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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1579 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1579 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 241, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
  [SJR: 1.771]   [H-I: 107]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1552-485X
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • ADH1B: From alcoholism, natural selection, and cancer to the human phenome
    • Authors: Renato Polimanti; Joel Gelernter
      Abstract: The ADH1B (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B (class I), Beta Polypeptide) gene and its best-known functional alleles, Arg48His (rs1229984, ADH1B*2) and Arg370Cys (rs2066702, ADH1B*3), have been investigated in relation to many phenotypic traits; most frequently including alcohol metabolism and alcohol drinking behaviors, but also human evolution, liver function, cancer, and, recently, the comprehensive human phenome. To understand ADH1B functions and consequences, we provide here a bioinformatic analysis of its gene regulation and molecular functions, literature review of studies focused on this gene, and a discussion regarding future research perspectives. Certain ADH1B alleles have large effects on alcohol metabolism, and this relationship particularly encourages further investigations in relation to alcoholism and alcohol-associated cancer to understand better the mechanisms by which alcohol metabolism contributes to alcohol abuse and carcinogenesis. We also observed that ADH1B has complex mechanisms that regulate its expression across multiple human tissues, and these may be involved in cardiac and metabolic traits. Evolutionary data strongly suggest that the selection signatures at the ADH1B locus are primarily related to effects other than those on alcohol metabolism. This is also supported by the involvement of ADH1B in multiple molecular pathways and by the findings of our recent phenome-wide association study. Accordingly, future studies should also investigate other functions of ADH1B potentially relevant for the human phenome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T23:45:27.580028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32523
  • Predictive testing of minors for Huntington's disease: The UK and
           Netherlands experiences
    • Abstract: A consistent feature of predictive testing guidelines for Huntington's disease (HD) is the recommendation not to undertake predictive tests on those
  • OPTN p.Met468Arg and ATXN2 intermediate length polyQ extension in families
           with C9orf72 mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal
    • Abstract: We have ascertained two families affected with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which they both carry a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene, specifically in individuals who also presented with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD). While some reports attribute this phenotypic heterogeneity to the C9orf72 expansion alone, we screened for additional genetic variation in known ALS‐FTD genes that may also contribute to or modify the phenotypes. We performed genetic testing consisting of C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansion, ATXN2 polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion, and targeted next generation sequencing using the ONDRISeq, a gene panel consisting of 80 genes known to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, FTD, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. In addition to the C9orf72 expansion, we observed an ATXN2 polyQ intermediate length expansion, and OPTN p.Met468Arg in patients who exhibited ALS and FTD or bvFTD. We conclude that the C9orf72 expansion likely explains much of the ALS‐FTD phenotype; however, inheritance of these additional variants likely modifies the disease course and may provide further evidence for biologically relevant oligogenic inheritance in ALS.
  • Identification of a novel homozygous TRAPPC9 gene mutation causing
           non‐syndromic intellectual disability, speech disorder, and secondary
    • Abstract: TRAPPC9 gene mutations have been linked recently to autosomal recessive mental retardation 13 (MRT13; MIM#613192) with only eight families reported world‐wide. We assessed patients from two consanguineous pedigrees of Pakistani descent with non‐syndromic intellectual disability and postnatal microcephaly through whole exome sequencing (WES) and cosegregation analysis. Here we report six further patients from two pedigrees with homozygous TRAPPC9 gene mutations, the novel nonsense mutation c.2065G>T (p.E689*) and the previously identified nonsense mutation c.1423C>T (p.R475*). We provide an overview of previously reported clinical features and highlight common symptoms and variability of MRT13. Common findings are intellectual disability and absent speech, and frequently microcephaly, motor delay and pathological findings on MRI including diminished cerebral white matter volume are present. Mutations in TRAPPC9 should be considered in non‐syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability with severe speech disorder.
  • A functional polymorphism of the OXTR gene is associated with autistic
           traits in Caucasian and Asian populations
    • Abstract: There is increasing evidence for associations between polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism spectrum disorder, but to date no study has established links with autistic traits in healthy subjects and potential cultural differences. The present research firstly investigated associations between three widely studied OXTR SNPs and autistic and empathic traits (rs53576 (G/A); rs2254298 (G/A); rs2268498 (T/C)) in two independent studies on male and female Caucasian (n = 537) and Chinese students (n = 280). Autistic and empathic traits were measured in all subjects in the two independent groups using the Autism ‐Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) respectively, together with their sub‐scales. For both sites, genotyping of the OXTR SNPs was conducted on buccal swab samples using a Cobas Z 480 Light Cycler following automated DNA extraction. Associations at the genotype level with autism trait scores were found in Caucasian subjects for rs2268498 only, with TT carriers having the lowest AQ scores compared with those carrying at least one C‐allele. This finding was independently replicated in the Chinese sample although a smaller proportion carried the C‐allele compared with the Caucasian sample. Some minor associations were found between empathy trait scores and the three SNPs but were not consistent between the samples. These findings show for the first time that the rs2268498 SNP localized in the promoter flanking region of the OXTR gene is associated with autistic traits in different ethnic/cultural groups. This provides further support for the role of the OXTR gene in relation to autism.
