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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 399, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Acta Ophthalmologica
  [SJR: 1.473]   [H-I: 38]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1755-375X - ISSN (Online) 1755-3768
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics reduce the risk of post-traumatic
           endophthalmitis after repair of open globe injuries
    • Authors: Marwan A. Abouammoh; Abdullah Al-Mousa, Mohammad Gogandi, Hani Al-Mezaine, Essam Osman, Abdulrahman M. Alsharidah, Abdullah Al-Kharashi, Ahmed M. Abu El-Asrar
      Abstract: PurposeTo investigate efficacy of prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics in reducing incidence of endophthalmitis after repair of open globe injuries. At King Abdulaziz University Hospital, a standard protocol of intravenous vancomycin and ceftazidime was used in all cases.MethodsCharts of 353 patients who presented between January 2010 and January 2014 with open globe injury were retrospectively reviewed. In addition, the standard protocol in this cohort included prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics in high-risk cases at time of primary repair. High-risk cases were identified based on the presence of one or more of the following risk factors: dirty wound, retained intra-ocular foreign body (IOFB), rural setting, delayed primary repair of>24 hr and ruptured lens capsule. Rate of endophthalmitis in this recent cohort was compared with that of a previous cohort admitted for primary repair between May 1996 and May 2008 (641 patients). In the previous cohort, protocol did not include prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics.ResultsRates of clinically suspected endophthalmitis and culture-positive endophthalmitis were higher in previous cohort (24 of 641 eyes; 3.7% and 12 of 641 eyes; 1.9%, respectively) compared to recent cohort (six of 353 eyes; 1.7% and two of 353 eyes; 0.6%, respectively). In high-risk groups, rates of suspected endophthalmitis and culture-positive endophthalmitis were higher in previous cohort (19 of 345 eyes; 5.5% and 12 of 345 eyes; 3.5%, respectively) compared to the recent cohort (five of 200 eyes; 2.5% and two of 200 eyes; 1.0%, respectively).ConclusionProphylactic intravitreal antibiotics reduce risk of endophthalmitis after repair of open globe injuries.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:10:19.13071-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13531
  • The effects of antioxidants on ocular blood flow in patients with glaucoma
    • Authors: Alon Harris; Josh Gross, Nicholas Moore, Thai Do, Amelia Huang, Willy Gama, Brent Siesky
      Abstract: PurposeTo investigate the effects of an antioxidant dietary supplement that includes Ginkgo biloba, on retinal and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG).MethodsForty-five patients with confirmed OAG were enroled in a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Baseline and postadministration measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), retrobulbar blood flow, and retinal capillary blood flow were non-invasively measured (ultrasound and laser Doppler modalities, respectively) before and one month after antioxidant nutraceuticals and placebo administration. Changes in measurements between the active supplement and placebo arms were evaluated using paired t-tests, with p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:00:24.174806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13530
  • Ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging of lipemia retinalis
    • Authors: Paolo S. Silva; Aditi Gupta, Radwan S. Ajlan, Deborah K. Schlossman, Ann M. Tolson, Jerry D. Cavallerano, Lloyd Paul Aiello
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo describe the characteristic retinal features of lipemia retinalis when using ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.Main PointsWe report a case series of three subjects with ultrawide field retinal images showing cream discoloration of the fundus, light salmon-coloured posterior retinal vessels and greyish pink peripheral vasculature. On green-only imaging, many of the vessels appear light rather than typically dark.ConclusionLipemia retinalis is readily apparent on ultrawide field imaging and illustrates the alterations that systemic diseases may induce in the posterior and peripheral retinal vasculature. Ultrawide field imaging highlights the disparate vascular appearance of the posterior pole and retinal periphery in this condition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T04:56:04.065987-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13525
  • Von Helmholtz's ophthalmometer: historical review and experience with one
           of the last surviving original devices
    • Authors: Daniel Godefrooij; Virgilio Galvis, Alejandro Tello
      Abstract: Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) was one of the most important scientists of the nineteenth century in optics and ophthalmology. One of his significant contributions in the field of vision sciences was the invention of the ophthalmometer in 1850, which was the precursor of the keratometers still used in clinical practice today. However, this development tends to be little recognized, and to be overshadowed by others of the achievements of this singular scientist. This review describes the historical setting behind the von Helmholtz's ophthalmometer and its mechanism. We also describe the modifications that were later made to the design. We report on our experience measuring a living human cornea with one of the last surviving devices in the world. The ophthalmometer by von Helmholtz marked the beginning of an era in the ophthalmology of the late nineteenth century, and although its original design was not broadly used in the clinical practice, and later abandoned, it opened the way for the development of practical systems very similar to the ones that we use even today.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T04:05:39.538695-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13493
  • Hyperopia shows the strongest association with LASIK retreatment
    • Authors: Andreas Frings; Elisa Intert, Johannes Steinberg, Vasyl Druchkiv, Stephan J. Linke, Toam Katz
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:25:22.426819-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13486
  • Stroke risk among adult patients with third, fourth or sixth cranial nerve
           palsy: a Nationwide Cohort Study
    • Authors: Tyler Hyungtaek Rim; Jinu Han, Yoon Seong Choi, Taekjune Lee, Sung Soo Kim
      Abstract: PurposeThis study sought to determine whether isolated third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies (NPs) are associated with increased short- and long-term risk of a subsequent stroke.MethodsThis was a nationwide retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study. A cohort of patients with NP (n = 466) and a randomly selected, propensity-matched control cohort (n = 2281) were extracted from the Korean national insurance claim database. Subjects were tracked for 5 years total, subdivided into periods of 0–1 years, 1–3 years and 3–5 years. We assessed the risk of stroke using hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustments using Cox regression at different time intervals.ResultsThe median follow-up was 3.1 years. Stroke developed in 18.9% of the NP cohort and 7.5% of the control cohort. Stroke risk after NP was highest in the first year [14.7 per 100 person-year at 0–1 years (HR = 6.6), 3.1 per 100 person-year at 1–3 years (HR = 1.6) and 4.3 per 100 person-year at 3–5 years (HR = 2.8)]. Each type of NP was also associated with stroke risk: within 0–1 years, stroke risk was increased in third (HR = 7.6), fourth (HR = 6.0) and sixth (HR = 5. 84) NPs. In the 3- to 5-year period, risk was increased in sixth (HR = 4.7) and fourth (HR = 3.3) NPs, but not third (HR = 0.6) NPs.ConclusionPatients in the NP cohort were more likely to have a stroke than those in the matched control cohort; the increased risk was both time- and cranial nerve-dependent.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:20:40.237566-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13488
  • Ocriplasmin treatment for vitreomacular traction in real life: can the
           indication spectrum be expanded'
    • Authors: Kleanthis Manousaridis; Silvia Peter, Stefan Mennel
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:00:37.523073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13469
  • Corneal confocal sub-basal nerve plexus evaluation: a review
    • Authors: Joanna Kokot; Adam Wylęgała, Bogumił Wowra, Łukasz Wójcik, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Edward Wylęgała
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to review the most recent data about corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) evaluated with the use of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). For this purpose, an electronic search was conducted based on PubMed and Google Scholar and Web of Science databases from 2008 up to the end of 2016. Ninety-eight articles in English were cited, as well as abstracts in other languages, concerning the morphology and function of corneal SNP in various diseases. Changes in corneal SNP as a result of local treatment were also introduced. Figures with scans from confocal microscopy from our Department were included. The main conclusion of this review was that both corneal SNP diminishment and high tortuosity as well as low sensitivity are in principle related to the presence or level of pathology. In addition, increased nerve tortuosity may represent a morphological determinant of nerve regeneration. However, the presented literature shows that SNP changes are not characteristic for one unified corneal pathology; rather, they reflect the non-specific pathological process present in many diseases. Future studies should use automatized biometric software and also examine the effects of new treatments on SNP.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T06:50:32.367518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13518
  • Transplantation of amniotic membrane for choroidal hole to treat
           suprachoroidal silicone oil migration
    • Authors: Dongqing Zhu; Xiaoliang Jin, Jibo Zhou
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T08:07:29.431484-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13516
  • Measurement centration and zone diameter in anterior, posterior and total
           corneal astigmatism in keratoconus
    • Authors: Anneli Fredriksson; Anders Behndig
      Abstract: PurposeTo investigate the central and paracentral astigmatism and the significance of centration and measurement zone diameter compared to a 3-mm pupil-centred measurement zone in keratoconus and in healthy eyes.MethodsTwenty-eight right eyes from 28 KC patients with an inferotemporal cone were selected according to specified criteria based on Oculus Pentacam HR® measurements and were matched with healthy control eyes. The flat (K1) and steep (K2) keratometry readings were registered from the ‘Total Corneal Refractive Power’ (TCRP) display as well as the anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism displays (ACA and PCA, respectively). Astigmatic power vectors KP0 and KP45 were calculated and analysed for a 6-mm and two 3-mm zones centred on the corneal apex and the pupil, and for 8 paracentral 3-mm zones.ResultsThe astigmatism was generally higher in KC. Many astigmatic values in KC differed between the 3-mm pupil-centred and the 3- and 6-mm apex-centred zones in KC. In the controls, no corresponding differences between measurement zones were seen, apart from PCA, which differed. The magnitude and direction of KP0 and KP45 varied greatly between the paracentral measurements in KC.ConclusionCentration and measurement zone diameter have great impacts on the astigmatic values in KC. A small pupil-centred measurement zone should be considered when evaluating the astigmatism in KC.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T08:57:03.342677-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13517
