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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Acta Zoologica
  [SJR: 0.459]   [H-I: 29]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-7272 - ISSN (Online) 1463-6395
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Msx1-2 immunolocalization in the regenerating tail of a lizard but not in
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Abstract: The immunolocalization of the muscle segmental homoeobox protein Msx1-2 of 27–34 kDa in the regenerating tail blastema of a lizard shows prevalent localization in the apical ependyma of the regenerating spinal cord and less intense labelling in the wound epidermis, in the apical epidermal peg (AEP), and in the regenerating segmental muscles. The AEP is a micro-region of the regenerating epidermis located at the tail tip of the blastema, likely corresponding to the AEC of the amphibian blastema. No immunolabelling is present in the wound epidermis and scarring blastema of the limb at 18–21 days of regeneration, except for sparse repairing muscles. The presence of a proximal–distal gradient of Msx1-2 protein, generated from the apical ependyma, is suggested by the intensity of immunolabelling. The AEP and the ependyma are believed to induce and maintain tail regeneration, and this study suggests that Msx1-2 proteins are components of the signalling system that maintains active growth of the tail blastema. The lack of activation and production of Msx1-2 protein in the limb are likely due to the intense inflammatory reaction following amputation. This study confirms that, like during regeneration in fishes and amphibians, also the blastema of lizards utilizes common signalling pathways for maintaining regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:25:40.440117-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12198
  • Morphology and ontogenetic changes in otoliths of the mesopelagic fishes
           Ceratoscopelus maderensis (Myctophidae), Vinciguerria attenuata and
           V. poweriae (Phosichthyidae) from the Strait of Messina (Mediterranean
    • Authors: Laith A. Jawad; Giuseppe Sabatino, Ana L. Ibáñez, Franco Andaloro, Pietro Battaglia
      Abstract: Fish otoliths morphology is an important aid in taxonomic, phylogenetic, palaeoichthyological and dietary studies. This study compares the morphology of the otoliths of the myctophid species, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, and two phosichthyid species, Vinciguerria attenuata and V. poweriae, collected from the Strait of Messina in the central Mediterranean Sea to identify the most appropriate taxonomical characters that separate these species. Ontogenetic changes in the otoliths of the studied fishes are evident. The sagitta of the juvenile C. maderensis is the most similar to the adult otoliths, while otoliths of the juvenile V. poweriae are the least similar to the adult otoliths. A discussion on possible geographical variations in otolith's morphology is provided by comparing our results with sagitta's images of C. maderensis, V. attenuata and V. poweriae in other studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:25:33.269687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12197
  • The specialisation of the third metacarpal and hand in arboreal frogs:
           Adaptation for arboreal habitat'
    • Authors: Ning-Xin Dang; Ji-Shan Wang, Jin Liang, De-Chun Jiang, Jun Liu, Li Wang, Jia-Tang Li
      Abstract: Skeletal morphology is directly associated with habitat characteristics. To investigate the arboreal adaptation, we studied the osteological morphology of the forelimbs and the third metacarpals of arboreal frogs (Rhacophoridae and Hylidae) and non-arboreal frogs (Bombinatoridae, Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Ranidae, and Microhylidae) using transparent specimens or X-rays of skeletons. Our results revealed that the bony knob on the third metacarpal, which formed by a dilated and elongated lateral articular cartilage (AL) through endochondral ossification, occurred only in species of Rhacophorinae. The results of the phylogenetic comparative methods and correlation analysis strongly supported the conclusion that the bony knob is a phylogenetic independent evolution trait and had a significant correlation with the arboreal habitat. Furthermore, anatomical observation showed that a muscle adhered to the bony knob. Therefore, we speculated that the bony knob might act as an enlarged attachment point for larger or more musculatures to help with grasping. In addition, the relative length of the hand showed a significant difference between arboreal and non-arboreal species (p = .007), suggesting that longer hands might be an arboreal adaptive trait. Overall, this study leads to a deeper understanding of the arboreal adaptation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T03:40:30.939121-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12196
  • Gametogenesis and reproductive dynamics of Rhinella schneideri (Anura:
           Bufonidae): Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors
    • Authors: Michel Montezol; Mônica Cassel, Débora Silva, Adelina Ferreira, Mahmoud Mehanna
      Abstract: This is the characterisation of the reproductive dynamics of Rhinella schneideri in an urban area during two non-consecutive periods. Germ cells are similar to those of other anuran species, but some characteristics were more marked for R. schneideri, such as the morphological similarity of spermatogonia and oogonia, which may be related to their potential for development into both stem cell types. The presence of lampbrush chromosomes, the extensive variation in number and organisation of the nucleoli and the organisation of the nuclear cortex are also characteristic of this species. All of these features appear to work together, participating in the dynamic growth of the oocyte. In some specimens, previtellogenic oocytes were also observed in the seminiferous tubules, which may be related to anthropogenic changes induced in the study area. In the first study period, reproductive dynamics revealed synchrony between the sexes, with the preparation of the gonads from October to December and the reproductive season from October to January, coinciding with the rainy season. In the second period, reproductive synchrony was also observed, but gonad preparation occurred from February to June and the reproductive season was from August to November, before the rainy season. These changes in the reproductive cycle suggest that urbanisation affects the reproduction of this species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T05:12:26.575369-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12195
  • Morphology of the retina in deep-water fish Nezumia sclerorhynchus
           (Valenciennes, 1838) (Gadiformes: Macrouridae)
    • Authors: Magdalena García; Sabina Tomás, Maria Laura Robles, Alfonso Ramos, Yolanda Segovia
      Abstract: Using light microscopy, we examined the retina of benthopelagic fish Nezumia sclerorhynchus. Although the retina is typical of other vertebrates, having three nuclear and two synaptic layers, it presents some features associated with the animal's deep-sea habitat. A stratum argenteum containing iridescent crystals is located in the choroid. The pigment cell layer shows bulky cells filled with melanin granules but without the typical apical processes. The visual cells, consisting of a big population of rods, are arranged in several banks. No cones were observed. The outer segments are very long and cylindrical, and the inner segments are constituted by a small ellipsoid at the proximal end. The outer nuclear layer contains several rows of oval nuclei, and the spherules in the outer plexiform layer have less regular outlines than nuclei. The inner retina is characterized by very large horizontal cells, and presumable bipolar and amacrine cells separated by large spaces that are occupied by neuronal processes. Finally, the low density of ganglion cells produces a thin nerve fibre layer. The results of this study suggest that the retina of Nezumia sclerorhyncus exhibits high visual sensitivity and that vision is a sense that plays an important role in its behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T04:43:51.966496-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12194
  • Lateral line scale types and review of their taxonomic distribution
    • Authors: Elena P. Voronina; Dianne R. Hughes