  • Exome sequencing reveals NAA15 and PUF60 as candidate genes associated
           with intellectual disability
    • Abstract: Intellectual Disability (ID) is a clinically heterogeneous condition that affects 2–3% of population worldwide. In recent years, exome sequencing has been a successful strategy for studies of genetic causes of ID, providing a growing list of both candidate and validated ID genes. In this study, exome sequencing was performed on 28 ID patients in 27 patient‐parent trios with the aim to identify de novo variants (DNVs) in known and novel ID associated genes. We report the identification of 25 DNVs out of which five were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Among these, a two base pair deletion was identified in the PUF60 gene, which is one of three genes in the critical region of the 8q24.3 microdeletion syndrome (Verheij syndrome). Our result adds to the growing evidence that PUF60 is responsible for the majority of the symptoms reported for carriers of a microdeletion across this region. We also report variants in several genes previously not associated with ID, including a de novo missense variant in NAA15. We highlight NAA15 as a novel candidate ID gene based on the vital role of NAA15 in the generation and differentiation of neurons in neonatal brain, the fact that the gene is highly intolerant to loss of function and coding variation, and previously reported DNVs in neurodevelopmental disorders.
  • Ancestry‐specific and sex‐specific risk alleles identified in a
           genome‐wide gene‐by‐alcohol dependence interaction study of risky
           sexual behaviors
    • Abstract: We previously mapped loci for the genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) and genome‐wide gene‐by‐alcohol dependence interaction (GW‐GxAD) analyses of risky sexual behaviors (RSB). This study extends those findings by analyzing the ancestry‐ and sex‐specific AD‐stratified effects on RSB. We examined the concordance of findings for the AD‐stratified GWAS and the GW‐GxAD analysis of RSB, with concordance defined as genome‐wide significance in one analysis and at least nominal significance in the second analysis. A total of 2,173 African‐American (AA) and 1,751 European‐American (EA) subjects were investigated. Information regarding RSB (lifetime experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners) and DSM‐IV diagnosis of lifetime AD were derived from the Semi‐Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA). In our ancestry‐ and sex‐specific analyses, we identified four independent genome‐wide significant (GWS) loci (p 
  • Genetic and molecular risk factors within the newly identified
           primate‐specific exon of the SAP97/DLG1 gene in the 3q29
           schizophrenia‐associated locus
    • Abstract: The synapse‐associated protein 97/discs, large homolog 1 of Drosophila (DLG1) gene encodes synaptic scaffold PDZ proteins interacting with ionotropic glutamate receptors including the N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) that is presumed to be hypoactive in brains of patients with schizophrenia. The DLG1 gene resides in the chromosomal position 3q29, the microdeletion of which confers a 40‐fold increase in the risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we performed genetic association analyses for DLG1 gene using a Japanese cohort with 1808 schizophrenia patients and 2170 controls. We detected an association which remained significant after multiple comparison testing between schizophrenia and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3915512 that is located within the newly identified primate‐specific exon (exon 3b) of the DLG1 gene and constitutes the exonic splicing enhancer sequence. When stratified by onset age, although it did not survive multiple comparisons, the association was observed in non‐early onset schizophrenia, whose onset‐age selectivity is consistent with our recent postmortem study demonstrating a decrease in the expression of the DLG1 variant in early‐onset schizophrenia. Although the present study did not demonstrate the previously reported association of the SNP rs9843659 by itself, a meta‐analysis revealed a significant association between DLG1 gene and schizophrenia. These findings provide a valuable clue for molecular mechanisms on how genetic variations in the primate‐specific exon of the gene in the schizophrenia‐associated 3q29 locus affect its regulation in the glutamate system and lead to the disease onset around a specific stage of brain development.
  • Nhe5 deficiency enhances learning and memory via upregulating Bdnf/TrkB
           signaling in mice
    • Abstract: Nhe5, a Na+/H+ exchanger, is predominantly expressed in brain tissue and is proposed to act as a negative regulator of dendritic spine growth. Up to now, its physiological function in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that Nhe5‐deficient mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and memory in Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and passive avoidance task. Meanwhile, the pre‐ and post‐synaptic components, synaptophysin (Syn) and post‐synaptic density 95 (PSD95) expression levels were found increased in hippocampal regions lacking of Nhe5, suggesting a possible alterations in neuronal synaptic structure and function in Nhe5−/− mice. Further study reveals that Nhe5 deficiency leads to higher Bdnf expression levels, followed by increased phosphorylated TrkB and PLCγ levels, indicating that Bdnf/TrkB signaling is activated due to Nhe5 deficiency. Moreover, the corresponding brain regions of Nhe5−/− mice display elevated ERK/CaMKII/CREB phosphorylation levels. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel physiological function of Nhe5 in regulating learning and memory, further implying Nhe5 as a potential therapeutic target for improving cognition.
  • The role of cadherin genes in five major psychiatric disorders: A
           literature update
    • Abstract: Converging evidence from candidate gene, genome‐wide linkage, and association studies support a role of cadherins in the pathophysiology of five major psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). These molecules are transmembrane proteins which act as cell adhesives by forming adherens junctions (AJs) to bind cells within tissues. Members of the cadherin superfamily are also involved in biological processes such as signal transduction and plasticity that have been implicated in the etiology of major psychiatric conditions. Although there are over 110 genes mapped to the cadherin superfamily, our literature survey showed that evidence of association with psychiatric disorders is strongest for CDH7, CHD11, and CDH13. Gene enrichment analysis showed that those cadherin genes implicated in psychiatric disorders were overrepresented in biological processes such as in cell‐cell adhesion (GO:0007156 & GO:0098742) and adherens junction organization (GO:0034332). Further, cadherin genes were also mapped to processes that have been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders such as nervous system development (GO:0007399). To further understand the role of cadherin SNPs implicated in psychiatric disorders, we utilized an in silico computational pipeline to functionally annotate associated variants. This analysis yielded eight variants mapped to PCDH1‐13, CDH7, CDH11, and CDH13 that are predicted to be biologically functional. Functional genomic evaluation is now required to understand the molecular mechanism by which these variants might confer susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.