  • Vitrectomy with a modified temporal inverted limiting membrane flap to
           reconstruct the foveolar architecture for macular hole retinal detachment
           in highly myopic eyes
    • Authors: Tzyy-Chang Ho; Allen Ho, Muh-Shy Chen
      Abstract: PurposeWe investigated the surgical results of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) with a modified C-shaped temporal inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap to reconstruct the foveolar architecture in highly myopic eyes.MethodsEighteen highly myopic eyes with MHRD in 17 patients who underwent a vitrectomy with a modified C-shaped temporal inverted ILM flap were followed for 12 months. Anatomic outcomes were evaluated by fundus examinations and optical coherence tomography. The preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) were compared as functional outcomes.ResultsWomen accounted for 88% of the MHRD patients. The mean age was 60.2 ± 8.2 years. The mean axial length was 29.25 ± 2.10 mm. Type 1 and type 2 MHRD was present in four eyes and 14 eyes, respectively. After a single surgery, the hole was closed in 18 eyes (100%). Retinal attachment was achieved in 95%. Persistent shallow subretinal fluid (SRF) was noted in one case, which was resolved at follow-up. The surgery significantly improved BCVAs (from 1.7 ± 0.6 to 0.72 ± 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units [p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T05:27:01.003447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13514
  • Vascular and metabolic comorbidities in open-angle glaucoma with low- and
           high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea
    • Authors: Si Hyung Lee; Gyu Ah Kim, Wonseok Lee, Hyoung Won Bae, Gong Je Seong, Chan Yun Kim
      Abstract: PurposeTo assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea.MethodsCross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T05:05:21.25253-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13487
  • Analysis of KERA in four families with cornea plana identifies two novel
    • Authors: Lubica Dudakova; Jang Hee J. Vercruyssen, Irina Balikova, Lavina Postolache, Bart P. Leroy, Pavlina Skalicka, Petra Liskova
      Abstract: PurposeTo identify the molecular genetic cause in four families of various ethnic backgrounds with cornea plana.MethodsDetailed ophthalmological examination and direct sequencing of the KERA coding region in five patients of Czech and Turkish origin and their available family members.ResultsCompound heterozygosity for a novel missense mutation c.209C>T; p.(Pro70Leu) and a novel splice site mutation c.887-1G>A in KERA were detected in two affected siblings of Czech origin. In silico analysis supported the pathogenicity of both variants. The second proband of Czech origin harboured c.835C>T; p.(Arg279*) in a homozygous state. Homozygous mutations c.740A>G; p.(Asn247Ser) and c.674C>T; p.(Ile225Thr) were identified in the Turkish probands, both born out of consanguineous marriages. Observed ocular phenotypes were typical of cornea plana with the exception of one Czech patient who also had marked thinning and protrusion in the superior part of the left cornea (mean keratometry 47.2 D). No corneal endothelial cell pathology was found by specular microscopy in seven eyes, in three eyes visualization of the posterior corneal surface was unsuccessful.ConclusionKERA mutation c.740A>G has been identified to date in three different populations, which makes it the most frequently occurring mutation in patients with cornea plana. Marked corneal thinning and ectasia are a very rare finding in this disorder and longitudinal follow-up needs to be performed to determine its potential progressive nature.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T04:46:03.383174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13484
  • Factors related to retinal haemorrhage in infants born at high risk
    • Authors: Qinglan Pu; Ping Li, Huiqin Jiang, Hong Wang, Qiaoyun Zhou, Jia Liu, Wenhua Zhong, Huafei Huang
      Abstract: PurposeThis study aims to determine risk factors for retinal haemorrhage (RH) in high-risk infants.MethodsA total of 3123 cases with high-risk pregnancy and/or neonatal asphyxia 72 hr after delivery were enrolled into this study. Fundus examinations were performed on newborns utilizing a wide-angle imaging system (RetCam III). Retinal haemorrhage (RH) was classified into three grades. Maternal, obstetric and neonatal parameters from high-risk infants with RH were compared with parameters from infants without RH.ResultsRetinal haemorrhage (RH) was found in 550 (18%) of 3123 high-risk infants. Retinal haemorrhage (RH) was classified as grade I (39%), grade II (24%) and grade III (37%). Monocular RH occurred in 37% of cases, while the remaining cases were binocular. Moreover, six cases had vitreous haemorrhage. The following parameters correlated (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:25:19.849005-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13515
  • Physical activity and myopia in Danish children—The CHAMPS Eye Study
    • Authors: Kristian Lundberg; Anne Suhr Thykjær, Rasmus Søgaard Hansen, Anders Højslet Vestergaard, Nina Jacobsen, Ernst Goldschmidt, Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Tunde Peto, Niels Wedderkopp, Jakob Grauslund
      Abstract: PurposeTo determine associations between physical activity (PA) and myopia in Danish school children and investigate the prevalence of myopia.MethodsThis is a prospective study with longitudinal data on PA in a Danish child cohort. Physical activity (PA) was measured objectively by repeated ActiGraph accelerometer measurement four times with different intervals (1–2.5 years) at the mean ages 9.7, 11.0, 12.9 and 15.4 years. Mean intensity of PA was estimated as counts/minutes, and time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous PA was summed using defined cut-off points. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted at the mean age of 15.4 ± 0.7 years and included cycloplegic autorefraction and biometry.ResultsA total of 307 children participated in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School (CHAMPS) Eye Study. The cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) was 0.30 ± 1.46 dioptres. The prevalence of myopia was 17.9% (SE ≤−0.5 dioptres). Mean axial length (AL) was 23.5 ± 0.9 mm. For all participants, the overall mean daily distribution of PA was 67.2% in sedentary, 25.6% in light, 4.4% in moderate and 2.9% in vigorous PA. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression showed no association between PA and SE or AL. In a prospective slope analysis, there was no association between accumulated PA during the 7 years and AL or SE.ConclusionThe prevalence of myopia among Danish children was 17.9%. By logistic regression and slope analysis, we found no association between PA and myopia, in this first of its kind study based on objective and repeated PA data.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:21:27.053656-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13513
  • Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is associated with cataract
    • Authors: Jau-Der Ho; Sudha Xirasagar, Li-Ting Kao, Herng-Ching Lin
      Abstract: PurposeThis retrospective cohort study examines the association between cataract surgery and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) during 5-year follow-up using population-based claims data.MethodsWe analysed data sourced from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The study included 3465 patients who had undergone cataract operations and did not have a diagnosis of AMD before or on the surgery date (study group), and 10 395 age- and sex-matched comparison patients selected randomly from the remaining patients without an AMD diagnosis before the index date. We tracked the claims of each patient for a 5-year period to identify patients with a subsequent diagnosis of neovascular AMD.ResultsThe incidence rate of neovascular AMD was 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66–1.14) per 1000 person-years among all sampled patients, 1.60 (95% CI: 1.04–2.36) among the cataract surgery patients and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43–0.91) among comparison patients (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:06:52.147308-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13511
  • Retinal venous pressure is higher than the airway pressure and the
           intraocular pressure during the Valsalva manoeuvre
    • Authors: Richard Stodtmeister; Maria Heyde, Sylvana Georgii, Egbert Matthè, Eberhard Spoerl, Lutz Ernst Pillunat
      Abstract: PurposeThe aims of this prospective experimental study were to explore the influence of the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) on retinal venous pressure (RVP) in human volunteers in a university setting and to establish correlations for RVP with the increase in airway pressure (∆AirP) and in intraocular pressure (∆IOP).MethodsIn total, 31 healthy young volunteers (age: 24 ± 1.7 years) were investigated. The instruments used included a dynamic contour tonometer, a contact lens dynamometer (Imedos) and an electronic pressure transducer for measuring airway pressure. The following measurements were successively performed in left eyes: tonometry, dynamometry, repeated simultaneous dynamometry and airway pressure measurement during the VM and tonometry during the VM. The pressures obtained during the VM were determined at 10, 20 and 30 seconds after onset of the VM by linear interpolation.ResultsThe pressures (in mmHg) at baseline and during the VM (median and range with outliers) were as follows: ∆AirP: 10 seconds: 10.0 (7.5); 20 seconds: 12.5 (11.0); and 30 seconds: 11.0 (10.0); and RVP: Start: 17.1 (2.4); 10 seconds: 26.0 (7.5); 20 seconds: 25.0 (6.5); and 30 seconds: 24.0 (6.0). During the VM, the RVP was significantly increased compared with the ∆AirP (p = 0.0017). The IOP during the VM was 13.5 (2.7), and the increase in IOP (∆IOP) was 0.8 (5.6).ConclusionDuring the VM, the RVP was increased compared with the ∆AirP. The increase in RVP (∆RVP) was significantly greater than the ∆IOP. During the VM, the calculated retinal perfusion pressure may be more strongly reduced by the ∆RVP than by the ∆IOP. These properties may influence retinal and optic nerve head pathophysiology.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T06:56:45.169436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13485
  • Effect of active evaluation on the detection of negative dysphotopsia
           after sequential cataract surgery: discrepancy between incidences of
           unsolicited and solicited complaints
    • Authors: Natalia Y. Makhotkina; Marjan D. Nijkamp, Tos T.J.M. Berendschot, Bart Borne, Rudy M.M.A. Nuijts
      Abstract: PurposeTo evaluate the incidence of negative dysphotopsia after sequential cataract surgery.MethodsRetrospective cohort study. The incidence of negative dysphotopsia was assessed by retrospective reviewing of medical records and interviews with patients between 2 and 4 months after sequential cataract surgery. Inclusion criteria were uncomplicated surgery, postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) ≥20/25 Snellen and the absence of ocular comorbidity. The majority of intra-ocular lens (IOL) implants were one-piece AcrySof SN60WF (161 eyes). Other IOLs (29 eyes) were toric (SN6AT3-6), spherical (SN60AT), three-piece (MN60MA) and multifocal (ReSTOR SN6AD1, PanOptix TFNT00 and Finevision Micro F trifocal).ResultsThe study population was comprised of 95 patients with a mean age of 72 ± 10 years. Unsolicited complaints of negative dysphotopsia were reported by eight patients (8%), and two of them had a resolution of symptoms within 1 month of follow-up. Eighteen patients (19%) reported negative dysphotopsia at the time of the interview. Two patients reported bothersome negative dysphotopsia, and one of them was successfully treated with implantation of a supplementary IOL in the ciliary sulcus. Patients with negative dysphotopsia were younger than patients without dysphotopsia (p = 0.045) and had shorter axial eye length (p = 0.04), a tendency for higher IOL power (p = 0.09) and a higher CDVA (p = 0.001).ConclusionThe incidence of unsolicited negative dysphotopsia after sequential cataract surgery appears to be a substantial underestimation of complaints identified in active interviewing. Although symptoms are not bothersome in the majority of cases, some patients with undiagnosed severe negative dysphotopsia may benefit from reassurance or secondary treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T07:40:19.62108-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13508