      Abstract: The trunk canal of fishes is contained within a series of lateral line (LL) scales. To categorise LL scale structural types, and determine their distribution, an analysis of original data was undertaken using light and scanning electron microscopy in combination with a literature survey from over 1,000 species representative of most orders of bony fishes. Our categorisation of LL scales is based on the relationship between the tube, or ossified trunk canal segment, and associated scale. Tubular-Scalar LL scales consist of a distinguishable tube and elasmoid scale in scale pockets. Four types occur only in species with elasmoid scales. Integrated LL scales do not develop in scale pockets, and their tube is enclosed or extended by a non-elasmoid scale or spines. Integrated 1 and 2 LL scales co-occur with ganoid and calcidermoid scales, and Integrated 3 LL scales occur when common scales are absent or elasmoid. Tubular LL scales are tubes only, occurring mainly in scaleless species or with calcidermoid and elasmoid scales. Non-Tubular LL scales are composed only of a scale, co-occurring mainly with cycloid scales. There is consistency of LL scale type in many orders, families and genera and the presence of different types within taxa can be meaningful.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T03:01:04.865976-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12193
  • Two potential players in the evolutionary theatre: Do caddisflies mimic
    • Authors: Benedikt Wiggering; Matthias Glaubrecht
      Abstract: Mimicry is one of the best examples of coevolution. For a mimetic system to function, the mimic has to equal its model. Due to this close dependence, mimetic systems promise deep insights into modes and means of evolution. Mimicry is known to occur in many taxa across different groups of organisms. However, while a plethora of mimetic systems exist, cross-phyla convergences have only rarely been reported in shelled gastropods. Our literature survey brought to light several mimetic systems including gastropods (as model or mimic), all of them in either a marine or a terrestrial setting. We here report on the first potential case of mimicry involving freshwater snails. We found larval cases of European Helicopsyche caddisfly to closely resemble Valvata gastropod shells in shape and size. In particular, stunning is the detailed similarity of features in these trichopteran cases to those characteristic for snail shells, for example, apex, aperture and umbilicus, hinting at a strong selection pressure to be involved. We discuss this unique case of mimicry that might hold unparalleled insight in mimetic relationships, taking into account alternative environmental factors and potential predatory dupes, in particular birds that might have successively caused the evolution of coiled cases in helicopsychid trichopterans.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T07:05:44.587733-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12192
  • Morphology of the copulatory organ in Ortalis canicollis (Aves: Cracidae)
           and early evolution of the phallus in birds
    • Authors: Diego Matiussi Previatto; Gustavo Leite Gonçalves, Marcela Carvalho Ortiz, Carla Danielle Melo-Soares, Sérgio Roberto Posso
      Abstract: We studied the morphology of the copulatory organ of Ortalis canicollis and its evolution in birds. The phallus of O. canicollis is intromittent, with a blind tubular cavity and two distinct regions when erect: the base of the phallus, which shows the mucosa smooth and lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium, and the tubular portion, which shows the mucosa lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with little knobs. The phallus includes two vascular bodies at the cranial portion in the urodeum. A fibrocartilaginous body anchors the tubular portion therefrom up to the eversible portion. A branched elastic ligament inserts on different regions of the tubular portion. The phallus is plesiomorphic in birds and it has disappeared in Megapodius, Leipoa and Neoaves. The asymmetric phallus evolved early and it was retained in the basal branches of birds. The intromittent phallus is plesiomorphic in birds (found in Archosauria's ancestor), but Crypturellus, Numididae, Odontophoridae and Phasianidae have developed a non-intromittent phallus a posteriori. The blind tubular cavity and the fibrocartilaginous body evolved as an adaptive convergence many times in birds. Therefore, this study shed some light on morphological aspects of the phallus and contributed to understand its evolution in birds.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:39.655327-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12191
  • Age at sexual maturity of male and female banana weevils, Cosmopolites
           sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    • Authors: Richard P. Uzakah
      Abstract: This study was to determine the age at sexual maturity and the relationships between age and internal reproductive organs of Cosmopolites sordidus. Male banana weevils become sexually mature 18 days after emergence (DAE), that is after 2 weeks of adult eclosion, in spite of the fact that spermatogenesis is completed at emergence. A positive correlation exists between age and male internal organs, for example for mean testis diameter (r = .849, p ≤ .001), mean seminal vesicle diameter (r = .679, p ≤ .001), mean accessory gland length (r = .561, p ≤ .01) and mean accessory gland diameter (r = .498, p ≤ .05), respectively. Significant differences were recorded between sexually mature and immature weevils with respect to mean testis diameter (T = 4.471, p ≤ .001) and mean seminal vesicle diameter (T = 3.939, p ≤ .001), but not with mean accessory gland length and mean accessory gland diameter (T = 1.899 and 1.661). Male internal organs were visibly underdeveloped at emergence but became significantly enlarged and developed on attainment of sexual maturity. Female C. sordidus, on the other hand, are sexually mature at 5 DAE. There was also a strong, positive correlation between age of females and mean ovariole length (r = .656, p ≤ .001), and significant differences existed between mean ovariole lengths of sexually mature and immature females (T = 4.306, p ≤ .001). Increasing age of females witnessed progressive increases in ovariole lengths and developmental changes within female ovarioles and calyces. The findings made here may be helpful in Musa germplasm screening works, as weevils bred on susceptible cultivars may reveal similar results, while those bred on resistant ones may experience possible delays in their reproductive developments.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T01:35:29.270021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12190
  • Functional morphology of the male reproductive system in Callichirus major
           (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea): Evidence of oocytes in the gonad
    • Authors: Tugstênio L. Souza; Adriane A. Braga, Laura S. López-Greco, Erika T. Nunes
      Abstract: Callichirus major inhabits the intertidal region of marine ecosystems and it is frequently used as live bait for fishing. This study aimed to describe the functional anatomy of the male reproductive system by microscopic techniques. The animals were collected along the Corujão beach, Piuma—ES, Brazil, and, in laboratory, the males were classified into two phases: immature (IM) and developed (DE) based on the macroscopic characteristics of the gonads. The gonad and vas deferens were dissected for histological routine and histochemical tests. Histologically, it was noted that in both phases, the more distal region of gonads has ovarian characteristics, showing developing oocytes. Also, different male germ cells were identified: spermatogonium (SPG), spermatocytes I and II (SPTCI, SPTCII), initial and final spermatid (IS, FS) and sperm (SPZ). Accessory cells with spherical or pyramidal nuclei were also present inside the testicular lobules. According to the vas deferens structure, three regions can be characterized: proximal (PVD), middle (MVD) and distal (DVD). In the lumen of the vas deferens, a spermatophoric matrix highly reactive for histochemical tests was observed. The presence of female germ cells in males suggests the occurrence of intersexuality or hermaphroditism in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T04:06:06.298562-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12189
  • Histology of mental and caudal courtship glands in three genera of
           plethodontid salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)
    • Authors: Ariana E. Rupp; David M. Sever
      Abstract: Salamanders in the family Plethodontidae exhibit a unique tail-straddle walk during courtship that can include the use of sexually dimorphic mental and caudal courtship glands. This study presents novel histological and fine structure data on mental glands and caudal courtship glands in Plethodon mississippi, Desmognathus conanti and Eurycea quadridigitata using both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This study represents the first use of scanning electron microscopy to observe these glands. Both mental and caudal courtship glands were observed to vary seasonally in gland diameter and histology according to the breeding season of each species. Morphological variation was observed across the three species studied in both clustering and relative size of the glands compared to neighbouring mucous and granular glands. Hypertrophied mental glands are larger than mucous or granular glands in all species, but relationships among caudal courtship glands and other skin glands vary among species. In E. quadridigitata, active caudal courtship glands are larger than mucous and granular glands, but in D. conanti, caudal courtship glands are similar in size to granular glands and larger than mucous glands. In P. mississippi, caudal courtship glands are scattered among significantly larger granular glands and are similar in size to mucous glands.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T02:11:09.197569-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12188
