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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 262, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Addiction
  [SJR: 2.086]   [H-I: 143]   [35 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0965-2140 - ISSN (Online) 1360-0443
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Addiction Lives: Wayne Hall
    • PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:26:09.282326-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13965
  • Addiction Lives: Thomas F. Babor
    • PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:20:23.878267-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13963
  • Assessing causal relationships using genetic proxies for exposures: An
           introduction to Mendelian randomisation
    • Authors: Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi; Michael Green, Amy E. Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R. Munafò
      Abstract: Background and aimsStudying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research, and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Mendelian randomisation (MR) offers potential solutions to these problems.MethodsWe describe MR's principles and the criteria under which it is valid. We identify challenges and potential solutions in its application (illustrated using two applied examples), and describe methodological extensions in its application.ResultsMR is subject to certain assumptions, and requires the availability of appropriate genetic data, large sample sizes, and careful design and conduct. However, it has already been successfully applied to the addiction literature. The relationship between alcohol consumption (proxied by a variant in the ADH1B gene) and cardiovascular risk has been investigated, finding that alcohol consumption increases risk, with no evidence of a cardio-protective effect at moderate consumption levels. In addition, heaviness of smoking (proxied by a variant in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster) and risk of depression and schizophrenia have been investigated, with no evidence of a causal effect of smoking on depression but some evidence of a causal effect on schizophrenia.ConclusionsMendelian randomisation (MR) analyses are already producing robust evidence for addiction-related practice and policy. As genetic variants associated with addictive behaviours are identified, the potential for MR analyses will grow. Methodological developments are also increasing its applicability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-17T18:55:19.55835-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14038
  • Alcohol e-Help: Study protocol for a Web-based self-help program to reduce
           alcohol use in adults with drinking patterns considered harmful,
           hazardous, or suggestive of dependence in middle-income countries
    • Authors: Michael P. Schaub; Marcela Tiburcio, Nora Martinez, Atul Ambekar, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Andreas Wenger, André Luiz Monezi Andrade, Dzianis Padruchny, Sergey Osipchik, Elise Gehring, Vladimir Poznyak, Dag Rekve, Maria Lucia Oliveira Souza-Formigoni,
      Abstract: Background and aimsGiven the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the Internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use.DesignTwo-arm RCT with follow-up 6 months after randomisation.SettingCommunity samples in middle-income countries.ParticipantsPeople aged 18+, with AUDIT scores of 8+ indicating hazardous alcohol consumption.Intervention and comparatorOffer of an Internet-based self-help intervention, “Alcohol e-Health,” compared with a ‘waiting list’ control group. The intervention, adapted from a previous program with evidence of effectiveness in a high-income country, consists of modules to reduce or entirely stop drinking.MeasurementsThe primary outcome measure is change in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score assessed at 6 month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported the numbers of standard drinks and alcohol-free days in a typical week over the past six months, and cessation of harmful or hazardous drinking (AUDIT < 8).AnalysisData analysis will be by intention-to-treat, using analysis of covariance to test if program participants will experience a greater reduction in their AUDIT score than controls at follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by (generalized) linear mixed models. Complier average causal effect and baseline observations carried forward will be used in sensitivity analyses.CommentsIf the Alcohol e-Health program is found to be effective, the potential public health impact of its expansion into countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems worldwide is considerable.
      PubDate: 2017-09-17T18:00:21.01881-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14034
  • Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in
           African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences
    • Authors: Meghan J. Chenoweth; Jennifer J. Ware, Andy Z. X. Zhu, Christopher B. Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia, Neal L. Benowitz, Robert A. Schnoll, Larry W. Hawk, Paul M. Cinciripini, Tony P. George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F. Tyndale,
      Abstract: Background and aimsThe activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3’hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent. Our current aim was to identify novel genetic influences on the NMR in AA smokers using genome-wide approaches.DesignGenome-wide association study (GWAS).SettingMultiple sites within Canada and the United States.ParticipantsAA smokers from two clinical trials: Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction Treatment (PNAT)-2 (NCT01314001; n=504) and Kick-it-at-Swope (KIS)-3 (NCT00666978; n=450).MeasurementsGenome-wide SNP genotyping, the NMR (phenotype), and population substructure and NMR covariates.FindingsMeta-analysis revealed three independent chromosome 19 signals (rs12459249, rs111645190, and rs185430475) associated with the NMR. The top overall hit, rs12459249 (P=1.47e-39; beta=0.59 per C (versus T) allele, SE=0.045), located ~9.5kb 3’ of CYP2A6, remained genome-wide significant after controlling for the common (~10% in AA) non-functional CYP2A6*17 allele. In contrast, rs111645190 and rs185430475 were not genome-wide significant when controlling for CYP2A6*17. In total, 96 signals associated with the NMR were identified; many were not found in prior NMR GWASs in European descent individuals. The top hits were also associated with the NMR in a third cohort of AA (KIS2; n=480). None of the hits were in UGT or OCT2 genes.ConclusionsThree independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African-American smokers. The hits identified may contribute to inter-ethnic variability in nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviours, and tobacco-related disease risk.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16T17:00:30.543363-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14032
  • The lessons learned from the fentanyl overdose crises in British Columbia,
    • Authors: Erica Thomson; Hugh Lampkin, Russ Maynard, Mohammad Karamouzian, Ehsan Jozaghi
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T21:55:29.619405-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13961
  • Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in
           the 1984 to 2015 US National Alcohol Surveys
    • Authors: William C. Kerr; Camillia Lui, Yu Ye
      Abstract: Background and AimsEpidemiological trends show marijuana use in the U.S. to have increased in recent years. Previous research has identified cohort effects as contributing to the rising prevalence, in particular birth cohorts born after 1945. However, given recent policy efforts to regulate marijuana use at the state level, period effects could also play a contributing role. This study aims to examine whether cohort or period effects play a larger role in explaining trends in marijuana use.DesignUsing data from seven National Alcohol Surveys, we estimate age-period cohort decomposition models for marijuana use controlling for socio-demographic measures.SettingUnited StatesParticipantsU.S. general population ages 18 and older from 1984 to 2015.MeasurementsAny past year marijuana useFindingsResults indicate that period effects are the main driver of rising marijuana use prevalence. Models including indicators of medical and recreational marijuana policies do not find any significant positive impacts.ConclusionsThe steep rise in marijuana use in the United States since 2005 occurred across the population and is attributable to general period effects not specifically linked to the liberalization of marijuana policies in some states.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T02:00:02.073145-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14031
  • Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing
           HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: findings from a Cochrane
           Review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Lucy Platt; Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
      Abstract: AimsTo estimate the effects of needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID).MethodsSystematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies measuring concurrent exposure to current OST (within last 6 months) and/or NSP and HCV incidence among PWID. High NSP coverage was defined as regular NSP attendance or ≥100% coverage (receiving sufficient or greater number of needles/syringes per reported injecting frequency). Studies were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias in non-randomised studies tool. Random effects models were used in meta-analysis.ResultsWe identified 28 studies (n=6279) in North America (13), UK (5), Europe (4), Australia (5), and China (1). Studies were at moderate (2), serious (17) critical (7) and non-assessable risk of bias (2). Current OST is associated with 50% (risk ratio (RR) 0.50 95% CI 0.40-0.63) reduction in HCV acquisition risk, consistent across region and with low heterogeneity (I2=0, p=0.889). Weaker evidence was found for high NSP coverage (RR=0.79 95% CI 0.39-1.61) with high heterogeneity (I2=77%, p=0.002). After stratifying by region, high NSP coverage in Europe was associated with a 56% reduction in HCV acquisition risk (RR=0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.80) with low heterogeneity (I2=12.3%, p=0.337) but not in North America (RR=1.58, I2=89.5%, p=
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T04:00:00.857153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14012
  • The future of the international drug control system and national drug
    • Authors: Wayne Hall
      Abstract: A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non-medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a personal view on policies that nation states could adopt to minimize the harms from the use of cannabis, party drugs and hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants and new psychoactive substances. It is argued that: a major risk of cannabis legalization in the United States is promotion of heavy use and increased harm by a weakly regulated industry; some cautious national experiments with the regulation of party drugs and hallucinogens would be informative; a strong case remains for prohibiting the nonmedical use of opioids while mitigating the adverse effects that this policy has on opioid-dependent people; stimulant legalization will probably increase problem use but prohibition is difficult to enforce, highlighting the urgency of finding better ways to reduce demand for these drugs and respond to problem users; and that it is unclear what the best approach is to reducing possible harms that may arise from the use of new psychoactive substances.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T00:15:00.928804-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13941
  • Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement
    • Authors: Nicola Lindson; Dan Richards-Doran, Laura Heath, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce,
      Abstract: Background and AimsThe Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for tobacco cessation and prevention interventions. In 2016 TAG conducted a priority-setting, stakeholder engagement project to identify where further research is needed in the areas of tobacco control and smoking cessation.DesignThe project comprised two surveys and a workshop. A range of stakeholders participated, including members of the public (smokers and ex-smokers), clinicians, researchers, research funders, health-care commissioners and public health organizations. The first survey phase identified unanswered research questions in the field of tobacco control. The second phase asked participants to rank these, with overall rankings calculated by combining scores across participants. The workshop allowed attendees to discuss prioritization of topics and questions in more depth. Workshop discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically, and a final voting activity at the close of the workshop allowed participants to choose topics to prioritize and to de-prioritize.FindingsA total of 304 stakeholders (researchers, health professionals, smokers and ex-smokers, guideline developers, research funders and policymakers, representing 28 countries) identified 183 unanswered research questions. These were categorized into 15 research categories. A total of 175 participants prioritized categories and questions in the second survey phase, with ‘electronic cigarettes’; ‘addressing inequalities’; and ‘mental health and other substance abuse’ prioritized as the top three categories. Forty-three stakeholders attended the workshop and discussed reasons for and against category prioritization. Prioritized research categories largely mirrored those in the survey stage, although ‘treatment delivery’ also emerged as a key category. Five cross-cutting themes emerged: efficacy; relative efficacy; cost effectiveness; addressing inequalities; and different types of evidence.ConclusionsThere are many unanswered questions in the field of tobacco control. Stakeholders highlighted electronic cigarettes, addressing inequalities and mental health and other substance abuse as key areas for further research, and efficacy, relative efficacy, cost-effectiveness and use of non-randomized studies as important themes cutting across research areas. Future prioritization work would benefit from targeting non-US and non-UK stakeholders explicitly and from examining where priorities may differ based on stakeholder group.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T23:00:00.691637-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13940
  • The short term impact of the Alcohol Act on alcohol-related deaths and
           hospital admissions in Scotland: a natural experiment.
    • Authors: Mark Robinson; Janet Bouttell, James Lewsey, Danny Mackay, Gerry McCartney, Clare Beeston
      Abstract: Background and aimThe introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland on 1 October 2011, which included a ban on multi-buy promotions, was likely associated with a fall in off-trade alcohol sales in the year after its implementation. The aim of this study was to test if the same legislation was associated with reduced levels of alcohol-related deaths and hospital admissions in the 3-year period after its introduction.DesignA natural experiment design using time series data to assess the impact of the Alcohol Act legislation in Scotland. Comparisons were made with unexposed populations in the rest of Great Britain.SettingScotland with comparable data obtained for geographical control groups in other parts of Great Britain.ParticipantsFor alcohol-related deaths, a total of 17,732 in Scotland and 88,001 in England/Wales across 169 four-week periods between January 2001 and December 2013. For alcohol-related hospital admissions, a total of 121,314 in Scotland and 696,892 in England across 182 four-week periods between January 2001 and December 2014.MeasurementsDeaths and hospital admissions in Scotland and control groups that were wholly attributable to alcohol for consecutive four-week periods between January 2001 and December 2014. Data were obtained by age, sex and area-based socioeconomic position.FindingsThere was no evidence to suggest that the Alcohol Act was associated with changes in the overall rate of alcohol-related deaths [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (0.91 to 1.07)] or hospital admissions [IRR 0.98 (0.95 to 1.02)] in Scotland. In control group analyses, the pseudo intervention variable was not associated with a change in alcohol-related death rates in England/Wales [IRR 0.99 (0.95 to 1.02)], but was associated with an increase in alcohol-related hospital admission rates in England [IRR 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07)]. In combined models, the interaction analysis did not provide support for a ‘net effect’ of the legislation on alcohol-related deaths in Scotland compared with England/Wales [IRR 0.99 (0.95 to 1.04)], but suggested a net reduction in hospital admissions for Scotland compared with England [IRR 0.93 (0.87 to 0.98)].ConclusionThe implementation of the Alcohol Act in Scotland has not been associated clearly with a reduction in alcohol-related deaths or hospital admissions in the 3-year period after it was implemented in October 2011.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:00:01.28577-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14019
  • On risk in addiction science, policy and debate
    • Authors: John Holmes; Harry Sumnall
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T01:20:31.485093-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13962
  • Intellectually disabled and addicted: a call for evidence based
           tailor-made interventions
    • Authors: Marion Kiewik; Joanne E. L. VanDerNagel, Rutger C. M. E. Engels, Cor A. J. De Jong
      PubDate: 2017-09-03T23:50:19.448852-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13971
  • Practising drinking, practising health
    • Authors: Cameron Duff
      Abstract: Commentary to: All drinking is not equal: how a social practice theory lens could enhance public health research on alcohol and other health behaviours
      PubDate: 2017-09-03T23:39:07.079032-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13966
  • A Developmental-based Motivational Intervention to Reduce Alcohol and
           Marijuana Use Among Non-Treatment-Seeking Young Adults: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Michael D. Stein; Celeste M. Caviness, Emily F. Morse, Kristin R. Grimone, Daniel Audet, Debra S. Herman, Ethan Moitra, Bradley J. Anderson
      Abstract: AimsTo test the hypothesis that among non-treatment-seeking emerging adults (EA) who both use marijuana and have alcohol binges, a brief, longitudinally-delivered, developmentally-based motivational intervention would show greater reductions in the use of these two substances compared with a health education control condition.DesignParallel, two group, randomized controlled trial with follow-up interventions conducted at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months and final assessments at 12 and 15 months.SettingHospital-based research unit in the United States.ParticipantsCommunity-based 18-25 year olds who reported at least monthly binge drinking and at least weekly marijuana use.InterventionMotivational intervention focused primarily on themes of emerging adulthood (identity exploration, instability, self-focus, feeling in-between, a sense of possibilities) and the subjects' relationship to substance use (n=110) compared with an attention-matched health education control condition (n=116).MeasurementsThe primary outcomes were days of binge alcohol, marijuana and dual use day as measured using the Timeline Followback Method analyzing the treatment by time interaction to determine relative differences in the rate of change between intervention arms.FindingsAt baseline, the mean rate (days / 30) of binge drinking was 5.23 (± 4.31), of marijuana use was 19.4 (± 10.0), and of dual (same day) use was 4.11 (± 4.13). Relative to baseline, there were reductions in the rate of binge alcohol use, marijuana use, and days of combined binge alcohol and marijuana use (p < .001) at all follow-up assessments. However, the treatment by time interaction was not statistically significant for alcohol (p = .37), for marijuana (p=.07), or for dual use (p=.55). Averaged over all follow-ups, mean reductions in binge, marijuana, and dual use days were 1.16, 1.45, and 1.08, respectively, in the health education arm, and 1.06, 1.69, and 0.96 in MI. Bayes factors were < .01 for frequency of binge alcohol use and frequency of dual binge alcohol and marijuana, and .016 for marijuana use.ConclusionsA brief, longitudinally-delivered, developmentally-based motivational intervention for young adults did not produce reductions in binge alcohol, marijuana use, or dual use days relative to a control condition.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02T09:45:22.869587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14026
  • Non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with
           fatal poisoning
    • Authors: Jari Haukka; Pirkko Kriikku, Claudia Mariottini, Timo Partonen, Ilkka Ojanperä
      Abstract: AimsThe aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland.Design and settingRetrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The post-mortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines.Participants/CasesAll post-mortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine, and bupropion, n=2974.MeasurementsThe non-medical use of substance was outcome variable. Predictors were the following: gender, residence at the time of death, place of death, blood alcohol concentration, age, drug abuse, number of prescriptions of any psychoactive drugs in last year, proportion of prescriptions issued by psychiatrist in last year.FindingsIn 50.4% of the studied cases, at least one drug was detected without a prescription. Clonazepam, alprazolam and tramadol were the most prevalent non-medical findings in these cases (6.6%, 6.1% and 5.6%, respectively). The risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs was especially high in cases with history of drug abuse (88.5%) and in fatal poisonings (71.0%). The proportion of non-medical use of the studied substances varied between 5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.1%–10.1%) for risperidone and 55.7% for fentanyl (95% CI = 44.1%–66.9%).Valid prescription for one or more of any psychoactive drug was associated with lower odds for non-medical use of the studied substances. Additionally, the higher the proportion of psychoactive drugs prescribed by a psychiatrist, the lower the probability of non-medical use.ConclusionsNon-prescribed psychoactive drugs are commonly found at post-mortem in drug poisoning deaths in Finland with history of drug abuse being a major contributing factor.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T17:40:37.578138-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14014
  • Evaluating the Mutual Pathways among Electronic Cigarette Use,
           Conventional Smoking, and Nicotine Dependence
    • Authors: Arielle S. Selya; Jennifer S. Rose, Lisa Dierker, Donald Hedeker, Robin J. Mermelstein
      Abstract: Background and AimsThe implications of the rapid rise in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use remain unknown. We examined mutual associations between e-cigarette use, conventional cigarette use, and nicotine dependence over time to 1) test the association between e-cigarette use and later conventional smoking (both direct and via nicotine dependence), 2) test the converse associations, and 3) determine the strongest pathways predicting each product's use.DesignData from 4 annual waves of a prospective cohort study were analyzed. Path analysis modeled the bi-directional, longitudinal relationships between past-month smoking frequency, past-month e-cigarette frequency, and nicotine dependence.SettingChicago area, Illinois, USA.ParticipantsN=1007 young adult smokers and nonsmokers (ages 19-23).MeasurementsFrequency of 1) cigarettes and 2) e-cigarettes was the number of days in the past 30 on which the product was used. The Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale measured nicotine dependence to cigarettes.FindingsE-cigarette use was not significantly associated with later conventional smoking, either directly (β=0.021, p=.081) or through nicotine dependence (β=0.005, p=.693). Conventional smoking was positively associated with later e-cigarette use, both directly (β=0.118, p
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T17:25:27.707123-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14013
  • The trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the United States,
           Uruguay, Canada and Portugal: is more cross-substance learning possible
           outside the United States'
    • Authors: Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes
      Abstract: Commentary to: The diverging trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the United States: reasons and possible implications
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T21:40:24.490463-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13954
  • Accuracy of self-reported smoking abstinence in clinical trials of
           hospital-initiated smoking interventions
    • Authors: Taneisha S. Scheuermann; Kimber P. Richter, Nancy A. Rigotti, Sharon E. Cummins, Kathleen F. Harrington, Scott E. Sherman, Shu-Hong Zhu, Hilary A. Tindle, Kristopher J. Preacher,
      Abstract: AimsTo estimate the prevalence and predictors of failed biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence among participants enrolled in trials of hospital-initiated smoking cessation interventions.DesignComparison of characteristics between participants who verified and those who failed to verify self-reported abstinence.SettingsMulti-site randomized clinical trials conducted between 2010 and 2014 in hospitals throughout the United States.ParticipantsRecently hospitalized smokers who reported tobacco abstinence 6 months post-randomization and provided a saliva sample for verification purposes (n = 822).MeasurementsOutcomes were salivary cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at 10 and 15 ng/ml cut-points. Predictors and correlates included participant demographics and tobacco use; hospital diagnoses and treatment; and study characteristics collected via surveys and electronic medical records.FindingsUsable samples were returned by 69.8% of the 1178 eligible trial participants who reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence. The proportion of participants verified as quit was 57.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 54.4, 61.2; 10 ng/ml cut-off] or 60.6% (95% CI = 57.2, 63.9; 15 ng/ml). Factors associated independently with verification at 10 ng/ml were education beyond high school education [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.11], continuous abstinence since hospitalization (OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 2.02, 3.94), mailed versus in-person sample (OR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.96, 5.21) and race. African American participants were less likely to verify abstinence than white participants (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.93). Findings were similar for verification at 15 ng/ml. Verification rates did not differ by treatment group.ConclusionsIn the United States, high rates (40%) of recently hospitalized smokers enrolled in smoking cessation trials fail biochemical verification of their self-reported abstinence.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T09:00:01.866149-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13913
  • Socioeconomic differentials in cannabis use trends in Australia.
