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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
  [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2328-9503
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • First-in-man allopregnanolone use in super-refractory status epilepticus

    • Authors: Henrikas Vaitkevicius; Aatif M. Husain, Eric S. Rosenthal, Jonathan Rosand, Wendell Bobb, Kiran Reddy, Michael A. Rogawski, Andrew J. Cole
      Abstract: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment of SRSE is complicated by progressive cortical hyperexcitability believed to result in part from synaptic GABA receptor internalization and desensitization. Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid that positively modulates synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, has been proposed as a novel treatment. We describe the first two patients with SRSE who were each successfully treated with a 120-h continuous infusion of allopregnanolone. Both patients recovered from prolonged SRSE with good cognitive outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T06:15:55.426558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/acn3.408
  • Caveats in the Established Understanding of CMT1A

    • Abstract: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type-1A (CMT1A) is one of the most common types of inherited peripheral nerve diseases. It is caused by the trisomy of chromosome 17p12 (c17p12), a large DNA segment of 1.4 Mb containing PMP22 plus eight other genes. The size of c17p12 is formidable for any cloning technique to manipulate, and thus precludes production of models in vitro and in vivo that can precisely recapitulate the genetic alterations in humans with CMT1A. This limitation and other factors have led to several assumptions, which have yet been carefully scrutinized, serving as key principles in our understanding of the disease. For instance, one extra copy of c17p12 in patients with CMT1A results in a higher gene dosage of PMP22, thereby expected to produce a higher level of PMP22 mRNA/proteins that cause the disease. However, there has been increasing evidence that PMP22 levels are highly variable among patients with CMT1A and may fall into the normal range at a given time point. This raises an alternative mechanism causing the disease by dysregulation of PMP22 expression or excessive fluctuation of PMP22 levels, not the absolute increase of PMP22. This has become a pressing issue since recent clinical trials using ascorbic acid failed to alter the clinical outcome of CMT1A patients, leaving no effective therapy for the disease. In this article, we will discuss how this fundamental issue might be investigated. In addition, several other key issues in CMT1A will be discussed, including potential mechanisms responsible for the uniform slowing of conduction velocities. A clear understanding of these issues could radically change how therapies should be developed against CMT1A.
  • Dysregulation of 14-3-3 proteins in neurodegenerative diseases with Lewy
           body or Alzheimer pathology

    • Abstract: ObjectiveThe highly conserved 14-3-3 proteins interact with key players involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. We recently demonstrated that 14-3-3 phosphorylation is increased in PD models and that increased 14-3-3 phosphorylation reduces the neuroprotective effects of 14-3-3 proteins. Here, we investigated whether 14-3-3 phosphorylation is altered in postmortem brains from control, PD, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Alzheimer's with Lewy Bodies (ADLB), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) subjects at three conserved sites: serine 58 (S58), serine 185 (S185), and serine 232 (S232).MethodsS58, S185, and S232 phosphorylation was measured by western blot analysis of Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble fractions from postmortem temporal cortex.ResultsThe ratio of soluble phospho-S232 to insoluble phospho-S232 was reduced by 32%, 60%, 37%, and 52% in PD, AD, ADLB, and DLB, respectively. S185 and S58 phosphorylation were mildly elevated in the soluble fraction in DLB. We also noted a dramatic reduction in soluble pan 14-3-3 levels by ~35% in AD, ADLB, and DLB. Lower ratios of soluble to insoluble S232 phosphorylation (pointing to higher insoluble pS232) correlated with lower soluble pan 14-3-3 levels, suggesting that S232 phosphorylation may promote insolubilization of 14-3-3s. The phospho-S232 ratio and soluble pan 14-3-3 levels correlated with clinical and pathological severity.InterpretationThese data reveal dysregulation of 14-3-3 proteins in neurodegeneration associated with Lewy body or Alzheimer pathology. S232 phosphorylation may drive insolubilization of 14-3-3s and thus contribute to the pathophysiology in neurodegenerative disorders associated with Lewy body or Alzheimer pathology.
  • Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts: the Glialcam-null mouse

