficient nanosized metal particles with high electrocatalysis. The formation/dissolution of SEI is partial reversible to promote the conversion of the components in SEI. This conversion causes the Li+ irreversible consuming, but also favors the kinetics of the composite anode in the battery system.The origin of the capacity increasing is verified by a long-life Sn–Fe3O4@graphite composite anode, demonstrating that the capacity increasing comes from the partial reversible formation and dissolution of growing solid electrolyte interphase on the surface of active materials. This process causes the Li+ irreversible consuming, but also favors the kinetics of the ternary composite anode in the battery system.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T14:45:34.852011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700113
  • Designed Synthesis of Size-Controlled PtCu Alloy Nanoparticles
           Encapsulated in Carbon Nanofibers and Their High Efficient
           Electrocatalytic Activity Toward Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
    • Authors: Juan Wang; Jia Wei Chen, Jia Dong Chen, Han Zhu, Ming Zhang, Ming Liang Du
      Abstract: Well-dispersed PtCu alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of only ≈2 nm encapsulated in carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are synthesized using electrospinning technology followed by a graphitization process in a chemical vapor deposition furnace. Distinctly, even with a small amount of Pt, the PtCu/CNFs-1:2 catalyst possesses outstanding hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity, including small overpotential, long-term stability, and a high exchange current density as well as large double layer capacitance (Cdl). The excellent HER performance of the PtCu/CNFs-1:2 catalyst is attributed to the synergistic interaction between Pt and Cu, the uniform distribution of the alloy NPs and the use of CNFs with 3D architectures. This development may provide a simple, efficient, and green synthesis method to design bi- or multimetal alloys for use as the cathode electrocatalysts for the HER or other electrocatalytic devices.Well-dispersed Pt/Cu alloy nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon nanofibers are synthesized and possess outstanding hydrogen evolution reaction activity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T07:36:05.729458-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700005
  • Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline MoS2 Thin Films: New Molybdenum
           Precursor for Low-Temperature Film Growth
    • Authors: Miika Mattinen; Timo Hatanpää, Tiina Sarnet, Kenichiro Mizohata, Kristoffer Meinander, Peter J. King, Leonid Khriachtchev, Jyrki Räisänen, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä
      Abstract: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a semiconducting 2D material, which has evoked wide interest due to its unique properties. However, the lack of controlled and scalable methods for the production of MoS2 films at low temperatures remains a major hindrance on its way to applications. In this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used to deposit crystalline MoS2 thin films at a relatively low temperature of 300 °C. A new molybdenum precursor, Mo(thd)3 (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionato), is synthesized, characterized, and used for film deposition with H2S as the sulfur precursor. Self-limiting growth with a low growth rate of ≈0.025 Å cycle−1, straightforward thickness control, and large-area uniformity are demonstrated. Film crystallinity is found to be relatively good considering the low deposition temperature, but the films have significant surface roughness. Additionally, chemical composition as well as optical and wetting properties are evaluated. MoS2 films are deposited on a variety of substrates, which reveal notable differences in growth rate, surface morphology, and crystallinity. The growth of crystalline MoS2 films at comparably low temperatures by ALD contributes toward the use of MoS2 for applications with a limited thermal budget.Crystalline molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 300 °C. A new Mo precursor, Mo(thd)3, is synthesized, characterized, and used to deposit MoS2 with H2S. Self-limiting film growth offers precise control over film thickness and excellent uniformity. Morphology, crystallinity, and chemical composition as well as optical and wetting properties of the deposited films are examined.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T07:35:56.778606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700123
  • Supersonically Sprayed Copper–Nickel Microparticles as Flexible and
           Printable Thin-Film High-Temperature Heaters
    • Authors: Jong-Gun Lee; Do-Yeon Kim, Tae-Gun Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Hyun Woo Lee, Jang Soo Kim, Dae Ho Yang, Alexander L. Yarin, Sam S. Yoon
      Abstract: Cu and Ni nanoparticles are sprayed at supersonic velocities onto stiff glass, ceramic, and marble surfaces, as well as onto flexible polymer substrates of complex shapes. Joule heating occurs when a voltage is applied to the sprayed Cu–Ni thin films, enabling their use as thin-film heaters. The Cu–Ni composition is varied to control the electrical and the thermal properties of the films, which affects the total amount of power used for the heating. At a high Cu content, the temperature reaches as high as 1000 °C, which significantly broadens the range of potential applications of such film heaters. The thermal stability of the film heaters is confirmed by cyclic testing, which shows repeatable rapid undulations in the temperature range of 600 °C. The Cu–Ni film heaters can be printed on any type of substrates including mirrors, glasses, and flexible polymers, and the method of film fabrication is rapid and scalable. The surface temperature of the heater is measured experimentally and matches well with the theoretical predictions. The Cu–Ni film heaters find applications in vehicle defrosters, smart heat-retaining windows, domestic appliances, etc., and industrial heating and defrosting of complex surfaces.Supersonic cold spraying technique is used for the fabrication of film heater. Copper and nickel microparticles are coated onto various substrates as a heater. This heater shows a successful cycle test at greater than 600 °C and the temperature reaches as high as 1000 °C.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T07:25:57.399439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700075
  • The Influence of Ultrathin Amorphous ALD Alumina and Titania on the Rate
           Capability of Anatase TiO2 and LiMn2O4 Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes
    • Authors: Felix Mattelaer; Philippe M. Vereecken, Jolien Dendooven, Christophe Detavernier
      Abstract: Interface modification is a heavily investigated method of extending the lifetime of lithium ion batteries. While many studies have explored the effect of interface coating on the lifetime, the rate capability is often overlooked. In this study, the authors investigated the influence of ultrathin (
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T02:05:35.016262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601237
  • Phase Diagram of BiFeO3/LaFeO3 Superlattices: Antiferroelectric-Like State
           Stability Arising from Strain Effects and Symmetry Mismatch at
    • Authors: Benjamin Carcan; Houssny Bouyanfif, Mimoun El Marssi, Françoise Le Marrec, Loic Dupont, Carine Davoisne, Jérôme Wolfman, Donna C. Arnold
