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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 441, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Acta Zoologica
  [SJR: 0.459]   [H-I: 29]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-7272 - ISSN (Online) 1463-6395
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2018-03-12T01:54:28.088133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12218
  • Microstructure of the eye tunics, eyelids and ocular glands of the
           Sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus Temminck, 1824) (Phalangeridae:
           Marsupialia) based on anatomical, histological and histochemical studies
    • Authors: Joanna E. Klećkowska-Nawrot; Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Marta Darska, Karolina Barszcz, Maciej Janeczek
      Abstract: This study described the anatomy, histology and the histochemical analysis of the eye tunics, the upper and lower eyelid, the third eyelid, the lacrimal gland and the superficial gland of the third eyelid in adult Sulawesi bear cuscus. The eyeball and the eyelids with the orbital glands were harvested immediately post-mortem. The eyeball in the Sulawesi bear cuscus had a sphere-like shape. The pupil was round, and the lens was a circular biconvex body. There was neither tapetum lucidum nor Harderian gland. Similarly, there were no eyelashes in the lower eyelid. The lymphoid follicles and the high endothelial venules (HEV) were found in the lymphoid region only in the third eyelid and in the connective tissue of the superficial gland of the third eyelid. The third eyelid in the bear cuscus resembled the letter “T.” The lacrimal gland and superficial gland of the third eyelid were multilobar tubuloacinar glands. The histological analysis and histochemical studies showed that the lacrimal gland in the Sulawesi bear cuscus produced a mucoserous secretion with predominantly serous cells. In contrast, the superficial gland of the third eyelid produced a serous secretion with a single acinus mucous in character.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09T23:43:08.382979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12251
  • A comparative analysis of testicular sperm morphology in fossorial and
           surface-living skinks in South Africa
    • Authors: Joaquín Verdú-Ricoy; Tankiso Matla, Michael Gregory, Angelo Lambiris, Adriaan Jordaan, Zhongning Zhao, Neil Heideman
      Abstract: We described for the first time the spermatozoan ultrastructure of the fully pentadactyl surface-living skink Trachylepis punctatissima, and limbless fossorial skink Acontias meleagris. The spermatozoa of both species follow the general patterns observed within the Squamata. However, several important differences were detected between the two species in the head region (shape of the anterior acrosome, size of acrosome and nucleus) and especially in the midpiece (size of the midpiece, the presence of regular rows of dense bodies, size and number of mitochondria and beginning of the fibrous sheath). Both species shared more characters with the Sphenomorphus + Egernia group than with the Eugongylus group proposed by Jamieson, Oliver, and Scheltinga (Acta Zoologica, 77, 85). Differences in the spermatozoan ultrastructure between T. punctatissima and A. meleagris could be due to distinct ecological and physiological requirements for fertilization, but additional research on these genera and within the Scincidae is required to disentangle this hypothesis, and to disentangle the phylogenetic relationships among skinks.
      PubDate: 2018-03-02T23:01:28.037075-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12249
  • Ovarian morphology and folliculogenesis and ovulation process in the
           flat-faced fruit-eating bat Artibeus planirostris and the Argentine brown
           bat Eptesicus furinalis: A comparative analysis
    • Authors: Larissa Mayumi Bueno; Dianelli Lisboa Caun, Manuela Tosi Comelis, Mateus Rodrigues Beguelini, Sebastião Roberto Taboga, Eliana Morielle-Versute
      Abstract: The Neotropical bat species Artibeus planirostris and Eptesicus furinalis present a different morphology of the female reproductive organs: the first presents a simplex uterus, while the second presents a bicornuate uterus, but there is no information about their ovaries. Our aim was to compare the general ovary morphology and the folliculogenesis process in these species to increase the knowledge about the reproductive diversity of tropical bats. We observed a morphological distinction between the ovaries of both species: A. planirostris presents the primordial follicles located in a cranial portion of the ovary and the interstitial gland cells are not distinctive, while in E. furinalis, the primordial follicles are located throughout the cortex, and there is an abundance of interstitial gland cells. Both species present binovular or triovular follicles. Artibeus planirostris is a monovular species, with a preferential ovulation in the left side. Some females of E. furinalis exhibited two corpora lutea in the same ovary, and others presented a corpus luteum in both right and left ovaries at the same time; thus, E. furinalis is a polyovular species. Our results express the variation between two Neotropical species, reflecting the great variation in the reproductive aspects in Chiroptera.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23T04:43:18.153857-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12247
  • Reproduction of the introduced oyster Magallana gigas (Bivalvia:
           Ostreidae) cultured on rafts in Spain
    • Authors: Ícaro G. Antonio; Alejandro P. Camacho
      Abstract: The oyster Magallana gigas (formerly Crassostrea gigas) was introduced in Spain for aquaculture purposes; however, until now, it is not known whether populations are established in the wild, being necessary to define whether this species is spawning and which environmental variables trigger this process. The influence of environmental parameters on the reproduction of M. gigas was evaluated from January 2008 to October 2009 with oysters grown on a raft in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). Temperature and chlorophyll a are directly correlated to sexual maturation. Oysters can mature at temperatures below 14°C. The temperature necessary for spawning differs between the sexes, requiring a temperature above 15°C for males and 18°C for females. Females had a single massive spawn between June and September, while males had partial spawning from May to December with two peaks, one in May–September and another in October–December, with the second peak more pronounced. The first spawning peak is related to high temperatures and concentrations of chlorophyll a, and the second spawning peak is mainly related to the food availability in the water. The spawning asynchrony may be impeding establishment of wild M. gigas populations in Spain.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23T04:41:58.15024-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12248
  • Morphology and ultrastructure of the testes and spermatozoa of the South
           African leopard (Panthera pardus)
    • Authors: Jamie-Lee Das Neves; Ina Wagenaar
      Abstract: The survival of South African leopard (Panthera pardus) populations is at risk due to the decrease in natural habitat caused by increasing human populations, development projects and industry. The use of ex situ conservation methods such as assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) in captive breeding programmes can be used to conserve and protect this species. However, a good understanding of the reproductive system of the species is imperative in the development of successful ARTs. This study serves to provide information on the morphology and ultrastructure of the spermatozoa and testes of P. pardus that can be used to help in the development, testing and optimization of reproductive techniques. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the morphology and ultrastructure of the spermatozoa by means of fluorescence and electron microscopy respectively, and (ii) to examine the morphology and ultrastructure of the testicular tissue as well as of the stages of spermatogenesis using light and electron microscopy. In this study, it was noted that the morphology and ultrastructure of the spermatozoa are similar to those reported in other feline and mammalian species and that a high amount of morphologically abnormal ejaculated sperm was found to be a common occurrence in all samples obtained.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21T23:41:14.51951-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12246
