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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1584 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1584 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Addiction
  [SJR: 2.086]   [H-I: 143]   [33 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0965-2140 - ISSN (Online) 1360-0443
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1584 journals]
  • Association between universal hepatitis B prison vaccination, vaccine
           uptake and hepatitis B infection among people who inject drugs
    • Authors: Norah E. Palmateer; David J. Goldberg, Alison Munro, Avril Taylor, Alan Yeung, Lesley A. Wallace, Alan Mitchell, Samantha J. Shepherd, Rory N. Gunson, Celia Aitken, Sharon J. Hutchinson
      Abstract: Background and aimsIn Scotland, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination for all prisoners was introduced in 1999; here, we examine the impact of this programme among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the community. This study aimed to compare rates of HBV vaccine uptake before and after implementation of the prison programme and to estimate the determinants of vaccine uptake, the levels of ever/current HBV infection and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection.DesignData collected via serial cross-sectional surveys were used to compare the proportion who reported being vaccinated over time. For the 2013-14 survey, rates of ever/current HBV infection were calculated and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection were examined using logistic regression.SettingServices providing injecting equipment and drug treatment, and street sites, in Glasgow (1993–2002) and across Scotland (2008–2014).ParticipantsMore than 10,000 PWID in total were recruited in the surveys.MeasurementsParticipants completed a questionnaire (all years) to ascertain self-reported vaccine uptake and provided a blood spot (in 2013-14), tested for HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc) and surface antigen (HBsAg).FindingsAmong recent-onset PWID in Glasgow, vaccine uptake increased from 16-20% in 1993-99 to 52-59% in 2001-2014 (p
      PubDate: 2017-07-15T07:45:20.740601-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13944
  • Mecamylamine Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Controlled
    • Authors: Ismene L. Petrakis; Elizabeth Ralevski, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Stephanie S. O’Malley, Albert Arias, Kevin A. Sevarino, Jane S. Jane, Erin O’Brien, John H. Krystal
      Abstract: Background and aimsThe nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, mecamylamine, is a potential novel pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. The aims were to compare alcohol consumption between mecamylamine and placebo and test if smoking status modified treatment effects.DesignOutpatient, randomized, double-blind clinical trial for 12 weeks of treatment with mecamylamine (10mg) (n=65) vs. placebo (n=63).SettingConnecticut, USA.ParticipantsIndividuals had current alcohol dependence (n=128), had an average age of 48.5 (SD=9.4), 110 (85.9%) were men, and included 74 smokers (57.8%) and 54 non-smokers (42.2%)Intervention and comparatorParticipants were randomized to mecamylamine 10mg per day or placebo. All subjects also received Medical Management therapy administered by trained research personnel.MeasurementsPrimary outcome was percent heavy drinking days during the last month of treatment; other outcomes included drinking days, drinks per drinking days, alcohol craving, smoking, symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and side effects.FindingsThere were no significant differences in the percent of heavy drinking days at 3 months between the mecamylamine (mean=18.4, SD=29.0) and placebo treatment groups (mean=20.4, SD=29.2) (F1, 100 =1.3, p=0.25; effect size d=0.07; mean difference=2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) =-8.96 to 13.08). There were no significant differences in percent of drinking days or in drinks per drinking day at month 3 between the mecamylamine and placebo groups; and were no significant interactions.ConclusionsMecamylamine 10mg pd did not significantly reduce alcohol consumption in treatment seeking smokers and non-smokers with alcohol use disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15T07:25:22.589473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13943
  • Self-changing behaviour in smoking cessation linked to trait and cognitive
    • Authors: Jaume Celma-Merola; Francesc Abella-Pons, Fernanda Mata, Gerard Pedra-Pagés, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
      Abstract: Background and aimsTo compare impulsivity, measured using self-report and cognitive tasks in people who ceased smoking without treatment (self-changers) with each of the following groups: (i) smoking non-treatment seekers, (ii) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent, and (iii) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent.DesignCross-sectional, observational study.SettingThe smoking cessation unit of a public general hospital, Hospital de Santa Maria, in Lleida, Spain. All participants were from the hospital's catchment area.ParticipantsOne hundred and twenty participants, classified in four groups: (1) self-changers (n=30, 21 females, mean age=41.50), (2) non-treatment seekers (n=30, 17 females, mean age=35.27), (3) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent (n=30, 17 females, mean age=48.93), and (4) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent (n=30, 21 females, mean age=33.70).MeasurementsThe Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, including measures of non-planning, attentional and motor impulsivity, and two behavioural tasks measuring cognitive inhibition (Stroop test) and choice impulsivity (Delay-discounting task). Confounders included sex, age, education, employment, smoking severity, depression and trait and state anxiety.FindingsAlthough not on the other three measures, we found significant group differences on trait non-planning impulsivity and Stroop performance. Self-changers compared with non-treatment seekers had lower non-planning impulsivity (p = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.62) and better Stroop performance (p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.66). Self-changers also had better Stroop performance than participants in treatment and currently abstinent (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85).Although not on the other three measures, we found significant group differences on trait non-planning impulsivity and Stroop performance. Self-changers compared with non-treatment seekers had lower non-planning impulsivity (p = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.62) and better Stroop performance (p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.66). Self-changers also had better Stroop performance than participants in treatment and currently abstinent (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85).ConclusionsPeople who have stopped smoking without treatment appear to have lower non-planning impulsivity and more effective cognitive inhibition compared with smoking non-treatment seekers, and better cognitive inhibition than people who cease smoking with treatment aid.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15T06:25:26.970648-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13942
  • Mapping medical marijuana: State laws regulating patients, product safety,
           supply chains and dispensaries, 2017
    • Authors: Sarah B. Klieger; Abraham Gutman, Leslie Allen, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Jennifer K. Ibrahim, Scott Burris
      Abstract: Aims1) To describe open source legal datasets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of U.S. state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. 2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety, and dispensary practice.MethodsTwo legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety, and dispensaries in effect on February 1, 2017, creating three empirical legal datasets. We used summary tables to identify the variation in specific statutory provisions specified in each state's medical marijuana law as it existed on February 1, 2017. We compared aspects of these laws to the traditional Federal approach to regulating medicine. Full datasets, codebooks and protocols are available through the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System ( ; states (including the District of Columbia) have authorized medical marijuana. Twenty-seven specify qualifying diseases, which differ across states. All but two protect patient privacy; only 14 protect patients against discrimination. Eighteen states have mandatory product safety testing before any sale. While the majority have package/label regulations, states have a wide range of specific requirements. Most regulate dispensaries (25 states), with considerable variation in specific provisions such as permitted product supply sources (23 states), number of dispensaries per state (18 states) and restricting proximity to various types of location (21 states).ConclusionsThe federal ban in the USA on marijuana has resulted in a patchwork of regulatory strategies that are not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and whose effectiveness remains unknown.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T08:00:01.423445-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13910
  • All drinking is not equal: how a social practice theory lens could enhance
           public health research on alcohol and other health behaviours
    • Authors: Petra Sylvia Meier; Alan Warde, John Holmes
      Abstract: BackgroundThe social meanings, settings and habitual nature of health-related activities and their integration into our daily lives are often overlooked in quantitative public health research. This reflects an overly individualized approach to epidemiological surveillance and evaluations of public health interventions, based on models of behaviour that are rooted in social cognition and rational choice theories. This paper calls for a new approach to alcohol epidemiology and intervention research informed by theories of practice.ArgumentPractices are conceptualized as routinized types of human activity that are made up of, and can be recognized by, the coming together of several interwoven elements in the same situation (e.g. materials, meanings, skills, locations, timings). Different practices are interconnected—they can occur simultaneously (e.g. drinking and eating), hold each other in place (e.g. after-work drinks) or compete for time (e.g. parenting versus socializing). Applying these principles to alcohol research means shifting attention away from individuals and their behaviours and instead making drinking practices an important unit of analysis. Studying how drinking practices emerge, persist and decay over time, how they spread through populations and local or social networks and how they relate to other activities of everyday life promises new insights into how, why, where, when and with whom drinking and getting drunk occur.ConclusionsTheories of practice provide a framework for generating new explanations of stability and change in alcohol consumption and other health behaviours. This framework offers potential for novel insights into the persistence of health inequalities, unanticipated consequences of policies and interventions and new interventions targets through understanding which elements of problematic practices are likely to be most modifiable. We hope this will generate novel insights into the emergence and decay of drinking practices over time and into the geographical and socio-demographic patterning of drinking. Theories of practice-informed research would consider how alcohol policies and population-level interventions might differentially affect different drinking practices.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T01:15:22.51874-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13895
  • Challenges the addiction field must overcome to avert being the Cinderella
           of medicine
    • Authors: Anne Lingford-Hughes
      Abstract: Commentary to: Precision medicine and pharmacogenetics: what does oncology have that addiction medicine does not'
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T23:40:47.302613-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13894
  • Are alcohol-related disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual
           youth decreasing'
    • Authors: Jessica N. Fish; Ryan J. Watson, Carolyn M. Porta, Stephen T. Russell, Elizabeth M. Saewyc
      Abstract: Background and AimsAlthough sexual orientation-related alcohol use disparities are well established, researchers have not identified whether disparities are diminishing as societal attitudes towards lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) people become more accepting. We examined changes in four alcohol-related disparities between heterosexual and LGB youth from 1998 to 2013 by (1) estimating the prevalence of these behaviors; (2) estimating disparities in alcohol-related outcomes between heterosexual and LGB youth within each wave year; and (3) testing whether the degree of difference in alcohol-related disparities between heterosexual and LGB youth has changed.DesignLogistic regression models and year × sexual orientation interactions with repeated, cross-sectional, provincially representative data.SettingBritish Columbia, Canada.ParticipantsStudents (ages 12–19) from the 1998 (n = 22 858), 2003 (n = 29 323), 2008 (n = 25 254) and 2013 (n = 21 938) British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (total n = 99 373, 48.7% male, mean age = 14.84).MeasurementsWe modeled age-adjusted differences in life-time alcohol use, age of onset, past 30-day drinking and past 30-day heavy episodic drinking between heterosexual and three subgroups of sexual minority youth (i.e. mostly heterosexual, bisexual and lesbian/gay).FindingsGenerally, alcohol use declined for all youth, although less so among LGB youth [average adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.58 and aOR = 0.53 for heterosexual males and females and aOR = 0.71 and aOR = 0.57 for sexual minority males and females, respectively). Within-year comparisons demonstrated elevated rates of alcohol use among LGB compared with heterosexual youth for each of the four survey years, especially among females. Findings indicate few changes over time; however, results show an increase in risky alcohol use from 1998 to 2013 among mostly heterosexual (aOR = 1.58 for life-time alcohol use, aOR = 1.58 for 30-day alcohol use and aOR = 1.34 for 30-day heavy episodic drinking), and bisexual (aOR = 1.95 for life-time alcohol use) females.ConclusionDespite the general decline in the prevalence of alcohol use among young people in Canada since 1998, lesbian/gay and bisexual youth in Canada continue to show elevated rates of alcohol use compared with heterosexual youth.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T10:00:01.680482-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13896
  • The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a
           study in six European cities
    • Authors: J. Perelman; J. Alves, T. Pfoertner, I. Moor, B. Federico, M. A. G. Kuipers, M. Richter, A. Rimpela, A. E. Kunst, V. Lorant
      Abstract: AimsThis study investigates the link between personal income and smoking among adolescents, and aims to answer the following questions: (i) to what extent is personal income related to smoking, independent of family socioeconomic status (SES)' (ii) does the association between personal income and smoking apply to different sub-populations'DesignCross-sectional study.SettingSix cities from European countries (Amersfoort/Netherlands, Coimbra/Portugal, Hannover/Germany, Latina/Italy, Namur/Belgium, Tampere/Finland), in 2013.ParticipantsA school-based sample of 10,794 adolescents aged 14-17 years old.MeasurementsWe modelled smoking experimentation, weekly smoking, daily smoking, and (among daily smokers) smoking intensity as function of personal income, adjusting for age, sex, family SES, parental smoking, and country. We tested interactions between personal income and covariates. Stratification analyses were performed for the variables for which interactions were significant.FindingsAdolescents in the highest income quintile were more likely to be smoking experimenters (OR=1.87; p
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T13:00:28.568716-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13930
  • The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics,
           health-related correlates and gambling behaviour – a cross-sectional
           population-based survey in Finland
    • Authors: Sari Castrén; Jukka Kontto, Hannu Alho, Anne H. Salonen
      Abstract: AimsTo investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio-demographics, health-related correlates and past-year gambling behaviour.DesignCross-sectional population survey.SettingPopulation-based survey in Finland.ParticipantsFinnish people aged 15−74 years randomly drawn from the Population Information System. The participants in this study were past-year gamblers (n = 3671; 1418 women and 1833 men).MeasurementsExpenditure shares, means of weekly gambling expenditure (WGE, €) and monthly gambling expenditure as a percentage of net income (MGE/NI, %) were calculated. The correlates used were perceived health, smoking, mental health (MHI-5), alcohol use (AUDIT-C), game types, gambling frequency, gambling mode, and gambling severity (SOGS).FindingsGender (men vs. women) was found to be significantly associated with gambling expenditure with men showing a 40% higher mean for WGE, 95% CI [29, 52] and p
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:55:25.803421-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13929
  • Effects of comorbid substance use disorders on outcomes in a Housing First
           intervention for homeless people with mental illness
    • Authors: Karen Urbanoski; Scott Veldhuizen, Michael Krausz, Christian Schutz, Julian M. Somers, Maritt Kirst, Marie-Josée Fleury, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Michelle Patterson, Verena Strehlau, Paula Goering
      Abstract: Background and AimsEvidence supports the effectiveness of Housing First (HF) programs for people who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness; however, questions remain about its use in people with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). The aim of this project was to test whether SUD modifies the effectiveness of an HF intervention.DesignSecondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of HF versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) with 24-month follow-up, comparing those with and without SUD at trial entry.SettingVancouver, Toronto, Winnipeg, Moncton, and Montreal, Canada.Participants2145 participants recruited 2009-2013 and randomized to HF versus TAU (67% male, mean age 40.8±11.2, 25% ethno-cultural minority). All were homeless and had a mental disorder at baseline; 35% reported symptoms consistent with SUD.InterventionHousing paired with Intensive Case Management or Assertive Community Treatment.MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were days housed and community functioning. Secondary outcomes were general and health-related quality of life, and mental health symptoms. Predictors were SUD status crossed with intervention group (HF versus TAU).FindingsPeople with SUD in both the HF and TAU groups spent less time in stable housing, but the effect of HF did not vary by SUD status (OR=1.17, 95% CI = -0.77, 1.76). Likewise, there was no difference between those with and without SUD in the effect of HF (over TAU) on community functioning (b=0.75, 95% CI = -0.36, 1.87), quality of life (b=-1.27, 95% CI = -4.17, 1.63), health-related quality of life (b=-0.01, 95% CI = -0.03, 0.02), or mental health symptoms (b=0.43, 95% CI = -0.99, 1.86).ConclusionsHousing First programs in Canada are equally effective in people with and without comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Overall, the intervention appears to be able to engage people with SUD and is reasonably successful at housing them, without housing being contingent on abstinence or treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:40:22.643639-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13928
  • Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of active tuberculosis in
           Taiwanese adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study
    • Authors: Yung-Feng Yen; Hsiao-Yun Hu, Ya-Ling Lee, Po-Wen Ku, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yun-Ju Lai, Dachen Chu
      Abstract: AimsTo investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on tuberculosis (TB) development in Taiwanese adults.DesignParticipants from the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates.SettingTaiwan National Health Interview Survey.ParticipantsA total of 46 196 adult participants aged>18 years from three rounds (2001, 2005, 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey.MeasurementsAlcohol consumption was classified into never, social, regular, or heavy alcohol use. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as intoxication at least once/week.FindingsOf the 46 196 study subjects, 61.8%, 24.2%, 13.5%, and 0.5% were classified as never, social, regular, and heavy alcohol users, respectively. During the 398 443 person-years of follow-up, 279 (0.60%) subjects developed new-onset active TB. After adjusting for the subject demographics and comorbidities, heavy (hazard ratio [HR], 5.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51-11.09) and regular alcohol users (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.32-2.45) had increased risks of incident TB compared to never users. Moreover, a positive trend between increasing levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of active TB was noted (P
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:40:20.50744-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13926
  • Effectiveness of intensive practice nurse counselling versus brief general
           practitioner advice, both combined with varenicline, for smoking
           cessation: a randomised pragmatic trial in primary care
    • Authors: Carolien Rossem; Mark Spigt, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, A. E. M. Lucas, Onno C. P. Schayck, Daniel Kotz
      Abstract: AimsTo study the effectiveness of intensive counselling by a practice nurse versus brief advice by a general practitioner, each combined with pharmacotherapy, for tobacco 6 months (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included 12-month abstinence, medication adherence, and incremental costs per life year gained.DesignA multi-site (N=10), two-group, parallel, pragmatic randomised controlled trial.SettingA network of primary healthcare centres in the Netherlands.Participants295 adult daily smokers (mean age=48 years; mean cigarettes/day=19).Intervention and comparatorPatients were randomised to receive individual counselling by a practice nurse (N=149) or brief advice by a general practitioner (146). All patients received 12 weeks open-label varenicline.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was prolonged biochemically validated abstinence from week 9 to 26 after treatment initiation. Secondary outcomes included abstinence from week 9 to 52, good dosing adherence (>80% days taken), and incremental costs per life year gained.FindingsAbstinence rates in the practice nurse vs. general practitioner groups were 32.2% (n=48) vs. 39.0% (n=57; OR=0.71; 95%CI=0.44-1.16) from week 9-26, and 25.5% (n=38) vs. 28.8% (n=42; OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.50-1.43) from week 9-52, respectively. Values of the Bayes factor indicated that the PN and GP were equally effective. Good dosing adherence was significantly lower in the practice nurse (41.3%, n=50) than in the general practitioner group (56.2%, n=68; OR=0.45, 95%CI=0.26-0.77), and the incremental costs per life year gained were -€416.10.ConclusionsAmong people seeking help to stop smoking from their general practice, one-off brief advice from a general practitioner appears to be as effective as several sessions of behavioural support from a practice nurse when smoking cessation medication is provided.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T12:40:18.253797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13927