      Abstract: (BiFeO3)(1−x)Λ/(LaFeO3)xΛ superlattices (SLs) have been grown using pulsed laser deposition and studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The composition is varied, 0.30 ≤ x ≤ 0.85, while the modulation period Λ is kept constant at about 10 nm. Unit cell doubling signatures typical of orthorhombic Pnma symmetry for x = 0.80 and 0.85 SLs and ¼{011} antiferroelectric PbZrO3-like reflections in SLs with 0.30 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 are detected by TEM showing a complex structural mixture at the nanoscale level. The Raman spectra confirm these observations and show a change in the SLs from a Pnma LaFeO3-like spectra for LaFeO3-rich period to a PbZrO3-like spectra for BiFeO3-rich period. Electron–phonon interactions and resonant-like excitations are also observed in the SLs. A temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction investigation shows a large shift of the paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition scaling with the BiFeO3 thickness. This shift is correlated with the strain state and can be explained by a strong interplay between octahedral rotation/tilt and antipolar Bi displacement. Thickness–temperature phase diagram is constructed and differs from previous report showing the extreme sensitivity of the BiFeO3 phase stability to strain effects and rotation/tilt degrees of freedom.Superlattices are ideal platforms to investigate competing orders that take place in many functional complex oxides. BiFeO3/LaFeO3 superlattices are investigated and emergent antiferroelecric-like ordering is revealed by complementary techniques. Phase diagram is proposed and BiFeO3 phase stability with thickness and temperature is highlighted.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T13:10:39.163822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601036
  • Engineering Ultrathin Polyaniline in Micro/Mesoporous Carbon
           Supercapacitor Electrodes Using Oxidative Chemical Vapor Deposition
    • Authors: Yuriy Y. Smolin; Katherine L. Van Aken, Muhammad Boota, Masoud Soroush, Yury Gogotsi, Kenneth K. S. Lau
      Abstract: In this work, oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) is demonstrated to enable the integration of nanometer-thin polyaniline (PANI) that significantly improves charge storage capacity of supercapacitors utilizing carbide-derived carbon (CDC) with a bimodal (micro/mesoporous) pore size distribution. To our knowledge, this work is the first reported synthesis of PANI via oCVD. The oCVD process allows for the integration of PANI into pores as small as 1.7 nm, and resulting CDC/PANI electrodes have a gravimetric capacitance more than twice that of bare CDC (136 F g−1 for 11 wt% of PANI in the CDC electrode versus 60 F g−1 for bare Mo2C-CDC at 10 mV s−1). This yields a PANI-only gravimetric capacitance of ≈690 F g−1, which is close to the theoretical value of 750 F g−1. The coating preserves the native electrode surface area and pore size distribution, while improving capacitance due to the faradaic redox reactions of PANI. Even at high scan rates of over 100 mV s−1, the added pseudocapacitance from PANI remains evident. The composite electrode exhibits good cyclability, decreasing to 90% of the initial value (≈100 F g−1) after 10 000 cycles.Novel oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) synthesis and integration of ultrathin polyaniline (PANI) into micro/mesoporous carbide-derived carbon (Mo2C-CDC) supercapacitor electrodes. A combination of spectroscopic techniques confirms that the oCVD process produces electrochemically active emeraldine PANI. The composite electrode exhibits a two times improvement in specific capacitance versus bare Mo2C-CDC and shows good cyclability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T04:05:26.649064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601201
  • From Silica Sphere to Hollow Carbon Nitride-Based Sphere: Rational Design
           of Sulfur Host with Both Chemisorption and Physical Confinement
    • Authors: Zhen Meng; Shijun Li, Hangjun Ying, Xin Xu, Xueling Zhu, Wei-Qiang Han
      Abstract: To suppress the shuttle effect and improve the sulfur utilization in lithium–sulfur battery, a novel hollow carbon nitride-based spheres material (HCNx) has been synthesized via polymerization of ethylenediamine and carbon tetrachloride on silica spheres and used as a sulfur host. The rational designed structure of HCNx retards diffusion of lithium polysulfides by both chemisorption and physical confinement. The enhanced conductivity of HCNx improves the utilization of the sulfur. As a result, the S/HCNx exhibits a discharge capacity of 579 mA h g−1 after 500 cycles with a fade rate of 0.076% per cycle at 0.5 C. Even at 2 C, the S/HCNx cathode still exhibits a reversible discharge capacity of 658 mA h g−1.A hollow carbon nitride-based sphere (HCNx) with both chemisorption and physical confinement as sulfur host is prepared. Due to high nitrogen concentration, abundant mesopores, and high surface area, the HCNx retards diffusion of lithium polysulfides from cathode into electrolyte by both chemisorption and physical confinement. As a result, the S/HCNx cathode exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T09:28:29.348881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601195
  • Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Perovskite/PEDOT Solar Cells in a Regular
           n–i–p Architectural Design
    • Authors: Dibyashree Koushik; Wiljan J. H. Verhees, Dong Zhang, Yinghuan Kuang, Sjoerd Veenstra, Mariadriana Creatore, Ruud E. I. Schropp
      Abstract: Perovskite solar cells employing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as hole transport layer on top of methylammonium lead halide are reported, yielding a power conversion efficiency of 11% and a 6% stabilized power output. An atomic layer deposition assisted interface architectural approach is adopted to fabricate the n–i–p perovskite/PEDOT devices. The results present a promising next step toward efficient low-cost perovskite-based photovoltaic technology.Perovskite solar cells employing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a hole transport layer on top of methylammonium lead halide are reported, yielding a power conversion efficiency of 11% and a 6% stabilized power output. An atomic layer deposition assisted interface architectural approach is adopted to fabricate the n–i–p perovskite/PEDOT devices. The results present a promising next step toward efficient low-cost perovskite-based photovoltaic technology.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:26:27.912249-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700043
  • Argon Plasma Treatment of Fluorine-Free Silane Coatings: A Facile,
           Environment-Friendly Method to Prepare Durable, Superhydrophobic Fabrics
    • Authors: Shuai Liu; Hua Zhou, Hongxia Wang, Yan Zhao, Hao Shao, Zhiguang Xu, Zhihua Feng, Deqi Liu, Tong Lin
      Abstract: A novel method to prepare durable superhydrophobic fabrics through pre-applying an alkyl silane (alkyl chain longer than C15) onto fabric substrate and by subsequent vacuum plasma treatment in argon is reported. The treated fabrics show a contact angle of 154.2° with low contact angle hysteresis (sliding angle 4.5°). The coatings are durable and can withstand 150 cycles of standard laundries. The argon plasma treatment is found to significantly enhance SiOSi bonding among the silane molecules, leading to a highly crosslinked silica network. The silane coating also shows high optical transparency. Apart from fabrics, other substrates such as filter paper, plastic film, glass slide, silicon wafer, and metal are treated in a similar way, and all the treated surface show durable hydrophobicity, though the contact angle is lower than that of the coated fabrics. Post-crosslinking of silane through argon plasma treatment may offer a facile but environment-friendly way to prepare durable superhydrophobic fabrics.Argon vacuum plasma has been found to significantly enhance the formation of SiOSi network among the silane molecules within a coating layer which is pre-applied onto a solid substrate. When this is used to treat a fabric precoated with an alkyl silane (alkyl chain length > C15), the fabric shows durable superhydrophobicity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:26:05.812011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700027
  • Engineering of Functional Manganites Grown by MOCVD for Miniaturized
    • Authors: Dolors Pla; Carmen Jimenez, Mónica Burriel