    • Abstract: ObjectiveMegalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts (MLC) is a genetic infantile-onset disease characterized by macrocephaly and white matter edema due to loss of MLC1 function. Recessive mutations in either MLC1 or GLIALCAM cause the disease. MLC1 is involved in astrocytic volume regulation; GlialCAM ensures the correct membrane localization of MLC1. Their exact role in brain ion-water homeostasis is only partly defined. We characterized Glialcam-null mice for further studies.MethodsWe investigated the consequences of loss of GlialCAM in Glialcam-null mice and compared GlialCAM developmental expression in mice and men.ResultsGlialcam-null mice had early-onset megalencephaly and increased brain water content. From 3 weeks, astrocytes were abnormal with swollen processes abutting blood vessels. Concomitantly, progressive white matter vacuolization developed due to intramyelinic edema. Glialcam-null astrocytes showed abolished expression of MLC1, reduced expression of the chloride channel ClC-2 and increased expression and redistribution of the water channel aquaporin4. Expression of other MLC1-interacting proteins and the volume regulated anion channel LRRC8A was unchanged. In mice, GlialCAM expression increased until 3 weeks and then stabilized. In humans, GlialCAM expression was highest in the first 3 years to then decrease and stabilize from approximately 5 years.InterpretationGlialcam-null mice replicate the early stages of the human disease with early-onset intramyelinic edema. The earliest change is astrocytic swelling, further substantiating that a defect in astrocytic volume regulation is the primary cellular defect in MLC. GlialCAM expression affects expression of MLC1, ClC-2 and aquaporin4, indicating that abnormal interplay between these proteins is a disease mechanism in megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts.
  • Glioblastoma in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients

    • Abstract: We present two natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients who developed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with variable outcomes. One patient had an isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype GBM with aggressive behavior, who declined treatment and died 13 weeks after symptoms onset. The other patient underwent resection of an IDH-mutant secondary GBM that arose from a previously diagnosed grade II astrocytoma. He is still alive 5 years after the diagnosis of GBM. JC virus was not detected in either case. Whether natalizumab played a role in the development of GBM in those patients deserves further investigation.
  • Comment on: PH20 is not expressed in murine CNS and oligodendrocyte
           precursor cells

  • Proximal flow to middle cerebral artery is associated with higher thrombus
           density in terminal internal carotid artery occlusion

    • Abstract: Proximal collaterals may determine the composition of occluding thrombi in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in addition to source, hematocrit, time, and medication. Here, we performed a retrospective study of 39 consecutive patients with radiological evidence of I-, L-, and T-type terminal internal carotid artery occlusion. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombus density was assessed on noncontrast enhanced CT and proximal collaterals on CT angiography. In patients with presence of proximal collaterals to the MCA we detected more hyperdense clots (P = 0.003) and a higher frequency of leptomeningeal collaterals (P = 0.008). We expand the spectrum of factors that potentially determine clot perviousness and evolution of ischemic stroke.
  • Issue Information

  • Pharmacodynamic effects of daclizumab in the intrathecal compartment

    • Abstract: ObjectiveIt was previously demonstrated that daclizumab therapy normalizes cellular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities typical of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the majority of treated patients. However, CSF cells represent only the mobile portion of intrathecal immune responses. Therefore, we asked whether daclizumab also reverses compartmentalized inflammation and if not, whether residual inflammation correlates with clinical response to the drug.MethodsForty MS patients treated with an intravenous or subcutaneous injection of daclizumab were followed for up to 16 years in two open-label clinical trials. MRI contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs), clinical scales, and CSF biomarkers quantified residual disease.ResultsRapid decreases in CELs, sustained throughout the observation period, were observed with daclizumab treatment. Daclizumab therapy induced modest but statistically significant (P < 0.0001) decreases in CSF levels of T-cell activation marker CD27 and IgG index. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) CSF levels increased from baseline levels during treatment, consistent with reduced IL-2 consumption by T cells, as a consequence of daclizumab's saturation of high-affinity IL-2 receptors. CSF levels of IL-12p40, chitinase-3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1), chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 13, and neurofilament light chain (NFL) were also significantly reduced by daclizumab. Among them, inhibition of CHI3L1 correlated with inhibition of NFL and with lack of disease progression.InterpretationThese observations confirm daclizumab's direct pharmacodynamics effects on immune cells within central nervous system tissues and identify inhibition of CSF biomarkers of myeloid lineage as a stronger determinant of reduction in clinical MS activity than inhibition of biomarkers of adaptive immunity.
  • Low-dose suramin in autism spectrum disorder: a small, phase I/II,
           randomized clinical trial