    • Authors: Gary C. K. Chan; Janni Leung, Catherine Quinn, Megan Weier, Wayne Hall
      Abstract: AimTo test if the degree of change in cannabis use between 2001 and 2013 differed according to socioeconomic status.DesignRepeated cross-sectional household surveys that were nationally representative.SettingAustralia.ParticipantsAdult samples from the 2001 and 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (N = 23,642 in 2001 and N = 21,353 in 2013), the largest nationally representative survey on drug use in Australia.MeasurementsFrequency of cannabis use coded as daily use, weekly use, less than weekly use and non-current use; socioeconomic status (SES) as measured by personal income and education level.FindingThere were significant differences in changes to levels of cannabis use between SES groups. Among participants who completed high school, the probability of daily use decreased from 0.014 to 0.009 (p < .001), and the probability of weekly use decreased from 0.025 to 0.017 (p < .001). These probabilities remained stable for participants who did not complete high school. The probability of weekly cannabis use decreased from 0.032 to 0.023 among participants with middle level income (p = .004), and from 0.021 to 0.013 among those with high income (p = .005). There were no significant changes in these probabilities among those with low income (0.026 in 2001 and 0.032 in 2013; p = .203).ConclusionThe decline in cannabis use in Australia from 2001 to 2013 largely occurred among higher socioeconomic status groups. For people with lower income and/or lower education, rates of frequent cannabis use remained unchanged.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T03:25:18.853855-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14010
  • New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to different levels of
           alcohol consumption
    • Authors: Kevin D. Shield; Claire Marant Micallef, Catherine Hill, Mathilde Touvier, Pierre Arwidson, Christophe Bonaldi, Pietro Ferrari, Freddie Bray, Isabelle Soerjomataram
      Abstract: Background and aimsAlcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer. Thus, to inform policy decisions, this study estimated the number of new cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to alcohol consumption generally and to light (
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T03:02:14.44173-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14009
  • Effects of high Alcohol Intake, Alcohol-related Symptoms, and Smoking on
    • Authors: John B. Whitfield; Andrew C. Heath, Pamela A. F. Madden, J. George Landers, Nicholas G. Martin
      Abstract: Background and AimsBoth high alcohol intake and alcohol dependence increase mortality, and both are associated with smoking. We aimed to compare the associations of quantity of alcohol, number of alcohol-related symptoms, and smoking history with all-cause mortality, and to assess symptom count and smoking history as confounders or mediators of the effects of high alcohol intake.DesignSurvival was analysed by Cox regression with sex, body mass index, alcohol intake (overall and by beverage), maximum drinks on any day, alcohol symptom count and smoking status as potential predictors of age at death.SettingAustralia.ParticipantsParticipants were apparently healthy volunteers consisting of 33,593 Australian adult twins and their relatives who completed questionnaires or interviews between 1979 and 2005.MeasurementsData on alcohol use, smoking, and occurrence of symptoms related to alcohol use disorders, and death records from the Australian National Death Index.Findings3764 participants were matched with deaths occurring within Australia up to July 2014. Individually, alcohol intake (hazard ratio (HR) 1.0082, 95% CI 1.0063-1.0102, per drink per week), beer intake (HR 1.0159, 95% CI 1.0123-1.0195, per drink per week), lifetime maximum number of drinks in one day (HR 1.0176, 95% CI 1.0130-1.0221, per drink), symptom count (HR 1.0867, 95% CI 1.0633-1.1106, per symptom) and smoking status (HR 2.82, 95% CI 2.52-3.16, for smokers of 10+ cigarettes/day versus never-smokers) were each significant predictors of all-cause mortality. After adjustment for the independently significant predictors alcohol symptom count and smoking status, alcohol intake was no longer significant (adjusted HR 1.0012 per drink per week, 95% CI 0.9979-1.0145).ConclusionsNumber of symptoms related to high alcohol intake, and tobacco smoking, appear to account for the positive association between alcohol consumption and premature mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T02:45:22.551062-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14008
  • Moral Disapproval and Perceived Addiction to Internet Pornography: A
           Longitudinal Examination
    • Authors: Joshua B. Grubbs; Joshua A. Wilt, Julie J. Exline, Kenneth I. Pargament, Shane W. Kraus
      Abstract: Background and AimsInternet pornography use is an increasingly common, yet controversial, behavior. Whereas mental health communities are divided about potentially problematic use patterns, many laypeople identify as feeling dysregulated or compulsive in their use. Prior work has labeled this tendency perceived addiction to internet pornography (PA). This study's aims were to 1) assess the association between PA at baseline and other factors, including actual levels of average daily pornography use and personality factors and 2) assess the associations between baseline variables and PA one year later.DesignTwo large-scale community samples were assessed using online survey methods, with subsets of each sample being recruited for follow up surveys one year later.SettingUSAParticipantsParticipants were adults who had used pornography within the past 6 months recruited in two samples Sample 1 (N = 1,507) involved undergraduate students from three US universities and Sample 2 (N =782) involved web-using adults. Sub-sets of each sample (Sample 1, N = 146; Sample 2, N = 211) were surveyed again one year later.MeasurementsAt baseline, we assessed average daily pornography use, PA, and relevant predictors (e.g., trait neuroticism, trait self-control, trait entitlement, religiousness, moral disapproval of pornography use). One year later, we assessed PA.FindingsCross-sectionally, PA was strongly correlated with moral disapproval of pornography use (Sample 1, Pearson's correlation: r = .68, [.65, .70]; Sample 2, r = .58 [.53, .63]). Baseline moral disapproval (Sample 1, r = .46, [.33, .56]; Sample 2, r = .61, [.51, .69]) and perceived addiction demonstrated relationships with perceived addiction one year later. We found inconclusive evidence of a substantial or significant association between pornography use and perceived addiction over time (Sample 1, r = .13, [-.02, .28]; Sample 2, r = .11 [-.04, .25]).ConclusionsPerceived addiction to internet pornography appears to be strongly related to moral scruples around pornography use, both concurrently and over time, rather than with amount of daily pornography use itself.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T02:20:28.29838-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14007
  • Estimates of effectiveness and reach for ‘return on investment’
           modelling of smoking cessation interventions using data from England
    • Authors: Robert West; Kathryn Coyle, Lesley Owen, Doug Coyle, Subhash Pokhrel,
      Abstract: Background and aimsEstimating ‘return on investment’ (ROI) from smoking cessation interventions requires reach and effectiveness parameters for interventions for use in economic models such as the EQUIPT ROI tool ( This paper describes the derivation of these parameter estimates for England that can be adapted to create ROI models for use by other countries.MethodsEstimates were derived for interventions in terms of their reach and effectiveness in: 1) promoting quit attempts, and 2) improving the success of quit attempts (abstinence for at least 12 months). The sources were systematic reviews of efficacy supplemented by individual effectiveness evaluations and national surveys.FindingsQuit attempt rates were estimated to be increased by the following percentages (with reach in parentheses): 20% by tax increases raising the cost of smoking 5% above the cost of living index (100%); 10% by enforced comprehensive indoor public smoking bans (100%); 3% by mass media campaigns achieving 400 gross rating points (100%); 40% by brief opportunistic physician advice (21%); and 110% by use of a licensed nicotine product to reduce cigarette consumption (12%);. Quit success rates were estimated to be increased by the following ratios: 60% by single-form nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (5%); 114% by NRT patch plus a faster acting NRT (2%);124% by prescribed varenicline (5%); 60% by bupropion (1%); 100% by nortriptyline (0%), 10) 298% by cytisine (0%); 40% by individual face-to-face behavioural support (2%); 37% by telephone support (0.5%); 88% by group behavioural support (1%); 63% by text messaging (0.5%); and 19% by printed self-help materials (1%). There was insufficient evidence to obtain reliable, country-specific estimates for interventions such as websites, smartphone apps and e-cigarettes.ConclusionsTax increases, indoor smoking bans, brief opportunistic physician advice, and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking reduction can all increase population quit attempt rates. Quit success rates can be increased by provision of NRT, varenicline, bupropion, nortriptyline, cytisine and behavioural support delivered through a variety of modalities. Parameter estimates for the effectiveness and reach of these interventions can contribute to return on investment estimates in support of national or regional policy decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:05:23.06688-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14006
  • Development and Application of an Economic Model (EQUIPTMOD) to assess the
           Impact of Smoking Cessation
    • Authors: Kathryn Coyle; Doug Coyle, Adam Lester-George, Robert West, Bertalan Nemeth, Mickael Hiligsmann, Marta Trapero-Bertran, Reiner Leidl, Subhash Pokhrel,
      Abstract: Background and AimsAlthough clear benefits are associated with reducing smoking, there is increasing pressure on public health providers to justify investment in tobacco control measures. Decision makers need tools to assess the return on investment (ROI)/cost effectiveness of programs. The EQUIPT project adapted an ROI tool for England to four European countries (Germany, Netherlands, Spain and Hungary). EQUIPTMOD, the economic model at the core of the ROI tool, is designed to assess the efficiency of packages of smoking cessation interventions. The objective of this paper is to describe the methods for EQUIPTMOD and identify key outcomes associated with continued and cessation of smoking.MethodsEQUIPTMOD uses a Markov model to estimate lifetime costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and life years associated with a current and former smoker. It uses population data on smoking prevalence, disease prevalence, mortality and the impact of smoking combined with associated costs and utility effects of disease. To illustrate the tool's potential, costs, QALYs and life expectancy were estimated for the average current smoker for five countries based on the assumptions that they continue and that they cease smoking over the next 12 months. Costs and effects were discounted at country specific rates.ResultsFor illustration, over a lifetime horizon, not quitting smoking within the next 12 months in England will reduce life expectancy by 0.66, reduce QALYs by 1.09 and result in £4,961 higher disease related health care costs - than if the smoker ceased smoking in the next 12 months. For all age-sex categories, costs were lower and QALYs higher for those who quit smoking in the twelve months than those who continued.ConclusionsEQUIPTMOD facilitates assessment of the cost effectiveness of smoking cessation strategies. The demonstrated results indicate large potential benefits from smoking cessation at both an individual and population level.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T01:05:48.537225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14001
  • Cost-effectiveness of emergency department-initiated treatment for opioid
    • Authors: Susan H. Busch; David A. Fiellin, Marek C. Chawarski, Patricia H. Owens, Michael V. Pantalon, Kathryn Hawk, Steven L. Bernstein, Patrick G. O'Connor, Gail D'Onofrio
      Abstract: Background and AimsIn a recent randomized trial, patients with opioid dependence receiving brief intervention, emergency department (ED)-initiated buprenorphine and ongoing follow-up in primary care with buprenorphine (buprenorphine) were twice as likely to be engaged in addiction treatment compared with referral to community-based treatment (referral) or brief intervention and referral (brief intervention). Our aim was to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of these three methods of intervening on opioid dependence in the ED.DesignMeasured health-care use was converted to dollar values. We considered a health-care system perspective and constructed cost-effectiveness acceptability curves that indicate the probability each treatment is cost-effective under different thresholds of willingness-to-pay for outcomes studied.SettingAn urban ED in the United States.ParticipantsOpioid-dependent patients aged 18 years or older.MeasurementsSelf-reported 30-day assessment data were used to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for patient engagement in formal addiction treatment at 30 days and the number of days illicit opioid-free in the past week.FindingsConsidering only health-care system costs, cost-effectiveness acceptability curves indicate that at all positive willingness-to-pay values, ED-initiated buprenorphine treatment was more cost-effective than brief intervention or referral. For example, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $1000 for 30-day treatment engagement, we are 79% certain ED-initiated buprenorphine is most cost-effective compared with other studied treatments. Similar results were found for days illicit opioid-free in the past week. Results were robust to secondary analyses that included patients with missing cost data, included crime and patient time costs in the numerator, and to changes in unit price estimates.ConclusionIn the United States, emergency department-initiated buprenorphine intervention for patients with opioid dependence provides high value compared with referral to community-based treatment or combined brief intervention and referral.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16T08:00:01.745541-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13900
  • Associations between substance use disorders and suicide mortality risk
           should be adjusted for tobacco use disorder
    • Authors: Henri-Jean Aubin; Amandine Luquiens, Stéphane Legleye, Ivan Berlin
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T21:55:30.391061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13919
  • Response to Aubin et al. (2017)
    • Authors: Kipling M. Bohnert; Mark A. Ilgen, John F. McCarthy
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T21:45:29.244989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13937
  • Factors moderating the relative effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine
           replacement therapy in clients using smoking cessation services
    • Authors: Neil Walker; Heather Gainforth, Vasiliki Kiparoglou, Hayley Robinson, Hugo Woerden, Robert West
      Abstract: AimsTo assess how far the greater effectiveness of varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is moderated by characteristics of the smokers or setting in clinical practice.DesignWe used observational data from 22,472 treatment episodes between 2013 and 2016 from smoking cessation services in England to assess whether differences between varenicline and NRT were moderated by a set of smoker and setting characteristics: these included level of social deprivation, age, gender, ethnic group, nicotine dependence, and treatment context. From the above, 15,640 episodes were analysed in relation to 4-week quit and 14,273 episodes at 12 weeks. All two-way interactions involving pharmacotherapy were fitted in addition to the main effects and a parsimonious model identified using a backwards stepwise selection procedure.SettingEnglandParticipantsClients of smoking cessation service (number of individuals in 4-week quit analysis = 15,640).Measurements4-week Carbon monoxide - validated (primary outcome) and 12-week self-reported (secondary outcome) quit success/failure.FindingsAt both follow-up points, varenicline was associated with higher success rates overall (p
      PubDate: 2017-08-13T21:10:24.168021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14004
  • Associations of Parental Alcohol Use Disorders and Parental Separation
           with Offspring Initiation of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Cannabis Use and
           Sexual Debut in High-Risk Families
    • Authors: Vivia V. McCutcheon; Arpana Agrawal, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Jinni Su, Danielle M. Dick, Jacquelyn L. Meyers, Howard J. Edenberg, John I. Nurnberger, John R. Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Marc A. Schuckit, Victor M. Hesselbrock, Andrew Brooks, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K. Bucholz