  • Of elephant-, thunder-, and terror birds: The allure of flightless giants
    • Authors: Gerald Mayr
      PubDate: 2018-02-16T06:52:46.031901-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12250
  • Developmental staging table of the green iguana
    • Authors: Fabiano C. Lima; Tainã R. Py-Daniel, Marina R. Sartori, Augusto S. Abe, Odeony Paulo dos Santos, Letícia M. Freitas, Kleber F. Pereira, Antonio Sebben
      Abstract: Embryonic staging tables provide information to standardize embryological investigations and to subsidize discussions about evolution. We have established a developmental staging table for Iguana iguana iguana. The sample was composed of 142 embryos, incubated at a constant temperature and collected at regular intervals. Morphological features as pharyngeal arches, craniofacial structures, eyes, limbs, claws, pigmentation, scales and egg tooth were evaluated to determine development stages. The normal staging table includes 17 stages from oviposition to hatching, based on chronology and morphological external features. Stages from 1 to 27 occur before oviposition. Stage 28 was the first described, because all embryos presented limb bud anlage, key feature of the previous stage. We used pharyngeal arches and limb buds to describe the first stages; claws, genital papilla and scales to describe the middle stages; and pigmentation, size and egg tooth to describe the last stages. Incubation lasted approximately 2 months in a controlled environment. The results were similar to the data from other lizards, confirming the embryonic conservative pattern of the group.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:01:40.251748-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12245
  • An intriguing, new planarian species from Tasmania, with a discussion on
           protandry in triclad flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida)
    • Authors: Ronald Sluys; Miquel Vila-Farré, Jochen Rink, John E. J. Rasko
      Abstract: An account is given of an unusual new species of freshwater planarian from the Hartz Mountains in Tasmania, Australia, Romankenkius flaccidus Sluys, sp. nov. The species is characterized, among other features, by an asymmetrical penis papilla, an extremely large, elongated copulatory bursa, and by the absence of testes in animals with fully developed male and female copulatory apparatus. Instigated by the sexual cycle of this new species, the study opportunely reviews whether planarian flatworms generally are simultaneous or sequential—in particular protandrous—hermaphrodites. It is concluded that real protandry does not occur in triclads and that even less extreme cases of sexual segregation, such as complete reduction of the testes or the more or less complete separation of male and female functionality as present in some species, have only sparsely and convergently evolved within the group of the triclad flatworms.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T23:06:50.763296-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12243
  • Placental structures and their association with matrotrophy and
           superfetation in poeciliid fishes
    • Authors: Claudia Olivera-Tlahuel; Norma A. Moreno-Mendoza, Maricela Villagrán-Santa Cruz, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega
      Abstract: Both matrotrophy, the maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos after fertilization, and superfetation, the simultaneous presence of two or more groups of embryos at different stages of development, occur at varying degrees among species of the fish family Poeciliidae. However, it is still unclear if these two reproductive modes depend on the presence of relatively complex placentas. We describe the ultrastructure of the maternal follicular placenta of 11 poeciliid fishes using electron microscopy. In addition, we quantified six ultrastructure characteristics that reflect the degree of complexity (number of vesicles, area of vesicles, number of microvilli, microvilli length, thickness of the maternal follicle and follicular area). Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we evaluated the relationship between degree of matrotrophy and placental characteristics. We also analysed the potential effect of the presence of superfetation on placental complexity. We found a positive relationship between the degree of matrotrophy and follicular area, number of microvilli and number and area of vesicles. Similarly, follicular area and number of microvilli were larger in species with superfetation than in those without superfetation. We conclude that high degrees of matrotrophy and superfetation are associated with placental characteristics that increase the efficiency of nutrient transfer between mother and embryos.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T23:06:22.948536-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12244
  • Morphometrics reveal correlation between morphology and bioclimatic
           factors and population mixture in Tetrix japonica (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae)
    • Authors: Zhi-Xiang Pan; Fang Hong, Guo-Fang Jiang
      Abstract: The morphology of an organism is limited by genetic and environmental factors, and the precise mechanism is inconsistent between species. Tetrix japonica Bolivar, 1987, is a widely distributed pygmy grasshopper in East Asia. However, the population clustering and relationships between the morphology and bioclimatic factors have not been previously investigated. Here, 32 geographic populations were sampled from China, and morphometrics and multiple statistical analyses were applied to detect the population clustering and relationship between the morphology and bioclimatic factors. The results suggested that T. japonica with females are significantly bigger than males in the eight morphological traits. The 32 populations do not obviously cluster according to the natural geographic area. The body sizes of females are mainly related to the lowest temperature and precipitation; by contrast, males only have a significant relationship with the lowest temperature. The forewing size is significantly related to the maximum precipitation. Furthermore, the Mantel test showed that the morphological size variation of females has a weak positive correlation to geographic distance, but is insignificant in males. It was concluded that Chinese geographic populations of T. japonica mixed and that the size of the morphological structure is limited by bioclimatic factors.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T23:21:00.704462-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12240
  • Comparative histology of the digestive tract in three new world marsupials
    • Authors: Laura Beatríz Andrini; Marcela Nilda García, Ana María Inda, Ana Lía Errecalde, Francisco J Goin, Alfredo Armando Carlini, Alejo Carlos Scarano, Gabriel Martin, Martín los Reyes
      Abstract: We compare the main histological features of the digestive tract of three selected New World didelphid marsupials (Mammalia, Metatheria, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae): the White-eared Opossum Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840, the Short-tailed Opossum Monodelphis dimidiata Wagner, 1847, and the Patagonian Opossum Lestodelphys halli Thomas, 1921. The three species have a geographic distribution restricted to south-eastern and southern South America, and have quite distinct body masses, adaptations and life histories. Our observations include the following: (i) submucosal glands are present throughout the oesophagus of D. albiventris, only in its first third in M. dimidiata, and are lacking in L. halli; (ii) in the stomach and duodenum, the serus coat coat in D. albiventris is cuboidal (simple, squamous mesothelial layer in the other two species); (iii) the duodenum in L. halli has large folds, short crypts and Brunner's glands (the other species lack folds and Brunner's glands); (iv) the colon's mucous membrane has short, scarce villi in D. albiventris (villi absent in the remaining species). Some of the observed differences can be due to ecological adaptations, especially in the relatively large-sized, extremely omnivorous D. albiventris (e.g., colon villi).