  • Cannabis and psychotic experiences
    • Authors: Hans Oh; Jordan DeVylder
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T02:40:18.096517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13885
  • Risk Factors for Severe Respiratory Depression from Prescription Opioid
    • Authors: Lindsay M. Fox; Robert S. Hoffman, David Vlahov, Alex F. Manini
      Abstract: Background and aimsPrescription opioid overdose is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with clinical severity in emergency department patients with prescription opioid overdose.DesignThis was a secondary data analysis of adult prescription opioid overdoses from a large prospective cohort of acute overdoses. We examined elements of a typical emergency department evaluation using a multivariable model to determine which characteristics were associated with clinical severity, specifically severe respiratory depression (SRD).SettingThis study was conducted at two urban academic emergency departments in New York City, USA.ParticipantsAdult patients who presented with acute prescription opioid overdose between 2009 and 2013 were included in the current study. We analysed 307 patients (mean age 44.7, 42% female, 2.0% mortality).MeasurementsPatient demographics, reported substances ingested, suspected intent for ingesting the substance, vital signs, laboratory data, treatments including antidotes and intubation, and outcome of death were recorded by trained research assistants. Intent was categorized into four mutually exclusive categories: suicide, misuse, therapeutic error, and undetermined. The primary outcome was SRD, defined as administration of either (a) naloxone or (b) endotracheal intubation (ETI).Findings109 patients suffered SRD with 90 patients receiving naloxone alone, 9 ETI alone, and 10 both naloxone and ETI. The most common opioids were oxycodone (n=124) and methadone (n=116). Mean age was higher in patients with SRD (51.1 vs. 41.1, p
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T19:40:24.345667-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13925
  • Structural Neuroimaging Correlates of Alcohol and Cannabis Use in
           Adolescents and Adults
    • Authors: Rachel E. Thayer; Sophie YorkWilliams, Hollis C. Karoly, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Sarah Feldstein Ewing, Angela D. Bryan, Kent E. Hutchison
      Abstract: Background and AimsChronic alcohol use is associated with lower gray matter volume, and we recently reported that alcohol use showed negative associations with widespread gray matter (GM) volume even among young adults. The current study aimed to test the strength of association between (1) alcohol use and GM volume; (2) alcohol use and white matter (WM) integrity; (3) cannabis use and GM volume; and (4) cannabis use and WM integrity among adults and adolescents.Design and SettingGeneral linear models within large pooled cross-sectional samples of adolescents and adults who had participated in studies collecting substance use and neuroimaging data in the southwestern United States.ParticipantsThe current analysis included adults ages 18-55 years (N=853) and adolescents ages 14-18 years (N=439) with a range of alcohol and cannabis use.MeasurementsThe dependent variable was GM volume or WM integrity, with key predictors of alcohol use (AUDIT score) and cannabis use (past 30-day use).FindingsAlcohol use showed large clusters of negative associations (ηp2=.028 to .145, p
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T19:20:35.350869-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13923
  • Childhood Traumatic Experiences and the Association with Marijuana and
           Cocaine Use in Adolescence through Adulthood
    • Authors: Joy D. Scheidell; Kelly Quinn, Susan P. McGorray, B. Christopher Frueh, Nisha N. Beharie, Linda B. Cottler, Maria R. Khan
      Abstract: Background and aimsExamination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood.DesignSecondary data analysis using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult HealthSettingUnited States of America.ParticipantsA nationally-representative sample of individuals in grades 7-12 (ages 11-21) during 1994-95, who were re-interviewed during emerging adulthood (2001-02; ages 18-26) and adulthood (2007-08; ages 24-32). The analytic sample is 12,288 participants with data at all three waves.MeasurementsNine typologies of childhood traumas: neglect; emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; parental incarceration and binge drinking; and witnessing, being threatened with, and experiencing violence. Indicators of each were summed to measure cumulative dose. Outcomes were marijuana and cocaine use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood.FindingsApproximately 53% experienced at least one childhood trauma; traumas were not highly correlated. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of traumas and drug use in adolescence (marijuana adjusted odds ratio (AOR) one trauma vs. none=1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42, 1.92; two traumas=2.58, 95%CI: 2.17, 3.06; ≥four traumas=6.92, 95%CI: 5.17, 9.26; cocaine AOR one trauma=1.87, 95%CI: 1.23, 2.84; two traumas=2.80, 95%CI: 1.74, 4.51; ≥four trauma=9.54, 95%CI: 5.93, 15.38). Similar dose-response relationships with drug use were observed in emerging adulthood and adulthood. Each individual trauma was independently associated with either marijuana or cocaine use in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and/or adulthood.ConclusionsChildhood trauma is prevalent in the US and individual types as well as the total number experienced are significantly associated with Marijuana and cocaine use throughout the life-course.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T18:45:46.089634-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13921
  • “To take or not to take: The association between perceived addiction
           risk, expected analgesic response, and likelihood of trying novel pain
           relievers in self-identified chronic pain patients”
    • Authors: D. Andrew Tompkins; Andrew S. Huhn, Patrick S. Johnson, Michael T. Smith, Eric C. Strain, Robert R. Edwards, Matthew W. Johnson
      Abstract: Background and aimsProbability discounting refers to the effect of outcome uncertainty on decision making. Using probability discounting, we examined the degree to which self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) were likely to try a novel analgesic medication given increasing addiction risk. We postulated that propensity for opioid misuse, trait impulsivity, and previous opioid experience would be positively associated with likelihood of risky medication use.DesignThis cross-sectional online study determined state/trait associations with addiction-related medication decisions in CPP.SettingUS-based CPP participated via Amazon Mechanical Turk; data were collected and analyzed in Baltimore, Maryland.Participants263 CPP (70% female) participated in the study from December 12-13, 2014.MeasurementsCPP responded to the Benefit vs. Addiction Risk Questionnaire (BARQ) assessing likelihood of taking a hypothetical once-daily oral analgesic medication as a function of two factors: risk of addiction (0%-50%) and duration of expected complete pain relief (3, 30, or 365 days). The primary outcome was the BARQ, quantified as area-under-the-curve (AUC). Grouping of CPP at high or low risk for opioid misuse was based on the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R). Predictors included previous experience with opioids, as well as various measures of chronic pain and mental health.FindingsAcross hypothetical addiction risk assessed in the BARQ, the likelihood of taking a novel analgesic medication was significantly elevated in patients with high (>18; n=137) versus low (
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T18:45:44.496261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13922
  • A free ride' An analysis of the association of casino bus tours and
           problem gambling among older adults
    • Authors: Mark Maas; Robert E. Mann, Flora I. Matheson, Nigel E. Turner, Hayley A. Hamilton, John McCready
      Abstract: Background and aimsLittle research has examined the relationship between incentives used by gambling venues to attract customers and the experience of gambling related harm. Organized and subsidized bus tours are a common example of such incentives. The aim of this study was to examine whether bus tour patronage was associated with increased odds of problem gambling among older adults. This study also compared rates of bus tour use by sociodemographic characteristics and gambling behaviours.DesignPearson chi square tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for bivariate analyses. Multivariate generalized mixed effects regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between bus tour patronage and problem gambling while controlling for possible confounding factors.Setting7 gambling venues located in Central and Southwestern Ontario, Canada.Participants1978 gambling venue patrons over the age of 55MeasurementsProblem gambling as indicated by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, bus tour patronage in the 12 months prior to the survey, spending per gambling visit, past month slot machine participation.FindingsRegression analyses showed that bus tour patronage was associated with higher odds of problem gambling (OR=1.71, CI=1.06, 2.76) after controlling for several demographic characteristics, type of gambling, and gambling expenditures. Bivariate analyses showed past year bus tour patronage was associated with more frequent slot machine play (x2=48.16, p
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T08:10:22.229198-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13914
  • The contribution of unrecorded alcohol to health harm
    • Authors: Jürgen Rehm; Gerhard Gmel, Omer S. M. Hasan, Sameer Imtiaz, Svetlana Popova, Charlotte Probst, Michael Roerecke, Robin Room, Andriy V. Samokhvalov, Kevin D. Shield, Paul A. Shuper
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T23:20:59.440724-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13865
  • Associations between anhedonia and marijuana use escalation across
    • Authors: Adam M. Leventhal; Junhan Cho, Matthew D. Stone, Jessica L. Barrington-Trimis, Chih-Ping Chou, Steven Y. Sussman, Nathaniel R. Riggs, Jennifer B. Unger, Janet Audrain-McGovern, David R. Strong
      Abstract: Background and aimsAnhedonia—a transdiagnostic psychopathological trait indicative of inability to experience pleasure—could lead to and result from adolescent marijuana use, yet this notion has not been tested. This study aimed to estimate the association of: (1) anhedonia at age 14 with rate of change in marijuana use over an 18-month follow-up, and (2) marijuana use at age 14 with rate of change in anhedonia over follow-up. Secondary aims were to test whether gender, baseline marijuana use history, and peer marijuana use moderated these associations.DesignObservational longitudinal cohort repeated measures design, with baseline (age 14), 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month follow-up assessments.SettingsTen public high schools in Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2013-2015.ParticipantsStudents (N=3,394; 53.5% female, Mean[SD] age at baseline=14.1[0.42]).MeasurementsSelf-report level of anhedonia on the Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale and frequency of marijuana use in the past 30 days.FindingsParallel process latent growth curve models adjusting for confounders showed that baseline anhedonia level was positively associated with the rate of increase in marijuana use frequency across follow-ups (β[95%CI]=.115[.022, .252], P=.03). Baseline marijuana use frequency was not significantly related to the rate of change in anhedonia across follow-ups (β[95%CI]=-.015[-.350, .321], P=.93). The association of baseline anhedonia with faster marijuana use escalation was amplified amongst adolescents with (versus without) friends who used marijuana at baseline (β[95%CI]: .179[.043, .334] versus .064[-.071, .187], interaction P=.04) but did not differ by gender or baseline ever marijuana use.ConclusionsIn mid adolescence, anhedonia is associated with subsequent marijuana use escalation but marijuana use escalation does not appear to be associated with subsequent anhedonia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:38:59.776507-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13912
  • Deriving Low-Risk Gambling Limits from Longitudinal Data Collected in Two
           Independent Canadian Studies
    • Authors: Shawn R. Currie; David C. Hodgins, David M. Casey, Nady el-Guebaly, Garry J. Smith, Robert J. Williams, Don P. Schopflocher
      Abstract: AimsTo derive low-risk gambling limits using the method developed by Currie et al. (2006) applied to longitudinal data.DesignSecondary analysis of data from the Quinte Longitudinal Study (N = 3054) and Leisure, Lifestyle, and Lifecycle Project (N = 809), two independently conducted cohort studies of the natural progression of gambling in Canadian adults.SettingCommunity dwelling adults in Southeastern Ontario and Alberta, Canada.Participants3863 adults (50% male; median age = 44) who reported gambling in the past year.MeasurementsGambling behaviours (typical monthly frequency, total expenditure, and percent of income spent on gambling) and harm (experiencing two or more consequences of gambling in the past 12 months) were assessed with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index.FindingsThe dose-response relationship was comparable in both studies for frequency of gambling (days per month), total expenditure, and percent of household income spent on gambling (area under the curve values ranged from 0.66 to 0.74). Based on the optimal sensitivity and specificity values, the low-risk gambling cut-offs were 8 times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling. Gamblers who exceeded any of these limits at Time 1 were approximately four times more likely to report harm at Time 2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.9 to 6.6).ConclusionsLongitudinal data in Canada suggests low-risk gambling thresholds of 8 times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling, all of which are higher than previously derived limits from cross-sectional data. Gamblers who exceed any of the three low-risk limits are four times more likely to experience future harm than those who do not.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:37:34.351726-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13909
  • Self-reported Cognitive Scales in a U.S. National Survey: Reliability,
           Validity, and Preliminary Evidence for Associations with Alcohol and Drug
    • Authors: Efrat Aharonovich; Dvora Shmulewitz, Melanie M. Wall, Bridget F. Grant, Deborah S. Hasin
      Abstract: AimsTo evaluate relationships between measures of cognitive functioning and alcohol or drug use among adults (≥18 years) in the U.S. general population.DesignTwo cognitive scales were created based on dimensionality and reliability of self-reported Executive Function Index items. Relationships between the two scales and validators were evaluated. Associations between the cognitive scales and past-year frequency of alcohol or drug use were estimated with adjusted odds ratios (aOR).SettingUSA, using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a nationally representative adult sample selected by multistage probability sampling.Participants36,085 respondents.MeasurementsPast-year substance use outcome variables categorized binge drinking, marijuana, cocaine, opioid, sedative/tranquilizer, and stimulant use as frequent (at least weekly to daily), infrequent (any to 2-3 times/month), or no use, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-V. Key predictors were the two cognitive scales. Construct validators included education and functional impairment. Covariates included age, gender, income, and race/ethnicity.FindingsNine cognitive items fit a two-factor model (Comparative Fit Index=.973): attention (5 items) and executive functioning (4 items). Both scales were positively associated with higher education (ps
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:37:27.809961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13911
  • Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to
           promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no
           intention to quit: A randomized trial
    • Authors: Lei Wu; Yao He, Bin Jiang, Di Zhang, Hui Tian, Fang Zuo, Tai Hing Lam
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of a brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise.DesignA two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial.Participants and SettingMale patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture outpatient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China.Intervention and comparatorsPhysicians advised participants allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention (SRI, n = 181) group to reduce smoking to at least half of their current consumption within one month at baseline. At follow-up, a telephone counselor repeated this advice if the participant had not reduced their cigarette consumption. Participants who had reduced consumption were encouraged to quit smoking. Physicians gave participants in the exercise- and diet-advice (EDA, n = 188) control group brief advice about physical activity and healthy diet at baseline and a telephone counselor reinforced this at each follow-up interview. Both groups had one face-to-face interview at baseline plus five telephone interviews and interventions (about one minute each) at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up interview.FindingsBy intention to treat, the self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up in the SRI groups (19 quitters, 15.7%) was higher, but not significantly, than the EDA control group (10 quitters, 7.8%), and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (0.97-5.26), P = 0.062. The self-reported 7-day point prevalence quit rate (secondary outcome) in the SRI group was significantly higher than the control group at each follow-up interview (at 12-month follow-up: 13.3% vs. 6.9%, OR (95% CI) =2.09 (1.01, 4.34), P = 0.049).ConclusionsA very brief, proactive and low cost smoking-reduction interventions without medications for Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit appears to increase smoking abstinence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T16:30:37.572091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13908
  • Changes in undergraduates’ marijuana, heavy alcohol, and cigarette use
           following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon
    • Authors: David C. R. Kerr; Harold Bae, Sandi Phibbs, Adam C. Kern
      Abstract: Background and aimsRecreational marijuana legalization (RML) went into effect in Oregon in July 2015. RML is expected to influence marijuana use by adolescents and young adults in particular, and by those with a propensity for substance use. We sought to quantify changes in rates of marijuana use among college students in Oregon from pre- to post-RML relative to college students in other states across the same time period.DesignRepeated cross-sectional survey data from the 2012-2016 administrations of the Healthy Minds Study.SettingSeven 4-year universities in the USA.ParticipantsThere were 10,924 undergraduate participants. One large public Oregon university participated in 2014 and 2016 (n = 588 and 1115, respectively); six universities in U.S. states where recreational marijuana use was illegal participated both in 2016 and at least once between 2012 and 2015.MeasurementsSelf-reported marijuana use in the past 30 days (yes/no) was regressed on time (pre/post 2015), exposure to RML (i.e., Oregon students in 2016), and covariates using mixed effects logistic regression. Moderation of RML effects by recent heavy alcohol use was examined.FindingsRates of marijuana use increased from pre- to post-2015 at six of the seven universities, a trend that was significant overall. Increases in rates of marijuana use were significantly greater in Oregon than in comparison institutions, but only among students reporting recent heavy alcohol use.ConclusionsRates of Oregon college students’ marijuana use increased (relative to that of students’ in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol. Such alcohol misuse may be a proxy for vulnerabilities to substance use or lack of prohibitions (e.g., cultural) against it.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T10:00:01.266887-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13906
  • The economic burden of neonatal abstinence syndrome in the United States
    • Authors: Tammy E. Corr; Christopher S. Hollenbeak
      Abstract: Background and aimsWhile hospital charges related to neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have increased recently, there are no data available regarding costs. Therefore, we sought to describe the NAS population and compare with the non-NAS population, determine the incidence of NAS in the United States and estimate the total annual costs and hospital days of NAS admissions, and estimate the incremental costs and length of stay of an NAS admission compared with a non-NAS admission.DesignRetrospective, observational study. Data were obtained from the Kids' Inpatient Database (2003–12). Survey-weighting was used to obtain national counts of NAS births. The incremental burden of costs and length of stay were estimated for NAS admissions and compared to non-NAS admissions.SettingUnited States hospitals from states participating in the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID), a nationally representative sample of all-payer in-patient pediatric discharges.ParticipantsInfants with a diagnosis of NAS (27 943) were identified from the KID using ICD-9-CM codes and compared with non-NAS infants (3 783 629).MeasurementsPrimary outcome measures were provider costs and length of stay for NAS and non-NAS admissions. Costs were calculated using cost-to-charge ratios and were adjusted for inflation to 2014 US dollars.FindingsBetween 2003 and 2012, NAS admissions increased more than fourfold, resulting in a surge in annual costs from US$61 million and 67 869 hospital days in 2003 to nearly US$316 million and 291 168 hospital days in 2012. For an infant affected by NAS, the hospital stay was nearly 3.5 times as long (16.57 hospital days compared with 4.98 for a non-NAS patient, P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T23:01:02.291249-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13842
  • Reply to Osborne & Serdarevic (2017): Potential impact of exposure
           definition when examining non-medical use of prescription opioids among US