  • Exome sequences of multiplex, multigenerational families reveal
           schizophrenia risk loci with potential implications for neurocognitive
    • Abstract: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness, involving disruptions in thought and behavior, with a worldwide prevalence of about one percent. Although highly heritable, much of the genetic liability of schizophrenia is yet to be explained. We searched for susceptibility loci in multiplex, multigenerational families affected by schizophrenia, targeting protein‐altering variation with in silico predicted functional effects. Exome sequencing was performed on 136 samples from eight European‐American families, including 23 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. In total, 11,878 non‐synonymous variants from 6,396 genes were tested for their association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Pathway enrichment analyses were conducted on gene‐based test results, protein‐protein interaction (PPI) networks, and epistatic effects. Using a significance threshold of FDR 
  • The role of CLOCK gene in psychiatric disorders: Evidence from human and
           animal research
    • Abstract: The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. Many animal experiments focusing on the effects of the Clock gene in behavior related to psychiatric conditions have shown consistent biological plausibility and promising findings. In humans, genetic and gene expression studies regarding disorder susceptibility, sleep disturbances related comorbidities, and response to pharmacological treatment, in general, are in agreement with animal studies. However, the number of controversial results is high. Literature suggests that the CLOCK gene exerts important influence on these conditions, and influences the susceptibility to phenotypes of psychiatric disorders.
  • Genomewide association studies of suicide attempts in US soldiers
    • Abstract: Suicide is a global public health problem with particular resonance for the US military. Genetic risk factors for suicidality are of interest as indicators of susceptibility and potential targets for intervention. We utilized population‐based nonclinical cohorts of US military personnel (discovery: N = 473 cases and N = 9778 control subjects; replication: N = 135 cases and N = 6879 control subjects) and a clinical case‐control sample of recent suicide attempters (N = 51 cases and N = 112 control subjects) to conduct GWAS of suicide attempts (SA). Genomewide association was evaluated within each ancestral group (European‐, African‐, Latino‐American) and study using logistic regression models. Meta‐analysis of the European ancestry discovery samples revealed a genomewide significant locus in association with SA near MRAP2 (melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2) and CEP162 (centrosomal protein 162); 12 genomewide significant SNPs in the region; peak SNP rs12524136‐T, OR = 2.88, p = 5.24E‐10. These findings were not replicated in the European ancestry subsamples of the replication or suicide attempters samples. However, the association of the peak SNP remained significant in a meta‐analysis of all studies and ancestral subgroups (OR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.70, 2.80). Polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses showed some association of SA with bipolar disorder. The association with SNPs encompassing MRAP2, a gene expressed in brain and adrenal cortex and involved in neural control of energy homeostasis, points to this locus as a plausible susceptibility gene for suicidality that should be further studied. Larger sample sizes will be needed to confirm and extend these findings.
  • Cover Image, Volume 174B, Number 7, October 2017
    • Abstract:  
  • Issue Information ‐ TOC
  • Phelan-McDermid syndrome data network: Integrating patient reported
           outcomes with clinical notes and curated genetic reports
    • Abstract: The heterogeneity of patient phenotype data are an impediment to the research into the origins and progression of neuropsychiatric disorders. This difficulty is compounded in the case of rare disorders such as Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) by the paucity of patient clinical data. PMS is a rare syndromic genetic cause of autism and intellectual deficiency. In this paper, we describe the Phelan-McDermid Syndrome Data Network (PMS_DN), a platform that facilitates research into phenotype–genotype correlation and progression of PMS by: a) integrating knowledge of patient phenotypes extracted from Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) data and clinical notes—two heterogeneous, underutilized sources of knowledge about patient phenotypes—with curated genetic information from the same patient cohort and b) making this integrated knowledge, along with a suite of statistical tools, available free of charge to authorized investigators on a Web portal PMS_DN is a Patient Centric Outcomes Research Initiative (PCORI) where patients and their families are involved in all aspects of the management of patient data in driving research into PMS. To foster collaborative research, PMS_DN also makes patient aggregates from this knowledge available to authorized investigators using distributed research networks such as the PCORnet PopMedNet. PMS_DN is hosted on a scalable cloud based environment and complies with all patient data privacy regulations. As of October 31, 2016, PMS_DN integrates high-quality knowledge extracted from the clinical notes of 112 patients and curated genetic reports of 176 patients with preprocessed PRO data from 415 patients.
  • Longitudinal telomere shortening and early Alzheimer's disease progression
           in adults with down syndrome
    • Abstract: Telomere shortening was shown to parallel Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated dementia. By using a dual PNA Probe system we have developed a practical method for comparing telomere length in T-lymphocyte interphases from individuals with Down syndrome (DS) with and without “mild cognitive impairment” (MCI-DS) and demonstrated that telomere length can serve as a valid biomarker for the onset of MCI-DS in this high-risk population. To verify progressive cognitive decline we have now examined sequential changes in telomere length in 10 adults with DS (N = 4 Female, N = 6 Male) developing MCI-DS. Cases were selected blind to telomere length from a sample of adults with DS previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study at 18-month intervals with clinical and telomere assessments: (1) MCI-DS group data were collected approximately three years prior to development of MCI-DS; (2) 18 months later; (3) when MCI-DS was first observed. These telomere measures were compared to those from another 10 adults with DS matched by sex and approximate age but without indications of MCI-DS (Controls). PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes for telomeres together with a chromosome two centromere probe were used. Findings indicated telomere shortening over time for both Cases and Controls. Group differences emerged by 18-months prior to recognition of MCI-DS onset and completely non-overlapping distributions of telomere measures were observed by the time of MCI-DS onset. This study adds to accumulating evidence of the value of telomere length, as an early biomarker of AD progression in adults with Down syndrome.
