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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Advanced Functional Materials
  [SJR: 5.21]   [H-I: 203]   [48 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1616-301X - ISSN (Online) 1616-3028
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • A Ratiometric Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe for Quantification and
           Evaluation of Selenocysteine-Protective Effects in Acute Inflammation
    • Authors: Xiaoyue Han; Xinyu Song, Fabiao Yu, Lingxin Chen
      Abstract: Selenocysteine (Sec) is a primary kind of reactive selenium species in cells whose antioxidant roles in a series of liver diseases have been featured. However, it is difficult to determine Sec in living cells and in vivo due to its high reactivity and instability. This work reports a ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe (Cy-SS) for qualitative and quantitative determination of Sec in living cells and in vivo. The probe is composed of heptamethine cyanine fluorophore, the response unit bis(2-hydroxyethyl) disulfide, and the liver-targeting moiety d-galactose. Based on a detection mechanism of selenium–sulfur exchange reaction, the concentrations of Sec in HepG2, HL-7702 cells, and primary mouse hepatocytes is determined as 3.08 ± 0.11 × 10−6m, 4.03 ± 0.16 × 10−6m and 4.34 ± 0.30 × 10−6m, respectively. The probe can selectively accumulate in liver. The ratio fluorescence signal of the probe can be employed to quantitatively analyze the fluctuation of Sec concentrations in cells and mice models of acute hepatitis. The experimental results demonstrate that Sec plays important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles during inflammatory process. And the levels of intracellular Sec have a close relationship with the degree of liver inflammation. The above imaging detections make this new probe a potential candidate for the accurate diagnosis of inflammation.A ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe (Cy-SS) is developed for qualitative and quantitative detection of selenocysteine (Sec) in living cells and in vivo. The probe is used to target the liver and detect Sec concentrations in normal and acute hepatitis BALB/c mice models. Sec is critical to maintain the redox statues of the liver and protect liver from inflammatory injury.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T01:00:40.720989-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700769
  • Phase and Composition Tuning of 1D Platinum-Nickel Nanostructures for
           Highly Efficient Electrocatalysis
    • Authors: Kezhu Jiang; Qi Shao, Dandan Zhao, Lingzheng Bu, Jun Guo, Xiaoqing Huang
      Abstract: Among various platinum (Pt)-based nanostructures, porous or hollow ones are of great importance because they exhibit fantastic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) enhancements and maximize atomic utilization by exposing both exterior and interior surfaces. Here, a new class of porous Pt3Ni nanowires (NWs) with 1D architecture, an ultrathin Pt-rich shell, high index facets, and a highly open structure is designed via a selective etching strategy by using the phase and composition segregated Pt-Ni NWs as the starting material. The porous feature of Pt3Ni NWs can be readily fulfilled by changing the Pt/Ni atomic ratio of the starting Pt-Ni NWs. Such porous Pt3Ni NWs show extraordinary activity and stability enhancements toward methanol oxidation reaction and ORR. The porous Pt3Ni NWs can deliver ORR mass activity of 5.60 A mg−1, which is 37.3-fold higher than that of the Pt/C. They also show outstanding stability with negligible activity loss after 20 000 cycles. This study offers a unique approach for the design of complex nanostructures as efficient catalysts through precisely tailoring.Porous Pt3Ni nanowires (NWs) are obtained by selectively etching Pt-Ni NWs with phase and component control. Due to their unique structure of high index facets, highly open structure, 1D structure, and ultrathin Pt-rich surface, the resulting porous Pt3Ni NWs show extraordinary activity and stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction, suggesting that superior Pt-based catalysts can be developed by precisely tailoring.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T01:00:33.289428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700830
  • Screening of Nanocomposite Scaffolds Arrays Using
           Superhydrophobic-Wettable Micropatterns
    • Authors: Álvaro J. Leite; Mariana B. Oliveira, Sofia G. Caridade, João F. Mano
      Abstract: Platforms containing multiple arrays for high-throughput screening are demanded in the development of biomaterial libraries. Here, an array platform for the combinatorial analysis of cellular interactions and 3D porous biomaterials is described. Using a novel method based on computer-aided manufacturing, wettable regions are printed on superhydrophobic surfaces, generating isolated spots. This freestanding benchtop array is used as a tool to deposit naturally derived polymers, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs) to obtain a scaffold matrix. The effect of fibronectin adsorption on the scaffolds is also tested. The biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds are shown to be osteoconductive, non-cytotoxic, promote cell adhesion, and regulate osteogenic commitment. The method proves to be suitable for screening of biomaterials in 3D cell cultures as it can recreate a multitude of combinations on a single platform and identify the optimal composition that drives to desired cell responses. The platforms are fully compatible with commercially routine cell culture labware and established characterization methods, allowing for a standard control and easy adaptability to the cell culture environment. This study shows the value of 3D structured array platforms to decode the combinatorial interactions at play in cell microenvironments.Superhydrophobic surfaces patterned with wettable spots offer the advantages of benchtop array formation for 3D cell cultures and high-throughput screening. The arrays are suitable for characterization of nanocomposite scaffolds. Moreover, they are compatible with cell culture labware and established characterization methods, allowing standardization and adaptability. This study unveils the synergy between nanocomposites and cell behavior to develop biomaterial libraries.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T00:55:57.072931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701219
  • Supramolecular-Assembled Nanoporous Film with Switchable Metal Salts for a
           Triboelectric Nanogenerator
    • Authors: Chanho Park; Giyoung Song, Suk Man Cho, Jihoon Chung, Yujeong Lee, Eui Hyuk Kim, Minjoo Kim, Sangmin Lee, June Huh, Cheolmin Park
      Abstract: A triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) are of great interest as emerging power harvesters because of their simple device architecture with unprecedented high efficiency. Despite the substantial development of new constituent materials and device architectures, a TENG with a switchable surface on a single device, which allows for facile control of the triboelectric output performance, remains a challenge. Here, a supramolecular route for fabricating a novel TENG based on an alkali-metal-bound porous film, where the alkali metal ions are readily switched among one another is demonstrated. The soft nanoporous TENG contains numerous SO3− groups on the surface of nanopores prepared from the supramolecular assembly of sulfonic-acid-terminated polystyrene and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), followed by soft etching of P2VP. Selective binding of alkali metal ions, including Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+, with SO3− groups enables the development of mechanically robust alkali-metal-ion-decorated TENGs. The triboelectric output performance of the devices strongly depends on the alkali metal ion species, and the output power ranges from 11.5 to 256.5 µW. This wide-range triboelectric tuning can be achieved simply by a conventional ion exchange process in a reversible manner, thereby allowing reversible control of the output performance in a single device platform.A supramolecular route for the fabrication of surface-tunable triboelectric nanogenerators is developed. The method is based on a nanoporous surface capable of binding with alkali metal ions, which are readily switchable among one another, via a conventional ion exchange process. This allows for the repeated and reversible switching of the triboelectric properties in a single device platform.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T00:55:45.470924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701367
  • Oxygen Vacancies Evoked Blue TiO2(B) Nanobelts with Efficiency Enhancement
           in Sodium Storage Behaviors
    • Authors: Yan Zhang; Zhiying Ding, Christopher W. Foster, Craig E. Banks, Xiaoqing Qiu, Xiaobo Ji
      Abstract: Oxygen vacancies (OVs) dominate the physical and chemical properties of metal oxides, which play crucial roles in the various fields of applications. Density functional theory calculations show the introduction of OVs in TiO2(B) gives rise to better electrical conductivity and lower energy barrier of sodiation. Here, OVs evoked blue TiO2(B) (termed as B-TiO2(B)) nanobelts are successfully designed upon the basis of electronically coupled conductive polymers to TiO2, which is confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The superiorities of OVs with the aid of carbon encapsulation lead to higher capacity (210.5 mAh g−1 (B-TiO2(B)) vs 102.7 mAh g−1 (W-TiO2(B)) at 0.5 C) and remarkable long-term cyclability (the retention of 94.4% at a high rate of 10 C after 5000 times). In situ X-ray diffractometer analysis spectra also confirm that an enlarged interlayer spacing stimulated by OVs is beneficial to accommodate insertion and removal of sodium ions to accelerate storage kinetics and preserve its original crystal structure. The work highlights that injecting OVs into metal oxides along with carbon coating is an effective strategy for improving capacity and cyclability performances in other metal oxide based electrochemical energy systems.Oxygen vacancies (OVs) evoked blue-colored TiO2(B) nanobelts are first designed as superior anodes for sodium-ion batteries. They feature remarkable high-rate performance and durable long-term cycle life because of their ability to take full advantage of OVs to elevate electronic conductivity and lower sodiated energy barriers. A high capacity of 80.9 mAh g−1 (at 3350 mA g−1) is still maintained after 5000 cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T00:55:35.461368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700856
  • Nanocomposites: High-Energy-Density Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites with
           Trilayered Architecture (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2017)
    • Authors: Feihua Liu; Qi Li, Jin Cui, Zeyu Li, Guang Yang, Yang Liu, Lijie Dong, Chuanxi Xiong, Hong Wang, Qing Wang
      Abstract: Multilayered polymer nanocomposites with high energy and power densities are described by Chuanxi Xiong, Hong Wang, Qing Wang, and co-workers in article number 1606292. Boron nitride nanosheets dispersed in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix provide high breakdown strength for the outer layer, while PVDF with barium strontium titanate nanowires forms a central layer ensuring high dielectric constant of the resulting composites.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:13:20.295344-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770125
  • Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2017)
    • PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:13:19.205988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770123
  • Sensors: Stretchable Capacitive Sensors of Torsion, Strain, and Touch
           Using Double Helix Liquid Metal Fibers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2017)
    • Authors: Christopher B. Cooper; Kuralamudhan Arutselvan, Ying Liu, Daniel Armstrong, Yiliang Lin, Mohammad Rashed Khan, Jan Genzer, Michael D. Dickey
      Abstract: Scanning electron micrographs of hollow elastic fibers. Injecting the core with liquid metal renders the fibers conductive. As Michael D. Dickey and co-workers present in article number 1605630, two or more fibers twisted together can sense large amounts of torsion due to changes in geometry, and therefore capacitance, between the fibers. Self-capacitance between fingers and the metal in the fibers allows for touch sensing.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:13:18.072741-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770124
  • Cancer Therapy: Programmed Multiresponsive Vesicles for Enhanced Tumor
           Penetration and Combination Therapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (Adv.
           Funct. Mater. 20/2017)
    • Authors: Fangyuan Zhou; Bing Feng, Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, Qingshuo Meng, Jianfeng Zeng, Zhiwen Zhang, Siling Wang, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li
      Abstract: In article number 1606530, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li, and co-workers present a clinically translatable multi-responsive vesicle to overcome the sequential biological barriers for improved therapy of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The liposomal vesicles display multi-stimuli sensitivity toward enzymes, light, and temperature, and can encapsulate both a hydrophobic drug and a hydrophilic drug, thereby presenting a novel nanoplatform for TNBC combination therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:13:17.999021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770121
  • Bioelectronic Devices: Cell Generator: A Self-Sustaining Biohybrid System
           Based on Energy Harvesting from Engineered Cardiac Microtissues (Adv.