    • Authors: Geetanjoli Banerjee; E. Jennifer Edelman, Declan T. Barry, William C. Becker, Magdalena Cerdá, Stephen Crystal, Julie R. Gaither, Adam J. Gordon, Kirsha S. Gordon, Robert D. Kerns, Silvia S. Martins, David A. Fiellin, Brandon D. L. Marshall
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T19:00:32.697431-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13864
  • Potential impact of exposure definition when examining non-medical use of
           prescription opioids among US veterans
    • Authors: Vicki Osborne; Mirsada Serdarevic
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T19:00:28.39275-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13858
  • Rates, characteristics and circumstances of methamphetamine-related death
           in Australia: A national 7 year study
    • Authors: Shane Darke; Sharlene Kaye, Johan Duflou
      Abstract: AimsAssess trends in the number, and mortality rates, of methamphetamine-related death in Australia, 2009-2015; 2. Assess the characteristics, and the cause, manner and circumstances of death; and 3. Assess the blood methamphetamine concentrations and the presence of other drugs in methamphetamine-related death.DesignAnalysis of cases of methamphetamine-related death retrieved from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS).SettingAustralia.CasesAll cases in which methamphetamine was coded in the NCIS database as a mechanism contributing to death (n=1,649).MeasurementsInformation was collected on cause and manner of death, demographics, location, circumstances of death and toxicology.FindingsThe mean age of cases was 36.9 years, and 78.4% were male. The crude mortality rate was 1.03 per 100,000. The rate increased significantly over time (p
      PubDate: 2017-06-11T21:30:33.005125-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13897
  • Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on
           cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based
    • Authors: Isaac C. Rhew; Charles B. Fleming, Ann Vander Stoep, Semret Nicodimos, Cheng Zheng, Elizabeth McCauley
      Abstract: Background and aimsAlthough they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18.DesignProspective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grade (~ age 12 to 15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence.SettingThe sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA.ParticipantsThe sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White).MeasurementsStructured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grade 7 to 9.FindingsThe one-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9% and 19.8%, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.10). Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI: .94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender.ConclusionsYouth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T07:50:18.815594-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13907
  • Association between Elementary School Personality and High School Smoking
           and Drinking
    • Authors: Sarah J. Peterson; Gregory T. Smith
      Abstract: Background and aimsAmong U.S. high school students, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with numerous concurrent and future harms. We tested whether multiple elementary school personality dispositions to behave impulsively can predict these addictive behaviors invariably across gender and race.Design and SettingThis longitudinal design involved testing whether individual differences on impulsigenic traits in elementary school predicted drinking and smoking four years later in high school in 23 public schools in Kentucky, USA.Participants1,897 youth ages 11 to 15, drawn from urban, rural, and suburban backgrounds.MeasurementsDrinking and smoking frequency were assessed by single item questions. The key predictors were impulsigenic traits measured with the UPPS-P Child Version impulsive behavior scale. Important covariates included were pubertal status, depression, negative affect, and positive affect; each was assessed by self-report.FindingsThree personality traits measured in 5th grade, each representing different dispositions to engage in impulsive behavior, predicted drinking and smoking in 9th grade above and beyond other risk factors and 5th grade drinking and smoking. Specifically, urgency (b = .10, .13), sensation seeking (b = .13, .07), and low conscientiousness (b = .14, .11) each uniquely predicted both high school drinking and smoking, respectively. There was no evidence that any trait predicted either outcome more strongly than the other traits, nor was there evidence that predictive results varied by gender or race.ConclusionsThree personality traits (urgency, sensation seeking, and low conscientiousness), when measured in 11-year-old children, individually predict those children's drinking and smoking behavior at age 15. The effects are invariant across gender and race.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T06:45:19.958788-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13905
  • Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher
           rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder
    • Authors: Arthur Robin Williams; Julian Santaella-Tenorio, Christine M. Mauro, Frances R. Levin, Silvia S. Martins
      Abstract: Background and AimsMost U.S. states have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), with great variation in program regulation impacting enrollment rates. We aimed to compare changes in rates of marijuana use, heavy use, and Cannabis Use Disorder across age groups while accounting for whether states enacted medicalized (highly regulated) or non-medical MML programs.DesignDifference-in-differences estimates with time-varying state-level MML coded by program type (medicalized v. non-medical). Multilevel linear regression models adjusted for state-level random effects and covariates as well as historical trends in use.SettingNationwide cross-sectional survey data from the U.S. National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) restricted use data portal aggregated at the state level.Participants2004-2013 NSDUH respondents (N ~ 67,500/year); age groups 12-17, 18-25, and 26+ years. States had implemented 8 medicalized and 15 non-medical MML programs.MeasurementsPrimary outcome measures included 1) Active (past-month) marijuana use; 2) Heavy use (>300 days/year); and 3) Cannabis Use Disorder diagnosis, based on DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included program type, age group, and state-level characteristics across the study period.FindingsAdults 26+ years of age living in states with non-medical MML programs increased past-month marijuana use 1.46% (from 4.13% to 6.59%, p=0.01) skewing toward greater heavy marijuana by 2.36% (from 14.94 to 17.30, p=0.09) after MMLs were enacted. However, no associated increase in the prevalence of Cannabis Use Disorder was found during the study period. Our findings do not show increases in prevalence of marijuana use among adults in states with medicalized MML programs. Additionally, there were no increases in adolescent or young adult marijuana outcomes following MML passage, irrespective of program type.ConclusionsNon-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults 26+ years.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T06:25:19.70573-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13904
  • Progress in implementation of WHO FCTC Article 14 and its guidelines: A
           survey of tobacco dependence treatment provision in 142 countries
    • Authors: Kapka Nilan; Martin Raw, Tricia M. McKeever, Rachael L. Murray, Ann McNeill
      Abstract: AimsTo 1) estimate the number of Parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) providing tobacco dependence treatment in accordance with the recommendations of Article 14 and its guidelines; 2) assess association between provision and countries' income level; and 3) assess progress over time.DesignCross sectional study.SettingOnline survey from December 2014 to July 2015.ParticipantsContacts in 172 countries were surveyed, representing 169 of the 180 FCTC Parties at the time of the survey.MeasurementsA 26 item questionnaire based on the Article 14 recommendations including tobacco treatment infrastructure and cessation support systems. Progress over time was assessed for those countries that also participated in our 2012 survey and did not change country income level classification.FindingsWe received responses from contacts in 142 countries, an 83% response rate. Overall, 54% of respondents reported their country had an officially identified person responsible for tobacco dependence treatment, 32% an official national treatment strategy, 40% official national treatment guidelines, 25% a clearly identified budget for treatment, 17% text messaging, 23% free national quitlines, and 26% specialised treatment services. Most measures were positively and significantly associated with countries' income level (p=0.001). Measures not significantly associated with income level included mandatory recording of tobacco use (30% of countries), offering help to healthcare workers (HCW) to stop using tobacco (44%), brief advice integrated into existing services (44%), and training HCW to give brief advice (81%). Reporting having an officially identified person responsible for tobacco cessation was the only measure with a statistically significant improvement over time (p=0.0351).ConclusionFewer than half of countries that are Parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have implemented the recommendations of Article 14 and its guidelines, and for most measures, provision was greater the higher the country's income. There was little improvement in treatment provision between 2012 and 2015 in all countries.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T06:05:20.515239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13903
  • Ready, willing, and able: The role of cannabis use opportunities in
           understanding adolescent cannabis use
    • Authors: Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas; Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
      Abstract: AimsTo examine adolescent cannabis use -- both at the national and individual level -- by deconstructing it into its necessary conditions of realistic use opportunities and willingness to use the drug given such opportunities.DesignNationally-representative, repeated cross-sectional survey.SettingNorway.ParticipantsA total of 8,818 16-year olds who participated in the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) in 2007, 2011, and 2015.MeasurementsAdolescent reports concerning their lifetime “cannabis use” and “possibilities to use cannabis” were used to assess: a) overall cannabis use, b) exposure to realistic cannabis use opportunities, and c) cannabis use among those exposed to use opportunities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate national trends since 2007 in these indicators, and to identify individual-level factors associated with cannabis use vs. non-use among youth exposed to concrete use opportunities.FindingsPrevalence of lifetime cannabis use remained stably low averaging 6.4% across the three surveys. Lifetime exposure to cannabis use opportunities significantly decreased (ORESPAD Assessment = .90, 95%CI .84 - .07, p = .006), yet cannabis use among adolescents with such opportunities steadily increased (ORESPAD Assessment = 1.17, 95%CI 1.03 - 1.34, p = .02) since 2007. After controlling for a range of other risk factors, abstinence from alcohol intoxication and cigarette use, as well as the perceptions of even infrequent cannabis use as risky remained the factors most robustly associated with lower likelihood of cannabis use among youth with realistic use opportunities.ConclusionsApproaches accounting for realistic use opportunities proved critical in our understanding of underage cannabis use, both at the national and individual level, and may be informative for development of prevention strategies in the era of cannabis liberalization. In addition, delineation of realistic opportunities from behaviors conditioned upon such opportunities is generalizable to a range of public health issues.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T05:50:22.479787-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13901
  • The impacts of minimum alcohol pricing on alcohol attributable morbidity
           in regions of British Colombia, Canada with low, medium and high mean
           family income
    • Authors: Jinhui Zhao; Tim Stockwell
      Abstract: Background and aimPrevious research indicates that minimum alcohol pricing (MAP) is negatively associated with alcohol attributable (AA) hospitalizations. Modeling studies predict this association will be stronger for people on lower incomes. The objective of this study was to test whether the association between MAP and AA hospitalizations is greater in low income regions.DesignCross–sectional versus time–series analysis using multivariate multilevel effect models.SettingAll 89 Local Health Areas in British Columbia (BC), Canada, 2002–2013 (48 quarters).ParticipantsBC population.MeasurementsQuarterly rates of AA hospital admissions, mean consumer price index-adjusted minimum dollars per standard alcoholic drink and socio-demographic covariates.FindingsFamily income was inversely related to the effect of minimum prices on rates of some types of AA morbidity. A 1% price increase was associated with reductions of 3.55% (95% CI: –5.72, –1.38; p
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T05:50:19.573597-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13902
  • Assessing the impact of a temporary class drug order on
           ethylphenidate-related infections among people who inject drugs in
           Lothian, Scotland: an interrupted time-series analysis
    • Authors: Alan Yeung; Amanda Weir, Hannah Austin, Kirsty Morrison, Donald Inverarity, Jim Sherval, Naomi Henderson, Shruti Joshi, Roisin Ure, Andrew McAuley
      Abstract: Background and AimsIn April 2015, the UK government enacted a temporary class drug order (TCDO) on ethylphenidate in response to reported harms associated with its use, in particular an outbreak of infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Lothian, Scotland. This study assesses the effect that the TCDO had on reducing the most common infections identified during the outbreak; Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).DesignThe outbreak was split into a pre-intervention period (35 weeks) and a post-intervention period (26 weeks) based around the date of the TCDO. Segmented negative binomial regression models were used to compare trends in weekly counts of infections between the pre and post intervention periods.Setting and participantsPWID in the Lothian region of Scotland.MeasurementsCases of S. pyogenes and S. aureus infections reported within the National Health Service, Lothian.FindingsThere were 251 S. pyogenes and/or S. aureus infections recorded among 211 PWID between February 2014 to December 2015 — 171 infections in the pre intervention period and 51 in the post-intervention period. Significant trend changes in weekly S. pyogenes and/or S. aureus infections following the TCDO were found (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82–0.94). PWID who self-reported using novel psychoactive substances (NPS) were at higher risk of acquiring these infections (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.12–2.93), particularly when comparing the risk of infection with NPS use for a specific strain, S. pyogenes emm76.0, against the risk of infection with NPS use for S. pyogenes (emm types other than emm76.0) (RR 3.49, 95% CI 1.32–9.21).ConclusionsThe UK government's 2015 temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate was effective in reducing infections among people who inject drugs during an outbreak situation in Lothian, Scotland.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T01:00:29.448187-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13898
  • Promoting reproducibility in addiction research
    • Authors: Marcus R. Munafò
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T01:41:04.342648-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13853
  • The contribution of alcohol use and other behavioural, material, and
           social factors to socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related disorders
           in a Swedish cohort
    • Authors: Lovisa Sydén; Anna Sidorchuk, Pia Mäkelä, Jonas Landberg
      Abstract: AimsWe estimated the degree to which the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and alcohol-related disorders is attenuated after adjustment for levels and patterns of drinking, behavioural, material, and social factors.DesignA longitudinal cohort study with baseline in 2002, with linkage to register data on patient care and deaths in 2002-2011 to yield the outcome measures.SettingStockholm County, Sweden.ParticipantsRespondents to baseline survey aged 25-64 (n = 17 440) with information on all studied covariates.MeasurementsOccupational class was the studied SEP indicator and a combined measure of volume of weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of heavy episodic drinking, smoking, employment status, income, social support, marital status, and education, all at baseline, were the studied covariates. Alcohol-related disorders (n = 388) were indicated by first register entries on alcohol-related medical care or death during the follow-up.FindingsUnskilled workers had an approximately four times greater risk of alcohol-related disorders than higher non-manual employees HR = 4.08 (2.78, 5.98). After adjustment for alcohol use, the SEP difference in risk for alcohol-related harm fell by a fourth for the same group HR = 2.91 (1.96, 4.33). The difference was further reduced when behavioural factors and material factors were taken into account HR = 2.09 (1.34, 3.26), whereas adjusting for social factors and attained education resulted in smaller reductions.ConclusionsSocioeconomic differences in alcohol use explain one fourth of the SEP differences in alcohol-related disorders in Stockholm, Sweden. Hazardous alcohol use and other behavioural, material, and social factors together explain nearly 60% of the SEP differences in alcohol-related disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:15:44.985457-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13889
  • Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: A time-series
           analysis of population trends in England
    • Authors: Emma Beard; Robert West, Susan Michie, Jamie Brown
      Abstract: AimsThis paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England.DesignData were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England.MeasurementsARIMAX modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of a) smoking and high-risk drinking; b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption.FindingsMean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.19% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking (95%CI 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.017. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β 0.324 95%CI -0.371 to 1.019, p = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β -0.026 95%CI -1.348 to 1.296, p = 0.969).ConclusionBetween 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were positively associated with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:15:41.716257-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13887
  • An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban
           retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries
    • Authors: Jennifer Brown; Kevin Welding, Joanna E. Cohen, Rajeev Cherukupalli, Carmen Washington, Jacqueline Ferguson, Katherine Clegg Smith
      Abstract: Background/AimsTo estimate and compare price differences between legal and illicit cigarettes in 14 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).DesignA cross-sectional census of all packs available on the market was purchased.SettingCigarette packs were purchased in formal retail settings in three major cities in each of 14 LMIC: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam.Participants/Observations3,240 packs were purchased (range: 58 packs in Egypt to 505 in Russia). Packs were categorized as “legal” or “illicit” based on the presence of a health warning label from the country of purchase and existence of a tax stamp. 2,468 legal and 772 illicit packs were in the analysis.MeasurementsDescriptive statistics stratified by country, city, and neighborhood socioeconomic status were used to explore the association between price and legal status of cigarettes.FindingsThe number of illicit cigarettes in the sample setting was small (n 
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:31.315931-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13881
  • A new methodological approach to adjust alcohol exposure distributions to
           improve the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions
    • Authors: William J. Parish; Arnie Aldridge, Benjamin Allaire, Donatus U. Ekwueme, Diana Phelps, Gery P. Guy, Cheryll C. Thomas, Justin G. Trogdon
      Abstract: Background and AimsTo assess the burden of excessive alcohol use, researchers routinely estimate alcohol-attributable fractions (AAFs). However, underreporting in survey data can bias these estimates. We present an approach that adjusts for underreporting in the estimation of AAFs, particularly across subgroups. This framework is a refinement of a previous method (Rehm et al., 2010).MethodsWe use a measurement error model to derive the “true” alcohol distribution from a “reported” alcohol distribution. The “true” distribution leverages per capita sales data to identify the distribution average and then identifies the shape of the distribution with self-reported survey data. Data are from the National Alcohol Survey (NAS), the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). We compared our approach with previous approaches by estimating the AAF of female breast cancer cases.ResultsCompared with Rehm et al.’s approach, our refinement performs similarly under a gamma assumption. For example, among females aged 18–25, the two approaches produce estimates from NHSDA that are within a percentage point. However, relaxing the gamma assumption generally produces more conservative evidence. For example, among females aged 18–25, estimates from NHSDA based on the best-fitting distribution are only 19.33 percent of breast cancer cases, which is a much smaller proportion than the gamma-based estimates of about 28 percent.ConclusionsA refinement of Rehm et al.’s approach to adjusting for underreporting in the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions provides more flexibility. This flexibility can avoid biases associated with failing to account for the underlying differences in alcohol consumption patterns across different study populations. Comparisons of our refinement with Rehm et al.’s approach show that results are similar when a gamma distribution is assumed. However, results are appreciably lower when the best-fitting distribution is chosen versus gamma-based results.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:29.605131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13880
  • Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly-legal market: Evidence
           from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington State
    • Authors: Rosanna Smart; Jonathan P. Caulkins, Beau Kilmer, Steven Davenport, Greg Midgette
