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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Addiction
  [SJR: 2.086]   [H-I: 143]   [32 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0965-2140 - ISSN (Online) 1360-0443
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • The contribution of alcohol use and other behavioural, material, and
           social factors to socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related disorders
           in a Swedish cohort
    • Authors: Lovisa Sydén; Anna Sidorchuk, Pia Mäkelä, Jonas Landberg
      Abstract: AimsWe estimated the degree to which the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and alcohol-related disorders is attenuated after adjustment for levels and patterns of drinking, behavioural, material, and social factors.DesignA longitudinal cohort study with baseline in 2002, with linkage to register data on patient care and deaths in 2002-2011 to yield the outcome measures.SettingStockholm County, Sweden.ParticipantsRespondents to baseline survey aged 25-64 (n = 17 440) with information on all studied covariates.MeasurementsOccupational class was the studied SEP indicator and a combined measure of volume of weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of heavy episodic drinking, smoking, employment status, income, social support, marital status, and education, all at baseline, were the studied covariates. Alcohol-related disorders (n = 388) were indicated by first register entries on alcohol-related medical care or death during the follow-up.FindingsUnskilled workers had an approximately four times greater risk of alcohol-related disorders than higher non-manual employees HR = 4.08 (2.78, 5.98). After adjustment for alcohol use, the SEP difference in risk for alcohol-related harm fell by a fourth for the same group HR = 2.91 (1.96, 4.33). The difference was further reduced when behavioural factors and material factors were taken into account HR = 2.09 (1.34, 3.26), whereas adjusting for social factors and attained education resulted in smaller reductions.ConclusionsSocioeconomic differences in alcohol use explain one fourth of the SEP differences in alcohol-related disorders in Stockholm, Sweden. Hazardous alcohol use and other behavioural, material, and social factors together explain nearly 60% of the SEP differences in alcohol-related disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:15:44.985457-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13889
  • Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: A time-series
           analysis of population trends in England
    • Authors: Emma Beard; Robert West, Susan Michie, Jamie Brown
      Abstract: AimsThis paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England.DesignData were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England.MeasurementsARIMAX modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of a) smoking and high-risk drinking; b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption.FindingsMean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.19% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking (95%CI 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.017. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β 0.324 95%CI -0.371 to 1.019, p = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β -0.026 95%CI -1.348 to 1.296, p = 0.969).ConclusionBetween 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were positively associated with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:15:41.716257-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13887
  • An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban
           retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries
    • Authors: Jennifer Brown; Kevin Welding, Joanna E. Cohen, Rajeev Cherukupalli, Carmen Washington, Jacqueline Ferguson, Katherine Clegg Smith
      Abstract: Background/AimsTo estimate and compare price differences between legal and illicit cigarettes in 14 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).DesignA cross-sectional census of all packs available on the market was purchased.SettingCigarette packs were purchased in formal retail settings in three major cities in each of 14 LMIC: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam.Participants/Observations3,240 packs were purchased (range: 58 packs in Egypt to 505 in Russia). Packs were categorized as “legal” or “illicit” based on the presence of a health warning label from the country of purchase and existence of a tax stamp. 2,468 legal and 772 illicit packs were in the analysis.MeasurementsDescriptive statistics stratified by country, city, and neighborhood socioeconomic status were used to explore the association between price and legal status of cigarettes.FindingsThe number of illicit cigarettes in the sample setting was small (n 
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:31.315931-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13881
  • A new methodological approach to adjust alcohol exposure distributions to
           improve the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions
    • Authors: William J. Parish; Arnie Aldridge, Benjamin Allaire, Donatus U. Ekwueme, Diana Phelps, Gery P. Guy, Cheryll C. Thomas, Justin G. Trogdon
      Abstract: Background and AimsTo assess the burden of excessive alcohol use, researchers routinely estimate alcohol-attributable fractions (AAFs). However, underreporting in survey data can bias these estimates. We present an approach that adjusts for underreporting in the estimation of AAFs, particularly across subgroups. This framework is a refinement of a previous method (Rehm et al., 2010).MethodsWe use a measurement error model to derive the “true” alcohol distribution from a “reported” alcohol distribution. The “true” distribution leverages per capita sales data to identify the distribution average and then identifies the shape of the distribution with self-reported survey data. Data are from the National Alcohol Survey (NAS), the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). We compared our approach with previous approaches by estimating the AAF of female breast cancer cases.ResultsCompared with Rehm et al.’s approach, our refinement performs similarly under a gamma assumption. For example, among females aged 18–25, the two approaches produce estimates from NHSDA that are within a percentage point. However, relaxing the gamma assumption generally produces more conservative evidence. For example, among females aged 18–25, estimates from NHSDA based on the best-fitting distribution are only 19.33 percent of breast cancer cases, which is a much smaller proportion than the gamma-based estimates of about 28 percent.ConclusionsA refinement of Rehm et al.’s approach to adjusting for underreporting in the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions provides more flexibility. This flexibility can avoid biases associated with failing to account for the underlying differences in alcohol consumption patterns across different study populations. Comparisons of our refinement with Rehm et al.’s approach show that results are similar when a gamma distribution is assumed. However, results are appreciably lower when the best-fitting distribution is chosen versus gamma-based results.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:29.605131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13880
  • Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly-legal market: Evidence
           from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington State
    • Authors: Rosanna Smart; Jonathan P. Caulkins, Beau Kilmer, Steven Davenport, Greg Midgette
      Abstract: AimsTo (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market, and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower.DesignSecondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis straceability system spanning July 7, 2014 to September 30, 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency. Hedonic regressions estimated how purchase quantity and potency influence cannabis flower price variation.SettingWashington State, USA.Participants(1) 44,482,176 million cannabis purchases, including (2) 31,052,123 cannabis flower purchases after trimming price and quantity outliers.MeasurementsPrimary outcome measures were (1) monthly expenditures on cannabis, total delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration, and cannabidiol (CBD) concentration by product type; and (2) excise-tax-inclusive price per gram of cannabis flower. Key covariates for the hedonic price regressions included quantity purchased, THC, and CBD.FindingsTraditional cannabis flowers still account for the majority of spending (66.6%), but the market share of extracts for inhalation increased by 145.8% between October 2014 and September 2016, now composing 21.2% of sales. The average THC-level for cannabis extracts is more than triple that for cannabis flowers (68.7% compared to 20.6%). For flower products, there is a statistically significant relationship between price per gram and both THC [coefficient = 0.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.011 to 0.013] and CBD [coefficient = 0.017; CI = 0.015 to 0.019]. The estimated discount elasticity is -0.06 [CI = –0.07 to –0.05].ConclusionsIn the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flower, and features growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flower, both THC and CBD are associated with higher per-gram prices, and there are small but significant quantity discounts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:27.901025-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13886
  • Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking'
    • Authors: Jennifer J. Ware; Julie-Anne Tanner, Amy E. Taylor, Zhao Bin, Philip Haycock, Jack Bowden, Peter J. Rogers, George Davey Smith, Rachel F. Tyndale, Marcus R. Munafo
      Abstract: Background and AimsCoffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: 1) determine whether coffee consumption causally influences cigarette smoking, 2) estimate the magnitude of any association, and 3) explore potential mechanisms.DesignWe used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarised data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual level data from the UK Biobank, and in vitro experiments of candidate compounds.SettingThe TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland.Participants. The TAG consortium provided data on N ≤ 38,181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on N = 8,072 participants.MeasurementsIn MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin, and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6.FindingsTwo-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking (beta -1.49, 95% CI -2.88 to -0.09). However, in vitro experiments found the compounds investigated are unlikely to significantly inhibit the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta 0.20, 95% CI -1.72 to 2.12).ConclusionsAmount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact on amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin, or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette smoking may be due to smoking impacting on coffee consumption, or confounding.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:26.405512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13888
  • Familial association of abstinent remission from alcohol use disorder in
           first-degree relatives of alcohol-dependent treatment-seeking probands
    • Authors: Vivia V. McCutcheon; Marc A. Schuckit, John R. Kramer, Grace Chan, Howard J. Edenberg, Tom L. Smith, Annah K. Bender, Victor Hesselbrock, Michie Hesselbrock, Kathleen K. Bucholz
      Abstract: Background and AimsStudies that have included family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) as a predictor of remission from AUD have yielded few significant results. The goals of this study were to estimate the association of persistent AUD, non-abstinent remission and abstinent remission (“AUD/remission status”) in a proband with AUD/remission status in a relative and to test whether this association differed in related and unrelated proband-relative pairs.DesignHigh-risk family study of alcohol dependence. Probands were recruited from treatment settings and relatives were invited to participate. Baseline assessments occurred between 1991-1998 with follow-up between 1996-2005. Half of probands were matched with a biological 1st-degree relative with lifetime AUD (related group) and half of probands were paired with an unrelated individual with lifetime AUD (unrelated group). SettingBrooklyn, New York; Indianapolis, Indiana; Iowa City, Iowa; San Diego, California; Farmington, Connecticut; and St. Louis, Missouri, USA.Participants606 probands (25.7% female, mean age 37.7) with baseline and follow-up data and 606 of their 1st degree relatives who had lifetime AUDs (45.8% female, mean age 36.2).MeasurementsPersistent AUD, non-abstinent remission, and abstinent remission were based on self-report interview data on most recent AUD symptoms and alcohol consumption. Dependent variable was relatives’ AUD/remission status. Independent variable was probands’ AUD/remission status.Findings34.6% of probands and 20.6% of relatives were abstinent and 11.1% of probands and 22.8% of relatives were in non-abstinent remission. AUD/remission status was significantly correlated in related (r = .23, p = .0037) but not in unrelated pairs. A significant interaction of probands’ abstinent remission with a variable representing related (versus unrelated, p = .003) pairs suggested a familial association for abstinent remission. In related pairs, individuals with an abstinent proband were more likely to be abstinent themselves than were individuals whose proband had persistent AUD (relative risk ratio = 3.27, 95% CI = 1.56-6.85, p = .002); this association was not significant in unrelated pairs.ConclusionsThe likelihood of abstinent remission among people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) appears to be more than 3 times greater for individuals who are related to an abstinent proband versus those related to a proband with persistent AUD.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:25.149527-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13890
  • The Impact of Normative Perceptions on Alcohol Consumption in Military
    • Authors: Heather Krieger; Eric R. Pedersen, Clayton Neighbors
      Abstract: Background and aimsPerceptions of both descriptive norms (prevalence of drinking) and injunctive norms (others' approval of drinking) relate to alcohol consumption but mechanisms for these associations have received little attention, especially in military samples. This study tested the direct and indirect associations between perceived descriptive and injunctive norms on drinking through personal attitudes (i.e., personal approval) in a veteran sample.DesignData were collected as part of a longitudinal randomized controlled alcohol intervention study. The study involved two time points: baseline/intervention (time 1) and one-month follow-up (time 2).SettingA national sample of veterans was recruited from Facebook to participate in an online study between June and October 2015.ParticipantsData included responses of 621 adult military veterans (age 18-34; 17% female).MeasuresRespondents reported on their weekly alcohol consumption (primary outcome), perceptions of typical drinking, and approval by other same-gender veterans. Covariates included gender, intervention condition, and combat experience.FindingsRegression results found no significant effects of perceived descriptive or injunctive norms on time 2 drinking when accounting for the effects of personal attitudes, time 1 drinking, and covariates. However, mediation analyses found support for personal attitudes as a mediator of the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and time 2 drinking (indirect effect = 0.003, SE = .001, p = .001) and between perceived injunctive norms and time 2 drinking (indirect effect = 0.004, SE = .001, p < .001).ConclusionsAttitudes to drinking appear to mediate the association between descriptive and injunctions norms about alcohol and subsequent level of alcohol consumption in US military personnel.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T04:40:31.44644-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13879
  • Nucleus Accumbens Functional Connectivity at Age 20 is Associated with
           Trajectory of Adolescent Cannabis Use and Predicts Psychosocial
           Functioning in Young Adulthood
    • Authors: Sarah D. Lichenstein; Samuel Musselman, Daniel S. Shaw, Stephanie Sitnick, Erika E. Forbes
      Abstract: AimsTo identify trajectories of cannabis use across adolescence, 2) to measure the influence of cannabis use characteristics on functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and 3) to assess whether patterns of functional connectivity related to cannabis use are associated with psychosocial functioning 2 years later.DesignThe Pitt Mother & Child Project (PMCP) is a prospective, longitudinal study of male youth at high risk for psychopathology based on family income and gender.SettingParticipants were recruited between age 6-17 months from the Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement program (WIC) in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area.ParticipantsN = 158 PMCP young men contributed fMRI and substance use data at age 20.MeasurementsLatent class growth analysis was used to determine trajectories of cannabis use frequency from age 14-19. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to measure functional connectivity between the NAcc and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Adolescent cannabis use trajectory, recent frequency of use, and age of initiation were considered as developmental factors. We also tested whether functional connectivity was associated with depressive symptoms, anhedonia, and educational attainment at age 22.FindingsWe identified three distinct trajectories of adolescent cannabis use, characterized by stable high, escalating, or stable low use. Cannabis use trajectory group had a significant effect on NAcc functional connectivity to the medial PFC (F = 11.32, Z = 4.04, pFWE-corr = .000). The escalating trajectory group displayed a pattern of negative NAcc-mPFC connectivity that was linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms (r = -.17, p = .041), anhedonia (r = -.19, p = .028), and lower educational attainment (t = -2.77, p = .006) at age 22.ConclusionsPattern of cannabis use frequency across adolescence in US youth could have consequences for mood symptoms and educational attainment in early adulthood via altered function in neural reward circuitry.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T03:50:25.006688-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13882
  • The diverging trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the United
           States: reasons and possible implications
    • Authors: Wayne Hall; Lynn T. Kozlowski
      Abstract: AimTo examine briefly the (i) rationales for two policy proposals in the United States to make it mandatory for cigarettes to contain very low levels of nicotine and to legalize cannabis for recreational use by adults; and (ii) possible lessons that participants in each policy debate may learn from each other.MethodWe briefly describe the diverging policies towards cannabis and tobacco in the United States, explain and critically analyse their rationales and discuss possible policy lessons.ResultsAdvocates of cannabis legalization have argued that prohibition has been an ineffective and expensive policy that penalizes ethnic minority users unjustly of a drug that is far less harmful than alcohol. The prohibition of traditional tobacco cigarettes has been advocated as a way to eliminate cigarette smoking. These proposals embody very different attitudes towards the harms of recreational adult drug use. Advocates of nicotine prohibition demand that alternative methods of nicotine delivery must be shown to be completely safe before adults are allowed to use them. Advocates of tobacco prohibition ignore evidence that smokers may not use these products and the likelihood of expanding the illicit tobacco market. Advocates of legalizing and regulating recreational cannabis ignore the need to tax and regulate sales in order to minimize the harms of heavy use.ConclusionsIt is not clear that the prohibition of adult use has a useful role to play in the regulation of either cannabis or tobacco. If both products remain legal, the goals of regulating tobacco and cannabis products should be to restrict youth access, promote the use of the least harmful products, provide users with evidence-based information on both absolute and differential product risks of use and use differential taxes and marketing controls to promote ways of using these products that cause the least harm to their users.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T21:45:22.70059-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13845
  • A cluster-randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying
           onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction
           following a selective, personality-targeted intervention program: The
           Co-Venture trial.