  • Predictors of visual outcome in patients operated for craniopharyngioma
           – a Danish national study
    • Authors: Mads Forslund Jacobsen; Ann Sofia Skou Thomsen, Daniella Bach-Holm, Ghazaleh Doroudian, Kamilla Rothe Nissen, Kåre Fugleholm, Lars Poulsgaard, Volkert Siersma, Steffen Heegaard
      Abstract: PurposeCraniopharyngioma often causes visual loss due to the close relation to the anterior visual pathways. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of visual outcomes in patients with craniopharyngioma.MethodsData from sixty-six patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma from 2009 to 2013 in Denmark were reviewed. Primary outcomes were visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) defects from pre-and postoperative visits. Secondary outcomes were optic nerve atrophy (OA) and papilledema.ResultsFifty-eight patients were included. The VA of the patients 1-year after surgery improved by −0.16 log(MAR) (95%CI: −0.30 to −0.02; p = 0.0266). Visual field (VF) defects worsened in 17 eyes (30%), remained stable in 21 eyes (37%) and improved in 19 eyes (33%). The presence of papilledema and the absence of OA were significantly correlated with an improvement in VA postoperatively (p = 0.011 and p = 0.011, respectively). Patients undergoing surgery within a week or less after their first ophthalmological examination had a significant improvement in VA (−0.36; 95%CI: −0.62 to −0.09; p = 0.0099). Patients undergoing surgery using a subfrontal approach also showed improvement in VA (p = 0.048). Tumour recurrence had a significantly worse VA outcome (p = 0.0074).ConclusionPatients show a slight improvement in VA 1-year after operation for craniopharyngioma. The presence of papilledema and early surgical intervention is associated with a significant improvement in VA. Early involvement of a dedicated ophthalmologist is recommended to secure an early detection of a visual decline and potential tumour recurrence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T07:35:39.188017-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13483
  • Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in the Australian
           National Eye Health Survey
    • Authors: Stuart Keel; Jing Xie, Joshua Foreman, Peter Wijngaarden, Hugh R. Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T06:50:33.820521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13386
  • Validation of the CHOP model for detecting severe retinopathy of
           prematurity in a cohort of Colorado infants
    • Authors: Emily A McCourt; Brandie Wagner, Jennifer Jung, Erica Wymore, Jasleen Singh, Robert Enzenauer, Rebecca Braverman, Anne Lynch
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T05:32:32.4107-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13506
  • Eplerenone for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy–a randomized
           controlled prospective study
    • Authors: Roy Schwartz; Zohar Habot-Wilner, Michael R. Martinez, Amir Nutman, Dafna Goldenberg, Shai Cohen, Shiri Shulman, Hanan Guzner-Gur, Anat Loewenstein, Michaella Goldstein
      Abstract: PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of eplerenone for chronic nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).MethodsProspective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Nineteen eyes of 17 patients with persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) due to CSC were enrolled and randomized to receive eplerenone 50 mg/day or placebo for 3 months, followed by a 3-month follow-up. The main outcome measure was change in SRF from baseline to 3 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes included change in SRF at any time-point, complete resolution of SRF, improvement in choroidal thickness and change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA).ResultsThirteen eyes were treated with eplerenone and six with placebo. Both groups showed reduction in SRF throughout the treatment period, with a significant reduction at months 1, 3 and 5 only in the treatment group. Twenty-three per cent in the treatment group and 30.8% per cent in the placebo group experienced complete resolution of SRF. A significant improvement in BCVA was noted in the placebo group at 4 months, as well as a significant difference in BCVA between groups at 3 months in favour of the placebo group (p = 0.005). There was no significant difference in choroidal thickness in either group throughout the study period. No adverse events related to eplerenone were noted in the treatment group.ConclusionIn this study, eplerenone was not found to be superior to placebo in eyes with chronic CSC.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T05:22:43.271289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13491
  • Enhanced functional properties of human limbal stem cells by inhibition of
           the miR-31/FIH-1/P21 axis
    • Authors: Zhiping Liu; Weijiao Zhan, Minzhi Zeng, Jinghong Chen, Huyong Zou, Zhiqun Min
      Abstract: ObjectiveOn the basis of the functional roles of the embryonic stem cell niche (ESCN) in the human limbal stem cells (LSCs), we proposed to explore the potential roles of microRNAs in regulating the self-renewal and differentiation of LSCs cultured in the ESCN.MethodsThe LSCs were cultured in different media, either in CnT-20 media or in CnT-20 + 20% ES culture supernatant (ESC-CM). The LSCs cultured in ESC-CM were then transfected with microRNA-31 (miR-31) mimic or antago-31. The colony-forming efficiency (CFE) was analysed. Cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial potential and reactive oxygen species were analysed by flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels of FIH-1, P21, P63, ABCG2, CK3, microRNA-31, microRNA-143, microRNA-145 and microRNA-184. Indirect immunostaining was employed to detect the expression of P63, ABCG2, survivin, connexin-43 and CK3. Western blot was employed to detect the expression of FIH-1, P63, P21, CK3, caspase 3, Tcf4, β-catenin, survivin, GSK3β and pGSK3β.ResultsCompared with cells grown in CnT-20, the level of miR-31 in cells grown in ESC-CM was lower. We investigated the roles that miR-31 and FIH-1 play in regulating the functional properties of LSCs. We used antagomirs (antago) to reduce the level of miR-31 in LSCs. Antago-31 increased FIH-1 levels and significantly reduced P21 expressional level in LSCs compared to irrelevant-antago (Ir-antago) treatment. The downregulation of miR-31 in LSCs promotes the maintenance of stemness.ConclusionES culture supernatant (ESC-CM) regulates the fate of LSCs in part by inhibiting the miR-31/FIH-1/P21 axis. This study may have a high impact on the expansion of LSCs in regenerative medicine, especially for ocular surface reconstruction.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T07:37:55.123792-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13503
  • Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of Bruch's membrane opening
           minimum rim width measurements with spectral domain optical coherence
    • Authors: Alexandre S. C. Reis; Camila e S. Zangalli, Ricardo Y. Abe, André L. Silva, Jayme R. Vianna, José Paulo C. Vasconcellos, Vital P. Costa
      Abstract: PurposeTo investigate the reproducibility of Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Additionally, to investigate the reproducibility of BMO area measurements and fovea to BMO centre (FoBMO) angle.MethodsParticipants were healthy subjects (n = 30) and patients with glaucoma (n = 26). One eye of each participant was scanned to obtain optic nerve head (24 radial B-scans) and peripapillary (one circular B-scan) images by three independent examiners. Additionally, one examiner imaged each participant three times on the same day. Intra- and interobserver reproducibilities were estimated by within-subject standard deviation (SW) and coefficient of variation (COV). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the magnitude of the parameter and its standard deviation.ResultsThe global BMO-MRW COVs (%) in healthy/glaucoma subjects were 0.87/1.34 and 1.28/3.13 for intra- and interobserver analyses, respectively, and the corresponding global RNFLT figures were 1.50/2.10 and 2.04/2.87. Global mean BMO-MRW and RNFLT showed no correlation with their respective standard deviations. The reproducibilities of BMO area and FoBMO angle were excellent and similar between the groups.ConclusionThe reproducibilities of BMO-MRW, BMO area measurements and FoBMO angle were excellent in both healthy subjects and patients with glaucoma. Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) reproducibility is comparable to that of RNFLT measurements.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T07:37:42.628117-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13464
  • Characteristics of corneal biomechanical responses detected by a
           non-contact scheimpflug-based tonometer in eyes with glaucoma
    • Authors: Younhea Jung; Hae-Young L. Park, Hee Jung Yang, Chan Kee Park
      Abstract: PurposeTo determine the corneal biomechanical properties in eyes with glaucoma using a non-contact Scheimpflug-based tonometer.MethodsCorneal biomechanical responses were examined using a non-contact Scheimpflug-based tonometer. The tonometer parameters of the normal control group (n = 75) were compared with those of the glaucoma group (n = 136), including an analysis of glaucoma subgroups categorized by visual field loss.ResultsAfter adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), age and axial length, the deformation amplitude was smaller in the glaucoma group (1.09 ± 0.02 mm) than in the normal control group (1.12 ± 0.02 mm; p value = 0.031). The deformation amplitude and the deflection amplitude of the severe glaucoma group (1.12 ± 0.02 mm and 0.92 ± 0.01 mm) were significantly greater than that of the early glaucoma group (1.07 ± 0.01 mm and 0.88 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.006 and p = 0.031), whereas that of the moderate glaucoma group (1.09 ± 0.02 mm and 0.90 ± 0.02 mm) was greater than that of the early glaucoma group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The deformation amplitude showed a negative correlation with the CCT in the normal control group (r = −0.235), with a weaker negative relationship observed in the early glaucoma group (r = −0.099). However, in the moderate and severe glaucoma groups, the deformation amplitude showed a positive relationship with the CCT, showing an inverse relationship. The duration and number of antiglaucomatous eyedrops used had negative correlations with the CCT in eyes with moderate and severe glaucoma.ConclusionOverall, the glaucoma group showed significantly less deformable corneas than did the normal controls, even after adjusting for the IOP, CCT, age and axial length. However, there were also differences according to the severity of glaucoma, where the corneal deformation amplitude was greater in the severe glaucoma group compared to the early glaucoma group. The combined effects of stiffening due to glaucoma and increased viscoelastic properties caused by the chronic use of antiglaucomatous eyedrops may have resulted in the present findings.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T05:25:23.917571-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13466
  • A novel double nucleotide variant in the ferritin-L iron-responsive
           element in a Finnish patient with hereditary hyperferritinaemia-cataract
    • Authors: Roosa-Maria Mattila; Annele Sainio, Marketta Järveläinen, Juha Pursiheimo, Hannu Järveläinen