           Funct. Mater. 20/2017)
    • Authors: Bingzhe Xu; Xudong Lin, Wei Li, Zixun Wang, Wenchong Zhang, Peng Shi
      Abstract: In article number 1606169, Peng Shi and co-workers fabricate a bio-hybrid “Cell Generator” by patterning cardiomyocytes on arrays of micro-cantilevers made of piezoelectric materials. Pulsed contraction of the engineered cardiac constructs provides the source of mechanical energy for electricity generation, which is used to power small biomedical devices. This technology provides an innovative perspective of exploiting live biological components for the development of self-sustaining cellular machines.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:13:16.843476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770139
  • Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2017)
    • PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:13:16.749217-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770122
  • Anti-Counterfeiting: Lanthanide “Chameleon” Multistage
           Anti-Counterfeit Materials (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2017)
    • Authors: Anna M. Kaczmarek; Ying-Ya Liu, Chunhua Wang, Brecht Laforce, Laszlo Vincze, Pascal Van Der Voort, Kristof Van Hecke, Rik Van Deun
      Abstract: In article number 1700258, Anna M. Kaczmarek, Rik Van Deun, and co-workers describe hybrid materials displaying a multi-stage security behavior, where a single material shows both wavelength- and temperature-dependent luminescence properties. The materials consist of mixed lanthanide β-diketonate complexes grafted into the pores of a nano-sized metal organic framework (MOF), which show “chameleon” behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:13:16.294739-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770120
  • Bottom-Up Preparation of Uniform Ultrathin Rhenium Disulfide Nanosheets
           for Image-Guided Photothermal Radiotherapy
    • Authors: Sida Shen; Yu Chao, Ziliang Dong, Guanglin Wang, Xuan Yi, Guosheng Song, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu, Liang Cheng
      Abstract: Facile preparation of multifunctional theranostic nanoplatforms with well-controlled morphology and sizes remains an attractive in the area of nanomedicine. Here, a new kind of 2D transition metal dichalcogenide, rhenium disulfide (ReS2) nanosheets, with uniform sizes, strong near-infrared (NIR) light, and strong X-ray attenuation, is successfully synthesized. After surface modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), the synthesized ReS2-PEG nanosheets are stable in various physiological solutions. In addition to their contrasts in photoacoustic imaging and X-ray computed tomography imaging because of their strong NIR light and X-ray absorptions, respectively, such ReS2-PEG nanosheets can also be tracked under nuclear imaging after chelator-free labeling with radioisotope ions, 99mTc4+. Efficient tumor accumulation of ReS2-PEG nanosheets is then observed after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice under triple-modal imaging. The combined in vivo photothermal radiotherapy is further conducted, achieving a remarkable synergistic tumor destruction effect. Finally, no obvious toxicity of ReS2-PEG nanosheets is observed from the treated mice within 30 d. This work suggests that such ultrathin ReS2 nanosheets with well-controlled morphology and uniform sizes may be a promising type of multifunctional theranostic agent for remotely triggered cancer combination therapy.A one-step bottom-up method is developed to synthesize a new kind of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), rhenium disulfide (ReS2), with well-defined 2D nanosheet morphology and uniform sizes, for multimodal imaging-guided cancer combination therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:40:40.824783-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700250
  • A Patterned Graphene/ZnO UV Sensor Driven by Integrated Asymmetric
           Micro-Supercapacitors on a Liquid Metal Patterned Foldable Paper
    • Authors: Junyeong Yun; Yein Lim, Hanchan Lee, Geumbee Lee, Heun Park, Soo Yeong Hong, Sang Woo Jin, Yong Hui Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong Sook Ha
      Abstract: A foldable array of patterned graphene/ZnO nanoparticle UV sensor and asymmetric micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs) integrated on a paper substrate with patterned liquid metal interconnections is reported. The resistor type UV sensor based on graphene/ZnO nanoparticles is patterned to be driven by the stored energy of the integrated AMSCs. The AMSC consists of MnO2 nanoball deposited multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and V2O5 wrapped MWNTs as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. As an electrolyte, propylene carbonate-poly(methyl methacrylate)-LiClO4, an organic solvent-based gel, is used. The UV sensor and AMSCs can be easily integrated on a liquid metal, Galinstan, patterned, waterproof mineral paper and show a mechanically stable UV sensing, regardless of repetitive folding cycles. This work demonstrates a novel foldable nanomaterial based sensor system driven by integrated energy storage devices, applicable to future wearable and portable electronics.A patterned graphene/ZnO UV sensor driven by integrated asymmetric micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs) on a liquid metal patterned foldable substrate is demonstrated. With the stored energy of the AMSCs, the integrated UV sensor is operated stable for 1500 s under deformations of folding.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:10:44.107163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700135
  • Holey Carbon Nanotubes from Controlled Air Oxidation
    • Authors: Yi Lin; Michael R. Funk, Caroline J. Campbell, Jae-Woo Kim, Xiaogang Han, Steven D. Lacey, Hua Xie, Liangbing Hu, John W. Connell
      Abstract: Defects in various nanomaterials are often desirable to enable enhanced functional group attachments and attain properties that are not available with their intact counterparts. A new paradigm in the defective low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials is to create holes on the graphitic surfaces via partial etching. For example, holey graphene, graphene sheets with through-thickness holes, is synthesized using several different partial etching approaches and found useful for various applications such as field-effect transistors, sensors, energy storage devices, and separation membranes. In these applications, the presence of holes leads to unique advantages, such as bandgap widening, chemical functionalization of hole edges, and improved accessible surface area. Here, a facile and scalable method to prepare holey carbon nanotubes via controlled air oxidation is presented. Although no additional catalyst is added, the residual iron nanocatalysts encapsulated in the nanotube cavity from nanotube manufacturing significantly contributed to the hole generation through the nanotube walls. The holey carbon nanotube products exhibit enhanced surface area, pore volume, and oxygen-containing functional groups, which lead to their much enhanced electrochemical capacitive properties (increased over 100% in capacitance). Synthesis and characterization details of this novel class of holey carbon nanomaterials are presented, and their potential applications are discussed.Holey carbon nanotubes are prepared by partial thermal oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in air. This facile process results in holes through the tubular walls along the nanotube body. With much increased accessible surface area and pore volume, the electrochemical capacitive performances of holey carbon nanotubes become significant enhanced compared to untreated nanotubes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T07:20:37.111376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700762
  • An Interdiffusion Method for Highly Performing Cesium/Formamidinium Double
           Cation Perovskites
    • Authors: Weiming Qiu; Aniruddha Ray, Manoj Jaysankar, Tamara Merckx, Joao P. Bastos, David Cheyns, Robert Gehlhaar, Jef Poortmans, Paul Heremans
      Abstract: The fabrication of high-quality cesium (Cs)/formamidinium (FA) double-cation perovskite films through a two-step interdiffusion method is reported. CsxFA1-xPbI3-y(1-x)Bry(1-x) films with different compositions are achieved by controlling the amount of CsI and formamidinium bromide (FABr) in the respective precursor solutions. The effects of incorporating Cs+ and Br− on the properties of the resulting perovskite films and on the performance of the corresponding perovskite solar cells are systematically studied. Small area perovskite solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.3% and a perovskite module (4 cm2) with an aperture PCE of 16.4%, using the Cs/FA double cation perovskite made with 10 mol% CsI and 15 mol% FABr (Cs0.1FA0.9PbI2.865Br0.135) are achieved. The Cs/FA double cation perovskites show negligible degradation after annealing at 85 °C for 336 h, outperforming the perovskite materials containing methylammonium (MA).A modified two-step interdiffusion method is developed to fabricate high-quality cesium/formamidinium double cation perovskites with various compositions that have superior intrinsic thermal stability than those with methylammonium cation. Perovskite solar cells and modules based on Cs0.1FA0.9PbI2.865Br0.135 show the highest power conversion efficiency of 19.3% and 16.4%, respectively, in a planar structure.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T07:20:33.106724-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700920
  • Covalently Adaptable Elastin-Like Protein–Hyaluronic Acid (ELP–HA)
           Hybrid Hydrogels with Secondary Thermoresponsive Crosslinking for
           Injectable Stem Cell Delivery
    • Authors: Huiyuan Wang; Danqing Zhu, Alexandra Paul, Lei Cai, Annika Enejder, Fan Yang, Sarah C. Heilshorn
      Abstract: Shear-thinning, self-healing hydrogels are promising vehicles for therapeutic cargo delivery due to their ability to be injected using minimally invasive surgical procedures. An injectable hydrogel using a novel combination of dynamic covalent crosslinking with thermoresponsive engineered proteins is presented. Ex situ at room temperature, rapid gelation occurs through dynamic covalent hydrazone bonds by simply mixing two components: hydrazine-modified elastin-like protein (ELP) and aldehyde-modified hyaluronic acid. This hydrogel provides significant mechanical protection to encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells during syringe needle injection and rapidly recovers after injection to retain the cells homogeneously within a 3D environment. In situ, the ELP undergoes a thermal phase transition, as confirmed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy observation of dense ELP thermal aggregates. The formation of the secondary network reinforces the hydrogel and results in a tenfold slower erosion rate compared to a control hydrogel without secondary thermal crosslinking. This improved structural integrity enables cell culture for three weeks postinjection, and encapsulated cells maintain their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages, including chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic cell types. Together, these data demonstrate the promising potential of ELP–HA hydrogels for injectable stem cell transplantation and tissue regeneration.Shear-thinning and self-healing hydrogels containing protein-engineered elastin-like protein and hyaluronic acid are fabricated through dynamic covalent crosslinking, followed by thermoresponsive physical crosslinking for reinforcement and enhanced stability. These hydrogels have highly tunable stiffness, provide delivered stem cells significant mechanical protection, and maintain the cells after delivery in a 3D environment that supports further differentiation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T02:35:36.765922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605609
  • Function Follows Form: Correlation between the Growth and Local Emission
           of Perovskite Structures and the Performance of Solar Cells
    • Authors: M. Ibrahim Dar; Alexander Hinderhofer, Gwenole Jacopin, Valentina Belova, Neha Arora, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Frank Schreiber, Michael Grätzel
      Abstract: Understanding the relationship between the growth and local emission of hybrid perovskite structures and the performance of the devices based on them demands attention. This study investigates the local structural and emission features of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbBr3, and CH(NH2)2PbBr3 perovskite films deposited under different yet optimized conditions using X-ray scattering and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. X-ray scattering shows that a CH3NH3PbI3 film involving spin coating of CH3NH3I instead of dipping is composed of perovskite structures exhibiting a preferred orientation with [202] direction perpendicular to the surface plane. The device based on the CH3NH3PbI3 film composed of oriented crystals yields a relatively higher photovoltage. In the case of CH3NH3PbBr3, while the crystallinity decreases when the HBr solution is used in a single-step method, the photovoltage enhancement from 1.1 to 1.46 V seems largely stemming from the morphological improvements, i.e., a better connection between the crystallites due to a higher nucleation density. Furthermore, a high photovoltage of 1.47 V obtained from CH(NH2)2PbBr3 devices could be attributed to the formation of perovskite films displaying uniform cathodoluminescence emission. The comparative analysis of the local structural, morphological, and emission characteristics of the different perovskite films supports the higher photovoltage yielded by the relatively better performing devices.A comparative analysis of the local structural, morphological, and emission characteristics of different perovskite films rationally justifies the higher photovoltage yielded by the better performing devices.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T06:11:18.217169-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701433
  • General Formation of Monodisperse IrM (M = Ni, Co, Fe) Bimetallic
           Nanoclusters as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Acidic Overall Water
    • Authors: Yecan Pi; Qi Shao, Pengtang Wang, Jun Guo, Xiaoqing Huang
      Abstract: The development of bifunctional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting in acidic media is vital for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyzers, but still full of obstacles. Here, highly efficient acidic overall water splitting is realized by utilizing ultrasmall, monodispersed Iridium (Ir)-based nanoclusters (NCs) as the candidate, via a surfactant-free, wet-chemical, and large-scalable strategy. Benefiting from the high specific surface area, clean surface, and strong binding between NCs and supports, the IrM NCs exhibit attractive activities and durability for both oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction in acidic electrolytes, with IrNi NCs showing the best performance. More significantly, in the overall water splitting, IrNi NCs reach 10 mA cm−2 at a cell voltage of only 1.58 V in 0.5 m H2SO4 electrolyte, holding promises for potential implementation of PEM water electrolysis. This work opens a new avenue toward designing bifunctional “acidic stable” catalysts for efficient overall water splitting.Ir-based nanoclusters (NCs) with highly dispersive feature are synthesized using a wet-chemical large-scalable strategy. Benefiting from the clean surface, high surface-to-volume ratio, large proportion of surface atoms, as well as strong interaction with support, this new series of Ir-based NCs exhibit superior activity and enhanced durability as bifunctional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting in acidic electrolyte.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T06:11:05.5903-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700886
  • Deep-Blue Phosphorescent Ir(III) Complexes with Light-Harvesting
           Functional Moieties for Efficient Blue and White PhOLEDs in
    • Authors: Ganguri Sarada; Woosum Cho, Athithan Maheshwaran, Vijaya Gopalan Sree, Ho-Yeol Park, Yeong-Soon Gal, Myungkwan Song, Sung-Ho Jin
      Abstract: The photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of emitters is a key parameter to accomplish high electroluminescent performance in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). With the aim of enhancing the PL efficiency, this study designs deep-blue emitting heteroleptic Ir(III) complexes (tBuCN-FIrpic, tBuCN-FIrpic-OXD, and tBuCN-FIrpic-mCP) for solution-processed PhOLEDs by covalently attaching the light-harvesting functional moieties (mCP-Me or OXD-Me) to the control Ir(III) complex, tBuCN-FIrpic. These Ir(III) complexes show similar deep-blue emission peaks around 453, 480 nm (298 K) and 447, 477 nm (77 K) in chloroform. tBuCN-FIrpic-mCP demonstrates higher light-harvesting efficiency (142%) than tBuCN-FIrpic-OXD (112%), relative to that of tBuCN-FIrpic (100%), due to an efficient intramolecular energy transfer from the mCP group to the Ir(III) complex. Accordingly, the monochromatic PhOLEDs of tBuCN-FIrpic-mCP show higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 18.2% with one of the best blue coordinates (0.14, 0.18) in solution-processing technology. Additionally, the two-component (deep-blue:yellow-orange), single emitting layer, white PhOLED of tBuCN-FIrpic-mCP shows a maximum EQE of 20.6% and superior color quality (color rendering index (CRI) = 78, Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.353, 0.352)) compared with the control device containing sky-blue:yellow-orange emitters (CRI = 60, CIE coordinates of (0.293, 0.395)) due to the good spectral coverage by the deep-blue emitter.Highly efficient deep-blue phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes with light-harvesting groups are introduced for blue and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. Intramolecular energy transfer from a high triplet energy donor (mCP-Me) to the Ir(III) complex (tBuCN-FIrpic) is found to increase the photoluminescence efficiency of tBuCN-FIrpic-mCP. Therefore, tBuCN-FIrpic-mCP shows high external quantum efficiency of 18.2% with intense blue coordinates (0.142, 0.181) in a solution-process.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T02:05:55.899905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701002
  • Mo2C/CNT: An Efficient Catalyst for Rechargeable Li–CO2 Batteries
    • Authors: Yuyang Hou; Jiazhao Wang, Lili Liu, Yuqing Liu, Shulei Chou, Dongqi Shi, Huakun Liu, Yuping Wu, Weimin Zhang, Jun Chen
      Abstract: The rechargeable Li–CO2 battery is a novel and promising energy storage system with the capability of CO2 capture due to the reversible reaction between lithium ions and carbon dioxide. Carbon materials as the cathode, however, limit both the cycling performance and the energy efficiency of the rechargeable Li–CO2 battery, due to the insulating Li2CO3 formed in the discharge process, which is difficult to decompose in the charge process. Here, a Mo2C/carbon nanotube composite material is developed as the cathode for the rechargeable Li–CO2 battery and can achieve high energy efficiency (77%) and improved cycling performance (40 cycles). A related mechanism is proposed that Mo2C can stabilize the intermediate reduction product of CO2 on discharge, thus preventing the formation of insulating Li2CO3. In contrast to insulating Li2CO3, this amorphous Li2C2O4-Mo2C discharge product can be decomposed below 3.5 V on charge. The introduction of Mo2C provides an effective solution to the problem of low round-trip efficiency in the Li–CO2 battery.In a rechargeable Li–CO2 battery, molybdenum carbide/carbon nanotubes as a cathode can stabilize the intermediate product on discharge, by building a new chemical bond between Mo and O. This amorphous discharge product effectively prevents the formation of crystalline Li2CO3 and thereby reduces the potential plateau on charge and improves the round-trip efficiency of the rechargeable Li–CO2 battery.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T02:05:51.654232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700564