    • Authors: Maeve O’Leary-Barrett; Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R. Séguin, Patricia Conrod
      Abstract: AimsSubstance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years.DesignThirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools.SettingPublic/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada).ParticipantsAll grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale [1] (40-45% youth).MeasurementsSelf-reported substance use and mental health symptoms, and cognitive functioning measured annually over 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4-years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2- years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions, namely the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically.CommentThis longitudinal, cluster-randomised controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive development in adolescence using developmentally sensitive neuropsychological measures.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:31.108345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13876
  • The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Related Violence in
           Premises Licensed for the Sale and On-site and Consumption of Alcohol: A
           Randomised Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Simon C. Moore; M. Fasihul Alam, Marjukka Heikkinen, Kerenza Hood, Chao Huang, Laurence Moore, Simon Murphy, Rebecca Playle, Jonathan Shepherd, Claire Shovelton, Vaseekaran Sivarajasingam, Anne Williams
      Abstract: Background and AimsPremises licensed for the sale and consumption of alcohol can contribute to levels of assault-related injury through poor operational practices that, if addressed, could reduce violence. We tested the real-world effectiveness of an intervention designed to change premises operation, whether any intervention effect changed over time, the effect of intervention dose and cost effectiveness of the intervention.DesignA parallel randomised controlled trial with the unit of allocation and outcomes measured at the level of individual premises.SettingAll premises (public houses, night clubs, or hotels with a public bar) in Wales, UK.ParticipantsA randomly selected subsample (N = 600) of eligible premises (that had one or more violent incidents recorded in police recorded crime data; N = 837) were randomised into control and intervention groups.Intervention and ComparatorIntervention premises were audited by Environmental Health Practitioners who identified risks for violence and provided feedback by varying dose (informal, through written advice, follow-up visits) on how risks could be addressed. Control premises received usual practice.MeasurementsPolice data were used to derive a binary variable describing whether, on each day premises were open, one or more incidents were evident over a 455 day period following randomisation.FindingsDue to premises being unavailable at the time of intervention delivery 208 received the intervention and 245 were subject to usual practice in an intention to treat analysis. The intervention was associated with an increase in violence compared to normal practice (HR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.51). Exploratory analyses suggested that reduced violence was associated with greater intervention dose (follow-up visits).ConclusionAn Environmental Health Practitioner led intervention in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol resulted in an increase in police recorded violence.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:30.073236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13878
  • Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and
           disability pension in Denmark: A prospective cohort study
    • Authors: Maja Bæksgaard Jørgensen; Lau Caspar Thygesen, Ulrik Becker, Janne S. Tolstrup
      Abstract: AimsWe investigated the association between weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension.DesignProspective register-based cohort studySettingDenmarkParticipantsA sample of 17,690 men and women, aged 18 to 60 years, from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in 2000, 2005 and 2010 participated in the study. Participants worked the entire year prior to baseline.MeasurementsAdministrative registers were used to obtain information on unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension during a 5-year follow-up period. Data were analysed by multivariate Cox regression model with random effect (frailty) adjusted for cohabitation status, educational level, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking habits, calendar year and geographic region.FindingsAmong males, adjusted hazards ratios (HR) of unemployment were 1.24 (1.05-1.46, p=0.01), 1.28 (1.04-1.59, p=0.02) and 1.48 (1.21-1.81, p=0.00) respectively for abstainers and those with alcohol consumption of 21-27 and ≥28 drinks per week when compared with individuals who had 1-13 drinks per week. Corresponding HRs for sickness absence were 1.16 (1.02-1.33, p=0.03), 1.02 (0.85-1.23, p=0.84) and 1.23 (1.04-1.46, p=0.02). Male abstainers had increased HR for subsequently receiving disability pension. Female abstainers had increased HR of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension compared to women with moderate alcohol consumption. Binge drinking was associated with higher HR of unemployment compared to non-binge drinking in women: HR of 1.17 (1.01-1.36, p=0.02).ConclusionsIn Danish men aged 18-60, alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption is associated with increased subsequent risk of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely subsequently to become unemployed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:27.990706-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13875
  • Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and
           meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women
    • Authors: Seena Fazel; Isabel A. Yoon, Adrian J. Hayes
      Abstract: AimsThe aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison, and (2) estimate and test sources of between study heterogeneityMethodsStudies reporting the 12 month prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison from 1 January 1966 to 11 August 2015 were identified from 7 bibliographic indexes. Primary studies involving clinical interviews or validated instruments leading to DSM or ICD diagnoses were included; self-report surveys and investigations that assessed individuals more than 3 months after arrival to prison were not. Random-effects meta-analysis, and subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted. PRISMA guidelines were followed.ResultsIn total, 24 studies with a total of 18,388 prisoners across 10 countries were identified. The random-effects pooled prevalence estimate of alcohol use disorder was 24% (95% CI 21–27) with very high heterogeneity (I2 = 94%). These ranged from 16 to 51% in male and 10 to 30% in female prisoners. For drug use disorders, there was evidence of heterogeneity by sex, and the pooled prevalence estimate in male prisoners was 30% (95% CI 22–38; I2 = 98%; 13 studies; range 10-61%) and, in female prisoners, it was 51% (95% CI 43–58; I2 = 95%; 10 studies; range 30-69%). On meta-regression, sources of heterogeneity included higher prevalence of drug use disorders in women, increasing rates of drug use disorders in recent decades, and participation rate.ConclusionsSubstance use disorders are highly prevalent in prisoners. Around a quarter of newly incarcerated prisoners of both sexes had an alcohol use disorder, and the prevalence of a drug use disorder was at least as high in men, and higher in women.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:25.248521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13877
  • Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: The
           Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire
    • Authors: Helga Myrseth; Guy Notelaers, Leif Åge Strand, Einar Kristian Borud, Olav Kjellevold Olsen
      Abstract: AimsTo adapt the four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised (GMQ-R) to measure the motivation for engaging in electronic gaming, and to validate the internal structure and investigate the criterion validity of the new Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire (EGMQ).Design and SettingThe GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts randomly selected from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between 2013 and 2015.ParticipantsThe questionnaire was administered to all those who had played video games during the last six months and consisted of 853 gamers (86.8% men, mean age 19.4 years).MeasurementsAll participants completed the EGMQ, as well as other measures of gaming behavior, gaming problems, boredom, loneliness, and depression.FindingsThe confirmatory factor analyses showed that the proposed EGMQ (measuring enhancement, coping, social, and self-gratification motives) displayed satisfactory fit and internal consistency. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that gender emerged as a significant predictor (p < .001) of all the dependent variables (variety, hours weekly gaming, loss of control, and gaming problems) and the first step explained between 1 and 6.1% of the variance in the gaming behaviors. In the second step the four motivational dimensions explained additional 8.2-38.8% of the variance. Coping and self-gratification predicted gaming problems (p < .001) and coping alone predicted loss of control (p < .001). The four motivational dimensions were also differentially predicted by indicators of psychosocial well-being, indicating divergent validity of the four motives.ConclusionsThe four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:50:23.518689-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13874
  • Adolescents’ exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and
           their alcohol use: exploring associations over a 13-year period
    • Authors: White V; Azar D, Faulkner A, Coomber K, Durkin S, Livingston M, Chikritzhs T, Room R, Wakefield M.
      Abstract: AimsTo determine i) whether Australian adolescents’ exposure to television alcohol advertisements changed between 1999 and 2011 and ii) examine the association between television alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking behaviours.DesignCross-sectional surveys conducted every three years between 1999 and 2011. Analyses examined associations between advertising exposures and reported drinking.SettingFive Australian major cities.ParticipantsStudents aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial nationally representative school-based survey residing in the television advertising markets associated with the major cities (sample size range per survey: 12644 to 16004).MeasurementsOutcome measures were: drinking in the past month, past week, and past-week risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day). The key predictor variable was past-month adolescent-directed alcohol advertising Targeted Rating Points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure). Control measures included student level characteristics, government alcohol-control advertising TRPs, road-safety (drink-driving) TRPs and time of survey.FindingsAverage monthly adolescent alcohol TRPs increased between 1999 (mean=2371) to 2005 (mean=2679) (p
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:30:24.422228-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13873
  • Who Achieves Low Risk Drinking During Alcohol Treatment' An Analysis
           of Patients in Three Alcohol Clinical Trials
    • Authors: Katie Witkiewitz; Matthew R. Pearson, Kevin A. Hallgren, Stephen A. Maisto, Corey R. Roos, Megan Kirouac, Adam D. Wilson, Kevin A. Montes, Nick Heather
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is evidence that low risk drinking is possible during the course of alcohol treatment and can be maintained following treatment. Our aim was to identify characteristics associated with low risk drinking during treatment in a large sample of individuals as they received treatment for alcohol dependence.DesignIntegrated analysis of data from the COMBINE study, Project MATCH, and the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial using repeated measures latent class analysis to identify patterns of drinking and predictors of low risk drinking patterns during treatment.SettingUSA and United Kingdom.ParticipantsPatients (n=3589) with alcohol dependence receiving treatment in an alcohol clinical trial were primarily male (73.0%), White (82.0%), and non-married (41.7%), with an average age of 42.0 (SD=10.7).MeasurementsSelf-reported weekly alcohol consumption during treatment was assessed using the Form-90[1] and validated with biological verification or collateral informants.FindingsSeven patterns of drinking during treatment were identified: persistent heavy drinking (18.7% of the sample), increasing heavy drinking (9.6%), heavy and low risk drinking (6.7%), heavy drinking alternating with abstinence (7.9%), low risk drinking (6.8%), increasing low risk drinking (10.5%), and abstinence (39.8%). Lower alcohol dependence severity and fewer drinks per day at baseline significantly predicted low risk drinking patterns (e.g., each additional drink prior to baseline predicted a 27% increase in the odds of expected classification in heavy drinking versus low risk drinking patterns; Odds Ratio=1.27 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.47, p=0.002)). Greater negative mood and more heavy drinkers in the social network were significant predictors of expected membership in heavier drinking patterns.ConclusionsLow risk drinking is achievable for some individuals as they undergo treatment for alcohol dependence. Individuals with lower dependence severity, less baseline drinking, fewer negative mood symptoms, and fewer heavy drinkers in their social networks have a higher probability of achieving low risk drinking during treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T18:10:40.771053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13870
  • Conceptualizing behavioural addiction in children and adolescents
    • Authors: Anja Kräplin
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T20:15:27.746189-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13846
  • Alcohol Marketing and Youth Drinking in Asia
    • Authors: Heng Jiang; Xiaojun Xiang, Orratai Waleewong, Robin Room
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T20:00:24.904902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13835
  • Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month
    • Authors: Anne Pasquereau; Romain Guignard, Raphaël Andler, Viêt Nguyen-Thanh
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is conflicting evidence that use of e-cigarettes promotes cessation in regular smokers, but contrasting findings may be due to differing definitions of vaping. The aim was to assess whether regular use of e-cigarettes while smoking is associated with subsequent smoking cessation.DesignBaseline internet survey with outcomes measured at 6-month follow-up.SettingAll French metropolitan territory.Participants2057 smokers aged 15 to 85 years were recruited through an access panel and responded to a 6-month follow-up: 1805 exclusive tobacco smokers and 252 dual users (tobacco plus regular e-cigarette users) at baseline.MeasurementsThe three outcomes assessed at 6 months were: a minimum 50% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts of at least 7 days and smoking cessation of at least 7 days at the time of follow-up. Logistic regressions were performed to model the three outcomes according to regular e-cigarette use at baseline, adjusted for socio-economic variables and smoking behaviours.FindingsBaseline dual users were more likely than baseline exclusive tobacco smokers to have halved cigarette consumption (25.9% versus 11.2%, p
      PubDate: 2017-05-14T22:30:27.808955-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13869
  • PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white
           matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: A
           double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial
    • Authors: Joy M. Schmitz; Charles E. Green, Khader M. Hasan, Jessica Vincent, Robert Suchting, Michael F. Weaver, F. Gerard Moeller, Ponnada A. Narayana, Kathryn A. Cunningham, Kelly T. Dineley, Scott D. Lane
      Abstract: Background and aimsPioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance, and tolerability were evaluated.DesignTwo-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC).SettingSingle-site outpatient treatment research clinic in Houston, Texas, USA.ParticipantsThirty treatment-seeking adults with CUD. Mean [standard deviation (SD)] age was 47.8 (7.45), education was 12.7 (1.5), with 19.3 (7.8) years of reported cocaine use. Eighteen of the 30 participants (8 = PIO; 10 = PLC) completed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of WM integrity at pre/post-treatment.InterventionStudy medication was dispensed at thrice weekly visits along with once weekly cognitive behavioral therapy for 12 weeks.MeasurementsMeasures of target engagement mechanisms of interest included cocaine craving assessed by the Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS), the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS), a visual analog scale (VAS), and change in WM integrity. Feasibility measures included number completing treatment, medication compliance (riboflavin detection), and tolerability (side effects, serious adverse events).FindingsTarget engagement change in mechanisms of interest, defined as a ≥ 0.75 Bayesian posterior probability of an interaction existing favoring PIO over PLC, was demonstrated on measures of craving (BSCS, VAS) and WM integrity indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Outcomes indicated greater decrease in craving and greater increase in FA values in the PIO group. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates among those starting treatment (21/26 = 80%) and medication compliance (≥80%). There were no reported serious adverse events for PIO.ConclusionsCompared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment. Pioglitazone shows good feasibility as a treatment for cocaine use disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T09:50:31.998302-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13868
  • The Narcotic Clinic in New Orleans, 1919-1921
    • Authors: Amund Tallaksen
      Abstract: AimsThis article traces the history of the narcotic clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, comparing its merits to a similar clinic in Shreveport. How do the clinics compare, and why did the Shreveport clinic operate for longer than its New Orleans counterpart'MethodsQualitative analysis of contemporary medical journals and newspapers, as well as archival materials from the Narcotic Division. In addition, I have utilized the records of Louisiana Governor John M. Parker, the papers of Dr. Willis P. Butler in Shreveport, as well as the records of the Orleans Parish Medical Society.FindingsThe narcotic clinic in Shreveport benefited from strong local support, while the New Orleans clinic faced a more vocal opposition. In addition, the Shreveport clinic offered a broad array of services and was a pillar of the community; the New Orleans clinic was newly established and offered fewer services. It was especially the influx of out-of-state addicts that angered many New Orleanians, many of whom witnessed the addicts lined up in the French Quarter.ConclusionThe effectiveness of the narcotic clinics in Louisiana (1919-1923) was strongly influenced by local opinion. The New Orleans clinic faced a tougher political climate than its counterpart in Shreveport, and therefore proved less resilient in the face of federal opposition.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T09:35:23.233542-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13867
  • Varenicline versus Nicotine Patch with Brief Advice for Smokers with
           Substance Use Disorders with or without Depression: Effects on Smoking,
           Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms
    • Authors: Damaris J. Rohsenow; Jennifer W. Tidey, Rosemarie A. Martin, Suzanne M. Colby, Robert M. Swift, Lorenzo Leggio, Peter M. Monti
      Abstract: AimsVarenicline was compared with transdermal nicotine (NRT) for smokers with current substance use disorders (SUD) for effects on 3-month smoking abstinence (primary outcome) and, secondarily, on 3 and 6 month abstinence while adjusting for medication adherence, and on additional smoking and substance use outcomes. Moderation by major depressive disorder history (MDD) and adherence were investigated.DesignDouble-blind double-placebo controlled randomized design, stratifying by MDD, gender and nicotine dependence, with 3 and 6 months follow up.SettingUniversity offices in Rhode Island, USA.ParticipantsAdult smokers (n = 137), in SUD treatment, substance abstinent 
