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Showing 1 - 200 of 1589 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 243, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics
  [SJR: 2.315]   [H-I: 79]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Online) 1552-4876
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Phenotype and genotype analysis of a French cohort of 119 patients with
           CHARGE syndrome
    • Authors: Marine Legendre; Véronique Abadie, Tania Attié-Bitach, Nicole Philip, Tiffany Busa, Dominique Bonneau, Estelle Colin, Hélène Dollfus, Didier Lacombe, Annick Toutain, Sophie Blesson, Sophie Julia, Dominique Martin-Coignard, David Geneviève, Bruno Leheup, Sylvie Odent, Pierre-Simon Jouk, Sandra Mercier, Laurence Faivre, Catherine Vincent-Delorme, Christine Francannet, Sophie Naudion, Michèle Mathieu-Dramard, Marie-Ange Delrue, Alice Goldenberg, Delphine Héron, Philippe Parent, Renaud Touraine, Valérie Layet, Damien Sanlaville, Chloé Quélin, Sébastien Moutton, Mélanie Fradin, Aurélia Jacquette, Sabine Sigaudy, Lucile Pinson, Pierre Sarda, Anne-Marie Guerrot, Massimiliano Rossi, Alice Masurel-Paulet, Salima El Chehadeh, Xavier Piguel, Montserrat Rodriguez-Ballesteros, Stéphanie Ragot, Stanislas Lyonnet, Frédéric Bilan, Brigitte Gilbert-Dussardier
      Abstract: CHARGE syndrome (CS) is a genetic disorder whose first description included Coloboma, Heart disease, Atresia of choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies and deafness, most often caused by a genetic mutation in the CHD7 gene. Two features were then added: semicircular canal anomalies and arhinencephaly/olfactory bulb agenesis, with classification of typical, partial, or atypical forms on the basis of major and minor clinical criteria. The detection rate of a pathogenic variant in the CHD7 gene varies from 67% to 90%. To try to have an overview of this heterogenous clinical condition and specify a genotype–phenotype relation, we conducted a national study of phenotype and genotype in 119 patients with CS. Selected clinical diagnostic criteria were from Verloes (2005), updated by Blake & Prasad (). Besides obtaining a detailed clinical description, when possible, patients underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, audiometry, temporal bone CT scan, gonadotropin analysis, and olfactory‐bulb MRI. All patients underwent CHD7 sequencing and MLPA analysis. We found a pathogenic CHD7 variant in 83% of typical CS cases and 58% of atypical cases. Pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene were classified by the expected impact on the protein. In all, 90% of patients had a typical form of CS and 10% an atypical form. The most frequent features were deafness/semicircular canal hypoplasia (94%), pituitary defect/hypogonadism (89%), external ear anomalies (87%), square‐shaped face (81%), and arhinencephaly/anosmia (80%). Coloboma (73%), heart defects (65%), and choanal atresia (43%) were less frequent.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T00:05:41.797727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31591
  • New insights and advances in CHARGE syndrome: Diagnosis, etiologies,
           treatments, and research discoveries
    • Authors: Conny van Ravenswaaij-Arts; Donna M. Martin
      Abstract: CHARGE syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly condition caused, in a majority of individuals, by loss of function pathogenic variants in the gene CHD7. In this special issue of the American Journal of Medical Genetics part C, authors of eleven manuscripts describe specific organ system features of CHARGE syndrome, with a focus on recent developments in diagnosis, etiologies, and treatments. Since 2004, when CHD7 was identified as the major causative gene in CHARGE, several animal models (mice, zebrafish, flies, and frog) and cell‐based systems have been developed to explore the underlying pathophysiology of this condition. In this article, we summarize those advances, highlight opportunities for new discoveries, and encourage readers to explore specific organ systems in more detail in each individual article. We hope the excitement around innovative research and development in CHARGE syndrome will encourage others to join this effort, and will stimulate other investigators and professionals to engage with individuals diagnosed as having CHARGE syndrome, their families, and their care providers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T02:00:49.572716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31592
  • Distinct cerebellar foliation anomalies in a Chd7 haploinsufficient mouse
           model of CHARGE syndrome
    • Authors: Danielle E. Whittaker; Sahrunizam Kasah, Alex P. A. Donovan, Jacob Ellegood, Kimberley L. H. Riegman, Holger A. Volk, Imelda McGonnell, Jason P. Lerch, M. Albert Basson