  • Photocatalytic Nanofiltration Membranes with Self-Cleaning Property for
           Wastewater Treatment
    • Authors: Yan Lv; Chao Zhang, Ai He, Shang-Jin Yang, Guang-Peng Wu, Seth B. Darling, Zhi-Kang Xu
      Abstract: Membrane fouling is one of the most severe problems restricting membrane separation technology for wastewater treatment. This work reports a photocatalytic nanofiltration membrane (NFM) with self-cleaning property fabricated using a facile biomimetic mineralization process. In this strategy, a polydopamine (PDA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) intermediate layer is fabricated on an ultrafiltration membrane via a co-deposition method followed by mineralization of a photocatalytic layer consisting of β-FeOOH nanorods. The PDA–PEI layer acts both as a nanofiltration selective layer and an intermediate layer for anchoring the β-FeOOH nanorods via strong coordination complexes between Fe3+ and catechol groups. In visible light, the β-FeOOH layer exhibits efficient photocatalytic activity for degrading dyes through the photo-Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, endowing the NFM concurrently with effective nanofiltration performance and self-cleaning capability. Moreover, the mineralized NFMs exhibit satisfactory stability under simultaneous filtration and photocatalysis processing, showing great potential in advanced wastewater treatment.A photocatalytic nanofiltration membrane (NFM) with self-cleaning capability is fabricated via a facile biomimetic mineralization process. In visible light, this membrane exhibits efficient photocatalytic activity for degrading dyes through the photo-Fenton reaction concurrently with effective nanofiltration performance. The as-prepared NFM shows great potential in advanced textile wastewater treatment with satisfactory stability.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T02:05:43.274182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700251
  • High-Performance Near-IR Photodetector Using Low-Bandgap
           MA0.5FA0.5Pb0.5Sn0.5I3 Perovskite
    • Authors: Xiaobao Xu; Chu-Chen Chueh, Peifeng Jing, Zhibin Yang, Xueliang Shi, Ting Zhao, Lih Y. Lin, Alex K.-Y. Jen
      Abstract: Photodetectors with ultrafast response are explored using inorganic/organic hybrid perovskites. High responsivity and fast optoelectronic response are achieved due to the exceptional semiconducting properties of perovskite materials. However, most of the perovskite-based photodetectors exploited to date are centered on Pb-based perovskites, which only afford spectral response across the visible spectrum. This study demonstrates a high-performance near-IR (NIR) photodetector using a stable low-bandgap Sn-containing perovskite, (CH3NH3)0.5(NH2CHNH2)0.5Pb0.5Sn0.5I3 (MA0.5FA0.5Pb0.5Sn0.5I3), which is processed with an antioxidant additive, ascorbic acid (AA). The addition of AA effectively strengthens the stability of Sn-containing perovskite against oxygen, thereby significantly inhibiting the leakage current. Consequently, the derived photodetector shows high responsivity with a detectivity of over 1012 Jones ranging from 800 to 970 nm. Such low-cost, solution processable NIR photodetectors with high performance show promising potential for future optoelectronic applications.A high-performance NIR photodetector derived from a stable low optical bandgap (Eg) Sn-containing perovskite, MA0.5FA0.5Pb0.5Sn0.5I3, is introduced. Ascorbic acid is used as an effective antioxidant additive to enhance the performance of the photodiode. Finally, a high detectivity of over 1012 Jones between 800 and 970 nm with a high response rate is achieved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T02:05:29.158953-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701053
  • Fully Stable and Homogeneous Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Alignment on
           Anisotropic Surfaces
    • Authors: Pim van der Asdonk; Peter J. Collings, Paul H. J. Kouwer
      Abstract: Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have great potential in both biosensing and optical devices due to their biocompatible nature and strong optical characteristics. These applications, however, demand a homogeneous and stable alignment on anisotropic surfaces, a challenge that, so far, has not been solved adequately. In this work, it is shown how to drastically increase the quality of in-plane alignment and stability of these liquid crystals on conventional rubbed polyimide substrates by the addition of a small amount of a nonionic surfactant. Samples with surfactant show excellent alignment that is stable for months, while control samples without surfactant show much poorer alignment that further deteriorates in days. Also, well-aligned dry films of chromonics can be prepared following this approach. It is demonstrated how to obtain high-quality alignment by controlling the concentration and the nature of the surfactant, in particular its molecular structure and hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB value) and other critical parameters are discussed. It is believed that this approach may very well be essential for advancing the applicability of these water-based, biocompatible, and often highly dichroic materials for a wide range of uses.Taming the organization of chromonic lyotropic liquid crystals: Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals combine the advantages of liquid crystals with biocompatibility, however, they prove difficult to align macroscopically. Using surfactants, it is shown how efficient and exceedingly stable alignment is realized. These results are crucial for application of this promising class of materials.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T02:00:37.31528-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701209
  • Molecular Design of Mesoporous NiCo2O4 and NiCo2S4 with
           Sub-Micrometer-Polyhedron Architectures for Efficient Pseudocapacitive
           Energy Storage
    • Authors: Yu Liu; Zhenbin Wang, Yijun Zhong, Moses Tade, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
      Abstract: Spinel-type NiCo2O4 (NCO) and NiCo2S4 (NCS) polyhedron architectures with sizes of 500–600 nm and rich mesopores with diameters of 1–2 nm are prepared facilely by the molecular design of Ni and Co into polyhedron-shaped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as solid precursors. Both as-prepared NCO and NCS nanostructures exhibit excellent pseudocapacitance and stability as electrodes in supercapacitors. In particular, the exchange of O2− in the lattice of NCO with S2− obviously improves the electrochemical performance. NCS shows a highly attractive capacitance of 1296 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1, ultrahigh rate capability with 93.2% capacitance retention at 10 A g−1, and excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 94.5% after cycling at 1 A g−1 for 6000 times. The asymmetric supercapacitor with an NCS negative electrode and an active carbon positive electrode delivers a very attractive energy density of 44.8 Wh kg−1 at power density 794.5 W kg−1, and a favorable energy density of 37.7 Wh kg−1 is still achieved at a high power density of 7981.1 W kg−1. The specific mesoporous polyhedron architecture contributes significantly to the outstanding electrochemical performances of both NCO and NCS for capacitive energy storage.The successful synthesis of porous polyhedral-structured zeolitic imidazole framework–NiCo2O4 (ZIF–NCO) and zeolitic imidazole framework–NiCo2S4 (ZIF–NCS) nanoparticles by using a Ni and Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework as the solid precursors is reported. Both ZIF–NCO and ZIF–NCS exhibit excellent pseudocapacitance in the application of supercapacitors.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T01:55:53.977189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701229
  • pH-Triggered Pinpointed Cascading Charge-Conversion and Redox-Controlled
           Gene Release Design: Modularized Fabrication for Nonviral Gene
    • Authors: Qian Jiang; Yu Nie, Xiaobing Chen, Yiyan He, Dong Yue, Zhongwei Gu
      Abstract: Although pH and reduction responses are widely applied on gene and drug delivery system, the undefined molecule and disconnected response to corresponding transfection barriers still hamper their further application. Here, a multistage-responsive lipopeptides polycation-DNA nanoparticles (namely KR-DC) as gene vector is designed, consisting of three functional modules. It provides the following outstanding “smart” characteristics: i) facile manufacture and ease to adjust ingredients for different conditions, ii) negatively charged surface to remain stable and increase biocompatibility in physiological environment, iii) pH-triggered cascading charge-conversion corresponding to tumor extracellular pH and endo/lysosomal pH, iv) the first stage of charge reversal for uptake enhancement at tumor site, v) the second stage of charge conversion for rapid endosomal escape, vi) the third stage of redox degradation aiming at DNA controlled release and nuclear entry, vii) cell-penetrating peptides mimicking arginine-rich periphery targeting to membrane penetration capacity improvement, and viii) lipid forming hydrophobic cavity for potential fat-soluble drug encapsulation. Finally, KR-DC nanoparticles achieve significantly enhanced in vitro transfection efficiency by almost four orders of magnitude in manual tumor environment with reduced side effects and satisfying gene expression in Hela xenograft tumor model in vivo.Multistage-responsive lipopeptides polycation-DNA nanoparticles (KR-DC) are a new gene delivery system containing three functional modules, which are capable of pinpointed cascading charge-conversion triggered at tumor extracellular pH and endo/lysosomal pH and redox-controlled gene release, as well as having membrane penetration capacity. KR-DC nanoparticles achieve highly enhanced in vitro transfection efficiency and satisfying improved gene expression in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T01:55:44.441391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701571
  • Multianchored Glycoconjugate-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Tool
           for Selective Killing of Targeted Bacteria via Alternating Magnetic Fields
    • Authors: Yash S. Raval; Benjamin D. Fellows, Jamie Murbach, Yves Cordeau, Olin Thompson Mefford, Tzuen-Rong J. Tzeng
      Abstract: New technologies that do not rely on antibiotics are urgently needed to treat bacterial infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Herein, the feasibility of using alternating magnetic field (AMF) to selectively kill enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain K99 (EC K99) in the presence of multianchored glycoconjugate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles is explored. Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(acrylic acid)-dopamine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PEO-MNPs) are synthesized and functionalized with bacteria-specific glycoconjugate Neu5Ac(α2-3)-Gal-(β1-4)Glcβ-sp (GM3-MNPs) for specific adherence to EC K99. When such mixtures are exposed to an alternate magnetic field (31 kA m−1, 207 KHz), an ≈3-log reduction in colony forming units of EC K99 is achieved in 120 min. Moreover, in a mixed-bacterial culture environment, targeted killing of EC K99 is achieved with minimal damage to nontargeted bacterium. Electron microscopy images along with live/dead staining assays demonstrate visible membrane damage of EC K99 cells in the presence of GM3-MNPs and AMF. Additionally, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels of EC K99 are significantly diminished in the presence of GM3-MNPs and AMF. These results suggest that specific glycoconjugate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles when mediated by AMF can be potentially used as a novel nonantibiotic treatment platform to inactivate/kill targeted bacterial pathogens, with minimal impact on normal microflora and the affected body region/tissue.Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(acrylic acid)-dopamine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PEO-MNPs) are biofunctionalized with Neu5Ac(α2-3)-Gal-(β1-4)Glcβ-sp (GM3) molecule via a click chemistry route to produce PEO-MNPs functionalized with GM3 (GM3-MNPs). GM3-MNPs specifically interact with the Escherichia coli strain K99 (EC K99) and cause them to aggregate together. When such a nanoparticle–bacterial complex is exposed to alternating magnetic fields, ≈3-log reduction in the colony forming unit of EC K99 is observed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T12:20:44.499926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701473
  • Few-Layered PtS2 Phototransistor on h-BN with High Gain
    • Authors: Liang Li; Weike Wang, Yang Chai, Huiqiao Li, Mingliang Tian, Tianyou Zhai
      Abstract: The very recently rediscovered group-10 transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as PtS2 and PtSe2, have joined the 2D material family as potentially promising candidates for electronic and optoeletronic applications due to their theoretically high carrier mobility, widely tunable bandgap, and ultrastability. Here, the first exploration of optoelectronic application based on few-layered PtS2 using h-BN as substrate is presented. The phototransistor exhibits high responsivity up to 1.56 × 103 A W−1 and detectivity of 2.9 × 1011 Jones. Additionally, an ultrahigh photogain ≈2 × 106 is obtained at a gate voltage Vg = 30 V, one of the highest gain among 2D photodetectors, which is attributed to the existence of trap states. More interestingly, the few-layered PtS2 phototransistor shows a back gate modulated photocurrent generation mechanism, that is, from the photoconductive effect dominant to photogating effect dominant via tuning the gate voltage from the OFF state to the ON state. Such good properties combined with gate-controlled photoresponse of PtS2 make it a competitive candidate for future 2D optoelectronic applications.A few-layered PtS2 phototransistor on h-BN with high gain is demonstrated. High responsivity up to 1.56 × 103 A W−1 and detectivity of 2.9 × 1011 Jones at a gate voltage Vg = 0 V are achieved. Moreover, the photocurrent generation mechanism can be tuned with the back gate from photoconductive effect dominant in the OFF state to photogating effect dominant in the ON state.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:46:40.235465-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701011
  • DNA Lipoplex-Based Light-Harvesting Antennae
    • Authors: Sung Duk Jo; Jee Seon Kim, Inhye Kim, Jun Su Yun, Jae Chul Park, Bon Il Koo, Eunji Lee, Yoon Sung Nam
      Abstract: Natural light-harvesting complexes are operated through the well-designed self-assembly of pigments with large protein complexes in a thylakoid lipid bilayer. However, a long-range, directed transfer of excitation energy has not been achieved in artificial systems because the nanoscale arrangement of chromophores into stable micrometer-scale structures is highly challenging. Here the multiscale assembly of chromophores for excited energy transfer through the arrangement of chromophores on nanoscale DNA templates followed by their incorporation into larger multilamellar lipid structures is reported. Single-strand 10 nucleotide DNA molecules containing a terminal residue linked with three different chromophores are hybridized with their complementary 30 nucleotide matrix DNA strand. Due to the short DNA sequences, the energy transfer of the DNA-templated chromophore arrays is limited at 4 °C. However, the incorporation of DNA-templated chromophores into lipid-DNA complexes dramatically increases both of the efficiencies and antenna effects of the single and two-step energy transfers at room temperature through the structural stabilization and the secondary assembly of DNA between the interstitial spaces of multilamellar lipid structures. The findings suggest that the supramolecular alignment of DNA-templated chromophores, which has never been explored previously, can be a very promising route toward directed, long-range light harvesting.A Förster-type resonance energy transfer-based light-harvesting antenna is constructed through the supramolecular alignment of DNA-templated chromophores into the interstitial spaces of multilamellar lipid-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) via electrostatic interactions. Multiscale assembly of chromophores in 3D lipoplexes enables a dramatic increase in the efficiency and antenna effects of one- and two-step energy transfers.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:46:28.025674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700212
  • Understanding the Capacitance of PEDOT:PSS
    • Authors: Anton V. Volkov; Kosala Wijeratne, Evangelia Mitraka, Ujwala Ail, Dan Zhao, Klas Tybrandt, Jens Wenzel Andreasen, Magnus Berggren, Xavier Crispin, Igor V. Zozoulenko
      Abstract: Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is the most studied and explored mixed ion-electron conducting polymer system. PEDOT:PSS is commonly included as an electroactive conductor in various organic devices, e.g., supercapacitors, displays, transistors, and energy-converters. In spite of its long-term use as a material for storage and transport of charges, the fundamentals of its bulk capacitance remain poorly understood. Generally, charge storage in supercapacitors is due to formation of electrical double layers or redox reactions, and it is widely accepted that PEDOT:PSS belongs to the latter category. Herein, experimental evidence and theoretical modeling results are reported that significantly depart from this commonly accepted picture. By applying a two-phase, 2D modeling approach it is demonstrated that the major contribution to the capacitance of the two-phase PEDOT:PSS originates from electrical double layers formed along the interfaces between nanoscaled PEDOT-rich and PSS-rich interconnected grains that comprises two phases of the bulk of PEDOT:PSS. This new insight paves a way for designing materials and devices, based on mixed ion-electron conductors, with improved performance.By performing 2D Nernst–Planck–Poisson modeling of experimental cyclic voltammograms it is shown that (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) capacitance originates from charging of double layers formed on boundaries between the two phases consisting of PEDOT-rich and PSS-rich grains.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:46:23.245228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700329
  • A Band-Edge Potential Gradient Heterostructure to Enhance Electron
           Extraction Efficiency of the Electron Transport Layer in High-Performance
           Perovskite Solar Cells
    • Authors: Yu Hou; Xiao Chen, Shuang Yang, Chunzhong Li, Huijun Zhao, Hua Gui Yang