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T09:25:45.721776-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13861
  • Impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (pdmps) on opioid
           utilization among medicare beneficiaries in 10 u.s. States
    • Authors: Patience Moyo; Linda Simoni-Wastila, Beth Ann Griffin, Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Donna Harrington, G. Caleb Alexander, Francis Palumbo
      Abstract: Background and aimsPrescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are a principal strategy used in the USA to address prescription drug abuse. We (1) compared opioid use pre- and post-PDMP implementation and (2) estimated differences of PDMP impact by reason for Medicare eligibility and plan type.DesignAnalysis of opioid prescription claims in US states that implemented PDMPs relative to non-PDMP states during 2007-2012.SettingFlorida, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Vermont, Georgia, Wisconsin, Maryland, New Hampshire, and Arkansas, USA.Participants310,105 disabled and older adult Medicare enrolees.MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were monthly total opioid volume, mean daily morphine milligram equivalent (MME) dose per prescription, and number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. The key predictors were PDMP status and time. Tests for moderation examined PDMP impact by Medicare eligibility (disability versus age) and drug plan (privately-provided Medicare Advantage [MAPD] versus fee-for-service [PDP]).FindingsOverall, PDMP implementation was associated with reduced opioid volume [2.36 kg/month, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = -3.44, -1.28] and no changes in mean MMEs or opioid prescriptions twelve months after implementation compared with non-PDMP states. We found evidence of strong moderation effects. In PDMP states, estimated monthly opioid volumes decreased 1.67 kg (95% CI = -2.38, -0.96) and 0.75 kg (95% CI = -1.32, -0.18) among disabled and older adults, respectively, and 1.2 kg, regardless of plan type. MME reductions were 3.73 mg/prescription (95% CI = -6.22, -1.24) in disabled and 3.02mg/prescription (95% CI = -3.86, -2.18) in MAPD beneficiaries but there were no changes in older adults and PDP beneficiaries. Dispensed prescriptions increased 259/month (95% CI = 39, 479) among the disabled and decreased 610/month (95% CI = -953, -257) among MAPD beneficiaries.ConclusionsPrescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are associated with reductions in opioid use, measured by volume, among disabled and older adult Medicare beneficiaries in the USA compared with states that do not have PDMPs. PDMP impact on daily doses and daily prescriptions varied by reason for eligibility and plan type. These findings cannot be generalized beyond the 10 US states studied.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T08:41:21.606007-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13860
  • Criteria for conceptualizing behavioural addiction should be informed by
           the underlying behavioural mechanism
    • Authors: Richard J. Tunney; Richard J. E. James
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T23:52:35.347867-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13831
  • Risk to heroin users of poly-drug use of pregabalin or gabapentin
    • Authors: Abigail Lyndon; Suzanne Audrey, Claudia Wells, Erica S. Burnell, Suzanne Ingle, Rob Hill, Matthew Hickman, Graeme Henderson
      Abstract: AIMTo examine the risk to heroin users of also using gabapentin or pregabalin (gabapentoids).DESIGNMultidisciplinary study:- we (a) examined trends in drug related deaths and gabapentoid prescription data in England and Wales to test for evidence that any increase in deaths mentioning gabapentin or pregabalin is associated with trends in gabapentoid prescribing and is concomitant with opioid use; (b) interviewed people with a history of heroin use about their polydrug use involving gabapentin and pregabalin; (c) studied the respiratory depressant effects of pregabalin in the absence and presence of morphine in mice to determine whether concomitant exposure increased the degree of respiratory depression observed.SETTINGEngland and Wales.PARTICIPANTSInterviews were conducted with 30 participants (19 males, 11 female).MEASUREMENTS(a) Office of National Statistics drug-related deaths from 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 that mention both an opioid and pregabalin or gabapentin; (b) subjective views on the availability, use, interactions, and effects of polydrug use involving pregabalin and gabapentin; (c) rate and depth of respiration.RESULTSPregabalin and gabapentin prescriptions increased about 24% per year from 1 million in 2004 to 10.5 million in 2015. The number of deaths involving gabapentoids increased from less than one per year prior to 2009 to 137 in 2015; 79% of these deaths also involved opioids. The increase in deaths was highly correlated with the increase in prescribing (correlation coefficient 0.965; 5% increase in deaths per 100,000 increase in prescriptions). Heroin users described pregabalin as easy to obtain. They suggested that the combination of heroin and pregabalin reinforced the effects of heroin but were concerned it induced ‘black outs’ and increased the risk of overdose. In mice, a low dose of S-pregabalin (20 mg/kg) that did not itself depress respiration reversed tolerance to morphine depression of respiration (resulting in 35% depression of respiration, P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T18:01:02.449358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13843
  • Building the data infrastructure to evaluate cannabis legalization
    • Authors: Beau Kilmer; Rosalie Liccardo Pacula
      Abstract: Commentary to: Understanding and learning from the diversification of cannabis supply laws
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T20:11:38.111999-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13824
  • Digital phenotyping and the development and delivery of health guidelines
           and behaviour change interventions
    • Authors: Andrew L. Skinner; Angela S. Attwood, Roland Baddeley, Karen Evans-Reeves, Linda Bauld, Marcus R. Munafò
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T18:20:27.377437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13746
  • Digital phenotyping and sociological perspectives in a Brave New World
    • Authors: Melanie Lovatt; John Holmes
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T18:15:25.315029-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13805
  • Effect of 0.5 mg vs 1 mg varenicline for smoking cessation: a
           randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Natalia Fouz-Rosón; Teodoro Montemayor-Rubio, Virginia Almadana-Pacheco, Soledad Montserrat-García, Ana Paulina Gómez-Bastero, Concepción Romero-Muñoz, Juan Polo-Padillo
      Abstract: AimsVarenicline is used in smoking cessation. The aims of the trial were to test for differences between standard 1 mg and 0.5 mg dose (both twice daily during 8 weeks) in 1) abstinence 2) adherence 3) side effects.DesignOpen-label randomized parallel-group controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. All those randomized were included in the final sample using an intention-to-treat (ITT) approach.SettingStop-Smoking Clinic of the Virgen Macarena University Hospital in Seville, Spain.ParticipantsSmokers (n = 484) of which 59.5% were men with a mean age of 50.67 years old and a smoking history of 37.5 pack-years.Intervention and comparatorParticipants were randomized to 1 mg (n = 245) vs. 0.5 mg (n = 239) and received behavioural support, which consisted of a baseline visit and 6 follow-ups during 1 year.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was continuous self-reported abstinence over 1 year, with biochemical verification. The secondary outcomes were adherence and side effects. Also measured were baseline demographics, medical history and smoking characteristics.FindingsAbstinence rates at 1 year were 46.5% with 1 mg vs. 46.4% with 0.5 mg (odds ratio (OR), 0.997; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7 to 1,43; p = 1.0); Bayes Factor in favour of H0 = 238.507, Bayes Factor against H0 = 0.004. Treatment adherence was similar in both regimens (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.7; p = 0.44). Side effects were reported in 19.3% of cases with 1 mg vs. 12.1% with 0.5 mg, although with no significant differences between regimens (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.94 to 3.18; p = 0.093).ConclusionsThere appears to be no difference in smoking cessation effectiveness between 1 mg and 0.5 mg varenicline, both administered twice daily for 8 weeks, with similar rates of abstinence (46.5% vs. 46.4%), adherence and side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T16:55:09.823542-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13855
  • Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic
           vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: Implications for health
           education and research
    • Authors: Lucy Popova; Emily Anne McDonald, Sohrab Sidhu, Rachel Barry, Tracey A. Richers Maruyama, Nicolas M. Sheon, Pamela M. Ling
      Abstract: AimsTo evaluate how young adults perceive and compare harms and benefits of marijuana and tobacco products in the context of a legal marijuana market in Colorado.DesignSemi-structured qualitative interviews.SettingDenver, Colorado, USA.ParticipantsThirty-two young adults (18-26 years old) who used tobacco/marijuana/vaporizers.Semi-structured interviews addressed perceived harms and benefits of various tobacco and marijuana products and personal experiences with these products.FindingsYoung adults evaluated harms and benefits using five dimensions: (1) Combustion – smoking was considered more harmful than non-combustible products (e.g., e-cigarettes, vaporizers, and edibles); (2) Potency – edibles and marijuana concentrates were perceived as more harmful than smoking marijuana flower because of potential to receive too large a dose of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol); (3) Chemicals – products containing chemical additives were seen as more harmful than “pure” or “natural” plant products; (4) Addiction – participants recognized physiological addiction to nicotine, but primarily talked about psychological or lifestyle dependence on marijuana; (5) Source of knowledge – personal experiences, warning labels, campaigns, the media, and opinions of product retailers and medical practitioners affected perceptions of harms and benefits.ConclusionsAmong young adults in Colorado, USA, perceived harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana include multiple dimensions. Health educational campaigns could benefit from addressing these dimensions, such as the potency of nicotine and cannabis concentrates and harmful chemicals present in the organic material of tobacco and marijuana. Descriptors such as “natural” and “pure” in the promotion or packaging of tobacco and marijuana products might be misleading.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T16:44:03.258408-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13854
  • Precision medicine and pharmacogenetics: what does oncology have that
           addiction medicine does not?
    • Authors: Henry R. Kranzler; Rachel V. Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
      Abstract: Background and aimsPrecision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation. We also considered why progress in this effort has lagged in addiction medicine.MethodsWe compared the development of pharmacogenetic biomarkers in oncology, cardiovascular medicine (where developments are also promising) and addictive disorders.ResultsThe first major reason for the success of oncologic pharmacogenetics is ready access to tumor tissue, which allows in-vitro testing and insights into cancer biology. The second major reason is funding, with cancer research receiving, by far, the largest allocation by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during the past two decades. The second largest allocation of research funding has gone to cardiovascular disease research. Addictions research received a much smaller NIH funding allocation, despite the major impact that tobacco use, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use have on the public health and healthcare costs.ConclusionsGreater support for research on the personalized treatment of addictive disorders can be expected to yield disproportionately large benefits to the public health and substantial reductions in healthcare costs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T18:35:33.827503-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13818
  • Substance and behavioral addictions may share a similar underlying process
           of dysregulation
    • Authors: Steve Sussman; Dmitri Rozgonjuk, Regina J. J. M. Eijnden
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T18:25:33.817301-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13825
  • Significant reductions in alcohol use after Hepatitis C treatment: Results
           from the French ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort
    • Authors: Rod Knight; Perrine Roux, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Eric Rosenthal, Laure Esterle, François Boué, David Rey, Lionel Piroth, Stéphanie Dominguez, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri,
      Abstract: Background and aimsFew data exist on changes to substance use patterns before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We used longitudinal data of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to examine whether receiving Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN)-based therapy irrespective of HCV clearance could modify tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use.DesignA prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals was enrolled from 2006. Participants’ clinical data were retrieved from medical records and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected by yearly self-administered questionnaires.SettingData were collected across seventeen hospitals in France.ParticipantsAll HIV-HCV co-infected patients who initiated HCV treatment during follow-up and answered items regarding substance use in at least one yearly questionnaire (258 patients, 671 visits).InterventionHCV treatment consisted of Peg-IFN based regimens.MeasurementsFour time-varying outcomes: hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C > 3/4 for women/men), number of alcohol units/month, binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. Mixed models assessed the effect of HCV treatment status (not yet treated, treated and HCV-cleared, treated and HCV-chronic) on each outcome.FindingsA significant decrease (over 60% reduction) in both hazardous alcohol use and binge drinking and a reduction of 10 alcohol units/month were observed after HCV treatment (whatever the outcome). No significant effect of HCV treatment status was found on tobacco use and regular cannabis use but HCV ‘clearers’ reported less non-regular use of cannabis.ConclusionsHepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment appears to help HIV-HCV co-infected patients reduce alcohol use.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T08:24:38.404569-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13851
  • Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray over first
           30 minutes post-dosing: analysis of suitability for opioid overdose
    • Authors: Gill Mundin; Rebecca McDonald, Kevin Smith, Stephen Harris, John Strang
      Abstract: Background and AimsLack of non-injectable naloxone formulations has impeded widespread take-home provision for the prevention of heroin/opioid overdose deaths. For non-injectable formulations that are finally being investigated, rapid onset of action and sufficient bioavailability will be vital. We present analysis of data from a study of concentrated naloxone nasal spray formulations. Our aims are: to assess 1) pharmacokinetic properties and 2) suitability for overdose reversal in terms of naloxone absorption within 30 minutes post-dosing.Design and interventions/comparatorOpen-label, randomized, 4-way crossover Latin-square pharmacokinetic study of naloxone administration by three routes: intranasal at two doses (8 mg/0.4 mL, 16 mg/0.4 mL) versus sublingual (16 mg/mL) versus intravenous reference (1 mg/mL).SettingClinical Pharmacology Unit at The Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio, USA).Participants12 healthy volunteers (age 20-41; 7 female).MeasurementsFrom blood plasma naloxone concentrations, 1) standard pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and mean absolute bioavailability (F%, relative to intravenous injection), were determined; as well as 2) partial area under the curve (AUC) values, tmax (time to maximum plasma concentration), and T50% (time to 50% of maximum plasma concentration) as measures of early absorption.Findings1) Bioavailability was F% = 25-28% for intranasal naloxone. Sublingual had low bioavailability (F% = 2%) and was not considered further. Mean Cmax values for 8 mg (12.83 ng/mL) and 16 mg (18.25 ng/mL) intranasal exceeded 1 mg intravenous (9.64 ng/mL) naloxone. 2) Following intranasal administration, T50% was reached within 8 minutes and tmax within 20 minutes. Mean naloxone absorption from dosing to 30 minutes (AUC30) was greater following 8 mg (4.17 h*ng/mL) and 16 mg (5.91 h*ng/mL) intranasal than following 1 mg intravenous (1.70 h*ng/mL) administration.ConclusionsConcentrated naloxone nasal spray has a promising pharmacokinetic profile, with substantial bioavailability. Its early absorption time-course suggests that concentrated nasal naloxone is suitable for emergency administration in the community, where rapid restoration of respiratory function is essential for opioid overdose reversal.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T07:56:55.780531-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13849
  • Associations between childhood maltreatment and non-medical use of
           prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents
    • Authors: Lan Guo; Yan Xu, Jianxiong Deng, Xue Gao, Guoliang Huang, Jinghui Huang, Xueqing Deng, Wei-Hong Zhang, Ciyong Lu
      Abstract: AimsTo test, among Chinese adolescents: (1) whether childhood maltreatment is associated with non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), (2) whether there are interaction effects of childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms on NMUPD.DesignA secondary analysis of the cross-sectional data collected from 7th and 12th graders who were sampled using a multistage, stratified cluster, random sampling method in the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey (SCAHS).SettingSurveys conducted in high schools in six cities of China in 2015.ParticipantsThere were 24,457 students who were invited to participate and 23,039 students’ questionnaires were completed and qualified for our survey.MeasurementsThe outcomes comprised self-report of NMUPD (prior 30 days); a history of childhood maltreatment was our main predictor; other covariates included depressive symptoms, smoking, drinking, and demographics. Data were analyzed using multi-level regression modeling.FindingsOur final multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that after adjusting for other variables, physical abuse was positively associated with non-medical use of opioids (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.22), sedatives (AOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.10-1.21), and any prescription drugs (AOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.09-1.20); emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional neglect were also associated with an increased risk of opioids misuse, sedatives misuse, and any prescription drugs misuse; students who reported that they had experienced childhood physical neglect were more likely to be involved in the non-medical use of sedatives (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12) and any prescription drugs (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.10). Additionally, there was no evidence of interaction effects on NMUPD between depressive symptoms and each of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect, respectively. .ConclusionsMaltreatment while a child is associated with an increased risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) among Chinese adolescents. The interactions of maltreatment while a child and depressive symptoms do not appear to be significantly associated with NMUPD among Chinese adolescents.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T07:56:50.017433-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13850
  • The coping function of mental disorder symptoms: is it to be considered
           when developing diagnostic criteria for behavioural addictions?