      Abstract: Mutations in the gene encoding the ATP dependent chromatin‐remodeling factor, CHD7 are the major cause of CHARGE (Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital‐urinary anomalies, and Ear defects) syndrome. Neurodevelopmental defects and a range of neurological signs have been identified in individuals with CHARGE syndrome, including developmental delay, lack of coordination, intellectual disability, and autistic traits. We previously identified cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and abnormal cerebellar foliation in individuals with CHARGE syndrome. Here, we report mild cerebellar hypoplasia and distinct cerebellar foliation anomalies in a Chd7 haploinsufficient mouse model. We describe specific alterations in the precise spatio‐temporal sequence of fissure formation during perinatal cerebellar development responsible for these foliation anomalies. The altered cerebellar foliation pattern in Chd7 haploinsufficient mice show some similarities to those reported in mice with altered Engrailed, Fgf8 or Zic1 gene expression and we propose that mutations or polymorphisms in these genes may modify the cerebellar phenotype in CHARGE syndrome. Our findings in a mouse model of CHARGE syndrome indicate that a careful analysis of cerebellar foliation may be warranted in patients with CHARGE syndrome, particularly in patients with cerebellar hypoplasia and developmental delay.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:29:36.712137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31595
  • Guidelines in CHARGE syndrome and the missing link: Cranial imaging
    • Authors: Christa M. de Geus; Rolien H. Free, Berit M. Verbist, Deborah A. Sival, Kim D. Blake, Linda C. Meiners, Conny M. A. van Ravenswaaij-Arts
      Abstract: “CHARGE syndrome” is a complex syndrome with high and extremely variable comorbidity. As a result, clinicians may struggle to provide accurate and comprehensive care, and this has led to the publication of several clinical surveillance guidelines and recommendations for CHARGE syndrome, based on both single case observations and cohort studies. Here we perform a structured literature review to examine all the existing advice. Our findings provide additional support for the validity of the recently published Trider checklist. We also identified a gap in literature when reviewing all guidelines and recommendations, and we propose a guideline for neuroradiological evaluation of patients with CHARGE syndrome. This is of importance, as patients with CHARGE are at risk for peri‐anesthetic complications, making recurrent imaging procedures under anesthesia a particular risk in clinical practice. However, comprehensive cranial imaging is also of tremendous value for timely diagnosis, proper treatment of symptoms and for further research into CHARGE syndrome. We hope the guideline for neuroradiological evaluation will help clinicians provide efficient and comprehensive care for individuals with CHARGE syndrome.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:29:04.431962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31593
  • Immunodeficiency in CHARGE syndrome
    • Authors: Sam Mehr; Peter Hsu, Dianne Campbell
      Abstract: Immunodeficiency can occur in CHARGE syndrome, with immunophenotypes including reduction in T‐cell counts, combined T‐B cell defects rarely requiring antibiotic prophylaxis or immunoglobulin replacement, and severe combined immunodeficiency, which is fatal without immune reconstitution. However, the prevalence of immunodeficiency in CHARGE syndrome remains unclear with few prospective studies. In this review, we examine the existing literature covering immunodeficiency associated with CHARGE syndrome, compare these with immunodeficiencies reported in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (a condition that shares many phenotypic characteristics with CHARGE syndrome) and suggest future research priorities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T00:35:44.593299-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31594
  • Reproductive endocrine phenotypes relating to CHD7 mutations in humans
    • Authors: Ravikumar Balasubramanian; William F. Crowley
      Abstract: Mutations in the gene CHD7 cause CHARGE syndrome, a rare multi‐organ syndromic disorder. Gonadal defects are common in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (seen in ∼60–80% of cases) and represent the letter “G” in the CHARGE syndrome acronym. The gonadal defect in CHARGE syndrome results from congenital deficiency of the hypothalamic hormone Gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH), which manifests clinically as pubertal failure and infertility, and biochemically as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (low sex steroid hormone levels with inappropriately normal or low gonadotropin levels). In addition to the gonadal endocrine abnormalities, in a small minority of individuals with CHARGE, additional endocrine defects including growth hormone deficiency, multiple pituitary hormone deficits and primary hypothyroidism may also be seen. CHD7 mutations disrupt the targeting of olfactory axons and the migration of GnRH‐synthesizing neurons during embryonic development, resulting in congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and anosmia (or hyposmia), two features that define human Kallmann syndrome. Since Kallmann syndrome is one of the constituent phenotypes within CHARGE, recent studies have investigated the role of CHD7 mutations in individuals with IHH and established that deleterious missense mutations in CHD7 are associated with Kallmann syndrome as well as normosmic form of IHH. These missense mutations affect the ATPase and nucleosome remodeling activities of the CHD7 protein. These observations suggest that CHD7 protein function is critical for the ontogeny of GnRH neurons and neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH secretion.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T01:05:24.008983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31585