      Abstract: As the key component in efficient perovskite solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL) can selectively collect photogenerated charge carriers produced in perovskite absorbers and prevent the recombination of carriers at interfaces, thus ensuring a high power conversion efficiency. Compared with the conventional single- or dual-layered ETLs, a gradient heterojunction (GHJ) strategy is more attractive to facilitate charge separation because the potential gradient created at an appropriately structured heterojunction can act as a driving force to regulate the electron transport toward a desired direction. Here, a SnO2/TiO2 GHJ interlayer configuration inside the ETL is reported to simultaneously achieve effective extraction and efficient transport of photoelectrons. With such an interlayer configuration, the GHJs formed at the perovskite/ETL interface act collectively to extract photogenerated electrons from the perovskite layer, while GHJs formed at the boundaries of the interconnected SnO2 and TiO2 networks throughout the entire ETL layer can extract electron from the slow electron mobility TiO2 network to the high electron mobility SnO2 network. Devices based on GHJ ETL exhibit a champion power conversion efficiency of 18.08%, which is significantly higher than that obtained from the compact TiO2 ETL constructed under the comparable conditions.A gradient heterojunction electron transport layer (GHJ ETL), prepared by a facile low-temperature route, is utilized in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for the first time. PSCs based on the potential GHJ ETL demonstrate an efficiency of 18.08% with less hysteresis effect, which is due to excellent management of charge transport and recombination.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:46:18.586768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700878
  • Multi-Atomic Layers of Metallic Aluminum for Ultralong Life Lithium
           Storage with High Volumetric Capacity
    • Authors: Jianan Gu; Bin Li, Zhiguo Du, Chao Zhang, Di Zhang, Shubin Yang
      Abstract: Metallic aluminum (Al) have been explored as potential anode materials for lithium storage because of its high theoretical capacity (993 mAh g–1) and low voltage plateaus. Al possesses high electric conductivity, low cost and environmental friendliness. Unfortunately, Al suffers from huge volume change (>100%) during the lithiation/delithiation process, which inevitably results in the pulverization of electrode and rapid capacity decay during cycling processes. To circumvent above issues, a simple but efficient strategy is demonstrated to fabricate free-standing multi-atomic layers of metallic Al by harnessing the good ductility of Al under pressure. The resultant multi-atomic Al layers are ultrathin, ≈3 nm, and have a large aspect ratio. Such unique features enable multi-atomic Al nanosheets to construct uniform and compact films with graphene. Thus, the hybrid films with different ratios are achieved, in which the notorious volume change of metallic Al can be efficiently circumvented via the good flexibility of graphene, and the density of whole electrode can be significantly enhanced. As a consequence, the optimized multi-atomic Al layers-graphene (AlL-G) film exhibits a very high volumetric capacity of 1089 mAh cm–3, high-rate capability and ultralong cycle life up to 20 000 cycles for lithium storage.Multi-atomic layers of metallic aluminum (Al) are successfully fabricated using a rolling method under high pressure. These ultrathin Al nanosheets could construct uniform films with graphene. The volume change of metallic Al can be alleviated via the flexibility of graphene, leading to a novel lithium-ion battery anode with high volumetric capacity, high-rate capability, and ultralong cyclic life up to 20 000 cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:46:13.947937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700840
  • Tuning Unique Peapod-Like Co(SxSe1–x)2 Nanoparticles for Efficient
           Overall Water Splitting
    • Authors: Ling Fang; Wenxiang Li, Yongxin Guan, Yangyang Feng, Huijuan Zhang, Shilong Wang, Yu Wang
      Abstract: The development of efficient electrocatalysts with low cost and earth abundance for overall water splitting is very important in energy conversion. Although many electrocatalysts based on transition metal dichalcogenides have been developed, rational design and controllable synthesis of fine nanostructures with subtle morphologies and sequential chemical compositions related to these materials remains a challenge. This study reports a series of peapod-like composites with component-controllable Co(SxSe1–x)2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers, which are obtained by using Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O nanowires as a precursor followed by coating carbon fiber and an adjustable sulfuration/selenylation process. Due to its increased exposure of active sites and improved charge and mass transport capability derived from the unique structure and morphology, the Co(SxSe1–x)2 samples display favorable catalytic activities. It is found that Co(S0.71Se0.29)2 exhibits the best hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance and Co(S0.22Se0.78)2 shows the highest activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). When using Co(S0.71Se0.29)2 as a cathode and Co(S0.22Se0.78)2 as an anode, it demonstrates a durable activity for overall water splitting to deliver 10 mA cm−2 at a cell voltage of 1.63 V, thus offering an attractive cost-effective earth abundant material system toward water splitting.A series of peapod-like composites with component-controllable Co(SxSe1–x)2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers are fabricated using Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O nanowires as a precursor followed by coating carbon fiber and an adjustable sulfuration/selenylation process. The optimized Co(S0.71Se0.29)2 Co(S0.22Se0.78)2 demonstrates a durable catalytic activity for overall water splitting.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:46:08.692159-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701008
  • Improved Interfacial Floatability of Superhydrophobic/Superhydrophilic
           Janus Sheet Inspired by Lotus Leaf
    • Authors: Yuyan Zhao; Cunming Yu, Hao Lan, Moyuan Cao, Lei Jiang
      Abstract: Interfacial materials exhibiting superwettability have emerged as important tools for solving the real-world issues, such as oil-spill cleanup, fog harvesting, etc. The Janus superwettability of lotus leaf inspires the design of asymmetric interface materials using the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic binary cooperative strategy. Here, the presented Janus copper sheet, composed of a superhydrophobic upper surface and a superhydrophilic lower surface, is able to be steadily fixed at the air/water interfaces, showing improved interfacial floatability. Compared with the floatable superhydrophobic substrate, the Janus sheet not only floats on but also attaches to the air–water interface. Similar results on Janus sheet are discovered at other multiphase interfaces such as hexane/water and water/CCl4 interfaces. In accordance with the improved stability and antirotation property, the microboat constructed by a Janus sheet shows the reliable navigating ability even under turbulent water flow. This contribution should unlock more functions of Janus interface materials, and extend the application scope of the binary cooperative materials system with superwettability.Inspired by the cooperative superwettability of a lotus leaf, it is demonstrated that a Janus sheet exhibiting versatile wettability can be stably fixed at multiphase interfaces. Based on the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic binary cooperative effect, the Janus sheet floats on and tightly adheres to the interfaces.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:46:02.475221-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701466
  • Flexible and Stretchable 3ω Sensors for Thermal Characterization of
           Human Skin
    • Authors: Limei Tian; Yuhang Li, Richard Chad Webb, Siddharth Krishnan, Zuguang Bian, Jizhou Song, Xin Ning, Kaitlyn Crawford, Jonas Kurniawan, Andrew Bonifas, Jun Ma, Yuhao Liu, Xu Xie, Jin Chen, Yuting Liu, Zhan Shi, Tianqi Wu, Rui Ning, Daizhen Li, Sanjiv Sinha, David G. Cahill, Yonggang Huang, John A. Rogers
      Abstract: Characterization of the thermal properties of the surface and subsurface structures of the skin can reveal the degree of hydration, the rate of blood flow in near-surface micro- and macrovasculature, and other important physiological information of relevance to dermatological and overall health status. Here, a soft, stretchable thermal sensor, based on the so-called three omega (i.e., 3ω) method, is introduced for accurate characterization of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of materials systems, such as the skin, which can be challenging to measure using established techniques. Experiments on skin at different body locations and under different physical states demonstrate the possibilities. Systematic studies establish the underlying principles of operation in these unusual systems, thereby allowing rational design and use, through combined investigations based on analytical modeling, experimental measurements, and finite element analysis. The findings create broad opportunities for 3ω methods in biology, with utility ranging from the integration with surgical tools or implantable devices to noninvasive uses in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.A soft, stretchable thermal sensor based on the three omega (i.e., 3ω) method enables accurate characterization of the thermal properties of diverse materials systems such as the human skin. Rational design of these sensors creates broad opportunities for 3ω methods in biology, with utility ranging from integration with surgical tools or implantable devices to noninvasive uses in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:45:57.572697-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701282
  • Improved Performance and Stability of All-Inorganic Perovskite
           Light-Emitting Diodes by Antisolvent Vapor Treatment
    • Authors: Chen Wu; Yatao Zou, Tian Wu, Muyang Ban, Vicenzo Pecunia, Yujie Han, Qipeng Liu, Tao Song, Steffen Duhm, Baoquan Sun
      Abstract: All-inorganic perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) reveal efficient luminescence with high color purity, but their modest brightness and poor stability are still critical drawbacks. Here, the luminescent efficiency and the stability of perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) are boosted by antisolvent vapor treatment of CsPbBr3 embedded in a dielectric polymer matrix of polyethylene oxide (PEO). A unique method is developed to obtain high quality CsPbBr3 emitting layers with low defects by controlling their grain sizes. CsPbBr3 in PEO matrix is post-treated with antisolvent of chloroform (CF), leading to microcrystals with a size of ≈5 µm along the in-plane direction with active emitting composite of 90%. A device based on CF post-treatment (CsPbBr3-PEO-CF) film displays a brightness of up to 51890 cd m−2 with an external quantum efficiency of 4.76%. CsPbBr3-PEO-CF PeLED still maintains 82% of its initial efficiency after 80 h continuous operation in ambient air, which indicates relatively good device stability. This work highlights that film quality is not only key to promoting fluorescence in CsPbBr3, but also to achieving higher performance PeLEDs.Antisolvent vapor treatment of CsPbBr3 films embedded in a dielectric polymer matrix film is proposed, resulting in microcrystal size of ≈5 µm with low defect density. A light-emitting diode based on composite CsPbBr3 films with this antisolvent vapor treatment displays a brightness of 51890 cd m−2 and an external quantum efficiency of 4.76%.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T11:45:51.261297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700338
  • Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly
           Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body
    • Authors: Steven L. Zhang; Ying-Chih Lai, Xu He, Ruiyuan Liu, Yunlong Zi, Zhong Lin Wang
      Abstract: The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor is fabricated using auxetic materials. Utilizing the auxetic properties of polyurethane foam, the polyurethane foam will expand when it is stretched, causing contact electrification. Different applications are realized and the triboelectric self-powered strain sensor can be used for monitoring human body movement.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T01:20:33.459498-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606695
  • Coordinating Biointeraction and Bioreaction of a Nanocarrier Material and
           an Anticancer Drug to Overcome Membrane Rigidity and Target Mitochondria
           in Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Rui Xue Zhang; Lily Yi Li, Jason Li, Zhensong Xu, Azhar Z. Abbasi, Lucy Lin, Mohammad A. Amini, Wei Yu Weng, Yu Sun, Andrew M. Rauth, Xiao Yu Wu
      Abstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main cause of chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment. It is associated with complex cellular and molecular mechanisms including overexpression of drug efflux transporters, increased membrane rigidity, and impaired apoptosis. Numerous efforts have been made to overcome efflux transporter-mediated MDR using nanotechnology-based approaches. However, these approaches fail to surmount plasma membrane rigidity that attenuates drug penetration and nanoparticle endocytosis. Here, a “one-two punch” nanoparticle approach is proposed to coordinate intracellular biointeraction and bioreaction of a nanocarrier material docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and an anticancer prodrug mitomycin C (MMC) to enhance mitochondrion-targeted toxicity. Incorporation of DHA in solid polymer-lipid nanoparticles first reduces the membrane rigidity in live cancer cells thereby increasing nanoparticle cellular uptake and MMC accumulation. Subsequent intracellular MMC bioreduction produces free radicals that in turn react with adjacent DHA inducing significantly elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, leading to irreversible damage to mitochondria. Preferential tumor accumulation of the nanoparticles and the synergistic anticancer cytotoxicity remarkably inhibit tumor growth and prolonged host survival without any systemic toxicity in an orthotopic MDR breast tumor model. This work suggests that combinatorial use of biophysical and biochemical properties of nanocarrier materials with bioreactive prodrugs is a powerful approach to overcoming multifactorial MDR in cancer.A nanocomposite of binary lipids and polymer with anticancer prodrug mitomycin C (MMC) (MMC-DHA-PLN) is designed to overcome multifaceted drug resistance. It first utilizes the biointeraction of nanomaterial docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to facilitate cellular uptake of the nanoparticle-encapsulated MMC, and then synchronizes intracellular activation of MMC and lipid peroxidation of DHA to damage mitochondria, leading to enhanced anticancer efficacy in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:22:26.15285-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700804
  • Development and Translation of PEDOT:PSS Microelectrodes for
           Intraoperative Monitoring
    • Authors: Mehran Ganji; Erik Kaestner, John Hermiz, Nick Rogers, Atsunori Tanaka, Daniel Cleary, Sang Heon Lee, Jospeh Snider, Milan Halgren, Garth Rees Cosgrove, Bob S. Carter, David Barba, Ilke Uguz, George G. Malliaras, Sydney S. Cash, Vikash Gilja, Eric Halgren, Shadi A. Dayeh
      Abstract: Recording neural activity during neurosurgical interventions is an invaluable tool for both improving patient outcomes and advancing our understanding of neural mechanisms and organization. However, increasing clinical electrodes' signal-to-noise and spatial specificity requires overcoming substantial physical barriers due to the compromised metal electrochemical interface properties. The electrochemical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) based interfaces surpass those of current clinical electrocorticography electrodes. Here, robust fabrication process of PEDOT:PSS microelectrode arrays is demonstrated for safe and high fidelity intraoperative monitoring of human brain. PEDOT:PSS microelectrodes measure significant differential neural modulation under various clinically relevant conditions. This study reports the first evoked (stimulus-locked) cognitive activity with changes in amplitude across pial surface distances as small as 400 µm, potentially enabling basic neurophysiology studies at the scale of neural micro-circuitry.The superiority of organic electrodes in mapping human brain activity under various clinical conditions is demonstrated. The improved electrode characteristics allow recording of changes in cognitive activity on the sub-millimeter scale. The great spatial specificity possible with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) microelectrodes and the reliable discrimination between and within language modalities underscore PEDOT:PSS's potential for standard electrocorticography clinical practice to maximize outcome for patient care.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:22:09.985143-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700232
  • Porous Ti4O7 Particles with Interconnected-Pore Structure as a
           High-Efficiency Polysulfide Mediator for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
    • Authors: Shilin Mei; Charl J. Jafta, Iver Lauermann, Qidi Ran, Martin Kärgell, Matthias Ballauff, Yan Lu
      Abstract: Multifunctional Ti4O7 particles with interconnected-pore structure are designed and synthesized using porous poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) particles as a template. The particles can work efficiently as a sulfur-host material for lithium–sulfur batteries. Specifically, the well-defined porous Ti4O7 particles exhibit interconnected pores in the interior and have a high-surface area of 592 m2 g−1; this shows the advantage of mesopores for encapsulating of sulfur and provides a polar surface for chemical binding with polysulfides to suppress their dissolution. Moreover, in order to improve the conductivity of the electrode, a thin layer of carbon is coated on the Ti4O7 surface without destroying its porous structure. The porous Ti4O7 and carbon-coated Ti4O7 particles show significantly improved electrochemical performances as cathode materials for Li–S batteries as compared with those of TiO2 particles.Ti4O7 particles and carbon-coated Ti4O7 particles with interconnected-pore structure are synthesized using porous poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-P2VP) particles as a template. The particles can work as a highly efficient polysulfide host for lithium–sulfur batteries by combining the advantage of mesopores for physical encapsulating of sulfur and a polar surface for chemical binding with polysulfides.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:22:02.184174-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701176
  • Light-Fueled, Spatiotemporal Modulation of Mechanical Properties and Rapid
           Self-Healing of Graphene-Doped Supramolecular Elastomers
    • Authors: Manuel Noack; Rémi Merindol, Baolei Zhu, Alejandro Benitez, Sebastian Hackelbusch, Fabian Beckert, Sebastian Seiffert, Rolf Mülhaupt, Andreas Walther