    • Authors: Barna Konkolÿ Thege
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T19:50:24.822703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13816
  • Cannabis, psychosis and schizophrenia: unravelling a complex interaction
    • Authors: Ian Hamilton
      Abstract: The relationship between cannabis and psychosis and schizophrenia has tested the field of addiction for decades, and in some ways serves as measure of our ability to provide a credible contribution to public health. As cannabis is used widely, many people are interested in the risks the drug poses to mental health. This paper focuses upon a seminal study examining this, the trajectory of subsequent research findings and what this has meant for understanding and communicating risk factor information. These studies provided evidence of a dose–response relationship between cannabis and psychosis, and that for those individuals with schizophrenia cannabis exacerbated their symptoms. The findings fit with a multi-causal model in which vulnerability interacts with a precipitating agent to produce a disease outcome. Even though this is a common model in epidemiology, it has proved difficult to communicate it in this case. This may be because at a population level the increased risk is weak and the vulnerabilities relatively rare. It may also be because people bring strongly held preconceptions to interpreting a complex multi-causal phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T19:50:24.76631-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13826
  • Making visible the politics and ethics of alcohol policy research
    • Authors: David Moore
      Abstract: Although research on alcohol policy has produced a huge international literature, alcohol research and policy itself—its cultural assumptions, methods, politics and ethics—has rarely been subject to critical analysis. In this article, I provide an appreciative review of an exception to this trend: Joseph Gusfield's 1981 classic, The Culture of Public Problems: Drinking-Driving and the Symbolic Order. I first outline Gusfield's argument that the ‘problem of drinking-driving’ is constructed as a ‘drama of individualism’ centring on the ‘killer drunk’. The ‘culture’ of drinking-driving research and policy emphasizes alcohol as the problem and locates the source of car accidents in the moral failings of the individual motorist, rather than in social institutions or physical environments. For Gusfield, this construction of the problem is the outcome of political and ethical choices rather than of ‘objective’ conditions. In the second part of the article, I highlight the book's remarkable foresight in anticipating later trends in critical policy analysis, and argue that it should be regarded as a sociological classic and as required reading for those working in alcohol and indeed other drug policy research. I conclude by arguing that The Culture of Public Problems remains relevant to those working in alcohol and other drug policy research, although the reasons for its relevance differ depending on readers' theoretical commitments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T19:45:23.592486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13812
  • Behavioural addiction and substance addiction should be defined by their
           similarities not their dissimilarities
    • Authors: Mark D. Griffiths
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T19:35:24.868391-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13828
  • Disparities in Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder in the Context of
           Universal Healthcare: A Swedish Register Study
    • Authors: Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe; Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S. Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
      Abstract: Background and aimPharmacotherapy can be an important part of the continuum of care for alcohol use disorder (AUD). The Swedish universal healthcare system emphasizes provision of care to marginalized groups. The primary aim was to test associations of neighbourhood deprivation and disadvantaged social status with receipt of AUD pharmacotherapy in this context.DesignData from linked population registers were used to follow an open cohort over 7 years.SettingSweden.ParticipantsAlcohol-related ICD-10 codes reported for all hospitalizations in the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and all clinic/office visits in the Outpatient Care Register between 2005-2012 were used to identify 62,549 cases with AUD.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was any AUD pharmacotherapy (naltrexone, disulfiram, acamprosate, nalmefene) picked up by patients between 2005-2012 (vs. none), based on the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Neighbourhood deprivation was defined using aggregated data from the Total Population Register; indicators of disadvantaged social status (income, education, country of origin) also came from this source.FindingsAbout half of the cases (53.7%) picked up one or more AUD pharmacotherapy prescriptions. In adjusted models, people living in neighbourhoods with moderate (OR = 0.90 [95% CI: 0.86, 0.95]) or high levels of deprivation (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.70, 0.79] compared with low deprivation), those with lower incomes (for example, lowest quartile: OR = 0.70 [95% CI: 0.66, 0.73] compared with highest) and less education (for example,
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T20:55:11.644127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13834
  • Cannabis use and crash risk in drivers
    • Authors: Guohua Li; Charles J. Dimaggio, Joanne E. Brady
      PubDate: 2017-04-09T20:10:24.707287-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13777
  • Response to Li et al. (2017): Cannabis use and crash risk in drivers
    • Authors: Ole Rogeberg; Rune Elvik
      PubDate: 2017-04-09T20:00:26.449821-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13801
  • Are societies paying unnecessarily for an otherwise free lunch? Final
           musings on the research on Alcoholics Anonymous and its mechanisms of
           behavior change
    • Authors: John F. Kelly
      Abstract: Commentary to: Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither? Findings from 25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T21:10:35.881936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13809
  • Coping Mediates the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol
           Use Disorder among Outpatient Clients in Project MATCH When Dependence
           Severity is High
    • Authors: Corey Roos; Stephen A. Maisto, Katie Witkiewitz
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is inconsistent evidence that alcohol-specific coping is a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our primary aim was to test whether baseline dependence severity moderates the mediational effect of CBT on drinking outcomes via coping.DesignSecondary data analysis of Project MATCH (1), a multi-site alcohol treatment trial in which participants, recruited in outpatient and aftercare arms, were randomized to three treatments: CBT, motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and twelve-step facilitation (TSF).SettingNine research sites in the United States.Participants1063 adults with AUD.MeasurementsThe primary outcomes were percent days abstinent and percent heavy drinking days at the one-year follow-up. Coping was assessed with the Processes of Change Questionnaire (2). Dependence severity was measured with the Alcohol Dependence Scale (3).FindingsAmong the full available sample (across treatment arms), there were no significant moderated mediation effects. Double moderated mediation analyses indicated that several moderated mediation effects were moderated by treatment arm (all p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T18:25:35.447847-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13841
  • Prescription Contraception Use and Adherence by Women with Substance Use
    • Authors: Gillian Griffith; Tara Kumaraswami, Stavroula A. Chrysanthopoulou, Kristin M. Mattocks, Robin E. Clark
      Abstract: Background and AimsUnintended pregnancy rates are high among women with substance use disorders (SUDs), which could be partly explained by lower use of and adherence to contraception. We aimed to test: (1) the association of SUD with prescription contraceptive use, contraceptive method selection, and adherence; (2) whether practices participating in the Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative (PCMHI) had better contraceptive use and adherence for patients with SUD; (3) for differences in the association of SUD with adherence by type of contraceptive used.DesignRetrospective cohort analysis of claims and encounter data.SettingMassachusetts, USA.Participants47,902 women aged 16 – 45 years enrolled in Medicaid or Commonwealth Care in Massachusetts between 2010 and 2014.MeasurementsWe examined three dependent variables: 1) use of a reversible prescription contraceptive during 2012; 2) the contraceptive methods used; and, 3) the proportion of days covered by a prescription contraceptive in the year following the first prescription contraceptive claim. The primary predictor was diagnosed SUD, defined as at least one claim for an alcohol or drug use disorder.FindingsSUD was associated with lower rates of prescription contraceptive use during 2012 (19.2% v. 23.9%; adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 0.79, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T09:10:47.02373-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13840
  • Insular and Cingulate Attenuation during Decision Making is associated
           with Future Transition to Stimulant Use Disorder
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Stewart; Mamona Butt, April C. May, Susan F. Tapert, Martin P. Paulus
      Abstract: AimsTo understand processes placing individuals at risk for stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use disorder.DesignLongitudinal study.SettingUniversity of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry, USA.ParticipantsOccasional stimulant users (OSU; n = 184) underwent a baseline clinical interview and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. On the basis of a follow-up clinical interview completed three years later, OSU (n = 147) were then categorized as problem stimulant users (PSU: n = 36; those who developed stimulant use disorders in the interim) or desisted stimulant users (DSU: n = 74; those who stopped using). OSU who did not meet criteria for PSU or DSU (n = 37) were included in dimensional analyses.MeasurementsfMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast percent signal change from baseline collected during a Paper-Scissors-Rock task was examined during three decision making conditions, those resulting in: (1) wins, (2) ties, and (3) losses. These data were used as dependent variables in categorical analyses comparing PSU and DSU as well as dimensional analyses including interim drug use as predictors, controlling for baseline drug use.FindingsPSU exhibited lower anterior cingulate, middle insula, superior temporal, inferior parietal, precuneus and cerebellum activation than DSU across all three conditions (significant brain clusters required >19 neighboring voxels to exceed F(1,108) = 5.58, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T08:36:32.329047-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13839
  • The role of novelty seeking as a predictor of substance use disorder
           outcomes in early adulthood
    • Authors: James A. Foulds; Joseph M. Boden, Giles M. Newton-Howes, Roger T. Mulder, L. John Horwood
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere has been a great deal of evidence showing high novelty seeking (NS) is a risk factor for the development of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, the possible causal role of NS in SUDs is unconfirmed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between NS at age 16 and SUDs from age 18 to 35 years, net of a series of covariate factors.DesignLongitudinal study of a birth cohort from 1977 to 2012.SettingChristchurch, New Zealand.ParticipantsGeneral community sample of members of a New Zealand birth cohort (50% male), with sample sizes ranging from n = 1011 (age 21) to n = 962 (age 35).MeasurementsThe Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to derive DSM-IV diagnoses of alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit SUDs at 4 time intervals from age 18 to 35. NS was measured at age 16 using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire.FindingsAn increase in NS was associated with increases in the prevalence of all 4 SUDs at age 18-35. Following adjustment for a broad range of covariate factors, estimated effect sizes (odds ratios) were reducing in magnitude, but remained moderate to large. Adjusted odds ratios of SUDs for the highest NS quartile compared to with the lowest were 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.7) for alcohol; 1.8 (95% CI 1.3, 2.7) for nicotine; 3.6 (95% CI 2.4, 5.6) for cannabis and 5.1 (95% CI 2.9, 9.2) for other illicit substances.ConclusionsThe association between high novelty seeking and substance use disorders is not explained by common underlying individual factors and environmental exposures. This is consistent with the view that novelty seeking may play a causal role in the development of substance use disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T08:35:41.952577-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13838
  • Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young
           risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics
    • Authors: P. Dietze; P. A. Agius, M. Livingston, S. Callinan, R. Jenkinson, M. S. C. Lim, C. J. C. Wright, R. Room
      Abstract: AimsRisky single occasion drinking (RSOD) by young people is a serious public health issue, yet little is known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions. This study examined the independent effects of event- and individual-specific variables on RSOD.DesignLongitudinal cohort study measuring self-reported RSOD and event- and individual-specific variables across two drinking occasions approximately one year apart.SettingMetropolitan Melbourne, Australia.ParticipantsA sample of 710 young risky drinkers aged between 18 and 25 years and defined as engaging in risky drinking practices (males: consumed alcohol in excess of 10 Australian Standard Drinks [ASDs: 10 g ethanol] in a single occasion in the previous year; females: consumed alcohol in excess of 7 ASDs for females in a single occasion in the previous year).MeasurementsRandom digit dial telephone landline survey of the most recent heavy drinking occasion and socio-demographic variables. The primary outcome was the log of the total drinks consumed in the most recent heavy drinking occasion. Event-specific (e.g. number of drinking locations) and time-varying (e.g. weekly income) and time-invariant (e.g. sex) individual–specific variables were examined as correlates of total drinks consumed.FindingsChanges in event-specific characteristics including the length of the drinking occasion (Wald χ2(2) = 29.9, p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T23:55:45.95858-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13829
  • A National Swedish Longitudinal Twin-Sibling Study of Alcohol Use
           Disorders among Males
    • Authors: E. C. Long; S. L. Lönn, J. Sundquist, K. Sundquist, K. S. Kendler
      Abstract: AimsTo examine whether genetic influences on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among men during emerging adulthood through mid-adulthood are stable or dynamic.DesignA twin study modeling developmental changes in the genetic and environmental influences on AUD over three age periods (18-25, 26-33, and 33-41) as a Cholesky decomposition.SettingSweden.ParticipantsSwedish male twin pairs (1,532 monozygotic and 1,940 dizygotic) and 66,033 full male sibling pairs born less than two years apart.MeasurementsAUD was identified based on Swedish medical and legal registries.FindingsThe best fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors, with no evidence for shared environmental factors. Although the total heritability was stable across time, there were two major genetic factors contributing to AUD risk, one beginning at ages 18-25 with a modest decline in importance over time (0.84; CI: 0.83-0.88), and another of less impact beginning at ages 26-33 with a modest increase in importance by ages 33-41 (0.31; CI: 0.05-0.47).ConclusionsThe heritability of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among Swedish men appears to be stable across three age periods: 18-25 years, 26-33 years, and 33-41 years. Two sets of genetic risk factors contribute to AUD risk, with one originating during the ages 18-25 years and another coming online at 26-33 years, providing support for the developmentally dynamic hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T23:55:38.43986-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13833
  • Alcohol Use from Adolescence through Early Adulthood: An Assessment of
           Measurement Invariance by Age and Gender
    • Authors: Jessica N. Fish; Amanda M. Pollitt, John E. Schulenberg, Stephen T. Russell
      Abstract: Background and aimsStudies on alcohol use and related constructs rarely test for measurement invariance to assess the reliability and validity of measures of alcohol use across different subpopulations of interest or ages. This failure to consider measurement invariance may result in biased parameter estimates and inferences. This study aimed to test measurement invariance of alcohol use across gender and age using a US-nationally representative sample to inform future longitudinal studies assessing alcohol use.DesignThe National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a school-based, nationally-representative longitudinal study conducted in 1994-1995, 2001-2002, and 2008.SettingAll regions within the United States; participants were selected via a clustered sample design from 80 high-schools that represented the national population.ParticipantsYouth and young adults ages 13 to 31 who had valid data on all three alcohol items within wave: 18,923 from Wave 1; 14,315 from Wave 3; and 14,785 from Wave 4.MeasurementsAlcohol use measurement models were constructed using past-year general drinking frequency, heavy episodic drinking frequency, and average quantity when drinking. Configural (factor structure), metric (factor loadings), and scalar (item intercepts) measurement invariance models were tested by gender and for each year of age from 13 to 31.FindingsAll models passed the threshold for configural invariance. Comparisons between males and females demonstrated metric (and usually scalar) non-invariance for most ages beyond middle adolescence. Nearly all one- and two-year contrasts passed metric invariance. Scalar non-invariance was most prevalent in age comparisons between late adolescence and early adulthood, particularly for tests using two-year age increments.ConclusionsStudies that do not account for the effects of gender and age on the measurement of alcohol use may be statistically biased.
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T23:55:33.164768-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13830
  • High risk of overdose death following release from prison: Variations in
           mortality during a 15-year observation period
    • Authors: Anne Bukten; Marianne Riksheim Stavseth, Svetlana Skurtveit, Aage Tverdal, John Strang, Thomas Clausen
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and AimsThe time post-release from prison involves elevated mortality, especially overdose deaths. Variations in overdose mortality both by time since release from prison and time of release has not been sufficiently investigated. Our aims were to estimate and compare overdose death rates at time intervals after prison release and to estimate the effect on overdose death rates over calendar time.Design, Setting, Participants, MeasurementsThis 15-year cohort study includes all persons (n= 91,090) released from prison (01.01.2000 to 31.12.2014) obtained from the Norwegian prison registry, linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry (2000-2014). All-cause and cause-specific mortality were examined during different time-periods following release: first week, second week, 3-4 weeks and 2-6 months, and by three different time intervals of release. We calculated crude mortality rates (CMRs) per 1000 PY and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) by Poisson regression analysis adjusting for time intervals after prison release, release periods and time spent in prison.FindingsOverdose deaths accounted for 85% (n=123) of all deaths during the first week following release (n=145), with a peak during the two days immediately following release. Compared with week 1, the risk of overdose death was more than halved during week 2 (IRR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.31-0.59) and reduced to one-fifth in weeks 3-4 (IRR 0.22; 95% CI, 0.16-0.31). The risk of overdose mortality during the first 6 months post-release was almost twofold higher in 2000-2004 compared with 2005-2009 (IRR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43-0.65) and 2010-2014 (IRR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.37-0.59). The risk of overdose death was highest for those incarcerated for 3-12 months compared with those who were incarcerated for shorter or longer periods, and recidivism was associated with risk of overdose death.ConclusionsThere is an elevated risk of death from drug overdose among people released from Norwegian prisons, peaking in the first week. The risk has reduced since 2000-2004 but is greatest for those serving 3-12 months compared with shorter or longer periods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T13:01:01.670904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13803
  • Lifetime risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption
           in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines
    • Authors: Kevin D. Shield; Gerrit Gmel, Gerhard Gmel, Pia Mäkelä, Charlotte Probst, Robin Room, Jürgen Rehm
      Abstract: Background and aimsLow-risk alcohol drinking guidelines require a scientific basis that extends beyond individual or group judgements of risk. Lifetime mortality risks, judged against established thresholds for acceptable risk, may provide such a basis for guidelines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate alcohol mortality risks for seven European countries based on different average daily alcohol consumption amounts.MethodsThe maximum acceptable voluntary premature mortality risk was determined to be 1 in 1,000, with sensitivity analyses of 1 in 100. Lifetime mortality risks for different alcohol consumption levels were estimated by combining disease-specific relative risk and mortality data for seven European countries with different drinking patterns (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, and Poland). Alcohol consumption data were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, relative risk data from meta-analyses, and mortality information from the World Health Organization.ResultsThe variation in the lifetime mortality risk at drinking levels relevant for setting guidelines was less than that observed at high drinking levels. In Europe, the percentage of adults consuming above a risk threshold of 1 in 1,000 ranged from 20.6% to 32.9% for women and from 35.4% to 54.0% for men. Lifetime risk of premature mortality under current guideline maximums ranged from 2.5 to 44.8 deaths per 1,000 women in Finland and Estonia respectively, and from 2.9 to 35.8 deaths per 1,000 men in Finland and Estonia respectively. If based upon an acceptable risk of 1 in 1,000, guideline maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men.ConclusionsIf low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of 1 in 1,000 premature deaths, then maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some of the current European guidelines would require downward revision.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T05:17:13.427346-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13827