      Abstract: Background and AimsParental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and parental separation are associated with increased risk for early use of alcohol in offspring, but whether they increase risks for early use of other substances and for early sexual debut is under-studied. We focused on associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with substance initiation and sexual debut to (1) test the strength of the associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with time to initiation (age in years) of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, and sexual debut, and (2) compare the strength of association of parental AUD and parental separation with initiation.DesignProspective adolescent and young adult cohort of a high-risk family study, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA).Setting6 sites in the United States.Participants3527 offspring (ages 14-33) first assessed in 2004 and sought for interview approximately every 2 years thereafter. 1945 (59.7%) offspring had a parent with an AUD.MeasurementsDiagnostic interview data on offspring substance use and sexual debut were based on first report of these experiences. Parental lifetime AUD was based on their own self-report when parents were interviewed (1991-2005) for most parents, or on offspring and other family member reports for parents who were not interviewed. Parental separation was based on offspring reports of not living with both biological parents most of the time between ages 12 and 17 years.FindingsParental AUDs were associated with increased hazards for all outcomes, with cumulative hazards ranging from 1.2 to 2.7. Parental separation was also an independent and consistent predictor of early substance use and sexual debut, with hazards ranging from 1.2 to 2.3. The strength of association of parental separation with substance initiation was equal to that of having 2 AUD-affected parents, and its association with sexual debut was stronger than parental AUD in one or both parents.ConclusionsParental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and parental separation are independent and consistent predictors of increased risk for early alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use and sexual debut in offspring from families with a high risk of parental AUDs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:40:31.325301-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14003
  • Using Bayes Factors to Evaluate Evidence for No Effect: Examples from the
           Sips Project
    • Authors: Zoltan Dienes; Simon Coulton, Nick Heather
      Abstract: AimsTo illustrate how Bayes Factors are important for determining the effectiveness of interventions.MethodWe consider a case where inappropriate conclusions were publicly drawn based on significance testing, namely the SIPS Project (Screening and Intervention Programme for Sensible drinking), a pragmatic, cluster-randomized controlled trial in each of two healthcare settings and in the criminal justice system. We show how Bayes Factors can disambiguate the non-significant findings from the SIPS Project and thus determine whether the findings represent evidence of absence or absence of evidence. We show how to model the sort of effects that could be expected, and how to check the robustness of the Bayes Factors.ResultsThe findings from the three SIPS trials taken individually are largely uninformative but, when data from these trials are combined, there is moderate evidence for a null hypothesis (H0) and thus for a lack of effect of brief intervention compared with simple clinical feedback and an alcohol information leaflet (B = 0.24, p = 0.43).ConclusionScientists who find non-significant results should suspend judgment – unless they calculate a Bayes Factor to indicate either that there is evidence for a null hypothesis (H0) over a (well-justified) alternative hypothesis (H1), or else that more data are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:10:26.44732-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.14002
  • Does paying service providers by results improve recovery outcomes for
           drug misusers in treatment in England'
    • Authors: Andrew Jones; Matthias Pierce, Matt Sutton, Thomas Mason, Tim Millar
      Abstract: AimTo compare drug recovery outcomes in commissioning areas included in a ‘payment by results’ scheme with all other areas.DesignObservational and data linkage study of the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System, Office for National Statistics mortality database, and Police National Computer criminal records, for two years before and after introduction of the scheme. Pre-post controlled comparison compared outcomes in participating versus non-participating areas following adjustment for drug use, functioning and drug treatment status.SettingDrug services in England providing publicly-funded, structured treatment.ParticipantsAdults in treatment (between 2010 and 2014): 154,175 (10,716 in participating areas, 143,459 non-participating) treatment journeys in the two years before, and 148,941 (10,012 participating, 138,929 non-participating) after the introduction of the scheme.InterventionScheme participation, with payment to treatment providers based on patient outcomes versus all other areas.MeasurementsRate of treatment initiation; waiting time (> or
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T19:00:02.42536-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13960
  • Associations of coffee genetic risk scores with consumption of coffee, tea
           and other beverages in the UK Biobank
    • Authors: Amy E. Taylor; George Davey Smith, Marcus R. Munafò
      Abstract: AimsTo evaluate the utility of coffee-related genetic variants as proxies for coffee consumption in Mendelian randomisation studies, by examining their association with non-alcoholic beverage consumption (including subtypes of coffee and tea) and a range of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.DesignObservational study of the association of genetic risk scores for coffee consumption with different types of non-alcoholic beverage consumption.SettingUK general populationParticipantsIndividuals of European ancestry aged 40-70 years from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 (N = 114,316).MeasurementsGenetic risk scores were constructed using two, four and eight independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genomewide association studies (GWAS) of coffee consumption. Drinks were self-reported in a baseline questionnaire (all participants) and in detailed 24 dietary recall questionnaires in a subset (N = 48,692).FindingsGenetic risk scores explained up to 0.38%, 0.19% and 0.76% of the variance in coffee, tea and combined coffee and tea consumption respectively. Genetic risk scores demonstrated positive associations with both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea consumption, and with most subtypes of coffee consumption, but only with standard tea consumption. There was no clear evidence for positive associations with most other non-alcoholic beverages, but higher genetic risk for coffee consumption was associated with lower daily water consumption. The genetic risk scores were associated with increased alcohol consumption, but not consistently with other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.ConclusionsCoffee-related genetic risk scores could be used as instruments for combined coffee and tea consumption in Mendelian randomisation studies. However, associations observed with alcohol consumption require further investigation to determine whether these are due to causal effects of coffee and tea consumption, or biological pleiotropy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T12:50:21.079285-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13975
  • Qualitative research
    • Authors: Lisa Maher; George Dertadian
      Abstract: Background and aimsThis narrative review aims to highlight key insights from qualitative research on drug use and drug users by profiling a selection of classic works.MethodsConsensus methods were used to identify and select four papers published in 1938, 1969, 1973 and 1984 considered to be classics.ResultsThese landmark qualitative studies included the first account of addiction as a social process, demonstrating that people have meaningful responses to drug use that cannot be reduced to their pharmacological effects; the portrayal of inner-city heroin users as exacting, energetic and engaged social agents; identification of the interactive social learning processes involved in becoming a drug user; the application of the ‘career’ concept to understanding transitions and trajectories of drug use over time; and the articulation of a framework for understanding drug use that incorporates the interaction between pharmacology, psychology and social environments.ConclusionsThese classic sociological and anthropological studies deployed qualitative research methods to show how drug use is shaped by complex sets of factors situated within social contexts, viewing drug users as agents engaged actively in social processes and worlds. Their findings have been used to challenge stereotypes about drug use and drug users, develop a deeper understanding of drug use among hidden, hard-to-research and under-studied populations, and provide the foundations for significant developments in scientific knowledge about the nature of drug use. They continue to retain their relevance, providing important correctives to biomedical and behaviourist paradigms, reminding us that drug use is a social process, and demonstrating how the inductive approach of qualitative research can strengthen the way we understand and respond to drug use and related harms.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T23:35:21.080896-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13931
  • Gateway effects and electronic cigarettes
    • Authors: Jean-François Etter
      Abstract: BackgroundE-cigarettes are alleged to be a gateway to cigarette smoking in non-smokers. This study examines whether the gateway theory has value, whether the criteria to establish causality have been met and what type of evidence is required to test this theory.AnalysisExperiments are impractical, and we may not be able to test properly the gateway effects via observational studies that simply adjust for confounders. Multivariate models cannot eliminate all the variance in propensity to smoke captured by the variable ‘vaping’ because of the proximity of these two behaviours. It may be difficult to prove that vaping precedes smoking when product use co-occurs and when, in fact, smoking usually precedes vaping. The gateway theory is not compatible with either (1) the decrease in smoking prevalence observed in adolescents in countries where vaping increased or (2) an increase in smoking among teenagers after age restrictions were imposed on e-cigarette purchases. A spurious gateway effect can be produced artificially by mathematical models in which a propensity to use substances is correlated with opportunities to use substances. Finally, neither nicotine medications nor smokeless tobacco produce gateway effects. Available data are compatible with a common liability model in which people who are liable to use nicotine are more likely to use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes.ConclusionsDespite its weaknesses and scant empirical support, the gateway theory of smoking initiation has had enormous political influence. Policies based on this theory will not have the intended effects if the association between vaping and smoking is explained by common liabilities.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T23:30:28.779728-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13924
  • Measuring treatment outcomes in gambling disorders: A systematic review
    • Authors: Dylan Pickering; Brittany Keen, Gavin Entwistle, Alex Blaszczynski
      Abstract: Background and AimsConsiderable variation of outcome variables used to measure recovery in the gambling treatment literature has precluded effective cross-study evaluations and hindered the development of best-practice treatment methodologies. The aim of this systematic review was to describe current diffuse concepts of recovery in the gambling field by mapping the range of outcomes and measurement strategies used to evaluate treatments, and to identify more commonly accepted indices of recovery.MethodsA systematic search of six academic databases for studies evaluating treatments (psychological and pharmacological) for gambling disorders with a minimum six-month follow-up. Data from eligible studies were tabulated and analysis conducted using a narrative approach. Guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adhered to.ResultsThirty-four studies were systematically reviewed (RCTs = 17, comparative designs = 17). Sixty-three different outcome measures were identified: 25 (39.7%) assessed gambling-specific constructs, 36 (57.1%) assessed non-gambling specific constructs, and two instruments were used across both categories (3.2%). Self-report instruments ranged from psychometrically validated to ad-hoc author designed questionnaires. Units of measurement were inconsistent particularly in the assessment of gambling behavior. All studies assessed indices of gambling behavior and/or symptoms of gambling disorder. Almost all studies (n = 30; 88.2%) included secondary measures relating to psychiatric comorbidities, psychological processes linked to treatment approach, or global functioning and wellbeing.ConclusionsIn research on gambling disorders, the incorporation of broader outcome domains that extend beyond disorder-specific symptoms and behaviors suggests a multidimensional conceptualization of recovery. Development of a single comprehensive scale to measure all aspects of gambling recovery could help facilitate uniform reporting practices across the field.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05T05:55:27.160626-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13968
  • Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events,
           affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high vs. low
           depressive symptoms during a quit attempt
    • Authors: Haruka Minami; Brandon E. Frank, Krysten W. Bold, Danielle E. McCarthy
      Abstract: AimsTo assess whether individuals trying to quit smoking who have high depressive symptoms (HD), compared with low-depressive-symptom (LD) symptoms: 1) report more frequent stressful events (SEs), 2) are more likely to smoke after SEs, 3) experience greater acute or persistent changes in affect after a SE, and 4) are at greater risk of smoking following affective changes.DesignSmoking cessation data were analyzed using multilevel path modeling to examine the moderating effects of depressive symptoms on relations among SEs, subsequent affect, and smoking.SettingAn academic research center in Central New Jersey, USA.ParticipantsSeventy-one adult treatment-seeking daily smokers recruited from 2010 to 2012.MeasurementsBaseline depressive symptoms (HD: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] ≥ 16 vs. LD: CES-D < 16); and real-time ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of SEs, affect, and smoking assessed over 21 days post-quit.FindingsMultilevel models indicated that HD smokers were more likely than LD smokers to report stressful events (OR = 2.32, p = .009), but had similar post-stress acute affective changes (negative affect: b = - .12, p = .137, positive affect: b = .02, p = .805). Only HD smokers reported increased negative affect (NA) (b = .20, p = .030) and decreased positive affect (PA) up to 12 hours later (b = -.22, p = .021), and greater lapse risk up to 24 hours after an SE (OR = 3.21, p = .017). The persistence of elevated NA and suppressed PA was partially explained by increased odds of subsequent SEs among HD smokers. However, the heightened stress-lapse association over 24 hours found in HD smokers was not fully explained by sustained aversive affect or subsequent SEs.ConclusionsDepressed and non-depressed smokers trying to quit appear to experience similar acute affective changes following stress: however, depressed smokers experience higher rates of exposure to stress, longer-lasting post-stress affective disturbance, and greater risk of replase to smoking 12-24 hours after a stressful event than non-depressed smoker.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05T05:30:23.231158-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13964
  • American exceptionalism and the failure to learn from mistakes of the past
    • Authors: Bryce Pardo
      Abstract: Commentary to: The diverging trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the United States: reasons and possible implications
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T22:50:22.54994-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13917
  • Recommendations for the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on
           Tobacco Control Article 14 on tobacco cessation support
    • Authors: Martin Raw; Olalekan Ayo-Yusuf, Frank Chaloupka, Michael Fiore, Thomas Glynn, Feras Hawari, Judith Mackay, Ann McNeill, Srinath Reddy
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T20:50:28.315275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13893
  • Will growth in cryptomarket drug buying increase the harms of illicit
    • Authors: Judith Aldridge; Alex Stevens, Monica J. Barratt
      Abstract: Background and aimCryptomarkets—on-line, anonymous market-places for illicit goods and services that specialize mainly in drugs—account for a small but rapidly growing share of the illicit drug market in many countries. Policy responses so far are based generally on the assumption that their rise will only increase drug harms. In this contribution for debate, we question this assumption.MethodsWe provide a narrative review of the emerging literature connected to drug cryptomarkets. We use MacCoun & Reuter's formula to understand the effect of population-level increases in use on total harm as depending on the level of harm associated with each unit of use. We then consider the potential for cryptomarkets to increase or decrease the harms and benefits related to each unit of drug use, with specific attention to the quality of drugs sold and the non-drug-related harms and benefits for customers.ResultsIt is likely that cryptomarkets will increase both the amount and the range of substances that are sold. However, we argue that the effects on harms will depend upon whether cryptomarkets also increase the quality and safety of products that are sold, provide harm-reducing information to consumers and reduce transactional conflict involved in drug purchasing.ConclusionsThere is an emerging and rapidly growing evidence base connected to the macro and micro harms and benefits of cryptomarkets for drug users. Future researchers should use appropriately matched comparative designs to establish more firmly the differential harms and benefits of sourcing drugs both on- and off-line. While it is unlikely that the on-line drug trade can be eradicated completely, cryptomarkets will respond to regulation and enforcement in ways that have complex, and sometimes unanticipated, effects on both harms and benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T01:00:39.155218-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13899