      Abstract: Gaining spatially resolved control over the mechanical properties of materials in a remote, programmable, and fast-responding way is a great challenge toward the design of adaptive structural and functional materials. Reversible, temperature-sensitive systems, such as polymers equipped with supramolecular units, are a good model system to gain detailed information and target large-scale property changes by exploiting reversible crosslinking scenarios. Here, it is demonstrated that coassembled elastomers based on polyglycidols functionalized with complementary cyanuric acid and diaminotriazine hydrogen bonding couples can be remotely modulated in their mechanical properties by spatially confined laser irradiation after hybridization with small amounts of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO). The TRGO provides an excellent photothermal effect, leads to light-adaptive steady-state temperatures, and allows local breakage/de-crosslinking of the hydrogen bonds. This enables fast self-healing and spatiotemporal modulation of mechanical properties, as demonstrated by digital image correlation. This study opens pathways toward light-fueled and light-adaptive graphene-based nanocomposites employing molecularly controlled thermal switches.Supramolecular polymer networks hybridized with thermally reduced graphene oxide allow for steady-state adaptation under continued irradiation. The graphene functions as an efficient photothermal converter and induces a thermoreversible de-crosslinking that can be spatially localized using lasers. This leads to large amplitude modulation of mechanical properties, and fast and efficient healing.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:21:25.372853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700767
  • Self-Contained Polymer/Metal 3D Printed Electrochemical Platform for
           Tailored Water Splitting
    • Authors: Adriano Ambrosi; Martin Pumera
      Abstract: The enormous advancements made recently in additive manufacturing require parallel development of new printable materials with particular focus on so-defined functional materials. Functional materials have specific properties that are useful for the fabrication of active devices such as sensors, electronic components, catalytic reactors, etc. It is shown here that the combination of standard 3D-printing technologies with easy-to-use electrochemical surface modification can facilitate the tuning of catalytic properties of printed metallic electrodes to be used as electrocatalysts for water splitting applications. A self-contained electrochemical system, consisting of electrodes and an electrochemical cell, is built via 3D metal and polymer printing. Stainless-steel electrodes are first obtained by selective laser melting additive manufacturing according to an established design; then electrochemical surface modification is performed to alter the electrode surface composition and therefore tune its catalytic properties toward the electrogeneration of hydrogen and oxygen. After surface characterization by means of scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to evaluate the efficiency of the electrochemical functionalization, electrochemical testing is carried out to evaluate the catalytic properties of the electrodes. A simple, proof-of-concept water electrolyzer is finally assembled with the best performing electrodes and tested in alkaline solution for water splitting capabilities.Tailoring catalytic properties of a water splitting electrolyzer using 3D-printing and electrochemical deposition methods is reported. A proof-of-concept water electrolyzer is assembled with the best-performing electrodes and tested in alkaline solution for water splitting capabilities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:16:33.721073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700655
  • Humidity-Tolerant Single-Stranded DNA-Functionalized Graphene Probe for
           Medical Applications of Exhaled Breath Analysis
    • Authors: Youngmo Jung; Hi Gyu Moon, Chaehyun Lim, Keunsu Choi, Hyun Seok Song, Sukang Bae, Soo Min Kim, Minah Seo, Taikjin Lee, Seok Lee, Hyung-Ho Park, Seong Chan Jun, Chong-Yun Kang, Chulki Kim
      Abstract: Highly sensitive and selective chemiresistive sensors based on graphene functionalized by metals and metal oxides have attracted considerable attention in the fields of environmental monitoring and medical assessment because of their ultrasensitive gas detecting performance and cost-effective fabrication. However, their operation, in terms of detection limit and reliability, is limited in traditional applications because of ambient humidity. Here, the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of single-stranded DNA-functionalized graphene (ssDNA-FG) sensors to NH3 and H2S vapors at high humidity are demonstrated and their sensing mechanism is suggested. It is found that depositing a layer of ssDNA molecules leads to effective modulation of carrier density in graphene, as a negative-potential gating agent and the formation of an additional ion conduction path for proton hopping in the layer of hydronium ions (H3O+) at high humidity (>80%). Considering that selectively responsive chemical vapors are biomarkers associated with human diseases, the obtained results strongly suggest that ssDNA-FG sensors can be the key to developing a high-performance exhaled breath analyzer for diagnosing halitosis and kidney disorder.ssDNA-functionalized graphene (FG) is utilized to investigate the H2S (biomarker: halitosis) and NH3 (biomarker: kidney disorder) sensing properties in high humidity conditions, which severely affect the device performance. In a high-humidity environment, the formation of H3O+ on the ssDNA-FG surface and the associated proton hopping play an important role in the enhanced sensing capability for high-performance exhaled breath analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:12:53.248063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700068
  • Micropatterned Protein for Cell Adhesion through Phototriggered Charge
           Change in a Polyvinylpyrrolidone Hydrogel
    • Authors: Zunzhen Ming; Xing Ruan, Chunyan Bao, Qiuning Lin, Yi Yang, Linyong Zhu
      Abstract: Regulated immobilization of proteins on hydrogels allows for the creation of highly controlled microenvironments to meet the special requirements of cell biology and tissue engineering devices. Light is an ideal stimulus to regulate immobilization because it can be controlled in time, space, and intensity. Here, a photoresponsive hydrogel that enables the patterning of proteins by a combination of electrostatic adsorption and photoregulated charge change on a hydrogel is developed. It is based on a photosensitive cationic monomer (CLA), a coumarin caged lysine betaine zwitterion, incorporated into a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogel, which can controllably change the charge from an adhesive positive state to an anti-adhesive zwitterion state upon irradiation at 365 nm. With this strategy, the immobilization of proteins is regulated and cell adhesion is programmed on hydrogels on demand. This approach should open up new avenues for hydrogels in biomedical applications.Using two bio-orthogonal interactions, electrostatic adsorption and photorelease, regulated protein and cell adhesion is accomplished on hydrogels. Combining light manipulation and mild electrostatic interactions allows the temporal, spatial, and dosage control of protein and cell adhesion to the hydrogel, which should allow for the use of hydrogels in biomedical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:12:42.039867-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606258
  • Extremely Strong and Transparent Chitin Films: A High-Efficiency,
           Energy-Saving, and “Green” Route Using an Aqueous KOH/Urea Solution
    • Authors: Junchao Huang; Yi Zhong, Lina Zhang, Jie Cai
      Abstract: Crystalline polysaccharides are useful for important and rapidly growing applications ranging from advanced energy storage, green electronics, and catalyst or enzyme supports to tissue engineering and biological devices. However, the potential value of chitin in such applications is currently neglected because of its poor swellability, reactivity, and solubility in most commonly used solvents. Here, a high-efficiency, energy-saving, and “green” route for the fabrication of extremely strong and transparent chitin films is described in which chitin is dissolved in an aqueous KOH/urea solution and neutralized in aqueous ethanol solution. The neutralization temperature, ethanol concentration, and chitin solution deacetylation time are critical parameters for the self-assembly of chitin chains and for tuning the morphology and aggregate structures of the resulting chitin hydrogels and films. Moreover, the drawing orientation can produce extremely strong and tough chitin films with a tensile strength, Young's modulus, and work of fracture of 226 MPa, 7.2 GPa, and 20.3 MJ m−3, respectively. The method developed here should contribute to the utilization of seafood waste and, thereby, to the sustainable use of marine resources.Extremely strong and transparent chitin films are prepared using a high-efficiency, energy-saving, and “green” route in which chitin is dissolved in an aqueous KOH/urea solution. The chitin films exhibit high strength and high toughness with a tensile strength, Young's modulus, and work of fracture of 226 MPa, 7.2 GPa, and 20.3 MJ m−3, respectively. This method should contribute to the development of sustainable marine resources.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:26:12.362069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701100
  • Self-Doping Cathode Interfacial Material Simultaneously Enabling High
           Electron Mobility and Powerful Work Function Tunability for
           High-Efficiency All-Solution-Processed Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes
    • Authors: Xiaojun Yin; Guohua Xie, Yuhao Peng, Bowen Wang, Tianhao Chen, Shuqi Li, Wenhao Zhang, Lei Wang, Chuluo Yang
      Abstract: A variety of N-hydrogenated/N-methylated pyridinium salts are elaborately designed and synthesized. Thermogravimetric and X-ray photoelectron spectra analysis indicate the intensities of the NH covalent bonds are strengthened step-by-step from 3,3′-(5′-(3-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)-[1,1′:3′,1″-terphenyl]-3,3″-diyl)dipyridine (Tm)-HCl to Tm-HBr and then Tm-TfOH, which results in gradually improved cathode interfacial modification abilities. The larger dipole moments of N+H containing moieties compared to those of the N+CH3 endow them with more preferable interfacial modification abilities. Electron paramagnetic resonance signals reveal the existence of radical anions in the solid state of Tm-TfOH, which enables its self-doping property and high electron mobility up to 1.67 × 10−3 cm2 V−1 s−1. Using the Tm-TfOH as the cathode interfacial layers (CILs), the phenyl-substituted poly(para-phenylene vinylene)-based all-solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) achieve more preferable device performances than the poly[(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)]-based ones, i.e., high current density of nearly 300 mA cm−2, very high luminance over 15 000 cd m−2 at a low bias of 5 V. Remarkably, the thickness of the CILs has little impact on the device performance and high efficiencies are maintained even at thicknesses up to 85 nm, which is barely realized in PLEDs with small-molecule-based electron transporting layers.A self-doping cathode interfacial material from diverse pyridinium salts enables high electron mobility and powerful work function tunability. The resulting all-solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes achieve a very low driving voltage of 2.9 V at 1000 cd m−2, and high external quantum efficiency of 3.5% even in the thick films of cathode interfacial layer up to 85 nm.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:25:49.042377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700695
  • Ly6Chi Monocytes Delivering pH-Sensitive Micelle Loading Paclitaxel
           Improve Targeting Therapy of Metastatic Breast Cancer
    • Authors: Tianqun Lang; Xinyue Dong, Yan Huang, Wei Ran, Qi Yin, Pengcheng Zhang, Zhiwen Zhang, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li
      Abstract: Many immune cells are capable of homing to sites of disease and eradicating infections and abnormal cells. However, their efficacy is usually down-regulated in tumor microenvironments and it is difficult to boost. It is presumed that the anticancer activity of immune cells can be improved by integrating an additional therapeutic modality such as chemotherapy into the cells. Here, Ly6Chi monocytes armed with the paclitaxel (PTX)-loading pH-sensitive micelle (PM), termed as PM@MC, are prepared. The PM internalization does not significantly affect the properties of the host Ly6Chi monocytes. In the 4T1 metastatic breast cancer mice model, PM@MCs home to both primary tumor and the lung metastasis foci. PM@MC exhibit 15-fold higher intratumor PTX accumulation than the commercial PTX injection, and achieve a tumor inhibiting rate of 96.8% and a lung metastasis suppression rate of 99.2%. No significant change is recorded in histology of major organs and in hematological and biochemical parameters after PM@MC treatment. The pH-sensitive micelle/Ly6Chi monocyte drug delivery device thus has the application potential in the targeting therapy of breast cancer with metastasis.Paclitaxel (PTX)-loading pH-responsive micelle (PM)-loading Ly6Chi circulating monocytes (PM@MC) are constructed. PM@MC can be efficiently internalized by 4T1 cells, increasing the PTX amount in tumors and in the lungs. Considering that tumor-targeting behavior of PM@MC is independent of enhanced permeability and retention effect and heterogeneity of tumors, this can be an effective strategy for targeting therapy for metastatic breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:20:34.89181-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701093
  • Modulating the Ferromagnet/Molecule Spin Hybridization Using an Artificial
    • Authors: Michał Studniarek; Salia Cherifi-Hertel, Etienne Urbain, Ufuk Halisdemir, Rémi Arras, Beata Taudul, Filip Schleicher, Marie Hervé, Charles-Henri Lambert, Abbass Hamadeh, Loïc Joly, Fabrice Scheurer, Guy Schmerber, Victor Da Costa, Bénédicte Warot-Fonrose, Cécile Marcelot, Olivia Mauguin, Ludovic Largeau, Florian Leduc, Fadi Choueikani, Edwige Otero, Wulf Wulfhekel, Jacek Arabski, Philippe Ohresser, Wolfgang Weber, Eric Beaurepaire, Samy Boukari, Martin Bowen
      Abstract: Spin-polarized charge transfer at the interface between a ferromagnetic (FM) metal and a molecule can lead to ferromagnetic coupling and to a high spin polarization at room temperature. The magnetic properties of these interfaces can not only alter those of the ferromagnet but can also stabilize molecular spin chains with interesting opportunities toward quantum computing. With the aim to enhance an organic spintronic device's functionality, external control over this spin polarization may thus be achieved by altering the ferromagnet/molecule interface's magnetic properties. To do so, the magnetoelectric properties of an underlying ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface are utilized. Switching the ferroelectric polarization state of a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT) bottom layer within a PZT/Co/FePc-based (Pc - phthalocyanine) device alters the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism of the Fe site within the phthalocyanine molecular top layer. Thus, how to electrically alter the magnetic properties of an interface with high spin polarization at room temperature is demonstrated. This expands electrical control over spin-polarized FM/molecule interfaces, which is first demonstrated using ferroelectric molecules, to all molecular classes.The interface between a ferromagnetic metal (Co) and a molecule (Fe phthalocyanine) can exhibit high spin polarization at room temperature. To control the magnetic coupling that underscores this promising spintronic property, the magnetoelectric properties at the neighboring interface between an oxide ferroelectric (PZT) and Co are used. This enables electrical control over the spintronic properties of any ferromagnet/molecule interface.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T06:56:03.393157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700259
  • Dealloying in Individual Nanoparticles and Thin Film Grains: A Bragg
           Coherent Diffractive Imaging Study
    • Authors: Wonsuk Cha; Yihua Liu, Hoydoo You, Gregory Brian Stephenson, Andrew Ulvestad
      Abstract: Dealloying is a process whereby selective dissolution results in a porous, strained structure often with new properties. The process is of both intrinsic and applied interest, and recently has been used to make highly active catalysts. The porosity has been studied using electron microscopy while the dealloying-induced strain has been studied at the ensemble level using X-ray diffraction. Despite the importance of local, for example, at the individual particle or grain level, strain in controlling the properties of the dealloyed material, it remains unresolved due to the difficulty of imaging 3D strain distributions with nanometer resolution in reactive environments. This information could play an integral role in understanding and controlling lattice strain for a variety of applications. Here, 3D strain distributions in individual nanoparticles and thin film grains in silver–gold alloys undergoing nitric acid-induced dealloying are imaged by Bragg coherent diffractive imaging. Particles exhibit dramatic changes in their local strains due to dealloying but grains do not. The average lattice in both grains and particles contracts during dealloying. In general, the results reveal significant dealloying-induced strain heterogeneity at the nanoscale in both isolated and extended samples, which may be utilized to develop advanced nanostructures for a variety of important applications.The strain distribution in nanomaterials can significantly impact their properties. Using Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, the strain evolution due to dealloying in nanocrystals and grains is investigated. It is found that nanoparticles change their strain dramatically compared to their grain counterparts. These results have implications for strain tuning nanomaterials for a variety of applications.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T06:01:31.157299-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700331
  • Sub-Micrometer Zeolite Films on Gold-Coated Silicon Wafers with
           Single-Crystal-Like Dielectric Constant and Elastic Modulus
    • Authors: Raffaele Tiriolo; Neel Rangnekar, Han Zhang, Meera Shete, Peng Bai, John Nelson, Evguenia Karapetrova, Christopher W. Macosko, Joern Ilja Siepmann, Ernesto Lamanna, Angelo Lavano, Michael Tsapatsis
      Abstract: A low-temperature synthesis coupled with mild activation produces zeolite films exhibiting low dielectric constant (low-k) matching the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for single crystals. This synthesis and activation method allows for the fabrication of a device consisting of a b-oriented film of the pure-silica zeolite MFI (silicalite-1) supported on a gold-coated silicon wafer. The zeolite seeds are assembled by a manual assembly process and subjected to optimized secondary growth conditions that do not cause corrosion of the gold underlayer, while strongly promoting in-plane growth. The traditional calcination process is replaced with a nonthermal photochemical activation to ensure preservation of an intact gold layer. The dielectric constant (k), obtained through measurement of electrical capacitance in a metal–insulator–metal configuration, highlights the ultralow k ≈ 1.7 of the synthetized films, which is among the lowest values reported for an MFI film. There is large improvement in elastic modulus of the film (E ≈ 54 GPa) over previous reports, potentially allowing for integration into silicon wafer processing technology.Well-intergrown and highly b-oriented silicalite-1 films on gold-coated silicon wafers are obtained. Optimized growth conditions and mild detemplation ensure compatibility with the support. The dielectric constant is measured by using a metal–insulator–metal configuration. For the first time, the films are found to combine ultralow dielectric constant and high mechanical strength, similar to the theoretically predicted values for single-crystal MFI.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T08:15:39.142517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700864