  • Genetic counseling in CHARGE syndrome: Diagnostic evaluation through
           follow up
    • Authors: Margaret A. Hefner; Emily Fassi
      Abstract: CHARGE syndrome (CS) is a complex genetic disorder causing multiple birth defects and sensory deficits (hearing, vision, balance, smell). Genetic counseling in CS must include not only the provision of factual information about CS, its cause, and inheritance, but also information about the developmental implications of CS features, referral to appropriate resources, and assistance with psychosocial adaptation to this information. CS should be considered in patients with any of the major diagnostic features: coloboma, choanal atresia, semicircular canal anomalies, or cranial nerve anomalies. The prime candidates in the differential are 22q11.2 deletion and Kabuki syndromes. Evaluation of features of CS, dysmorphology examination, and genetic testing can usually distinguish between the three conditions. Genetic counseling is important from early on, to help the family understand the process of genetic diagnosis, to interpret information coming from other specialists and to provide support and resources. Parents can easily be overwhelmed with the complexity of issues facing their child at diagnosis and in the future. CS is a substantial burden on a child, with high early mortality, multiple illnesses, hospitalizations and surgeries, and apparent medical fragility throughout life. The medical complexity of CS disrupts family life and contributes to delayed development. Multiple sensory deficits (impaired vision, hearing, and balance) further contribute to delayed motor and language development despite many individuals with CS having normal intelligence. Early referral to specialists in deafblindness and sensory deficits is essential. Resources are available to assist genetic counselors in diagnosis, follow‐up, and management of patients with CS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T11:25:28.715962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31589
  • Clinical and molecular effects of CHD7 in the heart
    • Authors: Nicole Corsten-Janssen; Peter J. Scambler
      Abstract: Heart defects caused by loss‐of‐function mutations in CHD7 are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in CHARGE syndrome. Here we review the clinical and molecular aspects of CHD7 that are related to the cardiovascular manifestations of the syndrome. The types of heart defects found in patients with CHD7 mutations are variable, with an overrepresentation of atrioventricular septal defect and outflow tract defect including aortic arch anomalies compared to nonsyndromic heart defects. Chd7 haploinsufficiency in mouse is a good model for studying the heart effects seen in CHARGE syndrome, and mouse models reveal a role for Chd7 in multiple lineages during heart development. Formation of the great vessels requires Chd7 expression in the pharyngeal surface ectoderm, and this expression likely has an non‐autonomous effect on neural crest cells. In the cardiogenic mesoderm, Chd7 is required for atrioventricular cushion development and septation of the outflow tract. Emerging knowledge about the function of CHD7 in the heart indicates that it may act in concert with transcription factors such as TBX1 and SMADs to regulate genes such as p53 and the cardiac transcription factor NKX2.5.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T11:25:23.845741-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31590
  • Behavior in CHARGE syndrome
    • Authors: Timothy S. Hartshorne; Kasee K. Stratton, David Brown, Shanti Madhavan-Brown, Megan C. Schmittel
      Abstract: Unusual behavior is often associated with genetic syndromes, and may constitute a behavioral phenotype. In contrast to providing a psychiatric diagnosis, a behavioral phenotype describes what is unique to the behavior associated with different syndromes. While behaviors in CHARGE are as complex and variable as other aspects of the syndrome, there are some commonalities that raise the question of common sources for these behaviors. This article addresses how pain, sensory issues, and anxiety may impact the behavior of individuals with CHARGE syndrome, and how the development of self‐regulation skills might help to mitigate some of the behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:41:11.044295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31588
  • Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal
           models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular
    • Authors: Daniel I. Choo; Kareem O. Tawfik, Donna M. Martin, Yehoash Raphael
      Abstract: The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear‐related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:41:02.408161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31587
  • Gastrointestinal and feeding difficulties in CHARGE syndrome: A review
           from head‐to‐toe
    • Authors: Kim D. Blake; Alexandra S. Hudson
      Abstract: CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is primarily diagnosed based on clinical features, with genetic testing available for confirmation. The CHARGE mnemonic stands for some of the common characteristics: coloboma, heart defects, atresia/stenosis of the choanae, retardation of growth/development, genitourinary anomalies, and ear abnormalities (CHARGE). However, many of the common clinical features are not captured by this mnemonic, including cranial nerve dysfunction, considered by some to be one of the major diagnostic criteria. Over 90% of individuals experience feeding and gastrointestinal dysfunction, which carries great morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the nature of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and feeding difficulties in CHARGE syndrome, focusing on their underlying pathology, associated investigations, and available treatment options. We also provide information on available tools (for parents, clinicians, and researchers) that are important additions to the lifelong healthcare management of every individual with CHARGE syndrome. We review how cranial nerve dysfunction is one of the most important characteristics underlying the pervasive GI and feeding dysfunction, and discuss the need for future research on gut innervation and motility in this genetic disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:40:54.042892-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31586
  • CHARGEd with neural crest defects
    • Authors: Silke Pauli; Ruchi Bajpai, Annette Borchers
      Abstract: Neural crest cells are highly migratory pluripotent cells that give rise to diverse derivatives including cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, pigment, and endocrine cells as well as neurons and glia. Abnormalities in neural crest‐derived tissues contribute to the etiology of CHARGE syndrome, a complex malformation disorder that encompasses clinical symptoms like coloboma, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies, and deafness. Mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA‐binding protein 7 (CHD7) gene are causative of CHARGE syndrome and loss‐of‐function data in different model systems have firmly established a role of CHD7 in neural crest development. Here, we will summarize our current understanding of the function of CHD7 in neural crest development and discuss possible links of CHARGE syndrome to other developmental disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:40:29.839595-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31584
  • Cover Image, Volume 175C, Number 3, September 2017
    • Abstract: The cover image, by Gene S. Fisch, is based on the Introduction Introduction to Behavioral Phenotypes In Medical Genetics,
      DOI : 10.1002/ajmg.c.31573.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T11:41:57.411408-05:
  • Table of Contents, Volume 175C, Number 3, September 2017
    • First page: 315
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T11:41:55.559793-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31518
  • Publication schedule for 2017
    • First page: 316
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T11:41:54.627975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31519
  • Introduction to behavioral phenotypes in medical genetics
    • Authors: Gene S. Fisch
      First page: 317
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T06:55:32.868418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31573
  • Phenotype analysis of congenital and neurodevelopmental disorders in the
           next generation sequencing era
    • Authors: John C. Carey
      First page: 320
      Abstract: The designation, phenotype, was proposed as a term by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1909. The word is derived from the Greek, phano (showing) and typo (type), phanotypos. Phenotype has become a widely recognized term, even outside of the genetics community, in recent years with the ongoing identification of human disease genes. The term has been defined as the observable constitution of an organism, but sometimes refers to a condition when a person has a particular clinical presentation. Analysis of phenotype is a timely theme because advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of human disease and the emergence of next generation sequencing have spurred a renewed interest in phenotype and the proposal to establish a “Human Phenome Project.” This article summarizes the principles of phenotype analysis that are important in medical genetics and describes approaches to comprehensive phenotype analysis in the investigation of patients with human disorders. I discuss the various elements related to disease phenotypes and highlight neurofibromatosis type 1 and the Elements of Morphology Project as illustrations of the principles. In recent years, the notion of “deep phenotyping” has emerged. Currently there are now a number of proposed strategies and resources to approach this concept. Not since the 1960s and 1970s has there been such an exciting time in the history of medicine surrounding the analysis of phenotype in genetic disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T08:05:39.067839-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31568