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T23:50:51.611669-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12241
  • The stapes of Edops craigi and ear evolution in the lissamphibian stem
    • Authors: Rainer R. Schoch
      Abstract: The Lower Permian temnospondyl Edops craigi exemplifies an early and plesiomorphic condition of the single ear ossicle or stapes among the temnospondyls, the probable stem group of lissamphibians. In Edops, the 11-cm-long bone is more massive than in other temnospondyls, has a distinct neck, a dorsal crest and incompletely subdivided footplate and ventral process. Despite a range of invariances, temnospondyl stapes were much more diverse than previously conceived. A survey of described stapes gives insight into character evolution of the ear ossicle in the lissamphibian stem group. These include alternative patterns of paedomorphosis, proportional size change, morphology of tympanic region and reorientation of the auditory apparatus.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T22:35:56.097995-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12238
  • Structure and sensilla of the antennae and mouthparts of Loxocephala
           perpunctata Jacobi (Hemiptera: Fulgomorpha: Eurybrachidae)
    • Authors: Yinfeng Meng; Daozheng Qin
      Abstract: The ultramorphology of the antennae and mouthparts of the adult Loxocephala perpunctata Jacobi was studied through a scanning electron microscope. Seven types of sensilla were found on antennomeres, including a Böhm bristle on the scape, sensillum trichoideum and plaque organ on the pedicel, two subtypes of sensilla chaetica and two subtypes of sensilla campaniformia on these two antennomeres; and Bourgoin's organ with sensory pegs and sensilla basiconicum on the basal bulb of the flagellum. The mouthparts of L. perpunctata are of the typical piercing-sucking type, similar to mouthparts found in other hemipteran insects. In general, six types of sensilla (i.e., four subtypes of sensilla chaetica, sensillum basiconicum, subapical labial sensillum, uniporous peg-like sensillum, multiporous peg-like sensillum and two subtypes of bristle-like sensilla) were detected on different locations of the labium, with the last three, and numerous cuticular processes, present on the labial tip. The potential functions of these sensilla are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22T02:13:15.352429-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12239
  • Teeth of extant Polypteridae and Amiidae have plicidentine organization
    • Authors: Damien Germain; François J. Meunier
      Abstract: The study of teeth of the lower jaws of Amia calva and Polypterus senegalus, with non -destructive X-ray tomography, has revealed that there are dentine folds in the tooth pulp cavity in both species. These folds are simple and present only in the base of the pulp cavity where they strengthen the fixation of teeth on the jaw. So the teeth of these two basal actinopterygian taxa have a simplexodont type of plicidentine like the extinct †Cheirolepis and various extant teleostean predators, whereas the extant Lepisosteids, the sister group of Amiidae, have polyplocodont plicidentine. The phylogenetic/adaptive significance of this simplexodont plicidentine is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22T02:12:27.84062-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12237
  • Structure and ultrastructure study on photophores of the Madeira
           lanternfish, Ceratoscopelus maderensis (Lowe, 1839), Pisces: Myctophidae
    • Authors: Mauro Cavallaro; Pietro Battaglia, Maria Cristina Guerrera, Francesco Abbate, Maria Beatrice Levanti, Giovanni Ammendolia, Franco Andaloro, Antonino Germanà, Rosaria Laurà
      Abstract: The structure and ultrastructure of photophores in the Madeira lanternfish, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, from the Strait of Messina (Mediterranean Sea) was investigated. The structure of C. maderensis photophore observed by light microscope consists of different functional parts: the photogenic cells, involved in the light production process, and a set of dioptric annexes, such as the accessory scales, lens-scale, reflector and pigmented layer. The photocytes have an elongated, thin and flattened shape and are located inside a cup-shaped structure, made up of the reflector and the pigmented layer. The lens-scale has a protection function as well as a dioptric role and is covered by accessory scales. The innervation of the lens-scale of C. maderensis and the other structures having a neurotransmitter function are probably implicated in the regulation of intensity and direction of light emission as well in playing a role in the counterillumination camouflage in the mesopelagic environment. The anatomical description of the photophores of C. maderensis provides a scientific basis for future investigations on the functioning of photogenic systems in relation to the ecology of this mesopelagic fish.
      PubDate: 2017-12-16T16:51:44.496897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12236
  • The return of typology—Do turtles exemplify saltational
    • Authors: Rainer R. Schoch
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T22:36:01.709206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12208
  • Epidermal Growth Factor and EGF Receptors are mainly expressed in the
           wound epidermis and proliferating ependyma of the regenerating tail of
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Abstract: The presence of EGF and its receptor during tail regeneration in lizard has been assessed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence to test whether this growth factor may be involved in the process. Immunolabelled bands at 8 and 42–46 kDa for EGF are detected in the regenerating tail. A main band at 45–50 kDa and other weaker bands at lower or higher molecular weight for the EGF receptor are also present. The results indicate that degraded forms of the protein are present although the specific nature of the different bands could not be determined. Immunofluorescence indicates that EGF-labelled cells and EGF receptor are especially seen in the wound epidermis and in the cytoplasm of ependymal cells. Numerous basal keratinocytes of the wound epidermis and apical epidermal peg contain labelled nuclei for EGFR, suggesting that activated receptor stimulates intense cell proliferation of the wound epidermis. Blastema and labelled myoblasts are occasionally detected in early differentiating muscles, but almost no labelled chondroblasts are present in the differentiating cartilaginous tube. The study indicates that EGF and its receptor are mainly present in epithelial cells in a form that allows them to regulate proliferation during tail regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-12-10T23:16:38.58512-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12235
  • Gross anatomical and histomorphological features of the Acanthopagrus
           schlegelii digestive tract (Bleeker 1854) Perciformes, Sparidae
    • Authors: Hameeda Kalhoro; Shengli Tong, Lei Wang, Ying Hua, Josie Ancella Volatiana, Qingjun Shao
      Abstract: Acanthopagrus schlegelii is an autochthonous teleost species concerning the remarkable economic importance and prevalent fish cultivated in China as well as in different nations of South-East Asia. Little is known about the digestive tract (DT) morphology of A. schlegelii. Therefore, anatomical and histomorphological aspects of A. schlegelii DT were examined by light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Anatomically, DT of A. schlegelii was mainly formed of oesophagus, well-developed stomach and fingers like pyloric caeca (four in number), intestinal regions and rectum. Histomorphologically, oesophagus occurred as a shorter tube-like organ presenting a longitudinal folded mucosa that connects oropharynx cavity to stomach. Stomach was a muscular thick-wall organ that included three regions, thickly longitudinal folds were observed in the first (cardiac) and last (pyloric) regions, whereas the second (fundic) region showed folds in different directions. Long villi were observed within pyloric caeca and anterior intestine. Tunica muscularis appeared narrow in the anterior intestine, whereas thicker in the posterior part of the intestine. Collectively, anatomical and histomorphological aspects of A. schlegelii DT are consistent with the carnivorous habit of this species. These data could be a potential source to modify better methods of nutrition and identify the DT pathogenic conditions in farming of this fish.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T01:42:41.401556-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12225
  • A histological and ultrastructural investigation of the female
           reproductive system of the water snake (Erythrolamprus miliaris):
           Oviductal cycle and sperm storage
    • Authors: Claudio Augusto Rojas; Verônica Alberto Barros, Selma Maria Almeida-Santos
      Abstract: We studied the structural and cellular organisation of the oviduct of Erythrolamprus miliaris including its morphological variation during the reproductive cycle using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Four anatomically distinct regions compose the oviduct of E. miliaris including the anterior and posterior infundibulum, glandular uterus, non-glandular uterus and pouch. The cells of the oviductal epithelium secrete material by apocrine and merocrine processes, which vary between the anatomical regions and according to each phase of the reproductive cycle. The infundibular epithelium secretes electron dense vacuoles, which suggests the production of lipids, whereas the epithelial secretion of the glandular uterus, non-glandular uterus and pouch creates lucent and slightly electron dense vacuoles, indicating the production of glycoproteins. The timing of mating, vitellogenesis and sperm storage directly influences the morphofunctional alterations in the oviducts of E. miliaris. Sperm storage occurs only in the infundibular receptacles with increased production of the neutral carbohydrates in the presence of male gametes. Sperm storage happens in vitellogenic, non-vitellogenic and pregnant females of E. miliaris. Thus, females may be able to produce multiple clutches at different seasons of the year regardless of mating during autumn.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T22:47:19.60913-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12234