  • Nanostructures to Engineer 3D Neural-Interfaces: Directing Axonal
           Navigation toward Successful Bridging of Spinal Segments
    • Authors: Emily R. Aurand; Sadaf Usmani, Manuela Medelin, Denis Scaini, Susanna Bosi, Federica B. Rosselli, Sandro Donato, Giuliana Tromba, Maurizio Prato, Laura Ballerini
      Abstract: Neural interfaces are the core of prosthetic devices, such as implantable stimulating electrodes or brain–machine interfaces, and are increasingly designed for assisting rehabilitation and for promoting neural plasticity. Thus, beyond the classical neuroprosthetic concept of stimulating and/or recording devices, modern technology is pursuing toward ideal bio/electrode interfaces with improved adaptability to the brain tissue. Advances in material research are crucial in these efforts and new developments are drawing from engineering and neural interface technologies. Here, a microporous, self-standing, 3D interface made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) implemented at the interfacing surfaces with novel conductive nanotopographies (carbon nanotubes) is exploited. The scaffold porosity is characterized by 3D X-ray microtomography. These structures are used to interface axons regenerated from cultured spinal explants and it is shown that engineering PDMS 3D interfaces with carbon nanotubes effectively changes the efficacy of regenerating fibers to target and reconnect segregated explant pairs. An improved electrophysiological performance is shown when the spinal tissue is interfaced to PDMS enriched by carbon nanotubes that may favor the use of our substrates as regenerative interfaces. The materials are implanted in the rat brain and a limited tissue reaction surrounding the implants at 2, 4, and 8 weeks from surgery is reported.A microporous, 3D interface made of polydimethylsiloxane implemented at the interfacing surfaces with novel conductive nanotopographies (carbon nanotubes) is created. Interfacing this structure to spinal explants changes the efficacy of regenerating fibers to reconnect segregated explant pairs. This 3D structure is tested for the first time in vivo and a limited brain reaction surrounding the implants is reported.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T07:11:19.365296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700550
  • Hard–Soft Composite Carbon as a Long-Cycling and High-Rate Anode for
           Potassium-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Zelang Jian; Sooyeon Hwang, Zhifei Li, Alexandre S. Hernandez, Xingfeng Wang, Zhenyu Xing, Dong Su, Xiulei Ji
      Abstract: There exist tremendous needs for sustainable storage solutions for intermittent renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind energy. Thus, systems based on Earth-abundant elements deserve much attention. Potassium-ion batteries represent a promising candidate because of the abundance of potassium resources. As for the choices of anodes, graphite exhibits encouraging potassium-ion storage properties; however, it suffers limited rate capability and poor cycling stability. Here, nongraphitic carbons as K-ion anodes with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the binder are systematically investigated. Compared to hard carbon and soft carbon, a hard–soft composite carbon with 20 wt% soft carbon distributed in the matrix phase of hard carbon microspheres exhibits highly amenable performance: high capacity, high rate capability, and very stable long-term cycling. In contrast, pure hard carbon suffers limited rate capability, while the capacity of pure soft carbon fades more rapidly.The hard–soft composite carbon represents a highly promising anode material for practical applications of potassium-ion batteries. It exhibits a high reversible capacity of 261 mAh g−1, excellent rate capability, and stable cycling life of 200 cycles with capacity retention of 93%.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T07:10:51.932601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700324
  • A Cooperative Dimensional Strategy for Enhanced Nucleus-Targeted Delivery
           of Anticancer Drugs
    • Authors: Hebin Wang; Yang Li, Hongzhen Bai, Jie Shen, Xi Chen, Yuan Ping, Guping Tang
      Abstract: Although previous efforts have focused on altering the size of drug delivery carriers with the goal of improving the efficacy of anticancer therapy, the penetration of nuclear pores still represents a formidable barrier for the existing drug delivery systems. To this end, a cooperative, dimensional strategy is employed that can considerably improve intranuclear drug delivery to augment the overall therapeutic efficacy of therapeutics requiring nuclear entry. This cooperative strategy relies on i) the pH and redox responsiveness of micelles (termed PSPD) to extend blood circulation and increase both the cellular uptake and the redox sensitivity of PSPD to reduce micelles to a size that is more capable of nuclear entry and ii) a dexamethasone-conjugated micelle (termed Dex-P123) to target nuclei and dilate nuclear pores to allow PSPD to freely penetrate the nuclear pores. The resulting hybrid micelles, termed PSPD/Dex-P123, are found to deliver doxorubicin into cell nuclei more efficiently, thereby inducing more pronounced cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, a much more effective inhibition of tumor growth is observed in tumor-bearing mice, demonstrating the feasibility of this cooperative strategy for in vivo applications. The current study defines a useful dimensional strategy to improve nuclear-targeted and intranuclear drug delivery.Size switchable micelles with simultaneous nucleus targeting and nucleopore dilation abilities are prepared to enhance intranuclear delivery of anticancer drugs. The development of these micelles offers a cooperative, dimensional strategy that can considerably enhance nucleus-targeted drug delivery to augment the overall efficacy of therapeutics requiring nuclear entry.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T06:21:42.237778-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700339
  • A Solid-State Fluorescent Material Based on Carbazole-Containing
           Difluoroboron β-Diketonate: Multiple Chromisms, the Self-Assembly
           Behavior, and Optical Waveguides
    • Authors: Peng-Zhong Chen; Han Zhang, Li-Ya Niu, Yi Zhang, Yu-Zhe Chen, Hong-Bing Fu, Qing-Zheng Yang
      Abstract: A carbazole-containing difluoroboron β-diketonate complex (BCZ), which shows strong fluorescence in both the solid state and in organic solutions, is reported. The crystalline materials of BCZ obtained from different solvents display different emission colors. Single-crystal analysis reveals that the enhanced overlap between adjacent molecules induces increased excited-state delocalization and is responsible for the variation of the emission colors from yellow to red. The emission colors of the materials are effectively tuned by external stimuli such as grinding, heating, and solvent vapor. The powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and 1H NMR studies on materials of BCZ reveal that the thermochromic properties of BCZ are closely related to the removal of solvent molecules from the crystalline powders upon heating. Moreover, uniform 1D microstructures of BCZ obtained by solvent exchange in solution exhibit optical waveguide property with low optical loss.A solid-state fluorescent material based on carbazole-containing BF2bdk complex (BCZ) is reported. The emission colors of BCZ in solid state are dependent on its molecular packing modes and are successfully tuned upon external stimuli, such as grinding, heating, and solvent fuming. The uniform microrod of BCZ exhibits optical waveguide properties with low optical loss.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T06:21:17.611173-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700332
  • Enhanced Capacitive Energy Storage in Polyoxometalate-Doped Polypyrrole
    • Authors: Sven Herrmann; Nihan Aydemir, Florian Nägele, Donato Fantauzzi, Timo Jacob, Jadranka Travas-Sejdic, Carsten Streb
      Abstract: High-performance batteries and supercapacitors require the molecular-level linkage of charge transport components and charge storage components. This study shows how redox-tunable Lindqvist-type molecular metal oxide anions [VnM6–nO19](2+n)− (M = W(VI) or Mo(VI); n = 0, 1, 2) can be incorporated in cationic polypyrrole (PPy) conductive polymer films by means of electrochemical polymerization. Electron microscopy and (spectro-)electrochemistry show that the electroactivity and morphology of the composites can be tuned by Lindqvist anion incorporation. Reductive electrochemical “activation” of the Lindqvist–PPy composites leads to significantly increased electrical capacitance (range: ≈25–38 F g−1, increase up to ≈25×), highlighting that this general synthetic route gives access to promising capacitive materials with suitable long-term stability. Electrochemical, electron microscopic, and Raman spectroscopic analyses together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide molecular-level insight into the effects of Lindqvist anion incorporation in PPy films and their role during reductive activation. The study therefore provides fundamental understanding of the principles governing the bottom-up integration of molecular components into nanostructured composites for electrochemical energy storage.Capacitive energy storage is explored in Lindqvist–polyoxometalate/polypyrrole composites. The specific capacitance can be significantly increased using a reductive activation protocol, leading to promising new materials for electrochemical energy storage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T06:21:02.429896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700881
  • Engineering Large Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Films at
           Room Temperature
    • Authors: Paolo Perna; Davide Maccariello, Fernando Ajejas, Ruben Guerrero, Laurence Méchin, Stephane Flament, Jacobo Santamaria, Rodolfo Miranda, Julio Camarero
      Abstract: The magnetoresistance (MR) effect is widely used in technologies that pervade the world, from magnetic reading heads to sensors. Diverse contributions to MR, such as anisotropic, giant, tunnel, colossal, and spin-Hall, are revealed in materials depending on the specific system and measuring configuration. Half-metallic manganites hold promise for spintronic applications but the complexity of competing interactions has not permitted the understanding and control of their magnetotransport properties to enable the realization of their technological potential. This study reports on the ability to induce a dominant switchable magnetoresistance in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 epitaxial films at room temperature (RT). By engineering an extrinsic magnetic anisotropy, a large enhancement of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is achieved which at RT leads to signal changes much larger than the other contributions such as the colossal magnetoresistance. The dominant extrinsic AMR exhibits large variation in the resistance in low field region, showing high sensitivity to applied low magnetic fields. These findings have a strong impact on the real applications of manganite-based devices for the high-resolution low field magnetic sensors or spintronics.A dominant switchable magnetoresistance, at room temperature, in half-metallic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 epitaxial films is achieved by engineering an extrinsic magnetic anisotropy, through the use of substrates with progressively larger miscut angles. This leads to an enhancement of the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) signal, much larger than the other contributions such as the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR), enabling the realization of the manganite technological potential.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T06:20:34.737951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700664
  • CuF2 as Reversible Cathode for Fluoride Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Duc Tho Thieu; Mohammed Hammad Fawey, Harshita Bhatia, Thomas Diemant, Venkata Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula, Rolf Jürgen Behm, Christian Kübel, Maximilian Fichtner
      Abstract: In the search for novel battery systems with high energy density and low cost, fluoride ion batteries have recently emerged as a further option to store electricity with very high volumetric energy densities. Among metal fluorides, CuF2 is an intriguing candidate for cathode materials due to its high specific capacity and high theoretical conversion potential. Here, the reversibility of CuF2 as a cathode material in the fluoride ion battery system employing a high F− conducting tysonite-type La0.9Ba0.1F2.9 as an electrolyte and a metallic La as an anode is investigated. For the first time, the reversible conversion mechanism of CuF2 with the corresponding variation in fluorine content is reported on the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and cathode/electrolyte interfacial studies by transmission electron microscopy. Investigation of the anode/electrolyte interface reveals structural variation upon cycling with the formation of intermediate layers consisting of i) hexagonal LaF3 and monoclinic La2O3 phases in the pristine interface; ii) two main phases of distorted orthorhombic LaF3 and monoclinic La2O3 after discharging; and iii) a tetragonal lanthanum oxyfluoride (LaOF) phase after charging. The fading mechanism of the cell capacity upon cycling can be explained by Cu diffusion into the electrolyte and side reactions due to the formation of the LaOF compound.The reversible conversion mechanism of CuF2 in novel fluoride ion battery system is reported. Investigation of the electrode/electrolyte interface reveals structural variation upon cycling. The fading mechanism of the CuF2/La0.9Ba0.1F2.9/La cell capacity upon cycling can be explained by Cu diffusion into the electrolyte and side reactions due to the formation of the lanthanum oxyfluoride compound.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T06:16:34.613637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701051
  • Anisotropy in Shape and Ligand-Conjugation of Hybrid Nanoparticulates
           Manipulates the Mode of Bio–Nano Interaction and Its Outcome
    • Authors: Xiaoyou Wang; Li Lin, Renfa Liu, Min Chen, Binlong Chen, Bo He, Bing He, Xiaolong Liang, Wenbing Dai, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Yiguang Wang, Zhifei Dai, Qiang Zhang
      Abstract: In an attempt to manipulate the biological features of nanomaterials via both anisotropic shape and ligand modification, four types of nanoparticulates with good morphological stability are designed and engineered, including hybrid nanospheres, nanodiscs, and nanodiscs with edge modification or plane modification of octa-arginine (R8) sequence. It is found that the R8 modification anisotropy can trigger huge differences in the endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and even tissue penetration of nanoparticulates. From plane modification to edge modification of R8, the maximum increase in cell uptake is up to 17-fold, which is much more significant than shape anisotropy alone. On the other hand, six types of different cell lines are investigated to simulate biological microenvironment. It is demonstrated that the maximum difference in cell uptake among six cell lines is 12-fold. Three main driving forces are found to contribute to such bio–nano interactions. Based on the findings of this study, it seems possible to manipulate the biointeraction mode of nanomaterials and its output by regulating their anisotropy in both shape and ligand modification.Nanospheres, nanodiscs, and nanodiscs with edge modification or plane modification of octa-arginine sequence are prepared. From nanospheres to nanodiscs and from plane modification to edge modification, the cellular uptake increases 1.5- and 17-fold, respectively. Such alternations also affect the intracellular pathway and tumor penetration. The double effect of anisotropic shape and ligand-modification is significant and might be applied to manipulate the nanovector delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T06:16:10.142692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700406
  • Synergistically Assembled Li2S/FWNTs@Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanobundle
           Forest for Free-Standing High-Performance Li2S Cathodes
    • Authors: Yan Chen; Songtao Lu, Jia Zhou, Wei Qin, Xiaohong Wu
      Abstract: Lithium sulfide (Li2S) has attracted increasing attention as a promising cathode because of its compatibility with more practical lithium-free anode materials and its high specific capacity. However, it is still a challenge to develop Li2S cathodes with low electrochemical overpotential, high capacity and reversibility, and good rate performance. This work designs and fabricates a practical Li2S cathode composed of Li2S/few-walled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene oxide nanobundle forest (Li2S/FWNTs@rGO NBF). Hierarchical nanostructures are obtained by annealing the Li2SO4/FWNTs@GO NBF, which is prepared by a facile and scalable solution-based self-assembly method. Systematic characterizations reveal that in this unique NBF nanostructure, FWNTs act as axial shafts to direct the structure, Li2S serves as the internal active material, and GO sheets provide an external coating to minimize the direct contact of Li2S with the electrolyte. When used as a cathode, the Li2S/FWNTs@rGO NBF achieve a high capacity of 868 mAh g−1Li2S at 0.2C after 300 cycles and an outstanding rate performance of 433 mAh g−1Li2S even at 10C, suggesting that this Li2S cathode is a promising candidate for ultrafast charge/discharge applications. The design and synthetic strategies outlined here can be readily applied to the processing of other novel functional materials to obtain a much wider range of applications.Li2S/few-walled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene oxide (Li2S/FWNTs@rGO) nanobundle forest with hierarchical nanostructure, in which FWNTs serve as axes, Li2S acts as stuffing, and rGO performs as shell coating, are synthesized using a facile, applicable, and synergistically assembled method. When used as a free-standing cathode, it achieves an excellent rate performance of 433 mAh g−1Li2S even at a high rate of 10C.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T06:15:44.670563-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700987
  • Meso-Functionalization of Silk Fibroin by Upconversion Fluorescence and
           Near Infrared In Vivo Biosensing
    • Authors: Yang Song; Zaifu Lin, Lingqing Kong, Yao Xing, Naibo Lin, Zhisen Zhang, Bing-Hung Chen, Xiang-Yang Liu