      Abstract: The hottest and most interesting state-of-the-art research activities carried out in manganite thin films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are reported. The main strategies to tailor their physical properties, such as the impact of the substrate-induced strain, the defect density, or the influence of stoichiometry in the nanostructured films, are highlighted. Relevant examples of their implementation and integration in miniaturized devices aiming to their future use in information storage, field-effect sensing, and spintronics applications, are also presented.Engineered manganite thin films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) show fascinating optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. These key functionalities convert manganite perovskites in promising materials for the development of novel miniaturized devices.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:25:57.821336-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600974
  • Fabrication of Gold Microwires by Drying Gold Nanorods Suspensions
    • Authors: Tomo Kurimura; Yoshiko Takenaka, Satoru Kidoaki, Masatoshi Ichikawa
      Abstract: The ramification pattern of gold nanorods is fabricated by drying its suspension between two glass slides. The aspect ratio of the nanorods and the pinning on the contact line among air, water, and substrate are important. After being baked, this pattern also conducts electricity. The method of patterning is useful for microwiring without the additional need to pattern the wires into specific shapes.The ramification pattern of gold nanorods is fabricated by drying its suspension between two glass slides. The aspect ratio of the nanorods and the pinning on the contact line among air, water, and substrate are important. After being baked, this pattern also conducts electricity. The method of patterning is useful for microwiring without the additional need to pattern the wires into specific shapes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:55:41.800623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601125
  • Highly Robust and Low Frictional Double-Network Ion Gel
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Arafune; Saika Honma, Takashi Morinaga, Toshio Kamijo, Miki Miura, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Takaya Sato
      Abstract: Reducing friction is important to improve the lifetime and energy efficiency of mechanical systems. Since human joints with gel-like structure possess a coefficient of friction as low as 10–3, gel materials are recognized as a useful example for designing low frictional materials. Ion gels incorporating ionic liquids (ILs) as swelling agent is expected to be stable gel lubricant since high thermal stability and negligible volatility of ILs can maintain swelled state of gels even under harsh conditions. In this study, we newly synthesized a double network (DN) ion gel composed of an ionic liquid, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-methylammonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEME-TFSI) and an ionic liquid polymer composed of the derivative of DEME-TFSI, poly (N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) as a first network and neutral poly(methyl methacrylate) as a second network. The obtained DN ion gel showed high compression strength and it was thermally stable until 300 °C. The stable COF after repeated measurements at high temperature or vacuum conditions showed the durability of DN ion gels even under harsh conditions. The results obtained in this study shed light on the fabrication of lubricant gels with high mechanical strength and robustness, which are expected to be new candidates for enegy conservation.Double-network hydrogels with high toughness and low friction are expected as lubricant gel materials, while water evaporation has prevented its industrial usage. The combination of an ionic liquid and its compatible polymers results in a robust low frictional ion gel with high compression strength (30 MPa) and stability under high temperature (80 °C) or vacuum (2.2 × 10−4 Pa).
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:55:37.660865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700074
  • Effect of Graphene Oxidation Rate on Adsorption of Poly-Thymine Single
           Stranded DNA
    • Authors: Ho Shin Kim; Barry L. Farmer, Yaroslava G. Yingling
      Abstract: In order to understand how oxidation rate of graphene surfaces affects single-stranded poly-thymine, poly(T)20, structure during physisorption, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are performed. In aqueous solutions, poly(T)20 is a complex structure with stacked and coiled regions. However, on the graphene surfaces, there are three different regimes for the adsorption process, which heavily depends on the surface oxidation: (1) on pristine graphene or graphene oxide (GO) with low oxygen coverage (GO 5%) the stacked poly(T)20 structure becomes unfolded due to formation of strong π–π interactions with the surface, (2) on graphene oxide with moderate oxygen coverage (GO 10%–25%) the structure of poly(T)20 is well preserved because of the balance between van der Waals and electrostatic interactions, and (3) on graphene oxide with high oxygen content (GO 30%–60%) stacked poly(T)20 structure is locally disrupted due to formation of strong hydrogen bonds with the surface. Moreover, surface roughness due to the presence of oxygen groups plays a pivotal role in structural retention of poly(T)20 by preventing its nucleobases from forming π–π stacking interactions with the surface.Representative snapshots illustrating how surface oxidation rate can affect conformational changes of prefolded poly(T)20 on graphene surfaces. In the case of the surface with low or high oxidation rate, strong van der Waals or electrostatic interactions make poly(T)20 unstable. However, on graphene oxide with moderate oxidation rate, poly(T)20 has a good structural retention due to balanced nonbonded interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:51:55.927445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601168
  • Nanocrystalline Graphite Formed at Fullerene-Like Carbon Film Frictional
    • Authors: Jing Shi; Yongfu Wang, Zhenbin Gong, Bin Zhang, Chengbing Wang, Junyan Zhang
      Abstract: High performance solid lubricant materials with long wear life remain as one of the challenges in space technology. It is of great significance to lower the solid film's friction and wear and to prolong its service life in vacuum. Hydrogenated fullerene-like carbon film produced by dc-pulsed power source behaves ultralong wear life (≫1.8 × 105 cycles) and ultralow wear rate (2.2 × 10−8 mm3 Nm−1) as well as low friction (≈0.14) in high vacuum (2.3 × 10−4 Pa). To understand its long wear life reason, the interfacial structural evolution is investigated after steady state friction is achieved. By observing the interfacial nanostructure evolution, it is found that the friction and wear properties are related to the friction-induced phase transformation from fullerene like structure to nanocrystalline graphite and the deposition of tribofilm on Al2O3 counterface. And this process is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectra and is observed through transmission electron microscopy. The results enrich hydrogenated fullerene-like carbon film friction mechanisms and expand its potential application in space.In this study, a fullerene-like carbon film is prepared by chemical vapor deposition and is verified to exhibit super long wear life in high vacuum. The frictional interface analysis indicates transformation of fullerene-like structure to nanocrystalline graphite and the deposition of tribofilm on counterface. Film tribological properties are proved to be closely related to this structural evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:51:48.709116-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601113
  • 3D Hierarchically Porous Graphitic Carbon Nitride Modified Graphene-Pt
           Hybrid as Efficient Methanol Oxidation Catalysts
    • Authors: Wenyao Zhang; Yongsheng Fu, Jiayu Wang, Xin Wang