  • The disconnect between the science on cannabis and public health campaigns
    • Authors: Christine L. Miller
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T21:10:29.455255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13918
  • Response to Miller (2017): Communicating the role of cannabis in the risk
           of developing psychosis
    • Authors: Ian Hamilton
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T20:55:26.704332-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13916
  • Moving alcohol prevention research forward—Part II: New directions
           grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling
    • Authors: Yorghos Apostolopoulos; Michael K. Lemke, Adam E. Barry, Kristen Hassmiller Lich
      Abstract: Backgrounds and aimsGiven the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources, and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies.MethodsSystem dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties—stocks, flows, and feedbacks—capture nonlinearity, time-delayed effects, and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems.ResultsThe process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs, and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-lab techniques. .ConclusionsCommunity-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can ultimately result in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T21:55:29.669523-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13953
  • A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Testing Integrated Twelve-Step
           Facilitation (Itsf) Treatment for Adolescent Substance Use Disorder
    • Authors: John F. Kelly; Yifrah Kaminer, Christopher W. Kahler, Bettina Hoeppner, Julie Yeterian, Julie V. Cristello, Christine Timko
      Abstract: Background and AimsIntegration of 12-step philosophy and practices is common in adolescent substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs, particularly in North America. However, although numerous experimental studies have tested 12-step facilitation (TSF) treatments among adults, no studies have tested TSF-specific treatments for adolescents. We tested the efficacy of a novel integrated TSF.DesignExplanatory, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial comparing 10 sessions of either motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT; n=30) or a novel integrated TSF (iTSF; n=29) with follow-up assessments at 3-, 6-, and 9-months following treatment entry.SettingOutpatient addiction clinic in the USA.ParticipantsAdolescents (N=59; M age=16.8 [1.7]; range 14-21; 27% female; 78% White).Intervention and comparatorThe iTSF integrated 12-step with motivational and cognitive-behavioral strategies, and was compared with state-of-the-art MET/CBT for SUD.MeasurementsPrimary outcome: percent days abstinent (PDA); Secondary outcomes: 12-step attendance, substance-related consequences, longest period of abstinence, proportion abstinent/mostly abstinent, psychiatric symptoms.FindingsPrimary Outcome: PDA was not significantly different across treatments (b=0.08,CI95%-0.08 to 0.24, p=.33; Bayes Factor=0.28). Secondary Outcomes: During treatment, iTSF patients had substantially greater 12-step attendance, but this advantage declined thereafter (b=-0.87; CI95% -1.67 to 0.07, p=.03). iTSF did show a significant advantage at all follow-up points for substance-related consequences (b=-0.42; CI95% -0.80 to -0.04, ps
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T11:00:01.781158-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13920
  • The experience of initiating injection drug use and its social context: A
           qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis
    • Authors: Andy Guise; Danielle Horyniak, Jason Melo, Ryan McNeill, Dan Werb
      Abstract: Background and aimUnderstanding the experience of initiating injection drug use and its social contexts is crucial to inform efforts to prevent transitions into this mode of drug consumption and support harm reduction. We systematically reviewed and synthesized existing qualitative scientific literature to identify the socio-structural contexts for, and experiences of, the initiation of injection drug use.MethodsWe systematically searched six databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS, and SSCI), along with a manual search, including of key journals and subject experts. Peer-reviewed studies were included if they qualitatively explored experiences of or socio-structural contexts for injection drug use initiation. A thematic synthesis approach was used to identify descriptive and analytical themes across studies.ResultsFrom 1731 initial results, 41 studies reporting data from 1996 participants were included. We developed eight descriptive themes and two analytical (higher order) themes. The first analytical theme focused on injecting initiation resulting from a social process enabled and constrained by socio-structural factors: social networks and individual interactions, socialization into drug-using identities, and choices enabled and constrained by social context all combine to produce processes of injection initiation. The second analytical theme addressed pathways that explore varying meanings attached to injection initiation and how they link to social context: seeking pleasure, responses to increasing tolerance to drugs, securing belonging and identity, and coping with pain and trauma.ConclusionsQualitative research shows that injection drug use initiation has varying and distinct meanings for individuals involved and is a dynamic process shaped by social and structural factors. Interventions should therefore respond to the socio-structural influences on injecting drug use initiation by seeking to modify the contexts for initiation, rather than solely prioritizing the reduction of individual harms through behavior change.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T15:45:21.897683-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13957
  • German EstSmoke: Estimating adult smoking-related costs and consequences
           of smoking cessation for Germany
    • Authors: Diana Sonntag; Simon Gilbody, Winkler Volker, Shehzad Ali
      Abstract: AimsWe compared predicted lifetime health care costs for current, never and ex-smokers in Germany under the current set of tobacco control polices. We compared these economic consequences of the current situation with an alternative in which Germany were to implement more comprehensive tobacco control policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) guidelines.DesignGerman EstSmoke, an adapted version of the UK EstSmoke simulation model, applies the Markov modelling approach. Transition probabilities for (re-)currence of smoking-related disease were calculated from large German disease-specific registries and the German Health Update (GEDA 2010). Estimations of both health care costs and effect sizes of smoking cessation policies were taken from recent German studies and discounted at 3.5%/year.SettingGermanyParticipantsGerman population of prevalent current, never and ex-smokers in 2009: 81 millionMeasurementLifetime cost and outcomes in current, never and ex-smokersFindingsIf tobacco control policies are not strengthened, the German smoking population will incur €41.56 billion lifetime excess costs compared with never smokers. Implementing tobacco control policies consistent with WHO FCTC guidelines would reduce the difference of lifetime costs between current smokers and ex-smokers by at least €1.7 billion.ConclusionsModelling suggests that the lifetime healthcare costs of people in Germany who smoke are substantially greater than those of people who have never smoked. However, more comprehensive tobacco control policies could reduce healthcare expenditure for current smokers by at least 4%.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T12:00:34.137674-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13956
  • Adult interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product:
           findings from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health
           Study (2013-2014)
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Pearson; Amanda L. Johnson, Sarah E. Johnson, Cassandra A. Stanton, Andrea C. Villanti, Raymond S. Niaura, Allison M. Glasser, Baoguang Wang, David B. Abrams, K. Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland
      Abstract: Background and aimsThe U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provides a pathway for manufacturers to market a modified risk tobacco product (MRTP). This study examines sociodemographic and tobacco use correlates of interest in a hypothetical MRTP in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults.DesignCross sectional Wave 1 data from the 2013-2014 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.SettingHousehold Audio-Computer Assisted Self-Interviews of U.S. adults conducted in 2013-2014.Participants32,320 civilian, non-institutionalized adults in the U.S.MeasurementsInterest in using a hypothetical MRTP (“If a tobacco product made a claim that it was less harmful to health than other tobacco products, how likely would you be to use that product'”), sociodemographics, tobacco use history, and mental health and substance use problems. All estimates were weighted.FindingsOverall, 16.7% (95% CI: 16.28, 17.18) of U.S. adults reported interest in a hypothetical MRTP. Tobacco use was significantly associated with interest in a hypothetical MRTP, with interest most common among current established smokers (54.4%; 95% CI: 53.31, 55.39) and least common among never tobacco users (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.47, 3.52). Interest in a hypothetical MRTP was associated with experimental e-cigarette use among current experimental, current established, and former smokers. Among non-smokers, race, age, education, and substance use were associated with interest in using a hypothetical MRTP.ConclusionsAmong adults in the USA, interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) is low overall, and highest among current experimental and established smokers. A small percentage of non-smokers are interested in using a hypothetical MRTP.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T10:30:20.136901-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13952
  • Moving alcohol prevention research forward—Part I: Introducing a
           complex systems paradigm
    • Authors: Yorghos Apostolopoulos; Michael K. Lemke, Adam E. Barry, Kristen Hassmiller Lich
      Abstract: Background and aimsThe drinking environment is a complex system consisting of a number of heterogeneous, evolving, and interacting components, which exhibit circular causality and emergent properties. These characteristics reduce the efficacy of commonly used research approaches, which typically do not account for the underlying dynamic complexity of alcohol consumption and the interdependent nature of diverse factors influencing misuse over time. We use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as an example for framing our argument for a complex systems paradigm.MethodsA complex systems paradigm, grounded in socioecological and complex systems theories and computational modeling and simulation, is introduced. Theoretical, conceptual, methodological, and analytical underpinnings of this paradigm are described in the context of college drinking prevention research.ResultsThe proposed complex systems paradigm can transcend limitations of traditional approaches, thereby fostering new directions in alcohol prevention research. By conceptualizing student alcohol misuse as a complex adaptive system, computational modeling and simulation methodologies and analytical techniques can be used. Moreover, use of participatory model-building approaches to generate simulation models, can further increase stakeholder buy-in, understanding, and policymaking.ConclusionsA complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can provide a holistic understanding of the underlying drinking environment and its long-term trajectory, which can elucidate high-leverage preventive interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T10:10:19.497795-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13955
  • Prediction of alcohol use disorder using personality disorder traits: a
           twin study
    • Authors: Tom Rosenström; Fartein Ask Torvik, Eivind Ystrom, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Nathan A. Gillespie, Steven H. Aggen, Robert F. Krueger, Kenneth S. Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
      Abstract: Background and AimsThe DSM-IV Personality Disorders (PDs) are comorbid with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and with each other. It remains unclear which PD criteria are most likely to drive onset and recurrence of AUD and which are merely confounded with those criteria. We determine which individual PD criteria predict AUD and the degree of underlying genetic and/or environmental etiology.DesignA prospective observational twin study.SettingNorway 1999–2011.ParticipantsAltogether 2528 and 2275 Norwegian adult twins in wave 1 and 2 variable-selection analyses, and 2785 in biometric analyses.MeasurementsDSM-IV PDs and their 80 criteria were assessed using a structured personal interview, and AUD using WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview.FindingsIn a variable-selection analysis, two PD criteria were associated with AUD even after taking all the other criteria into account: criterion #8 of antisocial PD (childhood conduct disorder) and criterion #4 of borderline PD (self-damaging impulsive behaviors). Adjusting for each other, their respective odds ratios were 3.4 (CI = 2.1–5.4) and 5.0 (CI = 3.3–7.7). Endorsement strength of the criteria was associated with AUD in a dose-response manner and they explained 5.5% of variation in AUD risk—more than the full diagnoses of antisocial and borderline PDs together (0.5%). The association between borderline criterion #4 and AUD 10 years later derived mainly from their overlapping genetic factors, whereas the association between antisocial criterion #8 and AUD 10 years later was due to both genetic and non-genetic factors.ConclusionsConduct disorder and self-harming impulsivity are the foremost risk traits for alcohol use disorder (AUD) among the 80 personality disorder criteria of DSM-IV, predicting AUD better than personality disorder diagnoses. The twin-study analysis suggested that conduct disorder represents a joint genetic and developmental risk for alcohol use disorder and that impulsivity is a genetic risk.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T09:50:27.239393-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13951
  • Extended-Release Naltrexone for Methamphetamine Dependence among Men Who
           Have Sex with Men: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Phillip O. Coffin; Glenn-Milo Santos, Jaclyn Hern, Eric Vittinghoff, Deirdre Santos, Tim Matheson, Grant Colfax, Steven L. Batki
      Abstract: Background and aimsMethamphetamine use is increasingly prevalent and associated with HIV transmission. Early phase human studies suggested naltrexone reduced amphetamine use among dependent individuals. We tested if extended-release naltrexone (XRNTX) reduces methamphetamine use and associated sexual risk behaviors among high-risk methamphetamine-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM).DesignDouble-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of XRTNX versus placebo over 12 weeks from 2012-2015.SettingSan Francisco Department of Public Health, California, USA.Participants100 community-recruited, sexually-active, actively-using methamphetamine-dependent MSM. Mean age was 43 years, 98% were born male, 55% white, 19% African-American, and 18% Latino.InterventionsXRNTX 380mg (N=50) or matched placebo (N=50) administered in 3 gluteal injections at 4-week intervals.MeasurementsRegression estimated average level and change in level of positive urines over the period 2 -12 weeks (primary outcomes) and sexual risk behaviors (secondary outcome).FindingsNinety percent of visits were completed. By intent-to-treat, participants assigned to XRNTX had similar differences over 2-12 weeks in methamphetamine-positive urines as participants assigned to placebo [IRR 0.95, 95%CI = 0.76 – 1.20; Bayes Factor < 0.3]. Observed urine positivity declined from 78% to 70% in the XRNTX arm and 74% to 64% in the placebo arm. Adherence to injections was 96.7% in the XRNTX arm and 91.3% in the placebo arm. Sexual risk behaviors declined similarly among participants in both arms (all P>0.05). There were no serious adverse events related to study drug, and no differences in frequency of adverse events by treatment arm.ConclusionsNotwithstanding very high medication adherence for this study, extended-release naltrexone does not appear to reduce methamphetamine use or sexual risk behaviors among methamphetamine-dependent men who have sex with men compared with placebo.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T09:30:21.052769-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13950
  • The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption over
           the adult life course: a 28-year prospective cohort study.