    • Abstract: ObjectiveNo drug is yet approved to treat the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Low-dose suramin was effective in the maternal immune activation and Fragile X mouse models of ASD. The Suramin Autism Treatment-1 (SAT-1) trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, translational pilot study to examine the safety and activity of low-dose suramin in children with ASD.MethodsTen male subjects with ASD, ages 5–14 years, were matched by age, IQ, and autism severity into five pairs, then randomized to receive a single, intravenous infusion of suramin (20 mg/kg) or saline. The primary outcomes were ADOS-2 comparison scores and Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT). Secondary outcomes were the aberrant behavior checklist, autism treatment evaluation checklist, repetitive behavior questionnaire, and clinical global impression questionnaire.ResultsBlood levels of suramin were 12 ± 1.5 μmol/L (mean ± SD) at 2 days and 1.5 ± 0.5 μmol/L after 6 weeks. The terminal half-life was 14.7 ± 0.7 days. A self-limited, asymptomatic rash was seen, but there were no serious adverse events. ADOS-2 comparison scores improved by −1.6 ± 0.55 points (n = 5; 95% CI = −2.3 to −0.9; Cohen's d = 2.9; P = 0.0028) in the suramin group and did not change in the placebo group. EOWPVT scores did not change. Secondary outcomes also showed improvements in language, social interaction, and decreased restricted or repetitive behaviors.InterpretationThe safety and activity of low-dose suramin showed promise as a novel approach to treatment of ASD in this small study.
  • Monte Carlo simulations of randomized clinical trials in epilepsy

    • Abstract: BackgroundThe placebo response in epilepsy randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has recently been shown to largely reflect underlying natural variability in seizure frequency. Based on this observation, we sought to explore the parameter space of RCT design to optimize trial efficiency and cost.MethodsWe used one of the world's largest patient reported seizure diary databases, to derive virtual patients for simulated RCTs. We ran 1000 randomly generated simulated trials using bootstrapping (sampling with replacement) for each unique combination of trial parameters, sweeping a large set of parameters in durations of the baseline and test periods, number of patients, eligibility criteria, drug effect size, and patient dropout. We studied the resulting trial efficiency and cost.ResultsA total of 6,732,000 trials were simulated, drawing from 5097 patients in the database. We found that the strongest regression predictors of placebo response were durations of baseline and test periods. Drug effect size had a major impact on trial efficiency and cost. Dropout did not have a major impact on trial efficiency or cost. Eligibility requirements impacted trial efficiency to a limited extent. Cost was minimized while maintaining statistical integrity with very short RCT durations.DiscussionThis study suggests that RCT parameters can be improved over current practice to reduce costs while maintaining statistical power. In addition, use of a large-scale population dataset in a massively parallel computing analysis allows exploration of the wider parameter space of RCT design prior to running a trial, which could help accelerate drug discovery and approval.
  • Swallowing markers in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

    • Abstract: ObjectiveWe examined the characteristics of dysphagia in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a hereditary neuromuscular disease causing weakness of limb, facial, and oropharyngeal muscles via a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, and investigated the plausibility of using these outcome measures for quantitative analysis.MethodsA videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed on 111 consecutive patients with genetically confirmed spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and 53 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Swallowing of 3-mL liquid barium was analyzed by the Logemann's Videofluorographic Examination of Swallowing worksheet.ResultsOf more than 40 radiographic findings, the most pertinent abnormal findings in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, included vallecular residue after swallow (residue just behind the tongue base), nasal penetration, and insufficient tongue movement (P 
  • Partial duplication of DHH causes minifascicular neuropathy

    • Abstract: Minifascicular neuropathy (MN) is an extremely rare developmental malformation in which peripheral nerves are composed of many small fascicles. Only one patient with MN with 46XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD) was found to carry a mutation affecting the start codon in desert hedgehog (DHH). We identified an identical novel rearrangement mutation of DHH in two consanguineous families with MN, confirming mutations in DHH cause MN with 46XY GD. The patients with the 46XY karyotype developed GD, whereas a patient with the 46XX karyotype did not. These findings further support that DHH has important roles in perineural formation and male gonadal differentiation.
  • New insights into SMA pathogenesis: immune dysfunction and

    • Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by motor neuron degeneration, although defects in multiple cell types and tissues have also been implicated. Three independent laboratories recently identified immune organ defects in SMA. We therefore propose a novel pathogenic mechanism contributory to SMA, resulting in higher susceptibility to infection and exacerbated disease progression caused by neuroinflammation. Overall, compromised immune function could significantly affect survival and quality of life of SMA patients. We highlight the recent findings in immune organ defects, their potential consequences on patients, our understanding of neuroinflammation in SMA, and new research hypotheses in SMA pathogenesis.
  • Cladribine to treat disease exacerbation after fingolimod discontinuation
           in progressive multiple sclerosis