      Abstract: A 3D hierarchically porous carbon nanocomposite constituting of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) chemically integrated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via covalent CN bonds is reported. This porous nanocomposite has high nitrogen content, large surface area, interconnected porous networks, and good electrical conductivity, and is used to load Pt nanoparticles to form 3D Pt-g-C3N4-rGO catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell anode. The catalyst shows an unusual electrocatalytic ability toward methanol electrooxidation, such as high activity, intriguing poison tolerance, and reliable long-term stability, especially, impressively high electrochemically active specific surface area value of 80.3 m2 g−1, which is much higher than those of other catalysts studied in this work and recent state-of-the-art Pt-based nanostructures. The outstanding electrochemical performance may originate from the distinctive advantages of the unique 3D hierarchically porous carbon nanostructure of Pt-g-C3N4-rGO and the synergetic effects of the individual components, for instance, superlative structural stability owing to the covalent interactions between g-C3N4 and rGO, good conductivity and high specific surface area of g-C3N4-rGO, and the large triple-phase boundaries caused by the highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles.3D hierarchically porous carbon nanocomposites constituting graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) chemically integrated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via covalent CN bonds are fabricated and used to load Pt nanoparticles to form 3D Pt-g-C3N4-rGO catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell anode. The catalyst shows an unusual electrocatalytic ability toward methanol electrooxidation, such as high activity, intriguing poison tolerance, and reliable long-term stability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:50:54.577859-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601219
  • Suppression of Hysteresis Effects in Organohalide Perovskite Solar Cells
    • Authors: Yi Hou; Simon Scheiner, Xiaofeng Tang, Nicola Gasparini, Moses Richter, Ning Li, Peter Schweizer, Shi Chen, Haiwei Chen, Cesar Omar Ramirez Quiroz, Xiaoyan Du, Gebhard J. Matt, Andres Osvet, Erdmann Spiecker, Rainer H. Fink, Andreas Hirsch, Marcus Halik, Christoph J. Brabec
      Abstract: Thin-film solar cell based on hybrid perovskites shows excellent light-to-power conversion efficiencies exceeding 22%. However, the mixed ionic-electronic semiconductor hybrid perovskite exhibits many unusual properties such as slow photocurrent instabilities, hysteresis behavior, and low-frequency giant capacitance, which still question us so far. This study presents a direct surface functionalization of transparent conductive oxide electrode with an ultrathin ≈2 nm thick phosphonic acid based mixed C60/organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) that significantly reduces hysteresis. Moreover, due to the strong phosphonates bonds with indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, the SAM/ITO substrates also exhibit an excellent recyclability merit from the perspective of cost effectiveness. Impedance studies find the fingerprint of an ion-based diffusion process in the millisecond to second regime for TiO2-based devices, which, however, is not observed for SAM-based devices at these low frequencies. It is experimentally demonstrated that ion migration can be considerably suppressed by carefully engineering SAM interfaces, which allows effectively suppressing hysteresis and unstable diode behavior in the frequency regime between ≈1 and 100 Hz. It is suggested that a reduced density of ionic defects in combination with the absence of charge carrier accumulation at the interface is the main physical origin for the reduced hysteresis.A high PCE of 17.1% for a planar structured perovskite solar cell is presented by simply depositing a phosphonic acid based mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) layer on top of transparent electrodes. This ultrathin SAM layer improves not only the charge extraction but also the crystalline quality of perovskite films and results in an effectively suppressed hysteresis effect.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:50:41.990951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700007
  • Observation of Interfacial Damage in a Silk-Epoxy Composite, Using a
           Simple Mechanoresponsive Fluorescent Probe
    • Authors: Jeremiah W. Woodcock; Ryan Beams, Chelsea S. Davis, Ning Chen, Stephan J. Stranick, Darshil U. Shah, Fritz Vollrath, Jeffrey W. Gilman
      Abstract: Polymer composites are found throughout the world both natural and artificial in origin. In the vast majority of applications, composites serve as structural support or reinforcement roles. Demand for lightweight tough composites is growing in multiple application spaces such as areospace, biomaterials, and infrastructure with physical properties as diverse as the applications. The unifying component in all composites is the presence of an interphase. Many measurement techniques and measurement tools have been developed for the study of this crucial region in composite materials. Many of these methods are great for the measurment and study of bulk properties or model systems. However, development of methods that permit the direct observation of interactions at the interphase during applied stress are needed. Here we employ fluorescence lifetime imaging and hyperspectral imaging to observe activation of a fluorogenic dye at the composite interface as a result of applied stress. The advantages of this sytem include commercial availability of the dye precursor, and simple one-pot functionalization. The attachment of the dye at the interface is easily monitored through emission wavelength shifts and fluorescence lifetime variations. Interfacial mechano-responsive dyes have potential for both fundamental studies as well as industrial use as a structural health monitoring tool.Hundreds of micrometers insidea silk fiber composite, two-photon fluorescence life-time imaging, and hyperspectral imaging of a damage-sensing probe (mechanophore), reveals interface debonding, fiber fracture, and chemical reaction with the matrix. Functional groups on the periphery of the fluorescent probe chemically link the fiber and matrix. Stress transfer across the probe's strained spirolactam center activates the probe's fluorescent properties.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T02:00:02.235516-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601018
  • MOCVD Approach to the Growth of Calcium Copper Titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12) Thin
           Films: The Role of the Substrate Nature on Film Structural and
           Dielectrical Properties
    • Authors: Raffaella Lo Nigro
      Abstract: CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) perovskite has been widely investigated because of its excellent dielectric properties, i.e. huge and constant permittivity upon varying temperature and frequencies, which are really attractive in wireless communication devices. These characteristics have been originally demonstrated in single crystals and ceramics. Hence, huge efforts have been focused on the fabrication and investigation of CCTO thin films. First attempts have been performed by pulsed laser deposition technique, nevertheless the chemical vapor deposition methods are preferred for large area industrial production. In this context, here is described the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) approach for the growth of CCTO complex oxide. High quality CCTO thin films are fabricated on several substrates, varying from single crystals (LaAlO3 and SrTiO3) to electrodes (Pt and IrO2). The present MOCVD process is based on a molten mixture of the Ca(hfa)2•tetraglyme, Ti(tmhd)2(O-iPr)2, and Cu(tmhd)2 precursors as multi-component source. The deposited CCTO films are epitaxial on single crystal substrates, while polycrystalline films have been found on metal electrodes. A correlation among structural/morphological properties of CCTO films with deposition conditions and substrate nature is discussed. Moreover, the effects of the structural properties on the dielectric properties are also investigated.Thin film fabrication of the giant-k CaCu3Ti4O12 perovskite, via MOCVD route, is presented. Detailed studies indicate that the structural properties are strictly related to substrate nature and especially that the dielectric properties are affected by the thin film nanostructure. Optimized process produces remarkably high capacitance density (about 100 nF mm–2) to be considered for applications in wireless comunication devices.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T05:50:46.703252-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600975
  • Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Dopamine into Patterned Structures
    • Authors: Peibin Zhang; Anqi Tang, Baoku Zhu, Liping Zhu, Hongbo Zeng
      Abstract: It has been demonstrated that dopamine can undergo oxidation and complicated self-reaction in aqueous solution to form so-called polydopamine (PDA). In this paper, for the first time, the hierarchical self-assembly of dopamine into surface patterned structures is described. PDA nanoaggregates are first prepared assisted by ethylenediamine, based on the covalent self-polymerization and noncovalent self-assembly. The surface fractal patterns are further created and modulated by the dynamic self-assembly of PDA nanoaggregates to develop more macroscopic ordered structure of PDA. Various surface patterns of PDA aggregates are successfully obtained by evaporative dewetting method. The effects of solution pH, type of inorganic salts, and temperature on the morphology of surface pattern are investigated. Mineralization or metal deposition is used to keep the pattern fixed. The surface patterning strategy reported here is applicable to a broad range of materials, which allows the developments of materials with controllable patterned structure.The hierarchical self-assembly of dopamine (DA)into patterned structure is reported for the first time. The process consists of static self-assembly from DA to polydopamine (PDA) and dynamic self-assembly from PDA into higher level aggregation morphologies via evaporative drying method. Moreover, the surface can be further functionalized, which brings a new insight in preparation of functional patterned surface.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T06:00:42.415468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601218
  • Cobalt Tungsten Oxide Thin Films Prepared by RF-Sputter for Photosensor
    • Authors: Kai-Wei Lan; Ying-Jhan Hong, Pin Chang, Tri-Rung Yew
      Abstract: This study reports the synthesis and characterization of nonstoichiometric nanocrystalline Co2.59W0.41O4 thin film by the radio frequency (RF)-sputter technique suitable for photosensor applications. The photoconductive characteristics of Co2.59W0.41O4 thin film are investigated by fabricating a sandwich-structure device of p+Si/Co2.59W0.41O4 thin film/indium tin oxide with Schottky barriers. The device characteristics including responsivity, light intensity response, and time response are studied. It is found that Co2.59W0.41O4 thin film exhibits good absorption (absorption coefficient ≈104 cm−1 in visible light spectrum), relatively high responsivity (Rres = 5.427 A W−1), and fast photoresponse time including rise time (tr) = 81.04 ms and fall time (tf) = 80.67 ms. Hence, the Co2.59W0.41O4 thin film is favorable for potential photosensor applications.The composition of oxide semiconductors can be tailored to enhance their absorption and induce photoconductivity. Nevertheless, there is still no report of photosensors fabricated from the mixture of Co3O4 and WO3 to form cobalt tungsten oxide that can provide photoconducting properties yet. This study reports successful formation of nonstoichiometric nanocrystalline Co2.59W0.41O4 thin film by radio frequency (RF)-sputter and postannealing at 300 °C.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T06:00:36.420978-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601165
  • Friction Contribution to Bioinspired Mushroom-Shaped Dry Adhesives
    • Authors: Hong Hu; Hongmiao Tian, Jinyou Shao, Yue Wang, Xiangming Li, Yu Tian, Yucheng Ding, Bingheng Lu
      Abstract: Bioinspired mushroom-shaped micropillar recently has attracted considerable interest from researchers on adhesion-functionalized artificial surface due to its prominent dry adhesive property. Understanding the interface behavior and further exploring the physical mechanism are of significance for properly designing the structure dimension with enhanced performance. However, the friction contribution to such type of adhesive structures is mostly overlooked in previous investigations. In this paper, by revisiting the detachment behavior associated with the calculation of the critical dynamic crack size making the contact interface destabilized, it is demonstrated that the friction force does work in the detachment process of mushroom-shaped micropillars. The calculated maximum pull-off forces are in good agreement with experimental results and the friction force contribution can reach up to about 41% of the total adhesive force when the tip diameter is 2.6 times the diameter of the supporting pillar. The present model provides a deeper insight into the mushroom-shaped dry adhesives and may be helpful in future bioinspired dry adhesives designs.Friction force is demonstrated experimentally and theoretically to have contribution to bioinspired mushroom-shaped dry adhesives with large contact tip. This study sheds insight into the mechanism underlying the enhanced adhesion property of mushroom-shaped structures and provides a proper guideline for future artificial adhesive design.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T06:00:32.16514-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700016
  • H2O2-Assisted Synthesis of Porous N-Doped Graphene/Molybdenum Nitride
           Composites with Boosted Oxygen Reduction Reaction
    • Authors: Xiaobo Liu; Ibrahim Saana Amiinu, Shaojun Liu, Zonghua Pu, Wenqiang Li, Bei Ye, Dongmei Tan, Shichun Mu
      Abstract: Nonprecious metal (NPM) catalysts are considered as the most promising candidate to replace Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, in comparison with the commercial Pt catalyst, the development of high efficiency and low cost NPM catalysts for ORR still remains a big challenge. Here, a simple but efficient way to fabricate porous N-doped graphene immobilized molybdenum nitride (MoN) nanoparticles is reported, and simultaneously, the introduction of H2O2 plays a key role in modulating the particle size of MoN and the microstructure of the composite to achieve different configuration. As results, it is shown that the as-prepared material owns outstanding ORR activity and excellent stability in an alkaline medium. To the best knowledge, this catalyst possesses the best performance among the same class catalysts as reported. It is believed that the H2O2-assisted strategy can provide new insights in synthesis of high efficient metal nitride/carbon hybrid materials toward advanced energy conversion and storage.Porous N-doped graphene/molybdenum nitride composites (MoN@N-PG) by H2O2-assisted synthesis are developed as an excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst. The introduction of H2O2 plays an important role in regulating both the MoN particle size and microstructure of such composites during the synthesis process, accordingly improving their electrochemical properties toward ORR.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T05:55:47.083792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601227
  • Synthesis and Measurement of Cohesive Mechanics in Polydopamine
    • Authors: Luke Klosterman; Zeeshan Ahmad, Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan, Christopher J. Bettinger