      Abstract: AimsTo (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market, and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower.DesignSecondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis straceability system spanning July 7, 2014 to September 30, 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency. Hedonic regressions estimated how purchase quantity and potency influence cannabis flower price variation.SettingWashington State, USA.Participants(1) 44,482,176 million cannabis purchases, including (2) 31,052,123 cannabis flower purchases after trimming price and quantity outliers.MeasurementsPrimary outcome measures were (1) monthly expenditures on cannabis, total delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration, and cannabidiol (CBD) concentration by product type; and (2) excise-tax-inclusive price per gram of cannabis flower. Key covariates for the hedonic price regressions included quantity purchased, THC, and CBD.FindingsTraditional cannabis flowers still account for the majority of spending (66.6%), but the market share of extracts for inhalation increased by 145.8% between October 2014 and September 2016, now composing 21.2% of sales. The average THC-level for cannabis extracts is more than triple that for cannabis flowers (68.7% compared to 20.6%). For flower products, there is a statistically significant relationship between price per gram and both THC [coefficient = 0.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.011 to 0.013] and CBD [coefficient = 0.017; CI = 0.015 to 0.019]. The estimated discount elasticity is -0.06 [CI = –0.07 to –0.05].ConclusionsIn the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flower, and features growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flower, both THC and CBD are associated with higher per-gram prices, and there are small but significant quantity discounts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:27.901025-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13886
  • Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking'
    • Authors: Jennifer J. Ware; Julie-Anne Tanner, Amy E. Taylor, Zhao Bin, Philip Haycock, Jack Bowden, Peter J. Rogers, George Davey Smith, Rachel F. Tyndale, Marcus R. Munafo
      Abstract: Background and AimsCoffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: 1) determine whether coffee consumption causally influences cigarette smoking, 2) estimate the magnitude of any association, and 3) explore potential mechanisms.DesignWe used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarised data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual level data from the UK Biobank, and in vitro experiments of candidate compounds.SettingThe TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland.Participants. The TAG consortium provided data on N ≤ 38,181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on N = 8,072 participants.MeasurementsIn MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin, and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6.FindingsTwo-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking (beta -1.49, 95% CI -2.88 to -0.09). However, in vitro experiments found the compounds investigated are unlikely to significantly inhibit the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta 0.20, 95% CI -1.72 to 2.12).ConclusionsAmount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact on amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin, or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette smoking may be due to smoking impacting on coffee consumption, or confounding.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:26.405512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13888
  • Familial association of abstinent remission from alcohol use disorder in
           first-degree relatives of alcohol-dependent treatment-seeking probands
    • Authors: Vivia V. McCutcheon; Marc A. Schuckit, John R. Kramer, Grace Chan, Howard J. Edenberg, Tom L. Smith, Annah K. Bender, Victor Hesselbrock, Michie Hesselbrock, Kathleen K. Bucholz
      Abstract: Background and AimsStudies that have included family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) as a predictor of remission from AUD have yielded few significant results. The goals of this study were to estimate the association of persistent AUD, non-abstinent remission and abstinent remission (“AUD/remission status”) in a proband with AUD/remission status in a relative and to test whether this association differed in related and unrelated proband-relative pairs.DesignHigh-risk family study of alcohol dependence. Probands were recruited from treatment settings and relatives were invited to participate. Baseline assessments occurred between 1991-1998 with follow-up between 1996-2005. Half of probands were matched with a biological 1st-degree relative with lifetime AUD (related group) and half of probands were paired with an unrelated individual with lifetime AUD (unrelated group). SettingBrooklyn, New York; Indianapolis, Indiana; Iowa City, Iowa; San Diego, California; Farmington, Connecticut; and St. Louis, Missouri, USA.Participants606 probands (25.7% female, mean age 37.7) with baseline and follow-up data and 606 of their 1st degree relatives who had lifetime AUDs (45.8% female, mean age 36.2).MeasurementsPersistent AUD, non-abstinent remission, and abstinent remission were based on self-report interview data on most recent AUD symptoms and alcohol consumption. Dependent variable was relatives’ AUD/remission status. Independent variable was probands’ AUD/remission status.Findings34.6% of probands and 20.6% of relatives were abstinent and 11.1% of probands and 22.8% of relatives were in non-abstinent remission. AUD/remission status was significantly correlated in related (r = .23, p = .0037) but not in unrelated pairs. A significant interaction of probands’ abstinent remission with a variable representing related (versus unrelated, p = .003) pairs suggested a familial association for abstinent remission. In related pairs, individuals with an abstinent proband were more likely to be abstinent themselves than were individuals whose proband had persistent AUD (relative risk ratio = 3.27, 95% CI = 1.56-6.85, p = .002); this association was not significant in unrelated pairs.ConclusionsThe likelihood of abstinent remission among people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) appears to be more than 3 times greater for individuals who are related to an abstinent proband versus those related to a proband with persistent AUD.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:55:25.149527-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13890
  • The Impact of Normative Perceptions on Alcohol Consumption in Military
    • Authors: Heather Krieger; Eric R. Pedersen, Clayton Neighbors
      Abstract: Background and aimsPerceptions of both descriptive norms (prevalence of drinking) and injunctive norms (others' approval of drinking) relate to alcohol consumption but mechanisms for these associations have received little attention, especially in military samples. This study tested the direct and indirect associations between perceived descriptive and injunctive norms on drinking through personal attitudes (i.e., personal approval) in a veteran sample.DesignData were collected as part of a longitudinal randomized controlled alcohol intervention study. The study involved two time points: baseline/intervention (time 1) and one-month follow-up (time 2).SettingA national sample of veterans was recruited from Facebook to participate in an online study between June and October 2015.ParticipantsData included responses of 621 adult military veterans (age 18-34; 17% female).MeasuresRespondents reported on their weekly alcohol consumption (primary outcome), perceptions of typical drinking, and approval by other same-gender veterans. Covariates included gender, intervention condition, and combat experience.FindingsRegression results found no significant effects of perceived descriptive or injunctive norms on time 2 drinking when accounting for the effects of personal attitudes, time 1 drinking, and covariates. However, mediation analyses found support for personal attitudes as a mediator of the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and time 2 drinking (indirect effect = 0.003, SE = .001, p = .001) and between perceived injunctive norms and time 2 drinking (indirect effect = 0.004, SE = .001, p < .001).ConclusionsAttitudes to drinking appear to mediate the association between descriptive and injunctions norms about alcohol and subsequent level of alcohol consumption in US military personnel.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T04:40:31.44644-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13879
  • Nucleus Accumbens Functional Connectivity at Age 20 is Associated with
           Trajectory of Adolescent Cannabis Use and Predicts Psychosocial
           Functioning in Young Adulthood
    • Authors: Sarah D. Lichenstein; Samuel Musselman, Daniel S. Shaw, Stephanie Sitnick, Erika E. Forbes
      Abstract: AimsTo identify trajectories of cannabis use across adolescence, 2) to measure the influence of cannabis use characteristics on functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and 3) to assess whether patterns of functional connectivity related to cannabis use are associated with psychosocial functioning 2 years later.DesignThe Pitt Mother & Child Project (PMCP) is a prospective, longitudinal study of male youth at high risk for psychopathology based on family income and gender.SettingParticipants were recruited between age 6-17 months from the Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement program (WIC) in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area.ParticipantsN = 158 PMCP young men contributed fMRI and substance use data at age 20.MeasurementsLatent class growth analysis was used to determine trajectories of cannabis use frequency from age 14-19. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to measure functional connectivity between the NAcc and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Adolescent cannabis use trajectory, recent frequency of use, and age of initiation were considered as developmental factors. We also tested whether functional connectivity was associated with depressive symptoms, anhedonia, and educational attainment at age 22.FindingsWe identified three distinct trajectories of adolescent cannabis use, characterized by stable high, escalating, or stable low use. Cannabis use trajectory group had a significant effect on NAcc functional connectivity to the medial PFC (F = 11.32, Z = 4.04, pFWE-corr = .000). The escalating trajectory group displayed a pattern of negative NAcc-mPFC connectivity that was linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms (r = -.17, p = .041), anhedonia (r = -.19, p = .028), and lower educational attainment (t = -2.77, p = .006) at age 22.ConclusionsPattern of cannabis use frequency across adolescence in US youth could have consequences for mood symptoms and educational attainment in early adulthood via altered function in neural reward circuitry.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T03:50:25.006688-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13882
  • The diverging trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the United
           States: reasons and possible implications
    • Authors: Wayne Hall; Lynn T. Kozlowski
      Abstract: AimTo examine briefly the (i) rationales for two policy proposals in the United States to make it mandatory for cigarettes to contain very low levels of nicotine and to legalize cannabis for recreational use by adults; and (ii) possible lessons that participants in each policy debate may learn from each other.MethodWe briefly describe the diverging policies towards cannabis and tobacco in the United States, explain and critically analyse their rationales and discuss possible policy lessons.ResultsAdvocates of cannabis legalization have argued that prohibition has been an ineffective and expensive policy that penalizes ethnic minority users unjustly of a drug that is far less harmful than alcohol. The prohibition of traditional tobacco cigarettes has been advocated as a way to eliminate cigarette smoking. These proposals embody very different attitudes towards the harms of recreational adult drug use. Advocates of nicotine prohibition demand that alternative methods of nicotine delivery must be shown to be completely safe before adults are allowed to use them. Advocates of tobacco prohibition ignore evidence that smokers may not use these products and the likelihood of expanding the illicit tobacco market. Advocates of legalizing and regulating recreational cannabis ignore the need to tax and regulate sales in order to minimize the harms of heavy use.ConclusionsIt is not clear that the prohibition of adult use has a useful role to play in the regulation of either cannabis or tobacco. If both products remain legal, the goals of regulating tobacco and cannabis products should be to restrict youth access, promote the use of the least harmful products, provide users with evidence-based information on both absolute and differential product risks of use and use differential taxes and marketing controls to promote ways of using these products that cause the least harm to their users.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T21:45:22.70059-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13845
  • A cluster-randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying
           onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction
           following a selective, personality-targeted intervention program: The
           Co-Venture trial.
    • Authors: Maeve O’Leary-Barrett; Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R. Séguin, Patricia Conrod
      Abstract: AimsSubstance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years.DesignThirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools.SettingPublic/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada).ParticipantsAll grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale [1] (40-45% youth).MeasurementsSelf-reported substance use and mental health symptoms, and cognitive functioning measured annually over 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4-years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2- years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions, namely the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically.CommentThis longitudinal, cluster-randomised controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive development in adolescence using developmentally sensitive neuropsychological measures.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:31.108345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13876
  • The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Related Violence in
           Premises Licensed for the Sale and On-site and Consumption of Alcohol: A
           Randomised Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Simon C. Moore; M. Fasihul Alam, Marjukka Heikkinen, Kerenza Hood, Chao Huang, Laurence Moore, Simon Murphy, Rebecca Playle, Jonathan Shepherd, Claire Shovelton, Vaseekaran Sivarajasingam, Anne Williams
      Abstract: Background and AimsPremises licensed for the sale and consumption of alcohol can contribute to levels of assault-related injury through poor operational practices that, if addressed, could reduce violence. We tested the real-world effectiveness of an intervention designed to change premises operation, whether any intervention effect changed over time, the effect of intervention dose and cost effectiveness of the intervention.DesignA parallel randomised controlled trial with the unit of allocation and outcomes measured at the level of individual premises.SettingAll premises (public houses, night clubs, or hotels with a public bar) in Wales, UK.ParticipantsA randomly selected subsample (N = 600) of eligible premises (that had one or more violent incidents recorded in police recorded crime data; N = 837) were randomised into control and intervention groups.Intervention and ComparatorIntervention premises were audited by Environmental Health Practitioners who identified risks for violence and provided feedback by varying dose (informal, through written advice, follow-up visits) on how risks could be addressed. Control premises received usual practice.MeasurementsPolice data were used to derive a binary variable describing whether, on each day premises were open, one or more incidents were evident over a 455 day period following randomisation.FindingsDue to premises being unavailable at the time of intervention delivery 208 received the intervention and 245 were subject to usual practice in an intention to treat analysis. The intervention was associated with an increase in violence compared to normal practice (HR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.51). Exploratory analyses suggested that reduced violence was associated with greater intervention dose (follow-up visits).ConclusionAn Environmental Health Practitioner led intervention in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol resulted in an increase in police recorded violence.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:30.073236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13878
  • Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and
           disability pension in Denmark: A prospective cohort study
    • Authors: Maja Bæksgaard Jørgensen; Lau Caspar Thygesen, Ulrik Becker, Janne S. Tolstrup
      Abstract: AimsWe investigated the association between weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension.DesignProspective register-based cohort studySettingDenmarkParticipantsA sample of 17,690 men and women, aged 18 to 60 years, from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in 2000, 2005 and 2010 participated in the study. Participants worked the entire year prior to baseline.MeasurementsAdministrative registers were used to obtain information on unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension during a 5-year follow-up period. Data were analysed by multivariate Cox regression model with random effect (frailty) adjusted for cohabitation status, educational level, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking habits, calendar year and geographic region.FindingsAmong males, adjusted hazards ratios (HR) of unemployment were 1.24 (1.05-1.46, p=0.01), 1.28 (1.04-1.59, p=0.02) and 1.48 (1.21-1.81, p=0.00) respectively for abstainers and those with alcohol consumption of 21-27 and ≥28 drinks per week when compared with individuals who had 1-13 drinks per week. Corresponding HRs for sickness absence were 1.16 (1.02-1.33, p=0.03), 1.02 (0.85-1.23, p=0.84) and 1.23 (1.04-1.46, p=0.02). Male abstainers had increased HR for subsequently receiving disability pension. Female abstainers had increased HR of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension compared to women with moderate alcohol consumption. Binge drinking was associated with higher HR of unemployment compared to non-binge drinking in women: HR of 1.17 (1.01-1.36, p=0.02).ConclusionsIn Danish men aged 18-60, alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption is associated with increased subsequent risk of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely subsequently to become unemployed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:27.990706-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13875
  • Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and
           meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women
    • Authors: Seena Fazel; Isabel A. Yoon, Adrian J. Hayes
      Abstract: AimsThe aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison, and (2) estimate and test sources of between study heterogeneityMethodsStudies reporting the 12 month prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison from 1 January 1966 to 11 August 2015 were identified from 7 bibliographic indexes. Primary studies involving clinical interviews or validated instruments leading to DSM or ICD diagnoses were included; self-report surveys and investigations that assessed individuals more than 3 months after arrival to prison were not. Random-effects meta-analysis, and subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted. PRISMA guidelines were followed.ResultsIn total, 24 studies with a total of 18,388 prisoners across 10 countries were identified. The random-effects pooled prevalence estimate of alcohol use disorder was 24% (95% CI 21–27) with very high heterogeneity (I2 = 94%). These ranged from 16 to 51% in male and 10 to 30% in female prisoners. For drug use disorders, there was evidence of heterogeneity by sex, and the pooled prevalence estimate in male prisoners was 30% (95% CI 22–38; I2 = 98%; 13 studies; range 10-61%) and, in female prisoners, it was 51% (95% CI 43–58; I2 = 95%; 10 studies; range 30-69%). On meta-regression, sources of heterogeneity included higher prevalence of drug use disorders in women, increasing rates of drug use disorders in recent decades, and participation rate.ConclusionsSubstance use disorders are highly prevalent in prisoners. Around a quarter of newly incarcerated prisoners of both sexes had an alcohol use disorder, and the prevalence of a drug use disorder was at least as high in men, and higher in women.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T18:05:25.248521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13877
  • Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: The
           Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire
    • Authors: Helga Myrseth; Guy Notelaers, Leif Åge Strand, Einar Kristian Borud, Olav Kjellevold Olsen
      Abstract: AimsTo adapt the four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised (GMQ-R) to measure the motivation for engaging in electronic gaming, and to validate the internal structure and investigate the criterion validity of the new Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire (EGMQ).Design and SettingThe GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts randomly selected from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between 2013 and 2015.ParticipantsThe questionnaire was administered to all those who had played video games during the last six months and consisted of 853 gamers (86.8% men, mean age 19.4 years).MeasurementsAll participants completed the EGMQ, as well as other measures of gaming behavior, gaming problems, boredom, loneliness, and depression.FindingsThe confirmatory factor analyses showed that the proposed EGMQ (measuring enhancement, coping, social, and self-gratification motives) displayed satisfactory fit and internal consistency. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that gender emerged as a significant predictor (p < .001) of all the dependent variables (variety, hours weekly gaming, loss of control, and gaming problems) and the first step explained between 1 and 6.1% of the variance in the gaming behaviors. In the second step the four motivational dimensions explained additional 8.2-38.8% of the variance. Coping and self-gratification predicted gaming problems (p < .001) and coping alone predicted loss of control (p < .001). The four motivational dimensions were also differentially predicted by indicators of psychosocial well-being, indicating divergent validity of the four motives.ConclusionsThe four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:50:23.518689-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13874
  • Adolescents’ exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and
           their alcohol use: exploring associations over a 13-year period
    • Authors: White V; Azar D, Faulkner A, Coomber K, Durkin S, Livingston M, Chikritzhs T, Room R, Wakefield M.