  • Ontogenetic changes in spot configuration (numbers, circularity, size and
           asymmetry) and lateral line in Neurergus microspilotus (Caudata:
    • Authors: Somaye Vaissi; Paria Parto, Mozafar Sharifi
      Abstract: Coloration in three of four species of the genus Neurergus including N. microspilotus is characterized by the presence of yellow spots on a dark skin, but there is no available information about changes in spot configuration, speed of development and degree of association between melanophore-free region and the lateral line. In this study, spot numbers, spot circularity, spot size and spot asymmetry were studied during larval to adult growth in N. microspilotus during July 2012 to June 2015. The mean numbers of spots increased during the late larval stage till postmetamorphic period from 13.33 ± 3.77 to 22.53 ± 4.09 and reached 42.62 ± 4.06 in adults. At the same time, the extent of spots gradually decreased in size from 5.80 ± 1.00 to 3.57 ± 0.97 mm2 and reached 3.55 ± 1.42 mm2 in adults, but the spot circularity increased from 0.48 ± 0.23 to 0.78 ± 0.49 and reached 0.80 ± 0.15 in adults. In adults, the numbers, circularity, size and asymmetry of spots remain stable with little but non-significant changes during the study period. Histological study shows that formation of a melanophore-free region correlates with the development of the lateral line receptors. This study demonstrates that the effects of lateral line on chromatophores persist through middle larval stages but diminish as metamorphosis completes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T02:15:37.36591-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12187
  • Comparative morphology of sensilla on antenna, maxillary palp and labial
           palp of larvae of Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus (Olivier) and
           E. brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    • Authors: Yuchao Yang; Lili Ren, Tao Wang, Lili Xu, Shixiang Zong
      Abstract: Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus (Olivier) and E. brandti (Harold) are two wood boring pests of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (tree of heaven) and the variety Ailanthus altissima var. Qiantouchun. These beetles attack healthy trees and bore into roots and trunks during the larval stage. We studied the typology, distribution and morphostructure of the sensilla on the antennae, maxillary palps and labial palps of E. scrobiculatus and E. brandti larvae using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed the following: (i) the antennae of the two weevil larvae had two types of sensilla, sensilla basiconica (S.b.1 and S.b.2) and sensilla twig basiconica (S.tb.1-S.tb.3), with S.tb.4 observed only on the antennae of E. brandti larvae; (ii) the maxillary palps had three types of sensilla, S.b.2, S.tb. (S.tb.2, S.tb.3 and S.tb.5) and digitiform sensilla; (iii) the labial palps had two types of sensilla, S.b.2 and S.tb. (S.tb.2, S.tb.3 and S.tb.5); (iv) the quantity and distribution of sensilla on the antennae, maxillary palps and labial palps remained constant between E. scrobiculatus and E. brandti larvae; and (v) sensilla basiconica had distinct sidewall pores, an apical pore was observed on sensilla twig basiconica, and digitiform sensilla were oval in shape, with a distinct apical pore. Based on the microstructure of the cuticle wall and dendrite, we hypothesized that these sensilla functioned as olfactory, gustatory and hygro-/thermo-receptors, respectively. We discuss the relationships among types of sensilla and the types of damage caused by the larvae inside the host tree to understand olfactory and gustatory receptor mechanisms. The results of this study will provide a firm basis for future electrophysiological studies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T02:10:34.676263-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12185
  • Eosinophilic granule cells in Carassius auratus scale epidermis
    • Authors: Joseph A. DePasquale
      Abstract: Eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) were characterized in Carassius auratus scale epidermis in situ and in explants. Live EGCs were readily identified by the presence of numerous large cytoplasmic granules observed with DIC microscopy. Histochemical staining with toluidine blue and alcian blue yielded granule metachromasia and pale blue granules, respectively, both consistent with mammalian mast cell staining. However, EGCs also share some features with mammalian basophils as neutral red dye was selectively incorporated into EGC granules. EGCs within scale epidermis were actively motile, displaying average speeds of 16 μm/min and maximum speeds of greater than 40 μm/min and showing morphological plasticity during migration. The predominant motile phenotype was elongate with a well-developed leading lamella, while a broader body motile morphology was observed to a lesser extent. A trailing, relatively unchanged uropod was associated with every motile EGC and invariably contained one or a few granules. A rounded EGC shape without a leading-edge or trailing uropod was also observed and was generally associated with static cells. Individual cells readily switched between the three major shapes during motility; static cells could abruptly develop a polarized morphology, and actively motile cells switched between elongate and broad-bodied shapes or the static, rounded shape.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T02:10:59.086944-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12184
  • Buchnera aphidicola of the birch blister aphid, Hamamelistes betulinus
           (Horváth, 1896) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Aphididae: Hormaphidinae): molecular
           characterization, transmission between generations and its geographic
    • Authors: Piotr Wegierek; Anna Michalik, Karina Wieczorek, Mariusz Kanturski, Michał Kobiałka, Karolina Śliwa, Teresa Szklarzewicz
      Abstract: The birch blister aphid Hamamelistes betulinus, like most aphids, is host to obligate symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses did not reveal the presence of secondary symbionts in the body of H. betulinus. The bacteria Buchnera aphidicola are transmitted to the next generation vertically (maternally). The bacteria released from the cytoplasm of the bacteriocyte to the haemolymph migrate to the embryo at the cellular blastoderm stage, through the opening at its posterior pole. Next, the bacteria enter the cytoplasm of newly formed bacteriocytes. The concept of the relationship between the geographic distribution of Hormaphidini aphids and the presence/absence of bacterium Buchnera aphidicola is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T10:15:55.698918-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12186
  • Intraspecific variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism, and a
           test of Rensch's rule in bats
    • Authors: Carina M. V. Ulian; Marcelo N. Rossi
      Abstract: The magnitude and direction of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) may vary considerably within and among taxa, and the primary causes of such variation have not been thoroughly elucidated. For example, the effect of abiotic factors is frequently attributed to explain intra- and interspecific variation in SSD. Rensch's rule, which states that males vary more in size than females when body size increases, has rarely been tested in bats. Therefore, whether bats follow Rensch's rule remains unclear, particularly when females are larger than males. We investigated whether four bat species presented SSD, as well as whether their body sizes varied within each sex across localities, testing the hypothesis that intraspecific SSD varies substantially depending of sampling localities. We finally examined whether bats followed Rensch's rule by simultaneously using intraspecific and interspecific approaches. Although SSD was not observed for most bat species within each locality, the females of three of the four captured species exhibited differences in body size between particular localities. Usually the females varied more in size than did males across localities, mostly exhibiting a female-biased SSD. Significant differences in SSD were observed (i.e. mean values of the sexual dimorphism index), even though Rensch's rule was not followed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-02T08:35:23.736461-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12183