      Abstract: Polydopamine (PDA) is a complex biomimetic material exhibiting advantageous properties of both melanin polymers and biological adhesives. These concomitant features have prompted an increasing interest in exploiting PDA for bioelectronics, smart coatings, and functional membranes. The ability to apply the rich biochemistry of melanins in structurally durable contexts will help accelerate their practical implementation and the design of next-generation materials. Here, this paper presents approaches for manipulating the adhesion and cohesive mechanics of PDA nanomembranes. Visual recording of PDA film delamination from SiO2 substrates reveals accelerated delamination (spanning orders of magnitude from 12 h to 1 min) with increasing pH and monovalent salt concentration. Delamination is retarded for films synthesized from higher dopamine concentrations, and it is completely prevented in the presence of Ca2+. Delaminated nanomembranes exhibit orientation-dependent underwater adhesion to polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. Elastic moduli of PDA nanomembranes are quantified by compressive thin film buckling, and the measured value of 2.0 ± 0.9 GPa supports compositional simulations of PDA. Crosslinking of primary amines within the nanomembranes by genipin is successful in increasing the modulus to 7.9 ± 2.5 GPa. These results demonstrate that the adhesive stability and elastic modulus of PDA films/nanomembranes can be controlled by synthesis and postprocessing techniques.The adhesion mechanisms of conformal polydopamine films can be inhibited by alkaline monovalent salt solutions resulting in delamination of free-floating nanomembranes. The mechanical stiffness of these nanomembranes is modified and subsequently characterized by relamination and buckling on elastomeric substrates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T05:51:17.147008-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700041
  • Superwetting Porous Materials for Wastewater Treatment: from Immiscible
           Oil/Water Mixture to Emulsion Separation
    • Authors: Weifeng Zhang; Na Liu, Yingze Cao, Xin Lin, Yanan Liu, Lin Feng
      Abstract: Recently, large quantities of oily wastewater discharged from our daily life and industries have caused serious environmental problems. In addition, frequent oil spill accidents occurred all over the world have also lead to a waste of precious resources. Oil/water separation has become a worldwide challenge for us to overcome. Nowadays, superwetting materials have attracted considerable attention. Among them, porous materials with special wettability are more popular since this kind of materials is easy to fabricate, cost saving and time saving. Moreover, by combining the design of special wettability with the proper pore size, the porous materials could achieve the separation of sundry oil/water mixtures including immiscible oil/water mixtures and stabilized emulsions. In this review, we summarized two types of superwetting porous materials for immiscible oil/water mixtures separation and emulsion separation: water blocking porous materials with superhydrophobic/superoleophilic wettability and oil blocking porous materials with superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic wettability. In each type, we introduce the mechanism, fabricating process, effects of oily wastewater treatment and the representative works in detail. Moreover, the smart controllable superwetting porous materials and the wastewater treatment of other pollutants are also introduced briefly.Two types of superwetting porous materials for oil/water separation and emulsion separation are summarized in this review: water blocking porous materials with superhydrophobic/superoleophilic wettability and oil blocking porous materials with superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic wettability. Through combining the special wettability with proper porous substrates, these superwetting materials are able to achieve both the immiscible oil/water separation and emulsion separation. The design, fabricating process, effects of oily wastewater treatment and the representative works are introduced in detail.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T05:51:06.593606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700029
  • High Toughness in Ultralow Density Graphene Oxide Foam
    • Authors: Peter Samora Owuor; Cristiano F. Woellner, Tong Li, Soumya Vinod, Sehmus Ozden, Suppanat Kosolwattana, Sanjit Bhowmick, Luong Xuan Duy, Rodrigo V. Salvatierra, Bingqing Wei, Syed A. S. Asif, James M. Tour, Robert Vajtai, Jun Lou, Douglas S. Galvão, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Pulickel. M. Ajayan
      Abstract: Here, the scalable synthesis of low-density 3D macroscopic structure of graphene oxide (GO) interconnected with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is reported. A controlled amount of PDMS is infused into the freeze-dried foam to result into a very rigid structure with improved mechanical properties, such as tensile plasticity and toughness. The PDMS wets the graphene oxide sheets and acts like glue between the 2D sheets. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to further elucidate the mechanisms of the interactions of graphene oxide layers with PDMS. The ability of using the interconnecting graphene oxide foam as an effective oil–water separator and stable insulating behavior to elevated temperatures are further demonstrated. The structural rigidity of the sample is also tested using laser impact and compared with GO foam.A scalable synthesis method of low-density 3D macroscopic structure of graphene oxide (GO) interconnected with the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. High affinity of PDMS molecules to GO functional groups is utilized to interconnect GO nanosheets, resulting in high tensile plasticity and toughness foam.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T07:55:44.487187-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700030
  • Insight into CO2 Etching Behavior for Efficiently Nanosizing Graphene
    • Authors: Xue Yang; Baoshan Hu, Yan Jin, Wenbin Zhao, Zhengtang Luo, Zhisong Lu, Liang Fang, Haibo Ruan
      Abstract: Chemical etching of graphene over catalytic metal surface holds great potential in nanosizing the graphene microstructure and thus modulating its properties. Herein, it has been demonstrated that gaseous CO2 can efficiently etch the monolayer graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition catalyzed with the surface of Cu foil. During the etching process, the CO2 etching rate is monotonously dependent on the CO2 flowrate and the etching temperature, and is faster than the H2 etching which has been usually employed for the graphene patterning. Moreover, the resultant graphene flakes by the CO2 etching remain the originally high crystallinity and are free of being oxidized. Also, a 120° angle between the neighboring edges and hexagonal morphology of graphene flakes can be realized for the potential shape regulation of nanostructured graphene, which is similar as the anisotropic etching of H2. These results illustrate that the CO2 etching over the metal surface can provide a promising strategy for the precisely fabrication of nanostructured graphene materials.The CO2 etching of graphene with the surficial catalysis of Cu foil has remarkable advantages: (1) etching rate is faster than H2, (2) as-etched graphene flakes maintain high crystallinity and are not oxidized, and (3) anisotropic etching mode can be employed for shaping the graphene. Evidently, CO2 etching is a more efficient approach for engineering the nanostructured graphene.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T07:55:32.385811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601065
  • Capillary Gradient-Induced Self-Assembly of Periodic Au Spherical
           Nanoparticle Arrays on an Ultralarge Scale via a Bisolvent System at
           Air/Water Interface
    • Authors: Dilong Liu; Cuncheng Li, Fei Zhou, Tao Zhang, Guangqiang Liu, Weiping Cai, Yue Li
      Abstract: A capillary gradient-induced self-assembly strategy is developed to successfully fabricate 2D periodic Au nanosphere arrays on a centimeter-sized scale through a bisolvent system at air/water interface. The bisolvent system used in this strategy consists of two steps. It first induces Au nanoparticles (NPs) floating on the water surface. Then, it compresses the sparse Au NPs into a densely close-packed array by creating an effective capillary gradient along the water surface. This study indicates that the effects of the capillary gradient depend on water solubility and vapor pressure of a compressing solvent. A compression mechanism of capillary gradient is reasonably proposed for such self-assembly of a densely packed monolayer on the water surface. This proposed self-assembly strategy has advantages of having a simple operation and being environment-friendly. The assembled Au NP arrays can provide an important and promising platform for major applications in biosensors and catalysis.A capillary gradient-induced self-assembly strategy to organize monodispersed Au nanospheres into periodic dense 2D Au nanosphere arrays over a centimeter-sized scale at the air/water interface is presented by using a bisolvent system. The presented strategy has advantages of having a simple operation and being environment-friendly.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:00:57.078197-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600976