      Abstract: AimsTo determine i) whether Australian adolescents’ exposure to television alcohol advertisements changed between 1999 and 2011 and ii) examine the association between television alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking behaviours.DesignCross-sectional surveys conducted every three years between 1999 and 2011. Analyses examined associations between advertising exposures and reported drinking.SettingFive Australian major cities.ParticipantsStudents aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial nationally representative school-based survey residing in the television advertising markets associated with the major cities (sample size range per survey: 12644 to 16004).MeasurementsOutcome measures were: drinking in the past month, past week, and past-week risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day). The key predictor variable was past-month adolescent-directed alcohol advertising Targeted Rating Points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure). Control measures included student level characteristics, government alcohol-control advertising TRPs, road-safety (drink-driving) TRPs and time of survey.FindingsAverage monthly adolescent alcohol TRPs increased between 1999 (mean=2371) to 2005 (mean=2679) (p
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:30:24.422228-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13873
  • Who Achieves Low Risk Drinking During Alcohol Treatment' An Analysis
           of Patients in Three Alcohol Clinical Trials
    • Authors: Katie Witkiewitz; Matthew R. Pearson, Kevin A. Hallgren, Stephen A. Maisto, Corey R. Roos, Megan Kirouac, Adam D. Wilson, Kevin A. Montes, Nick Heather
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is evidence that low risk drinking is possible during the course of alcohol treatment and can be maintained following treatment. Our aim was to identify characteristics associated with low risk drinking during treatment in a large sample of individuals as they received treatment for alcohol dependence.DesignIntegrated analysis of data from the COMBINE study, Project MATCH, and the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial using repeated measures latent class analysis to identify patterns of drinking and predictors of low risk drinking patterns during treatment.SettingUSA and United Kingdom.ParticipantsPatients (n=3589) with alcohol dependence receiving treatment in an alcohol clinical trial were primarily male (73.0%), White (82.0%), and non-married (41.7%), with an average age of 42.0 (SD=10.7).MeasurementsSelf-reported weekly alcohol consumption during treatment was assessed using the Form-90[1] and validated with biological verification or collateral informants.FindingsSeven patterns of drinking during treatment were identified: persistent heavy drinking (18.7% of the sample), increasing heavy drinking (9.6%), heavy and low risk drinking (6.7%), heavy drinking alternating with abstinence (7.9%), low risk drinking (6.8%), increasing low risk drinking (10.5%), and abstinence (39.8%). Lower alcohol dependence severity and fewer drinks per day at baseline significantly predicted low risk drinking patterns (e.g., each additional drink prior to baseline predicted a 27% increase in the odds of expected classification in heavy drinking versus low risk drinking patterns; Odds Ratio=1.27 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.47, p=0.002)). Greater negative mood and more heavy drinkers in the social network were significant predictors of expected membership in heavier drinking patterns.ConclusionsLow risk drinking is achievable for some individuals as they undergo treatment for alcohol dependence. Individuals with lower dependence severity, less baseline drinking, fewer negative mood symptoms, and fewer heavy drinkers in their social networks have a higher probability of achieving low risk drinking during treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T18:10:40.771053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13870
  • Conceptualizing behavioural addiction in children and adolescents
    • Authors: Anja Kräplin
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T20:15:27.746189-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13846
  • Alcohol Marketing and Youth Drinking in Asia
    • Authors: Heng Jiang; Xiaojun Xiang, Orratai Waleewong, Robin Room
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T20:00:24.904902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13835
  • Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month
    • Authors: Anne Pasquereau; Romain Guignard, Raphaël Andler, Viêt Nguyen-Thanh
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is conflicting evidence that use of e-cigarettes promotes cessation in regular smokers, but contrasting findings may be due to differing definitions of vaping. The aim was to assess whether regular use of e-cigarettes while smoking is associated with subsequent smoking cessation.DesignBaseline internet survey with outcomes measured at 6-month follow-up.SettingAll French metropolitan territory.Participants2057 smokers aged 15 to 85 years were recruited through an access panel and responded to a 6-month follow-up: 1805 exclusive tobacco smokers and 252 dual users (tobacco plus regular e-cigarette users) at baseline.MeasurementsThe three outcomes assessed at 6 months were: a minimum 50% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts of at least 7 days and smoking cessation of at least 7 days at the time of follow-up. Logistic regressions were performed to model the three outcomes according to regular e-cigarette use at baseline, adjusted for socio-economic variables and smoking behaviours.FindingsBaseline dual users were more likely than baseline exclusive tobacco smokers to have halved cigarette consumption (25.9% versus 11.2%, p
      PubDate: 2017-05-14T22:30:27.808955-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13869
  • PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white
           matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: A
           double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial
    • Authors: Joy M. Schmitz; Charles E. Green, Khader M. Hasan, Jessica Vincent, Robert Suchting, Michael F. Weaver, F. Gerard Moeller, Ponnada A. Narayana, Kathryn A. Cunningham, Kelly T. Dineley, Scott D. Lane
      Abstract: Background and aimsPioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance, and tolerability were evaluated.DesignTwo-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC).SettingSingle-site outpatient treatment research clinic in Houston, Texas, USA.ParticipantsThirty treatment-seeking adults with CUD. Mean [standard deviation (SD)] age was 47.8 (7.45), education was 12.7 (1.5), with 19.3 (7.8) years of reported cocaine use. Eighteen of the 30 participants (8 = PIO; 10 = PLC) completed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of WM integrity at pre/post-treatment.InterventionStudy medication was dispensed at thrice weekly visits along with once weekly cognitive behavioral therapy for 12 weeks.MeasurementsMeasures of target engagement mechanisms of interest included cocaine craving assessed by the Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS), the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS), a visual analog scale (VAS), and change in WM integrity. Feasibility measures included number completing treatment, medication compliance (riboflavin detection), and tolerability (side effects, serious adverse events).FindingsTarget engagement change in mechanisms of interest, defined as a ≥ 0.75 Bayesian posterior probability of an interaction existing favoring PIO over PLC, was demonstrated on measures of craving (BSCS, VAS) and WM integrity indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Outcomes indicated greater decrease in craving and greater increase in FA values in the PIO group. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates among those starting treatment (21/26 = 80%) and medication compliance (≥80%). There were no reported serious adverse events for PIO.ConclusionsCompared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment. Pioglitazone shows good feasibility as a treatment for cocaine use disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T09:50:31.998302-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13868
  • The Narcotic Clinic in New Orleans, 1919-1921
    • Authors: Amund Tallaksen
      Abstract: AimsThis article traces the history of the narcotic clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, comparing its merits to a similar clinic in Shreveport. How do the clinics compare, and why did the Shreveport clinic operate for longer than its New Orleans counterpart'MethodsQualitative analysis of contemporary medical journals and newspapers, as well as archival materials from the Narcotic Division. In addition, I have utilized the records of Louisiana Governor John M. Parker, the papers of Dr. Willis P. Butler in Shreveport, as well as the records of the Orleans Parish Medical Society.FindingsThe narcotic clinic in Shreveport benefited from strong local support, while the New Orleans clinic faced a more vocal opposition. In addition, the Shreveport clinic offered a broad array of services and was a pillar of the community; the New Orleans clinic was newly established and offered fewer services. It was especially the influx of out-of-state addicts that angered many New Orleanians, many of whom witnessed the addicts lined up in the French Quarter.ConclusionThe effectiveness of the narcotic clinics in Louisiana (1919-1923) was strongly influenced by local opinion. The New Orleans clinic faced a tougher political climate than its counterpart in Shreveport, and therefore proved less resilient in the face of federal opposition.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T09:35:23.233542-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13867
  • Varenicline versus Nicotine Patch with Brief Advice for Smokers with
           Substance Use Disorders with or without Depression: Effects on Smoking,
           Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms
    • Authors: Damaris J. Rohsenow; Jennifer W. Tidey, Rosemarie A. Martin, Suzanne M. Colby, Robert M. Swift, Lorenzo Leggio, Peter M. Monti
      Abstract: AimsVarenicline was compared with transdermal nicotine (NRT) for smokers with current substance use disorders (SUD) for effects on 3-month smoking abstinence (primary outcome) and, secondarily, on 3 and 6 month abstinence while adjusting for medication adherence, and on additional smoking and substance use outcomes. Moderation by major depressive disorder history (MDD) and adherence were investigated.DesignDouble-blind double-placebo controlled randomized design, stratifying by MDD, gender and nicotine dependence, with 3 and 6 months follow up.SettingUniversity offices in Rhode Island, USA.ParticipantsAdult smokers (n = 137), in SUD treatment, substance abstinent 
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T09:25:45.721776-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13861
  • Impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (pdmps) on opioid
           utilization among medicare beneficiaries in 10 u.s. States
    • Authors: Patience Moyo; Linda Simoni-Wastila, Beth Ann Griffin, Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Donna Harrington, G. Caleb Alexander, Francis Palumbo
      Abstract: Background and aimsPrescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are a principal strategy used in the USA to address prescription drug abuse. We (1) compared opioid use pre- and post-PDMP implementation and (2) estimated differences of PDMP impact by reason for Medicare eligibility and plan type.DesignAnalysis of opioid prescription claims in US states that implemented PDMPs relative to non-PDMP states during 2007-2012.SettingFlorida, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Vermont, Georgia, Wisconsin, Maryland, New Hampshire, and Arkansas, USA.Participants310,105 disabled and older adult Medicare enrolees.MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were monthly total opioid volume, mean daily morphine milligram equivalent (MME) dose per prescription, and number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. The key predictors were PDMP status and time. Tests for moderation examined PDMP impact by Medicare eligibility (disability versus age) and drug plan (privately-provided Medicare Advantage [MAPD] versus fee-for-service [PDP]).FindingsOverall, PDMP implementation was associated with reduced opioid volume [2.36 kg/month, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = -3.44, -1.28] and no changes in mean MMEs or opioid prescriptions twelve months after implementation compared with non-PDMP states. We found evidence of strong moderation effects. In PDMP states, estimated monthly opioid volumes decreased 1.67 kg (95% CI = -2.38, -0.96) and 0.75 kg (95% CI = -1.32, -0.18) among disabled and older adults, respectively, and 1.2 kg, regardless of plan type. MME reductions were 3.73 mg/prescription (95% CI = -6.22, -1.24) in disabled and 3.02mg/prescription (95% CI = -3.86, -2.18) in MAPD beneficiaries but there were no changes in older adults and PDP beneficiaries. Dispensed prescriptions increased 259/month (95% CI = 39, 479) among the disabled and decreased 610/month (95% CI = -953, -257) among MAPD beneficiaries.ConclusionsPrescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are associated with reductions in opioid use, measured by volume, among disabled and older adult Medicare beneficiaries in the USA compared with states that do not have PDMPs. PDMP impact on daily doses and daily prescriptions varied by reason for eligibility and plan type. These findings cannot be generalized beyond the 10 US states studied.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T08:41:21.606007-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13860
  • Criteria for conceptualizing behavioural addiction should be informed by
           the underlying behavioural mechanism
    • Authors: Richard J. Tunney; Richard J. E. James
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours'
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T23:52:35.347867-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13831
  • Risk to heroin users of poly-drug use of pregabalin or gabapentin
    • Authors: Abigail Lyndon; Suzanne Audrey, Claudia Wells, Erica S. Burnell, Suzanne Ingle, Rob Hill, Matthew Hickman, Graeme Henderson
      Abstract: AIMTo examine the risk to heroin users of also using gabapentin or pregabalin (gabapentoids).DESIGNMultidisciplinary study:- we (a) examined trends in drug related deaths and gabapentoid prescription data in England and Wales to test for evidence that any increase in deaths mentioning gabapentin or pregabalin is associated with trends in gabapentoid prescribing and is concomitant with opioid use; (b) interviewed people with a history of heroin use about their polydrug use involving gabapentin and pregabalin; (c) studied the respiratory depressant effects of pregabalin in the absence and presence of morphine in mice to determine whether concomitant exposure increased the degree of respiratory depression observed.SETTINGEngland and Wales.PARTICIPANTSInterviews were conducted with 30 participants (19 males, 11 female).MEASUREMENTS(a) Office of National Statistics drug-related deaths from 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 that mention both an opioid and pregabalin or gabapentin; (b) subjective views on the availability, use, interactions, and effects of polydrug use involving pregabalin and gabapentin; (c) rate and depth of respiration.RESULTSPregabalin and gabapentin prescriptions increased about 24% per year from 1 million in 2004 to 10.5 million in 2015. The number of deaths involving gabapentoids increased from less than one per year prior to 2009 to 137 in 2015; 79% of these deaths also involved opioids. The increase in deaths was highly correlated with the increase in prescribing (correlation coefficient 0.965; 5% increase in deaths per 100,000 increase in prescriptions). Heroin users described pregabalin as easy to obtain. They suggested that the combination of heroin and pregabalin reinforced the effects of heroin but were concerned it induced ‘black outs’ and increased the risk of overdose. In mice, a low dose of S-pregabalin (20 mg/kg) that did not itself depress respiration reversed tolerance to morphine depression of respiration (resulting in 35% depression of respiration, P 
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T18:01:02.449358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13843
  • Effect of 0.5 mg vs 1 mg varenicline for smoking cessation: a
           randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Natalia Fouz-Rosón; Teodoro Montemayor-Rubio, Virginia Almadana-Pacheco, Soledad Montserrat-García, Ana Paulina Gómez-Bastero, Concepción Romero-Muñoz, Juan Polo-Padillo
      Abstract: AimsVarenicline is used in smoking cessation. The aims of the trial were to test for differences between standard 1 mg and 0.5 mg dose (both twice daily during 8 weeks) in 1) abstinence 2) adherence 3) side effects.DesignOpen-label randomized parallel-group controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. All those randomized were included in the final sample using an intention-to-treat (ITT) approach.SettingStop-Smoking Clinic of the Virgen Macarena University Hospital in Seville, Spain.ParticipantsSmokers (n = 484) of which 59.5% were men with a mean age of 50.67 years old and a smoking history of 37.5 pack-years.Intervention and comparatorParticipants were randomized to 1 mg (n = 245) vs. 0.5 mg (n = 239) and received behavioural support, which consisted of a baseline visit and 6 follow-ups during 1 year.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was continuous self-reported abstinence over 1 year, with biochemical verification. The secondary outcomes were adherence and side effects. Also measured were baseline demographics, medical history and smoking characteristics.FindingsAbstinence rates at 1 year were 46.5% with 1 mg vs. 46.4% with 0.5 mg (odds ratio (OR), 0.997; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7 to 1,43; p = 1.0); Bayes Factor in favour of H0 = 238.507, Bayes Factor against H0 = 0.004. Treatment adherence was similar in both regimens (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.7; p = 0.44). Side effects were reported in 19.3% of cases with 1 mg vs. 12.1% with 0.5 mg, although with no significant differences between regimens (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.94 to 3.18; p = 0.093).ConclusionsThere appears to be no difference in smoking cessation effectiveness between 1 mg and 0.5 mg varenicline, both administered twice daily for 8 weeks, with similar rates of abstinence (46.5% vs. 46.4%), adherence and side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T16:55:09.823542-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13855
  • Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic
           vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: Implications for health
           education and research
    • Authors: Lucy Popova; Emily Anne McDonald, Sohrab Sidhu, Rachel Barry, Tracey A. Richers Maruyama, Nicolas M. Sheon, Pamela M. Ling
      Abstract: AimsTo evaluate how young adults perceive and compare harms and benefits of marijuana and tobacco products in the context of a legal marijuana market in Colorado.DesignSemi-structured qualitative interviews.SettingDenver, Colorado, USA.ParticipantsThirty-two young adults (18-26 years old) who used tobacco/marijuana/vaporizers.Semi-structured interviews addressed perceived harms and benefits of various tobacco and marijuana products and personal experiences with these products.FindingsYoung adults evaluated harms and benefits using five dimensions: (1) Combustion – smoking was considered more harmful than non-combustible products (e.g., e-cigarettes, vaporizers, and edibles); (2) Potency – edibles and marijuana concentrates were perceived as more harmful than smoking marijuana flower because of potential to receive too large a dose of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol); (3) Chemicals – products containing chemical additives were seen as more harmful than “pure” or “natural” plant products; (4) Addiction – participants recognized physiological addiction to nicotine, but primarily talked about psychological or lifestyle dependence on marijuana; (5) Source of knowledge – personal experiences, warning labels, campaigns, the media, and opinions of product retailers and medical practitioners affected perceptions of harms and benefits.ConclusionsAmong young adults in Colorado, USA, perceived harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana include multiple dimensions. Health educational campaigns could benefit from addressing these dimensions, such as the potency of nicotine and cannabis concentrates and harmful chemicals present in the organic material of tobacco and marijuana. Descriptors such as “natural” and “pure” in the promotion or packaging of tobacco and marijuana products might be misleading.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T16:44:03.258408-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13854
  • Precision medicine and pharmacogenetics: what does oncology have that
           addiction medicine does not?