  • Ultrasurface structure of oromandibular area in a hill stream teleost
           Glyptothorax trilineatus Blyth, 1860
    • Authors: Gitartha Kaushik; Sabitry Bordoloi
      Abstract: Ultrasurface structure of the oromandibular area of a hillstream catfish Glyptothorax trilineatus Blyth 1860, an inhabitant of the sub-Himalayan streams of India is described. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study of these areas revealed a series of punctuation elevation from the general surface epithelium. Two types (types I and II) of taste buds (TB) could be identified where one type is with microvillar projections and others without any projection. Another type of cell, the basal cells, without any apical microvilli was also recorded. TBs were more concentrated on the ventral surface of the barbels. In most of the TBs, the pore is located at the centre of the elevation and surrounded by a circular area. Jaw sheath bears a single type of teeth, the papilliform teeth.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14T07:00:56.256458-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12182
  • The structure of anoline (Reptilia: Dactyloidae: Anolis) toe pads in
           relation to substratum conformity
    • Authors: Anthony P. Russell
      Abstract: Adhesive toe pads of geckos house modified components of vascular and/or connective tissues that promote conformity of the setal fields with the locomotor substratum. Similar modifications have been claimed for the digits of Anolis, but evidence for them is not compelling. Angiographic and histological investigations of Anolis failed to identify any evidence of either an intralamellar vascular reticular network or a central sinus. Instead, their vascularity more closely resembles that of lizards in general than that of pad-bearing geckos. The loose connective tissue of the toe pads likely contributes to their general pliability and flexibility, promoting localized compliance with the substratum. Through the shedding cycle, the lamellae change shape as the replacing setae elongate. The outer epidermal generation lacunar cells on the inner lamellar faces simultaneously hypertrophy, providing for compatibility between overlapping lamellae, enabling reciprocity between them. This contributes to continuing compliance of the setal fields with the substratum. Overall, digital structure and attachment and release kinematics of the toe pads of Anolis are very similar to those of geckos exhibiting an incipient adhesive mechanism. Both lack major anatomical specializations for promoting conformity of the setae with the locomotor substratum beyond those of the seta-bearing portions of the epidermis.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02T06:37:00.034895-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12180
  • Skull shape variation in extant and extinct Testudinata and its relation
           to habitat and feeding ecology
    • Authors: Christian Foth; Márton Rabi, Walter G. Joyce
      Abstract: Turtles (Testudinata) are a diverse group of reptiles that conquered a broad set of habitats and feeding ecologies over the course of their well-documented evolutionary history. We here investigate the cranial shape of 171 representatives of the turtle lineage and the relationship of shape to different habitat and diet preferences using two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. The skull shape of extant turtles correlates with both ecological proxies, but is more affected by habitat than diet. However, the application of these correlations to extinct turtles produces mostly flawed results, as least when compared to external data such as sedimentary environment, highlighting that the morphospace held by extant turtles is not necessarily the optimal location in tree space for a particular ecology. The inability of this study to correctly predict the ecology of extinct turtles is likely related to the fact that the shape of turtle skulls is dominated by the emarginations and jaw closure mechanisms, two shape features unrelated to habitat or feeding ecology. This indicates that various specializations that are apparent in the skull only contribute little to overall shape.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02T06:30:34.168133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12181
  • Ecomorphology of the digestive tract of the brazilian electric ray Narcine
           brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831) (Torpediniformes: Narcinidae)
    • Authors: Gabriela Pustiglione Marinsek; Marcela Coffacci de Lima Viliod, Renata de Britto Mari
      Abstract: Elasmobranchii shows particular characteristics that make them susceptible to the impacts caused by fishing pressure, especially bottom trawling, which mostly affect rays, as they have demersal habits. Based on food availability and feeding ability, Polychaeta and Sipunculiforme are the bases of Brazilian electric ray Narcine brasiliensis diet. Morphologically, the digestion starts in the oesophagus with acid mucines action. The existence of acid and neutral mucines in the posterior intestine prevents lesions in the mucosa and favours the passage of faeces and shell residues. Thus, this study shows the interaction between their habitat, the organisms and their morphophysiology.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30T02:25:46.744188-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12168
  • New data on morphology and ultrastructure of skin photophores in the
           deep-sea squid Histioteuthis bonnellii (Férussac, 1834), Cephalopoda:
    • Authors: Mauro Cavallaro; Pietro Battaglia, Maria Cristina Guerrera, Francesco Abbate, Maria Beatrice Levanti, Franco Andaloro, Antonino Germanà, Rosaria Laurà
      Abstract: Morphology and ultrastructure of skin photogenic organs in the deep-sea squid Histioteuthis bonnellii from the Strait of Messina (Mediterranean Sea) was investigated. The photophore is formed by a glandular complex, made up of photogenic cells involved in the light production process, and a set of annexes (filter, reflector, pigmented layer and gelatinous body), with suggested dioptric function. The photocytes have an elongated shape, often arranged in an approximately radial series within the chamber, and show eccentric rounded euchromatic nucleus. The filter shows a membranous tissue made up of rows of cells, rich in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The analysis on reflector's cells highlighted the presence of several iridosomal platelets in the cytoplasm, having irregular and sinuous shape. The pigmented layer and the gelatinous body provide protection to the organ and may have dioptric functions too. The photogenic organs were found to be innervated by nerves, and it was possible to confirm the strictly glandular nature of the photophores of this species. The detailed anatomical descriptions of the photophores of H. bonnellii extend our current knowledge and provide a scientific basis for future studies aimed to relate the evolution of photogenic system to the ecology of this squid.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T03:05:46.84107-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12174
  • Estimation of diet in extinct raccoon dog species by the molar ratio
    • Authors: Masakazu Asahara; Masanaru Takai
      Abstract: Estimation of the dietary habits of extinct species using morphological traits has been attempted in numerous studies; however, previous methods have encountered several difficulties, such as requiring specialized equipment. In this study, we describe an easy quantitative method for estimating the dietary habits, and apply it to extinct raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes) species (Carnivora, Mammalia). The method is based on the lower molar ratios (M2/M1 size) that reflect the species diet (carnivorous and omnivorous tendencies) in Canidae. Among the species statistically compared, Nyctereutes sinensis showed a lower M2/M1 score similar to that of Nyctereutes procyonoides albus (Hokkaido, Japan), whereas Nyctereutes tingi had a higher M2/M1 score similar to that of Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus (Honshu and Kyushu, Japan). These scores suggest that the diets of N. sinensis and N. tingi were similar to those of N. p. albus (relatively carnivorous) and N. p. viverrinus (relatively omnivorous), respectively. Other extinct raccoon dogs also showed varied M2/M1 score, suggesting dietary difference. These results suggest that raccoon dogs underwent dietary transitions or exhibited dietary plasticity during evolution, while their range of diets might have remained the same as those of different populations of extant species Nyctereutes procyonoides.