  • Facile Synthesis of 3D Anode Assembly with Si Nanoparticles Sealed in
           Highly Pure Few Layer Graphene Deposited on Porous Current Collector for
           Long Life Li-Ion Battery
    • Authors: Manjusha V. Shelke; Hemtej Gullapalli, Kaushik Kalaga, Marco-Tulio F. Rodrigues, Rami Reddy Devarapalli, Robert Vajtai, Pulickel M. Ajayan
      Abstract: With its exceptional theoretical charge capacity, silicon holds great promise as an anode material for realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries. However, extensive volume expansion and poor cycle stability of silicon compromise its actual use. In an effort to tame volume expansion and structural disintegration during cycling, an innovative 3D electrode assembly is fabricated involving continuous layer of graphene coated on porous current collector and Si nanoparticles sealed in as an active material. Graphene deposition and pore formation in metal current collector is achieved in a unique single step synthesis. All the active components like current collector, reacting material, and conducting material are manipulated in a way to produce synergistic architecture in a chemical vapor deposition process. Highly pure graphene deposited in this process enables efficient electron transfer from allover of the surface of silicon nanoparticles and prevents continuous solid electrolyte interphase layer formation. This binder free anode assembly shows extremely stable lithium storage performance for over 1000 cycles with 88% of initial capacity retention and 100% Coulombic efficiency.A stable anode for Li-ion batteries based on 3D skeletal current collectors with micron size pore structure and Silicon–graphene active material is reported. When the pores of graphene coated stainless steel current collector are used as microfilling chambers for Silicon nanoparticles that are closed by another blanket layer of graphene, remarkable cyclability and enhanced specific capacity are observed for the anode.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:00:35.090376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601043
  • Toward High-Quality Epitaxial LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 Thin Films for Acoustic
           and Optical Applications
    • Authors: Ausrine Bartasyte; Samuel Margueron, Thomas Baron, Stefania Oliveri, Pascal Boulet
      Abstract: Over the past five decades, LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals and thin films have been studied intensively for their exceptional acoustic, electro-optical, and pyroelectric and ferroelectric properties. Today, LiNbO3 single crystals in electro-optics are equivalent to silicon in electronics, and about 70% of radio-frequency (RF) filters, based on surface acoustic waves, are fabricated on these single crystals. These materials in the form of thin films are needed urgently for the development of the next-generation of high-frequency and/or wide-band RF filters or tuneable frequency filters adapted to the fifth generation of infrastructures/networks/communications. The integration of LiNbO3 films in guided nanophotonic devices will allow higher operational frequencies, wider bandwidth, and miniaturized optical devices in line with improved electronic conversion. Here, the challenges and the achievements in the epitaxial growth of LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 thin films and their integration with silicon technology and to acoustic and guided nanophotonic devices are discussed in detail. The systematic representation and classification of all epitaxial relationships reported in the literature have been carried out in order to help the prediction of the epitaxial orientations in the new heterostructures. Future prospects of potential applications and the expected performances of thin film devices are overviewed, as well.Growth of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 films, their structural and physical properties, and impact of the integration of these films on the performance of the acoustic, electro-optical, and ferroelectronic devices are reviewed. The key issues in the growth of LiNb(Ta)O3 films, such as crystallinity, analysis and control of Li composition, orientation, morphology and roughness, and stress relaxation mechanisms, are described in detail.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T03:50:59.855255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600998
  • Interface Engineering of Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Biosensing
    • Authors: You Seung Rim; Huajun Chen, Bowen Zhu, Sang-Hoon Bae, Shuanglin Zhu, Philip Jwo Li, Isaac Caleb Wang, Yang Yang
      Abstract: In the last decade, there has been considerable development in the area of oxide semiconductors, owing to their superior electrical properties as compared to a-Si:H, and lower cost and better uniformity over large areas as compared to poly-Si. On the other hand, multi-functional sensing systems play a significant role in building a bridge across bio/electronic interface and require advanced thin-film transistors (TFT) as sensing components and signal processing circuits. High-performance oxide TFTs are constructed based on material design, advanced processing and device architecture and provide higher sensitivity when compared with other active thin-film transistor platforms. Their versatile configurations and integration with functional materials make oxide TFT the focal point of sensing systems, including wearable and implantable electronics.In this critical Review, oxide semiconductor-based thin-film transistors and their applications in sensing systems such as biosensors, photosensors and wearable implantable electronics are addressed. It covers from materials design and fabrication, novel device structures for performance enhancement, to sensing mechanisms and in broad terms, semiconductor-bio interface engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T09:18:38.547041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201700020
  • Selective Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine on Polyoxometalate-Based
           Metal–Organic Framework and Its Composite with Reduced Graphene Oxide
    • Authors: Wen Zhang; Gan Jia, Zhaosheng Li, Chunwei Yuan, Yunfei Bai, Degang Fu
      Abstract: The interfacing of polyoxometalates and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) can be considered to be an effective way to generate hybrid structures which colligates the advantages of both components. Here, a hybrid material (polyoxometalate-based metal–organic framework (POMOF)/rGO) integrating POMOF and rGO is obtained via a simple one-pot approach. The as-prepared materials are used as electrochemical active materials to detect dopamine for the first time. It is shown that the hybridization results in a superior catalytic activity for oxidation of dopamine owing to the synergistic effect between POMOF and rGO, as well as favorable interaction of DA with CC network of the composite. The promoted electron transfer, as well as abundant active sites, open channels, and aromatic planes in the hybrid material produce a wider linear detection range of 1 × 10−6 to 2 × 10−4m with the lower detection limit of 80.4 × 10−9m (S/N = 3). Moreover, the developed biosensor also exhibits favorable selectivity, reproducibility, and stability. As a non-noble metal catalyst constructing from function and structure-matched building blocks, the prepared POMOF/rGO hybrid material demonstrates its highly promising properties for dopamine detection and the result should promote the further development of POMOF-based sensors.The polyoxometalate-based metal–organic framework (POMOF)/reduced graphene oxide hybrid material is used as a promising electrochemical active material to detect dopamine for the first time. The material presents well matching of function and structure between its building blocks and exhibits promising catalytic activity for dopamine oxidation. The result illuminates the great potential of the POMOF-based materials in electrochemical detecting of biomolecule.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T03:56:31.997918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601241