  • Analysis of the spatio-temporal parameters of gaits in Dasypus
           novemcinctus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae)
    • Authors: Fabiana R. Costa; Giannina P. Clerici, Leonardo Lobo-Ribeiro, Patrícia S. Rosa, Oscar Rocha-Barbosa
      Abstract: Armadillos comprise a particular group of armoured animals whose functional morphology of locomotion remains unclear. For the first time, the kinematic patterns of Dasypus novemcinctus are analysed. Eight specimens of nine-banded armadillos were studied at a research institute in São Paulo State, Brazil. The individuals were induced to cross a horizontal corridor and each gait performed during the time each of them was kept inside this structure was recorded to a detailed analysis posteriorly performed in a computer program. Four parameters regarding speed range were considered: stride frequency (Hz) (1/stride period), stride length (m), speed (ms−1) and duty factor (%). A total of 89 strides have been analysed among symmetrical (60.6%) and asymmetrical gaits (39.4%), and six footfall patterns were here reported as follows: lateral sequences (symmetrical), transverse gallop, canter, bound, half-bound and crutch walk (asymmetrical). This kind of analysis implements our knowledge on the locomotory aspects of these animals, hence contributing to the improvement of our knowledge on this still poorly known group.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:35:36.985807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12231
  • Spermatogenesis in Sceloporus variabilis (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae): A
           non-quiescent pattern
    • Authors: Gisela Granados-González; Maricela Villagrán-SantaCruz, Eric Peña-Herrera, Justin L. Rheubert, Kevin M. Gribbins, Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos
      Abstract: Gaining a deeper understanding of spermatogenic cycles within squamates has aided in our knowledge of the controls of reproduction and has bettered our understanding of reproductive phenology. One of the most studied genera of squamates, Sceloporus, is widely distributed along a latitudinal and elevational gradient in temperate, tropical, low-elevation and high-elevation habitats. Due to this wide distribution and varying habitats, Sceloporus exhibit differences in their spermatogenic activity (including both cyclical and acyclical patterns) and may be one of the most useful genera for understanding the abiotic correlations with spermatogenesis. The spermatogenic activity in Sceloporus variabilis was studied histologically (in a population that inhabits a tropical region at Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico) and found to exhibit a unique cyclical pattern with an extended period of maximum activity (from November to July) and the absence of regression and quiescence. Furthermore, these data corroborate previous works on the spermatogenic cycles of S. variabilis despite different populations utilised. These data suggest that although abiotic factors may play a role in the timing of spermatogenesis, phylogenetic signal may be equally as important. More data concerning spermatogenic cycles in phylogenetically related taxa from differing habitats will elucidate the patterns of spermatogenic diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T23:26:50.318254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12229
  • Morphological characteristics of the papillae and lingual epithelium of
           guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)
    • Authors: Adriano Polican Ciena; Amilton Cesar dos Santos, Bruno Gomes Vasconcelos, Rose Eli Grassi Rici, Antônio Chaves Assis Neto, Sonia Regina Yokomizo Almeida, Maria Angélica Miglino, Ii-sei Watanabe
      Abstract: The structural elements, tridimensional aspects of the lingual papillae, yours connective tissue cores (CTCs) and the ultrastructure of the dorsal epithelium surface of the tongue of guinea pig are examined. Filiform papillae and their CTCs lie throughout the tongue surface, featuring subtypes and different shapes. Fungiform papillae are dome-shaped, and their CTCs are few, with heterogenic disposition among the filiform papillae in the lingual apex and body and in grooves stretching to the side margin among the foliate papillae towards the lingual apex. Foliate papillae are well developed, and their CTCs are composed of five pairs of parallel seams limited by deep grooves placed bilaterally in the caudal region. Two vallate papillae are observed in the caudal region and reveal specialized structures which are developed and differentiated when they present compound elements by a double epithelial projection, in a column, similar to the shape of the foliate papilla. Further, the epithelium is organized by layers with ultrastructural components. Therefore, we conclude that the structural descriptions, dimensional aspects of tongue papillae, their CTCs and the ultrastructure of the tongue epithelium of guinea pigs are similar to other rodent mammals, however, with new descriptions as double epithelial projection constituting each vallate papilla.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T22:56:38.181506-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12230
  • Reproductive cycle of the oviparous lizard Sceloporus jalapae, from
           Zapotitlán Salinas, Puebla, Mexico
    • Authors: Jorge E. González-Espinoza; Julio A. Lemos-Espinal, Norma L. Manríquez-Morán, Guillermo Woolrich-Piña
      Abstract: Reproductive patterns vary widely among species and populations of squamates. In general, patterns can be divided into cyclic and acyclic. Cyclic patterns are common in tropical and temperate species of seasonal environments, while acyclic ones are characteristic of tropical species that inhabit less variable environments. We studied the reproductive cycle of Sceloporus jalapae, one of the smallest species of Sceloporus, in an arid environment at Zapotitlán Salinas, Puebla, Mexico. Both sexes mature in the first year following hatching and exhibit a seasonal reproductive pattern with maximum activity in spring and summer that appears to be influenced by temperature. Unlike small species of Sceloporus that inhabit pine–oak and tropical forests, S. jalapae exhibits an extended period of reproductive activity that allows females to produce at least two clutches of 3–7 eggs each, and contrary to other species of Sceloporus, in this species there is no correlation between female length and clutch size. The reproductive pattern of S. jalapae is like that shown by other oviparous species of the genus; nevertheless, some life history traits of this species are shared with oviparous and viviparous species of small size.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T22:41:31.267004-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12227
  • Dynamic intra-epidermal bodies (IEBs) in koi epidermis
    • Authors: Joseph A. DePasquale
      Abstract: Koi scale epidermis contains large intra-epidermal bodies (IEBs). IEBs are dynamic and circular structures that form in low frequency within the epidermis. During formation, an IEB pulls down the microridge-laden surface layer, which takes on a creased or wrinkled appearance. After the IEB constricts, the microridge layer unfolds to its original state. The newly described IEBs are distinctly different from the recently reported apical rings which are situated on the surface of individual epidermal cells. While apical rings are directly exposed to the external environment where sampling can occur, IEBs appear to reflect intra-epidermal events such as sequestering of dead cell remnants.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T22:41:36.856329-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12226
  • The differences in the eyelids microstructure and the
           conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue between selected ornamental and
           wild birds as a result of adaptation to their habitat
    • Authors: Joanna E. Klećkowska-Nawrot; Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Dariusz Łupicki, Krzysztof Marycz, Tomasz Nawara, Karolina Barszcz, Artur Kowalczyk, Joanna Rosenberger, Ewa Łukaszewicz
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to describe the morphology of the upper, lower and third eyelid and characterize the organized lymphoid follicles and diffuse lymphocytes from ornamental and wild birds. The goal of these examinations was also to identify avian conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and lymphoid tissue that contained specialized high endothelial venules. The upper, lower and third eyelid from 30 species of ornamental and wild birds representing 21 families were examined under light microscopy and using scanning electron microscopy. The third eyelid in all of the examined birds was composed of a free margin, which was divided into two parts. The largest tarsal plate of the third eyelid was observed in the greater rhea (Rheimorphae), the white-tailed eagle and steppe eagle (Accipitrimorphae) and was approximately 13–15 mm wide and 9–11 mm long, respectively. In all of the examined birds, the CALT was associated with a rich network of small vessels. In addition, the presence of characteristic high endothelial venules and roundish bright endothelial cells was confirmed in the upper and lower eyelids or only in the lower eyelid (Phoenicopterimorphae, Procellariimorphae and Strigimorphae).