  • Phenotypes, pleiotropy, and phylogeny
    • Authors: John M. Opitz
      First page: 329
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T06:55:49.58433-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31574
  • Irving Gottesman and the concept of endophenotype
    • Authors: Matt McGue
      First page: 341
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T07:15:20.743162-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31569
  • Whither the genotype-phenotype relationship' An historical and
           methodological appraisal
    • Authors: Gene S. Fisch
      First page: 343
      Abstract: More than a century ago, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed the terms “genotype” and “phenotype” to study heredity. Much of what we know about genetics and behavior has evolved since then, especially how causality from genotypes can be inferred from observational studies of phenotypes. Unfortunately, there are genotypes that produce complex clinical-behavioral phenotypes—pleiotropy. In addition, there are often many genotypes that produce the same phenotype, adding a layer of complexity in establishing valid genotype-phenotype relationships. Unlike the relative simplicity of some phenotypes, behavioral phenotypes, especially those characteristics considered aberrant, are multidimensional and often not easily defined operationally. An alternate approach which attempts to identify less evident manifestations below the level of the phenotype but along the pathway to the prospective genotype—endophenotypes—could prove useful in detecting genes that generate these markers. However, operational definitions of intermediate phenotypes vary, less overt neurobiological expressions for some disorders—autism—have not been found, and studies of endophenotypes associated with schizophrenia have been not been very successful. Another approach, suggested by Sewall Wright, uses path analysis to identify causal variables that produce phenotypes. Innovative models of causality have been developed recently by genetic epidemiologists that incorporate Mendel's second law, and Mendelian randomization has been successful in identifying genotypes associated with some diseases, for example, diabetes and cancer. Regrettably, shortcomings regarding genetic markers associated with intermediate phenotypes have been found, although there are statistical procedures to remedy matters. As in any science, genetic researchers need to consider carefully the models of causality they choose.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T06:55:19.812323-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31571
  • A review of endophenotypes in schizophrenia and autism: The next phase for
           understanding genetic etiologies
    • Authors: Lisabeth F. DiLalla; Megan McCrary, Emma Diaz
      First page: 354
      Abstract: Many psychiatric disorders are caused by multiple genes and multiple environmental factors, making the identification of specific genetic risk factors for these disorders difficult. Endophenotypes are behaviors or characteristics that are intermediate between the genotype and a phenotype of interest. Because they are more directly related to the gene action than is the endpoint disorder, they may be useful in the identification of specific genes related to psychiatric disorders and the classification of disorders or traits that share an underlying genetic etiology. We discuss genetic and endophenotype research on schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in this review. Some of the psychophysiological endophenotypes that have been studied for schizophrenia include prepulse inhibition of the startle response, the antisaccadic task assessing frontal lobe function, inhibition of the P50 event-related potential (ERP), and other auditory ERP measures. Potential ASD endophenotypes include theory of mind, language skills (specifically, age at first spoken word and first spoken phrase), social skills, and certain brain functions, such as asynchronization of neural activity and brain responses to emotional faces. Because the link between genes and specific psychiatric disorders is difficult to determine, identification of endophenotypes is useful for beginning the search to identify specific genes that affect these disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T08:05:18.390127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31566
  • Microstructural white matter tract alteration in Prader-Willi syndrome: A
           diffusion tensor imaging study
    • Authors: Lauren J. Rice; Jim Lagopoulos, Michael Brammer, Stewart L. Einfeld