  • Binge drinking and family history of alcoholism are associated with an
           altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence
    • Authors: Scott A. Jones; Joel S. Steele, Bonnie J. Nagel
      Abstract: AimsTo test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD), and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more lifetime drinks is associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age.DesignAlcohol-naïve adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up. During all visits, adolescents completed a monetary delay discounting task to measure impulsive choice. The effects of binge-drinking status, FHD, and their interaction on impulsive choice across adolescence were tested.SettingDevelopmental Brain Imaging Lab, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.Participants116 healthy male and female adolescents (ages 10-19) completed 2-4 visits between July 2008 and May 2016.MeasurementsDiscounting rates were obtained based on adolescents’ preference for immediate or delayed rewards. FHD was based on parent-reported prevalence of alcohol use disorder in the participant's first and second degree relatives. Binge-drinking status was determined based on the number of recent binge-drinking episodes.FindingsThere was a significant interaction effect of binge-drinking status and FHD on impulsive choice across age (b = 1.090, p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T02:50:46.951822-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13823
  • Epidemiology of HIV and hepatitis C infection among women who inject drugs
           in Northeast India: A respondent-driven sampling study
    • Authors: Allison M. Mcfall; Sunil S. Solomon, Greg M. Lucas, David D. Celentano, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Muniratnam S. Kumar, Shruti H. Mehta
      Abstract: Background and aimsDespite extensive research on HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), there remains a gap in knowledge on the burden among women who inject drugs and their unique contexts and risk factors. This analysis compares HIV and HCV prevalence in female and male PWID and estimates injection and sexual risk correlates of prevalent HIV and HCV infection among women in Northeast India.DesignCross-sectional sample accrued using respondent-driven sampling.SettingSeven cities in Northeast India, 2013.Participants6,457 adult PWID.MeasurementsParticipants completed an interviewer-administered survey. HIV infection was diagnosed onsite and HCV antibody testing was done on stored specimens. HIV and HCV prevalence estimates were stratified by gender. Among women, the association of risk correlates with HIV and HCV were estimated using multi-level logistic regression models.Findings796 (16%) of the PWID were women, of whom 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49-57%) were HIV-infected and 22% (CI: 20-25%) were HCV-infected. HIV and HCV prevalence among men was 17% (CI: 17-18%) and 32% (CI: 31-32%), respectively. Among women, correlates of HIV were widowhood (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] vs. currently married: 4.0, CI: 2.1-7.6) and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners (aOR ≥8 vs. none: 3.1, CI: 1.1-8.9). Correlates of HCV were longer injection duration (aOR per 10 years: 1.7, CI: 1.3-2.3), injecting only heroin and a combination of drugs (aOR vs. pharmaceuticals only: 5.6, CI: 1.7-18.9 and aOR: 2.6, CI: 1.6-4.2, respectively), sharing needles/syringes (aOR: 2.5, CI: 1.3-4.6) and a larger PWID network (aOR ≥51 vs. 1-5: 4.2, CI: 2.4-7.2).ConclusionsWomen who inject drugs in Northeast India have a high HIV prevalence which was more than double their hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence, an opposite pattern than is typically observed among male PWID. HIV infection is associated with sexual risk factors while injection-related behaviors appear to drive HCV infection.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T02:25:30.55013-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13821
  • Generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials:
           application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials
    • Authors: Ryoko Susukida; Rosa M. Crum, Cyrus Ebnesajjad, Elizabeth A. Stuart, Ramin Mojtabai
      Abstract: AimsTo compare randomized controlled trial (RCT) sample treatment effects with the population effects of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment.DesignStatistical weighting was used to re-compute the effects from 10 RCTs such that the participants in the trials had characteristics that resembled those of patients in the target populations.SettingsMulti-site RCTs and usual SUD treatment settings in the United States.ParticipantsA total of 3592 patients in 10 RCTs and 1 602 226 patients from usual SUD treatment settings between 2001 and 2009.MeasurementsThree outcomes of SUD treatment were examined: retention, urine toxicology and abstinence. We weighted the RCT sample treatment effects using propensity scores representing the conditional probability of participating in RCTs.FindingsWeighting the samples changed the significance of estimated sample treatment effects. Most commonly, positive effects of trials became statistically non-significant after weighting (three trials for retention and urine toxicology and one trial for abstinence); also, non-significant effects became significantly positive (one trial for abstinence) and significantly negative effects became non-significant (two trials for abstinence). There was suggestive evidence of treatment effect heterogeneity in subgroups that are under- or over-represented in the trials, some of which were consistent with the differences in average treatment effects between weighted and unweighted results.ConclusionsThe findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for substance use disorder treatment do not appear to be directly generalizable to target populations when the RCT samples do not reflect adequately the target populations and there is treatment effect heterogeneity across patient subgroups.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T23:10:33.123726-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13789
  • Hospitalizations, costs and outcomes associated with heroin and
           prescription opioid overdoses in the United States 2001–12
    • Authors: Douglas J. Hsu; Ellen P. McCarthy, Jennifer P. Stevens, Kenneth J. Mukamal
      Abstract: Background and aimsThe full burden of the opioid epidemic on US hospitals has not been described. We aimed to estimate how heroin (HOD) and prescription opioid (POD) overdose-associated admissions, costs, outcomes and patient characteristics have changed from 2001 to 2012.DesignRetrospective cohort study of hospital admissions from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS).SettingUnited States of America.ParticipantsHospital admissions in patients aged 18 years or older admitted with a diagnosis of HOD or POD. The NIS sample included 94 492 438 admissions from 2001 to 2012. The final unweighted study sample included 138 610 admissions (POD: 122 147 and HOD: 16 463).MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were rates of admissions per 100 000 people using US Census Bureau annual estimates. Other outcomes included in-patient mortality, hospital length-of-stay, cumulative and mean hospital costs and patient demographics. All analyses were weighted to provide national estimates.FindingsBetween 2001 and 2012, an estimated 663 715 POD and HOD admissions occurred nation-wide. HOD admissions increased 0.11 per 100 000 people per year [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04, 0.17], while POD admissions increased 1.25 per 100 000 people per year (95% CI = 1.15, 1.34). Total in-patient costs increased by $4.1 million dollars per year (95% CI = 2.7, 5.5) for HOD admissions and by $46.0 million dollars per year (95% CI = 43.1, 48.9) for POD admissions, with an associated increase in hospitalization costs to more than $700 million annually. The adjusted odds of death in the POD group declined modestly per year [odds ratio (OR) = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99], with no difference in HOD mortality or length-of-stay. Patients with POD were older, more likely to be female and more likely to be white compared with HOD patients.ConclusionsRates and costs of heroin and prescription opioid overdose related admissions in the United States increased substantially from 2001 to 2012. The rapid and ongoing rise in both numbers of hospitalizations and their costs suggests that the burden of POD may threaten the infrastructure and finances of US hospitals.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T20:10:26.262903-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13795
  • The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and
           the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector
           autoregression analysis
    • Authors: Houra Haghpanahan; Daniel F. Mackay, Jill P. Pell, David Bell, Tessa Langley, Sally Haw
      Abstract: AimsTo estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).DesignMultivariate time–series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012.Setting and participantsPopulation of Scotland.MeasurementsAdult television viewer ratings (TVRs) as a measure of exposure to Scottish mass media campaigns in the adult population; monthly calls to NHS Smokeline; and the monthly volume of prescribed NRT as measured by gross ingredient costs (GIC).FindingsTobacco control TVRs were associated with an increase in calls to Smokeline but not an increase in the volume of prescribed NRT. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of 194 tobacco control TVRs led to an immediate and significant increase of 385.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 171.0, 600.7] calls to Smokeline (unadjusted model) within 1 month. When adjusted for seasonality the impact was reduced, but the increase in calls remained significant (226.3 calls, 95% CI = 37.3, 415.3). The cumulative impact on Smokeline calls remained significant for 6 months after broadcast in the unadjusted model and 18 months in the adjusted model. However, an increase in tobacco control TVRs of 194 failed to have a significant impact on the GIC of prescribed NRT in either the unadjusted (£1361.4, 95% CI = –£9138.0, £11860.9) or adjusted (£6297.1, 95% CI = –£2587.8, £15182.1) models.ConclusionsTobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline, but did not increase significantly the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers. The impact on calls to Smokeline occurred immediately within 1 month of broadcast and was sustained for at least 6 months.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T20:05:35.664632-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13793
  • Substance use disorders and the risk of suicide mortality among men and
           women in the US Veterans Health Administration
    • Authors: Kipling M. Bohnert; Mark A. Ilgen, Samantha Louzon, John F. McCarthy, Ira R. Katz
      Abstract: Background and AimsLimited information is available regarding links between specific substance use disorders (SUDs) and suicide mortality; however, the preliminary evidence that is available suggests that suicide risk associated with SUDs may differ for men and women. This study aimed to estimate associations between SUDs and suicide for men and women receiving Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care.DesignA cohort study using national administrative health records.SettingNational VHA system, USA.ParticipantsAll VHA users in fiscal year (FY) 2005 who were alive at the beginning of FY 2006 (n = 4 863 086).MeasurementsThe primary outcome of suicide mortality was assessed via FY 2006–2011 National Death Index (NDI) records. Current SUD diagnoses were the primary predictors of interest, and were assessed via FY 2004–2005 VHA National Patient Care Database (NPCD) records.FindingsIn unadjusted analyses, a diagnosis of any current SUD and the specific current diagnoses of alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, opioid, amphetamine and sedative use disorders were all associated significantly with increased risk of suicide for both males and females [hazard ratios (HRs)] ranging from 1.35 for cocaine use disorder to 4.74 for sedative use disorder for men, and 3.89 for cannabis use disorder to 11.36 for sedative use disorder for women]. Further, the HR estimates for the relations between any SUD, alcohol, cocaine and opioid use disorders and suicide were significantly stronger for women than men (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T08:01:01.214131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13774
  • Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide
           attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective,
           register-based study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar
           disorder, unipolar depression or personality disorder
    • Authors: Marie L. D. Østergaard; Merete Nordentoft, Carsten Hjorthøj
      Abstract: AimTo estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness.DesignRegister-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates.SettingDenmark.ParticipantsPeople born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35 625), bipolar disorder (n = 9279), depression (n = 72 530) or personality disorder (n = 63 958).MeasurementsTreated SUDs of alcohol and illicit substances identified in treatment registers; suicide attempt identified in treatment registers; and completed suicides identified in the Cause of Death register. Covariates were sex and age at diagnosis.FindingsHaving any SUD was associated with at least a threefold increased risk of completed suicide when compared with those having no SUD. Alcohol misuse was associated with an increased risk of completed suicide in all populations with hazard ratios (HR) between 1.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44–2.74] and 2.70 (95% CI = 2.40–3.04). Other illicit substances were associated with a two- to threefold risk increase of completed suicide in all populations except bipolar disorder, and cannabis was associated with increased risk of attempted suicide only in people with bipolar disorder (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15–2.99). Alcohol and other illicit substances each displayed strong associations with attempted suicide, HR ranging from 3.11 (95% CI = 2.95–3.27) to 3.38 (95% CI = 3.24–3.53) and 2.13 (95% CI = 2.03–2.24) to 2.27 (95% CI = 2.12–2.43), respectively. Cannabis was associated with suicide attempts only in people with schizophrenia (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03–1.19).ConclusionSubstance use disorders are associated strongly with risk of completed suicides and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T20:15:37.591193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13788
  • The need for more nuance in headline adult cigarette smoking prevalence
    • Authors: Sara C. Hitchman; Jennifer L. Pearson, Andrea C. Villanti
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T21:26:20.240502-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13794
  • Internet Interventions for Adult Illicit Substance Users: A Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Nikolaos Boumparis; Eirini Karyotaki, Michael P. Schaub, Pim Cuijpers, Heleen Riper
      Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMSResearch has shown that internet interventions can be effective for dependent users of various substances. However, less is known about the effects of these interventions on users of opioids, cocaine, and amphetamines than for other substances. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of internet interventions in decreasing the usage of these types of substances.METHODSWe conducted a systematic literature search in the databases of PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of internet interventions compared with control conditions in reducing the use of opioids, cocaine, and amphetamines. No setting restrictions were applied. The risk of bias of the included studies was examined according to Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment tool. Primary outcome was substance use reduction assessed through toxicology screening, self-report or both at post-treatment and at the follow-up assessment.RESULTSSeventeen studies with 2,836 adult illicit substance users were included. The risk of bias varied across the included studies. Internet interventions significantly decreased opioid (4 studies, n = 606, g = 0.36; 95 % CI = 0.20-0.53, P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:53:06.337794-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13819
  • Adjustment for survey non-representativeness using record-linkage: refined
           estimates of alcohol consumption by deprivation in Scotland
    • Authors: Emma Gorman; Alastair H. Leyland, Gerry McCartney, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Lisa Rutherford, Lesley Graham, Mark Robinson, Linsay Gray
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and aimsAnalytical approaches to addressing survey non-participation bias typically only use demographic information to improve estimates. We applied a novel methodology which uses health information from data linkage to adjust for non-representativeness. We illustrate the method by presenting adjusted alcohol consumption estimates for Scotland.DesignData on consenting respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (SHeSs) 1995-2010 were confidentially linked to routinely-collected hospital admission and mortality records. Synthetic observations representing non-respondents were created using general population data. Multiple imputation was performed to compute adjusted alcohol estimates given a range of assumptions about the missing data. Adjusted estimates of mean weekly consumption were additionally calibrated to per-capita alcohol sales data.SettingScotlandParticipants30,718 respondents to the SHeSs 1995-2010, aged 20-64 years.MeasurementsWeekly alcohol consumption, non-, binge- and problem-drinking.FindingsInitial adjustment for non-response resulted in estimates of overall mean weekly consumption that were elevated by up to 15.1% [26.5 units (18.6 - 34.4)] compared with corrections based solely on socio-demographic data [22.5 (17.7 - 27.3)]; other drinking behaviour estimates were little changed. Under more extreme assumptions the overall difference was up to 53% and calibrating to sales estimates resulted in up to 87% difference. Increases were especially pronounced among males in deprived areas.ConclusionsUse of routinely-collected health data to reduce bias arising from survey non-response resulted in higher alcohol consumption estimates among working age males in Scotland, with less impact for females. This new method of bias reduction can be generalised to other surveys to improve estimates of alternative harmful behaviours.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T04:55:25.742362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13797
  • A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce drug use
           among adults in a low-income urban emergency department: the HealthiER You
    • Authors: Frederic C. Blow; Maureen A. Walton, Amy S. B. Bohnert, Rosalinda V. Ignacio, Stephen Chermack, Rebecca M. Cunningham, Brenda M. Booth, Mark Ilgen, Kristen L. Barry
      Abstract: AimsTo examine efficacy of drug brief interventions (BIs) among adults presenting to a low-income urban emergency department (ED).DesignRandomized controlled trial on drug use outcomes at 3, 6 and 12 months. Participants were assigned to (1) computer-delivered BI (Computer BI), (2) therapist-delivered, computer-guided BI (Therapist BI) or (3) enhanced usual care (EUC-ED) for drug-using adults. Participants were re-randomized after the 3-month assessment to either adapted motivational enhancement therapy (AMET) booster or enhanced usual care booster (EUC-B).SettingPatients recruited from low-income urban emergency departments (ED) in Flint, Michigan, USA.ParticipantsA total of 780 ED patients reporting recent drug use, 44% males, mean age = 31 years.InterventionsComputer BI consisted of an interactive program guided by a virtual health counselor. Therapist BI included computer guidance. The EUC-ED conditions included review of community health and HIV prevention resources. The BIs and boosters were based on motivational interviewing, focusing on reduction of drug use and HIV risk behaviors.MeasurementsPrimary outcome was past 90 days using drugs at 6 and 12 months and secondary outcomes were weighted drug-days and days of marijuana use.FindingsPercentage changes in mean days used any drug from baseline to 12 months were: Computer BI + EUC-B: –10.9%, P = 0.0844; Therapist BI + EUC-B: –26.7%, P = 0.0041, for EUC-ED + EUC-B: –20.9, P = 0.0011. In adjusted analyses, there was no significant interaction between ED intervention and booster AMET for primary and secondary outcomes. Compared with EUC-ED, Therapist BI reduced number of days using any drug [95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.41, −0.07, P = 0.0422] and weighted drug-days (95% CI = –0.41, −0.08, P = 0.0283). Both Therapist and Computer BI had significantly fewer number of days using marijuana compared to EUC-ED (Therapist BI: 95% CI = –0.42, −0.06, P = 0.0104, Computer BI: 95% CI = –0.34, −0.01, P = 0.0406). Booster effects were not significant.ConclusionsAn emergency department-based motivational brief intervention, delivered by a therapist and guided by computer, appears to reduce drug use among adults seeking emergency department care compared with enhanced usual care.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T00:40:29.408385-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13773
  • Dimensional personality traits and alcohol treatment outcome: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: James A. Foulds; Giles M. Newton-Howes, Nicola H. Guy, Joseph M. Boden, Roger T. Mulder