    • Authors: Craig S. Knott; Steven Bell, Annie Britton
      Abstract: Background and aimsStudies that report the relationship between alcohol consumption and disease risk have predominantly operationalised drinking according to a single baseline measure. The resulting assumption of longitudinal stability may be simplistic and complicate interpretation of risk estimates. This study aims to describe changes to the volume of consumption across the adult life course according to baseline categories of drinking.DesignA prospective observational study.SettingUnited Kingdom.ParticipantsA cohort of British civil servants totalling 6,838 men and 3,372 women aged 34-55 years at baseline, followed for a mean 19.1 (SD 9.5) years.MeasurementsThe volume of weekly alcohol consumption was estimated from data concerning the frequency and number of drinks consumed. Baseline categories were defined: non-current drinkers, infrequent drinkers, 0.1-50.0 g/week, 50.1-100.0 g/week, 100.1-150.0 g/week and 150.1-250.0 g/week, and>250.0 g/week. For women, the highest category was defined as>100.0 g/week. Baseline frequency was derived as ‘daily or almost daily’ and ‘not daily or almost daily’. Trajectories were estimated within baseline categories using growth curve models.FindingsTrajectories differed between men and women, but were relatively stable within light-to-moderate categories of baseline consumption. Drinking was least stable within the highest categories of baseline consumption (men:>250.0 g/week; women:>100.0 g/week), declining by 47.0 (95% CI [40.7, 53.2]) and 16.8 g/week (95% CI [12.6, 21.0]) respectively per 10-year increase in age. These declines were not a consequence of sudden transitions to complete abstention. Rates of decline appear greatest in older age, with trajectories converging toward moderate volumes.ConclusionAmong UK civil servants, consumption within baseline drinking categories is generally stable across the life course, except among heavier baseline drinkers, for whom intakes decline with increasing age. This shift does not appear to be driven by transitions to non-drinking. Cohorts of older people may be at particular risk of misclassifying former heavy drinkers as moderate consumers of alcohol.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T08:35:20.425153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13949
  • Scaling up HCV prevention and treatment interventions in rural USA –
           model projections for tackling an increasing epidemic
    • Authors: Hannah Fraser; Jon Zibbell, Thomas Hoerger, Susan Hariri, Claudia Vellozzi, Natasha K. Martin, Alex H. Kral, Matthew Hickman, John W. Ward, Peter Vickerman
      Abstract: Background and aimsEffective strategies are needed to address dramatic increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural settings of the United States (US). We determined the required scale-up of HCV treatment with or without scale-up of HCV prevention interventions to achieve a 90% reduction in HCV chronic prevalence or incidence by 2025 and 2030 in a rural US setting.DesignAn ordinary differential equation model of HCV transmission calibrated to HCV epidemiological data obtained primarily from a HIV-outbreak investigation in Indiana.SettingScott County, Indiana (population 24,181), USA, a rural setting with negligible baseline interventions, increasing HCV epidemic since 2010, and 55.3% chronic HCV prevalence amongst PWID in 2015ParticipantsPWIDMeasurementsRequired annual HCV treatments per 1000 PWID (and initial annual percentage of infections treated) to achieve a 90% reduction in HCV chronic prevalence or incidence by 2025/30, either with or without scaling-up syringe service programs (SSPs) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) to 50% coverage. Sensitivity analyses considered whether this impact could be achieved without retreatment of reinfections, and whether greater intervention scale-up was required due to the increasing epidemic in this setting.FindingsTo achieve a 90% reduction in incidence and prevalence by 2030, without MAT and SSP scale-up, 159 per 1000 PWID (initially 25% of infected PWID) need to be HCV-treated annually. However, with MAT and SSP scaled-up, treatment rates are halved (89 per 1000 annually or 15%). To reach the same target by 2025 with MAT and SSP scaled-up, 121 per 1000 PWID (20%) need treatment annually. These treatment requirements are 3-fold higher than if the epidemic was stable, and the impact targets are unattainable without retreatment.ConclusionsCombined scale-up of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment and prevention interventions is needed to decrease the increasing burden of HCV incidence and prevalence in rural Indiana, USA, by 90% by 2025/30.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T07:55:21.246999-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13948
  • Major life events and risk of alcohol use disorders: a prospective cohort
    • Authors: Emilie Just-Østergaard; Erik L. Mortensen, Trine Flensborg-Madsen
      Abstract: AimsTo estimate associations of individual major life events as well as accumulated major life events in childhood, adult private life and adult work life with risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD).DesignProspective cohort study with baseline examination in 1991-93 and linkage to national registers to identify AUD at follow-up.SettingCopenhagen, Denmark.ParticipantsIndividuals (aged 21 to 93 years) who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-93 (n=8,758).MeasurementsThe primary outcome was first registration with AUD during follow-up (n=249). AUD was identified in the Danish National Patient Register, in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and in an outpatient treatment register. Major life events were assessed by a questionnaire in the Copenhagen City Heart study. Data were analyzed by Cox regression model adjusted for age, sex, educational level, household income, cohabitation status and psychiatric comorbidity.FindingsSerious family conflicts in childhood (HR=1.35; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.83) and serious economic problems in adult life (HR=2.22; 95% CI: 1.64, 3.01) were significantly associated with increased risk of AUD. Prospective analyses did not show consistent effects of accumulation of major life events in childhood or adult life, but an additional analysis based on all AUD registrations suggested an association between accumulated childhood events and risk of AUD.ConclusionsSerious economic problems in adult life are strongly associated with risk of alcohol use disorders and there may be an influence of accumulated childhood events on risk of alcohol use disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T06:35:19.96198-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13947
  • Associations between Adolescent Cannabis Use and Neuropsychological
           Decline: A Longitudinal Co-Twin Control Study
    • Authors: Madeline H. Meier; Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Helen L. Fisher, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E. Moffitt
      Abstract: AimsThis study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation.DesignA longitudinal co-twin control study.Setting and ParticipantsParticipants were 1,989 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of twins born in England and Wales from 1994-1995.MeasurementsFrequency of cannabis use and cannabis dependence were assessed at age 18. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was obtained at ages 5, 12, and 18. Executive functions were assessed at age 18.FindingsCompared with adolescents who did not use cannabis, adolescents who used cannabis had lower IQ in childhood, prior to cannabis initiation, and had lower IQ at age 18, but there was little evidence that cannabis use was associated with IQ decline from age 12-18. For example, adolescents with cannabis dependence had age-12 and age-18 IQ scores that were 5.61 (t=-3.11, p=.002) and 7.34 IQ points (t=-5.27, p.10). The one exception was that twins who used cannabis more frequently than their co-twin performed worse on one working memory test (Spatial Span Reversed; β=-0.07, p=.036).ConclusionsShort-term cannabis use in adolescence does not appear to cause IQ decline or impair executive functions, even when cannabis use reaches the level of dependence. Family background factors explain why adolescent cannabis users perform worse on IQ and executive function tests.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T06:25:22.02704-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13946
  • Association between universal hepatitis B prison vaccination, vaccine
           uptake and hepatitis B infection among people who inject drugs
    • Authors: Norah E. Palmateer; David J. Goldberg, Alison Munro, Avril Taylor, Alan Yeung, Lesley A. Wallace, Alan Mitchell, Samantha J. Shepherd, Rory N. Gunson, Celia Aitken, Sharon J. Hutchinson
      Abstract: Background and aimsIn Scotland, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination for all prisoners was introduced in 1999; here, we examine the impact of this programme among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the community. This study aimed to compare rates of HBV vaccine uptake before and after implementation of the prison programme and to estimate the determinants of vaccine uptake, the levels of ever/current HBV infection and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection.DesignData collected via serial cross-sectional surveys were used to compare the proportion who reported being vaccinated over time. For the 2013-14 survey, rates of ever/current HBV infection were calculated and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection were examined using logistic regression.SettingServices providing injecting equipment and drug treatment, and street sites, in Glasgow (1993–2002) and across Scotland (2008–2014).ParticipantsMore than 10,000 PWID in total were recruited in the surveys.MeasurementsParticipants completed a questionnaire (all years) to ascertain self-reported vaccine uptake and provided a blood spot (in 2013-14), tested for HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc) and surface antigen (HBsAg).FindingsAmong recent-onset PWID in Glasgow, vaccine uptake increased from 16-20% in 1993-99 to 52-59% in 2001-2014 (p
      PubDate: 2017-07-15T07:45:20.740601-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13944
  • Mecamylamine Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Controlled
    • Authors: Ismene L. Petrakis; Elizabeth Ralevski, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Stephanie S. O’Malley, Albert Arias, Kevin A. Sevarino, Jane S. Jane, Erin O’Brien, John H. Krystal
      Abstract: Background and aimsThe nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, mecamylamine, is a potential novel pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. The aims were to compare alcohol consumption between mecamylamine and placebo and test if smoking status modified treatment effects.DesignOutpatient, randomized, double-blind clinical trial for 12 weeks of treatment with mecamylamine (10mg) (n=65) vs. placebo (n=63).SettingConnecticut, USA.ParticipantsIndividuals had current alcohol dependence (n=128), had an average age of 48.5 (SD=9.4), 110 (85.9%) were men, and included 74 smokers (57.8%) and 54 non-smokers (42.2%)Intervention and comparatorParticipants were randomized to mecamylamine 10mg per day or placebo. All subjects also received Medical Management therapy administered by trained research personnel.MeasurementsPrimary outcome was percent heavy drinking days during the last month of treatment; other outcomes included drinking days, drinks per drinking days, alcohol craving, smoking, symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and side effects.FindingsThere were no significant differences in the percent of heavy drinking days at 3 months between the mecamylamine (mean=18.4, SD=29.0) and placebo treatment groups (mean=20.4, SD=29.2) (F1, 100 =1.3, p=0.25; effect size d=0.07; mean difference=2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) =-8.96 to 13.08). There were no significant differences in percent of drinking days or in drinks per drinking day at month 3 between the mecamylamine and placebo groups; and were no significant interactions.ConclusionsMecamylamine 10mg pd did not significantly reduce alcohol consumption in treatment seeking smokers and non-smokers with alcohol use disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15T07:25:22.589473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13943
  • Self-changing behaviour in smoking cessation linked to trait and cognitive
    • Authors: Jaume Celma-Merola; Francesc Abella-Pons, Fernanda Mata, Gerard Pedra-Pagés, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
      Abstract: Background and aimsTo compare impulsivity, measured using self-report and cognitive tasks in people who ceased smoking without treatment (self-changers) with each of the following groups: (i) smoking non-treatment seekers, (ii) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent, and (iii) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent.DesignCross-sectional, observational study.SettingThe smoking cessation unit of a public general hospital, Hospital de Santa Maria, in Lleida, Spain. All participants were from the hospital's catchment area.ParticipantsOne hundred and twenty participants, classified in four groups: (1) self-changers (n=30, 21 females, mean age=41.50), (2) non-treatment seekers (n=30, 17 females, mean age=35.27), (3) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent (n=30, 17 females, mean age=48.93), and (4) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent (n=30, 21 females, mean age=33.70).MeasurementsThe Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, including measures of non-planning, attentional and motor impulsivity, and two behavioural tasks measuring cognitive inhibition (Stroop test) and choice impulsivity (Delay-discounting task). Confounders included sex, age, education, employment, smoking severity, depression and trait and state anxiety.FindingsAlthough not on the other three measures, we found significant group differences on trait non-planning impulsivity and Stroop performance. Self-changers compared with non-treatment seekers had lower non-planning impulsivity (p = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.62) and better Stroop performance (p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.66). Self-changers also had better Stroop performance than participants in treatment and currently abstinent (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85).Although not on the other three measures, we found significant group differences on trait non-planning impulsivity and Stroop performance. Self-changers compared with non-treatment seekers had lower non-planning impulsivity (p = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.62) and better Stroop performance (p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.66). Self-changers also had better Stroop performance than participants in treatment and currently abstinent (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85).ConclusionsPeople who have stopped smoking without treatment appear to have lower non-planning impulsivity and more effective cognitive inhibition compared with smoking non-treatment seekers, and better cognitive inhibition than people who cease smoking with treatment aid.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15T06:25:26.970648-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13942
  • Mapping medical marijuana: State laws regulating patients, product safety,
           supply chains and dispensaries, 2017
    • Authors: Sarah B. Klieger; Abraham Gutman, Leslie Allen, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Jennifer K. Ibrahim, Scott Burris
      Abstract: Aims1) To describe open source legal datasets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of U.S. state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. 2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety, and dispensary practice.MethodsTwo legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety, and dispensaries in effect on February 1, 2017, creating three empirical legal datasets. We used summary tables to identify the variation in specific statutory provisions specified in each state's medical marijuana law as it existed on February 1, 2017. We compared aspects of these laws to the traditional Federal approach to regulating medicine. Full datasets, codebooks and protocols are available through the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System ( ; states (including the District of Columbia) have authorized medical marijuana. Twenty-seven specify qualifying diseases, which differ across states. All but two protect patient privacy; only 14 protect patients against discrimination. Eighteen states have mandatory product safety testing before any sale. While the majority have package/label regulations, states have a wide range of specific requirements. Most regulate dispensaries (25 states), with considerable variation in specific provisions such as permitted product supply sources (23 states), number of dispensaries per state (18 states) and restricting proximity to various types of location (21 states).ConclusionsThe federal ban in the USA on marijuana has resulted in a patchwork of regulatory strategies that are not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and whose effectiveness remains unknown.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T08:00:01.423445-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13910
  • The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a
           study in six European cities
    • Authors: J. Perelman; J. Alves, T. Pfoertner, I. Moor, B. Federico, M. A. G. Kuipers, M. Richter, A. Rimpela, A. E. Kunst, V. Lorant
      Abstract: AimsThis study investigates the link between personal income and smoking among adolescents, and aims to answer the following questions: (i) to what extent is personal income related to smoking, independent of family socioeconomic status (SES)' (ii) does the association between personal income and smoking apply to different sub-populations'DesignCross-sectional study.SettingSix cities from European countries (Amersfoort/Netherlands, Coimbra/Portugal, Hannover/Germany, Latina/Italy, Namur/Belgium, Tampere/Finland), in 2013.ParticipantsA school-based sample of 10,794 adolescents aged 14-17 years old.MeasurementsWe modelled smoking experimentation, weekly smoking, daily smoking, and (among daily smokers) smoking intensity as function of personal income, adjusting for age, sex, family SES, parental smoking, and country. We tested interactions between personal income and covariates. Stratification analyses were performed for the variables for which interactions were significant.FindingsAdolescents in the highest income quintile were more likely to be smoking experimenters (OR=1.87; p
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T13:00:28.568716-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13930
  • The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics,
           health-related correlates and gambling behaviour – a cross-sectional
           population-based survey in Finland
    • Authors: Sari Castrén; Jukka Kontto, Hannu Alho, Anne H. Salonen
      Abstract: AimsTo investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio-demographics, health-related correlates and past-year gambling behaviour.DesignCross-sectional population survey.SettingPopulation-based survey in Finland.ParticipantsFinnish people aged 15−74 years randomly drawn from the Population Information System. The participants in this study were past-year gamblers (n = 3671; 1418 women and 1833 men).MeasurementsExpenditure shares, means of weekly gambling expenditure (WGE, €) and monthly gambling expenditure as a percentage of net income (MGE/NI, %) were calculated. The correlates used were perceived health, smoking, mental health (MHI-5), alcohol use (AUDIT-C), game types, gambling frequency, gambling mode, and gambling severity (SOGS).FindingsGender (men vs. women) was found to be significantly associated with gambling expenditure with men showing a 40% higher mean for WGE, 95% CI [29, 52] and p
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:55:25.803421-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13929
  • Effects of comorbid substance use disorders on outcomes in a Housing First
           intervention for homeless people with mental illness
    • Authors: Karen Urbanoski; Scott Veldhuizen, Michael Krausz, Christian Schutz, Julian M. Somers, Maritt Kirst, Marie-Josée Fleury, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Michelle Patterson, Verena Strehlau, Paula Goering
      Abstract: Background and AimsEvidence supports the effectiveness of Housing First (HF) programs for people who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness; however, questions remain about its use in people with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). The aim of this project was to test whether SUD modifies the effectiveness of an HF intervention.DesignSecondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of HF versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) with 24-month follow-up, comparing those with and without SUD at trial entry.SettingVancouver, Toronto, Winnipeg, Moncton, and Montreal, Canada.Participants2145 participants recruited 2009-2013 and randomized to HF versus TAU (67% male, mean age 40.8±11.2, 25% ethno-cultural minority). All were homeless and had a mental disorder at baseline; 35% reported symptoms consistent with SUD.InterventionHousing paired with Intensive Case Management or Assertive Community Treatment.MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were days housed and community functioning. Secondary outcomes were general and health-related quality of life, and mental health symptoms. Predictors were SUD status crossed with intervention group (HF versus TAU).FindingsPeople with SUD in both the HF and TAU groups spent less time in stable housing, but the effect of HF did not vary by SUD status (OR=1.17, 95% CI = -0.77, 1.76). Likewise, there was no difference between those with and without SUD in the effect of HF (over TAU) on community functioning (b=0.75, 95% CI = -0.36, 1.87), quality of life (b=-1.27, 95% CI = -4.17, 1.63), health-related quality of life (b=-0.01, 95% CI = -0.03, 0.02), or mental health symptoms (b=0.43, 95% CI = -0.99, 1.86).ConclusionsHousing First programs in Canada are equally effective in people with and without comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Overall, the intervention appears to be able to engage people with SUD and is reasonably successful at housing them, without housing being contingent on abstinence or treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:40:22.643639-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13928
  • Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of active tuberculosis in
           Taiwanese adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study
    • Authors: Yung-Feng Yen; Hsiao-Yun Hu, Ya-Ling Lee, Po-Wen Ku, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yun-Ju Lai, Dachen Chu