      PubDate: 2016-11-05T00:35:42.963365-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12179
  • Sex- and age-related differences in c-fos expression in dog olfactory
    • Authors: Qinguo Wei; Honghai Zhang, Shisheng Ma, Dongge Guo
      Abstract: Sex- and age-related differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported. However, the sex- and age-related differences in dog olfaction due to biological system are still poorly understood. We examined c-fos expression in dog olfactory bulbs by immunohistochemistry approaches. The c-fos is mainly expressed in the olfactory glomerular layer (GL), mitral cell layer (ML) and granule cell layer (GRL). We found that a higher density of c-fos-positive cells could be detected in the ML of olfactory bulbs of adult female dogs compared with that in males and the c-fos-positive cells in females' olfactory bulbs are more distinct. Sex-related differences in c-fos expression also appeared in the GL of olfactory bulbs in juvenile dogs. We also discovered that the density of c-fos-positive cells in the GRL of adult dogs was much higher than that in the GRL of juvenile dogs. Our results indicate that cells in the olfactory bulbs of female dogs are more active than those in males and female dogs may have much stronger ability for long-time memory of odours than male dogs. Furthermore, our results also suggest that adult dogs may have much stronger ability for long-time memory of odours and can deal with more complicated odour information than juvenile dogs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-02T07:26:13.422053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12178
  • Heaps of fascinating fragments: reconstructing a medieval reindeer
           population based on bone middens from the Hardangervidda high mountain
           plateau, Norway
    • Authors: Liselotte M. Takken Beijersbergen
      Abstract: The results of a detailed morphological and pathological study on reindeer bones (Rangifer tarandus) from four medieval hunting stations on Hardangervidda are presented. As intensive marrow collecting left almost no bones intact, traditional sexing methods could only sparsely be applied. Alternative methods had to be explored to successfully assign the fragments to a sex. Employing linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on early- and non-fusing skeletal elements, I have shown that (incomplete) calcanei, metapodia and phalanges I and II can be used successfully to assign a specimen to a sex and should no longer be excluded from osteometric analyses. Differences in the demographic compositions of the taphocoenoses lead to the assumption that hunters in the 11th century AD targeted large reindeer bucks, while at the 13th-century sites, the complete biocoenose is represented, albeit in a different ratio. There seems to have been a shift in hunting technique: from selective hunting to mass hunting. Size wise, the reindeer from Hardangervidda were smaller than reindeer from contemporary assemblages from the Dovre area (central Norway), a population that is genetically different. Few pathologically affected bones were encountered in the material, but some cases of infections, bone lesions and a progressed osteosarcoma are described.
      PubDate: 2016-11-02T07:23:43.306904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12175
  • Characterization of epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies
           (Galea spixii Wagler, 1831) recovered by different methods
    • Authors: Andréia Maria Silva; José Artur Brilhante Bezerra, Lívia Batista Campos, Érica Camila Gurgel Praxedes, Gabriela Liberalino Lima, Alexandre Rodrigues Silva
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to characterize the epididymal sperm of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii) through two different recovery methods. Nine sexually mature males were euthanized and the complexes, testes–epididymis, were dissected. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation method and the other was processed by retrograde flushing method, both using a TES-based buffered media. After recovery, we evaluated the sperm for motility, vigour, viability, functional membrane integrity and morphology. Morphometric data from the different sperm regions were evaluated by using an appropriate software. After recovery, both methods provide similar values for all the sperm parameters, aiming the recovery of more than 300 × 106 sperm, presenting >50% motile sperm, with normal morphology and functional membrane. The total sperm length in this sperm was 48.87 ± 0.1, and the sperm head presented 9.4%, on average. A notable characteristic was the prominent acrosome found in the G. spixii sperm. In conclusion, we demonstrate that either flotation or retrograde flushing methods are suitable for the recovery of sperm from cauda epididymis of Spix's yellow-toothed cavies.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T06:21:46.572786-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12177
  • Permanence of proliferating cells in developing, juvenile and adult knee
           epiphyses of lizards in relation to bone growth and regeneration
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Abstract: The distribution of long-labelling-retaining cells, putative progenitor or stem cells, in the developing knees of embryo, juvenile and adult lizards has been analysed using H3-thymidine autoradiography and 5BrdU immunohistochemistry. Proliferating cells are present in developing cartilaginous femur and tibia, especially in the epiphyses where a higher cell multiplication likely determines their typical enlarged shape in comparison with the diaphyses where chondroblast proliferation is low to absent. Sparse 5BrdU-labelled cells remain in the articular and growth plate cartilages of the epiphyses in older stages of development and are still detected in developing epiphyses 13 days after injection of 5BrdU. This indicates they are slow-cycling cells, a typical characteristic for progenitor or stem cells. Long retaining 5BrdU-labelled cells remain in the articular surface also during adult life where they likely sustain the growth of long bones. Adult epiphyses show secondary ossification centres where the articular cartilage is partially or largely replaced by bone trabeculae. The damage in the epiphysis of lizards stimulates the proliferation of progenitor cells for the regeneration of new cartilaginous epiphyses. The localization of cells capable of proliferation in the epiphyses of adult femur and tibia pre-adapts these lizards to cartilage regeneration in case of injury.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T01:55:08.236996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12176
  • The uropygial gland of the Southern Caracara (Caracara plancus;
           Falconidae: Falconinae): histological and histochemical aspects
    • Authors: Maria Cecilia Chiale; Diego Montalti, M. Alicia Flamini, Claudio G. Barbeito
      Abstract: The uropygial gland of Southern Caracara is composed of two lobes with a conical papilla and 21 tuft feathers. The RGM recorded for this species was 0.057%. The capsule surrounding the gland and the medial septum is composed of dense connective tissue and has elastic and reticular fibres. The epithelium of the adenomers can be divided into different strata: germinative, intermediate, secretory and degenerative stratum. The adenomers can be divided into three zones; from zone III, adenomers lead to secondary chambers that converge into a primary storage chamber. Histochemical techniques showed that the uropygial gland synthesizes different types of mucins and it was also positive to some lectins demonstrating the presence of a variety of glycoconjugates. The RGM in this species is smaller than that found for other Falconidae. These differences may be attributed to a negative allometric relationship. The general histological description is similar to other birds. The histochemistry and lectin histochemistry analysis showed a variety of glycoconjugates as part of the uropygial gland. Uropygial secretions have been proposed to have protective functions against bacteria and fungi. The presence of carbohydrate residues is linked to glycoconjugates with antimicrobial functions in many vertebrates associating our results with this species′ habits.