      Abstract: AimsTo identify dimensional personality traits associated with treatment outcome for patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD).MethodsSystematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials and longitudinal studies of ≥8 weeks in patients receiving treatment for AUD, in which the association between personality dimensions and treatment outcome was reported. Primary outcomes were relapse and alcohol consumption measures. Treatment retention was a secondary outcome.Results18 studies including 4783 subjects were identified. 12 studies used Cloninger's Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) or Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Remaining studies used a broad range of other personality measures.Compared with non-relapsers, patients who relapsed had higher novelty seeking (standardised mean difference in novelty seeking score 0.28; 95% CI 0.12, 0.44), lower persistence (-0.30, 95% CI -0.48, -0.12), lower reward dependence (-0.16, 95% CI -0.31, -0.01) and lower cooperativeness (-0.23, 95% CI -0.41, -0.04). Few studies reported on alcohol consumption outcomes, therefore findings for those outcomes were inconclusive. Lower novelty seeking predicted better retention in treatment in 2/3 studies. Most studies reported findings only for those retained in treatment, and did not attempt to account for missing data. Therefore findings for the primary outcomes cannot be generalised to patients who dropped out of treatment. Studies using personality instruments other than the TCI or TPQ reported no consistent findings on the association between personality variables and treatment outcome.ConclusionsAmong patients receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder, those who relapse during follow up have higher novelty seeking, lower persistence, lower reward dependence and lower cooperativeness than those who do not relapse.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04T01:15:28.992123-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13810
  • Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus
           (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in
    • Authors: Jack Stone; Natasha K. Martin, Matthew Hickman, Sharon J. Hutchinson, Esther Aspinall, Avril Taylor, Alison Munro, Karen Dunleavy, Erica Peters, Peter Bramley, Peter C. Hayes, David J. Goldberg, Peter Vickerman
      Abstract: Background and AimsPeople who inject drugs (PWID) experience high incarceration rates, and previous incarceration is associated with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk. In Scotland, national survey data indicate lower HCV incidence in prison than the community (4.3 versus 7.3 per 100 person-years), but a 2.3-fold elevated transmission risk among recently released (16 weeks) could reduce incidence and prevalence by 45.6% (95% CrI = 38.0–51.3%) and 45.5% (95% CrI = 39.3–51.0%), respectively.ConclusionsIncarceration and the elevated transmission risk following prison release can contribute significantly to hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs. Scaling-up hepatitis C virus treatment in prison can provide important prevention benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T18:20:32.852559-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13783
  • Trajectories of risky drinking around the time of statutory retirement: a
           longitudinal latent class analysis
    • Authors: Jaana I. Halonen; Sari Stenholm, Anna Pulakka, Ichiro Kawachi, Ville Aalto, Jaana Pentti, Tea Lallukka, Marianna Virtanen, Jussi Vahtera, Mika Kivimäki
      Abstract: Background and AimsLife transitions such as retirement may influence alcohol consumption, but only a few studies have described this using longitudinal data. We identified patterns and predictors of risky drinking around the time of retirement.DesignA cohort study assessing trajectories and predictors of risky drinking among employees entering statutory retirement between 2000 and 2011.Setting and Participants5805 men and women from the Finnish Public Sector study who responded to questions on alcohol consumption one to three times prior to (w-3, w-2, w-1), and one to three times after (w+1, w+2, w+3) retirement.MeasurementsWe assessed trajectories of risky drinking (>288 g of pure alcohol per week among men,>192 g among women, or an extreme drinking occasion during past year) from pre- to post-retirement, as well as predictors of each alcohol consumption trajectory.FindingsThree trajectories were identified: sustained healthy drinking (81% of participants), temporary increase in risky drinking around retirement (12%), and slowly declining risky drinking after retirement (7%). The strongest pre-retirement predictors for belonging to the group of temporary increase in risky drinking were current smoking (odds ratio 3.90, 95% CI 2.70 to 5.64), male sex (2.77, 95% CI 2.16 to 3.55), depression (1.44, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.99), and workplace in the metropolitan area (1.29, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.66). Compared with the slowly declining risky drinking group, the temporary increase in risky drinking group was characterised by lower occupational status and education, and workplace outside the metropolitan area.ConclusionsIn Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels while around 7% experience a slow decline in risky level alcohol consumption. Male gender, smoking, being depressed and working in a metropolitan area are associated with increased likelihood of increased alcohol consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T11:35:27.285191-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13811
  • Does exposure to opioid substitution treatment in prison reduce the risk
           of death after release' A national prospective observational study in
    • Authors: John Marsden; Garry Stillwell, Hayley Jones, Alisha Cooper, Brian Eastwood, Michael Farrell, Tim Lowden, Nino Maddalena, Chris Metcalfe, Jenny Shaw, Matthew Hickman
      Abstract: Background and AimsPeople with opioid use disorder (OUD) in prison face an acute risk of death after release. We estimated whether prison-based opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces this risk.DesignProspective observational cohort study using prison health care, national community drug misuse treatment and deaths registers.SettingRecruitment at 39 adult prisons in England (32 male; seven female) accounting for 95% of OST treatment in England during study planning.ParticipantsAdult prisoners diagnosed with OUD (recruited: September 2010–August 2013; first release: September 2010; last release: October 2014; follow-up to February 2016; n = 15 141 in the risk set).Intervention and ComparatorAt release, participants were classified as OST exposed (n = 8645) or OST unexposed (n = 6496). The OST unexposed group did not receive OST, or had been withdrawn, or had a low dose.MeasurementsPrimary outcome: all-cause mortality (ACM) in the first 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes: drug-related poisoning (DRP) deaths in the first 4 weeks; ACM and DRP mortality after 4 weeks to 1 year; admission to community drug misuse treatment in the first 4 weeks. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox regression models (covariates: sex, age, drug injecting, problem alcohol use, use of benzodiazepines, cocaine, prison transfer and admission to community treatment), tested difference in mortality rates and community treatment uptake.FindingsDuring the first 4 weeks after prison release there were 24 ACM deaths: six in the OST exposed group and 18 in the OST unexposed group [mortality rate 0.93 per 100 person-years (py) versus 3.67 per 100 py; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10–0.64]. There were 18 DRP deaths: OST exposed group mortality rate 0.47 per 100 py versus 3.06 per 100 py in the OST unexposed group (HR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04–0.53). There was no group difference in mortality risk after the first month. The OST exposed group was more likely to enter drug misuse treatment in the first month post-release (odds ratio 2.47, 95% CI = 2.31–2.65). The OST mortality protective effect on ACM and DRP mortality risk was not attenuated by demographic, overdose risk factors, prison transfer or community treatment (fully adjusted HR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.09–0.64 and HR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04–0.52, respectively).ConclusionsIn an English national study, prison-based opioid substitution therapy was associated with a 75% reduction in all-cause mortality and an 85% reduction in fatal drug-related poisoning in the first month after release.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T20:00:39.058066-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13779
  • Intravenous midazolam–droperidol combination, droperidol or olanzapine
           monotherapy for methamphetamine-related acute agitation: subgroup analysis
           of a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Celene Y. L. Yap; David McD Taylor, Jonathan C. Knott, Simone E. Taylor, Georgina A. Phillips, Jonathan Karro, Esther W. Chan, David C. M. Kong, David J. Castle
      Abstract: AimTo examine the efficacy and safety of (1) midazolam–droperidol versus droperidol and (2) midazolam–droperidol versus olanzapine for methamphetamine-related acute agitation.Design and settingA multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in two Australian emergency departments, between October 2014 and September 2015.ParticipantsThree hundred and sixty-one patients, aged 18–65 years, requiring intravenous medication sedation for acute agitation, were enrolled into this study. We report the results of a subgroup of 92 methamphetamine-affected patients.Intervention and comparatorPatients were assigned randomly to receive either an intravenous bolus of midazolam 5 mg–droperidol 5 mg combined, droperidol 10 mg or olanzapine 10 mg. Two additional doses were administered, if required: midazolam 5 mg, droperidol 5 mg or olanzapine 5 mg, respectively.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was the proportion of patients sedated adequately at 10 minutes. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (ORs, 95% CI) were estimated.FindingsThe baseline characteristics of patients in the three groups were similar. At 10 minutes, significantly more patients in the midazolam–droperidol group [29 of 34 (85.3%)] were sedated adequately compared with the droperidol group [14 of 30 (46.7%), OR = 6.63, 95% CI = 2.02–21.78] or with the olanzapine group [14 of 28 (50.0%), OR 5.80, 95% CI = 1.74–19.33]. The number of patients who experienced an adverse event (AE) in the midazolam–droperidol, droperidol and olanzapine groups was seven of 34, two of 30 and six of 28, respectively. The most common AE was oxygen desaturation.ConclusionA midazolam–droperidol combination appears to provide more rapid sedation of patients with methamphetamine-related acute agitation than droperidol or olanzapine alone.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T23:25:22.73522-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13780
  • Criminalizing substance use in pregnancy: misplaced priorities
    • Authors: Katrina Hui; Cara Angelotta, Carl E. Fisher
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T23:15:23.355285-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13776
  • Volatility and change in chronic pain severity predict outcomes of
           treatment for prescription opioid addiction
    • Authors: Matthew J. Worley; Keith G. Heinzerling, Steven Shoptaw, Walter Ling
      Abstract: Background and aimsBuprenorphine–naloxone (BUP–NLX) can be used to manage prescription opioid addiction among persons with chronic pain, but post-treatment relapse is common and difficult to predict. This study estimated whether changes in pain over time and pain volatility during BUP–NLX maintenance would predict opioid use during the taper BUP–NLX taper.DesignSecondary analysis of a multi-site clinical trial for prescription opioid addiction, using data obtained during a 12-week BUP–NLX stabilization and 4-week BUP–NLX taper.SettingCommunity clinics affiliated with a national clinical trials network in 10 US cities.ParticipantsSubjects with chronic pain who entered the BUP–NLX taper phase (n = 125) with enrollment occurring from June 2006 to July 2009 (52% male, 88% Caucasian, 31% married).MeasurementsOutcomes were weekly biologically verified and self-reported opioid use from the 4-week taper phase. Predictors were estimates of baseline severity, rate of change and volatility in pain from weekly self-reports during the 12-week maintenance phase.FindingsControlling for baseline pain and treatment condition, increased pain [odds ratio (OR) = 2.38, P = 0.02] and greater pain volatility (OR = 2.43, P = 0.04) predicted greater odds of positive opioid urine screen during BUP–NLX taper. Increased pain (IRR = 1.40, P = 0.04) and greater pain volatility [incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 1.66, P = 0.009] also predicted greater frequency of self-reported opioid use.ConclusionsAdults with chronic pain receiving out-patient treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP–NLX) for prescription opioid addiction have an elevated risk for opioid use when tapering off maintenance treatment. Those with relative persistence in pain over time and greater volatility in pain during treatment are less likely to sustain abstinence during BUP–NLX taper.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T23:10:29.739487-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13782
  • Life-time history of insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms as correlates of
           alcohol, cocaine and heroin use and relapse among adults seeking substance
           use treatment in the United States from 1991 to 1994
    • Authors: Michael R. Dolsen; Allison G. Harvey
      Abstract: AimsTo examine the association between a life-time history of insomnia and hypersomnia compared with no sleep disturbance and substance use patterns and amounts before and after a substance use treatment episode.DesignSecondary analysis of data from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies conducted from 1991 to 1994.SettingData were collected at 96 substance use treatment programs in 11 United States cities, including short-term in-patient, long-term residential, methadone maintenance and out-patient drug-free treatment modalities.ParticipantsStudy samples included 7168 adults at treatment entry and 2965 at 12 months post-treatment entry whose primary substance use at entry was alcohol (14.7%), cocaine (62.7%) or heroin (22.6%).MeasurementsLife-time history of insomnia and hypersomnia was assessed via self-report. Type and frequency of substance use were assessed at treatment entry. Substance use was also assessed 12 months following treatment completion. Associations were examined using linear and logistic regression with age, sex, race, education level, depression history, treatment modality and in-treatment substance use as covariates.FindingsLife-time history of insomnia, hypersomnia, both or neither was reported by 26.3, 9.5, 28.0 and 36.2% of participants, respectively. Compared with no sleep disturbance, life-time insomnia and hypersomnia were associated at treatment entry with unique substance use patterns and a higher frequency of any substance use (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T23:05:28.791887-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13772
  • Response to commentaries: Neither optimism or nihilism… but reasons
           for hope
    • Authors: Ed Day; Luke Mitcheson
      Abstract: Commentary to: Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism'
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T22:50:25.799567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13775
  • A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for alcohol and
           drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening
           Test (ASSIST) in primary health care in Chile
    • Authors: Fernando Poblete; Nicolas A. Barticevic, M. Soledad Zuzulic, Rodrigo Portilla, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jaime C. Sapag, Luis Villarroel, Brena F. Sena, Magdalena Galarce
      Abstract: AimTo study the effectiveness of a Brief Intervention (BI) associated with the ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) for alcohol and illicit drug use as part of a systematic screening program implemented in primary care.DesignA multi-center randomized open-label trial stratified using the ASSIST-specific substance involvement score (for alcohol, scores ranged from 11 to 15 and 16 to 20; and for the other substances, from 4 to 12 and 13 to 20).SettingPrimary care centers (n = 19), local small emergency rooms (n = 8), and police stations (n = 5) in Chile.Participants12,217 people between 19 and 55 years old were screened for moderate alcohol and drug use risk defined by ASSIST Chilean version, differing from standard version on a lower cut-off point for upper end of moderate-risk drug users (21 instead 27). 806 non-treatment-seekers were randomized.Intervention and comparisonASSIST-linked BI (n = 400) compared with an informational pamphlet on risk associated with substance use (n = 406).MeasurementsTotal ASSIST alcohol and illicit involvement score (ASSIST - AI), and ASSIST-specific score for alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine, at baseline and at three-month follow-up.FindingsSixty-two percent of participants completed follow up. An intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference between the two groups for the ASSIST - AI score [Mean difference -0.17, Confidence Interval (-1.87, 2.20)] (MD, CI), either for specific scores alcohol [MD 0.18, CI (-1.45, 1.10)], cannabis [MD -0.62 CI (-0.89, 2.14)], or cocaine [MD -0.79 CI (-2.89, 4.47)].ConclusionIt is not clear whether a brief intervention associated with the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is more effective than an informational pamphlet in reducing alcohol and illicit substance consumption in non-treatment-seeking, primary care users with moderate risk.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T00:30:47.097268-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13808
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Extended Release Naltrexone to Prevent Relapse among
           Criminal-Justice-Involved Persons with a History of Opioid Use Disorder
    • Authors: Sean M. Murphy; Daniel Polsky, Joshua D. Lee, Peter D. Friedmann, Timothy W. Kinlock, Edward V. Nunes, Richard J. Bonnie, Michael Gordon, Donna T. Chen, Tamara Y. Boney, Charles P. O'Brien
      Abstract: Background/AimsCriminal-justice-involved persons are highly susceptible to opioid relapse and overdose-related deaths. In a recent randomized trial, we demonstrated the effectiveness of extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol®) in preventing opioid relapse among criminal-justice-involved U.S. adults with a history of opioid use disorder. The cost of XR-NTX may be a significant barrier to adoption. Thus, it is important to account for improved quality of life, and downstream cost-offsets. Our aims were to (1) estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU), and evaluate it relative to generally-accepted value thresholds; and (2) estimate the incremental cost per additional year of opioid abstinence.DesignEconomic evaluation of the aforementioned trial from the taxpayer perspective. Participants were randomized to 25 weeks of XR-NTX injections or TAU; follow-up occurred at 52 and 78 weeks.SettingFive study sites in the U.S. Northeast corridor.Participants308 participants were randomized to XR-NTX (n = 153) or TAU (n = 155).MeasurementsIncremental costs relative to incremental economic and clinical effectiveness measures, QALYs and abstinent-years, respectively.FindingsThe 25-week cost-per-QALY and -abstinent-year figures were $162,150 and $46,329, respectively. The 78-week figures were $76,400/QALY and $16,371/abstinent-year. At 25 weeks, we can be 10% certain that XR-NTX is cost-effective at a value threshold of $100,000/QALY, and 62% certain at $200,000/QALY. At 78 weeks, the cost-effectiveness probabilities are 59% at $100,000/QALY and 76% at $200,000/QALY. We can be 95% confident that the intervention would be considered a “good-value” at $90,000/abstinent-year at 25 weeks, and $500/abstinent-year at 78 weeks.ConclusionsWhile extended release naltrexone appears to be effective in increasing both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective using generally-accepted value thresholds for QALYs, due to the high price of the injection.
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T22:50:28.767094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13807
  • Large multicentre pilot randomised controlled trial testing a low-cost,
           tailored, self-help smoking cessation text message intervention for
           pregnant smokers (MiQuit)
    • Authors: Felix Naughton; Sue Cooper, Katharine Foster, Joanne Emery, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Stephen Sutton, Matthew Jones, Michael Ussher, Rachel Whitemore, Matthew Leighton, Alan Montgomery, Steve Parrott, Tim Coleman
      Abstract: AimsTo estimate the effectiveness of pregnancy smoking cessation support delivered by SMS text message and key parameters needed to plan a definitive trial.DesignMulticentre, parallel-group, single-blinded, individual randomised controlled trialSetting16 antenatal clinics in England.Participants407 participants were randomised to the intervention (n = 203) or usual care (n = 204). Eligible women were 5 pre-pregnancy), were able to receive and understand English SMS texts and were not already using text-based cessation support.InterventionAll participants received a smoking cessation leaflet; intervention participants also received a 12-week programme of individually-tailored, automated, interactive, self-help smoking cessation text messages (MiQuit).Outcome MeasurementsSeven smoking outcomes including validated continuous abstinence from 4 weeks post-randomisation until 36 weeks gestation, design parameters for a future trial and cost-per-quitter.FindingsUsing the validated, continuous abstinence outcome, 5.4% (11/203) of MiQuit participants were abstinent versus 2.0% (4/204) of usual care participants (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93 to 9.35). The Bayes Factor for this outcome was 2.23. Completeness of follow up at 36 weeks gestation was similar in both groups; provision of self-report smoking data was 64% (MiQuit) and 65% (usual care) and abstinence validation rates were 56% (MiQuit) and 61% (usual care). The incremental cost-per-quitter was £133.53 (95% CI -£395.78 to £843.62).ConclusionsThere was some evidence, though not conclusive, that a text messaging programme may increase cessation rates in pregnant smokers when provided alongside routine NHS cessation care.
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T22:50:25.984784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13802
  • Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: A randomized control
    • Authors: Jennifer R. Laude; Steffani R. Bailey, Erin Crew, Ann Varady, Anna Lembke, Danielle McFall, Anna Jeon, Diana Killen, Joel D. Killen, Sean P. David
      Abstract: AimTo test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking.DesignTwo-group parallel randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment.SettingCommunity clinic in the USA.Participants219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18).InterventionAll participants received 10 weeks of combined CBT + bupropion sustained release (bupropion SR) + nicotine patch and were continued on CBT and either no medications if abstinent, continued bupropion + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) if increased craving or depression scores, or varenicline if still smoking at 10 weeks. Half of participants were randomized at 26 weeks to extended CBT (E-CBT) through week 48 and half to non-extended CBT (no additional CBT sessions).MeasurementsThe primary outcome was expired CO-confirmed, seven-day point-prevalence (PP) at 52-week and 104-week follow-up. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat.FindingsPP-abstinence rates at the 52-week follow-up were comparable across non-extended CBT (40%) and E-CBT (39%) groups [OR 0.99; 95% CI (0.55,1.78)]. A similar pattern was observed across non-extended CBT (39%) and E-CBT (33%) groups at the 104-week follow-up [OR 0.79; 95% CI (0.44,1.40)].ConclusionProlonging cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking.