    • Abstract: Rebound disease following cessation of disease modifying treatment (DMT) has been reported in people with both relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis (pwRMS, pwPMS) questioning strict separation between these two phenotypes. While licensed DMT is available for pwRMS to counter rebound disease, no such option exists for pwPMS. We report on a pwPMS who developed rebound disease, with 45 Gadolinium-enhancing lesions on T1 weighted MRI brain, within 6 months after fingolimod 0.5 mg/day was stopped. Treatment with a short course of subcutaneous cladribine 60 mg led to effective suppression of inflammatory activity and partial recovery with no short-term safety issues or adverse events.
  • Demyelination load as predictor for disease progression in juvenile
           metachromatic leukodystrophy

    • Abstract: ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate whether the extent and topography of cerebral demyelination correlates with and predicts disease progression in patients with juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD).MethodsA total of 137 MRIs of 46 patients with juvenile MLD were analyzed. Demyelination load and brain volume were quantified using the previously developed Software “clusterize.” Clinical data were collected within the German Leukodystrophy Network and included full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and gross motor function data. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) across the whole brain was performed to investigate the spatial relationship of cerebral demyelination with motor or cognitive function. The prognostic value of the demyelination load at disease onset was assessed to determine the severity of disease progression.ResultsThe demyelination load (corrected by the individual brain volume) correlated significantly with gross motor function (r = +0.55) and FSIQ (r = −0.55). Demyelination load at disease onset was associated with the severity of disease progression later on (P < 0.01). VLSM results associated frontal lobe demyelination with loss in FSIQ and more central region demyelination with decline of motor function. Especially progression of demyelination within the motor area was associated with severe disease progression.InterpretationWe were able to show for the first time in a large cohort of patients with juvenile MLD that the demyelination load correlates with motor and cognitive symptoms. Moreover, demyelination load at disease onset, especially the involvement of the central region, predicts severity of disease progression. Thus, demyelination load seems a functionally relevant MRI parameter.
  • Immune and myodegenerative pathomechanisms in inclusion body myositis

    • Abstract: Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM) is a relatively common acquired inflammatory myopathy in patients above 50 years of age. Pathological hallmarks of IBM are intramyofiber protein inclusions and endomysial inflammation, indicating that both myodegenerative and inflammatory mechanisms contribute to its pathogenesis. Impaired protein degradation by the autophagic machinery, which regulates innate and adaptive immune responses, in skeletal muscle fibers has recently been identified as a potential key pathomechanism in IBM. Immunotherapies, which are successfully used for treating other inflammatory myopathies lack efficacy in IBM and so far no effective treatment is available. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanistic pathways underlying progressive muscle weakness and atrophy in IBM is crucial in identifying novel promising targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we discuss recent insights into the pathomechanistic network of mutually dependent inflammatory and degenerative events during IBM.
  • A novel design of a Phase III trial of isradipine in early Parkinson
           disease (STEADY-PD III)

    • Abstract: ObjectiveTo describe the rationale for a novel study design and baseline characteristics of a disease-modifying trial of isradipine 10 mg daily in early Parkinson disease (PD).MethodsSTEADY-PDIII is a 36-month, Phase 3, parallel group, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of isradipine 10 mg daily in 336 participants with early PD as measured by the change in the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I-III score in the practically defined ON state. Secondary outcome measures include clinically meaningful measures of disability progression in early PD: (1) Time to initiation and utilization of dopaminergic therapy; (2) Time to onset of motor complications; (3) Change in nonmotor disability. Exploratory measures include global measures of functional disability, quality of life, change in the ambulatory capacity, cognitive function, and pharmacokinetic analysis. Rationale for the current design and alternative design approaches are discussed.ResultsThe entire cohort of 336 participants was enrolled at 55 Parkinson Study Group sites in North America. The percentage of male participants were 68.5% with a mean age of 61.9 years (sd 9.0), mean Hoehn and Yahr stage of 1.7 (sd 0.5), mean UPDRS total of 23.1 (sd 8.6), and MoCA of 28.1 (sd 1.4).InterpretationSTEADY-PD III has a novel and innovative design allowing for the determination of longer duration benefits on clinically relevant outcomes in a relatively small cohort on top of the benefit derived from symptomatic therapy. Baseline characteristics are similar to those in previously enrolled de novo PD trials. This study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate the potential impact of a novel therapy to slow progression of PD disability and provide clinically meaningful benefits.
  • CNS Aquaporin-4-specific B cells connect with multiple B-cell compartments
           in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    • Abstract: ObjectivesNeuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) targeted against aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The origin and trafficking of AQP4-specific B cells in NMOSD remains unknown.MethodsPeripheral (n = 7) and splenic B cells (n = 1) recovered from seven NMOSD patients were sorted into plasmablasts, naïve, memory, and CD27-IgD- double negative (DN) B cells, and variable heavy chain (VH) transcriptome sequences were generated by deep sequencing. Peripheral blood (PB) VH repertoires were compared to the same patient's single-cell cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plasmablast (PB) VH transcriptome, CSF immunoglobulin (Ig) proteome, and serum Ig proteome. Recombinant antibodies were generated from paired CSF heavy- and light chains and tested for AQP4 reactivity.ResultsApproximately 9% of the CSF VH sequences aligned with PB memory B cells, DN B cells, and plasmablast VH sequences. AQP4-specific VH sequences were observed in each peripheral B-cell compartment. Lineage analysis of clonally related VH sequences indicates that CSF AQP4-specific B cells are closely related to an expanded population of DN B cells that may undergo antigen-specific B-cell maturation within the CNS. CSF and serum Ig proteomes overlapped with the VH sequences from each B-cell compartment; the majority of matches occurring between the PB VH sequences and serum Ig proteome.InterpretationDuring an acute NMOSD relapse, a dynamic exchange of B cells occurs between the periphery and CNS with AQP4-specific CSF B cells emerging from postgerminal center memory B cells and plasmablasts. Expansion of the PB DN B-cell compartment may be a potential biomarker of NMOSD activity.
  • Elevated glutamate and lactate predict brain death after severe head