  • Genome-wide significant locus for Research Diagnostic Criteria
           Schizoaffective Disorder Bipolar type
    • Abstract: Studies have suggested that Research Diagnostic Criteria for Schizoaffective Disorder Bipolar type (RDC-SABP) might identify a more genetically homogenous subgroup of bipolar disorder. Aiming to identify loci associated with RDC-SABP, we have performed a replication study using independent RDC-SABP cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 6,559), focusing on the 10 loci that reached a p-value
  • A polygenic risk score analysis of psychosis endophenotypes across brain
           functional, structural, and cognitive domains
    • Abstract: This large multi-center study investigates the relationships between genetic risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and multi-modal endophenotypes for psychosis. The sample included 4,242 individuals; 1,087 patients with psychosis, 822 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients, and 2,333 controls. Endophenotypes included the P300 event-related potential (N = 515), lateral ventricular volume (N = 798), and the cognitive measures block design (N = 3,089), digit span (N = 1,437), and the Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Task (N = 2,406). Data were collected across 11 sites in Europe and Australia; all genotyping and genetic analyses were done at the same laboratory in the United Kingdom. We calculated polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder separately, and used linear regression to test whether polygenic scores influenced the endophenotypes. Results showed that higher polygenic scores for schizophrenia were associated with poorer performance on the block design task and explained 0.2% (p = 0.009) of the variance. Associations in the same direction were found for bipolar disorder scores, but this was not statistically significant at the 1% level (p = 0.02). The schizophrenia score explained 0.4% of variance in lateral ventricular volumes, the largest across all phenotypes examined, although this was not significant (p = 0.063). None of the remaining associations reached significance after correction for multiple testing (with alpha at 1%). These results indicate that common genetic variants associated with schizophrenia predict performance in spatial visualization, providing additional evidence that this measure is an endophenotype for the disorder with shared genetic risk variants. The use of endophenotypes such as this will help to characterize the effects of common genetic variation in psychosis.
  • The clinical features of alcohol use disorders in biological and
           step-fathers that predict risk for alcohol use disorders in offspring
    • Abstract: Given that Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is clinically heterogeneous, can we, in a large epidemiological sample using public registries, identify clinical features of AUD cases in biological and step-fathers that index, respectively, genetic and familial-environmental risk for AUD in their offspring' From all father-offspring pairs where the father had AUD and the offspring was born 1960–1990, we identified not-lived-with (NLW) biological fathers (n = 38,376) and step-father pairs (n = 9,711). The relationship between clinical and historical features of the father's AUD and risk for AUD in offspring was assessed by linear hazard regression. Age at first registration for AUD and recurrence of AUD registration were significantly stronger predictors of risk for AUD in the offspring of NLW fathers than in step-fathers. By contrast, number of AUD registrations in NLW fathers and step-fathers were equally predictive of risk for AUD in offspring. However, while the number of step-father AUD registrations that occurred when he was living them with significantly predicted risk for AUD in his step-children, the number of registrations that occurred when not residing with his step-children was unassociated with their AUD risk. In an epidemiological sample, we could meaningfully differentiate between features of AUD in fathers that indexed genetic risk which was transmitted to biological offspring (early age at onset and recurrence) versus indexed environmental risk (registrations while rearing) which increased risk in step-children.
  • Role of 108 schizophrenia-associated loci in modulating psychopathological
           dimensions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
    • Abstract: The Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) identified 108 loci associated with schizophrenia, but their role in modulating specific psychopathological dimensions of the disease is unknown. This study investigated which symptom dimensions may be affected by these loci in schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Positive, negative and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, cognition, violent behaviors, quality of life, and early onset were investigated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) and systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) studies. Individual loci were investigated, then genes within 50 Kbp from polymorphisms with p 
  • The regulation of tetraspanin 8 gene expression—A potential new
           mechanism in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder
    • Abstract: In a previous study, we identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4500567, located in the upstream region of tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8), to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Due to its proximal position, the SNP might have an impact on promoter activity, thus on TSPAN8 gene expression. We investigated the impact of rs4500567 on TSPAN8 expression in vitro with luciferase-based promoter assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), and its effect on expression of downstream associated genes by microarray-based transcriptome analyses. Immunohistochemical localization studies on murine brain slices served to identify possible target regions of altered TSPAN8 expression in the brain. Promoter assays revealed decreased TSPAN8 expression in presence of the minor allele. Transcriptome analyses of TSPAN8-knockdown cells, mirroring the effects of putatively reduced TSPAN8 expression in minor allele carriers, resulted in 231 differentially expressed genes with enrichments of relevant signaling pathways for psychiatric disorders and neuronal development. Finally, we demonstrate Tspan8 abundance in mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. These findings point to a role of TSPAN8 in neuronal function or development. Considering a rather protective effect of the minor allele of rs4500567, our findings reveal a possible novel mechanism that contributes to the development of BD.
  • Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa coexisting with
           sensory-autonomic neuropathy and leukemia due to the homozygous
           p.Pro221Ser FLVCR1 mutation
    • Abstract: FLVCR1 encodes for a ubiquitous heme exporter, whose recessive mutations cause posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (PCARP). Recently, FLVCR1 recessive mutations were also found in two sporadic children with hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). We report the unique case of a 33-year-old Italian woman with a combination of typical PCARP, sensory-autonomic neuropathy with sensory loss to all modalities and multiple autonomic dysfuctions, and acute lymphocytic leukemia. Molecular analysis demonstrated homozygosity for the previously identified FLVCR1 p.Pro221Ser variation. The same variation, in combination with a frameshift mutation, was previously identified in an Italian child with HSAN. Functional studies carried out on patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines showed decreased FLVCR1a transcript, increased reactive oxygen species, excessive intracellular heme accumulation, and increased number of Annexin V positive cells. This indicates that the homozygous p.Pro221Ser FLVCR1 variation compromises the ability of FLVCR1a to export heme leading to enhanced susceptibility to programmed cell death. Our study demonstrates the existence of a phenotypic continuum among the discrete disorders previously linked to FLVCR1 mutations, and suggests that the related alteration of heme metabolism may lead to the degeneration of specific neuronal cell populations.
  • The dopamine transporter role in psychiatric phenotypes
    • Abstract: The dopamine transporter (DAT) is one of the most relevant and investigated neurotransmitter transporters. DAT is a plasma membrane protein which plays a homeostatic role, controlling both extracellular and intracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA). Since unbalanced DA levels are known to be involved in numerous mental disorders, a wealth of investigations has provided valuable insights concerning DAT role into normal brain functioning and pathological processes. Briefly, this extensive but non-systematic review discusses what is recently known about the role of SLC6A3 gene which encodes the dopamine transporter in psychiatric phenotypes. DAT protein, SLC6A3 gene, animal models, neuropsychology, and neuroimaging investigations are also concisely discussed. To conclude, current challenges are reviewed in order to provide perspectives for future studies.
  • Lack of TMEM230 mutations in patients with familial and sporadic
           Parkinson's disease in a Taiwanese population
    • Abstract: Mutations in transmembrane protein 230 (TMEM230) have recently been reported to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a North American population. A highly prevalent mutation, c.550_552delTAGinsCCCGGG (p.*184ProGlyext*5) was found in 3.1% of Chinese familial PD patients. However, subsequent studies failed to replicate these findings in different populations. Our objective was to confirm the role of this gene in a large number of PD patients and controls in a Taiwanese population. Among 1,672 participants, we sequenced all coding exons and exon–intron boundary junctions of the TMEM230 gene in 180 probands with familial PD. We also genotyped the potential pathogenic variants identified and the previously reported mutations (p.Arg141Leu, p.Tyr92Cys, p.*184Trpext*5, and p.*184ProGlyext*5) in an additional cohort of 500 patients with sporadic PD, and 992 age and gender-matched neurologically normal control subjects. We did not find any of the previously reported mutations, but we observed one novel missense exonic variant, c.G68A (p.Arg23Gln), in one patient with familial PD, and two patients with sporadic PD in a heterozygous state. However, subsequent analysis of this variant in 992 controls did not find any significant associations between p.Arg23Gln and the risk of PD (0.44% vs. 0.30%, p = 0.22). Our findings suggest that genetic variants of TMEM230 do not play a major role in PD in our Taiwanese population. Further experimental studies are warranted to confirm the pathogenicity of this gene in PD disease process.
  • Mutation intolerant genes and targets of FMRP are enriched for
           nonsynonymous alleles in schizophrenia
    • Abstract: Risk of schizophrenia is conferred by alleles occurring across the full spectrum of frequencies from common SNPs of weak effect through to ultra rare alleles, some of which may be moderately to highly penetrant. Previous studies have suggested that some of the risk of schizophrenia is attributable to uncommon alleles represented on Illumina exome arrays. Here, we present the largest study of exomic variation in schizophrenia to date, using samples from the United Kingdom and Sweden (10,011 schizophrenia cases and 13,791 controls). Single variants, genes, and gene sets were analyzed for association with schizophrenia. No single variant or gene reached genome-wide significance. Among candidate gene sets, we found significant enrichment for rare alleles (minor allele frequency [MAF]  4). We also show risk alleles within this frequency range exist, but confer smaller effects and should be identified by larger studies.
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes related to the
           hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as risk factors for posttraumatic
           stress disorder
    • Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder. The etiology of PTSD is multifactorial, depending on many environmental and genetic risk factors, and the exposure to life or physical integrity-threatening events. Several studies have shown significant correlations of many neurobiological findings with PTSD. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction is strongly correlated with this disorder. One hypothesis is that HPA axis dysfunction may precede the traumatic event, suggesting that genes expressed in the HPA axis may be involved in the development of PTSD. This article reviews molecular genetic studies related to PTSD collected through a literature search performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). The results of these studies suggest that several polymorphisms in the HPA axis genes, including FKBP5, NR3C1, CRHR1, and CRHR2, may be risk factors for PTSD development or may be associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms.