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T22:21:43.851921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13806
  • Self-reported Substance Use in Iraq: Findings from the Iraqi National
           Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use, 2014
    • Authors: Nesif Al-Hemiery; Rufaidah Dabbagh, Mushtaq T. Hashim, Salih Al-Hasnawi, Ali Abutiheen, Emad A. Abdulghani, Jawad K. Al-Diwan, Neeraj Kak, Hala AlMossawi, Jane Carlisle Maxwell, Mary-Lynn Brecht, Valerie Antonini, Albert Hasson, Richard A. Rawson
      Abstract: AimsTo estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use in Iraq using data from the Iraqi National Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use (INHSAD).DesignA cross-sectional survey was conducted using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Trained surveyors conducted face-to-face household interviews.SettingIraq, from April 2014 to December 2014.Participants3,200 adult, non-institutionalized Iraqi citizens residing across all 18 governorates of Iraq.MeasurementsWe estimated weighted prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lifetime, past-year, and past-month use of a variety of substances (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs). For each substance, we also estimated whether persons knew people who currently used the substance.FindingsSelf-reported past-month tobacco use was 23.2% (95% CI = 21.40, 25.19). Past-month alcohol use was 3.2% (2.58, 3.93). Women reported significantly lower prevalence for both tobacco and alcohol use compared with men (p-value 
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T20:50:25.571699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13800
  • Engagement in HIV care and its correlates among people who inject drugs in
           St. Petersburg, Russian Federation and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia
    • Authors: Robert Heimer; Nina Usacheva, Russell Barbour, Linda M. Niccolai, Anneli Uusküla, Olga S. Levina
      Abstract: Background and AimsHIV infection and mortality in Eastern Europe are driven by unsafe injection drug use. We sought to compare engagement in care from HIV testing through receipt of antiretroviral treatment among HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation (RF) and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and identify factors significantly associated with failure to progress at each stage of the HIV treatment cascade.DesignCross-sectional biobehavioral surveys of PWID with an analysis stratified by location – two Russian speaking regions with similar HIV epidemic histories and current prevalence.SettingField-based surveys conducted in St. Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.ParticipantsWe recruited 452 HIV-positive PWID in St. Petersburg (November 2012 to June 2013) and 370 HIV-positive PWID in Kohtla-Järve (June-August 2012) using respondent driven sampling.MeasurementsParticipants were tested for antibodies to HIV, and administered a questionnaire focusing on participants’ medical care histories. Engagement in care was categorized as a cascade of five transitional steps through six stages ranging from HIV testing to current receipt of antiretroviral medications.FindingsProgress along the cascade was greater in Kohtla-Järve (32.7% were receiving antiretroviral medications) than in St. Petersburg (9.7%). In both locations, we found the steps with high failure rates were the transitions from being aware of one's HIV diagnosis to being in regular care and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Factors significantly associated with transition failure in both locations and across steps included high alcohol consumption, variables associated with drug choice and injection frequency, and lack of basic medical insurance.ConclusionThe two steps in treatment cascade for HIV-positive PWID in St. Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia requiring greatest improvement are retention in regular care and initiation of HAART. Both individual behavioral and structural factors are associated with failure to transition along the cascade.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T02:20:26.723063-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13798
  • Attrition during a randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine content
           cigarettes as a proxy for understanding acceptability of nicotine product
    • Authors: Melissa Mercincavage; E. Paul Wileyto, Megan L. Saddleson, Kirsten Lochbuehler, Eric C. Donny, Andrew A. Strasser
      Abstract: AimsTo determine (1) if nicotine content affects study attrition—a potential behavioral measure of acceptability—in a trial that required compliance with three levels of reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes, and (2) if attrition is associated with subjective and behavioral responses to RNC cigarettes.DesignSecondary analysis of a 35-day, parallel-design, open-label, randomized controlled trial. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomized to smoke for three 10-day periods: their preferred brand (control group) or RNC cigarettes with three nicotine levels in a within-subject stepdown (one group: high–moderate–low) or non-stepdown (five groups: high–low–moderate, low–moderate–high, low–high–moderate, moderate–low–high, moderate–high–low) fashion.SettingA single site in Philadelphia, PA, USA.ParticipantsA total of 246 non-treatment-seeking daily smokers [mean age = 39.52, cigarettes per day (CPD) = 20.95, 68.3% white] were recruited from October 2007 to June 2013.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was attrition. Key predictors were nicotine content transition and study period. Exploratory predictors were taste and strength subjective ratings, total puff volume and carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Covariates included: age, gender, race, education and nicotine dependence.FindingsOverall attrition was 31.3% (n = 77): 24.1% of the control and 25.0% of the stepdown RNC cigarette groups dropped out versus 44.6% of non-stepdown groups (P = 0.006). Compared with controls, attrition odds were 4.5 and 4.7 times greater among smokers transitioning from preferred and the highest RNC cigarettes to the lowest RNC cigarettes, respectively (P = 0.001 and 0.003). Providing more favorable initial taste ratings of study cigarettes decreased attrition odds by 2% (P = 0.012).ConclusionsThe majority of participants completed a 35-day trial of varying levels of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Participant dropout was greater for cigarettes with lower nicotine content and less in smokers reporting more favorable subjective ratings of the cigarettes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T20:40:24.351802-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13766
  • Non-buprenorphine opioid utilization among patients using buprenorphine
    • Authors: Matthew Daubresse; Brendan Saloner, Harold A. Pollack, G. Caleb Alexander
      Abstract: Background and AimsBuprenorphine is commonly used to treat opioid use disorder; however, non-buprenorphine prescription opioid use among these patients is not well defined. We sought to estimate the prevalence of non-buprenorphine opioid use among incident buprenorphine users and quantify levels of opioid use prior to, during and after the first treatment episode.DesignWe used QuintilesIMS anonymized, individual-level, all-payer pharmacy claims to identify incident users of buprenorphine between January 2010 and July 2012 from a large cohort of approximately 50 million patients filling two or more prescriptions for any opioid during any calendar year between 2006 and 2013 in 11 states of interest.SettingEleven states within the United States.ParticipantsOf the individuals who met our inclusion criteria (n = 38 096), 55% were female and half were aged between 29 and 54 years. Median length of the first treatment episode was 55 days [interquartile range (IQR) = 28–168 days].MeasurementsWe calculated four measures of non-buprenorphine opioid use: (1) number of prescriptions, (2) quantity dispensed, (3) days of supply and (4) total morphine milligram equivalents (MME) before, during and after the first treatment episode. Our primary outcome was the MME per opioid day supplied during each time period.FindingsApproximately two-fifths (43%) of buprenorphine recipients filled an opioid prescription during the treatment episode and two-thirds (67%) filled an opioid prescription following treatment. The mean total of MME per opioid day supplied 12 months prior to treatment declined from 57 mg/per day [95% confidence interval (CI) = 57, 58] to 54 mg/per day (95% CI = 54, 55) during the treatment episode, then remained constant at 55 mg/per day (95% CI = 54, 56) following the treatment episode.ConclusionsThe use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder has increased markedly in the United States. However, a substantial proportion of patients fill prescriptions for non-buprenorphine opioids during and following such treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T12:05:24.338166-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13762
  • Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality: A cohort
           study in 19,002 men and women attending alcohol treatment
    • Authors: Charlotte Holst; Janne Schurmann Tolstrup, Holger Jelling Sørensen, Ulrik Becker
      Abstract: AimsTo (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases.DesignRegister-based matched cohort study. Alcohol dependent individuals were identified from an alcohol treatment database. Controls were randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Information on somatic diseases obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and causes of death obtained from the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate Hazard ratios (HRs).SettingDenmark.Participants19,002 alcohol dependent individuals and 186,767 controls.MeasurementsOutcome variables included 11 disease groups and 29 sub-groups, defined according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The main predictor variable was diagnosis of alcohol dependence according to ICD.FindingsAlcohol dependent men and women compared with controls had statistically significantly higher risks of all disease groups and the majority of sub-groups when analysed as disease events. HRs were elevated for well-established alcohol-related diseases but also for diseases such as dementia (Men, HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3. Women, HR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.8-3.2), psoriasis (Men, HR: 4.3; 95% CI: 3.5-5.2. Women, HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 3.7-7.8) and breast cancer in men (HR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.6-7.0). Similar results were found when disease groups and sub-groups were analysed as causes of death.ConclusionsAlcohol dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases, both as disease events and as causes of death, relative to individuals from the general population.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T06:40:29.606797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13799
  • A preliminary randomized controlled trial of contingency management for
           alcohol use reduction using a transdermal alcohol sensor
    • Authors: Nancy P. Barnett; Mark A. Celio, Jennifer W. Tidey, James G. Murphy, Suzanne M. Colby, Robert M. Swift
      Abstract: AimsWe tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) non-contingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use.DesignPilot randomized controlled design with 1 baseline week, 3 intervention weeks and 1-month follow-up.SettingNew England, USA.ParticipantsHeavy drinking adults (46.7% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to (1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n = 15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or (2) yoked NR (n = 15).Intervention and comparatorReinforcement for CR participants started at $5 and increased $2 every subsequent day on which alcohol was not detected or reported, to a maximum of $17. Participants received no reinforcement for days on which alcohol use was detected or reported, and the reinforcer value was re-set to $5 the day after a drinking day. NR participants were yoked to the daily reinforcer value of an individual in the CR condition, in order of enrollment. Paired participants in CR and NR therefore received the same amount of money, but the amount for the NR participant was not behavior-related.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was percentage of days without sensor-detected drinking. Secondary outcomes were number of consecutive days with no detected drinking, peak transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), self-reported drinks per week and drinking below NIH low-risk guidelines.FindingsControlling for baseline, CR had a higher percentage of days with no drinking detected (54.3%) than NR (31.2%) during intervention weeks [P = 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.007–1.47]. The longest period of consecutive days with no drinking detected was 8.0 for CR versus 2.9 for NR (P = 0.03, d = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.08–1.61). Peak TAC during intervention showed a non-significant group difference (P = 0.20; d = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.00–1.18); a similar result was found for drinks per week (P = 0.12; d = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.00–1.30). Four times more participants in CR drank below NIH low-risk drinking guidelines during intervention than did participants in NR: 31.1 versus 7.1% (P = 0.07; d = 0.71; 95% CI = –0.04 to 1.46). At 1-month follow-up, the highest number of consecutive days without drinking (self-report) did not differ significantly between conditions (P = 0.26), but showed a medium effect size (d = 0.44; 95% CI = −0.32 to 1.18).ConclusionsCash incentives linked to a transdermal alcohol sensor can reduce heavy alcohol consumption while the incentives are in operation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:55:32.977862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13767
  • The relationship between different dimensions of alcohol use and the
           burden of disease—an update
    • Authors: Jürgen Rehm; Gerhard E. Gmel, Gerrit Gmel, Omer S. M. Hasan, Sameer Imtiaz, Svetlana Popova, Charlotte Probst, Michael Roerecke, Robin Room, Andriy V. Samokhvalov, Kevin D. Shield, Paul A. Shuper
      Abstract: Background and aimsAlcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs).MethodsSystematic review of reviews and meta-analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use.For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied. For liver cirrhosis, quality of alcohol was additionally considered. For all outcomes (mortality and/or morbidity): cause of death and disease/injury categories based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used in global CRAs; harm to others.ResultsIn total, 255 reviews and meta-analyses were identified. Alcohol use was found to be linked causally to many disease and injury categories, with more than 40 ICD-10 three-digit categories being fully attributable to alcohol. Most partially attributable disease categories showed monotonic relationships with volume of alcohol use: the more alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of disease or death. Exceptions were ischaemic diseases and diabetes, with curvilinear relationships, and with beneficial effects of light to moderate drinking in people without heavy irregular drinking occasions. Biological pathways suggest an impact of heavy drinking occasions on additional diseases; however, the lack of medical epidemiological studies measuring this dimension of alcohol use precluded an in-depth analysis. For injuries, except suicide, blood alcohol concentration was the most important dimension of alcohol use. Alcohol use caused marked harm to others, which has not yet been researched sufficiently.ConclusionsResearch since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered. Epidemiological studies should include measurement of heavy drinking occasions in line with biological knowledge.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T22:15:29.755132-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13757
  • Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with
           a drunk driver
    • Authors: José Ignacio Nazif-Muñoz; Aharon Blank-Gomel
      Abstract: AimsTo assess the impact of demographic, intrapersonal and environmental factors on the likelihood in Chile of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID).DesignMulti-level cross-sectional study.SettingData were acquired from two large-scale household surveys of representative samples of Chile's Metropolitan Region.ParticipantsThe study included 1341 individuals ≥ 16 years; 696 of them reported engaging in PAID.MeasurementThe primary outcome was self-reported frequencies of having accepted a ride with an alcohol-impaired driver.FindingsPAID was associated significantly with ‘age’ [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98–0.99, P = 0.03], ‘traffic safety beliefs’ (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.078–0.44, P = 0.00), ‘time exposure as passenger’ (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00–1.01, P = 0.00) and ‘sex’ (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.53–0.87, P = 0.00). In women, PAID was associated with ‘age’ (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97–0.99, P = 0.02), ‘traffic safety beliefs’ (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05–0.59, P = 0.00) and ‘low quality of public bus stops’ (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.98–0.99, P = 0.01). Younger women with high education levels were more likely to engage in PAID than younger women with low education levels. In men, PAID was associated with ‘traffic safety beliefs’ (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02–0.63, P = 0.01) and ‘time exposure as passenger’ (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00–1.01, P = 0.02).ConclusionsIn Chile, men are at higher risk of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID) than women. In women, PAID appears to be associated with lower traffic safety beliefs, lower quality of public bus stations and an interaction between education and age. In men, PAID is associated with lower traffic safety beliefs and higher time exposure as passenger.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T21:35:30.036278-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13745
  • Treatment and primary prevention in people who inject drugs for chronic
           hepatitis C infection: is elimination possible in a high-prevalence
    • Authors: Ilias Gountas; Vana Sypsa, Olga Anagnostou, Natasha Martin, Peter Vickerman, Evangelos Kafetzopoulos, Angelos Hatzakis
      Abstract: AimsTo project the impact of scaling-up oral anti-viral therapy and harm reduction on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) prevalence and incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece, to estimate the relationship between required treatment levels and expansion of harm reduction programmes to achieve specific targets and to examine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination among PWID is possible in this high-prevalence setting.DesignA dynamic discrete time, stochastic individual-based model was developed to simulate HCV transmission among PWID incorporating the effect of HCV treatment and harm reduction strategies, and allowing for re-infection following treatment.Setting/participantsThe population of 8300 PWID in Athens Metropolitan area.MeasurementsReduction in HCV prevalence and incidence in 2030 compared with 2016.FindingsModerate expansion of HCV treatment (treating 4–8% of PWID/year), with a simultaneous increase of 2%/year in harm reduction coverage (from 44 to 72% coverage over 15 years), was projected to reduce CHC prevalence among PWID in Athens by 46.2–94.8% in 2030, compared with 2016. CHC prevalence would reduce to below 10% within the next 4–5 years if annual HCV treatment numbers were increased up to 16–20% PWID/year. The effect of harm reduction on incidence was more pronounced under lower treatment rates.ConclusionsBased on theoretical model projections, scaled-up hepatitis C virus treatment and harm reduction interventions could achieve major reductions in hepatitis C virus incidence and prevalence among people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece by 2030. Chronic hepatitis C could be eliminated in the next 4–5 years by increasing treatment to more than 16% of people who inject drugs per year combined with moderate increases in harm reduction coverage.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T20:25:37.444127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13764
  • Working Memory Ability and Early Drug Use Progression as Predictors of
           Adolescent Substance Use Disorders
    • Authors: Atika Khurana; Daniel Romer, Laura M. Betancourt, Hallam Hurt
      Abstract: AimsTo test a neurobehavioral model of adolescent substance use disorder (SUD) resulting from an imbalance between a hyperactive reward motivation system and a hypoactive executive control system. Specifically, we tested (1) if early weakness in working memory (WM) and associated imbalance indicators of acting-without-thinking (AWT) and delay discounting (DD) predict SUD in late adolescence, and (2) if early drug use progression mediates this relation.DesignFive waves of longitudinal data collected annually from 2005-2010, with a final follow-up in 2012.Setting & ParticipantsSample of 387 community adolescents (baseline ages 11-13) recruited from the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA area.MeasurementsWM was assessed at baseline using 4 different computerized tasks. AWT and DD were assessed at baseline using self-reports. Early drug use patterns were modeled using annual self-reports of recent drug use across the first four waves. Final outcome of SUD was assessed at last wave using self-reports matched to the DSM-5 criteria for three commonly used substances: alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco.FindingsWeakness in WM at baseline, associated with neurobehavioral imbalance indicators of AWT, B (SE) = -0.06(0.02), p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T08:01:01.527609-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13792
  • Dropout in clinical trials of pharmacological treatment for
           methamphetamine dependence: the role of initial abstinence
    • Authors: Ryan Cook; Brendan Quinn, Keith Heinzerling, Steve Shoptaw
      Abstract: Background and AimsHigh rates of loss to follow-up represent a significant challenge to clinical trials of pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine (MA) use disorder. We aimed to estimate and test the relationship between achieving and maintaining abstinence in the initial weeks of study participation and subsequent retention in such trials, hypothesizing that participants able to achieve early abstinence would be less likely to drop out.DesignData from four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological treatments for MA use disorder were pooled and analyzed using a random-effects approach.SettingAll trials were conducted in the greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area.ParticipantsA total of 440 participants were included; trials were conducted between 2004 and 2014.MeasurementsParticipants’ ability to achieve a brief period of initial abstinence was measured as the number of MA-negative urine screens completed in the first 2 weeks of the trials. Outcomes were the likelihood of dropout, i.e. missing two consecutive weeks of scheduled urine drug screens, and the number of days participants were retained in the trials.FindingsStudy participants achieved an average of three (of six possible) negative urine screens during the first 2 weeks of the trials, 51% dropped out and the average number of days retained was 60 (of 90 maximum). Each additional negative urine screen achieved during the first 2 weeks of the study reduced multiplicatively the odds of dropout by 41% [odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53, 0.66]. Abstinence was also a significant predictor of retention time; the hazard ratio for non-completion was 0.75 per additional negative urine screen (95% CI = 0.71, 0.80).ConclusionsParticipants in randomized controlled trials of pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine use disorder who are able to achieve a brief period of early abstinence are retained longer in the trials and are less likely to drop out overall.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T00:45:26.719084-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13765