      Abstract: In biomedical applications, it is very desirable to monitor the in vivo state of implanted devices, i.e., tracking the location, the state, and the interaction between the implanted devices and cell tissues. To achieve this goal, a generic strategy of soft materials meso-functionalization is presented. This is to acquire silk fibroin (SF) materials with added functions, i.e., in vivo bioimaging/sensing. The functionalization is by 3D materials assembly of functional components, lanthanide(Ln)-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) on the mesoscopic scale to acquire upconversion fluorescent emission. To implement the meso-functionalization, the surfaces of UCNPs are modified by the hydroxyl groups (OH) from SiO2 or polyethylene glycol coating layers, which can interact with the carbonyl groups (CO) in SF scaffolds. The functionalized silk scaffolds are further implanted subcutaneously into mice, which allows the silk scaffolds to have fluorescent in vivo bioimaging and other biomedical functions. This material functionalization strategy may lead to the rational design of biomaterials in a more generic way.Bioimaging for silk fibroin scaffolds is achieved by the incorporation of surface-modified upconversion nanoparticles into the mesoscopic structure of silk fibroin materials via mesoscopic materials assembly. This allows real-time, non-invasive imaging in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T06:25:49.678013-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700628
  • Cu Diffusion-Driven Dynamic Modulation of the Electrical Properties of
           Amorphous Oxide Semiconductors
    • Authors: Han-Wool Yeon; Janghyun Jo, Hochul Song, Youngho Kang, Sekwon Na, Hyobin Yoo, Seung-Yong Lee, Haelim Cho, Ho-Young Kang, Jung-Kyu Jung, Seungwu Han, Miyoung Kim, Young-Chang Joo
      Abstract: The exact role of Cu in the electrical properties of amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) has been unclear, even though Cu has been the key element for the p-type characteristics of crystalline oxide semiconductors. Here, the dynamic changes, determined by diffusion kinetics, in the effect of Cu on the electrical properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) are revealed. In the early stage of annealing, Cu dominantly diffuses into a-IGZO through the free volume and acts as a mobile electron donor, which generates a resistive switching (RS) behavior related to the conductive filaments (CFs). With further annealing, substitutional Cu becomes predominant via In sites. After annealing, supersaturated Cu forms nonuniform, crystalline CuInO clusters in a-IGZO, which decrease the electrical conductivity of a-IGZO and deteriorate the CF-based RS performance. The findings reveal Cu diffusion mechanisms and the role of Cu in the electrical properties of AOSs dependent on the structural location and provide guidelines for modulating the RS characteristics of AOSs through Cu diffusion control.The effects of dynamic copper diffusion on the electrical properties of amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are investigated. As the dominant copper diffusion site is altered from the free volume to the substitutional sites as a function of the annealing conditions, the electrical conductivity and the resistive switching characterisitcs of AOSs are dynamically altered.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T06:25:43.549069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700336
  • Osmotic Pressure Triggered Rapid Release of Encapsulated Enzymes with
           Enhanced Activity
    • Authors: Weixia Zhang; Alireza Abbaspourrad, Dong Chen, Elizabeth Campbell, Hong Zhao, Yiwei Li, Qingning Li, David A. Weitz
      Abstract: In this study, a single-step microfluidic approach is reported for encapsulation of enzymes within microcapsules with ultrathin polymeric shell for controlled release triggered by an osmotic shock. Using a glass capillary microfluidic device, monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion droplets are fabricated with enzymes in the core and an ultrathin middle oil layer that solidifies to produce a consolidated inert polymeric shell with a thickness of a few tens to hundreds of nanometers. Through careful design of microcapsule membranes, a high percentage of cargo release, over 90%, is achieved, which is triggered by osmotic shock when using poly(methyl methacrylate) as the shell material. Moreover, it is demonstrated that compared to free enzymes, the encapsulated enzyme activity is maintained well for as long as 47 days at room temperature. This study not only extends industrial applications of enzymes, but also offers new opportunities for encapsulation of a wide range of sensitive molecules and biomolecules that can be controllably released upon applying osmotic shock.Encapsulation of enzymes within microcapsules with an ultrathin shell is achieved through a single-step microfluidic process and is triggered released by an osmotic shock. By carefully choosing shell materials, over 90% of release ratio can be obtained. Moreover, the activity of encapsulated enzymes is well maintained for a long period.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T06:25:36.391776-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700975
  • Injectable and Tunable Gelatin Hydrogels Enhance Stem Cell Retention and
           Improve Cutaneous Wound Healing
    • Authors: Yixiao Dong; Sigen A, Melanie Rodrigues, Xiaolin Li, Sun H. Kwon, Nina Kosaric, Sacha Khong, Yongsheng Gao, Wenxin Wang, Geoffrey C. Gurtner
      Abstract: Stem cells have shown substantial promise for various diseases in preclinical and clinical trials. However, low cell engraftment rates significantly limit the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics. Numerous injectable hydrogels have been developed to enhance cell retention. Yet, the design of an ideal material with tunable properties that can mimic different tissue niches and regulate stem cell behaviors remains an unfulfilled promise. Here, an injectable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–gelatin hydrogel is designed with highly tunable properties, from a multifunctional PEG-based hyperbranched polymer and a commercially available thiolated gelatin. Spontaneous gelation occurs within about 2 min under the physiological condition. Murine adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be easily encapsulated into the hydrogel, which supports ASC growth and maintains their stemness. The hydrogel mechanical properties, biodegradability, and cellular responses can be finely controlled by changing hydrogel formulation and cell seeding densities. An animal study shows that the in situ formed hydrogel significantly improves cell retention, enhances angiogenesis, and accelerates wound closure using a murine wound healing model. These data suggest that injectable PEG–gelatin hydrogel can be used for regulating stem cell behaviors in 3D culture, delivering cells for wound healing and other tissue regeneration applications.An injectable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–gelatin hydrogel is designed from a multifunctional PEG-based hyperbranched polymer and a commercially available thiolated gelatin. Spontaneous gelation occurs within 2 min under the physiological condition, with finely controlled hydrogel properties. The in situ formed hydrogel significantly improves cell retention, enhances angiogenesis, and accelerates wound closure in a murine wound model.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T01:15:40.602267-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606619
  • Percolating Network of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires and Silver Nanowires
           toward “Invisible” Wearable Sensors for Detecting Emotional Expression
           and Apexcardiogram
    • Authors: My Duyen Ho; Yunzhi Ling, Lim Wei Yap, Yan Wang, Dashen Dong, Yunmeng Zhao, Wenlong Cheng
      Abstract: 2 nm thin gold nanowires (AuNWs) have extremely high aspect ratio (≈10 000) and are nanoscale soft building blocks; this is different from conventional silver nanowires (AgNWs), which are more rigid. Here, highly sensitive, stretchable, patchable, and transparent strain sensors are fabricated based on the hybrid films of soft/hard networks. They are mechanically stretchable, optically transparent, and electrically conductive and are fabricated using a simple and cost-effective solution process. The combination of soft and more rigid nanowires enables their use as high-performance strain sensors with the maximum gauge factor (GF) of ≈236 at low strain (
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:01:43.669437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700845
  • A Charge Reversible Self-Delivery Chimeric Peptide with Cell
           Membrane-Targeting Properties for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy
    • Authors: Li-Han Liu; Wen-Xiu Qiu, Yao-Hui Zhang, Bin Li, Chi Zhang, Fan Gao, Lu Zhang, Xian-Zheng Zhang
      Abstract: The cell membrane is the most important protective barrier in living cells and cell membrane targeted therapy may be a high-performance therapeutic modality for tumor treatment. Here, a novel charge reversible self-delivery chimeric peptide C16–PRP–DMA is developed for long-term cell membrane targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT). The self-assembled C16–PRP–DMA nanoparticles can effectively target to tumor by enhanced permeability and retention effect without additional carriers. After undergoing charge reverse in acidic tumor microenvironment, C16–PRP–DMA inserts into the tumor cell membrane with a long retention time of more than 14 h, which is very helpful for in vivo applications. It is found that under light irradiation, the reactive oxygen species generated by the inserted C16–PRP–DMA would directly disrupt cell membrane and rapidly induce cell necrosis, which remarkably increases the PDT effect in vitro and in vivo. This novel self-delivery chimeric peptide with a long-term cell membrane targeting property provides a new prospect for effective PDT of cancer.An easy-to-fabricate charge reversible self-delivery chimeric peptide is developed to realize cell membrane targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT). Under light irradiation, C16––PRP–DMA can directly disrupt the cell membrane and rapidly induce cell necrosis, which remarkably increases the PDT effect.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:59:09.315007-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700220
  • Over 10% EQE Near-Infrared Electroluminescence Based on a Thermally
           Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter
    • Authors: Yi Yuan; Yun Hu, Ye-Xin Zhang, Jiu-Dong Lin, Ya-Kun Wang, Zuo-Quan Jiang, Liang-Sheng Liao, Shuit-Tong Lee
      Abstract: Significant effort has been made to develop novel material systems to improve the efficiency of near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes (NIR OLEDs). Of those, fluorescent chromophores are mostly studied because of their advantages in cost and tunability. However, it is still rare for fluorescent NIR emitters to present good color purities in the NIR range and to have high external quantum efficiency (EQE). Here, a wedge-shaped D-π-A-π-D emitter APDC-DTPA with thermally activated delayed fluorescence property and a small single-triplet splitting (ΔEst) of 0.14 eV is presented. The non-doped NIR device exhibits excellent performance with a maximum EQE of 2.19% and a peak wavelength of 777 nm. Remarkably, when 10 wt% of APDC-DTPA is doped in 1,3,5-tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene host, an extremely high EQE of 10.19% with an emission peak of 693 nm is achieved. All these values represent the best result for NIR OLEDs based on a pure organic fluorescent emitter with similar device structure and color gamut.A near-infrared (NIR) thermally activated delayed fluorescence material, APDC-DTPA, containing acenaphtho[1,2-b]pyrazine-8,9-dicarbonitrile unit as acceptor and diphenylamine as donor unit is developed. A non-doped device based on APDC-DTPA exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 2.19% with an emission peak at 777 nm. A maximum EQE of up to 10.19% is achieved in a doped NIR device (λEL = 693 nm).
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:58:59.655347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700986
  • Controlled Release of LL-37-Derived Synthetic Antimicrobial and
           Anti-Biofilm Peptides SAAP-145 and SAAP-276 Prevents Experimental
           Biomaterial-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Infection
    • Authors: Martijn Riool; Anna de Breij, Leonie de Boer, Paulus H. S. Kwakman, Robert A. Cordfunke, Or Cohen, Nermina Malanovic, Noam Emanuel, Karl Lohner, Jan W. Drijfhout, Peter H. Nibbering, Sebastian A. J. Zaat
      Abstract: The present study aims to develop an implant coating releasing novel antimicrobial agents to prevent biomaterial-associated infections. The LL-37-derived synthetic antimicrobial and anti-biofilm peptides (SAAP)-145 and SAAP-276 exhibit potent bactericidal and anti-biofilm activities against clinical and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains by rapid membrane permeabilization, without inducing resistance. Injection of SAAP-145, but not SAAP-276, along subcutaneous implants in mice reduces S. aureus implant colonization by approximately 2 log, but does not reduce bacterial numbers in surrounding tissue. To improve their efficacy, SAAP-145 and SAAP-276 are incorporated in a polymer–lipid encapsulation matrix (PLEX) coating, providing a constant release of 0.6% daily up to 30 d after an initial burst release of>50%. In a murine model for biomaterial-associated infection, SAAP-145-PLEX and SAAP-276-PLEX coatings significantly reduce the number of culture positive implants and show ≥3.5 and ≥1.5 log lower S. aureus implant and tissue colonization, respectively. Interestingly, these peptide coatings are also highly effective against multidrug-resistant S. aureus, both reducing implant colonization by ≥2 log. SAAP-276-PLEX additionally reduces tissue colonization by 1 log. Together, the peptide-releasing PLEX coatings hold promise for further development as an alternative to coatings releasing conventional antibiotics to prevent biomaterial-associated infections.The novel synthetic antimicrobial and anti-biofilm peptides SAAP-145 and SAAP-276 releasing in a controlled fashion from a biodegradable polymer–lipid-based coating on titanium prevent biomaterial-associated (multi-drug-resistant) Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice. These SAAPs exhibit potent bactericidal and anti-biofilm activities at low micromolar concentrations against clinical and multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains by rapid membrane permeabilization, without inducing resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T04:11:22.697108-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606623
  • Lanthanide “Chameleon” Multistage Anti-Counterfeit Materials
    • Authors: Anna M. Kaczmarek; Ying-Ya Liu, Chunhua Wang, Brecht Laforce, Laszlo Vincze, Pascal Van Der Voort, Kristof Van Hecke, Rik Van Deun
      Abstract: Hybrid materials displaying multistage security behavior, where a single material shows both wavelength- and temperature-dependent luminescence properties, are reported. The materials consist of mixed-lanthanide β-diketonate complexes grafted into the pores of a nanosized 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylate-acid MOF. A very specific choice of lanthanides and their ratios, as well as β-diketonate ligand, is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. The wavelength-dependent luminescence properties of the materials are very well matched with the excitation wavelengths of a standard UV lamp, and a clearly visible change in luminescence is observed in a narrow temperature range (slightly below and above room temperature), proving them to be excellent materials for use in anti-counterfeit technologies, which would be almost impossible to mimic.Hybrid lanthanide/metal–organic-framework materials for application in multistage security technologies are proposed. These materials show both wavelength- and temperature-dependent luminescence properties. They exhibit “chameleon” behavior by changing their emission color in response to changes in the environment. For this application, the combination of Tb3+/Sm3+ is superior to that of Tb3+/Eu3+, which is most often investigated for temperature-dependent luminescence.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T07:16:40.732258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700258
  • LaTiOxNy Thin Film Model Systems for Photocatalytic Water Splitting:
           Physicochemical Evolution of the Solid–Liquid Interface and the Role of
           the Crystallographic Orientation
    • Authors: Markus Pichler; Wenping Si, Fatima Haydous, Helena Téllez, John Druce, Emiliana Fabbri, Mario El Kazzi, Max Döbeli, Silviya Ninova, Ulrich Aschauer, Alexander Wokaun, Daniele Pergolesi, Thomas Lippert
      Abstract: The size of the band gap and the energy position of the band edges make several oxynitride semiconductors promising candidates for efficient hydrogen and oxygen production under solar light illumination. Intense research efforts dedicated to oxynitride materials have unveiled the majority of their most important properties. However, two crucial aspects have received much less attention: One is the critical issue of compositional/structural surface modifications that occur during operation and how these affect photoelectrochemical performance. The second concerns the relation between electrochemical response and the crystallographic surface orientation of the oxynitride semiconductor. These are indeed topics of fundamental importance, since it is exactly at the surface where the visible-light-driven electrochemical reaction takes place.In contrast to conventional powder samples, thin films represent the best model system for these investigations. This study reviews current state-of-the-art oxynitride thin film fabrication and characterization, before focusing on LaTiO2N, selected as a representative photocatalyst. An investigation of the initial physicochemical evolution of the surface is reported. Then, it is shown that after stabilization the absorbed photon-to-current conversion efficiency of epitaxial thin films can differ by about 50% for different crystallographic surface orientations, and be up to 5 times larger than for polycrystalline samples.Oxynitride photoanode thin film heterostructures for solar water splitting based on LaTiOxNy are fabricated. Polycrystalline samples are used to probe surface physicochemical evolution induced by photoelectrochemical tests. A comparative analysis of samples with different crystalline properties shows that not only the crystalline quality, but also the crystallographic surface orientation determines the photoelectrochemical response.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T02:12:42.209138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605690
  • Sputtered Titanium Carbide Thick Film for High Areal Energy on Chip
           Carbon-Based Micro-Supercapacitors
    • Authors: Manon Létiche; Kevin Brousse, Arnaud Demortière, Peihua Huang, Barbara Daffos, Sébastien Pinaud, Marc Respaud, Bruno Chaudret, Pascal Roussel, Lionel Buchaillot, Pierre Louis Taberna, Patrice Simon, Christophe Lethien