      Abstract: AimsTo investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on tuberculosis (TB) development in Taiwanese adults.DesignParticipants from the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates.SettingTaiwan National Health Interview Survey.ParticipantsA total of 46 196 adult participants aged>18 years from three rounds (2001, 2005, 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey.MeasurementsAlcohol consumption was classified into never, social, regular, or heavy alcohol use. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as intoxication at least once/week.FindingsOf the 46 196 study subjects, 61.8%, 24.2%, 13.5%, and 0.5% were classified as never, social, regular, and heavy alcohol users, respectively. During the 398 443 person-years of follow-up, 279 (0.60%) subjects developed new-onset active TB. After adjusting for the subject demographics and comorbidities, heavy (hazard ratio [HR], 5.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51-11.09) and regular alcohol users (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.32-2.45) had increased risks of incident TB compared to never users. Moreover, a positive trend between increasing levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of active TB was noted (P
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:40:20.50744-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13926
  • Effectiveness of intensive practice nurse counselling versus brief general
           practitioner advice, both combined with varenicline, for smoking
           cessation: a randomised pragmatic trial in primary care
    • Authors: Carolien Rossem; Mark Spigt, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, A. E. M. Lucas, Onno C. P. Schayck, Daniel Kotz
      Abstract: AimsTo study the effectiveness of intensive counselling by a practice nurse versus brief advice by a general practitioner, each combined with pharmacotherapy, for tobacco 6 months (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included 12-month abstinence, medication adherence, and incremental costs per life year gained.DesignA multi-site (N=10), two-group, parallel, pragmatic randomised controlled trial.SettingA network of primary healthcare centres in the Netherlands.Participants295 adult daily smokers (mean age=48 years; mean cigarettes/day=19).Intervention and comparatorPatients were randomised to receive individual counselling by a practice nurse (N=149) or brief advice by a general practitioner (146). All patients received 12 weeks open-label varenicline.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was prolonged biochemically validated abstinence from week 9 to 26 after treatment initiation. Secondary outcomes included abstinence from week 9 to 52, good dosing adherence (>80% days taken), and incremental costs per life year gained.FindingsAbstinence rates in the practice nurse vs. general practitioner groups were 32.2% (n=48) vs. 39.0% (n=57; OR=0.71; 95%CI=0.44-1.16) from week 9-26, and 25.5% (n=38) vs. 28.8% (n=42; OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.50-1.43) from week 9-52, respectively. Values of the Bayes factor indicated that the PN and GP were equally effective. Good dosing adherence was significantly lower in the practice nurse (41.3%, n=50) than in the general practitioner group (56.2%, n=68; OR=0.45, 95%CI=0.26-0.77), and the incremental costs per life year gained were -€416.10.ConclusionsAmong people seeking help to stop smoking from their general practice, one-off brief advice from a general practitioner appears to be as effective as several sessions of behavioural support from a practice nurse when smoking cessation medication is provided.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:40:18.253797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13927
  • Risk Factors for Severe Respiratory Depression from Prescription Opioid
    • Authors: Lindsay M. Fox; Robert S. Hoffman, David Vlahov, Alex F. Manini
      Abstract: Background and aimsPrescription opioid overdose is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with clinical severity in emergency department patients with prescription opioid overdose.DesignThis was a secondary data analysis of adult prescription opioid overdoses from a large prospective cohort of acute overdoses. We examined elements of a typical emergency department evaluation using a multivariable model to determine which characteristics were associated with clinical severity, specifically severe respiratory depression (SRD).SettingThis study was conducted at two urban academic emergency departments in New York City, USA.ParticipantsAdult patients who presented with acute prescription opioid overdose between 2009 and 2013 were included in the current study. We analysed 307 patients (mean age 44.7, 42% female, 2.0% mortality).MeasurementsPatient demographics, reported substances ingested, suspected intent for ingesting the substance, vital signs, laboratory data, treatments including antidotes and intubation, and outcome of death were recorded by trained research assistants. Intent was categorized into four mutually exclusive categories: suicide, misuse, therapeutic error, and undetermined. The primary outcome was SRD, defined as administration of either (a) naloxone or (b) endotracheal intubation (ETI).Findings109 patients suffered SRD with 90 patients receiving naloxone alone, 9 ETI alone, and 10 both naloxone and ETI. The most common opioids were oxycodone (n=124) and methadone (n=116). Mean age was higher in patients with SRD (51.1 vs. 41.1, p
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T19:40:24.345667-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13925
  • Structural Neuroimaging Correlates of Alcohol and Cannabis Use in
           Adolescents and Adults
    • Authors: Rachel E. Thayer; Sophie YorkWilliams, Hollis C. Karoly, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Sarah Feldstein Ewing, Angela D. Bryan, Kent E. Hutchison
      Abstract: Background and AimsChronic alcohol use is associated with lower gray matter volume, and we recently reported that alcohol use showed negative associations with widespread gray matter (GM) volume even among young adults. The current study aimed to test the strength of association between (1) alcohol use and GM volume; (2) alcohol use and white matter (WM) integrity; (3) cannabis use and GM volume; and (4) cannabis use and WM integrity among adults and adolescents.Design and SettingGeneral linear models within large pooled cross-sectional samples of adolescents and adults who had participated in studies collecting substance use and neuroimaging data in the southwestern United States.ParticipantsThe current analysis included adults ages 18-55 years (N=853) and adolescents ages 14-18 years (N=439) with a range of alcohol and cannabis use.MeasurementsThe dependent variable was GM volume or WM integrity, with key predictors of alcohol use (AUDIT score) and cannabis use (past 30-day use).FindingsAlcohol use showed large clusters of negative associations (ηp2=.028 to .145, p
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T19:20:35.350869-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13923
  • Childhood Traumatic Experiences and the Association with Marijuana and
           Cocaine Use in Adolescence through Adulthood
    • Authors: Joy D. Scheidell; Kelly Quinn, Susan P. McGorray, B. Christopher Frueh, Nisha N. Beharie, Linda B. Cottler, Maria R. Khan
      Abstract: Background and aimsExamination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood.DesignSecondary data analysis using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult HealthSettingUnited States of America.ParticipantsA nationally-representative sample of individuals in grades 7-12 (ages 11-21) during 1994-95, who were re-interviewed during emerging adulthood (2001-02; ages 18-26) and adulthood (2007-08; ages 24-32). The analytic sample is 12,288 participants with data at all three waves.MeasurementsNine typologies of childhood traumas: neglect; emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; parental incarceration and binge drinking; and witnessing, being threatened with, and experiencing violence. Indicators of each were summed to measure cumulative dose. Outcomes were marijuana and cocaine use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood.FindingsApproximately 53% experienced at least one childhood trauma; traumas were not highly correlated. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of traumas and drug use in adolescence (marijuana adjusted odds ratio (AOR) one trauma vs. none=1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42, 1.92; two traumas=2.58, 95%CI: 2.17, 3.06; ≥four traumas=6.92, 95%CI: 5.17, 9.26; cocaine AOR one trauma=1.87, 95%CI: 1.23, 2.84; two traumas=2.80, 95%CI: 1.74, 4.51; ≥four trauma=9.54, 95%CI: 5.93, 15.38). Similar dose-response relationships with drug use were observed in emerging adulthood and adulthood. Each individual trauma was independently associated with either marijuana or cocaine use in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and/or adulthood.ConclusionsChildhood trauma is prevalent in the US and individual types as well as the total number experienced are significantly associated with Marijuana and cocaine use throughout the life-course.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T18:45:46.089634-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13921
  • “To take or not to take: The association between perceived addiction
           risk, expected analgesic response, and likelihood of trying novel pain
           relievers in self-identified chronic pain patients”
    • Authors: D. Andrew Tompkins; Andrew S. Huhn, Patrick S. Johnson, Michael T. Smith, Eric C. Strain, Robert R. Edwards, Matthew W. Johnson
      Abstract: Background and aimsProbability discounting refers to the effect of outcome uncertainty on decision making. Using probability discounting, we examined the degree to which self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) were likely to try a novel analgesic medication given increasing addiction risk. We postulated that propensity for opioid misuse, trait impulsivity, and previous opioid experience would be positively associated with likelihood of risky medication use.DesignThis cross-sectional online study determined state/trait associations with addiction-related medication decisions in CPP.SettingUS-based CPP participated via Amazon Mechanical Turk; data were collected and analyzed in Baltimore, Maryland.Participants263 CPP (70% female) participated in the study from December 12-13, 2014.MeasurementsCPP responded to the Benefit vs. Addiction Risk Questionnaire (BARQ) assessing likelihood of taking a hypothetical once-daily oral analgesic medication as a function of two factors: risk of addiction (0%-50%) and duration of expected complete pain relief (3, 30, or 365 days). The primary outcome was the BARQ, quantified as area-under-the-curve (AUC). Grouping of CPP at high or low risk for opioid misuse was based on the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R). Predictors included previous experience with opioids, as well as various measures of chronic pain and mental health.FindingsAcross hypothetical addiction risk assessed in the BARQ, the likelihood of taking a novel analgesic medication was significantly elevated in patients with high (>18; n=137) versus low (
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T18:45:44.496261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13922
  • A free ride' An analysis of the association of casino bus tours and
           problem gambling among older adults
    • Authors: Mark Maas; Robert E. Mann, Flora I. Matheson, Nigel E. Turner, Hayley A. Hamilton, John McCready
      Abstract: Background and aimsLittle research has examined the relationship between incentives used by gambling venues to attract customers and the experience of gambling related harm. Organized and subsidized bus tours are a common example of such incentives. The aim of this study was to examine whether bus tour patronage was associated with increased odds of problem gambling among older adults. This study also compared rates of bus tour use by sociodemographic characteristics and gambling behaviours.DesignPearson chi square tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for bivariate analyses. Multivariate generalized mixed effects regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between bus tour patronage and problem gambling while controlling for possible confounding factors.Setting7 gambling venues located in Central and Southwestern Ontario, Canada.Participants1978 gambling venue patrons over the age of 55MeasurementsProblem gambling as indicated by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, bus tour patronage in the 12 months prior to the survey, spending per gambling visit, past month slot machine participation.FindingsRegression analyses showed that bus tour patronage was associated with higher odds of problem gambling (OR=1.71, CI=1.06, 2.76) after controlling for several demographic characteristics, type of gambling, and gambling expenditures. Bivariate analyses showed past year bus tour patronage was associated with more frequent slot machine play (x2=48.16, p
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T08:10:22.229198-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13914
  • Associations between anhedonia and marijuana use escalation across
    • Authors: Adam M. Leventhal; Junhan Cho, Matthew D. Stone, Jessica L. Barrington-Trimis, Chih-Ping Chou, Steven Y. Sussman, Nathaniel R. Riggs, Jennifer B. Unger, Janet Audrain-McGovern, David R. Strong
      Abstract: Background and aimsAnhedonia—a transdiagnostic psychopathological trait indicative of inability to experience pleasure—could lead to and result from adolescent marijuana use, yet this notion has not been tested. This study aimed to estimate the association of: (1) anhedonia at age 14 with rate of change in marijuana use over an 18-month follow-up, and (2) marijuana use at age 14 with rate of change in anhedonia over follow-up. Secondary aims were to test whether gender, baseline marijuana use history, and peer marijuana use moderated these associations.DesignObservational longitudinal cohort repeated measures design, with baseline (age 14), 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month follow-up assessments.SettingsTen public high schools in Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2013-2015.ParticipantsStudents (N=3,394; 53.5% female, Mean[SD] age at baseline=14.1[0.42]).MeasurementsSelf-report level of anhedonia on the Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale and frequency of marijuana use in the past 30 days.FindingsParallel process latent growth curve models adjusting for confounders showed that baseline anhedonia level was positively associated with the rate of increase in marijuana use frequency across follow-ups (β[95%CI]=.115[.022, .252], P=.03). Baseline marijuana use frequency was not significantly related to the rate of change in anhedonia across follow-ups (β[95%CI]=-.015[-.350, .321], P=.93). The association of baseline anhedonia with faster marijuana use escalation was amplified amongst adolescents with (versus without) friends who used marijuana at baseline (β[95%CI]: .179[.043, .334] versus .064[-.071, .187], interaction P=.04) but did not differ by gender or baseline ever marijuana use.ConclusionsIn mid adolescence, anhedonia is associated with subsequent marijuana use escalation but marijuana use escalation does not appear to be associated with subsequent anhedonia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:38:59.776507-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13912
  • Deriving Low-Risk Gambling Limits from Longitudinal Data Collected in Two
           Independent Canadian Studies
    • Authors: Shawn R. Currie; David C. Hodgins, David M. Casey, Nady el-Guebaly, Garry J. Smith, Robert J. Williams, Don P. Schopflocher
      Abstract: AimsTo derive low-risk gambling limits using the method developed by Currie et al. (2006) applied to longitudinal data.DesignSecondary analysis of data from the Quinte Longitudinal Study (N = 3054) and Leisure, Lifestyle, and Lifecycle Project (N = 809), two independently conducted cohort studies of the natural progression of gambling in Canadian adults.SettingCommunity dwelling adults in Southeastern Ontario and Alberta, Canada.Participants3863 adults (50% male; median age = 44) who reported gambling in the past year.MeasurementsGambling behaviours (typical monthly frequency, total expenditure, and percent of income spent on gambling) and harm (experiencing two or more consequences of gambling in the past 12 months) were assessed with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index.FindingsThe dose-response relationship was comparable in both studies for frequency of gambling (days per month), total expenditure, and percent of household income spent on gambling (area under the curve values ranged from 0.66 to 0.74). Based on the optimal sensitivity and specificity values, the low-risk gambling cut-offs were 8 times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling. Gamblers who exceeded any of these limits at Time 1 were approximately four times more likely to report harm at Time 2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.9 to 6.6).ConclusionsLongitudinal data in Canada suggests low-risk gambling thresholds of 8 times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling, all of which are higher than previously derived limits from cross-sectional data. Gamblers who exceed any of the three low-risk limits are four times more likely to experience future harm than those who do not.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:37:34.351726-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13909
  • Self-reported Cognitive Scales in a U.S. National Survey: Reliability,
           Validity, and Preliminary Evidence for Associations with Alcohol and Drug
    • Authors: Efrat Aharonovich; Dvora Shmulewitz, Melanie M. Wall, Bridget F. Grant, Deborah S. Hasin
      Abstract: AimsTo evaluate relationships between measures of cognitive functioning and alcohol or drug use among adults (≥18 years) in the U.S. general population.DesignTwo cognitive scales were created based on dimensionality and reliability of self-reported Executive Function Index items. Relationships between the two scales and validators were evaluated. Associations between the cognitive scales and past-year frequency of alcohol or drug use were estimated with adjusted odds ratios (aOR).SettingUSA, using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a nationally representative adult sample selected by multistage probability sampling.Participants36,085 respondents.MeasurementsPast-year substance use outcome variables categorized binge drinking, marijuana, cocaine, opioid, sedative/tranquilizer, and stimulant use as frequent (at least weekly to daily), infrequent (any to 2-3 times/month), or no use, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-V. Key predictors were the two cognitive scales. Construct validators included education and functional impairment. Covariates included age, gender, income, and race/ethnicity.FindingsNine cognitive items fit a two-factor model (Comparative Fit Index=.973): attention (5 items) and executive functioning (4 items). Both scales were positively associated with higher education (ps
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:37:27.809961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13911
  • Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to
           promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no
           intention to quit: A randomized trial
    • Authors: Lei Wu; Yao He, Bin Jiang, Di Zhang, Hui Tian, Fang Zuo, Tai Hing Lam
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of a brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise.DesignA two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial.Participants and SettingMale patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture outpatient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China.Intervention and comparatorsPhysicians advised participants allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention (SRI, n = 181) group to reduce smoking to at least half of their current consumption within one month at baseline. At follow-up, a telephone counselor repeated this advice if the participant had not reduced their cigarette consumption. Participants who had reduced consumption were encouraged to quit smoking. Physicians gave participants in the exercise- and diet-advice (EDA, n = 188) control group brief advice about physical activity and healthy diet at baseline and a telephone counselor reinforced this at each follow-up interview. Both groups had one face-to-face interview at baseline plus five telephone interviews and interventions (about one minute each) at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up interview.FindingsBy intention to treat, the self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up in the SRI groups (19 quitters, 15.7%) was higher, but not significantly, than the EDA control group (10 quitters, 7.8%), and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (0.97-5.26), P = 0.062. The self-reported 7-day point prevalence quit rate (secondary outcome) in the SRI group was significantly higher than the control group at each follow-up interview (at 12-month follow-up: 13.3% vs. 6.9%, OR (95% CI) =2.09 (1.01, 4.34), P = 0.049).ConclusionsA very brief, proactive and low cost smoking-reduction interventions without medications for Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit appears to increase smoking abstinence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:30:37.572091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13908
  • Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on
           cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based
    • Authors: Isaac C. Rhew; Charles B. Fleming, Ann Vander Stoep, Semret Nicodimos, Cheng Zheng, Elizabeth McCauley
      Abstract: Background and aimsAlthough they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18.DesignProspective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grade (~ age 12 to 15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence.SettingThe sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA.ParticipantsThe sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White).MeasurementsStructured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grade 7 to 9.FindingsThe one-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9% and 19.8%, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.10). Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI: .94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender.ConclusionsYouth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T07:50:18.815594-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13907
  • Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher
           rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder
    • Authors: Arthur Robin Williams; Julian Santaella-Tenorio, Christine M. Mauro, Frances R. Levin, Silvia S. Martins