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:01:43.795312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12223
  • Ontogenetic allometry of the digital rays of the leopard gecko (Gekkota:
           Eublepharidae; Eublepharis macularius)
    • Authors: George Lawrence Powell; Geoffrey J. Osgood, Anthony P. Russell
      Abstract: The role of allometry in producing the variation in autopodial morphology observed among the lizards is not well understood. Allometry of metapodial and digit lengths in the manus and pes of the primitively padless gekkotan (Eublepharis macularius) is explored using maximum-likelihood repeated-measures ANCOVAs with body length as the covariate. Estimated variance–covariance matrices differed significantly within and between autopodia, and integration was stronger among the metapodials than the digits. The first metapodial and the first digit of each autopodium exhibit the strongest covariances with each of the remaining components in each variance–covariance matrix, suggesting that the lengths of the first rays are important for allometric integration of both manus and pes. Metapodials scale isometrically and digits negatively allometrically; both display allometric heterogeneity among themselves in both autopodia. Both autopodia exhibit changes in proportion over the ontogenetic size range, attributable to variation in scaling among the components of the rays. Allometric coefficients do not vary among pedal digits, despite differences in phalanx number, although phalanx number is associated with differences in slope in the manual digits. This is suggestive of heterogeneity in allometry among the manual phalanges, which thus may be associated with variation in phalanx length within gekkotan digits.
      PubDate: 2017-10-08T23:40:49.525297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12215
  • Morphological characterisation of the digestive tract of the catfish
           Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1876 (Siluriformes,
    • Authors: Gabriel C. G. Mello; Marcella L. Santos, Fábio P. Arantes, Thiago C. Pessali, Marcelo F. G. Brito, José E. Santos
      Abstract: The anatomical arrangement of the digestive tract and the length (cm) of the oesophagus and intestine of the catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri were described, and the intestinal coefficient was determined. L. alexandri oesophagus is short, in median position, and presents longitudinally folded mucosa, whilst its epithelium is stratified and non-keratinised, with mucous, claviform and epithelial cells. Stomach has “C” shape, with folded mucosa along cardiac region, disordered in the fundic region, and directed to the sphincter in the pyloric region. Its epithelium is simple prismatic, and cardiac and fundic portions have gastric glands. Cranial intestine is formed by pyloric flexure and descending loop attached to the right side of stomach. Middle intestine is winding and positioned to the right of caudal portion of stomach. Caudal intestine is linear and with a median position up to the anus. Intestinal coefficient was 1.39 ± 0.30 cm. Epithelium is simple prismatic with brush border and contains epithelial and goblet cells. Caudal region has highest concentration of goblet cells. Were detected neutral glycoproteins, carboxylated and sulphated acid glycoconjugates for mucous cells and goblet cells, and neutral glycoproteins for the apical region of gastric epithelial cells. Morphological features could be related to piscivorous species feeding habit.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T23:01:26.873554-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12224
  • Phylogenetic Systematics: Haeckel to Hennig
    • Authors: Lennart Olsson; Georgy S. Levit, Uwe Hoßfeld
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T03:55:23.160403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12221
  • A lotic-breeding salamander (Hynobius kimurae) modifies physiological and
           morphological traits during wintering
    • Authors: Masaichi Kakegawa; Masato Hasumi
      Abstract: Unlike other migratory salamanders, Hynobius kimurae moves to aquatic hibernacula during fall. Does submergence into water during fall induce changes in physiological and morphological traits' We investigated whether such changes occur in both sexes from the entrance into the water (November) to the exit from the water (May) in the laboratory. Mean duration of stay in the water was 21.7 weeks in males and 19.0 weeks in females. Spermiation began 13.8 weeks after the males entered the water. Sperm storage lasted for 6.3 weeks. Spawning occurred 18.3 weeks after the females entered the water. Cloacae swelled greatly soon after the sexes entered the water. In males after entering the water, tail shape changed from sticklike to finlike. Although physiological and morphological traits in other species change simultaneously in both the submergence into water and the onset of breeding activity only during spring, such changes occurred in individual H. kimurae firstly during fall (shortly after entering the water) and secondly during spring (shortly after awaking from hibernation). This difference suggests that these two-step changes during a prolonged period (fall–spring) are concentrated in a short period of aquatic-breeding activity during spring in other species with terrestrial hibernation and associated reproductive cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T03:45:31.934345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12222
  • Hyaluronate likely contributes to the immunesuppression of the
           regenerating tail blastema in lizards: Implications for organ regeneration
           in amniotes
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Abstract: The regenerating tail blastema of lizards appears immunesuppressed, and the distribution of hyaluronate, a possible agent of immunesuppression, is evaluated. Transcriptome data show upregulation of genes stimulating hyaluronate production in the tail and limb blastemas. The distribution of hyaluronate in the tail and limb blastemas has been studied using alcian blue at pH 2.5 and 1.0 and by immunohistochemistry for hyaluronate receptors. Both tail and limb blastemas initially contain hyaluronate, but this glycosaminoglycan disappears in the scarring limb blastema at 25- to 30-day postamputation after intense inflammation. The regenerating tail tip moves distally during regeneration but conserves hyaluronate that is replaced by sulphated glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in proximal regions of the regenerating tail. Hyaluronate receptors are diffuse among blastema cells and ependyma of the tail, intense in wound epidermis but low to absent in the scarring limb. The electron microscope shows that an amorphous extracellular matrix likely containing hyaluronate surrounds mesenchymal cells, ependyma and wound epidermis in the tail but is scarce to absent in the limb, whereas collagen fibrils prevail. Extracellular matrix containing hyaluronate may shield blastema cells from circulating immune cells preventing deleterious immune reactions in the tail but not in the limb, a process leading to scarring.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T23:32:16.144129-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12214
  • Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence
           gland in Timema
    • Authors: Konrad Stolz
      Abstract: Timema is the most basal genus of Phasmatodea and the sister group to the remaining stick and leaf-insects (Euphasmatodea). An autapomorphy of all phasmids is the paired prothoracic exocrine defence glands. In this study, the anatomy and innervation of the defence glands in Timema petita and Timema chumash are described and compared with the data on Euphasmatodea. In all phasmids, the glands consist of a cuticular epithelium, a secretory epithelium and muscular fibres that compress the lumen. In Timematodea, the muscular part of the gland is less developed than in Euphasmatodea and the ejection of the defence secretion depends on the dorsal longitudinal neck muscles. On the neuroanatomical level, Timema petita and Timema chumash lack neurons that are involved in the independent contraction of the gland in euphasmids. In both studied species of Timema, neck muscles play an active role in the gland function which is not observed in any other phasmid. Considering the basal position of this genus, this supports the hypothesis that in euphasmids, the muscular part of the gland evolved from the dorsal longitudinal neck muscles. Additionally, the same nerves that innervate the dorsal longitudinal neck muscles in all Polyneoptera also innervate the defence glands in phasmids.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T00:56:04.695642-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12216
  • Description of the immature stages of two Mononychus species (Coleoptera:
           Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchinae) and a study of the host preferences of
           M. punctumalbum for Iris species in central Europe
    • Authors: Jiří Skuhrovec; Levent Gültekin, Magdalena Śmigala, Krystyna Winiarczyk, Agnieszka Dąbrowska, Rafał Gosik