      Abstract: PurposeTo present a novel Finnish double nucleotide variant in the iron-responsive element (IRE) of the ferritin L-chain gene (FTL) leading to hyperferritinaemia-cataract syndrome (HHCS).MethodsGenomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes and synthetized with three different primers flanking the IRE in the FTL 5′-untranslated region of the FTL was used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thereafter, Sanger sequencing was performed on the 487-bp and 602-bp PCR amplification products with specific primers to reveal FTL IRE mutations.ResultsA 58-year-old female patient with elevated serum ferritin level (1339 μg/l) was diagnosed with HHCS after extensive workup. Genetic testing identified a novel double point mutation g.48965355G>C (chr19, hg19) and g.48965356G>T (chr19, hg19) in the lower stem region of the IRE canonical structure of the FTL.ConclusionAfter excluding other causes, elevated serum ferritin level in a person with early onset cataract is indicative for HHCS, a genetic disorder caused by mutation in the IRE of the FTL.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T05:16:03.554016-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13492
  • Retinal vascular injuries and intravitreal human embryonic stem
           cell-derived haemangioblasts
    • Authors: Jin-Da Wang; Ying An, Jing-Shang Zhang, Xiu-Hua Wan, Wei Zhang, Robert Lanza, Shi-Jiang Lu, Jost B. Jonas, Liang Xu
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo investigate whether intravitreally applied haemangioblasts (HB) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are helpful for the repair of vascular damage caused in animals by an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), by an induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) or by an induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion.MethodsHuman embryonic stem cell-derived HBs were transplanted intravitreally into C57BL/6J mice (OIR model), into male Wistar rats with an induced DR and into male Wistar rats undergoing induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. Control groups of animals received an intravitreal injection of endothelial cells (ECs) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). We examined the vasculature integrity in the mice with OIR, the blood–retina barrier in the rats with induced DR, and retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell density in retina flat mounts of the rats with the retinal ischaemic–reperfusion retinopathy.ResultsIn the OIR model, the study group versus control groups showed a significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T05:05:55.290801-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13477
  • Recombinant human serum albumin for corneal preservation
    • Authors: Mohit Parekh; Hossein Elbadawy, Gianni Salvalaio, Marie-Claude Amoureux, Enzo Di Iorio, Denis Fortier, Diego Ponzin, Stefano Ferrari, Alessandro Ruzza
      Abstract: PurposeTo study the performance of a completely synthetic organ culture (OC) preservation system containing recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) for preservation of human donor corneas.MethodsTwenty-four paired donor corneas were randomly collected, and one cornea from each donor was preserved in synthetic (experimental) and serum-based media (control). The tissues were assessed at day 0; after 6 days of preservation at room temperature (RT) in Cornea Trans® and Cornea Prep II®; after 28 days at 31°C in Cornea Syn® [with rHSA] and Cornea Max® [with foetal calf serum (FCS)] and; 4-day post deswelling in Cornea Trans® and Cornea Jet®. Thickness was determined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and transparency with a validated, custom device. Morphology, endothelial cell density (ECD) and mortality were observed after treating the tissues with Trypan blue and sucrose. Glucose uptake by the cells was analysed. Data were compared using non-parametric paired Wilcoxon tests with p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:56:26.246336-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13498
  • Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroidal haemangioma: small
           case series
    • Authors: Giuseppe Lo Giudice; Anton Giulio Catania, Alessandro Galan
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:45:56.454516-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13512
  • Microalbuminuria is associated with increased choroidal thickness in type
           1 diabetes mellitus patients without diabetic retinopathy
    • Authors: Fernando Korn Malerbi; Caio Vinicius Regatieri, João Roberto Sa, Paulo Henrique Morales, Michel Eid Farah, Sergio Atala Dib
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:42:26.611998-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13462
  • Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation: Case report and
           literature review
    • Authors: Kristian Klemp; Jens Folke Kiilgaard, Steffen Heegaard, Tove Nørgaard, Mette Klarskov Andersen, Jan Ulrik Prause
      Abstract: Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare paraneoplastic intraocular disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients driven by an IgG factor associated with an underlying malignancy. Characteristic ocular findings include exudative retinal detachment, rapid cataract formation and uveal melanocytic tumours. The awareness and documentation of BDUMP has increased during the past decade, and the increasing amount of data collected demonstrates the effect of treatment with plasmapheresis and the value of diagnostic tools in BDUMP such as genetic and immunologic investigations. The literature of BDUMP has not been reviewed since 2003, and there is a growing need for an updated review on diagnosis and management of BDUMP. We review the literature and report a case of BDUMP with a white ciliary body tumour, iris rubeosis, increased iris pigmentation and cataract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:36:57.550013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13481
  • Efficacy of aflibercept for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in
    • Authors: Sanaz Shoja Gharehbagh; Yousif Subhi, Torben Lykke Sørensen
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:26:50.619529-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13461
  • Selective laser trabeculoplasty as replacement therapy in medically
           controlled glaucoma patients
    • Authors: Myrjam De Keyser; Maya De Belder, Jonas De Belder, Veva De Groot
      Abstract: PurposeWe examined selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) as a replacement therapy for medically controlled open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertensive patients.MethodsA prospective randomized interventional clinical trial on 143 glaucoma patients. Patients were randomized to either receiving SLT or to the control group that continued on pressure lowering medication. Data were recorded 1 hr, 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after SLT. Primary outcome was number of medications at 12 and 18 months while maintaining a predetermined target intraocular pressure (IOP).ResultsSelective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) reduced number of medications from a mean of 1.5 at baseline, to 0.35 after 12 months and 0.29 after 18 months. Meanwhile, SLT achieved more than 20% IOP lowering in 95% of eyes and more than 30% IOP lowering in 86% of eyes after 18 months. Seventy-seven per cent of our eyes no longer needed any medication after SLT at 18 months.ConclusionSelective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) enabled a reduction in number of medications while maintaining good IOP control. Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) was able to completely replace medical therapy in 77% of eyes after 18 months. Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) as replacement therapy may reduce local and systemic side-effects and prevent adherence issues.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:15:36.560524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13509
  • C-Reactive protein and progression of vision loss in retinitis pigmentosa
    • Authors: Yusuke Murakami; Yasuhiro Ikeda, Shunji Nakatake, Kohta Fujiwara, Takashi Tachibana, Noriko Yoshida, Shoji Notomi, Toshio Hisatomi, Shigeo Yoshida, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Koh-Hei Sonoda
      Abstract: PurposeChronic inflammation is involved in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We demonstrated previously that intraocular inflammatory levels, as measured by slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy or laser flare photometry, are inversely correlated with central visual function in patients with RP. Here, we investigated the relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and visual parameters in RP.MethodsWe studied 58 consecutive typical patients with RP
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:10:40.315583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13502
  • Microstructural changes in the fovea following autologous internal
           limiting membrane transplantation surgery for large macular holes
    • Authors: Seung Min Lee; Han Jo Kwon, Sung Who Park, Ji Eun Lee, Ik Soo Byon
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T04:00:29.349679-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13504
  • Venous loops: a benign feature of diabetic retinopathy or cause for
    • Authors: Thomas Lee Torp; Tunde Peto, Jakob Grauslund, Søren Leer Blindbæk
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T02:25:24.771725-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13507
  • Internal cyclopexy for complicated traumatic cyclodialysis cleft
    • Authors: Cong Wang; Xiao-Yan Peng, Qi-Sheng You, Yi Liu, Xiu-Qin Pang, Peng-Fei Zheng, Jost B. Jonas
      Abstract: PurposeTo assess the surgical and functional outcome of internal direct cyclopexy as therapy of complicated traumatic cyclodialysis.MethodsThe single-centre interventional case-series study included eyes with traumatic cyclodialysis who had consecutively been treated. Internal cyclopexy was performed using double-armed sutures introduced into the eye through the pars plana opposite to the cyclodialysis cleft and which were laid parallel to limbus. Additional procedures included cataract surgery, and pars plana vitrectomy. The cyclodialysis was documented upon ultrasound biomicroscopy and gonioscopy.ResultsThe study included 44 patients (44 eyes). The cyclodialysis extended over 4.8 ± 3.2 clock hours of scleral spur circumference (range 1–12 hr, median 4 hr), involving>180° of the scleral spur circumference in 16 eyes (37%) and 360° in 3 eyes (7%). Besides cyclodialysis, additional trauma-related complications included hyphema, iridodialysis, lens dislocation, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage, retinal detachment, suprachoroidal haemorrhage and endophthalmitis. The surgery performed on average at 64 days after the trauma included a mean number of 4.6 ± 1.9 sutures (range: 2–9), with 1.2 sutures per 30° width of cyclodialysis. Mean follow-up was 32 ± 8 weeks (range: 6–51 weeks). Closure of the cyclodialysis was achieved in all 44 eyes, and intraocular pressure (IOP) increased from 8.0 ± 3.4 mmHg (range: 3 21 mmHg) to 14.4 ± 4.0 mmHg (range: 11–21 mmHg). Mean visual acuity (VA) improved from 2.3 ± 1.1 logMAR (range: 0.22–4.0) to 1.2 ± 0.8 logMAR (range 0.3–4.0 logMAR).ConclusionIn conclusion, internal direct cyclopexy is a novel and relatively little invasive surgery technique for the repair of traumatic cyclodialysis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T02:35:25.282063-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13463
  • Two-years results of small-incision lenticule extraction and
           wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis for Myopia
    • Authors: Hidenaga Kobashi; Kazutaka Kamiya, Akihito Igarashi, Masahide Takahashi, Kimiya Shimizu