  • eHealth provides a novel opportunity to exploit the advantages of the
           Nordic countries in psychiatric genetic research, building on the public
           health care system, biobanks, and registries
    • Abstract: Nordic countries have played an important role in the recent progress in psychiatric genetics, both with large well–characterized samples and expertise. The Nordic countries have research advantages due to the organization of their societies, including system of personal identifiers, national health registries with information about diseases, treatment and prescriptions, and a public health system with geographical catchment areas. For psychiatric genetic research, the large biobanks and population surveys are a unique added value. Further, the population is motivated to participate in research, and there is a trust in the institutions of the society. These factors have been important for Nordic contributions to biomedical research, and particularly psychiatric genetics. In the era of eHealth, the situation seems even more advantageous for Nordic countries. The system with public health care makes it easy to implement national measures, and most of the Nordic health care sector is already based on electronic information. The potential advantages regarding informed consent, large scale recruitment and follow-up, and longitudinal cohort studies are tremendous. New precision medicine approaches can be tested within the health care system, with an integrated approach, using large hospitals or regions of the country as a test beds. However, data protection and legal framework have to be clarified. In order to succeed, it is important to keep the people's trust, and maintain the high ethical standards and systems for secure data management. Then the full potential of the Nordic countries can be leveraged in the new era of precision medicine including psychiatric genetics.
  • National-scale precision medicine for psychiatric disorders in Sweden
    • Abstract: Since psychiatric disorders have genetic architectures dominated by common variants of small effects, successful elucidation in psychiatric genetics necessitates large sample sizes. Collaboration and unconventional ascertainment methods are required to fulfill this need. Electronic health records have been increasingly seen as holding great potential for research, although they often pose substantial technical, legal and ethical challenges. Universal health care and national-scale registers with comprehensive medical, developmental, demographic, and geographic information make the Nordic countries ideal for psychiatric genetic epidemiology. The Genomic Aggregation Project in Sweden is gathering genetic data from subjects with and without complex genetic diseases in a single location for standardized processing and use in a wide variety of scientific investigations. Thirty groups with >160 K genotyped samples have joined GAPS. Although GAPS is general across medicine, many psychiatric disorders are represented within GAPS, and initial studies will focus on major depressive disorder. Through in-depth genetic investigations, the genes and pathways that will be identified can be leveraged for predictive and drug-development purposes. Sweden offers exceptional possibilities for psychiatric genetics, and GAPS aims to harness the wealth of available information for research to improve human health.
  • A comprehensive review of the genetic and biological evidence supports a
           role for MicroRNA-137 in the etiology of schizophrenia
    • Abstract: Since it was first associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) in a 2011 genome-wide association study (GWAS), there have been over 100 publications focused on MIR137, the gene encoding microRNA-137. These studies have examined everything from its fundamental role in the development of mice, flies, and fish to the intriguing enrichment of its target gene network in SCZ. Indeed, much of the excitement surrounding MIR137 is due to the distinct possibility that it could regulate a gene network involved in SCZ etiology, a disease which we now recognize is highly polygenic. Here we comprehensively review, to the best of our ability, all published genetic and biological evidence that could support or refute a role for MIR137 in the etiology of SCZ. Through a careful consideration of the literature, we conclude that the data gathered to date continues to strongly support the involvement of MIR137 and its target gene network in neuropsychiatric traits, including SCZ risk. There remain, however, more unanswered than answered questions regarding the mechanisms linking MIR137 genetic variation with behavior. These questions need answers before we can determine whether there are opportunities for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions based on MIR137. We conclude with a number of suggestions for future research on MIR137 that could help to provide answers and hope for a greater understanding of this devastating disorder.
  • Shifting the focus toward rare variants in schizophrenia to close the gap
           from genotype to phenotype
    • Abstract: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a disorder with a high heritability and a complex architecture. Several dozen genetic variants have been identified as risk factors through genome-wide association studies including large population-based samples. However, the bulk of the risk cannot be accounted for by the genes associated to date. Rare mutations have been historically seen as relevant only for some infrequent, Mendelian forms of psychosis. Recent findings, however, show that the subset of patients that present a mutation with major effect is larger than expected. We discuss some of the molecular findings of these studies. SZ is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. To identify the genetic variation underlying the disorder, research should be focused on features that are more likely a product of genetic heterogeneity. Based on the phenotypical correlations with rare variants, cognition emerges as a relevant domain to study. Cognitive disturbances could be useful in selecting cases that have a higher probability of carrying deleterious mutations, as well as on the correct ascertainment of sporadic cases for the identification of de novo variants.
  • Serotonergic 5HTTLPR/rs25531 s-allele homozygosity associates with violent
           suicides in male citalopram users
    • Abstract: Depressive disorders are involved as a background factor in over 50% of suicide cases. The most widely used antidepressants today are serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, not all users benefit from SSRI medication. Although the overall number of suicides in Finland have decreased notably during the last decade, the annual rate is still relatively high, particularly in male population. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic variants associated with decreased citalopram efficiency, 5HTTLPR/rs25531, and increased impulsive behavior, MAOA-uVNTR and HTR2B Q20*, are more frequent among citalopram users committing suicide than among the citalopram users in general. Also the effect of alcohol was evaluated. The study population comprised 349 suicide victims (184 males and 165 females). Based on the suicide method used, cases were divided into two groups; violent (88 males and 49 females) and non-violent (96 males and 116 females). The control group (284; 159 males and 125 females) consisted of citalopram users who died of causes other than suicide. We found that male citalopram users with low functioning s/s genotype of 5HTTLPR/rs25531 were in increased risk to commit violent suicide (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.15–5.42, p = 0.020). Surprisingly, high blood alcohol concentration was observed to be a risk factor only in non-violent suicides (both males and females), but not in violent ones. No association between suicides and MAOA-uVNTR and HTR2B Q20*, which have been previously connected to violent and impulsive behavior, was detected.