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T22:10:30.522061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12171
  • Reproductive biology of Philodryas patagoniensis (Snakes: Dipsadidae) in
           south Brazil: male reproductive cycle
    • Authors: Luiza Loebens; Sonia Zanini Cechin, Tiago Felipe Theis, Livia Bataioli Moura, Selma Maria Almeida-Santos
      Abstract: The male reproductive cycle of Philodryas patagoniensis in south Brazil was described through morpho-anatomical and histological analysis of individuals deposited in zoological collections. Spermatogenesis occurred during late autumn–winter (June–September) and spermiogenesis occurred in spring–summer (October–March). The volume of the testes was smaller (quiescent) in winter, while the tubular diameter and the epithelial height of the seminiferous tubule were larger in summer (January–March). The ductus deferens presented spermatozoa all over the year and had no seasonal variation in diameter. The length of the kidney was larger in winter–spring (July–December), although the tubular diameter and epithelium height of the sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) were larger only in winter (July–September). Total testicular regression was observed in late autumn (May), simultaneously with the peak in SSK. Therefore, at the individual level, males exhibit a discontinuous cyclical reproduction. Considering the population level, the reproductive cycle is seasonal semisynchronous, with most of the individuals showing a reproductive peak in spring–summer (October–March). Here, we present evidence to support the importance of the microscopic approach to reproductive cycle studies. Finally, we discuss the intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing P. patagoniensis reproductive patterns.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T08:00:29.937854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12172
  • The first instar larva of two species of Miltogramminae (Diptera:
           Sarcophagidae) from the Middle East – examples of peculiar morphology
    • Authors: Krzysztof Szpila; Thomas Pape
      Abstract: The first instar larva is described for two species of Miltogramminae flesh flies representing the genera Miltogramma Meigen and Phrosinella Robineau-Desvoidy. Using a combination of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the habitus is documented along with all important exoskeletal and cephaloskeletal structures. The described first instar larvae show substantial modifications of their morphology in comparison with the saprophagous ground plan defined for calyptrate flies. Miltogramma (Miltogrammidium) efflatouni Rohdendorf possesses the general set of derived character states shared with other species of Miltogramma and shares larval synapomorphies with species representing the subgenera Anacanthothecum Rohdendorf, Cylindrothecum Rohdendorf and Miltogrammidium Rohdendorf. Unique character states of the first instar larva of this species are the spine-like shape of antennal complex, laterally compressed apical part of mouthhooks and an extreme elongation of the sensilla of the maxillary palpus. Phrosinella (Asiometopa) ujgura (Rohdendorf) possesses a pair of retractable, robust processes on the ventral margin of the first thoracic segment and a very strong, elongated labrum. Both character states are present in other known first instar larvae of genus Phrosinella. A reduction of cuticular ridges on dorsal and lateral surfaces of abdominal segments supports a monophylum consisting of the subgenera Asiometopa Rohdendorf and Caspiomyia Rohdendorf within genus Phrosinella.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T05:40:31.57715-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12170
  • Microanatomy of the digestive system of Supachai's caecilian, Ichthyophis
           supachaii Taylor, 1960 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona)
    • Authors: Itsares Muikham; Nopparat Srakaew, Kannika Chatchavalvanich, Pramote Chumnanpuen
      Abstract: The gross anatomy and microanatomy of the digestive system of Ichthyophis supachaii were investigated. The microscopic structures of the digestive system are similar to those in other caecilians. Functional and developing teeth are present in adults. The tongue contains the genioglossus muscle. The digestive tract is elongated and consists of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and adventitia/serosa. The oesophagus contains longitudinal folds and lacks oesophageal glands. We report for the first time the caecilian gastric rugae and specific localization of oxynticopeptic cells in the anterior gastric region. The intestinal folds are exclusively present in the anterior intestinal region. The liver comprises 30–40 incomplete hepatic lobes, lying in an imbricate manner. Each lobe is enveloped by haematopoietic tissue that produces and delivers blood cells into sinusoids. Hepatic parenchyma is organized into anastomosing, two-cell-thick plates, having sinusoids at the basal domain and bile canaliculi at the apical domain of hepatocytes. Pigment cells are scattered inside sinusoids. The pancreas contains pancreatic acini interspersed with islets of Langerhans. The gallbladder proper is thin and continuous with the cystic duct wall. Neutral and carboxylated acid mucosubstances are secreted along the digestive tract, while sulphated mucosubstances are not produced by the stomach and anterior intestinal regions.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T04:51:29.673925-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12173
  • Amphibian Evolution – The Life of Early Land Vertebrates. Rainer
           R.Schoch, Topics in Paleobiology, Series Editor Michael J.Benton, Wiley
           Blackwell, Chichester, UK ISBN 978-0-470-67177-1
    • Authors: Michael Coates
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T02:10:42.746379-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12166
  • Comparative morphology of the female genital ducts of seven eubrachyuran
           crabs (Saint Laurent, 1980)
    • Authors: Leonardo Peres Souza; Cynthia Yuri Ogawa, José Roberto Feitosa Silva, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias
      Pages: 125 - 135
      Abstract: Three brachyuran groups can be defined based on genital orifices' location: coxae – Podotremata, coxal (males) or sternal (females) – Heterotremata and sternal – Thoracotremata. Aiming to compare Heterotremata (three species) and Thoracotremata (four species), we provide a detailed morphological description of the genital ducts. To do so, 50 females were collected and dissected, and macroscopic and histological description of their reproductive system is presented. In all of the specimens, the system is bilaterally sy, consisting a pair of ovaries and of genital ducts. Also, genital ducts have four components: oviduct, seminal receptacle, vagina and gonopore. Ovaries may be connected to seminal receptacle through dorsal or ventral region. In the Heterotremata studied, both types are observed, while it is only ventral in Thoracotremata. Seminal receptacle has two regions in all species: ventral – simple columnar secretory epithelium, apical region covered with cuticle, and middorsal – epithelium could be columnar secretory or stratified. Vagina is concave in all analysed Thoracotremata and simple in Heterotremata. An operculum was observed in all the Thoracotremata. Observed morphological patterns are consistent throughout Thoracotremata, while varying in Heterotremata, that is the way ovary and receptacle are connected and the kind of epithelia that forms the receptacle.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T01:52:19.863893-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12154