    • Authors: Henry R. Kranzler; Rachel V. Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
      Abstract: Background and aimsPrecision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation. We also considered why progress in this effort has lagged in addiction medicine.MethodsWe compared the development of pharmacogenetic biomarkers in oncology, cardiovascular medicine (where developments are also promising) and addictive disorders.ResultsThe first major reason for the success of oncologic pharmacogenetics is ready access to tumor tissue, which allows in-vitro testing and insights into cancer biology. The second major reason is funding, with cancer research receiving, by far, the largest allocation by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during the past two decades. The second largest allocation of research funding has gone to cardiovascular disease research. Addictions research received a much smaller NIH funding allocation, despite the major impact that tobacco use, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use have on the public health and healthcare costs.ConclusionsGreater support for research on the personalized treatment of addictive disorders can be expected to yield disproportionately large benefits to the public health and substantial reductions in healthcare costs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T18:35:33.827503-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13818
  • Substance and behavioral addictions may share a similar underlying process
           of dysregulation
    • Authors: Steve Sussman; Dmitri Rozgonjuk, Regina J. J. M. Eijnden
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T18:25:33.817301-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13825
  • Significant reductions in alcohol use after Hepatitis C treatment: Results
           from the French ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort
    • Authors: Rod Knight; Perrine Roux, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Eric Rosenthal, Laure Esterle, François Boué, David Rey, Lionel Piroth, Stéphanie Dominguez, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri,
      Abstract: Background and aimsFew data exist on changes to substance use patterns before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We used longitudinal data of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to examine whether receiving Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN)-based therapy irrespective of HCV clearance could modify tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use.DesignA prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals was enrolled from 2006. Participants’ clinical data were retrieved from medical records and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected by yearly self-administered questionnaires.SettingData were collected across seventeen hospitals in France.ParticipantsAll HIV-HCV co-infected patients who initiated HCV treatment during follow-up and answered items regarding substance use in at least one yearly questionnaire (258 patients, 671 visits).InterventionHCV treatment consisted of Peg-IFN based regimens.MeasurementsFour time-varying outcomes: hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C > 3/4 for women/men), number of alcohol units/month, binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. Mixed models assessed the effect of HCV treatment status (not yet treated, treated and HCV-cleared, treated and HCV-chronic) on each outcome.FindingsA significant decrease (over 60% reduction) in both hazardous alcohol use and binge drinking and a reduction of 10 alcohol units/month were observed after HCV treatment (whatever the outcome). No significant effect of HCV treatment status was found on tobacco use and regular cannabis use but HCV ‘clearers’ reported less non-regular use of cannabis.ConclusionsHepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment appears to help HIV-HCV co-infected patients reduce alcohol use.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T08:24:38.404569-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13851
  • Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray over first
           30 minutes post-dosing: analysis of suitability for opioid overdose
    • Authors: Gill Mundin; Rebecca McDonald, Kevin Smith, Stephen Harris, John Strang
      Abstract: Background and AimsLack of non-injectable naloxone formulations has impeded widespread take-home provision for the prevention of heroin/opioid overdose deaths. For non-injectable formulations that are finally being investigated, rapid onset of action and sufficient bioavailability will be vital. We present analysis of data from a study of concentrated naloxone nasal spray formulations. Our aims are: to assess 1) pharmacokinetic properties and 2) suitability for overdose reversal in terms of naloxone absorption within 30 minutes post-dosing.Design and interventions/comparatorOpen-label, randomized, 4-way crossover Latin-square pharmacokinetic study of naloxone administration by three routes: intranasal at two doses (8 mg/0.4 mL, 16 mg/0.4 mL) versus sublingual (16 mg/mL) versus intravenous reference (1 mg/mL).SettingClinical Pharmacology Unit at The Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio, USA).Participants12 healthy volunteers (age 20-41; 7 female).MeasurementsFrom blood plasma naloxone concentrations, 1) standard pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and mean absolute bioavailability (F%, relative to intravenous injection), were determined; as well as 2) partial area under the curve (AUC) values, tmax (time to maximum plasma concentration), and T50% (time to 50% of maximum plasma concentration) as measures of early absorption.Findings1) Bioavailability was F% = 25-28% for intranasal naloxone. Sublingual had low bioavailability (F% = 2%) and was not considered further. Mean Cmax values for 8 mg (12.83 ng/mL) and 16 mg (18.25 ng/mL) intranasal exceeded 1 mg intravenous (9.64 ng/mL) naloxone. 2) Following intranasal administration, T50% was reached within 8 minutes and tmax within 20 minutes. Mean naloxone absorption from dosing to 30 minutes (AUC30) was greater following 8 mg (4.17 h*ng/mL) and 16 mg (5.91 h*ng/mL) intranasal than following 1 mg intravenous (1.70 h*ng/mL) administration.ConclusionsConcentrated naloxone nasal spray has a promising pharmacokinetic profile, with substantial bioavailability. Its early absorption time-course suggests that concentrated nasal naloxone is suitable for emergency administration in the community, where rapid restoration of respiratory function is essential for opioid overdose reversal.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T07:56:55.780531-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13849
  • Associations between childhood maltreatment and non-medical use of
           prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents
    • Authors: Lan Guo; Yan Xu, Jianxiong Deng, Xue Gao, Guoliang Huang, Jinghui Huang, Xueqing Deng, Wei-Hong Zhang, Ciyong Lu
      Abstract: AimsTo test, among Chinese adolescents: (1) whether childhood maltreatment is associated with non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), (2) whether there are interaction effects of childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms on NMUPD.DesignA secondary analysis of the cross-sectional data collected from 7th and 12th graders who were sampled using a multistage, stratified cluster, random sampling method in the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey (SCAHS).SettingSurveys conducted in high schools in six cities of China in 2015.ParticipantsThere were 24,457 students who were invited to participate and 23,039 students’ questionnaires were completed and qualified for our survey.MeasurementsThe outcomes comprised self-report of NMUPD (prior 30 days); a history of childhood maltreatment was our main predictor; other covariates included depressive symptoms, smoking, drinking, and demographics. Data were analyzed using multi-level regression modeling.FindingsOur final multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that after adjusting for other variables, physical abuse was positively associated with non-medical use of opioids (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.22), sedatives (AOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.10-1.21), and any prescription drugs (AOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.09-1.20); emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional neglect were also associated with an increased risk of opioids misuse, sedatives misuse, and any prescription drugs misuse; students who reported that they had experienced childhood physical neglect were more likely to be involved in the non-medical use of sedatives (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12) and any prescription drugs (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.10). Additionally, there was no evidence of interaction effects on NMUPD between depressive symptoms and each of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect, respectively. .ConclusionsMaltreatment while a child is associated with an increased risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) among Chinese adolescents. The interactions of maltreatment while a child and depressive symptoms do not appear to be significantly associated with NMUPD among Chinese adolescents.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T07:56:50.017433-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13850
  • The coping function of mental disorder symptoms: is it to be considered
           when developing diagnostic criteria for behavioural addictions?
    • Authors: Barna Konkolÿ Thege
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T19:50:24.822703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13816
  • Cannabis, psychosis and schizophrenia: unravelling a complex interaction
    • Authors: Ian Hamilton
      Abstract: The relationship between cannabis and psychosis and schizophrenia has tested the field of addiction for decades, and in some ways serves as measure of our ability to provide a credible contribution to public health. As cannabis is used widely, many people are interested in the risks the drug poses to mental health. This paper focuses upon a seminal study examining this, the trajectory of subsequent research findings and what this has meant for understanding and communicating risk factor information. These studies provided evidence of a dose–response relationship between cannabis and psychosis, and that for those individuals with schizophrenia cannabis exacerbated their symptoms. The findings fit with a multi-causal model in which vulnerability interacts with a precipitating agent to produce a disease outcome. Even though this is a common model in epidemiology, it has proved difficult to communicate it in this case. This may be because at a population level the increased risk is weak and the vulnerabilities relatively rare. It may also be because people bring strongly held preconceptions to interpreting a complex multi-causal phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T19:50:24.76631-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13826
  • Making visible the politics and ethics of alcohol policy research
    • Authors: David Moore
      Abstract: Although research on alcohol policy has produced a huge international literature, alcohol research and policy itself—its cultural assumptions, methods, politics and ethics—has rarely been subject to critical analysis. In this article, I provide an appreciative review of an exception to this trend: Joseph Gusfield's 1981 classic, The Culture of Public Problems: Drinking-Driving and the Symbolic Order. I first outline Gusfield's argument that the ‘problem of drinking-driving’ is constructed as a ‘drama of individualism’ centring on the ‘killer drunk’. The ‘culture’ of drinking-driving research and policy emphasizes alcohol as the problem and locates the source of car accidents in the moral failings of the individual motorist, rather than in social institutions or physical environments. For Gusfield, this construction of the problem is the outcome of political and ethical choices rather than of ‘objective’ conditions. In the second part of the article, I highlight the book's remarkable foresight in anticipating later trends in critical policy analysis, and argue that it should be regarded as a sociological classic and as required reading for those working in alcohol and indeed other drug policy research. I conclude by arguing that The Culture of Public Problems remains relevant to those working in alcohol and other drug policy research, although the reasons for its relevance differ depending on readers' theoretical commitments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T19:45:23.592486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13812
  • Behavioural addiction and substance addiction should be defined by their
           similarities not their dissimilarities
    • Authors: Mark D. Griffiths
      Abstract: Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T19:35:24.868391-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13828
  • Disparities in Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder in the Context of
           Universal Healthcare: A Swedish Register Study
    • Authors: Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe; Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S. Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
      Abstract: Background and aimPharmacotherapy can be an important part of the continuum of care for alcohol use disorder (AUD). The Swedish universal healthcare system emphasizes provision of care to marginalized groups. The primary aim was to test associations of neighbourhood deprivation and disadvantaged social status with receipt of AUD pharmacotherapy in this context.DesignData from linked population registers were used to follow an open cohort over 7 years.SettingSweden.ParticipantsAlcohol-related ICD-10 codes reported for all hospitalizations in the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and all clinic/office visits in the Outpatient Care Register between 2005-2012 were used to identify 62,549 cases with AUD.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was any AUD pharmacotherapy (naltrexone, disulfiram, acamprosate, nalmefene) picked up by patients between 2005-2012 (vs. none), based on the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Neighbourhood deprivation was defined using aggregated data from the Total Population Register; indicators of disadvantaged social status (income, education, country of origin) also came from this source.FindingsAbout half of the cases (53.7%) picked up one or more AUD pharmacotherapy prescriptions. In adjusted models, people living in neighbourhoods with moderate (OR = 0.90 [95% CI: 0.86, 0.95]) or high levels of deprivation (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.70, 0.79] compared with low deprivation), those with lower incomes (for example, lowest quartile: OR = 0.70 [95% CI: 0.66, 0.73] compared with highest) and less education (for example,
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T20:55:11.644127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13834
  • Coping Mediates the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol
           Use Disorder among Outpatient Clients in Project MATCH When Dependence
           Severity is High
    • Authors: Corey Roos; Stephen A. Maisto, Katie Witkiewitz
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere is inconsistent evidence that alcohol-specific coping is a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our primary aim was to test whether baseline dependence severity moderates the mediational effect of CBT on drinking outcomes via coping.DesignSecondary data analysis of Project MATCH (1), a multi-site alcohol treatment trial in which participants, recruited in outpatient and aftercare arms, were randomized to three treatments: CBT, motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and twelve-step facilitation (TSF).SettingNine research sites in the United States.Participants1063 adults with AUD.MeasurementsThe primary outcomes were percent days abstinent and percent heavy drinking days at the one-year follow-up. Coping was assessed with the Processes of Change Questionnaire (2). Dependence severity was measured with the Alcohol Dependence Scale (3).FindingsAmong the full available sample (across treatment arms), there were no significant moderated mediation effects. Double moderated mediation analyses indicated that several moderated mediation effects were moderated by treatment arm (all p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T18:25:35.447847-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13841
  • Prescription Contraception Use and Adherence by Women with Substance Use
    • Authors: Gillian Griffith; Tara Kumaraswami, Stavroula A. Chrysanthopoulou, Kristin M. Mattocks, Robin E. Clark
      Abstract: Background and AimsUnintended pregnancy rates are high among women with substance use disorders (SUDs), which could be partly explained by lower use of and adherence to contraception. We aimed to test: (1) the association of SUD with prescription contraceptive use, contraceptive method selection, and adherence; (2) whether practices participating in the Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative (PCMHI) had better contraceptive use and adherence for patients with SUD; (3) for differences in the association of SUD with adherence by type of contraceptive used.DesignRetrospective cohort analysis of claims and encounter data.SettingMassachusetts, USA.Participants47,902 women aged 16 – 45 years enrolled in Medicaid or Commonwealth Care in Massachusetts between 2010 and 2014.MeasurementsWe examined three dependent variables: 1) use of a reversible prescription contraceptive during 2012; 2) the contraceptive methods used; and, 3) the proportion of days covered by a prescription contraceptive in the year following the first prescription contraceptive claim. The primary predictor was diagnosed SUD, defined as at least one claim for an alcohol or drug use disorder.FindingsSUD was associated with lower rates of prescription contraceptive use during 2012 (19.2% v. 23.9%; adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 0.79, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T09:10:47.02373-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13840
  • Insular and Cingulate Attenuation during Decision Making is associated
           with Future Transition to Stimulant Use Disorder
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Stewart; Mamona Butt, April C. May, Susan F. Tapert, Martin P. Paulus
      Abstract: AimsTo understand processes placing individuals at risk for stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use disorder.DesignLongitudinal study.SettingUniversity of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry, USA.ParticipantsOccasional stimulant users (OSU; n = 184) underwent a baseline clinical interview and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. On the basis of a follow-up clinical interview completed three years later, OSU (n = 147) were then categorized as problem stimulant users (PSU: n = 36; those who developed stimulant use disorders in the interim) or desisted stimulant users (DSU: n = 74; those who stopped using). OSU who did not meet criteria for PSU or DSU (n = 37) were included in dimensional analyses.MeasurementsfMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast percent signal change from baseline collected during a Paper-Scissors-Rock task was examined during three decision making conditions, those resulting in: (1) wins, (2) ties, and (3) losses. These data were used as dependent variables in categorical analyses comparing PSU and DSU as well as dimensional analyses including interim drug use as predictors, controlling for baseline drug use.FindingsPSU exhibited lower anterior cingulate, middle insula, superior temporal, inferior parietal, precuneus and cerebellum activation than DSU across all three conditions (significant brain clusters required >19 neighboring voxels to exceed F(1,108) = 5.58, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T08:36:32.329047-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13839
  • The role of novelty seeking as a predictor of substance use disorder
           outcomes in early adulthood
    • Authors: James A. Foulds; Joseph M. Boden, Giles M. Newton-Howes, Roger T. Mulder, L. John Horwood
      Abstract: Background and aimsThere has been a great deal of evidence showing high novelty seeking (NS) is a risk factor for the development of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, the possible causal role of NS in SUDs is unconfirmed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between NS at age 16 and SUDs from age 18 to 35 years, net of a series of covariate factors.DesignLongitudinal study of a birth cohort from 1977 to 2012.SettingChristchurch, New Zealand.ParticipantsGeneral community sample of members of a New Zealand birth cohort (50% male), with sample sizes ranging from n = 1011 (age 21) to n = 962 (age 35).MeasurementsThe Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to derive DSM-IV diagnoses of alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit SUDs at 4 time intervals from age 18 to 35. NS was measured at age 16 using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire.FindingsAn increase in NS was associated with increases in the prevalence of all 4 SUDs at age 18-35. Following adjustment for a broad range of covariate factors, estimated effect sizes (odds ratios) were reducing in magnitude, but remained moderate to large. Adjusted odds ratios of SUDs for the highest NS quartile compared to with the lowest were 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.7) for alcohol; 1.8 (95% CI 1.3, 2.7) for nicotine; 3.6 (95% CI 2.4, 5.6) for cannabis and 5.1 (95% CI 2.9, 9.2) for other illicit substances.ConclusionsThe association between high novelty seeking and substance use disorders is not explained by common underlying individual factors and environmental exposures. This is consistent with the view that novelty seeking may play a causal role in the development of substance use disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T08:35:41.952577-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13838
  • Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young
           risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics
    • Authors: P. Dietze; P. A. Agius, M. Livingston, S. Callinan, R. Jenkinson, M. S. C. Lim, C. J. C. Wright, R. Room
      Abstract: AimsRisky single occasion drinking (RSOD) by young people is a serious public health issue, yet little is known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions. This study examined the independent effects of event- and individual-specific variables on RSOD.DesignLongitudinal cohort study measuring self-reported RSOD and event- and individual-specific variables across two drinking occasions approximately one year apart.SettingMetropolitan Melbourne, Australia.ParticipantsA sample of 710 young risky drinkers aged between 18 and 25 years and defined as engaging in risky drinking practices (males: consumed alcohol in excess of 10 Australian Standard Drinks [ASDs: 10 g ethanol] in a single occasion in the previous year; females: consumed alcohol in excess of 7 ASDs for females in a single occasion in the previous year).MeasurementsRandom digit dial telephone landline survey of the most recent heavy drinking occasion and socio-demographic variables. The primary outcome was the log of the total drinks consumed in the most recent heavy drinking occasion. Event-specific (e.g. number of drinking locations) and time-varying (e.g. weekly income) and time-invariant (e.g. sex) individual–specific variables were examined as correlates of total drinks consumed.FindingsChanges in event-specific characteristics including the length of the drinking occasion (Wald χ2(2) = 29.9, p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T23:55:45.95858-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13829
  • A National Swedish Longitudinal Twin-Sibling Study of Alcohol Use
           Disorders among Males
    • Authors: E. C. Long; S. L. Lönn, J. Sundquist, K. Sundquist, K. S. Kendler
      Abstract: AimsTo examine whether genetic influences on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among men during emerging adulthood through mid-adulthood are stable or dynamic.DesignA twin study modeling developmental changes in the genetic and environmental influences on AUD over three age periods (18-25, 26-33, and 33-41) as a Cholesky decomposition.SettingSweden.ParticipantsSwedish male twin pairs (1,532 monozygotic and 1,940 dizygotic) and 66,033 full male sibling pairs born less than two years apart.MeasurementsAUD was identified based on Swedish medical and legal registries.FindingsThe best fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors, with no evidence for shared environmental factors. Although the total heritability was stable across time, there were two major genetic factors contributing to AUD risk, one beginning at ages 18-25 with a modest decline in importance over time (0.84; CI: 0.83-0.88), and another of less impact beginning at ages 26-33 with a modest increase in importance by ages 33-41 (0.31; CI: 0.05-0.47).ConclusionsThe heritability of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among Swedish men appears to be stable across three age periods: 18-25 years, 26-33 years, and 33-41 years. Two sets of genetic risk factors contribute to AUD risk, with one originating during the ages 18-25 years and another coming online at 26-33 years, providing support for the developmentally dynamic hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T23:55:38.43986-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13833
  • Alcohol Use from Adolescence through Early Adulthood: An Assessment of
           Measurement Invariance by Age and Gender
    • Authors: Jessica N. Fish; Amanda M. Pollitt, John E. Schulenberg, Stephen T. Russell
      Abstract: Background and aimsStudies on alcohol use and related constructs rarely test for measurement invariance to assess the reliability and validity of measures of alcohol use across different subpopulations of interest or ages. This failure to consider measurement invariance may result in biased parameter estimates and inferences. This study aimed to test measurement invariance of alcohol use across gender and age using a US-nationally representative sample to inform future longitudinal studies assessing alcohol use.DesignThe National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a school-based, nationally-representative longitudinal study conducted in 1994-1995, 2001-2002, and 2008.SettingAll regions within the United States; participants were selected via a clustered sample design from 80 high-schools that represented the national population.ParticipantsYouth and young adults ages 13 to 31 who had valid data on all three alcohol items within wave: 18,923 from Wave 1; 14,315 from Wave 3; and 14,785 from Wave 4.MeasurementsAlcohol use measurement models were constructed using past-year general drinking frequency, heavy episodic drinking frequency, and average quantity when drinking. Configural (factor structure), metric (factor loadings), and scalar (item intercepts) measurement invariance models were tested by gender and for each year of age from 13 to 31.FindingsAll models passed the threshold for configural invariance. Comparisons between males and females demonstrated metric (and usually scalar) non-invariance for most ages beyond middle adolescence. Nearly all one- and two-year contrasts passed metric invariance. Scalar non-invariance was most prevalent in age comparisons between late adolescence and early adulthood, particularly for tests using two-year age increments.ConclusionsStudies that do not account for the effects of gender and age on the measurement of alcohol use may be statistically biased.