      Abstract: PurposeTo compare the 2-years visual and refractive outcomes between small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism.MethodsOur retrospective case–control study examined 30 eyes of 30 patients with the manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) of −3.71 ± 1.83 dioptres (D) who underwent SMILE and 30 eyes of 30 patients with MRSE of −3.81 ± 1.40 D who underwent wavefront-guided LASIK. We assessed the 2-years clinical outcomes.ResultsLogarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR)-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was −0.23 ± 0.07 in the SMILE group and −0.24 ± 0.07 in the wavefront-guided LASIK group 2 years postoperatively (p = 0.82). Logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution-uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was −0.18 ± 0.09 and −0.15 ± 0.11 (p = 0.30, respectively). In the SMILE and wavefront-guided LASIK groups 2 years postoperatively, 100% and 73% of eyes, respectively, were within 0.5 D of the prompted MRSE correction (p = 0.005). Changes in the MRSE of −0.10 ± 0.30 D and −0.23 ± 0.51 D occurred from 3 months to 2 years (p = 0.40, respectively). We found a significant correlation between myopic regression and the changes in the keratometric readings from 3 months to 2 years after wavefront-guided LASIK (r = −0.48, p = 0.002), but not after SMILE (r = −0.004, p = 0.90).ConclusionSmall-incision lenticule extraction offers better refractive outcomes than wavefront-guided LASIK during a 2-years follow-up for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T02:28:31.070254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13470
  • Aqueous humour concentrations of TGF-β, PLGF and FGF-1 and total retinal
           blood flow in patients with early non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
    • Authors: Shaolin Du; Lanli Ju, Wenkai Zheng
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T02:25:25.943947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13426
  • Comparison of subconjunctival scarring after microincision vitrectomy
           surgery using 20-, 23-, 25- and 27-gauge systems in rabbits
    • Authors: Makoto Gozawa; Yoshihiro Takamura, Seiji Miyake, Kentaro Iwasaki, Shogo Arimura, Yuji Takihara, Masaru Inatani
      Abstract: PurposeTo compare subconjunctival scarring after vitrectomy in rabbit eyes using different gauge systems by analysing anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images and histological sections.MethodsVitrectomy using 20-, 23-, 25- and 27-gauge systems was performed for rabbits. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images of the incision sites were obtained before and at day 1, 7 and 1 month after surgery. We measured the thickness of conjunctival epithelium, stroma, Tenon's capsule and total conjunctiva of these three layers, then determined the preservation rates of the borderlines between each layer. Surgical invasion was estimated by histological observation.ResultsThe thickness of total conjunctiva, or the thickness of both conjunctival stroma and Tenon's capsule in the 20-gauge group was significantly thicker than that in the 27-gauge group at day 1 and day 7 after surgery. Preservation rates of the conjunctival stroma/Tenon's capsule borderline were significantly lower in the 20-gauge group than in the 25- and 27-gauge groups at day 1, day 7 and 1 month. Preservation rates of the Tenon's capsule/sclera borderline were significantly lower in the 20-gauge group than in the 25- and 27-gauge groups at 1 month. In the 27-gauge group, the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts was significantly smaller than in the 20-gauge group at day 7.ConclusionBased on the finding of AS-OCT and histology, micro incision vitreous surgery, especially using 27-gauge, contributed to less subconjunctival scarring postoperatively. Therefore, the 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) may be a more effective technique for preserving the structure of conjunctiva.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T02:07:09.295705-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13459
  • A perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5)-based solution for the removal of residual
           emulsified silicone oil
    • Authors: Yau Kei Chan; Ho Ching Cheng, Jing Wu, Yuk Heng Matthew Tang, San To Chan, David Wong, Ho Cheung Shum
      Abstract: PurposeThe emulsification of silicone oil (SO) is associated with many complications. In this study, we investigate a new SO solvent, perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5) with 1% by volume of perfluorinated polyethers–polyethylene glycol–perfluorinated polyethers (PFPE-PEG-PFPE) triblock copolymer, for removing emulsified droplets.MethodsAn in vitro 3D printed model eye chamber was used to evaluate the efficiency of the three test liquids in removing SO droplets, namely saline, F4H5 and F4H5 with surfactant PFPE-PEG-PFPE. The numbers of SO droplets were quantified using a Coulter Counter. The stability of double emulsion formed was tested with a fluidic device based on electro-coalescence. Two retinal cell lines were used to test the biocompatibility of the liquids.ResultsThe mean number of droplets remaining in the eye chamber after rinsing with a solution of F4H5 with surfactant was 13 315 ± 4620/ml compared to saline (23 460 ± 7595/ml; p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T20:15:10.625008-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13465
  • High-resolution transbulbar ultrasonography helping differentiate
           intracranial hypertension in bilateral optic disc oedema patients
    • Authors: Qian Chen; Weimin Chen, Min Wang, Xinghuai Sun, Yan Sha, Zhenxin Li, Guohong Tian
      Abstract: PurposeThe enlargement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) has been proven to be related with raised intracranial pressure (ICP). No prospective study has been focused on utilizing retrobulbar ultrasonography in optic disc oedema patient presented to ophthalmologist.MethodsHigh-resolution transbulbar ultrasonography was performed in a cohort of patient presented with bilateral optic disc oedema. The subarachnoid space of optic nerve (SAS), ONSD and optic nerve diameter (OND) was measured prior to other ancillaries including lumbar puncture. Subjects were classified into increased intracranial pressure (IIP) and normal intracranial pressure (NIP) group according to the open cerebrospinal fluid pressure more than 200 mm H20. The SAS, ONSD and OND were compared between groups and with normal control. The sensitivity of SAS or ONSD change for predicating intracranial hypertension was assessed.ResultsA total of 20 IIP, 25 NIP patients and 25 normal controls were evaluated. The mean SAS and ONSD measured in idiopathic intracranial hypertension group was significantly increased than that of NIP and controls (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T20:10:11.115324-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13473
  • The Paediatric Cataract Register (PECARE): an overview of operated
           childhood cataract in Sweden and Denmark
    • Authors: Gunilla Magnusson; Birgitte Haargaard, Saima Basit, Anna Lundvall, Alf Nyström, Annika Rosensvärd, Kristina Tornqvist
      Abstract: AimTo report basic epidemiological data concerning surgically treated childhood cataract in Sweden and Denmark.MethodsData were derived from the Paediatric Cataract Register (PECARE), a binational, web-based surgical register representing Sweden and Denmark. All children operated before 8 years of age between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2013 were included. Age-specific prevalence per 100 000 population was calculated.ResultsA total 574 operations in 213 boys (51.7%) and 199 girls (48.3%), altogether 412 children, were registered, the vast majority (n = 395/412; 95.9%) being individuals with congenital/infantile cataract. Of these 412, a total of 294 (147 boys and 147 girls) were Swedish and 118 (66 boys and 52 girls) were Danish. The age-specific prevalence of operated cataract in Sweden was 31/100 000 and in Denmark 28/100 000. In 454 of 574 eyes (79.1%), the cataract was dense. Altogether, 266 of 574 (46.3%) were operated during the first year of life, 193 during the first 12 weeks representing 33.6% of all operations. A primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was done in altogether 411 of 574 eyes (71,6%). In total, 210 unilateral cataract operations (210/574; 36.6%) were performed. Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) was present in 64 of 193 (33.1%) of those with a congenital unilateral cataract. In 84 individuals (84/395; 21.3%) with congenital or infantile cataract, a coexisting disorder was found.ConclusionThe age-specific binational prevalence of operated congenital/infantile cataract in Sweden and Denmark is 30/100 000. About half of the operations are performed within the first year of life, one-third within the first 3 months. In our study population, a primary IOL was implanted in the majority of cases.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T06:40:20.582276-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13497
  • Feasibility study on robot-assisted retinal vascular bypass surgery in an
           ex vivo porcine model
    • Authors: Yi Qi Chen; Ji Wei Tao, Liang Li, Jian Bo Mao, Chen Ting Zhu, Ji Meng Lao, Yang Yang, Li-Jun Shen
      Abstract: PurposeTo describe a new robot-assisted surgical system for retinal vascular bypass surgery (RVBS) and to compare the success rate with freehand RVBS.MethodsA robot-assisted system for retinal microsurgery was constructed to include two independent robotic arms. A 23-gauge light probe and an intraocular forceps were affixed to the arm end effectors to perform the intraocular manipulation. Harvested porcine eyes were introduced to be established animal models of closed-sky eyeballs after that pars plana vitrectomy using temporary keratoprosthesis was performed by a skilful surgeon. Retinal vascular bypass surgery (RVBS) was performed by an inexperienced ophthalmologist to test the ease of use. A stainless steel wire (45-μm pipe diameter) was used as an artificial vessel. Before RVBS, the wires were prepositioned at the retinal surface of the eyes. The Control group (n = 20) underwent freehand RVBS, and the Experimental group (n = 20) underwent robot-assisted RVBS. To create the simulated bypass, the distal end of the wire was inserted into the selected vessel and advanced ~4 mm away from the optic disc. If successful, then the proximal wire end was inserted and advanced ~2 mm towards the optic disc. The difference in the success rate for the freehand and robot-assisted procedures was analysed by the chi-square test.ResultsThe success rate for the freehand RVBS was 5% (1/20 eyes). In contrast, the robot-assisted success rate was 35% (7/20) of eyes (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T02:10:25.212304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13457
  • Endothelial alterations in 712 keratoconus patients
    • Authors: Susanne Goebels; Timo Eppig, Berthold Seitz, Nòra Szentmàry, Alan Cayless, Achim Langenbucher
      Abstract: PurposeTo investigate the effect of the severity of keratoconus on the corneal endothelium using specular microscopy.MethodsSeven hundred and twelve eyes from the Homburg Keratoconus Center (HKC) database were included in this retrospective study. Corneal endothelium was evaluated using the Tomey EM-3000 specular microscope. Keratoconus-related topographic and tomographic data were obtained from Scheimpflug-based tomography (Oculus Pentacam® HR). Eyes were classified into stages 0 (healthy) to 4 (severe keratoconus) according to the Topographic Keratoconus Classification (TKC). Subgroups were analysed based on contact lens (CL) type (none/rigid/soft).ResultsThe frequencies of keratoconus stages 0/1/2/3/4 according to TKC were 169/94/206/166/77. The endothelial cell density (ECD) for the endothelial cell area for TKC 0/1/2/3/4 was 2611/2624/2557/2487/2401 cells per mm² and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 40.9/40.0/41.6/46.2/49.0%, respectively. The more severe the keratoconus stage, the lower the endothelial cell count (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T01:50:39.457729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13471
  • Can the retina be used to diagnose and plot the progression of Alzheimer's
    • Authors: Deepti Mahajan; Marcela Votruba
      Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of senile dementia. It impairs the quality of life of a person and their family, posing a serious economic and social threat in developed countries. The fact that the diagnosis can only be definitively made post-mortem, or when the disease is fairly advanced, presents a serious problem if novel therapeutic interventions are to be devised and used early in the course of the disease. There is therefore a pressing need for more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests with which we can detect AD in the preclinical stage. The tau proteins and beta-amyloid proteins start to accumulate 20 years before the symptoms begin to manifest. Detecting them in the preclinical stage would be a potential breakthrough in the management of AD. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to correlate problems in cognition with the changes in the eye, particularly the retina, pupil and ocular movements, so that the disease can be detected early and managed in the prodromal phase. In this systematic review, we ask the question whether the retina can be used to make a specific and early diagnosis of AD.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T01:40:59.633058-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13472
  • Refractive outcome after pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole in
           pseudophakic eyes
    • Authors: Hassan Hamoudi; Ulrik Correll Christensen, Birgit Sander, Michael Larsen, Morten la Cour
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T01:20:57.984137-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13476
  • Association of risk genotypes of ARMS2/LOC387715 A69S and CFH Y402H with
           age-related macular degeneration with and without reticular pseudodrusen:
           a meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mohammad Hossein Jabbarpoor Bonyadi; Mehdi Yaseri, Homayoun Nikkhah, Mortaza Bonyadi, Masoud Soheilian
      Abstract: To pool the results of published data regarding association of ARMS2/LOC387715 A69S, CFH Y402H and CFH I62V genotypes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with and without reticular pseudodrusen (RPD). The results of this pooled data used to estimate the contribution of each of these genes in the pathogenesis of RPD. Heterogeneity of studies was evaluated using Cochran Q-test and I2 index. To modify the heterogeneity in the variables, we used the random effects model. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA. Odds ratio (OR) of genotypes in each study was calculated. Six studies of AMD with RPD and AMD without RPD cases included in this analysis. Analysis of pooled data showed that risk genotypes frequency of ARMS2 A69S was significantly different between AMD with RPD and AMD without RPD [OR = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–2.63 for GT versus GG ARMS2 A69S; OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.50–3.84 for TT versus GG ARMS2 A69S]. Further analysis also showed that the risk genotype frequency of CFH Y402H was not significantly different between these two groups (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.69–1.50 for CT versus TT CFH Y402H; OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.74–1.60 for CC versus TT CFH Y402H). Comparison of above-mentioned ORs revealed statistically higher values for GT and TT genotypes of ARMS2 A69S compared with CFH Y402H genotypes (p = 0.011, p = 0.014, respectively).Our analysis showed stronger contribution of ARMS2 in AMD with RPD group versus AMD without RPD group, in comparison with CFH genotypes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T02:20:24.219822-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13494
  • Acute concomitant esotropia in children
    • Authors: Marlene Schörkhuber; Domagoj Ivastinovic, Wilfried Glatz, Mona-Regina Schneider, Susanne Lindner, Andrea Langmann
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T07:05:35.540126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13490
  • Optical coherence tomography angiography of the macular microvasculature
           changes in retinitis pigmentosa
    • Authors: Yoshito Koyanagi; Yusuke Murakami, Jun Funatsu, Masato Akiyama, Shunji Nakatake, Kohta Fujiwara, Takashi Tachibana, Shintaro Nakao, Toshio Hisatomi, Shigeo Yoshida, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Yasuhiro Ikeda
      Abstract: PurposeTo investigate the macular microvasculature changes by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and analyse the correlation between these changes and central visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).MethodsWe measured the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the foveal and parafoveal flow density (FFD and PFD, respectively) in the superficial (S) and deep (D) retinal plexus by OCTA (AngioVue) and compared these values between 73 RP patients and 36 healthy controls. We analysed the relationships between these microvasculature measurements and central visual functions such as visual acuity (VA) and the values of static perimetry tests (Humphrey Field Analyzer, the central 10–2 program) in the RP patients.ResultsThe FFD-S, PFD-S and PFD-D were significantly decreased in the RP patients compared to the controls (all p  0.05). A subgroup analysis showed that the RP patients with VA
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T04:05:44.558636-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13475
  • Evaluation of clinical validity of the Rabin cone contrast test in normal
           phakic or pseudophakic eyes and severely dichromatic eyes
    • Authors: Masato Fujikawa; Sanae Muraki, Yuichi Niwa, Masahito Ohji
      Abstract: PurposeTo evaluate the clinical validity of the Rabin cone contrast test (RCCT; Innova Systems, Inc.) in patients with normal phakic/pseudophakic eyes and severe dichromatic colour vision deficiency (CVD).MethodsWe evaluated age-related changes in the RCCT scores in 166 phakic eyes and 34 pseudophakic eyes and the RCCT sensitivity and specificity in 28 men with severe dichromatic CVD (10 with protanopia, 18 with deutanopia) and nine age-matched controls. All participants had 20/20 or better Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The RCCT was used to measure the L, M and S-CCT scores (range, 0–100).ResultsIn normal phakic eyes, the mean L, M and S-CCT scores decreased gradually with ageing, with normal levels in patients in the second to seventh decades of life and some below normal in the eighth and ninth decades of life. In normal pseudophakic eyes, the mean L, M and S-CCT scores were normal in patients in the seventh to ninth decades of life. In eyes with severe CVD, the mean L, M and S-CCT scores were, respectively, 31.5 ± 18.3, 86.0 ± 12.6 and 98.0 ± 6.3 in patients with protanopia; 92.8 ± 10.5, 50.8 ± 19.6 and 97.8 ± 5.2 in patients with deutanopia; and 99.4 ± 1.7, 98.3 ± 5.0 and 99.4 ± 1.7 in controls. The RCCT sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diagnosing the CVD type.ConclusionThe RCCT can be used in non-visually impaired patients up to the seventh decade of life and after cataract surgery in elderly patients. The RCCT is available for CVD screening and typing and the score has a wide distribution range even in patients with severe CVD.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T06:16:11.934352-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13495
  • Two-year functional and anatomical results after converting treatment
           resistant eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration to
           aflibercept in accordance with a treat and extend protocol
    • Authors: Øystein Kalsnes Jørstad; Rowan Thomas Faber, Morten Carstens Moe
      Abstract: PurposeTo study the effects of converting to aflibercept in accordance with a treat and extend (T&E) strategy in eyes with treatment resistant exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MethodsTwo-year prospective study of eyes with exudative AMD and persistent macular fluid despite monthly treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Eyes were converted to 2.0 mg aflibercept in accordance with a T&E protocol.ResultsFifty eyes from 47 patients were included. At baseline, the mean central retinal thickness (CRT) was 273 μm and mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 0.25 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR). The mean number of aflibercept injections the first year was 9.2. After 1 year, there was a reduction in mean CRT to 228 μm (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T00:40:26.235415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13480
  • Impact of postoperative positioning on the outcome of pars plana
           vitrectomy with gas tamponade for primary rhegmatogenous retinal
           detachment: comparison between supine and prone positioning
    • Authors: Keiko Otsuka; Hisanori Imai, Akiko Miki, Makoto Nakamura
      Abstract: PurposeTo compare the postoperative anatomic success rates and the frequency of complications between prone or supine postoperative positioning after transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).MethodsAll patients underwent primary 27-gauge TSV for the treatment of primary RRD. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: group A was patients instructed to keep strict postoperative prone positioning for a minimum of 8 days. Group B was patients instructed to keep the prone positioning on the day of the surgery followed by supine positioning for minimum of 7 days from the day after surgery.ResultSixty-two eyes were enrolled (group A: 32, group B: 30). There was no significant difference in baseline data between two groups. The initial and final anatomical success rates were 93.8% and 100% in group A and 93.3% and 100% in group B, respectively (p = 1, p = 1, respectively). Posterior synechia of the iris occurred in one eye in group A and in two eyes in group B (p = 0.61). Macular pucker and retinal fold did not occur in either group. Preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP; mmHg) was 14.5 ± 2.9 in group A and 14.5 ± 2.6 in group B (p = 0.92). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was not statistically different between the groups during the follow-up period (p = 0.36, p = 0.07, respectively).ConclusionSupine positioning may be an option as a postoperative positioning after TSV and gas tamponade for the treatment of RRD.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T01:10:25.387263-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13482
  • Association of the expression level of the neurodegeneration-related
           proteins with the risk of development and progression of primary
           open-angle glaucoma
    • Authors: Alicja Nowak; Wioletta Rozpędek, Magda Cuchra, Radosław Wojtczak, Mateusz Siwak, Katarzyna Szymanek, Marta Szaflik, Jerzy Szaflik, Jacek Szaflik, Ireneusz Majsterek
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:50:25.590802-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13479
  • Comparison of circumferential peripheral angle closure using
           iridotrabecular contact index after laser iridotomy versus combined laser
           iridotomy and iridoplasty
    • Authors: Hyun-kyung Cho; Changwon Kee, Heon Yang, Hyoun Do Huh, Su Jin Kim, Young Min Park, Jong Moon Park
      Abstract: PurposeTo compare the quantitative changes of peripheral angle after laser iridotomy (LI) alone (group A) or combined LI and Iridoplasty (group B) using iridotrabecular contact (ITC) index by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).MethodsIn this prospective comparative observational study, OCT images were obtained before and after the procedure. In each image frame, scleral spur (SS) and the ITC end point (EP) were marked and ITC index was calculated as a percentage of the angle closure from 360°. Age, gender, diagnosis and initial ITC index in Group B were matched with group A. Changes in ITC index, anterior chamber angle parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were inspected.ResultsThirty-three eyes (20 patients) with shallow anterior chamber were included in each group. Initial ITC index and initial IOP were not significantly different between the two groups (both p > 0.05). However, ITC index and IOP after the procedure were significantly lower in group B than those in group A (ITC index: 31.3 ± 23.2 in group A, 19.0 ± 21.3 in group B, p = 0.011, IOP: p = 0.004). All anterior chamber angle parameters in group B and all parameters in group A except nasal trabecular-iris angles (TIA) were significantly increased after the laser procedure (all p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T00:40:25.738101-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13450