  • Morphology of the digestive tract of the Whitemouth croaker Micropogonias
           furnieri (Desmarest, 1823) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae)
    • Authors: Isabel M. Andrade; Juliana P. Guimarães, Matheus M. Rotundo, Renata B. Mari
      Pages: 136 - 143
      Abstract: Studies have shown the feeding diversity of teleostean fish, which is conditioned by environmental characteristics or the biology of the different species. Analysis on the morphology of the digestive system (DS) of fish made it possible for researchers to know the food regimen of several species at different stages of life. On the other hand, it is known that food habits may lead to morphological changes in the DS the same way that different food habits may be imposed by morphological limitations of this system. Among the species of greater commercial importance in Brazil, Micropogonias furnieri is highly representative of fish in south-eastern Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyse the morphology of the DS of M. furnieri. Results on the morphology of the DS observed in this study were similar to the patterns determined for the morphology of teleostean fish. In this study, it was observed that the DS of the Whitemouth croaker is directly related with the shape of the peritoneal cavity; these fish showed oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca and intestines. The pyloric caeca showed morphological adaptations in relation to sexual maturation, with well-developed caeca found in sexually mature animals.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08T02:23:35.433157-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12156
  • Postovipositional development of the sand snake Psammophis sibilans
           (Serpentes:Lamprophiidae) in comparison with other snake species
    • Authors: Eraqi R. Khannoon; Oldrich Zahradnicek
      Pages: 144 - 153
      Abstract: Characterizing and comparing developmental progress across different species helps to interpret how different or similar body forms evolved. We present an embryonic table for the oviparous African Sand Snake Psammophis sibilans from the Lamprophidae family, describing its postovipositional in ovo development. Psammophis is a good model of a genus that is widely distributed in Africa and Asia and includes 22 species. We describe ten embryonic stages based on the development of externally visible morphological characteristics such as; pharyngeal arches, facial processes, eyes, scales, body pigmentation and body colour pattern development. This study discusses the development of this snake and compares it with that of the closely related brown house snake Lamprophis fulliginosus (Lamprophidae) and the medically important venomous cobras Naja haje haje and Naja kaouthia from the sister lineage Elapidae. The distantly related basal snake Python sebae, which displays different morphology and behaviour, was chosen for deeper insight into the evolution of body structures within the snake clade. We found interspecific differences in the relative stage of development of embryonic structures at the time of oviposition and during postovipositional embryonic development. One of the outcomes of this study is that embryonic structures such as the pharyngeal processes, eye pigmentation and scales are interspecifically conservative in regard to timing of morphodifferentiation, while body pigmentation, colour and colour pattern are interspecifically plastic in their temporospatial development.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T07:27:04.962252-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12157
  • Ultrastructure of the mental gland of the Red-Backed Salamander, Plethodon
           cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)
    • Authors: David M. Sever
      Pages: 154 - 162
      Abstract: Mental glands are sexually dimorphic glands found in the skin of the submandibular region in males of many species in the salamander family Plethodontidae. These glands have been demonstrated to secrete pheromones that increase female receptivity to courtship and mating. A number of studies exist on the morphology of mental glands at the light microscopy level, but ultrastructural studies on the glands exist for only two species, Eurycea quadridigitata and Hydromantes italicus. In this study, ultrastructure of the mental gland is described from seasonal samples of the eastern North American plethodontid Plethodon cinereus. The mental glands are most hypertrophied in males examined in mating condition (i.e. sperm in their Wolffian ducts) in October and April. In these specimens, 6- to 8-μm electron-dense secretory vacuoles are found in the apical cytoplasm (October) or throughout the entire epithelial cells (April). Mental glands from June and August contain only condensing vacuoles, and the cytoplasm is otherwise packed with stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The ultrastructure of the mental gland of P. cinereus agrees with earlier descriptions for E. quadridigitata and H. italicus. Two other sexually dimorphic skin glands, the caudal courtship gland and the cloacal vent gland, were previously examined from males in this sample of P. cinereus. Although all three glands show similarities in histology and histochemistry at the light microscopy level, they are dissimilar in ultrastructure. Whereas the secretory vacuoles of mental glands are uniformly electron dense, those of caudal courtship glands are smaller (1.2–1.5 μm), oblong and biphasic, and vent glands have spherical biphasic secretory vacuoles (1.8–2.1 μm). This indicates a difference in secretory product and function for the three glands and needs further investigation. Whether other plethodontids show similar variation among sexually dimorphic glands is another topic for future research.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T01:50:23.077375-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12158
  • Mucus cells in koi (Cyprinus carpio) scale epidermis
    • Authors: Joseph A. DePasquale
      Pages: 163 - 169
      Abstract: Morphological and dynamic characteristics of epidermal mucus cells were examined in intact scales of Cyprinus carpio. Mucus cells were identified by alcian blue staining and live mucus cells characterized with differential interference contrast microscopy. Mucus cell pores were shown to be narrow slits or triangular-shaped openings which are invariably situated at cell-cell junctions. Small granules were often located at or just below the openings with larger granules positioned deeper into the cell. The large granules were observed to undergo a bubbling-like activity, where a granule suddenly appears, enlarges and then abruptly disappears. Situated below the large granules is a dense matrix of quiescent small, tightly packed mucin granules. The findings suggest that mature epidermal mucus cells are structurally ordered with respect to secretory activity, where small numbers of initially basally located, densely packed granules rapidly expand in a location proximal to the pore and presumably prior to mucus release through the pore.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T15:45:04.221524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12159
  • Cell proliferation in the amputated limb of lizard leading to scarring is
           reduced compared to the regenerating tail
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Pages: 170 - 180