      Abstract: Background and AimsMost U.S. states have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), with great variation in program regulation impacting enrollment rates. We aimed to compare changes in rates of marijuana use, heavy use, and Cannabis Use Disorder across age groups while accounting for whether states enacted medicalized (highly regulated) or non-medical MML programs.DesignDifference-in-differences estimates with time-varying state-level MML coded by program type (medicalized v. non-medical). Multilevel linear regression models adjusted for state-level random effects and covariates as well as historical trends in use.SettingNationwide cross-sectional survey data from the U.S. National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) restricted use data portal aggregated at the state level.Participants2004-2013 NSDUH respondents (N ~ 67,500/year); age groups 12-17, 18-25, and 26+ years. States had implemented 8 medicalized and 15 non-medical MML programs.MeasurementsPrimary outcome measures included 1) Active (past-month) marijuana use; 2) Heavy use (>300 days/year); and 3) Cannabis Use Disorder diagnosis, based on DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included program type, age group, and state-level characteristics across the study period.FindingsAdults 26+ years of age living in states with non-medical MML programs increased past-month marijuana use 1.46% (from 4.13% to 6.59%, p=0.01) skewing toward greater heavy marijuana by 2.36% (from 14.94 to 17.30, p=0.09) after MMLs were enacted. However, no associated increase in the prevalence of Cannabis Use Disorder was found during the study period. Our findings do not show increases in prevalence of marijuana use among adults in states with medicalized MML programs. Additionally, there were no increases in adolescent or young adult marijuana outcomes following MML passage, irrespective of program type.ConclusionsNon-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults 26+ years.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T06:25:19.70573-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13904
  • Progress in implementation of WHO FCTC Article 14 and its guidelines: A
           survey of tobacco dependence treatment provision in 142 countries
    • Authors: Kapka Nilan; Martin Raw, Tricia M. McKeever, Rachael L. Murray, Ann McNeill
      Abstract: AimsTo 1) estimate the number of Parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) providing tobacco dependence treatment in accordance with the recommendations of Article 14 and its guidelines; 2) assess association between provision and countries' income level; and 3) assess progress over time.DesignCross sectional study.SettingOnline survey from December 2014 to July 2015.ParticipantsContacts in 172 countries were surveyed, representing 169 of the 180 FCTC Parties at the time of the survey.MeasurementsA 26 item questionnaire based on the Article 14 recommendations including tobacco treatment infrastructure and cessation support systems. Progress over time was assessed for those countries that also participated in our 2012 survey and did not change country income level classification.FindingsWe received responses from contacts in 142 countries, an 83% response rate. Overall, 54% of respondents reported their country had an officially identified person responsible for tobacco dependence treatment, 32% an official national treatment strategy, 40% official national treatment guidelines, 25% a clearly identified budget for treatment, 17% text messaging, 23% free national quitlines, and 26% specialised treatment services. Most measures were positively and significantly associated with countries' income level (p=0.001). Measures not significantly associated with income level included mandatory recording of tobacco use (30% of countries), offering help to healthcare workers (HCW) to stop using tobacco (44%), brief advice integrated into existing services (44%), and training HCW to give brief advice (81%). Reporting having an officially identified person responsible for tobacco cessation was the only measure with a statistically significant improvement over time (p=0.0351).ConclusionFewer than half of countries that are Parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have implemented the recommendations of Article 14 and its guidelines, and for most measures, provision was greater the higher the country's income. There was little improvement in treatment provision between 2012 and 2015 in all countries.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T06:05:20.515239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13903
  • Ready, willing, and able: The role of cannabis use opportunities in
           understanding adolescent cannabis use
    • Authors: Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas; Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
      Abstract: AimsTo examine adolescent cannabis use -- both at the national and individual level -- by deconstructing it into its necessary conditions of realistic use opportunities and willingness to use the drug given such opportunities.DesignNationally-representative, repeated cross-sectional survey.SettingNorway.ParticipantsA total of 8,818 16-year olds who participated in the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) in 2007, 2011, and 2015.MeasurementsAdolescent reports concerning their lifetime “cannabis use” and “possibilities to use cannabis” were used to assess: a) overall cannabis use, b) exposure to realistic cannabis use opportunities, and c) cannabis use among those exposed to use opportunities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate national trends since 2007 in these indicators, and to identify individual-level factors associated with cannabis use vs. non-use among youth exposed to concrete use opportunities.FindingsPrevalence of lifetime cannabis use remained stably low averaging 6.4% across the three surveys. Lifetime exposure to cannabis use opportunities significantly decreased (ORESPAD Assessment = .90, 95%CI .84 - .07, p = .006), yet cannabis use among adolescents with such opportunities steadily increased (ORESPAD Assessment = 1.17, 95%CI 1.03 - 1.34, p = .02) since 2007. After controlling for a range of other risk factors, abstinence from alcohol intoxication and cigarette use, as well as the perceptions of even infrequent cannabis use as risky remained the factors most robustly associated with lower likelihood of cannabis use among youth with realistic use opportunities.ConclusionsApproaches accounting for realistic use opportunities proved critical in our understanding of underage cannabis use, both at the national and individual level, and may be informative for development of prevention strategies in the era of cannabis liberalization. In addition, delineation of realistic opportunities from behaviors conditioned upon such opportunities is generalizable to a range of public health issues.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T05:50:22.479787-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13901
  • The impacts of minimum alcohol pricing on alcohol attributable morbidity
           in regions of British Colombia, Canada with low, medium and high mean
           family income
    • Authors: Jinhui Zhao; Tim Stockwell
      Abstract: Background and aimPrevious research indicates that minimum alcohol pricing (MAP) is negatively associated with alcohol attributable (AA) hospitalizations. Modeling studies predict this association will be stronger for people on lower incomes. The objective of this study was to test whether the association between MAP and AA hospitalizations is greater in low income regions.DesignCross–sectional versus time–series analysis using multivariate multilevel effect models.SettingAll 89 Local Health Areas in British Columbia (BC), Canada, 2002–2013 (48 quarters).ParticipantsBC population.MeasurementsQuarterly rates of AA hospital admissions, mean consumer price index-adjusted minimum dollars per standard alcoholic drink and socio-demographic covariates.FindingsFamily income was inversely related to the effect of minimum prices on rates of some types of AA morbidity. A 1% price increase was associated with reductions of 3.55% (95% CI: –5.72, –1.38; p
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T05:50:19.573597-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13902
  • Assessing the impact of a temporary class drug order on
           ethylphenidate-related infections among people who inject drugs in
           Lothian, Scotland: an interrupted time-series analysis
    • Authors: Alan Yeung; Amanda Weir, Hannah Austin, Kirsty Morrison, Donald Inverarity, Jim Sherval, Naomi Henderson, Shruti Joshi, Roisin Ure, Andrew McAuley
      Abstract: Background and AimsIn April 2015, the UK government enacted a temporary class drug order (TCDO) on ethylphenidate in response to reported harms associated with its use, in particular an outbreak of infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Lothian, Scotland. This study assesses the effect that the TCDO had on reducing the most common infections identified during the outbreak; Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).DesignThe outbreak was split into a pre-intervention period (35 weeks) and a post-intervention period (26 weeks) based around the date of the TCDO. Segmented negative binomial regression models were used to compare trends in weekly counts of infections between the pre and post intervention periods.Setting and participantsPWID in the Lothian region of Scotland.MeasurementsCases of S. pyogenes and S. aureus infections reported within the National Health Service, Lothian.FindingsThere were 251 S. pyogenes and/or S. aureus infections recorded among 211 PWID between February 2014 to December 2015 — 171 infections in the pre intervention period and 51 in the post-intervention period. Significant trend changes in weekly S. pyogenes and/or S. aureus infections following the TCDO were found (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82–0.94). PWID who self-reported using novel psychoactive substances (NPS) were at higher risk of acquiring these infections (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.12–2.93), particularly when comparing the risk of infection with NPS use for a specific strain, S. pyogenes emm76.0, against the risk of infection with NPS use for S. pyogenes (emm types other than emm76.0) (RR 3.49, 95% CI 1.32–9.21).ConclusionsThe UK government's 2015 temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate was effective in reducing infections among people who inject drugs during an outbreak situation in Lothian, Scotland.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T01:00:29.448187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13898
  • The contribution of alcohol use and other behavioural, material, and
           social factors to socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related disorders
           in a Swedish cohort
    • Authors: Lovisa Sydén; Anna Sidorchuk, Pia Mäkelä, Jonas Landberg
      Abstract: AimsWe estimated the degree to which the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and alcohol-related disorders is attenuated after adjustment for levels and patterns of drinking, behavioural, material, and social factors.DesignA longitudinal cohort study with baseline in 2002, with linkage to register data on patient care and deaths in 2002-2011 to yield the outcome measures.SettingStockholm County, Sweden.ParticipantsRespondents to baseline survey aged 25-64 (n = 17 440) with information on all studied covariates.MeasurementsOccupational class was the studied SEP indicator and a combined measure of volume of weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of heavy episodic drinking, smoking, employment status, income, social support, marital status, and education, all at baseline, were the studied covariates. Alcohol-related disorders (n = 388) were indicated by first register entries on alcohol-related medical care or death during the follow-up.FindingsUnskilled workers had an approximately four times greater risk of alcohol-related disorders than higher non-manual employees HR = 4.08 (2.78, 5.98). After adjustment for alcohol use, the SEP difference in risk for alcohol-related harm fell by a fourth for the same group HR = 2.91 (1.96, 4.33). The difference was further reduced when behavioural factors and material factors were taken into account HR = 2.09 (1.34, 3.26), whereas adjusting for social factors and attained education resulted in smaller reductions.ConclusionsSocioeconomic differences in alcohol use explain one fourth of the SEP differences in alcohol-related disorders in Stockholm, Sweden. Hazardous alcohol use and other behavioural, material, and social factors together explain nearly 60% of the SEP differences in alcohol-related disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:15:44.985457-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13889
  • Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: A time-series
           analysis of population trends in England
    • Authors: Emma Beard; Robert West, Susan Michie, Jamie Brown
      Abstract: AimsThis paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England.DesignData were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England.MeasurementsARIMAX modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of a) smoking and high-risk drinking; b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption.FindingsMean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.19% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking (95%CI 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.017. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β 0.324 95%CI -0.371 to 1.019, p = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β -0.026 95%CI -1.348 to 1.296, p = 0.969).ConclusionBetween 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were positively associated with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:15:41.716257-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13887
  • Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking'
    • Authors: Jennifer J. Ware; Julie-Anne Tanner, Amy E. Taylor, Zhao Bin, Philip Haycock, Jack Bowden, Peter J. Rogers, George Davey Smith, Rachel F. Tyndale, Marcus R. Munafo
      Abstract: Background and AimsCoffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: 1) determine whether coffee consumption causally influences cigarette smoking, 2) estimate the magnitude of any association, and 3) explore potential mechanisms.DesignWe used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarised data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual level data from the UK Biobank, and in vitro experiments of candidate compounds.SettingThe TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland.Participants. The TAG consortium provided data on N ≤ 38,181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on N = 8,072 participants.MeasurementsIn MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin, and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6.FindingsTwo-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking (beta -1.49, 95% CI -2.88 to -0.09). However, in vitro experiments found the compounds investigated are unlikely to significantly inhibit the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta 0.20, 95% CI -1.72 to 2.12).ConclusionsAmount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact on amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin, or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette smoking may be due to smoking impacting on coffee consumption, or confounding.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:26.405512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13888
  • Nucleus Accumbens Functional Connectivity at Age 20 is Associated with
           Trajectory of Adolescent Cannabis Use and Predicts Psychosocial
           Functioning in Young Adulthood
    • Authors: Sarah D. Lichenstein; Samuel Musselman, Daniel S. Shaw, Stephanie Sitnick, Erika E. Forbes
      Abstract: AimsTo identify trajectories of cannabis use across adolescence, 2) to measure the influence of cannabis use characteristics on functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and 3) to assess whether patterns of functional connectivity related to cannabis use are associated with psychosocial functioning 2 years later.DesignThe Pitt Mother & Child Project (PMCP) is a prospective, longitudinal study of male youth at high risk for psychopathology based on family income and gender.SettingParticipants were recruited between age 6-17 months from the Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement program (WIC) in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area.ParticipantsN = 158 PMCP young men contributed fMRI and substance use data at age 20.MeasurementsLatent class growth analysis was used to determine trajectories of cannabis use frequency from age 14-19. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to measure functional connectivity between the NAcc and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Adolescent cannabis use trajectory, recent frequency of use, and age of initiation were considered as developmental factors. We also tested whether functional connectivity was associated with depressive symptoms, anhedonia, and educational attainment at age 22.FindingsWe identified three distinct trajectories of adolescent cannabis use, characterized by stable high, escalating, or stable low use. Cannabis use trajectory group had a significant effect on NAcc functional connectivity to the medial PFC (F = 11.32, Z = 4.04, pFWE-corr = .000). The escalating trajectory group displayed a pattern of negative NAcc-mPFC connectivity that was linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms (r = -.17, p = .041), anhedonia (r = -.19, p = .028), and lower educational attainment (t = -2.77, p = .006) at age 22.ConclusionsPattern of cannabis use frequency across adolescence in US youth could have consequences for mood symptoms and educational attainment in early adulthood via altered function in neural reward circuitry.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T03:50:25.006688-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13882
  • A cluster-randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying
           onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction
           following a selective, personality-targeted intervention program: The
           Co-Venture trial.
    • Authors: Maeve O’Leary-Barrett; Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R. Séguin, Patricia Conrod
      Abstract: AimsSubstance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years.DesignThirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools.SettingPublic/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada).ParticipantsAll grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale [1] (40-45% youth).MeasurementsSelf-reported substance use and mental health symptoms, and cognitive functioning measured annually over 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4-years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2- years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions, namely the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically.CommentThis longitudinal, cluster-randomised controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive development in adolescence using developmentally sensitive neuropsychological measures.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:31.108345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13876
  • Issue Information - Title, Aims & Scope
    • Pages: 1701 - 1702
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:53.668284-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13578
  • How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing
           common behaviours'
    • Authors: Daniel Kardefelt-Winther; Alexandre Heeren, Adriano Schimmenti, Antonius Rooij, Pierre Maurage, Michelle Carras, Johan Edman, Alexander Blaszczynski, Yasser Khazaal, Joël Billieux
      Pages: 1709 - 1715
      Abstract: Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T00:25:36.940555-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13763
  • The coping function of mental disorder symptoms: is it to be considered
           when developing diagnostic criteria for behavioural addictions'
    • Authors: Barna Konkolÿ Thege
      Pages: 1716 - 1717
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T19:50:24.822703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13816
  • Substance and behavioral addictions may share a similar underlying process
           of dysregulation
    • Authors: Steve Sussman; Dmitri Rozgonjuk, Regina J. J. M. Eijnden
      Pages: 1717 - 1718
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T18:25:33.817301-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13825
  • Behavioural addiction and substance addiction should be defined by their
           similarities not their dissimilarities
    • Authors: Mark D. Griffiths
      Pages: 1718 - 1720
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T19:35:24.868391-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13828
  • Criteria for conceptualizing behavioural addiction should be informed by
           the underlying behavioural mechanism
    • Authors: Richard J. Tunney; Richard J. E. James
      Pages: 1720 - 1721
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T23:52:35.347867-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13831
  • Conceptualizing behavioural addiction in children and adolescents
    • Authors: Anja Kräplin
      Pages: 1721 - 1723
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T20:15:27.746189-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13846
  • Behavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0—using the Open Science
           Framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
    • Authors: Joël Billieux; Antonius J. Rooij, Alexandre Heeren, Adriano Schimmenti, Pierre Maurage, Johan Edman, Alexander Blaszczynski, Yasser Khazaal, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther
      Pages: 1723 - 1724
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:59.022834-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13938
  • Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and
           meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women
    • Authors: Seena Fazel; Isabel A. Yoon, Adrian J. Hayes
      Pages: 1725 - 1739
      Abstract: AimsThe aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison and (2) estimate and test sources of between study heterogeneity.MethodsStudies reporting the 12-month prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison from 1 January 1966 to 11 August 2015 were identified from seven bibliographic indexes. Primary studies involving clinical interviews or validated instruments leading to DSM or ICD diagnoses were included; self-report surveys and investigations that assessed individuals more than 3 months after arrival to prison were not. Random-effects meta-analysis and subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed.ResultsIn total, 24 studies with a total of 18 388 prisoners across 10 countries were identified. The random-effects pooled prevalence estimate of alcohol use disorder was 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 21–27], with very high heterogeneity (I2 = 94%). These ranged from 16 to 51% in male and 10–30% in female prisoners. For drug use disorders, there was evidence of heterogeneity by sex, and the pooled prevalence estimate in male prisoners was 30% (95% CI = 22–38; I2 = 98%; 13 studies; range 10–61%) and, in female prisoners, was 51% (95% CI = 43–58; I2 = 95%; 10 studies; range 30–69%). On meta-regression, sources of heterogeneity included higher prevalence of drug use disorders in women, increasing rates of drug use disorders in recent decades, and participation rate.ConclusionsSubstance use disorders are highly prevalent in prisoners. Approximately a quarter of newly incarcerated prisoners of both sexes had an alcohol use disorder, and the prevalence of a drug use disorder was at least as high in men, and higher in women.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T00:07:50.279534-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13877
  • Commentary on Fazel et al. (2017): High levels of substance use disorders
           among correctional inmates—some implications for interventions of the
           review data from Fazel et al.