  • Ophthalmic nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark
    • Authors: Andrea V Margulis; Eline Houben, Jesper Hallas, Jetty A Overbeek, Anton Pottegård, Tobias Torp-Pedersen, Susana Perez-Gutthann, Alejandro Arana
      Abstract: PurposeTo describe nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark with reference to its approved indications. For context, we also describe the use of ketorolac and diclofenac.MethodsWe identified users in the PHARMO Database Network (the Netherlands, 2008–2013) and the Danish national health registers (Denmark, 1994–2014). We described prevalence of cataract surgery and duration of use in patients with cataract surgery with and without diabetes.ResultsIn the Netherlands, 9530 nepafenac users (mean age, 71 years; 60% women) contributed 12 691 therapy episodes, of which 21% had a recently recorded cataract surgery. Of 2266 episodes in adult non-diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 60% had one bottle dispensed (treatment duration ≤21 days). Of 441 episodes in adult diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 90% had up to two bottles dispensed (≤60 days).Denmark had 60 403 nepafenac users (mean age, 72 years; 58% women) and 73 648 episodes (41% had recorded cataract surgery). Of 26 649 nepafenac episodes in adult non-diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 92% had one bottle dispensed. Of 3801 episodes in adult diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 99.8% had up to two bottles dispensed.Use patterns of nepafenac, ketorolac and diclofenac were roughly similar in the Netherlands, but not in Denmark.ConclusionLess than half of therapy episodes were related to cataract surgery; around 90% of episodes with surgery were within the approved duration. Underrecording of ophthalmic conditions and procedures was a challenge in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T23:30:26.963776-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13468
  • Anisometropia of spherical equivalent and astigmatism among myopes: a
           23-year follow-up study of prevalence and changes from childhood to
    • Authors: Olavi Pärssinen; Markku Kauppinen
      Abstract: PurposeTo study anisometropia of spherical equivalent and astigmatism from the onset of myopia at school age to adulthood.MethodsA total of 240 myopic schoolchildren (mean age 10.9 years), with no previous spectacles, were recruited during 1983–1984 to a randomized 3-year clinical trial of bifocal treatment of myopia. Examinations with subjective cyclopedic refraction were repeated 3 years later (follow-up 1) for 238 subjects and thereafter at the mean ages of 23.2 (follow-up 2) and 33.9 years (follow-up 3) for 178 and 134 subjects. After exclusions, the 102 subjects who attended all three follow-ups were included in the analyses. Corneal refractive power and astigmatism and anterior chamber depth was measured with Pentacam topography and axial length with IOL master at study end. Prevalence and changes in anisometropia of spherical equivalent (AnisoSE) and astigmatism (AnisoAST) and their relationships with refractive and axial measures were studied.ResultsMean (±SD) of spherical equivalent (SE), AnisoSE and AnisoAST increased from baseline to follow-up end from −1.44 ± 0.57 D to −5.11 ± 2.23 D, from 0.28 ± 0.30 D to 0.68 ± 0.69 D and from 0.14 ± 0.18 D to 0.37 ± 0.36 D, respectively. Prevalence of AnioSE, ≥1 D, increased from 5% to 22.6% throughout follow-up. Higher AnisoSE was associated with SE in the less myopic eye at baseline and at follow-up 1, and with SE in the more myopic eye in follow-ups 2 and 3 in adulthood. At study end, AnisoSE was associated with the interocular difference in axial length (AL) (r = 0.612, p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T07:25:30.473219-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13405
  • Corneal endothelial cell loss and corneal biomechanical characteristics
           after two-step sequential or combined phaco-vitrectomy surgery for
           idiopathic epiretinal membrane
    • Authors: Hassan Hamoudi; Ulrik Correll Christensen, Morten La Cour
      Abstract: PurposeTo assess the impact of sequential and combined surgery [cataract surgery and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with peeling] on corneal endothelium cell density (CED) and corneal biomechanical characteristics.MethodsPhakic eyes with epiretinal membrane (ERM) were prospectively allocated to (i) cataract surgery and subsequent PPV (CAT group), (ii) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (iii) phacovitrectomy (COMBI group). Eyes were examined at baseline, 1 month after each surgery, and at 3 and 12 months follow-up. Corneal endothelium cell density (CED) was assessed with non-contact specular microscopy. Pachymetry [central cornea thickness (CCT)], keratometry and cornea volume (CV) were measured with Pentacam Scheimpflug camera. Primary outcome was change in CED after 12 months; secondary outcomes were changes in CCT and CV after 12 months.ResultsSixty-two eyes were enrolled and allocated to the three groups. The mean preoperative CED was 2776, 2794 and 2653 cells/mm2, which decreased significantly at 12 months by 15.3, 20.0 and 19.3% in the CAT, VIT and COMBI group. There was no significant difference in percentage cell loss between the groups at final follow-up. The CED decreased significantly after cataract surgery, but was unaffected by PPV. Central cornea thickness (CCT) increased by 10 μm (p = 0.005) and CV by 1.38 mm3 (2.3%, p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T07:00:37.696685-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13474
  • Optical coherence tomography morphology and evolution in cblC
           disease-related maculopathy in a case series of very young patients
    • Authors: Giacomo M. Bacci; Maria A. Donati, Elisabetta Pasquini, Francis Munier, Catia Cavicchi, Amelia Morrone, Andrea Sodi, Vittoria Murro, Nuria Garcia Segarra, Claudio Defilippi, Leonardo Bussolin, Roberto Caputo
      Abstract: PurposeTo describe the retinal structure of a group of patients affected by methylmalonic aciduria with homocystinuria cblC type, caused by mutations in the MMACHC gene, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).MethodsYoung patients (n = 11, age 0–74 months) with cblC disease, detected by newborn screening or clinically diagnosed within 40 days of life, underwent molecular analysis and complete ophthalmic examination, including fundus photography and SD-OCT. In one case, we also performed fluorescein angiography (FA) and standard electroretinography (ERG).ResultsMolecular analysis of the MMACHC gene fully confirmed cblC disease in nine of 11 patients. Two patients harboured only a single heterozygous pathogenic MMACHC mutation and large unbalanced rearrangements were excluded by array-CGH analysis in both. All patients except two showed a bilateral maculopathy. In general, retinal changes were first observed before one year of age and progressed to a well-established maculopathy. Measurable visual acuities ranged from normal vision, in keeping with age, to bilateral, severe impairment of central vision. Nystagmus was present in six patients. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed macular thinning with severe alterations in outer, and partial sparing of inner, retinal layers.ConclusionPatients affected by cblC disease may frequently show an early onset maculopathy with variable ophthalmoscopic appearance. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) broadens the knowledge of subtle retinal alterations during the disease's progression and helps to shed light on the pathological mechanism of maculopathy development.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T06:45:41.326963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13441
  • Dynamics of big bubble formation in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty by
           the big bubble technique: in vitro studies
    • Authors: Harminder S Dua; Lana A Faraj, Mohamed B Kenawy, Saief AlTaan, Mohamed S Elalfy, Tarek Katamish, Dalia G Said
      Abstract: PurposeTo examine the movement of air injected in the cornea in simulated deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK), from the needle tip to the formation of different types of big bubbles (BB) and to ascertain how air travels through the stroma and pre-Descemet's layer [Dua's layer (PDL)] to create a type-1 (air between PDL and deep stroma) and type-2BB (air between PDL and Descemet's membrane).MethodsAir was injected in 57 sclerocorneal discs and the passage recorded. Leaking points and sites of commencement of type-1 and type-2BB were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Stromal distribution of air pockets was studied by light microscopy. Uninjected corneas served as controls.ResultsInjected air followed a consistent pattern, initially as radial tracks to the limbus, then as circumferential bands along the limbus and finally centripetally to create predominantly a type-1BB. Type-2BB started at the periphery, by air emerging through clusters of tiny fenestrations discovered in the periphery of PDL. Fifteen to 20 such clusters were also seen in control samples on either side of the Descemet's attachment. Type-1BB was formed by air emerging through wide spaces between lamellae of deep stroma. Histologically, the circumferential band revealed an aggregation of air pockets in the mid-stroma.ConclusionThe consistent pattern of passage of air is indicative of the architecture and microanatomy of the corneal stroma where collagen lamellae are orthogonally arranged centrally and as a circular annulus at the periphery. The novel peripheral fenestrations explain the peripheral commencement of a type-2BB and the escape of air into the anterior chamber during DALK.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T06:25:45.499897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13460
  • Influence of scanning area on choroidal vascularity index measurement
           using optical coherence tomography
    • Authors: Rupesh Agrawal; Xin Wei, Abhilash Goud, Kiran Kumar Vupparaboina, Soumya Jana, Jay Chhablani
      Abstract: PurposeRecently, choroidal vascularity index (CVI) is proposed as a novel tool to evaluate the choroidal vasculature. In this study, we investigate the impact of scanning area on CVI measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).MethodsSpectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using enhanced depth imaging mode was performed in 30 eyes from 15 normal subjects. Three scanning areas were compared: dingle foveal scan; central macular scans [scan passing through central 1000 microns circle on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid, inner circle]; and total macular cube scans. Binarization of OCT B-scans and segmentation of the binarized choroid layer were achieved using a previously reported validated automated software. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) percentage was calculated. Degree of agreement among foveal, central macular and total macular CVI was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and was plotted using Bland–Altman plot.ResultsThe mean CVI in subfoveal, central macular and total macular scans was 49.95 ± 4.84%, 50.00 ± 4.68% and 51.10 ± 4.63%, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was more than 0.8 for all three comparisons [subfoveal versus central macular CVI, ICC = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84–0.96); central macular versus total macular CVI, ICC = 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82–0.96); subfoveal versus total macular CVI, ICC = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85–0.95)]. No significant differences in variance (all p > 0.05) were noted among CVI measured from the three scanning areas.ConclusionChoroidal vascularity index (CVI) measurements were highly reproducible using subfoveal, central and total macular scans in healthy individuals. Single foveal scan choroidal vascularity represents total macular choroidal vascularity in healthy population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T02:35:26.734447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13442