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T23:55:33.164768-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13830
  • High risk of overdose death following release from prison: Variations in
           mortality during a 15-year observation period
    • Authors: Anne Bukten; Marianne Riksheim Stavseth, Svetlana Skurtveit, Aage Tverdal, John Strang, Thomas Clausen
      Abstract: Background and AimsThe time post-release from prison involves elevated mortality, especially overdose deaths. Variations in overdose mortality both by time since release from prison and time of release has not been sufficiently investigated. Our aims were to estimate and compare overdose death rates at time intervals after prison release and to estimate the effect on overdose death rates over calendar time.Design, Setting, Participants, MeasurementsThis 15-year cohort study includes all persons (n= 91,090) released from prison (01.01.2000 to 31.12.2014) obtained from the Norwegian prison registry, linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry (2000-2014). All-cause and cause-specific mortality were examined during different time-periods following release: first week, second week, 3-4 weeks and 2-6 months, and by three different time intervals of release. We calculated crude mortality rates (CMRs) per 1000 PY and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) by Poisson regression analysis adjusting for time intervals after prison release, release periods and time spent in prison.FindingsOverdose deaths accounted for 85% (n=123) of all deaths during the first week following release (n=145), with a peak during the two days immediately following release. Compared with week 1, the risk of overdose death was more than halved during week 2 (IRR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.31-0.59) and reduced to one-fifth in weeks 3-4 (IRR 0.22; 95% CI, 0.16-0.31). The risk of overdose mortality during the first 6 months post-release was almost twofold higher in 2000-2004 compared with 2005-2009 (IRR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43-0.65) and 2010-2014 (IRR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.37-0.59). The risk of overdose death was highest for those incarcerated for 3-12 months compared with those who were incarcerated for shorter or longer periods, and recidivism was associated with risk of overdose death.ConclusionsThere is an elevated risk of death from drug overdose among people released from Norwegian prisons, peaking in the first week. The risk has reduced since 2000-2004 but is greatest for those serving 3-12 months compared with shorter or longer periods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T13:01:01.670904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13803
  • Lifetime risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption
           in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines
    • Authors: Kevin D. Shield; Gerrit Gmel, Gerhard Gmel, Pia Mäkelä, Charlotte Probst, Robin Room, Jürgen Rehm
      Abstract: Background and aimsLow-risk alcohol drinking guidelines require a scientific basis that extends beyond individual or group judgements of risk. Lifetime mortality risks, judged against established thresholds for acceptable risk, may provide such a basis for guidelines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate alcohol mortality risks for seven European countries based on different average daily alcohol consumption amounts.MethodsThe maximum acceptable voluntary premature mortality risk was determined to be 1 in 1,000, with sensitivity analyses of 1 in 100. Lifetime mortality risks for different alcohol consumption levels were estimated by combining disease-specific relative risk and mortality data for seven European countries with different drinking patterns (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, and Poland). Alcohol consumption data were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, relative risk data from meta-analyses, and mortality information from the World Health Organization.ResultsThe variation in the lifetime mortality risk at drinking levels relevant for setting guidelines was less than that observed at high drinking levels. In Europe, the percentage of adults consuming above a risk threshold of 1 in 1,000 ranged from 20.6% to 32.9% for women and from 35.4% to 54.0% for men. Lifetime risk of premature mortality under current guideline maximums ranged from 2.5 to 44.8 deaths per 1,000 women in Finland and Estonia respectively, and from 2.9 to 35.8 deaths per 1,000 men in Finland and Estonia respectively. If based upon an acceptable risk of 1 in 1,000, guideline maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men.ConclusionsIf low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of 1 in 1,000 premature deaths, then maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some of the current European guidelines would require downward revision.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T05:17:13.427346-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13827
  • Epidemiology of HIV and hepatitis C infection among women who inject drugs
           in Northeast India: A respondent-driven sampling study
    • Authors: Allison M. Mcfall; Sunil S. Solomon, Greg M. Lucas, David D. Celentano, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Muniratnam S. Kumar, Shruti H. Mehta
      Abstract: Background and aimsDespite extensive research on HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), there remains a gap in knowledge on the burden among women who inject drugs and their unique contexts and risk factors. This analysis compares HIV and HCV prevalence in female and male PWID and estimates injection and sexual risk correlates of prevalent HIV and HCV infection among women in Northeast India.DesignCross-sectional sample accrued using respondent-driven sampling.SettingSeven cities in Northeast India, 2013.Participants6,457 adult PWID.MeasurementsParticipants completed an interviewer-administered survey. HIV infection was diagnosed onsite and HCV antibody testing was done on stored specimens. HIV and HCV prevalence estimates were stratified by gender. Among women, the association of risk correlates with HIV and HCV were estimated using multi-level logistic regression models.Findings796 (16%) of the PWID were women, of whom 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49-57%) were HIV-infected and 22% (CI: 20-25%) were HCV-infected. HIV and HCV prevalence among men was 17% (CI: 17-18%) and 32% (CI: 31-32%), respectively. Among women, correlates of HIV were widowhood (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] vs. currently married: 4.0, CI: 2.1-7.6) and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners (aOR ≥8 vs. none: 3.1, CI: 1.1-8.9). Correlates of HCV were longer injection duration (aOR per 10 years: 1.7, CI: 1.3-2.3), injecting only heroin and a combination of drugs (aOR vs. pharmaceuticals only: 5.6, CI: 1.7-18.9 and aOR: 2.6, CI: 1.6-4.2, respectively), sharing needles/syringes (aOR: 2.5, CI: 1.3-4.6) and a larger PWID network (aOR ≥51 vs. 1-5: 4.2, CI: 2.4-7.2).ConclusionsWomen who inject drugs in Northeast India have a high HIV prevalence which was more than double their hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence, an opposite pattern than is typically observed among male PWID. HIV infection is associated with sexual risk factors while injection-related behaviors appear to drive HCV infection.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T02:25:30.55013-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13821
  • Hospitalizations, costs and outcomes associated with heroin and
           prescription opioid overdoses in the United States 2001–12
    • Authors: Douglas J. Hsu; Ellen P. McCarthy, Jennifer P. Stevens, Kenneth J. Mukamal
      Abstract: Background and aimsThe full burden of the opioid epidemic on US hospitals has not been described. We aimed to estimate how heroin (HOD) and prescription opioid (POD) overdose-associated admissions, costs, outcomes and patient characteristics have changed from 2001 to 2012.DesignRetrospective cohort study of hospital admissions from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS).SettingUnited States of America.ParticipantsHospital admissions in patients aged 18 years or older admitted with a diagnosis of HOD or POD. The NIS sample included 94 492 438 admissions from 2001 to 2012. The final unweighted study sample included 138 610 admissions (POD: 122 147 and HOD: 16 463).MeasurementsPrimary outcomes were rates of admissions per 100 000 people using US Census Bureau annual estimates. Other outcomes included in-patient mortality, hospital length-of-stay, cumulative and mean hospital costs and patient demographics. All analyses were weighted to provide national estimates.FindingsBetween 2001 and 2012, an estimated 663 715 POD and HOD admissions occurred nation-wide. HOD admissions increased 0.11 per 100 000 people per year [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04, 0.17], while POD admissions increased 1.25 per 100 000 people per year (95% CI = 1.15, 1.34). Total in-patient costs increased by $4.1 million dollars per year (95% CI = 2.7, 5.5) for HOD admissions and by $46.0 million dollars per year (95% CI = 43.1, 48.9) for POD admissions, with an associated increase in hospitalization costs to more than $700 million annually. The adjusted odds of death in the POD group declined modestly per year [odds ratio (OR) = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99], with no difference in HOD mortality or length-of-stay. Patients with POD were older, more likely to be female and more likely to be white compared with HOD patients.ConclusionsRates and costs of heroin and prescription opioid overdose related admissions in the United States increased substantially from 2001 to 2012. The rapid and ongoing rise in both numbers of hospitalizations and their costs suggests that the burden of POD may threaten the infrastructure and finances of US hospitals.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T20:10:26.262903-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13795
  • Internet Interventions for Adult Illicit Substance Users: A Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Nikolaos Boumparis; Eirini Karyotaki, Michael P. Schaub, Pim Cuijpers, Heleen Riper
      Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMSResearch has shown that internet interventions can be effective for dependent users of various substances. However, less is known about the effects of these interventions on users of opioids, cocaine, and amphetamines than for other substances. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of internet interventions in decreasing the usage of these types of substances.METHODSWe conducted a systematic literature search in the databases of PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of internet interventions compared with control conditions in reducing the use of opioids, cocaine, and amphetamines. No setting restrictions were applied. The risk of bias of the included studies was examined according to Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment tool. Primary outcome was substance use reduction assessed through toxicology screening, self-report or both at post-treatment and at the follow-up assessment.RESULTSSeventeen studies with 2,836 adult illicit substance users were included. The risk of bias varied across the included studies. Internet interventions significantly decreased opioid (4 studies, n = 606, g = 0.36; 95 % CI = 0.20-0.53, P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:53:06.337794-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13819
  • Dimensional personality traits and alcohol treatment outcome: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: James A. Foulds; Giles M. Newton-Howes, Nicola H. Guy, Joseph M. Boden, Roger T. Mulder
      Abstract: AimsTo identify dimensional personality traits associated with treatment outcome for patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD).MethodsSystematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials and longitudinal studies of ≥8 weeks in patients receiving treatment for AUD, in which the association between personality dimensions and treatment outcome was reported. Primary outcomes were relapse and alcohol consumption measures. Treatment retention was a secondary outcome.Results18 studies including 4783 subjects were identified. 12 studies used Cloninger's Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) or Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Remaining studies used a broad range of other personality measures.Compared with non-relapsers, patients who relapsed had higher novelty seeking (standardised mean difference in novelty seeking score 0.28; 95% CI 0.12, 0.44), lower persistence (-0.30, 95% CI -0.48, -0.12), lower reward dependence (-0.16, 95% CI -0.31, -0.01) and lower cooperativeness (-0.23, 95% CI -0.41, -0.04). Few studies reported on alcohol consumption outcomes, therefore findings for those outcomes were inconclusive. Lower novelty seeking predicted better retention in treatment in 2/3 studies. Most studies reported findings only for those retained in treatment, and did not attempt to account for missing data. Therefore findings for the primary outcomes cannot be generalised to patients who dropped out of treatment. Studies using personality instruments other than the TCI or TPQ reported no consistent findings on the association between personality variables and treatment outcome.ConclusionsAmong patients receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder, those who relapse during follow up have higher novelty seeking, lower persistence, lower reward dependence and lower cooperativeness than those who do not relapse.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04T01:15:28.992123-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13810
  • A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for alcohol and
           drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening
           Test (ASSIST) in primary health care in Chile
    • Authors: Fernando Poblete; Nicolas A. Barticevic, M. Soledad Zuzulic, Rodrigo Portilla, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jaime C. Sapag, Luis Villarroel, Brena F. Sena, Magdalena Galarce
      Abstract: AimTo study the effectiveness of a Brief Intervention (BI) associated with the ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) for alcohol and illicit drug use as part of a systematic screening program implemented in primary care.DesignA multi-center randomized open-label trial stratified using the ASSIST-specific substance involvement score (for alcohol, scores ranged from 11 to 15 and 16 to 20; and for the other substances, from 4 to 12 and 13 to 20).SettingPrimary care centers (n = 19), local small emergency rooms (n = 8), and police stations (n = 5) in Chile.Participants12,217 people between 19 and 55 years old were screened for moderate alcohol and drug use risk defined by ASSIST Chilean version, differing from standard version on a lower cut-off point for upper end of moderate-risk drug users (21 instead 27). 806 non-treatment-seekers were randomized.Intervention and comparisonASSIST-linked BI (n = 400) compared with an informational pamphlet on risk associated with substance use (n = 406).MeasurementsTotal ASSIST alcohol and illicit involvement score (ASSIST - AI), and ASSIST-specific score for alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine, at baseline and at three-month follow-up.FindingsSixty-two percent of participants completed follow up. An intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference between the two groups for the ASSIST - AI score [Mean difference -0.17, Confidence Interval (-1.87, 2.20)] (MD, CI), either for specific scores alcohol [MD 0.18, CI (-1.45, 1.10)], cannabis [MD -0.62 CI (-0.89, 2.14)], or cocaine [MD -0.79 CI (-2.89, 4.47)].ConclusionIt is not clear whether a brief intervention associated with the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is more effective than an informational pamphlet in reducing alcohol and illicit substance consumption in non-treatment-seeking, primary care users with moderate risk.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T00:30:47.097268-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13808
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Extended Release Naltrexone to Prevent Relapse among
           Criminal-Justice-Involved Persons with a History of Opioid Use Disorder
    • Authors: Sean M. Murphy; Daniel Polsky, Joshua D. Lee, Peter D. Friedmann, Timothy W. Kinlock, Edward V. Nunes, Richard J. Bonnie, Michael Gordon, Donna T. Chen, Tamara Y. Boney, Charles P. O'Brien
      Abstract: Background/AimsCriminal-justice-involved persons are highly susceptible to opioid relapse and overdose-related deaths. In a recent randomized trial, we demonstrated the effectiveness of extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol®) in preventing opioid relapse among criminal-justice-involved U.S. adults with a history of opioid use disorder. The cost of XR-NTX may be a significant barrier to adoption. Thus, it is important to account for improved quality of life, and downstream cost-offsets. Our aims were to (1) estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU), and evaluate it relative to generally-accepted value thresholds; and (2) estimate the incremental cost per additional year of opioid abstinence.DesignEconomic evaluation of the aforementioned trial from the taxpayer perspective. Participants were randomized to 25 weeks of XR-NTX injections or TAU; follow-up occurred at 52 and 78 weeks.SettingFive study sites in the U.S. Northeast corridor.Participants308 participants were randomized to XR-NTX (n = 153) or TAU (n = 155).MeasurementsIncremental costs relative to incremental economic and clinical effectiveness measures, QALYs and abstinent-years, respectively.FindingsThe 25-week cost-per-QALY and -abstinent-year figures were $162,150 and $46,329, respectively. The 78-week figures were $76,400/QALY and $16,371/abstinent-year. At 25 weeks, we can be 10% certain that XR-NTX is cost-effective at a value threshold of $100,000/QALY, and 62% certain at $200,000/QALY. At 78 weeks, the cost-effectiveness probabilities are 59% at $100,000/QALY and 76% at $200,000/QALY. We can be 95% confident that the intervention would be considered a “good-value” at $90,000/abstinent-year at 25 weeks, and $500/abstinent-year at 78 weeks.ConclusionsWhile extended release naltrexone appears to be effective in increasing both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective using generally-accepted value thresholds for QALYs, due to the high price of the injection.