      Abstract: After amputation, the tail of lizards regenerates while the limb forms a short scarring outgrowth. Using phospho-histone-H3 immunohistochemistry the mitotic activity of limb tissues at 12–25 days after amputation has been studied, when a limb outgrowth of 0.5–2 mm in length is covered by wound epidermis and the underlying connective is turning into a dense scar. In comparison with a regenerating tail of 3–5 mm in length, the number of dividing cells is reduced of 40–70% in different tissues of the scarring limb 1–2 mm in length at 18 days postamputation. Dividing cells are still present at 12–25 days postamputation in the cartilaginous epiphyses of the transected tibia and fibula and of the untransected femur. Also, the injured muscles present at the base of the scarring outgrowth still contain sparse dividing cells after 25 days postamputation of the limb. Together previous studies, the present observations suggest that after the initial proliferation of fibroblasts deriving from the injured tissues, especially from the dermis and intermuscle connectives during the initial 7–15 days postinjury, these cells cover the injured tissues underneath the wound epidermis, but rapidly produce high levels of collagen turning the initial blastema into a scar.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T08:25:18.191983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12161
  • Microvascularization of the thyroid glands in larval and adult Xenopus
           laevis- histomorphology and scanning electron microscopy of vascular
           corrosion casts
    • Authors: Mathias Hopfinger; Bettina Huber, Alois Lametschwandtner
      Pages: 181 - 190
      Abstract: This study demonstrates gross arterial supply, venous drainage and microvascular patterns of larval and adult thyroid glands in the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and light microscopy of stained serial tissue sections. Results confirm published findings gained by microscopical dissections with respect to gross arterial supply. However, in adult frogs one rather than two thyroid veins are found. This study reveals for the first time that bilaterally located thyroid glands in premetamorphosis have immature capillary networks, lack a clear hierarchy of blood vessels, and show many signs of sprouting angiogenesis. During metamorphic climax, blood vessels gain a clear hierarchy and capillaries form closed networks around thyroid follicles. From climax onwards, non-sprouting angiogenesis (intussusceptive microvascular growth) becomes the prevailing mode of angiogenesis intensifying follicle capillarization. Due to narrow interfollicular spaces, thyroidal arterioles remain superficial while draining venules are located interfollicularly. In contrast with the mammalian thyroid gland where most thyroid follicles have their own capillary beds, most thyroid follicles in Xenopus share their capillary beds with neighbouring follicles. Consequently, the concept of individual morphological and functional angiofollicular units applicable to adult mammalian and human thyroid glands is not applicable to larval and adult amphibian thyroid glands.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T08:26:04.158236-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12163
  • The cnidome and internal morphology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758)
           (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)
    • Authors: Susanna M. Strömberg; Carina Östman
      Pages: 191 - 213
      Abstract: The cnidome of the scleractinian cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758, syn. Lophohelia prolifera) was described by Carlgren in 1940. Due to a renewed interest in the cnidae of L. pertusa, specifically comparisons of adult and larval cnidae and their functions, we now redescribe the cnidome from material collected at the Tisler reef in Norway, close to Carlgren's collection site at Saekken (Sweden). Cnidae from column, tentacles, actinopharynx, mesenterial filaments and acontia were investigated. Fresh tissue preparations were compared to histological preparations of decalcified polyps to verify the presence of cnidocysts and secretory cells, and their composition and organization within tissues. The cnidome included microbasic b-mastigophores, microbasic and mesobasic p-mastigophores, holotrichous isorhizas and spirocysts. The nematocyst type cnidae (b-, p-mastigophores, isorhizas) appeared in different size classes with different distributions within the tissue. Spirocysts were highly variable in shape and size, without distinct size classes. In addition, developing stages of cnidae were documented, with new observations on the succession of p-mastigophore shaft development. The present observations were in general congruent with the cnidocyst descriptions from L. prolifera made by Carlgren; however, a tiny cnida, possibly of isorhiza type, has been added. Finally, the use of the term acontia is discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T02:11:04.909875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12164
  • Stem cell expression and development of trunk musculature of
           lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) reveal differences between
           sharks and teleosts
    • Authors: Bianka Grunow; Tina Kirchhoff, Timo Moritz
      Pages: 214 - 220
      Abstract: This study compares the trunk skeletal muscle anatomy in 870- and 2900-degree-day-old lesser-spotted dogfish larvae (Scyliorhinus canicula) via haematoxylin/eosin staining as well as immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The results showed poorly differentiated muscle formation in the trunk segments in the younger larvae and fully developed skeletal muscle with a division of red and white cells in the older larvae. The stem cell marker PAX7, which is present in all developmental stages of teleost fish, is only expressed in the younger dogfish. The results show the necessity of examining the skeletal muscle development in sharks to understand the evolutional changes from cartilaginous fishes to teleosts.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T02:20:31.259606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12167
  • Seasonal changes in gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes, androgen and
           estrogen receptors in frog testis
    • Authors: Alessandra Santillo; Sara Falvo, Gabriella Chieffi Baccari, Maria Maddalena Di Fiore
      Pages: 221 - 227
      Abstract: The anuran amphibian Pelophylax esculentus shows an annual cycle of sexual steroid production and spermatogenesis. To more thoroughly comprehend the steroidogenic pathways that govern the seasonal reproductive cycle, we investigated the mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in the androgenic and oestrogenic biosynthesis pathways in the testis of frogs taken in the reproductive and postreproductive period. Furthermore, we also analysed androgen and oestrogen levels and their own receptor gene expressions. Our findings showed that during the reproductive period, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels were higher than those during the postreproductive period. High testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone titres as well as the expression levels of androgen receptors in the reproductive testis strongly confirmed that the androgenic pathway is necessary for spermatogenesis activation. Conversely, during the postreproductive period, the highest P450 aromatase, estrogen receptor α and β mRNA levels, paralleling with oestradiol titres, indicated that the oestrogenic pathway is essential for the interruption of the reproductive processes. Our findings demonstrated, for the first time in amphibians, that testicular endocrine cyclic activity could be modulated by the up-regulation of key steroidogenic enzyme gene expressions. This in turn determines the activation of the androgenic pathway in reproductive phase and the oestrogenic one in postreproductive phase.
      PubDate: 2016-07-30T00:50:28.869454-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12169
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