  • Systemic intravenous abciximab: a novel treatment for acute central
           retinal artery occlusion'
    • Authors: José Ferreira Mendes; José Amorim, Gil Calvão-Santos
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T02:20:24.422142-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13446
  • Visual outcomes of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy treated with
           intravitreal ranibizumab with or without photodynamic therapy
    • Authors: Colin S. Tan; Wei Kiong Ngo, Louis W. Lim
      PubDate: 2017-04-29T04:39:53.654973-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13467
  • The effect of canaloplasty with suprachoroidal drainage combined with
           cataract surgery – 1-year results
    • Authors: Anna-Maria Seuthe; Kai Januschowski, Siegfried Mariacher, Martina Ebner, Natalia Opitz, Peter Szurman, Karl Boden
      Abstract: PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of phacocanaloplasty with suprachoroidal drainage (PCscD) and to compare its intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering and drug-sparing effect to canaloplasty with suprachoroidal drainage (CscD).MethodsThe study retrospective interventional study included patients with open-angle glaucoma or secondary forms of glaucoma who underwent either CscD or PCscD between the year 2011 and 2014 in Knappschaft Eye Clinic Sulzbach. Primary end-points were IOP reduction and the number of IOP-lowering medication after 12 months. Secondary end-points were intraoperative and postoperative complications.ResultsA total of 328 eyes were included, 193 were treated with CscD and 135 underwent PCscD. Canaloplasty with scD achieved an IOP reduction of 37.0% (from 20.9 ± 3.6 mmHg to 13.2 ± 2.6 mmHg) after 1 year, whereas PCscD showed a significant higher reduction of 47.4% (from 23.2 ± 5.1 mmHg to 12.2 ± 1.7 mmHg). Reduction in IOP-lowering medication was higher after PCscD (from 3.6 ± 0.6 to 0.2 ± 0.5) than after CscD (from 3.5 ± 0.8 to 0.7 ± 1.0). Twelve months after surgery 55.5% in the CscD group and 80.2% in the PCscD group were free of IOP-lowering medication. In both groups, no severe or sight-threatening complications occurred.ConclusionCombining cataract surgery and CscD achieves a higher IOP reduction, and patients postoperatively need less IOP-lowering medication than after CscD alone.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T11:37:42.658616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13393
  • Antiretinal antibodies in central serous chorioretinopathy: prevalence and
           clinical implications
    • Authors: Josianne C. E. M. Berge; Elon H. C. Dijk, Marco W. J. Schreurs, Jacolien Vermeer, Camiel J. F. Boon, Aniki Rothova
      Abstract: PurposeTo investigate the possible role of autoimmune reactions directed against retinal tissue in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), by analysing the presence of serum antiretinal antibodies (ARAs) and establishing their clinical relevance.MethodsSixty-three patients with CSC were included, and clinical characteristics were collected. Serum samples of all patients with CSC, 101 uveitis patients and 60 healthy donors were analysed for the presence of ARAs by indirect immunofluorescence. Furthermore, all CSC serum samples were analysed on Western blot. Correlations between laboratory findings and clinical features of CSC were determined by logistic regression.ResultsAntiretinal antibodies (ARAs) were present in 54% of the patients with CSC, in 46% of uveitis patients (p = 0.153) and in 17% of healthy controls (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T06:25:30.536892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13445
  • Optical coherence tomography evaluation of patients with macula-off
           retinal detachment after different postoperative posturing: a randomized
           pilot study
    • Authors: Enrico Peiretti; Francesco Nasini, Elisa Buschini, Giulia Caminiti, Sarit Y. Lesnik Oberstein, Alissa Willig, Heico M. Bijl, Marco Mura
      Abstract: PurposeTo assess the presence of outer and inner retinal folds (RFs) and drop-out of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) occurring after surgical repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with different postoperative posture and preoperative use of adjuvant perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCO).MethodsIn this prospective study, 56 eyes of 56 consecutive patients affected by RRD were subjected to 23- or 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The patients were randomized in four groups (14 prone 5 hr without PFCO, 14 supine 5 hr without PFCO, 14 prone 5 hr with PFCO and 14 supine 5 hr with PFCO) and followed up with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).ResultsSpectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was recorded before surgery, at days 30 and 90 to detect the presence of outer RFs, inner RFs and drop-out of EZ and to follow their variation over time. No statistical significance was found in our groups for outer RFs, inner RFs, drop-out of EZ formation and evolution. The postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in all groups (mean preoperative BCVA 1.47 logMar ± 0.19, mean postoperative BCVA 0.27 logMar ± 0.11, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T06:02:17.446092-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13397
  • Reduced anterior chamber contamination by frequent surface irrigation with
           diluted iodine solutions during cataract surgery
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Shimada; Shinji Arai, Hiroyuki Nakashizuka, Takayuki Hattori, Mitsuko Yuzawa
      Abstract: PurposeTo verify that ocular surface irrigation with 0.025% povidone–iodine (PI) or 0.0025% polyvinyl alcohol–iodine (PAI) during cataract surgery minimizes bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber.MethodsThe study was a prospective, interventional case series. First, the bactericidal effect of PI or PAI against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in vitro. Next, in 400 eyes undergoing cataract surgery, the ocular surface was irrigated every 20 seconds during surgery with balanced salt solution (BSS; 200 eyes) or BSS containing 0.025% PI (100 eyes) or 0.0025% PAI (100 eyes). At the completion of surgery, anterior chamber fluid was cultured bacteriologically. Visual acuity (VA) and corneal endothelial cell density were measured before and 7 days after surgery.ResultsA marked bactericidal effect was observed when S. aureus was directly exposed for 15 seconds to 0.01% PI or 0.001% PAI diluted in BSS. When the two solutions were stored at room temperature, bactericidal effect did not attenuate after 60 min. The bacterial detection rate at the completion of surgery was significantly reduced in 0.025% PI (0%, 0/100 eyes) or 0.0025% PAI group (0%, 0/100 eyes) compared to BSS group (5%, 10/200 eyes) (p = 0.0340). No differences in postoperative visual acuity and postoperative corneal endothelial cell density were observed between three groups.ConclusionIn cataract surgery, irrigation every 20 seconds of the operative field with 0.025% PI or 0.0025% PAI, both of which contain 0.0025% available iodine concentration, achieved a very low bacterial contamination rate in the anterior chamber.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T02:30:30.412185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13390
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 431 - 434
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T23:57:57.08518-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13264
  • This issue of ACTA
    • Authors: Einar Stefánsson
      Pages: 437 - 438
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T23:57:48.716068-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13543
  • Photochemical eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
           by blue light activation of riboflavin
    • Authors: Karim Makdoumi; Ray Goodrich, Anders Bäckman
      Pages: 498 - 502
      Abstract: PurposeTo compare elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by exposure of blue light alone and with riboflavin.MethodsA reference strain of MRSA was cultured and diluted in PBS with and without riboflavin (0.01%). Fifteen microlitre was added on a microscope slide, creating a fluid layer with a thickness of around 400 microns. Both of the bacterial suspensions were exposed to blue light, and the effect between exposure with and without riboflavin was compared. Evaluation involved two different wavelengths (412 and 450 nm) of blue light with a lower (5.4 J/cm2) and higher dose (approximately 28.5 J/cm2). The effect of 412 nm light was also evaluated for a thicker fluid layer (1.17 mm). After exposure, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each solution. All measurements were repeated eight times.ResultsThe reductions in bacteria were similar for both wavelengths. With riboflavin, a statistically significant elimination was observed for both 412 and 450 nm (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T23:25:24.94381-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13409
  • Canaloplasty with Stegmann Canal Expander for primary open-angle glaucoma:
           two-year clinical results
    • Authors: Matthias C. Grieshaber; Andreas Schoetzau, Hans R. Grieshaber, Robert Stegmann
      Pages: 503 - 508
      Abstract: PurposeTo examine longer-term postsurgical safety and efficacy of a new expander for Schlemm's canal.MethodsIn a non-comparative, prospective study, 42 White patients with medically uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) underwent primary canaloplasty with>2-year follow-up. The bleb-independent procedure comprised catheter-assisted canaloplasty and implantation of two Stegmann Canal Expanders to maintain trabecular distension and canal patency over 180°. Intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medication use and complications were assessed.ResultsMean IOP was 26.8 ± 5.6 mmHg presurgery, 12.8 ± 1.5 mmHg at 6 months, 13.2 ± 1.2 mmHg at 12 months and 13.3 ± 2.5 mmHg at 24 months (p 
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T03:05:34.499206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13372
  • Monitoring daily intraocular pressure fluctuations with self-tonometry in
           healthy subjects
    • Authors: Laurence Quérat; Enping Chen
      Pages: 525 - 529
      Abstract: PurposeTo evaluate the accuracy of the intraocular pressure (IOP) measured by healthy subjects with icare® Home and to observe the IOP fluctuation and pattern of IOP fluctuation in healthy subjects over three consecutive days.MethodsSixty healthy subjects were recruited to the study. IOP was measured by the subjects themselves and by study staff using icare® Home tonometers on visits 1 and 2, as well as by study staff using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Furthermore, the subjects measured their IOP at home for three consecutive days.ResultsTwenty-three per cent of the study eyes were excluded in the statistical analysis due to dropout or non-compliance to the schedule. Approximately 70% of the icare® Home measurements were within 3 mmHg of the GAT measurements. Ten to 16% of the study eyes had IOP peaks outside office hours. Sixty-three per cent of the study eyes had different IOP patterns on consecutive days.ConclusionRebound self-tonometry appears to be accurate and could be used to monitor short- and long-term IOP variations. The difference between IOP patterns on consecutive days raises questions as to the certainty of a single IOP measurement as a measure of treatment effect.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T05:05:31.507625-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aos.13389
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