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T22:50:28.767094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13807
  • Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: A randomized control
    • Authors: Jennifer R. Laude; Steffani R. Bailey, Erin Crew, Ann Varady, Anna Lembke, Danielle McFall, Anna Jeon, Diana Killen, Joel D. Killen, Sean P. David
      Abstract: AimTo test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking.DesignTwo-group parallel randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment.SettingCommunity clinic in the USA.Participants219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18).InterventionAll participants received 10 weeks of combined CBT + bupropion sustained release (bupropion SR) + nicotine patch and were continued on CBT and either no medications if abstinent, continued bupropion + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) if increased craving or depression scores, or varenicline if still smoking at 10 weeks. Half of participants were randomized at 26 weeks to extended CBT (E-CBT) through week 48 and half to non-extended CBT (no additional CBT sessions).MeasurementsThe primary outcome was expired CO-confirmed, seven-day point-prevalence (PP) at 52-week and 104-week follow-up. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat.FindingsPP-abstinence rates at the 52-week follow-up were comparable across non-extended CBT (40%) and E-CBT (39%) groups [OR 0.99; 95% CI (0.55,1.78)]. A similar pattern was observed across non-extended CBT (39%) and E-CBT (33%) groups at the 104-week follow-up [OR 0.79; 95% CI (0.44,1.40)].ConclusionProlonging cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking.
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T22:21:43.851921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13806
  • Self-reported Substance Use in Iraq: Findings from the Iraqi National
           Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use, 2014
    • Authors: Nesif Al-Hemiery; Rufaidah Dabbagh, Mushtaq T. Hashim, Salih Al-Hasnawi, Ali Abutiheen, Emad A. Abdulghani, Jawad K. Al-Diwan, Neeraj Kak, Hala AlMossawi, Jane Carlisle Maxwell, Mary-Lynn Brecht, Valerie Antonini, Albert Hasson, Richard A. Rawson
      Abstract: AimsTo estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use in Iraq using data from the Iraqi National Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use (INHSAD).DesignA cross-sectional survey was conducted using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Trained surveyors conducted face-to-face household interviews.SettingIraq, from April 2014 to December 2014.Participants3,200 adult, non-institutionalized Iraqi citizens residing across all 18 governorates of Iraq.MeasurementsWe estimated weighted prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lifetime, past-year, and past-month use of a variety of substances (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs). For each substance, we also estimated whether persons knew people who currently used the substance.FindingsSelf-reported past-month tobacco use was 23.2% (95% CI = 21.40, 25.19). Past-month alcohol use was 3.2% (2.58, 3.93). Women reported significantly lower prevalence for both tobacco and alcohol use compared with men (p-value 
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T20:50:25.571699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13800
  • Engagement in HIV care and its correlates among people who inject drugs in
           St. Petersburg, Russian Federation and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia
    • Authors: Robert Heimer; Nina Usacheva, Russell Barbour, Linda M. Niccolai, Anneli Uusküla, Olga S. Levina
      Abstract: Background and AimsHIV infection and mortality in Eastern Europe are driven by unsafe injection drug use. We sought to compare engagement in care from HIV testing through receipt of antiretroviral treatment among HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation (RF) and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and identify factors significantly associated with failure to progress at each stage of the HIV treatment cascade.DesignCross-sectional biobehavioral surveys of PWID with an analysis stratified by location – two Russian speaking regions with similar HIV epidemic histories and current prevalence.SettingField-based surveys conducted in St. Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.ParticipantsWe recruited 452 HIV-positive PWID in St. Petersburg (November 2012 to June 2013) and 370 HIV-positive PWID in Kohtla-Järve (June-August 2012) using respondent driven sampling.MeasurementsParticipants were tested for antibodies to HIV, and administered a questionnaire focusing on participants’ medical care histories. Engagement in care was categorized as a cascade of five transitional steps through six stages ranging from HIV testing to current receipt of antiretroviral medications.FindingsProgress along the cascade was greater in Kohtla-Järve (32.7% were receiving antiretroviral medications) than in St. Petersburg (9.7%). In both locations, we found the steps with high failure rates were the transitions from being aware of one's HIV diagnosis to being in regular care and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Factors significantly associated with transition failure in both locations and across steps included high alcohol consumption, variables associated with drug choice and injection frequency, and lack of basic medical insurance.ConclusionThe two steps in treatment cascade for HIV-positive PWID in St. Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia requiring greatest improvement are retention in regular care and initiation of HAART. Both individual behavioral and structural factors are associated with failure to transition along the cascade.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T02:20:26.723063-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13798
  • Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality: A cohort
           study in 19,002 men and women attending alcohol treatment
    • Authors: Charlotte Holst; Janne Schurmann Tolstrup, Holger Jelling Sørensen, Ulrik Becker
      Abstract: AimsTo (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases.DesignRegister-based matched cohort study. Alcohol dependent individuals were identified from an alcohol treatment database. Controls were randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Information on somatic diseases obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and causes of death obtained from the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate Hazard ratios (HRs).SettingDenmark.Participants19,002 alcohol dependent individuals and 186,767 controls.MeasurementsOutcome variables included 11 disease groups and 29 sub-groups, defined according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The main predictor variable was diagnosis of alcohol dependence according to ICD.FindingsAlcohol dependent men and women compared with controls had statistically significantly higher risks of all disease groups and the majority of sub-groups when analysed as disease events. HRs were elevated for well-established alcohol-related diseases but also for diseases such as dementia (Men, HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3. Women, HR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.8-3.2), psoriasis (Men, HR: 4.3; 95% CI: 3.5-5.2. Women, HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 3.7-7.8) and breast cancer in men (HR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.6-7.0). Similar results were found when disease groups and sub-groups were analysed as causes of death.ConclusionsAlcohol dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases, both as disease events and as causes of death, relative to individuals from the general population.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T06:40:29.606797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13799
  • How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing
           common behaviours'
    • Authors: Daniel Kardefelt-Winther; Alexandre Heeren, Adriano Schimmenti, Antonius Rooij, Pierre Maurage, Michelle Carras, Johan Edman, Alexander Blaszczynski, Yasser Khazaal, Joël Billieux
      Abstract: Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T00:25:36.940555-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13763
  • Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription
           opioid overdose'
    • Authors: Bryce Pardo
      Abstract: Background and AimsIn the United States, overdose deaths attributed to opioid pain relievers (OPR) have quadrupled since 1999, prompting many states to adopt Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PMP). This study aimed to: (1) estimate the relationship of PMP strength with OPR overdose deaths across states and over time; (2) measure what threshold in PMP strength is associated with the greatest reduction in OPR overdose; and (3) assess the relationship of medical marijuana dispensaries with OPR overdose deaths.DesignPanel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database (WONDER) were analyzed using fixed effects to regress state–year death rates on an index variable compiled from the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (PDAPS) while controlling for PMP administration, demographic factors and laws that might affect OPR overdose.Setting and ParticipantsAge-adjusted opioid overdose death rates for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1999 and 2014 for a total of 816 observations.MeasurementsPMP strength was calculated using legal data compiled by the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (PDAPS). In addition to demographic controls, other covariates included laws that regulate pain clinics, access to naloxone, use of emergency services (Good Samaritan Laws) and medical marijuana.FindingsPMP strength was associated negatively with OPR overdose deaths. Every 1-point increase in PMP strength was associated with a 1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.2–2%] reduction in overdose deaths. When collapsed into quartiles, PMPs in the third quartile were associated with an approximately 18% (95% CI = 1.6–29%) reduction in OPR overdose death rates compared with states without a PMP. States with medical marijuana dispensaries reported a 16% (95% CI = 1–30%) reduction in OPR overdoses.ConclusionsUS states that have more robust prescription drug monitoring programs have fewer prescription opioid overdose deaths than states with weaker PMPs. States with medical marijuana dispensaries also report fewer opioid overdose deaths than states without these.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T22:05:24.634977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13741
  • Issue Information - Title, Aims & Scope
    • Pages: 1325 - 1326
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:17.100363-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13574
  • The need for more nuance in headline adult cigarette smoking prevalence
    • Authors: Sara C. Hitchman; Jennifer L. Pearson, Andrea C. Villanti
      Pages: 1327 - 1328
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T21:26:20.240502-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13794
  • Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does
           the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism'
    • Authors: Ed Day; Luke Mitcheson
      Pages: 1329 - 1336
      Abstract: Background and AimsClinical guidelines from around the world recommend the delivery of psychosocial interventions as part of routine care in opiate substitution treatment (OST) programmes. However, although individual studies demonstrate benefit for structured psychosocial interventions, meta-analytical reviews find no benefit for manual-based treatments beyond ‘routine counselling’.AnalysisWe consider the question of whether OST medication alone is sufficient to produce the required outcomes, or whether greater efforts should be made to provide high-quality psychosocial treatment alongside medication. In so doing, we consider the nuances and limitations of the evidence and the organizational barriers to transferring it into routine practice.ConclusionThe evidence base for psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment (OST) services can be interpreted both positively and negatively. Steering a path between overly optimistic or nihilistic interpretations of the value of psychosocial treatment in OST programmes is the most pragmatic approach. Greater attention should be paid to elements common to all psychological treatments (such as therapeutic alliance), but also to the sequencing and packaging of psychosocial elements and their linkage to peer-led interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-02T20:25:23.789831-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13644
  • Pharmacotherapies as standalone treatments for addictions: why lessening
           won't work
    • Authors: Patrick M. Flynn
      Pages: 1337 - 1338
      Abstract: Commentary to: Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism'
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T20:11:05.138793-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13707
  • Patient-centred care and patient engagement to inform the use of
           psychosocial interventions with opioid substitution treatment: another
           path for Day & Mitcheson to follow
    • Authors: Carol J. Strike; Adrian Guta
      Pages: 1338 - 1339
      Abstract: Commentary to: Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism'
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T20:16:09.549032-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13708
  • Widening the perspective on opioid substitution treatment
    • Authors: Jani Selin
      Pages: 1339 - 1340
      Abstract: Commentary to: Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism'
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T21:05:30.942256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13725
  • Are UK opioid substitution treatment agencies fit for purpose'
    • Authors: Duncan Raistrick
      Pages: 1340 - 1342
      Abstract: Commentary to: Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism'
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T23:25:22.485472-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13737
  • Response to commentaries: Neither optimism or nihilism… but reasons
           for hope
    • Authors: Ed Day; Luke Mitcheson
      Pages: 1342 - 1344
      Abstract: Commentary to: Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism'
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T22:50:25.799567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13775
  • Commentary on Holst et al. (2017): The relationship between alcohol
           dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality—the black box
           strikes back
    • Authors: Kim Bloomfield
      Pages: 1367 - 1368
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:18.121692-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13863
  • A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce drug use
           among adults in a low-income urban emergency department: the HealthiER You
    • Authors: Frederic C. Blow; Maureen A. Walton, Amy S. B. Bohnert, Rosalinda V. Ignacio, Stephen Chermack, Rebecca M. Cunningham, Brenda M. Booth, Mark Ilgen, Kristen L. Barry
      Pages: 1395 - 1405
      Abstract: AimsTo examine efficacy of drug brief interventions (BIs) among adults presenting to a low-income urban emergency department (ED).DesignRandomized controlled trial on drug use outcomes at 3, 6 and 12 months. Participants were assigned to (1) computer-delivered BI (Computer BI), (2) therapist-delivered, computer-guided BI (Therapist BI) or (3) enhanced usual care (EUC-ED) for drug-using adults. Participants were re-randomized after the 3-month assessment to either adapted motivational enhancement therapy (AMET) booster or enhanced usual care booster (EUC-B).SettingPatients recruited from low-income urban emergency departments (ED) in Flint, Michigan, USA.ParticipantsA total of 780 ED patients reporting recent drug use, 44% males, mean age = 31 years.InterventionsComputer BI consisted of an interactive program guided by a virtual health counselor. Therapist BI included computer guidance. The EUC-ED conditions included review of community health and HIV prevention resources. The BIs and boosters were based on motivational interviewing, focusing on reduction of drug use and HIV risk behaviors.MeasurementsPrimary outcome was past 90 days using drugs at 6 and 12 months and secondary outcomes were weighted drug-days and days of marijuana use.FindingsPercentage changes in mean days used any drug from baseline to 12 months were: Computer BI + EUC-B: –10.9%, P = 0.0844; Therapist BI + EUC-B: –26.7%, P = 0.0041, for EUC-ED + EUC-B: –20.9, P = 0.0011. In adjusted analyses, there was no significant interaction between ED intervention and booster AMET for primary and secondary outcomes. Compared with EUC-ED, Therapist BI reduced number of days using any drug [95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.41, −0.07, P = 0.0422] and weighted drug-days (95% CI = –0.41, −0.08, P = 0.0283). Both Therapist and Computer BI had significantly fewer number of days using marijuana compared to EUC-ED (Therapist BI: 95% CI = –0.42, −0.06, P = 0.0104, Computer BI: 95% CI = –0.34, −0.01, P = 0.0406). Booster effects were not significant.ConclusionsAn emergency department-based motivational brief intervention, delivered by a therapist and guided by computer, appears to reduce drug use among adults seeking emergency department care compared with enhanced usual care.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T00:40:29.408385-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13773
  • Commentary on Blow et al. (2017): Leveraging technology may boost the
           effectiveness and adoption of interventions for drug use in emergency
    • Authors: Ryan P. McCormack
      Pages: 1406 - 1407
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:12.999756-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13872
  • Does exposure to opioid substitution treatment in prison reduce the risk
           of death after release' A national prospective observational study in
    • Authors: John Marsden; Garry Stillwell, Hayley Jones, Alisha Cooper, Brian Eastwood, Michael Farrell, Tim Lowden, Nino Maddalena, Chris Metcalfe, Jenny Shaw, Matthew Hickman
      Pages: 1408 - 1418
      Abstract: Background and AimsPeople with opioid use disorder (OUD) in prison face an acute risk of death after release. We estimated whether prison-based opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces this risk.DesignProspective observational cohort study using prison health care, national community drug misuse treatment and deaths registers.SettingRecruitment at 39 adult prisons in England (32 male; seven female) accounting for 95% of OST treatment in England during study planning.ParticipantsAdult prisoners diagnosed with OUD (recruited: September 2010–August 2013; first release: September 2010; last release: October 2014; follow-up to February 2016; n = 15 141 in the risk set).Intervention and ComparatorAt release, participants were classified as OST exposed (n = 8645) or OST unexposed (n = 6496). The OST unexposed group did not receive OST, or had been withdrawn, or had a low dose.MeasurementsPrimary outcome: all-cause mortality (ACM) in the first 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes: drug-related poisoning (DRP) deaths in the first 4 weeks; ACM and DRP mortality after 4 weeks to 1 year; admission to community drug misuse treatment in the first 4 weeks. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox regression models (covariates: sex, age, drug injecting, problem alcohol use, use of benzodiazepines, cocaine, prison transfer and admission to community treatment), tested difference in mortality rates and community treatment uptake.FindingsDuring the first 4 weeks after prison release there were 24 ACM deaths: six in the OST exposed group and 18 in the OST unexposed group [mortality rate 0.93 per 100 person-years (py) versus 3.67 per 100 py; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10–0.64]. There were 18 DRP deaths: OST exposed group mortality rate 0.47 per 100 py versus 3.06 per 100 py in the OST unexposed group (HR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04–0.53). There was no group difference in mortality risk after the first month. The OST exposed group was more likely to enter drug misuse treatment in the first month post-release (odds ratio 2.47, 95% CI = 2.31–2.65). The OST mortality protective effect on ACM and DRP mortality risk was not attenuated by demographic, overdose risk factors, prison transfer or community treatment (fully adjusted HR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.09–0.64 and HR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04–0.52, respectively).ConclusionsIn an English national study, prison-based opioid substitution therapy was associated with a 75% reduction in all-cause mortality and an 85% reduction in fatal drug-related poisoning in the first month after release.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T20:00:39.058066-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13779
  • Commentary on Marsden et al. (2017): While epidemiological studies can
           help to identify areas of overdose risk, we need more focused
           hypothesis-driven trials to inform clinical intervention strategies
    • Authors: Brian Kidd; Christine Matthews
      Pages: 1419 - 1420
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:11.538688-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13857
  • Commentary on Laude et al. (2017): Extended treatment for cigarette
           smoking cessation
    • Authors: Sharon M. Hall
      Pages: 1460 - 1461
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:15.510054-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13884
  • Commentary on McFall et al. (2017): The need for harm reduction
           interventions that are effective for women who use drugs
    • Authors: Gregory Armstrong
      Pages: 1488 - 1489
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:14.947126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13856
  • News and Notes
    • Pages: 1512 - 1515
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:17.183271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13891
  • Issue Information - TOC
    • Pages: 1516 - 1516
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T02:02:18.516359-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/add.13575
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