  • Genome-wide association study of facial emotion recognition in children
           and association with polygenic risk for mental health disorders
    • Abstract: Emotion recognition is disrupted in many mental health disorders, which may reflect shared genetic aetiology between this trait and these disorders. We explored genetic influences on emotion recognition and the relationship between these influences and mental health phenotypes. Eight-year-old participants (n = 4,097) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) faces test. Genome-wide genotype data was available from the Illumina HumanHap550 Quad microarray. Genome-wide association studies were performed to assess associations with recognition of individual emotions and emotion in general. Exploratory polygenic risk scoring was performed using published genomic data for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism spectrum disorder, anorexia, and anxiety disorders. No individual genetic variants were identified at conventional levels of significance in any analysis although several loci were associated at a level suggestive of significance. SNP-chip heritability analyses did not identify a heritable component of variance for any phenotype. Polygenic scores were not associated with any phenotype. The effect sizes of variants influencing emotion recognition are likely to be small. Previous studies of emotion identification have yielded non-zero estimates of SNP-heritability. This discrepancy is likely due to differences in the measurement and analysis of the phenotype.
  • Association between COMT Val158Met and psychiatric disorders: A
           comprehensive meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met is widely regarded as potentially important for understanding the genetic etiology of many different psychiatric disorders. The present study appears to be the first comprehensive meta-analysis of COMT genetic association studies to cover all psychiatric disorders for which there were available data, published in any language, and with an emphasis on investigating disorder subtypes (defined clinically or by demographic or other variables). Studies were included if they reported one or more datasets (i.e., some studies examined more than one clinical group) in which there were sufficient information to compute effect sizes. A total of 363 datasets were included, consisting of 56,998 cases and 74,668 healthy controls from case control studies, and 2,547 trios from family based studies. Fifteen disorders were included. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and panic disorder were associated with the Val allele for Caucasian samples. Substance-use disorder, defined by DSM-IV criteria, was associated with the Val allele for Asian samples. Bipolar disorder was associated with the Met allele in Asian samples. Obsessive-compulsive disorder tended to be associated with the Met allele only for males. There was suggestive evidence that the Met allele is associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia. Results suggest pleiotropy and underscore the importance of examining subgroups—defined by variables such as age of onset, sex, ethnicity, and diagnostic system—rather than examining disorders as monolithic constructs.
  • Identification of candidate genes involved in the etiology of sporadic
           Tourette syndrome by exome sequencing
    • Abstract: Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Although there is a large genetic contribution, the genetic architecture of TS remains unclear. Exome sequencing has successfully revealed the contribution of de novo mutations in sporadic cases with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Here, using exome sequencing, we investigated de novo mutations in individuals with sporadic TS to identify novel risk loci and elucidate the genetic background of TS. Exome analysis was conducted for sporadic TS cases: nine trio families and one quartet family with concordant twins were investigated. Missense mutations were evaluated using functional prediction algorithms, and their population frequencies were calculated based on three public databases. Gene expression patterns in the brain were analyzed using the BrainSpan Developmental Transcriptome. Thirty de novo mutations, including four synonymous and four missense mutations, were identified. Among the missense mutations, one in the rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR)-coding gene (rs140964083: G > A, found in one proband) was predicted to be hazardous. In the three public databases analyzed, variants in the same SNP locus were absent, and variants in the same gene were either absent or present at an extremely low frequency (3/5,008), indicating the rarity of hazardous RICTOR mutations in the general population. The de novo variant of RICTOR may be implicated in the development of sporadic TS, and RICTOR is a novel candidate factor for TS etiology.
  • The use of electronic health records for psychiatric phenotyping and
    • Abstract: The widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHRs) in healthcare systems has created a vast and continuously growing resource of clinical data and provides new opportunities for population-based research. In particular, the linking of EHRs to biospecimens and genomic data in biobanks may help address what has become a rate-limiting study for genetic research: the need for large sample sizes. The principal roadblock to capitalizing on these resources is the need to establish the validity of phenotypes extracted from the EHR. For psychiatric genetic research, this represents a particular challenge given that diagnosis is based on patient reports and clinician observations that may not be well-captured in billing codes or narrative records. This review addresses the opportunities and pitfalls in EHR-based phenotyping with a focus on their application to psychiatric genetic research. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that diagnostic algorithms with high positive predictive value can be derived from EHRs, especially when structured data are supplemented by text mining approaches. Such algorithms enable semi-automated phenotyping for large-scale case-control studies. In addition, the scale and scope of EHR databases have been used successfully to identify phenotypic subgroups and derive algorithms for longitudinal risk prediction. EHR-based genomics are particularly well-suited to rapid look-up replication of putative risk genes, studies of pleiotropy (phenomewide association studies or PheWAS), investigations of genetic networks and overlap across the phenome, and pharmacogenomic research. EHR phenotyping has been relatively under-utilized in psychiatric genomic research but may become a key component of efforts to advance precision psychiatry.