      Abstract: Last larval instars and pupae of Mononychus punctumalbum (Herbst, 1784) and Mononychus schoenherri Kolenati, 1859 (Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae) are described in detail for the first time. No immatures of other species of this genus had previously been described. The immatures of Mononychus were compared with available data on immatures of all genera in the subfamily Ceutorhynchinae. Both the larvae and pupae of the two Mononychus species are very distinctive, having distinct characters from other genera in the subfamily Ceutorhynchinae. New bionomic data for M. punctumalbum concerning its host preferences for Iris species in central Europe can be used to verify literature data indicating the important role of the iris weevil in the dramatic decline in the plant's abundance in natural habitats as well as in gardens and other anthropogenic associations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T23:27:34.084327-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12213
  • Phenotypic differentiation analysis: A case study in hybridizing Çoruh
           trout (Salmo coruhensis), Rize trout (Salmo rizeensis) and brown trout
           (Salmo trutta fario)
    • Authors: Mehmet Kocabaş; Filiz Kutluyer, Nadir Başçinar
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the phenotypic variation in Çoruh trout (Salmo coruhensis), Rize trout (Salmo rizeensis), brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and their native hybrids (S. rizeensis × S. t. fario; S. t. fario × S. coruhensis; S. rizeensis × S. coruhensis). The numbers and diameters of red and black spots were determined on operculum, fins and above and below the lateral line. The results from this study indicate that there were differences in spotting pattern, colour pattern or fin pigmentation traits between S. rizeensis, S. t. fario, S. coruhensis and their hybrids. Consequently, native S. rizeensis, S. t. fario and S. coruhensis were affected by interaction and phenotypic plastic aspects of traits in S. rizeensis were dominant in their hybrids (S. rizeensis × S. t. fario; S. rizeensis × S. coruhensis).
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T23:30:48.272242-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12211
  • Integument in Antarctic seals: A comparative study and its relation to
           extreme environments
    • Authors: Cecilia Mariana Krmpotic; Cleopatra Mara Loza, Javier Negrete, Alejo Carlos Scarano, Alfredo Armando Carlini, Alicia Guerrero, Claudio Gustavo Barbeito
      Abstract: Due to the semi-aquatic lifestyle of seals and the extreme climates they inhabit, their integumentary system has aroused the curiosity of several authors for more than a century. The aim of this contribution was to perform an exhaustive histological description of the integument Antarctic seals through different methodological approaches in a comparative framework. The species considered include the ice-obligate—Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii) and leopard (Hydrurga leptonyx) seal—and the ice-tolerant, and southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina). In addition, we attempted to link the histological features to their different lifestyles. All three species showed features related to their amphibious lifestyle (i.e., parakeratotic epidermis with abundant melanin granules, dermis with numerous arteriovenous anastomoses and a great amount of elastic fibres). In aquatic mammals, parakeratosis would decrease cellular replacement, the great amount of melanin is related to the high exposure to solar radiation, the presence of arteriovenous anastomoses is related to thermoregulatory mechanisms, and the presence of elastic fibres is due to variations of thickness in the adipose tissue that requires high elasticity of the dermis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T06:36:58.0578-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12212
  • The moult cycle of the terrestrial isopod Armadillo officinalis Duméril,
           1816 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea)
    • Authors: Giuseppe Montesanto; Sofia Cividini
      Abstract: The present work focuses on the moult cycle of Armadillo officinalis. For a 100-day period, 134 animals were observed and routinely examined with the aim of detecting distinctive morphological characters in the several stages and substages of the moult cycle and of disclosing their duration. Statistical tests and Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to investigate differences and relationships between moult and the size and gender of the animals. The appearance of the calcium carbonate deposits on the pereon sternites during the premoult stage was documented in detail, and three main substages were identified. The average duration of the premoult and of the biphasic ecdysis was about 12 and 1.5 days, respectively. This observation period, however, did not allow to establish a determined average duration of the intermoult stage, which was extremely variable. This stage lasted for 2 months or more in most of the cases observed, but about 1-month-long intermoult stages were also recorded. No statistically significant association was found between the number of moults and gender and size of the animals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T00:25:39.116134-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12210
  • Validation of a simple and well-suited chemical cleaning method for fish
    • Authors: Pierre S.P. Vandenbussche; Guillaume Spennato, Patrice Francour, Patricia M. Pierson
      Abstract: In marine biology, many research fields are based on use of fish otoliths. All the studies dealing with otoliths need as starting point a perfectly clean otolith. Dissection is difficult when working on small or highly jagged otoliths. A common problem is that during otolith preparation some fish tissue may remain stuck to it, even after a mechanical cleaning. Then, supplementary cleaning with chemicals is needed. Classical methods are known to possibly alter otolith's structure and/or composition. Here, we present a chemical cleaning method using only sodium hydroxide. We have validated the method on two different fish species, Oblada melanura and Dicentrarchus labrax. Observation and analyses of morphological measurements have confirmed significant suppression of residual tissues. We propose this method as a good alternative to previously published mono- or multichemical methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T01:05:31.484626-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12209
  • Sense organs in Pycnogonida: A review
    • Authors: Tobias Lehmann; Martin Heß, Roland R. Melzer
      Abstract: The Pycnogonida or sea spiders are exclusively marine invertebrates, numbering about 1,300 described species worldwide. Given their remarkable position in phylogeny as basal chelicerates or even basal euarthropods, the structure of their sense organs can reveal important characters, which—in a comparative framework—provide arguments to phylogenetic discussions and help to develop scenarios of evolutionary transformations. This review summarizes current knowledge and presents new original data on the sense organs in pycnogonids, that is, the eyes, the lateral sense organs and the ciliary or sensillar sense organs. Except for the eyes, there are not many detailed studies available. The ultrastructure of the R-cells of the four eyes located on the ocular tubercle is described as “pseudoinverted”. The eyes are innervated to two visual neuropils located in the protocerebrum. The features of the lateral sense organ, also located on the ocular tubercle, are hitherto not conclusively resolved, a chemo- or thermoreceptive function is suggested. Finally, an overview of the various ciliary or sensillar sense organs distributed all over the body is given and the fine structure of branched setae is shown for the first time. The morphology of the sense organs of pycnogonids is compared with that of other arthropod taxa and assessed against the background of current theories of arthropod evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T23:42:58.783582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12207
  • Diplectrum radiale (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Serranidae): A rare case of
           simultaneous hermaphroditism in a teleost fish
    • Authors: Eudriano F. S. Costa; June F. Dias, Hilario Murua
      Abstract: This study generates, for the first time, information on the reproductive traits of the simultaneous hermaphrodite Diplectrum radiale. The specimens were captured bimonthly in two distinct ecosystems along the south-eastern Brazilian coast. The mature ovotestes were removed, preserved in formalin and examined using histological techniques. The results revealed indeterminate fecundity with asynchronous ovarian organization. All spermatogenesis occurs within cysts, and the spermatogonial distribution indicated an unrestricted testicular type. The testicular and ovarian tissues were separated from each other by different ducts, indicating no possibility of internal self-fertilization. The hydrated oocytes were stored in the accessory reproductive structure for at least 24 hr. The presence of atretic hydrated oocytes within this structure and the positive periodic acid–Schiff reaction of the villi-like projections revealed the function of the ovary sinus as absorbing unspawned oocytes. The relative batch fecundity ranged from 62 to 209 oocytes/g (126 ± 42) for specimens from the coast and from 52 to 203 oocytes/g (113 ± 57) for those sampled in the estuary. The potential batch fecundity was linearly related to size, weight, and the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, revealing that these parameters significantly affect the reproductive potential of D. radiale.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T23:21:33.103569-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12206