  • How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing
           common behaviours'
    • Authors: Daniel Kardefelt-Winther; Alexandre Heeren, Adriano Schimmenti, Antonius Rooij, Pierre Maurage, Michelle Carras, Johan Edman, Alexander Blaszczynski, Yasser Khazaal, Joël Billieux
      Abstract: Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T00:25:36.940555-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13763
  • Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their
           transferability to new contexts: a systematic review
    • Authors: Marrit L. Berg; Kei Long Cheung, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Silvia Evers, Reina J. A. Kinderen, Puttarin Kulchaitanaroaj, Subhash Pokhrel
      Abstract: AimsTo identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context.MethodsA systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist-based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model-based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high-income country were excluded.FindingsAmong the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state-transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life-time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35–0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method.ConclusionAll existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T00:10:30.407034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13748
  • Trait and neurobiological underpinnings of negative emotion regulation in
           gambling disorder
    • Authors: Juan F. Navas; Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Juan Verdejo-Román, Ana Perandrés-Gómez, Natalia Albein-Urios, Antonio Verdejo-García, José C. Perales
      Abstract: Background and AimsGambling disorder is characterized by poor regulation of negative emotions and impulsive behaviours. This study aimed to (1) compare gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and healthy controls (HCs) in self-report and brain activation measures of emotion regulation; and (2) establish its relationship with negative emotion-driven impulsivity.DesignTwo cross-sectional case–control studies including GDPs and HCs.Setting and ParticipantsGDPs and HCs were recruited from specialized gambling clinics in Andalusia (Spain), where they were following out-patient treatment, and from the community, respectively. Study 1 included 41 GDPs and 45 HCs [All males; Mage = 35.22, 33.22; standard deviation (SD) = 11.16, 8.18; respectively]. Study 2 included 17 GDPs and 21 HCs (16/20 males; Mage = 32.94, 31.00; SD = 7.77, 4.60; respectively).MeasurementsIn study 1, we compared both groups on suppression and re-appraisal emotion regulation strategies [Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ)]. In study 2, we compared GDPs with HCs on brain activation associated with down-regulation of negative emotions in a cognitive re-appraisal task, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In both studies, we correlated the measures of emotion regulation with mood-related impulsivity indicated by negative urgency (UPPS-P impulsive behaviour scale).FindingsGDPs relative to HCs showed higher levels of emotional suppression [F = 4.525; P = 0.036; means difference MHCs–MGDPs = −2.433, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −4.706, −0.159] and higher activation of the premotor cortex and middle frontal gyrus during negative emotion regulation in the fMRI task [P ≤ 0.005, cluster size (CS) > 50 voxels]. Negative urgency correlated positively with emotional suppression (r = 0.399, 95% CI = 0.104, 0.629, one-tailed P = 0.005) and middle frontal gyrus activation during negative emotion regulation (P ≤ 0.005, CS > 50) in GDPs.ConclusionsGambling disorder is associated with greater use of emotional suppression and stronger pre-motor cortex and middle frontal gyrus activation for regulating negative emotions, compared with healthy controls. Emotional suppression use and middle frontal gyrus activation during negative emotion regulation are linked with negative emotion-driven impulsivity in this disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T22:50:29.139657-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13751
  • On sentinel samples, sales data and potency
    • Authors: Simon Lenton; Todd Subritzky
      Abstract: Commentary to: Understanding and learning from the diversification of cannabis supply laws
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T23:15:25.253173-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13756
  • Trajectories of heroin use: 10–11-year findings from the Australian
           Treatment Outcome Study
    • Authors: Maree Teesson; Christina Marel, Shane Darke, Joanne Ross, Tim Slade, Lucy Burns, Michael Lynskey, Sonja Memedovic, Joanne White, Katherine L. Mills
      Abstract: AimsTo identify trajectories of heroin use in Australia, predictors of trajectory group membership and subsequent outcomes among people with heroin dependence over 10–11 years.DesignLongitudinal cohort study.SettingSydney, Australia.ParticipantsA total of 615 participants were recruited between 2001 and 2002 as part of the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (66.2% male; mean age 29 years). The predominance of the cohort (87.0%) was recruited upon entry to treatment (maintenance therapies, detoxification and residential rehabilitation), and the remainder from non-treatment settings (e.g. needle and syringe programmes). This analysis focused upon 428 participants for whom data on heroin use were available over 10–11 years following study entry.MeasurementsStructured interviews assessed demographics, treatment history, heroin and other drug use, overdose, criminal involvement, physical health and psychopathology. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to: (i) identify trajectory groups based on use of heroin in each year, (ii) examine predictors of group membership and (iii) examine associations between trajectory group membership and 10–11-year outcomes.FindingsSix trajectory groups were identified [Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) = –1927.44 (n = 4708); −1901.07 (n = 428)]. One in five (22.1%) were classified as having ‘no decrease‘ in heroin use, with the probability of using remaining high during the 10–11 years (> 0.98 probability of use in each year). One in six (16.1%) were classified as demonstrating a ‘rapid decrease to maintained abstinence’. The probability of heroin use among this group declined steeply in the first 2–3 years and continued to be low (
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T23:10:32.288815-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13747
  • The Safety and Efficacy of Baclofen to Reduce Alcohol Use in Veterans with
           Chronic Hepatitis C: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    • Authors: Peter Hauser; Bret Fuller, Samuel B. Ho, Paul Thuras, Shira Kern, Eric Dieperink
      Abstract: BACKGROUND and AIMSAlcohol use disorders (AUDs) are common among people with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and accelerate the development of fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by HCV. Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) beta-receptor agonist, differs from medications for AUDs currently approved by the United States (US) Federal Drug Administration (FDA) as it is metabolized primarily through the kidneys. The primary outcome of this study was to compare baclofen with a placebo in the percentage of days abstinent from alcohol.DESIGNA double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.SETTINGHepatology clinics in 4 separate US Veteran Affairs Medical Centers in the USA.PARTICIPANTSOne hundred eighty Veteran men and women older than 18 years with chronic HCV, a co-morbid AUD and current alcohol use.INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOROral baclofen was given at dosages of 0 [placebo] or 30 mg/day over 12 weeks with concomitant manual-guided counseling.MEASUREMENTSThe primary measurement was percentage of days abstinent during the 12-week study period between the baclofen and placebo groups (measured by timeline follow back or TLFB). Secondary measurements were the percentage of Veterans who achieved complete abstinence, the percentage of Veterans who achieved no heavy drinking between weeks 4 and 12 of the study, alcohol craving, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).FINDINGSPrimary outcome: Compared with placebo, baclofen did not improve the percentage of days abstinent. For all subjects there were significant reductions from baseline to 12 weeks in percentage of days abstinent from 37.0% (SE = 2.7) to 68.6% (SE = 2.8) (F(1,151.1 = 66.1 p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T14:35:27.47048-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13787
  • Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid
           dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and
           eastern European countries
    • Authors: Marjolein J. M. Vranken; Aukje K. Mantel-Teeuwisse, Saskia Jünger, Lukas Radbruch, Willem Scholten, John A. Lisman, Marija Subataite, Marie-Hélène D. B. Schutjens
      Abstract: Background and aimsBarriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries.MethodsThis study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. An in-depth analysis was undertaken to determine specific barriers for patients with opioid dependence in need of opioid analgesics or opioid agonist therapy (OAT). For each country, the number and nature of specific potential barriers for these patients were assessed according to eight categories: prescribing; dispensing; manufacturing; usage; trade and distribution; affordability; penalties; and other. An additional keyword search was conducted to minimize the omission of barriers. Barriers in an additional category, language, were recorded qualitatively. Countries included Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey.ResultsTen of the 11 countries (all except Estonia) showed specific potential barriers in their legislation and regulations. The total number of barriers varied from two (Slovenia) to 46 (Lithuania); the number of categories varied from one (Slovenia) to five (Lithuania). Most specific potential barriers were shown in the categories ‘prescribing’, ‘usage’ and ‘other’. The total number in a single category varied from one to 18 (Lithuania, prescribing). Individual differences between countries in the same specific potential barrier were shown; for example, variation in minimum age criteria for admission to OAT ranging from 15 (Lithuania, in special cases) to 20 years (Greece). All countries had stigmatizing language in their legislation.ConclusionsPatients with opioid dependence are likely to experience specific barriers to accessing opioids in addition to those experienced by other non-dependent patients.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T22:30:24.751609-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13755
  • Feasibility and safety of extended-release naltrexone treatment of opioid
           and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics: a pilot/feasibility randomized
    • Authors: Philip T. Korthuis; Paula J. Lum, Pamela Vergara-Rodriguez, Keith Ahamad, Evan Wood, Lynn E. Kunkel, Neal L. Oden, Robert Lindblad, James L. Sorensen, Virgilio Arenas, Doan Ha, Raul N. Mandler, Dennis McCarty,
      Abstract: Background and aimsHIV-infected people with substance use disorders are least likely to benefit from advances in HIV treatment. Integration of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) into HIV clinics may increase engagement in the HIV care continuum by decreasing substance use. We aimed to compare (1) XR-NTX treatment initiation, (2) retention and (3) safety of XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) for treating opioid use disorder (OUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) in HIV clinics.DesignNon-blinded randomized trial of XR-NTX versus pharmacotherapy TAU.SettingHIV primary care clinics in Vancouver, BC, Canada and Chicago, IL, USA.ParticipantsFifty-one HIV-infected patients seeking treatment for OUD (n = 16), AUD (n = 27) or both OUD and AUD (n = 8).MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were XR-NTX initiation (receipt of first injection within 4 weeks of randomization) and retention at 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes generated point estimates for change in substance use, HIV viral suppression [HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (pcr) 
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T19:40:24.493995-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13753
  • Modifiable parenting factors associated with adolescent alcohol misuse: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
    • Authors: Marie B. H. Yap; Tony W. K. Cheong, Foivos Zaravinos-Tsakos, Dan I. Lubman, Anthony F. Jorm
      Abstract: Background and aimsAdolescent alcohol misuse is a growing global health concern. Substantial research suggests that parents have an important role in reducing young people's risk for early initiation of alcohol and alcohol-related harms. To facilitate research translation, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies examining the range of modifiable parenting factors that are associated with adolescent alcohol initiation and levels of later use/misuse.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase. Studies were included if they (i) used a longitudinal design; (ii) were published in English; (iii) measured any modifiable parenting factors in adolescence as predictors; (iv) assessed any alcohol-related outcome variables in adolescence, and/or alcohol-related problems in adulthood; and (v) had a follow-up interval of at least one year. Parental behaviors were categorized into twelve parenting factors. Stouffer's p analyses were used to determine whether the associations between variables were reliable; when there were sufficient studies available, meta-analyses were also conducted to estimate mean effect sizes.ResultsBased on 131 studies, three risk factors (parental provision of alcohol, favorable parental attitudes towards alcohol, and parental drinking) and four protective factors (parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support, and parental involvement) were identified as longitudinal predictors of both alcohol initiation and levels of later alcohol use/misuse, based on their significant results in both Stouffer's p analyses and meta-analyses. The mean effect sizes were mostly small (rs = -0.224 to 0.263).ConclusionsRisk of adolescent alcohol misuse is positively associated with parental provision of alcohol, favorable parental attitudes towards alcohol, and parental drinking. It is negatively associated with parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support, and parental involvement.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T15:00:01.972744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13785
  • Effects of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on the risk
           of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: a natural experiment
    • Authors: Emelie Thern; Jeroen Munter, Tomas Hemmingsson, George Davey Smith, Mats Ramstedt, Per Tynelius, Finn Rasmussen
      Abstract: AimTo test if being exposed to increased alcohol availability during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving disability pension due to all-cause, alcohol use disorders and mental disorders.DesignRegister-based population-based study using a natural experiment setting, the alcohol policy change in Sweden (1967–68), with increased access to strong beer in a narrow time window and geographical area. The individuals exposed to the policy change were compared with non-exposed individuals living in the rest of Sweden, excluding a border area.SettingSweden.ParticipantsA total of 518 810 individuals (70 761 in the intervention group; 448 049 in the control group) born 1948–1953, aged 14–20 years during the policy change.MeasurementsDate and diagnosis of the outcome variable of disability pension due to all-cause, alcohol use disorders and mental disorders were obtained from the Swedish National Social Insurance Agency database from 1971 to 2013. Individual and family level socio-demographic and health-related covariates, as well as a regional level covariate, were included.FindingsCompared with the control group, adolescents exposed to the alcohol policy change were at an increased risk of receiving disability pension due to all-causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–1.11], alcohol use disorders (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05–1.30) and mental disorders (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.15–1.23).ConclusionIn Sweden, a natural experiment with a 43-year follow-up suggests that exposure to increased alcohol availability during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving a disability pension due to all-cause, alcohol use disorder and mental disorder diagnoses.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T23:41:58.927478-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13750
  • A daily reprieve contingent on the maintenance of our spiritual condition
    • Authors: Wendy Dossett
      Abstract: Commentary to: Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither' Findings from 25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T02:11:30.558901-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13731
  • Implications for future research on drivers of change and alternatives to
           Alcoholics Anonymous
    • Authors: Sarah E. Zemore
      Abstract: Commentary to: Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither' Findings from 25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T23:22:23.469648-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13728
  • The recovery community as a location for secular spirituality
    • Authors: Linda Farris Kurtz
      Abstract: Commentary to: Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither' Findings from 25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T22:30:35.154157-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13716
  • Issue Information - Title, Aims & Scope
    • Pages: 925 - 926
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T20:51:49.385979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13570
  • Commentary on Rehm et al. (2017): Composition of alcoholic beverages—an
           under-researched dimension in the global comparative risk assessment
    • Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G. Walch
      Pages: 1002 - 1003
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T20:51:49.451967-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13790
  • Commentary on Daubresse et al. (2017): An epidemic of outdated data
    • Authors: Walid F. Gellad
      Pages: 1054 - 1055
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T20:51:41.81801-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13817
  • Corrigendum
    • Pages: 1112 - 1112
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T20:51:47.821237-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13820
  • New Books
    • Pages: 1113 - 1114
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T20:51:50.079772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13836
  • News and Notes
    • Pages: 1115 - 1118
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T20:51:42.577656-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13844
  • Issue Information - TOC
    • Pages: 1120 - 1120
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T20:51:42.363906-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13571
  • Why the mechanisms of 12-Step behaviour change should matter to clinicians
    • Authors: David Best
      Abstract: Commentary to: Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither' Findings from 25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T23:20:23.916579-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13631
  • Methamphetamine-related psychosis: an opportunity for assertive
           intervention and prevention
    • Authors: Julia M. Lappin; Grant E. Sara, Michael Farrell
      PubDate: 2016-12-01T01:16:15.503265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13663
  • Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither? Findings from
           25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research
    • Authors: John F. Kelly
      Pages: 929 - 936
      Abstract: BackgroundAlcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a world-wide recovery mutual-help organization that continues to arouse controversy. In large part, concerns persist because of AA's ostensibly quasi-religious/spiritual orientation and emphasis. In 1990 the United States’ Institute of Medicine called for more studies on AA's effectiveness and its mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) stimulating a flurry of federally funded research. This paper reviews the religious/spiritual origins of AA and its program and contrasts its theory with findings from this latest research.MethodLiterature review, summary and synthesis of studies examining AA's MOBC.ResultsWhile AA's original main text (‘the Big Book’, 1939) purports that recovery is achieved through quasi-religious/spiritual means (‘spiritual awakening’), findings from studies on MOBC suggest this may be true only for a minority of participants with high addiction severity. AA's beneficial effects seem to be carried predominantly by social, cognitive and affective mechanisms. These mechanisms are more aligned with the experiences reported by AA's own larger and more diverse membership as detailed in its later social, cognitive and behaviorally oriented publications (e.g. Living Sober, 1975) written when AA membership numbered more than a million men and women.ConclusionsAlcoholics Anonymous appears to be an effective clinical and public health ally that aids addiction recovery through its ability to mobilize therapeutic mechanisms similar to those mobilized in formal treatment, but is able to do this for free over the long term in the communities in which people live.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T00:25:25.389743-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13590
  • Mind the gap—a European viewpoint on Alcoholics Anonymous
    • Authors: John-Kåre Vederhus
      Pages: 937 - 938
      Abstract: Commentary to: Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither? Findings from 25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research
      PubDate: 2016-11-05T01:46:03.091889-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13609
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