  • The highly pleiotropic gene SLC39A8 as an opportunity to gain insight into
           the molecular pathogenesis of schizophrenia
    • Abstract: There is a long way from the initial discovery of a genome-wide significant signal to mechanistic understanding of the association. Identification of the gene and causal polymorphism usually requires an extensive additional effort. The schizophrenia genome-wide significant locus at 4q24 may be a rare exception to this pattern. As discussed in this review, the association at this locus is most probably driven by a functional missense variant at the metal cations transporter SLC39A8. The variant, rs13107325, is almost exclusive of European populations and is one of the most pleiotropic variants of the genome, being associated at genome-wide significant level with several additional traits, such as body mass index, Crohn's disease, blood pressure related-traits, and serum levels of manganese, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and HDL-cholesterol. SLC39A8 seems to be subject to recent natural selection in Europeans. It is almost ubiquitously expressed and its physiological role is beginning to be elucidated, mainly in relation to immunity. This manuscript presents arguments in favor of the rs13107325 variant as the functional variant responsible for the association of this locus with schizophrenia, reviews the genetic associations with this gene, the evidences of natural selection on the gene, and the known aspects about its structure and physiological functions. Finally, some hypotheses about putative mechanisms for its association with schizophrenia are presented based on this knowledge, including impaired immunity/inflammation, interference with glutamatergic neurotransmission, homeostasis of essential metals in brain, such as iron, zinc or manganese, or neurotoxicity by heavy metals, such as cadmium or lead.
  • A genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage scan of NEO
           personality factors in Latino families segregating bipolar disorder
    • Abstract: Personality traits have been suggested as potential endophenotypes for Bipolar Disorder (BP), as they can be quantitatively measured and show correlations with BP. The present study utilized data from 2,745 individuals from 686 extended pedigrees originally ascertained for having multiplex cases of BP (963 cases of BPI or schizoaffective BP). Subjects were assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised (NEO PI-R) and genotyped using the Illumina HumanLinkage-24 Bead Chip, with an average genetic coverage of 0.67 cM. Two point linkage scores were calculated for each trait as a quantitative variable using SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines). Suggestive evidence for linkage was found for neuroticism at 1q32.1 (LOD = 2.52), 6q23.3 (2.32), 16p12 (2.79), extraversion at 4p15.3 (2.33), agreeableness at 4q31.1 (2.37), 5q34 (2.80), 7q31.1 (2.56), 16q22 (2.52), and conscientiousness at 4q31.1 (2.50). Each of the above traits have been shown to be correlated with the broad BP phenotype in this same sample. In addition, for the trait of openness, we found significant evidence of linkage to chromosome 3p24.3 (rs336610, LOD = 4.75) and suggestive evidence at 1q43 (2.74), 5q35.1 (3.03), 11q14.3 (2.61), 11q21 (2.30), and 19q13.1 (2.52). These findings support previous linkage findings of the openness trait to chromosome 19q13 and the agreeableness trait to 4q31 and identify a number of new loci for personality endophenotypes related to bipolar disorder.
  • Neuregulin 3 and its roles in schizophrenia risk and presentation
    • Abstract: Neuregulins, a four-member family of epidermal growth factor-like signaling molecules, have been studied for over two decades. They were first implicated in schizophrenia in 2002 with the detection of linkage and association at the NRG1 locus followed after a few years by NRG3. However, the associations with disease have not been very consistently observed. In contrast, association of NGR3 variants with disease presentation, specifically the presence of delusions, has been more consistent. This appears to be mediated by quantitative changes in the alternative splicing of the gene, which has also been consistently observed. Additional diseases and phenotypes, psychiatric or not, have also been connected with NRG3. These results demonstrate two important aspects of behavioral genetics research. The first is that if we only consider simple risk and fail to examine the details of each patient's individual phenotype, we will miss important insights on the disease biology. This is an important aspect of the goals of precision medicine. The second is that the functional consequences of variants are often more complex than simple alterations in levels of transcription of a particular gene, including, among others, regulation of alternative splicing. To accurately model and understand the biological consequences of phenotype—associated genetic variants, we need to study the biological consequences of each specific variant. Simply studying the consequences of a null allele of the orthologous gene in a model system, runs the risk of missing the many nuances of hypomorphic and/or gain of function variants in the genome of interest.
  • Glucocerebrosidase mutations and neuropsychiatric phenotypes in
           Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementias: Review and meta-analyses
    • Abstract: Heterozygous mutations in glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) are a major genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Recently, there has been a considerable focus on the relationship between GBA mutations and emergence of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms in these diseases. Here, we review the literature in this area, with a particular focus, including meta-analysis, on the key neuropsychiatric symptoms of cognitive impairment, psychosis, and depression in Parkinson's disease. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that GBA mutations are associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment. In addition, our novel meta-analyses of psychosis and depression showed a 1.8- and 2.2-fold increased risk respectively associated with GBA mutations, although due to possible bias and heterogeneity the depression findings should be interpreted with caution. While the precise mechanisms which increase susceptibility to neurodegeneration in GBA carriers are not known, evidence of greater cortical Lewy body pathology, reduced patterns of cortical activation, and hippocampal pathology in animal models are all consistent with a direct effect of GBA mutations on these symptoms. Extension of this work in DLB and individuals without neurodegeneration will be important in further characterizing how GBA mutations increase risk for PD and DLB and influence disease course.
  • A gene-based review of RGS4 as a putative risk gene for psychiatric
    • Abstract: Considerable efforts have been made to characterize RGS4 as a potential candidate gene for schizophrenia. Investigations span across numerous modalities and include explorations of genetic risk associations, mRNA and protein levels in the brain, and functionally relevant interactions with other candidate genes as well as links to schizophrenia relevant neural phenotypes. While these lines of investigations have yielded partially inconsistent findings, they provide a perspective on RGS4 as an important part of a larger biological system contributing to schizophrenia risk. This gene-based review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of published data from different experimental modalities and discusses the current knowledge of RGS4's systems-biological impact on the schizophrenia pathology.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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