      First page: 362
      Abstract: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, hyperphagia, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, intellectual disability, and severe emotional and behavioral problems. The brain mechanisms that underpin these disturbances are unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables in vivo investigation of the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways. To date, only one study has used DTI to examine white matter alterations in PWS. However, that study used selected regions of interest, rather than a whole brain analysis. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor and magnetic resonance (T 1-weighted) imaging to examine microstructural white matter changes in 15 individuals with PWS (17–30 years) and 15 age-and-gender-matched controls. Whole-brain voxel-wise statistical analysis of FA was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly decreased fractional anisotropy was found localized to the left hemisphere in individuals with PWS within the splenium of the corpus callosum, the internal capsule including the posterior thalamic radiation and the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF). Reduced integrity of these white matter pathways in individuals with PWS may relate to orientating attention, emotion recognition, semantic processing, and sensorimotor dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:25:42.099701-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31572
  • Genetic rodent models of brain disorders: Perspectives on experimental
           approaches and therapeutic strategies
    • Authors: Christopher M. McGraw; Christopher S. Ward, Rodney C. Samaco
      First page: 368
      Abstract: Neurobehavioral disorders comprised of neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders together represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite significant academic research and industry efforts to elucidate the disease mechanisms operative in these disorders and to develop mechanism‐based therapies, our understanding remains incomplete and our access to tractable therapeutic interventions severely limited. The magnitude of these short‐comings can be measured by the growing list of disappointing clinical trials based on initially promising compounds identified in genetic animal models. This review and commentary will explore why this may be so, focusing on the central role that genetic models of neurobehavioral disorders have come to occupy in current efforts to identify disease mechanisms and therapies. In particular, we will highlight the unique pitfalls and challenges that have hampered success in these models as compared to genetic models of non‐neurological diseases as well as to symptom‐based models of the early 20th century that led to the discovery of all major classes of psychoactive pharmaceutical compounds still used today. Using examples from specific genetic rodent models of human neurobehavioral disorders, we will highlight issues of reproducibility, construct validity, and translational relevance in the hopes that these examples will be instructive toward greater success in future endeavors. Lastly, we will champion a two‐pronged approach toward identifying novel therapies for neurobehavioral disorders that makes greater use of the historically more successful symptom‐based approaches in addition to more mechanism‐based approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T11:41:55.603741-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31570
  • Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in
           the open field and water-maze place navigation task
    • Authors: Ann-Kristina Fritz; Irmgard Amrein, David P. Wolfer
      First page: 380
      Abstract: Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water-maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for Cohen's d as measure of effect size were computed and tested for equivalence with 0.2 as equivalence margin. Despite the large sample size, only few behavioral parameters showed a significant sex effect on CV. Confidence intervals of effect size indicated that CV was either equivalent or showed a small sex difference at most, accounting for less than 2% of total group to group variation of CV. While female mice were potentially slightly more variable in water-maze acquisition and in the open field, males tended to perform less reliably in the water-maze probe trial. In addition to evaluating variability, we also directly compared mean performance of female and male mice and found them to be equivalent in both water-maze place navigation and open field exploration. Our data confirm and extend other large scale studies in demonstrating that including female mice in experiments does not cause a relevant increase of data variability. Our results make a strong case for including mice of both sexes whenever open field or water-maze are used in preclinical research.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T12:30:32.564156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31565
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