  • Morphology and development of the male reproductive tract in Callinectes
           danae (Crustacea: Brachyura)
    • Authors: Renata A. Shinozaki-Mendes; Rosângela Lessa
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize the morphology and function of each section of the reproductive system of male Callinectes danae, as well as the stages of reproductive development and their relation to secondary sexual characteristics. Development of their reproductive system begins after completion of the pubertal moult. The growth of the gonopodium showed negative allometry for both juveniles and adults. The reproductive system is divided into portions with different functions. There is a germinal zone in the testes containing spermatogonia, a zone of maturation containing spermatocytes, spermatids or spermatozoa, as well as a collecting duct, which carries spermatozoa to the vas deferens. There are two matrices in the anterior vas deferens that initiate the separation of spermatozoa groups, one composed of polysaccharide acids (matrix I) and another consisting of neutral polysaccharides (matrix II). In the median vas deferens, the matrix II forms an acellular capsule, which forms the spermatophores. In the posterior vas deferens, the matrices are accumulated, initially with a granular texture and are homogenous for the final portion. The ejaculatory duct and penis have muscle lining to expel the spermatophores at copulation. Even after copulation, males retain a stock of spermatophores, allowing copulation with other females.
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:06:13.991915-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12205
  • Genetic analysis of ciliates living on the groundwater amphipod Crangonyx
           islandicus (Amphipoda: Crangonyctidae)
    • Authors: Ragnhildur Gudmundsdóttir; Etienne Kornobis, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Snæbjörn Pálsson
      Abstract: Two endemic subterranean freshwater amphipod species have been discovered in groundwater of the volcanic active zone in Iceland, Crangonyx islandicus and Crymostygius thingvallensis. At least five different ciliate sequences were isolated from C. islandicus and the analysis of variation at the 18S ribosomal DNA gene suggests that they present previously unsequenced species, from the orders Apostomatida and Philasterida. Apostome ciliates are well known to be exuviotrophic epibionts on crustaceans. Analyses of ciliate epibionts from different groundwater amphipod species from North America and mainland Europe revealed distinct groups of ciliates and higher diversity on the epigean amphipod Crangonyx pseudogracilis. Analysis of geographic patterns of the most common ciliate within Iceland revealed population differentiation supporting limited current connectivity between the different groundwater systems. Our study reports an occurrence of previously undescribed ciliate species in a groundwater ecosystem characterized by low species diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T23:55:33.537439-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12204
  • Morphological and mitochondrial DNA variation revealed an undescribed
           lineage under the genus Sperata (Bagridae) in Bangladesh
    • Authors: Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal; M. M. Mahbub Alam, Muhammad Anamul Kabir, Snæbjörn Pálsson
      Abstract: Catfishes Sperata are popular, known for its taste and nutritional value, and are found naturally in wide variety of freshwaters in South Asia. The taxonomy of Sperata spp., sampled from Hakaluki Haor in Bangladesh, was re-evaluated based on morphological variation and DNA barcoding. The collective variation in morphometric characters and mitochondrial DNA revealed an undescribed old and well-separated lineage under the genus Sperata along with two previously known Sperata aor and Sperata seenghala in Bangladesh. Analyses of morphological traits suggested significant differentiation among Sperata species. The variation in mitochondrial DNA supported the distinct lineage and taxonomical discrimination. Sperata aor diverged earlier from the new lineage and Sperata seenghala with a divergence of 5.39 (CI: 3.91–7.19) Mya (PP > 90). Sperata seenghala and the new lineage shared a most recent common ancestry, which diverged from each other around 3.41 (CI: 2.24–4.62) Mya (PP > 90). Thus, the newly identified lineage could be a subspecies of S. seenghala or even a species under the genus Sperata. The information of the study will be useful for conservation, sustainable management and selective breeding of the putative species, including previously reported S. aor and S. seenghala in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:15:25.977555-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12203
  • Overlap Indices: Tools to quantify the amount of anatomical overlap among
           groups of incomplete terminal taxa in phylogenetic analyses
    • Authors: Emanuel Tschopp; Friedrich A. Tschopp, Octávio Mateus
      Abstract: Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data are often characterized by missing data due to incomplete operational taxonomic units, as in fossils. This incomplete knowledge derives from various reasons, including—in the case of fossils—the numerous filters an organism has to pass through during taphonomy, fossilization, weathering and collecting. Whereas several methods have been proposed to address issues raised by the inclusion of incomplete terminal taxa, until recently no tool existed to easily quantify the amount of anatomical overlap within a particular clade. The Overlap Indices provide such values and might prove useful for comparative cladistics. We herein describe these new indices and their applications in detail and provide an example file for their calculation. A case study of diplodocid sauropod dinosaurs shows how the Overlap Indices will help to explore and quantify, which one of a number of conflicting tree topologies is supported by more anatomical traits, which skeletal regions are underrepresented in a particular phylogenetic matrix, and which taxon would improve character state score completeness.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T00:30:23.408614-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12202
  • Reproductive biology of Philodryas patagoniensis (Snakes: Dipsadidae) in
           south Brazil: Female reproductive cycle
    • Authors: Luiza Loebens; Claudio Augusto Rojas, Selma Maria Almeida-Santos, Sonia Zanini Cechin
      Abstract: In this study, we describe the female reproductive cycle of Philodryas patagoniensis in south Brazil, which was described through morpho-anatomical and histological analyses. The peak of secondary vitellogenesis occurred during winter–spring (July–December), ovulation in spring (October–December), mating and fertilization in spring–summer (October–February), oviposition in spring–autumn (October–May) and births from late spring to autumn (December–July). The diameter of vitellogenic follicles/eggs was larger in winter–spring than in other seasons. The diameter of the shell glands was also larger in winter–spring. In spite of the clear reproductive peak, gonads only showed reduced activity in the autumn. Therefore, at the individual level, females have a discontinuous cyclical reproduction; in the populational level, the reproductive cycle is seasonal semisynchronous. We support the hypothesis that P. patagoniensis have the ability to produce multiple clutches with long-term stored sperm. Sexual dimorphism in body size was evident, and females are significantly larger and heavier than males. Larger females were able to produce follicles and eggs in larger amount and size. The maternal body size was positively related to the reproductive effort and fecundity. To conclude, we deliberated about the proximal and distal causes that influence the reproductive traits and patterns of P. patagoniensis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T00:20:50.586172-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12200
  • Microridges in Cyprinus carpio scale epidermis
    • Authors: Joseph A. DePasquale
      Abstract: Actin-based microridges were evaluated in koi scale epidermis in situ. The fingerprint-patterned microridges covered the dorsal face of superficial layer cells and were overall similar to that described in many fishes. Several other microridge patterns were observed, however, ranging from loose or tightly packed ridges, fragmented ridges, a honeycomb ridge pattern and the presence of actin-rich puncta. Individual F-actin-stained microridges varied greatly in length, from a few to 30 μm or more, with a few single ridges extending the entire perimeter of a cell. Branched microridges, comprised of single ridges that appeared continuous with each other, extended to over 150 μm in some cases. The actin-binding proteins α-actinin and cortactin were distributed in a dot-like pattern along the length of individual ridges, consistent with bundled actin cores described in earlier studies. Antiphosphotyrosine antibody failed to detect this signal transduction-related amino acid modification in microridges unless tyrosine phosphatases were first inhibited, after which bright phosphotyrosine-rich dots were detected along the microridges.