    • Abstract: ObjectiveClinical neurological assessment is challenging for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in the acute setting. Waves of neurochemical abnormalities that follow TBI may serve as fluid biomarkers of neurological status. We assessed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of glutamate, lactate, BDNF, and GDNF, to identify potential prognostic biomarkers of neurological outcome.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 20 consecutive patients (mean [SD] age, 29 [13] years; M/F, 9:1) with severe TBI Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8 and abnormal computed tomography scan on admission. Patients were submitted to ventricular drainage and had CSF collected between 2 and 4 h after hospital admission. Patients were then stratified according to two clinical outcomes: deterioration to brain death (nonsurvival, n = 6) or survival (survival, n = 14), within 3 days after hospital admission. CSF levels of brain-derived substances were compared between nonsurvival and survival groups. Clinical and neurological parameters were also assessed.ResultsGlutamate and lactate are significantly increased in nonsurvival relative to survival patients. We tested the accuracy of both biomarkers to discriminate patient outcome. Setting a cutoff of >57.75, glutamate provides 80.0% of sensitivity and 84.62% of specificity (AUC: 0.8214, 95% CL: 54.55–98.08%; and a cutoff of >4.65, lactate has 100% of sensitivity and 85.71% of specificity (AUC: 0.8810, 95% CL: 54.55–98.08%). BDNF and GDNF did not discriminate poor outcome.InterpretationThis early study suggests that glutamate and lactate concentrations at hospital admission accurately predict death within 3 days after severe TBI.
  • Effects of fumarates on inflammatory human astrocyte responses and
           oligodendrocyte differentiation

    • Abstract: ObjectiveDimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a fumaric acid ester approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In both the brain and periphery, DMF and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to compare the effects of DMF and MMF on inflammatory and antioxidant pathways within astrocytes, a critical supporting glial cell in the central nervous system (CNS). Direct effects of fumarates on neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation toward the oligodendrocyte lineage were also assessed.MethodsPrimary astrocyte cultures were derived from both murine and human brains. Following pretreatment with MMF, DMF, or vehicle, astrocytes were stimulated with IL-1β for 24 h; gene and microRNA expression were measured by qPCR. Cytokine production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were also measured. NPCs were differentiated into the oligodendrocyte lineage in the presence of fumarates and immunostained using early oligodendrocyte markers.ResultsIn both murine and human astrocytes, DMF, but not MMF, significantly reduced secretion of IL-6, CXCL10, and CCL2; neither fumarate promoted a robust increase in antioxidant gene expression, although both MMF and DMF prevented intracellular ROS production. Pretreatment with fumarates reduced microRNAs -146a and -155 upon stimulation. In NPC cultures, DMF increased the number of O4+ and NG2+ cells.InterpretationThese results suggest that DMF, and to a lesser extent MMF, mediates the anti-inflammatory effects within astrocytes. This is supported by recent observations that in the inflamed CNS, DMF may be the active compound mediating the anti-inflammatory effects independent from altered antioxidant gene expression.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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