      Abstract: The areal energy density of on-chip micro-supercapacitors should be improved in order to obtain autonomous smart miniaturized sensors. To reach this goal, high surface capacitance electrode (>100 mF cm−2) has to be produced while keeping low the footprint area. For carbide-derived carbon (CDC) micro-supercapacitors, the properties of the metal carbide precursor have to be fine-tuned to fabricate thick electrodes. The ad-atoms diffusion process and atomic peening effect occurring during the titanium carbide sputtering process are shown to be the key parameters to produce low stress, highly conductive, and thick TiC films. The sputtered TiC at 10−3 mbar exhibits a high stress level, limiting the thickness of the TiC-CDC electrode to 1.5 µm with an areal capacitance that is less than 55 mF cm−2 in aqueous electrolyte. The pressure increase up to 10−2 mbar induces a clear reduction of the stress level while the layer thickness increases without any degradation of the TiC electronic conductivity. The volumetric capacitance of the TiC-CDC electrodes is equal to 350 F cm−3 regardless of the level of pressure. High values of areal capacitance (>100 mF cm−2) are achieved, whereas the TiC layer is relatively thick, which paves the way toward high-performance micro-supercapacitors.High areal capacitance carbide derived carbon (CDC) electrodes are produced from sputtered thick titanium carbide (TiC). The stress level is carefully controlled to deposit a thick TiC layer. Moving from 10−3 up to 10−2 mbar allows for reduction of the atomic peening effect responsible for the TiC densification and to produce TiC-CDC electrodes reaching up to 100 mF cm−2 areal capacitance in aqueous electrolyte while keeping constant the electronic conductivity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T02:00:35.57314-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606813
  • Ultrahigh Conductive Graphene Paper Based on Ball-Milling Exfoliated
    • Authors: Chao Teng; Dan Xie, Jianfeng Wang, Zhi Yang, Guangyuan Ren, Ying Zhu
      Abstract: Due to low density, extremely high electrical and thermal conductivities, graphene has great potential to construct lightweight thermal conductive paper for high-power electric devices. However, the remarkable properties of graphene are on a molecular level and difficult to achieve when processed into macroscopic paper. Here, an effective route to construct ultrahigh conductive graphene paper is developed. First, large-volume, high-concentration, plane-defect-free, few-layer graphene dispersion is fast produced from graphite at high yield through ball milling. The exfoliated graphene dispersion is further processed into graphene paper through fast filtration, thermal treatment, and mechanical compression. The electrical and thermal conductivities of the resultant graphene paper are as high as 2231 S cm−1 and 1529 W m−1 K−1, superior to previously reported graphene papers. Structural analyses confirm that the ultrahigh conductivities are attributed to high quality of graphene sheets, their compact ordered stacking, and large graphitic crystalline domain size, which improve electron and phonon transport within basal plane of graphene sheet and between graphene sheets.The large-volume, high-concentration, plane-defect-free, few-layer graphene dispersion is fast produced at high yield through wet ball milling, which is further processed into graphene paper through filtration, annealing, and mechanical compression. The obtained FAC-graphene paper, which is filtrated, annealed, and compressed, has the ultrahigh electrical conductivity of 2231 S cm−1 and thermal conductivity of 1529 W m−1 K−1, making it superior to previously reported graphene paper.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:36:12.349321-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700240
  • Achieving zT> 1 in Inexpensive Zintl Phase Ca9Zn4+xSb9 by Phase Boundary
    • Authors: Saneyuki Ohno; Umut Aydemir, Maximilian Amsler, Jan-Hendrik Pöhls, Sevan Chanakian, Alex Zevalkink, Mary Anne White, Sabah K. Bux, Chris Wolverton, G. Jeffrey Snyder
      Abstract: Complex multinary compounds (ternary, quaternary, and higher) offer countless opportunities for discovering new semiconductors for applications such as photovoltaics and thermoelectrics. However, controlling doping has been a major challenge in complex semiconductors as there are many possibilities for charged intrinsic defects (e.g., vacancies, interstitials, antisite defects) whose energy depends on competing impurity phases. Even in compounds with no apparent deviation from a stoichiometric nominal composition, such defects commonly lead to free carrier concentrations in excess of 1020 cm−3. Nevertheless, by slightly altering the nominal composition, these defect concentrations can be tuned with small variation of the chemical potentials (composition) of each element. While the variation of chemical composition is undetectable, it is shown that the changes can be inferred by mapping (in nominal composition space) the boundaries where different competing impurity phases form. In the inexpensive Zintl compound Ca9Zn4+xSb9, the carrier concentrations can be finely tuned within three different three-phase regions by altering the nominal composition (x = 0.2–0.8), enabling the doubling of thermoelectric performance (zT). Because of the low thermal conductivity, the zT can reach as high as 1.1 at 875 K, which is one of the highest among the earth abundant p-type thermoelectrics with no ion conducting.The charge carrier concentration of the inexpensive multinary Zintl semiconductor Ca9Zn4+xSb9 can be finely tuned within three different three-phase regions via phase boundary mapping by slightly altering the nominal composition (x = 0.2–0.8), enabling the optimization of thermoelectric performance (zT = 1.1 at 875 K). This is one of the highest among the inexpensive p-type thermoelectrics with no ion conduction.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T05:05:50.731734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606361
  • Programmed Multiresponsive Vesicles for Enhanced Tumor Penetration and
           Combination Therapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
    • Authors: Fangyuan Zhou; Bing Feng, Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, Qingshuo Meng, Jianfeng Zeng, Zhiwen Zhang, Siling Wang, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li
      Abstract: Nanomedicine is a promising approach for combination chemotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the therapeutic efficacy of nanoparticulate drugs is suppressed by a series of biological barriers. The authors herein present a programmed stimuli-responsive liposomal vesicle to overcome the sequential barriers for enhanced TNBC therapy. The intelligent vesicles are engineered by integrating an enzyme-cleavable polyethylene glycol (PEG) corona, a light-responsive photosensitizer pheophorbide a (PPa), and a temperature-sensitive liposome (TSL) into a single nanoplatform. The resultant enzyme, light, and temperature multisensitive liposome (ELTSL) is sequentially coloaded with a lipophilic oxaliplatin prodrug of hexadecyl-oxaliplatin carboxylic acid (HOC) and hydrophilic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). Dual drug-loaded ELTSL displays enhanced tumor penetration and increased cellular uptake upon matrix metalloproteinase 2 mediated cleavage of the PEG corona. Under NIR laser irradiation, PPa induces mild hyperthermia effect to trigger ultrafast drug release in the tumor cells. In combination with PPa-mediated photodynamic therapy, HOC and DOX coloaded ELTSL show significantly improved antitumor efficacy than monotherapy. Given the clinically translatable potential of the liposomal vesicles, ELTSL might represent a promising nanoplatform for combination TNBC therapy.A programmed liposomal vesicle responsive to the endogenous enzyme, near-infrared light, and temperature is presented. The vesicles can overcome the multiple biological barriers to achieve deep tumor penetration, increased cellular uptake, and intracellular ultrafast drug release. The vesicles coloaded with two chemotherapeutics can be used for combination of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy of triple negative breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T07:25:50.748085-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606530
  • Extended Solution Gate OFET-Based Biosensor for Label-Free Glial
           Fibrillary Acidic Protein Detection with Polyethylene Glycol-Containing
           Bioreceptor Layer
    • Authors: Jian Song; Jennifer Dailey, Hui Li, Hyun-June Jang, Pengfei Zhang, Jeff Tza-Huei Wang, Allen D. Everett, Howard E. Katz
      Abstract: A novel organic field effect transistor (OFET)-based biosensor is described for label-free glial fibrillary acidic protein detection. This study reports the first use of an extended solution gate structure where the sensing area and the organic semiconductor are separated, and a reference electrode is not needed. Different molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are mixed into the bioreceptor layer to help extend the Debye screening length. The drain current change is significantly increased with the help of higher molecular weight PEGs, as they are known to reduce the dielectric constant. This study also investigates the sensing performance under different gate voltage (Vg). The sensitivity increases after the Vg is decreased from −5 to −2 V because the lower Vg is much closer to the OFET threshold voltage and the influence of attached negatively charged proteins becomes more apparent. Finally, the selectivity experiments toward different interferents are performed. The stability and selectivity are promising for clinical applications.A novel organic field effect transistor-based biosensor is described for label-free glial fibrillary acidic protein detection. Different molecular weight polyethylene glycols are mixed into the bioreceptor layer to help extend the Debye screening length. The sensitivity increases while Vg decreases since lower Vg is much closer to the OFET threshold voltage and the influence of attached proteins becomes more apparent.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T07:56:23.556588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606506
  • Stretchable Capacitive Sensors of Torsion, Strain, and Touch Using Double
           Helix Liquid Metal Fibers
    • Authors: Christopher B. Cooper; Kuralamudhan Arutselvan, Ying Liu, Daniel Armstrong, Yiliang Lin, Mohammad Rashed Khan, Jan Genzer, Michael D. Dickey
      Abstract: Soft and stretchable sensors have the potential to be incorporated into soft robotics and conformal electronics. Liquid metals represent a promising class of materials for creating these sensors because they can undergo large deformations while retaining electrical continuity. Incorporating liquid metal into hollow elastomeric capillaries results in fibers that can integrate with textiles, comply with complex surfaces, and be mass produced at high speeds. Liquid metal is injected into the core of hollow and extremely stretchable elastomeric fibers and the resulting fibers are intertwined into a helix to fabricate capacitive sensors of torsion, strain, and touch. Twisting or elongating the fibers changes the geometry and, thus, the capacitance between the fibers in a predictable way. These sensors offer a simple mechanism to measure torsion up to 800 rad m−1—two orders of magnitude higher than current torsion sensors. These intertwined fibers can also sense strain capacitively. In a complementary embodiment, the fibers are injected with different lengths of liquid metal to create sensors capable of distinguishing touch along the length of a small bundle of fibers via self-capacitance. The three capacitive-based modes of sensing described here may enable new sensing applications that employ the unique attributes of stretchable fibers.Intertwined elastomeric fibers filled with liquid metal form stretchable sensors of torsion, strain, and touch. Sensing is enabled by capacitance changes between (1) adjacent fibers due to deformation or (2) fibers and fingers due to touch. The simplicity of the sensing mechanism, the versatile fiber geometry, and the soft properties offer potential applications in stretchable electronics, wearables, and soft robotics.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T07:55:20.10965-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605630
  • Membrane-Based Strategy for Efficient Ionic Liquids/Water Separation
           Assisted by Superwettability
    • Authors: Jiajing Zhang; Hongliang Liu, Lei Jiang
      Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) acting as new functional solvents have significant impact in both synthetic and materials chemistry. However, the usage of volatile organic solvents in both synthesis and recycling of ILs usually imposes environmental issues. In this study, according to intrinsic wetting threshold theory, a membrane-based approach assisted by superwettability is developed for efficient, convenient, and economical purification of water-immiscible ILs. By precisely tailoring surface energy, the porous membrane is capable of hydrophobicity and superILphilicity (defined as IL contact angle close to zero), selectively allowing ILs to pass through. This kind of functional membrane can not only separate IL/water mixtures, but also IL/water systems containing inorganic salts, organic compounds, amino acids, and proteins.A membrane-based approach relying on intrinsic wetting threshold theory for highly efficient, convenient, and economical ionic liquid (IL)/water separation has been presented. By precisely tailoring surface energy, the porous membrane is capable of hydrophobicity and superILphilicity, and can separate not only mixtures of different ILs and water, but also IL/water systems containing inorganic salts, organic compounds, amino acids, and proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T07:50:24.434884-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606544
  • Porous Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Enhanced Chemical Sensing
    • Authors: Jingjing Lu; Dapeng Liu, Jiachen Zhou, Yingli Chu, Yantao Chen, Xiaohan Wu, Jia Huang
      Abstract: The thin-film structures of chemical sensors based on conventional organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can limit the sensitivity of the devices toward chemical vapors, because charge carriers in OFETs are usually concentrated within a few molecular layers at the bottom of the organic semiconductor (OSC) film near the dielectric/semiconductor interface. Chemical vapor molecules have to diffuse through the OSC films before they can interact with charge carriers in the OFET conduction channel. It has been demonstrated that OFET ammonia sensors with porous OSC films can be fabricated by a simple vacuum freeze-drying template method. The resulted devices can have ammonia sensitivity not only much higher than the pristine OFETs with thin-film structure but also better than any previously reported OFET sensors, to the best of our knowledge. The porous OFETs show a relative sensitivity as high as 340% ppm−1 upon exposure to 10 parts per billion (ppb) NH3. In addition, the devices also exhibit decent selectivity and stability. This general and simple strategy can be applied to a wide range of OFET chemical sensors to improve the device sensitivity.Organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based chemical sensors with porous film structure are fabricated by a versatile and low-cost template method. OFET chemical sensors with the porous structure exhibit much higher sensitivity than that of the pristine one. Porous OFETs exhibit obvious and reproducible response to 10 ppb NH3, with a relative sensitivity up to 340% ppm−1. The devices also show decent stability and sensing selectivity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:37:17.307748-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700018
  • Cell Generator: A Self-Sustaining Biohybrid System Based on Energy
           Harvesting from Engineered Cardiac Microtissues
    • Authors: Bingzhe Xu; Xudong Lin, Wei Li, Zixun Wang, Wenchong Zhang, Peng Shi
      Abstract: Biohybrid soft robotic devices present unique advantages for designing biologically active machines that can dynamically sense and interact with complex bioelectrical signals. Here, a controllable cell-based machine is developed that harvests energy from arrays of beating cardiomyocytes to generate electricity for biomedical microscale robotic applications. The “Cell Generator” device is based on an array of piezoelectric microcantilevers wrapped with 3D patterned cardiac cells. Spontaneous contraction of the engineered cardiac constructs provides the source of mechanical energy for electricity generation. It is demonstrated that a single “Cell Generator” unit with 40 cantilevers can output peak voltages of ≈70 mV, and a larger array of 540 cantilevers can directly generate a pulsed output as high as ≈1 V. When integrated with an electrical rectification and storage circuit, it is further shown that the “Cell Generator” can provide functional outputs and work as a self-powered neural stimulator to evoke action potentials in cultured neuronal networks. This demonstration of “Cell Generator” technology provides an innovative perspective of exploiting live biological powering system on biomedical microscale robotic devices in the human body.A biohybrid system—“Cell Generator”—is fabricated by patterning cardiomyocytes on arrays of microcantilevers made of piezoelectric materials. Pulsed contraction of the engineered cardiac constructs provides the source of mechanical energy for electricity generation, which is used to power biomedical devices. This technology provides an innovative perspective of exploiting live biological components for the development of self-sustaining cellular machines.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:37:13.03922-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606169
  • High-Energy-Density Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites with Trilayered
    • Authors: Feihua Liu; Qi Li, Jin Cui, Zeyu Li, Guang Yang, Yang Liu, Lijie Dong, Chuanxi Xiong, Hong Wang, Qing Wang
      Abstract: The development of advanced dielectric materials with high electric energy densities is of crucial importance in modern electronics and electric power systems. Here, a new class of multilayer-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy and power densities is presented. The outer layers of the trilayered structure are composed of boron nitride nanosheets dispersed in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix to provide high breakdown strength, while PVDF with barium strontium titanate nanowires forms the central layer to offer high dielectric constant of the resulting composites. The influence of the filler contents on the electrical polarization, breakdown strength, and energy density is examined. Simulations are carried out to model the electrical tree formation in the layered nanocomposites and to verify the experimental breakdown results. The trilayered polymer nanocomposite with an optimized filler content displays a discharged energy density of 20.5 J cm−3 at Weibull breakdown strength of 588 MV m−1, which is among the highest discharged energy densities reported so far. Moreover, the nanocomposite exhibits a superior power density of 0.91 MW cm−3, more than nine times that of the commercially available biaxially oriented polypropylene. The findings of this research provide a new design paradigm for high-performance dielectric polymer nanocomposites.Trilayered dielectric polymer nanocomposites composed of highly insulating nanosheets as the outer layers and highly polarizable nanowires as the central layer are developed to realize enhanced dielectric constant, high breakdown strength, reduced dielectric loss, and subsequently, markedly improved discharged energy densities in comparison to the conventional single-layered thin films.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:26:31.834011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606292
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