      PubDate: 2017-06-18T23:57:02.89925-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12201
  • Froghood: Postmetamorphic development of the rock river frog Thoropa
           miliaris (Spix, 1824) (Anura, Cycloramphidae)
    • Authors: Raoni Rebouças; Hélio Ricardo Silva, Delfi Sanuy
      Abstract: Thoropa miliaris is a frog species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, inhabiting wet rocky habitats. Males of this species present nuptial excrescences, which are keratinized spines on the surface of some fingers and internal metacarpal tubercles. Although these spines are usually associated with male adulthood, no details of their development are available. To investigate the sequence of spines' appearance, we correlated the number of spines with size and age, which was estimated by skeletochronology. We studied individuals collected from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. There was significant correlation between size of individuals and number of spines and between age and number of spines in the callosities. The first spines appeared in metacarpal–phalangeal articulation of finger II, when specimens were 1 year old. The estimated growth curve did not show stabilization at any age. We considered the degree of development of the nuptial excrescences as a proxy for sexual maturity and so individuals may already be sexually active by 1 year of age. Estimated longevity of T. miliaris is similar to that estimated for other tropical species of frogs. Although growth in anuran species is considered to be undetermined, in T. miliaris, it seems to fit either undetermined or determined models.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T00:50:28.255085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12199
  • Msx1-2 immunolocalization in the regenerating tail of a lizard but not in
    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Abstract: The immunolocalization of the muscle segmental homoeobox protein Msx1-2 of 27–34 kDa in the regenerating tail blastema of a lizard shows prevalent localization in the apical ependyma of the regenerating spinal cord and less intense labelling in the wound epidermis, in the apical epidermal peg (AEP), and in the regenerating segmental muscles. The AEP is a micro-region of the regenerating epidermis located at the tail tip of the blastema, likely corresponding to the AEC of the amphibian blastema. No immunolabelling is present in the wound epidermis and scarring blastema of the limb at 18–21 days of regeneration, except for sparse repairing muscles. The presence of a proximal–distal gradient of Msx1-2 protein, generated from the apical ependyma, is suggested by the intensity of immunolabelling. The AEP and the ependyma are believed to induce and maintain tail regeneration, and this study suggests that Msx1-2 proteins are components of the signalling system that maintains active growth of the tail blastema. The lack of activation and production of Msx1-2 protein in the limb are likely due to the intense inflammatory reaction following amputation. This study confirms that, like during regeneration in fishes and amphibians, also the blastema of lizards utilizes common signalling pathways for maintaining regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:25:40.440117-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12198
  • Morphology and ontogenetic changes in otoliths of the mesopelagic fishes
           Ceratoscopelus maderensis (Myctophidae), Vinciguerria attenuata and
           V. poweriae (Phosichthyidae) from the Strait of Messina (Mediterranean
    • Authors: Laith A. Jawad; Giuseppe Sabatino, Ana L. Ibáñez, Franco Andaloro, Pietro Battaglia
      Abstract: Fish otoliths morphology is an important aid in taxonomic, phylogenetic, palaeoichthyological and dietary studies. This study compares the morphology of the otoliths of the myctophid species, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, and two phosichthyid species, Vinciguerria attenuata and V. poweriae, collected from the Strait of Messina in the central Mediterranean Sea to identify the most appropriate taxonomical characters that separate these species. Ontogenetic changes in the otoliths of the studied fishes are evident. The sagitta of the juvenile C. maderensis is the most similar to the adult otoliths, while otoliths of the juvenile V. poweriae are the least similar to the adult otoliths. A discussion on possible geographical variations in otolith's morphology is provided by comparing our results with sagitta's images of C. maderensis, V. attenuata and V. poweriae in other studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T02:25:33.269687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12197
  • The specialisation of the third metacarpal and hand in arboreal frogs:
           Adaptation for arboreal habitat'
    • Authors: Ning-Xin Dang; Ji-Shan Wang, Jin Liang, De-Chun Jiang, Jun Liu, Li Wang, Jia-Tang Li
      Abstract: Skeletal morphology is directly associated with habitat characteristics. To investigate the arboreal adaptation, we studied the osteological morphology of the forelimbs and the third metacarpals of arboreal frogs (Rhacophoridae and Hylidae) and non-arboreal frogs (Bombinatoridae, Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Ranidae, and Microhylidae) using transparent specimens or X-rays of skeletons. Our results revealed that the bony knob on the third metacarpal, which formed by a dilated and elongated lateral articular cartilage (AL) through endochondral ossification, occurred only in species of Rhacophorinae. The results of the phylogenetic comparative methods and correlation analysis strongly supported the conclusion that the bony knob is a phylogenetic independent evolution trait and had a significant correlation with the arboreal habitat. Furthermore, anatomical observation showed that a muscle adhered to the bony knob. Therefore, we speculated that the bony knob might act as an enlarged attachment point for larger or more musculatures to help with grasping. In addition, the relative length of the hand showed a significant difference between arboreal and non-arboreal species (p = .007), suggesting that longer hands might be an arboreal adaptive trait. Overall, this study leads to a deeper understanding of the arboreal adaptation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T03:40:30.939121-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/azo.12196
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