  • Controlling the Electrical and Magnetoelectric Properties of Epitaxially
           Strained Sr1−xBaxMnO3 Thin Films
    • Authors: Eric Langenberg; Laura Maurel, Noelia Marcano, Roger Guzmán, Pavel Štrichovanec, Thomas Prokscha, César Magén, Pedro A. Algarabel, José A. Pardo
      Abstract: The perovskite (Sr,Ba)MnO3 system is an ideal candidate for tailoring electrical and magnetoelectric properties through the accurate control of Ba content and epitaxial strain due to the strong coupling between polar instability, spin order, and lattice. Here, first, the polar order is proved to be induced in Sr1−xBaxMnO3 thin films through lattice expansion either by epitaxial strain or chemical pressure, which correlates with the evolution of the dielectric properties. Second, due to strong spin–phonon coupling, a large magnetoelectric response is found in the (Sr,Ba)MnO3 system, in which the dielectric constant drops up to 50% when the antiferromagnetic order emerges, larger than most magnetoelectric oxides. More important, this coupling between magnetism and dielectric properties can be tuned from ≈18% to ≈50% by appropriately selecting Ba content and epitaxial strain. Third, a clear trend of increasing the band gap energy on increasing the unit cell volume either by epitaxial strain or chemical pressure is found, which opens the way for engineering the semiconducting properties of (Sr,Ba)MnO3 system at will. Thus, this work proves the possibility to design the electrical response and the magnetoelectric coupling in (Sr,Ba)MnO3 system.Modifying the structure of perovskite (Sr,Ba)MnO3 at will through Ba content and epitaxial strain gives rise to an accurate control of electrical and magnetoelectric functionalities. It is revealed to be decisive to tip the balance between the polar and nonpolar ground state, to tune the strength of magnetoelectric coupling, and to design the semiconductor band gap energy.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T09:05:52.606701-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601040
  • MOCVD Growth of Perovskite Multiferroic BiFeO3 Films: The Effect of Doping
           at the A and/or B Sites on the Structural, Morphological and Ferroelectric
    • Authors: Maria Rita Catalano; Giuseppe Spedalotto, Guglielmo Guido Condorelli, Graziella Malandrino
      Abstract: Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) materials have been the subject of intense research activity in the last two decades. The great interest arises from the BiFeO3 being one of the rare multiferroic compounds in which ferroelectricity and magnetism coexist at room temperature. To improve these properties several studies have been reported on the doping at the A and/or B sites of the BiFeO3 perovskite structure. In this short review, the attention is focused to the synthesis of BiFeO3 and BiFeO3 doped with Ba or Dy at the A site and Ti at the B site through Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The applied MOCVD process consists of an in situ one step approach using a multi-metal source precursor mixture containing the Bi(phenyl)3 and Fe(tmhd)3 (phenyl = -C6H5; H-tmhd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptandione) as source of Bi and Fe ions. This study evidences the effect of doping on the structural, morphological and piezo/ferroelectric properties of BiFeO3 and doped systems. In summary, this mini-review illustrates the possibility to apply a simple MOCVD approach to produce good quality pure and doped BiFeO3 films.The applicability of the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition to the synthesis of pure and doped BiFeO3 is exploited. Structure, morphology and ferroelectric properties are related to the presence and nature of the doping ions. A correlation between the nanostructure/composition and piezoelectric properties is highlighted.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T09:40:29.212363-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601025
  • Stable p–i–n FAPbBr3 Devices with Improved Efficiency Using Sputtered
           ZnO as Electron Transport Layer
    • Authors: Anand S. Subbiah; Sumanshu Agarwal, Neha Mahuli, Pradeep Nair, Maikel van Hest, Shaibal K. Sarkar
      Abstract: Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p–i–n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm−2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19 V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.Radio-frequency sputtering is used as an effective tool to deposit inorganic electron transport layer (ETL) directly on top of perovskite absorber. Here, FAPbBr3-based planar p–i–n devices are fabricated with sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) as an ETL; resulting in devices with efficiencies close to 6%. Further interfacial modifications result in 8.3% of efficient devices with better device stability.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T02:55:42.54241-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201601143
  • Chemical Vapor Deposition of Perovskites for Photovoltaic Application
    • Authors: Paifeng Luo; Shengwen Zhou, Wei Xia, Jigui Cheng, Chengxi Xu, Yingwei Lu
      Abstract: In recent years, high-efficient and low-cost perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have triggered a strong interest in the photovoltaic (PV) field. However, it is still challenging to develop cost-effective perovskite fabrication technologies for meeting the demands of mass production. The latest developed tubular chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with high level of controllability, versatility, and scalability has emerged as a promising preparation method for perovskites. Thus here we summarize the recent progress of perovskites grown by CVD approaches, and give emphasis not only to the preparation methods and reaction mechanisms but also to the related structures and specific properties, and also highlight their prospective PV application.Recently, the cost-effective tubular chemical vapor deposition has been successfully introduced into the fabrication of perovskite solar cells and emerged as a promising technology for their future mass production. Herein, recent progress in the fields of material preparation, characterization, property and application are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T09:17:08.038003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600970
  • Functional Perovskites by Atomic Layer Deposition – An Overview
    • Authors: Henrik Hovde Sønsteby; Helmer Fjellvåg, Ola Nilsen
      Abstract: The last 20 years have seen a massive increase in reports on complex oxides with functional properties synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Many of these compounds have perovskite or perovskite-related structures, and exhibit a range of electric and magnetic properties. This short review summarizes the current status of functional perovskites and ABO3 compounds down to the ilmenite structure prepared by ALD, focusing on ferromagnetism and ferro- and piezoelectricity. All perovskite-related compounds known to have been deposited by ALD down to the ilmenite structure are listed, with a summary of expected and measured functional properties. The origin of the functionality and possible applications are discussed, in addition to the deposition conditions and post-treatment where necessary. Some future perspectives and suggestions for further work conclude the paper.Atomic layer deposition of perovskite and perovskite related complex oxide thin films with piezo- and ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties are summarized in this short Review.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T03:06:06.383111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600903
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