    • Authors: Benedikt Fischer; Amanda Butler, Cayley Russell
      Pages: 1740 - 1741
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:55.369983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13969
  • Adolescents’ exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and
           their alcohol use: exploring associations during a 13-year period
    • Authors: Victoria White; Denise Azar, Agatha Faulkner, Kerri Coomber, Sarah Durkin, Michael Livingston, Tanya Chikritzhs, Robin Room, Melanie Wakefield
      Pages: 1742 - 1751
      Abstract: AimsTo determine (i) whether Australian adolescents’ exposure to television alcohol advertisements changed between 1999 and 2011 and (ii) examine the association between television alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking behaviours.DesignCross-sectional surveys conducted every 3 years between 1999 and 2011. Analyses examined associations between advertising exposures and reported drinking.SettingFive Australian major cities.ParticipantsStudents aged 12–17 years participating in a triennial nationally representative school-based survey residing in the television advertising markets associated with the major cities (sample size range per survey: 12 644–16 004).MeasurementsOutcome measures were: drinking in the past month, past week and past-week risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day). The key predictor variable was past-month adolescent-directed alcohol advertising Targeted Rating Points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure). Control measures included student-level characteristics, government alcohol-control advertising TRPs, road safety (drink-driving) TRPs and time of survey.FindingsAverage monthly adolescent alcohol TRPs increased between 1999 (mean = 2371) to 2005 (mean = 2679) (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T01:55:21.275571-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13873
  • Commentary on White et al. (2017): Adolescent drinking and exposure to
           advertising—behaviour does not occur in a social vacuum
    • Authors: Megan Weier
      Pages: 1752 - 1753
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:54.064083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13915
  • Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and
           disability pension in Denmark: a prospective cohort study
    • Authors: Maja Bæksgaard Jørgensen; Lau Caspar Thygesen, Ulrik Becker, Janne S. Tolstrup
      Pages: 1754 - 1764
      Abstract: AimsWe investigated the association between weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension.DesignProspective register-based cohort study.SettingDenmark.ParticipantsA sample of 17 690 men and women, aged 18–60 years from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in 2000, 2005 and 2010 participated in the study. Participants worked the entire year prior to baseline.MeasurementsAdministrative registers were used to obtain information on unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension during a 5-year follow-up period. Data were analysed by multivariate Cox regression model with random effect (frailty) adjusted for cohabitation status, educational level, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking habits, calendar year and geographic region.FindingsAmong males, adjusted hazards ratios (HR) of unemployment were 1.24 (95% CI 1.05–1.46, P = 0.01), 1.28 (95% CI 1.04–1.59, P =0.02) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.21–1.81, P = 0.00) respectively, for abstainers and those with alcohol consumption of 21–27 and ≥ 28 drinks per week when compared with individuals who had 1–13 drinks per week. Corresponding HRs for sickness absence were 1.16 (95% CI 1.02–1.33, P = 0.03), 1.02 (95% CI 0.85–1.23, P = 0.84), and 1.23 (95 % CI 1.04–1.46, P = 0.02). Male abstainers had increased HR for subsequently receiving disability pension. Female abstainers had increased HR of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension compared to women with moderate alcohol consumption. Binge drinking was associated with higher HR of unemployment compared to non-binge drinking in women: HR of 1.21 (95 % CI 1.03–1.41, P = 0.02).ConclusionsIn Danish men aged 18–60, alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption is associated with increased subsequent risk of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely to become unemployed subsequently.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T18:55:29.291479-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13875
  • The impact of normative perceptions on alcohol consumption in military
    • Authors: Heather Krieger; Eric R. Pedersen, Clayton Neighbors
      Pages: 1765 - 1772
      Abstract: Background and aimsPerceptions of both descriptive norms (prevalence of drinking) and injunctive norms (others’ approval of drinking) relate to alcohol consumption, but mechanisms for these associations have received little attention, especially in military samples. This study tested the direct and indirect associations between perceived descriptive and injunctive norms on drinking through personal attitudes (i.e. personal approval) in a veteran sample.DesignData were collected as part of a longitudinal randomized controlled alcohol intervention study. The study involved two time-points: baseline/intervention (time 1) and 1-month follow-up (time 2).SettingA national sample of veterans was recruited from Facebook to participate in an online study between June and October 2015.ParticipantsData included responses of 621 adult military veterans (age 18–34; 83% male).MeasuresRespondents reported on their weekly alcohol consumption (primary outcome), perceptions of typical drinking and approval by other same-gender veterans. Covariates included gender, intervention condition and combat experience.FindingsRegression results found no significant effects of perceived descriptive or injunctive norms on time 2 drinking when accounting for the effects of personal attitudes, time 1 drinking and covariates. However, mediation analyses found support for personal attitudes as a mediator of the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and time 2 drinking [indirect effect = 0.003, standard deviation (SD) = 0.001, P = 0.001] and between perceived injunctive norms and time 2 drinking (indirect effect = 0.004, SE = 0.001, P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T01:35:21.372591-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13879
  • Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription
           opioid overdose'
    • Authors: Bryce Pardo
      Pages: 1773 - 1783
      Abstract: Background and AimsIn the United States, overdose deaths attributed to opioid pain relievers (OPR) have quadrupled since 1999, prompting many states to adopt Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PMP). This study aimed to: (1) estimate the relationship of PMP strength with OPR overdose deaths across states and over time; (2) measure what threshold in PMP strength is associated with the greatest reduction in OPR overdose; and (3) assess the relationship of medical marijuana dispensaries with OPR overdose deaths.DesignPanel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database (WONDER) were analyzed using fixed effects to regress state–year death rates on an index variable compiled from the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (PDAPS) while controlling for PMP administration, demographic factors and laws that might affect OPR overdose.Setting and ParticipantsAge-adjusted opioid overdose death rates for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1999 and 2014 for a total of 816 observations.MeasurementsPMP strength was calculated using legal data compiled by the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (PDAPS). In addition to demographic controls, other covariates included laws that regulate pain clinics, access to naloxone, use of emergency services (Good Samaritan Laws) and medical marijuana.FindingsPMP strength was associated negatively with OPR overdose deaths. Every 1-point increase in PMP strength was associated with a 1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.2–2%] reduction in overdose deaths. When collapsed into quartiles, PMPs in the third quartile were associated with an approximately 18% (95% CI = 1.6–29%) reduction in OPR overdose death rates compared with states without a PMP. States with medical marijuana dispensaries reported a 16% (95% CI = 1–30%) reduction in OPR overdoses.ConclusionsUS states that have more robust prescription drug monitoring programs have fewer prescription opioid overdose deaths than states with weaker PMPs. States with medical marijuana dispensaries also report fewer opioid overdose deaths than states without these.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T22:05:24.634977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13741
  • Impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on opioid
           utilization among Medicare beneficiaries in 10 US States
    • Authors: Patience Moyo; Linda Simoni-Wastila, Beth Ann Griffin, Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Donna Harrington, G. Caleb Alexander, Francis Palumbo
      Pages: 1784 - 1796
      Abstract: Background and aimsPrescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are a principal strategy used in the United States to address prescription drug abuse. We (1) compared opioid use pre- and post-PDMP implementation and (2) estimated differences of PDMP impact by reason for Medicare eligibility and plan type.DesignAnalysis of opioid prescription claims in US states that implemented PDMPs relative to non-PDMP states during 2007–12.SettingFlorida, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Vermont, Georgia, Wisconsin, Maryland, New Hampshire and Arkansas, USA.ParticipantsA total of 310 105 disabled and older adult Medicare enrolees.MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were monthly total opioid volume, mean daily morphine milligram equivalent (MME) dose per prescription and number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. The key predictors were PDMP status and time. Tests for moderation examined PDMP impact by Medicare eligibility (disability versus age) and drug plan [privately provided Medicare Advantage (MAPD) versus fee-for-service (PDP)].FindingsOverall, PDMP implementation was associated with reduced opioid volume [−2.36 kg/month, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −3.44, −1.28] and no changes in mean MMEs or opioid prescriptions 12 months after implementation compared with non-PDMP states. We found evidence of strong moderation effects. In PDMP states, estimated monthly opioid volumes decreased 1.67 kg (95% CI = −2.38, −0.96) and 0.75 kg (95% CI = −1.32, −0.18) among disabled and older adults, respectively, and 1.2 kg, regardless of plan type. MME reductions were 3.73 mg/prescription (95% CI = −6.22, −1.24) in disabled and 3.02 mg/prescription (95% CI = −3.86, −2.18) in MAPD beneficiaries, but there were no changes in older adults and PDP beneficiaries. Dispensed prescriptions increased 259/month (95% CI = 39, 479) among the disabled and decreased 610/month (95% CI = −953, −257) among MAPD beneficiaries.ConclusionsPrescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are associated with reductions in opioid use, measured by volume, among disabled and older adult Medicare beneficiaries in the United States compared with states that do not have PDMPs. PDMP impact on daily doses and daily prescriptions varied by reason for eligibility and plan type. These findings cannot be generalized beyond the 10 US states studied.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T23:55:38.403048-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13860
  • Commentary on Pardo (2017) and Moyo et al. (2017): Much still unknown
           about prescription drug monitoring programs
    • Authors: Corey S. Davis
      Pages: 1797 - 1798
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:57.536712-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13936
  • Varenicline versus nicotine patch with brief advice for smokers with
           substance use disorders with or without depression: effects on smoking,
           substance use and depressive symptoms
    • Authors: Damaris J. Rohsenow; Jennifer W. Tidey, Rosemarie A. Martin, Suzanne M. Colby, Robert M. Swift, Lorenzo Leggio, Peter M. Monti
      Pages: 1808 - 1820
      Abstract: AimsVarenicline was compared with transdermal nicotine (NRT) for smokers with current substance use disorders (SUD) for effects on 3-month smoking abstinence (primary outcome) and, secondarily, on 3- and 6 month abstinence while adjusting for medication adherence, and on additional smoking and substance use outcomes. Moderation by major depressive disorder history (MDD) and adherence were investigated.DesignDouble-blind double-placebo-controlled randomized design, stratifying by MDD, gender and nicotine dependence, with 3 and 6 months follow-up.SettingUniversity offices in Rhode Island, USA.ParticipantsAdult smokers (n = 137), in SUD treatment, substance abstinent
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T18:45:38.359849-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13861
  • Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic
           vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: implications for health
           education and research
    • Authors: Lucy Popova; Emily Anne McDonald, Sohrab Sidhu, Rachel Barry, Tracey A. Richers Maruyama, Nicolas M. Sheon, Pamela M. Ling
      Pages: 1821 - 1829
      Abstract: AimsTo evaluate how young adults perceive and compare harms and benefits of marijuana and tobacco products in the context of a legal marijuana market in Colorado.DesignSemi-structured qualitative interviews.SettingDenver, CO, USA.ParticipantsThirty-two young adults (aged 18–26 years) who used tobacco/marijuana/vaporizers.MeasurementsSemi-structured interviews addressed perceived harms and benefits of various tobacco and marijuana products and personal experiences with these products.FindingsYoung adults evaluated harms and benefits using five dimensions: (1) combustion—smoking was considered more harmful than non-combustible products (e.g. e-cigarettes, vaporizers and edibles); (2) potency—edibles and marijuana concentrates were perceived as more harmful than smoking marijuana flower because of potential to receive too large a dose of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); (3) chemicals—products containing chemical additives were seen as more harmful than ‘pure’ or ‘natural’ plant products; (4) addiction—participants recognized physiological addiction to nicotine, but talked primarily about psychological or life-style dependence on marijuana; and (5) source of knowledge—personal experiences, warning labels, campaigns, the media and opinions of product retailers and medical practitioners affected perceptions of harms and benefits.ConclusionsAmong young adults in Colorado, USA, perceived harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana include multiple dimensions. Health educational campaigns could benefit from addressing these dimensions, such as the potency of nicotine and cannabis concentrates and harmful chemicals present in the organic material of tobacco and marijuana. Descriptors such as ‘natural’ and ‘pure’ in the promotion or packaging of tobacco and marijuana products might be misleading.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T21:30:24.444367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13854
  • Commentary on Popova et al. (2017): Co-used and co-administered tobacco
           and cannabis (marijuana) require further investigation
    • Authors: Hannah Walsh; Chandni Hindocha, Maria Duaso
      Pages: 1830 - 1831
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:57.434512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13972
  • An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban
           retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries
    • Authors: Jennifer Brown; Kevin Welding, Joanna E. Cohen, Rajeev Cherukupalli, Carmen Washington, Jacqueline Ferguson, Katherine Clegg Smith
      Pages: 1854 - 1860
      Abstract: Background/AimsTo estimate and compare price differences between legal and illicit cigarettes in 14 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).DesignA cross-sectional census of all packs available on the market was purchased.SettingCigarette packs were purchased in formal retail settings in three major cities in each of 14 LMIC: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam.ParticipantsA total of 3240 packs were purchased (range = 58 packs in Egypt to 505 in Russia). Packs were categorized as ‘legal’ or ‘illicit’ based on the presence of a health warning label from the country of purchase and existence of a tax stamp; 2468 legal and 772 illicit packs were in the analysis.MeasurementsDescriptive statistics stratified by country, city and neighborhood socio-economic status were used to explore the association between price and legal status of cigarettes.FindingsThe number of illicit cigarettes in the sample setting was small (n 
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T22:07:47.262109-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13881
  • PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white
           matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: a
           double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial
    • Authors: Joy M. Schmitz; Charles E. Green, Khader M. Hasan, Jessica Vincent, Robert Suchting, Michael F. Weaver, F. Gerard Moeller, Ponnada A. Narayana, Kathryn A. Cunningham, Kelly T. Dineley, Scott D. Lane
      Pages: 1861 - 1868
      Abstract: Background and aimsPioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance and tolerability were evaluated.DesignTwo-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC).SettingSingle-site out-patient treatment research clinic in Houston, TX, USA.ParticipantsThirty treatment-seeking adults, 18 to 60 years old, with CUD. Eighteen participants (8 = PIO; 10 = PLC) completed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of WM integrity at pre-/post-treatment.InterventionStudy medication was dispensed at thrice weekly visits along with once-weekly cognitive behavioral therapy for 12 weeks.MeasurementsMeasures of target engagement mechanisms of interest included cocaine craving assessed by the Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS), the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS), a visual analog scale (VAS) and change in WM integrity. Feasibility measures included number completing treatment, medication compliance (riboflavin detection) and tolerability (side effects, serious adverse events).FindingsTarget engagement change in mechanisms of interest, defined as a ≥ 0.75 Bayesian posterior probability of an interaction existing favoring PIO over PLC, was demonstrated on measures of craving (BSCS, VAS) and WM integrity indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Outcomes indicated greater decrease in craving and greater increase in FA values in the PIO group. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates among those starting treatment (21/26 = 80%) and medication compliance (≥ 80%). There were no reported serious adverse events for PIO.ConclusionsCompared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment. Pioglitazone shows good feasibility as a treatment for cocaine use disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T19:30:26.89556-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13868
  • Commentary on Schmitz et al. (2017): Advancing medication development for
           addiction—behavioral and neuroimaging outcomes as indirect biomarkers of
           target engagement
    • Authors: Mehdi Farokhnia; Reza Momenan, Lorenzo Leggio
      Pages: 1869 - 1870
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:58.43821-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13959
  • Moral Jeopardy: Risks of Accepting Money from the Alcohol, Tobacco and
           Gambling Industries by Peter J. Adams, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
           Press 2016
    • Authors: Jim McCambridge
      Pages: 1885 - 1885
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:58.357028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13892
  • News and Notes
    • Pages: 1886 - 1890
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:56.720176-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13976
  • Issue Information - TOC
    • Pages: 1892 - 1892
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T20:31:57.364529-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13579
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