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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Anatomical Sciences Education
  [SJR: 0.633]   [H-I: 24]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1935-9772 - ISSN (Online) 1935-9780
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Influence of study approaches and course design on academic success in the
           undergraduate anatomy laboratory
    • Authors: Courtney D. Eleazer; Rebecca Scopa Kelso
      Abstract: Many pre‐health professional programs require completion of an undergraduate anatomy course with a laboratory component, yet grades in these courses are often low. Many students perceive anatomy as a more challenging subject than other coursework, and the resulting anxiety surrounding this perception may be a significant contributor to poor performance. Well‐planned and deliberate guidance from instructors, as well as thoughtful course design, may be necessary to assist students in finding the best approach to studying for anatomy. This article assesses which study habits are associated with course success and whether course design influences study habits. Surveys (n = 1,274) were administered to students enrolled in three undergraduate human anatomy laboratory courses with varying levels of cooperative learning and structured guidance. The surveys collected information on potential predictors of performance, including student demographics, educational background, self‐assessment ability, and study methods (e.g., flashcards, textbooks, diagrams). Compared to low performers, high performers perceive studying in laboratory, asking the instructor questions, quizzing alone, and quizzing others as more effective for learning. Additionally, students co‐enrolled in a flipped, active lecture anatomy course achieve higher grades and find active learning activities (e.g., quizzing alone and in groups) more helpful for their learning in the laboratory. These results strengthen previous research suggesting that student performance is more greatly enhanced by an active classroom environment that practices successful study strategies rather than one that simply encourages students to employ such strategies inside and outside the classroom. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T12:20:23.657609-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1766
  • Application of flipped classroom pedagogy to the human gross anatomy
           laboratory: Student preferences and learning outcomes
    • Authors: Timothy R. Fleagle; Nicholas C. Borcherding, Jennie Harris, Darren S. Hoffmann
      Abstract: To improve student preparedness for anatomy laboratory dissection, the dental gross anatomy laboratory was transformed using flipped classroom pedagogy. Instead of spending class time explaining the procedures and anatomical structures for each laboratory, students were provided online materials to prepare for laboratory on their own. Eliminating in-class preparation provided the opportunity to end each period with integrative group activities that connected laboratory and lecture material and explored clinical correlations. Materials provided for prelaboratory preparation included: custom-made, three-dimensional (3D) anatomy videos, abbreviated dissection instructions, key atlas figures, and dissection videos. Data from three years of the course (n = 241 students) allowed for analysis of students' preferences for these materials and detailed tracking of usage of 3D anatomy videos. Students reported spending an average of 27:22 (±17:56) minutes preparing for laboratory, similar to the 30 minutes previously allocated for in-class dissection preparation. The 3D anatomy videos and key atlas figures were rated the most helpful resources. Scores on laboratory examinations were compared for the three years before the curriculum change (2011–2013; n = 242) and three years after (2014–2016; n = 241). There was no change in average grades on the first and second laboratory examinations. However, on the final semi-cumulative laboratory examination, scores were significantly higher in the post-flip classes (P = 0.04). These results demonstrate an effective model for applying flipped classroom pedagogy to the gross anatomy laboratory and illustrate a meaningful role for 3D anatomy visualizations in a dissection-based course. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T10:00:49.972615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1755
  • Impact and Educational Outcomes of a Small Group Self‐Directed Teaching
           Strategy in a Clinical Neuroscience Curriculum
    • Authors: Thomas I. Nathaniel; Jordan C. Gainey, Jessica A. Williams, Bianca L. Stewart, Michael C. Hood, Leanne E. Brechtel, Rakiya V. Faulkner, Jasmine S. Pendergrass, Leigh-Ann Black, Scott K. Griffin, Christopher E. Troup, Jayne S. Reuben, Asa C. Black
      Abstract: The complexity of the material being taught in clinical neuroscience within the medical school curriculum requires creative pedagogies to teach medical students effectively. Many clinical teaching strategies have been developed and are well described to address these challenges. However, only a few have been evaluated to determine their impact on the performance of students studying clinical neuroscience. Interactive, 2‐hour, self‐directed small‐group interactive clinical case‐based learning sessions were conducted weekly for 4 weeks to integrate concepts learned in the corresponding didactic lectures. Students in the small groups analyzed cases of patients suffering from neurological disease that were based on eight learning objectives that allowed them to evaluate neuroanatomical data and clinical findings before presenting their case analysis to the larger group. Students’ performances on the formative quizzes and summative tests were compared to those of first‐year medical students in the previous year for whom the self‐directed, small‐group interactive clinical sessions were not available. There was a significant improvement in the summative performance of first‐year medical students with self‐directed clinical case learning in the second year (Y2) of teaching clinical neuroscience (P 
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T10:45:35.604946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1759
  • A Longitudinal Study in Learning Preferences and Academic Performance in
           First Year Medical School
    • Authors: Yenya Hu; Hong Gao, Marcia M. Wofford, Claudio Violato
      Abstract: This is a longitudinal study of first year medical students that investigates the relationship between the pattern change of the learning preferences and academic performance. Using the visual, auditory, reading‐writing, and kinesthetic inventory at the beginning of the first and second year for the same class, it was found that within the first year, 36% of the class remained unimodal (single) modality learners (SS), 14% changed from unimodal to multimodality learners (SM), 27% changed from multimodality to unimodal modality learners (MS) and 21% remained as multimodality learners (MM). Among the academic performance through subsequent didactic blocks from Clinical Anatomy, Cell and Subcellular Processes to Medical Neuroscience during first year, the SM group made more significant improvement compared to the SS group. Semi‐structured interview results from the SM group showed that students made this transition between the Clinical Anatomy course and the middle of the Medical Neuroscience course, in an effort to improve their performance. This study suggests that the transition from unimodal to multimodality learning among academically struggling students improved their academic performance in the first year of medical school. Therefore, this may be considered as part of academic advising tools for struggling students to improve their academic performances. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T10:41:20.730862-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1757
  • How comprehensive are research studies investigating the efficacy of
           technology‐enhanced learning resources in anatomy education' A
           systematic review
    • Authors: Lauren Clunie; Neil P. Morris, Viktoria C. T. Joynes, James D. Pickering
      Abstract: Anatomy education is at the forefront of integrating innovative technologies into its curricula. However, despite this rise in technology numerous authors have commented on the shortfall in efficacy studies to assess the impact such technology‐enhanced learning (TEL) resources have on learning. To assess the range of evaluation approaches to TEL across anatomy education, a systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, the Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Scopus, and Google Scholar, with a total of 3,345 articles retrieved. Following the PRISMA method for reporting items, 153 articles were identified and reviewed against a published framework—the technology‐enhanced learning evaluation model (TELEM). The model allowed published reports to be categorized according to evaluations at the level of (1) learner satisfaction, (2) learning gain, (3) learner impact, and (4) institutional impact. The results of this systematic review reveal that most evaluation studies into TEL within anatomy curricula were based on learner satisfaction, followed by module or course learning outcomes. Randomized controlled studies assessing learning gain with a specific TEL resource were in a minority, with no studies reporting a comprehensive assessment on the overall impact of introducing a specific TEL resource (e.g., return on investment). This systematic review has provided clear evidence that anatomy education is engaged in evaluating the impact of TEL resources on student education, although it remains at a level that fails to provide comprehensive causative evidence. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:42:14.341273-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1762
  • The relationship between student engagement with online content and
           achievement in a blended learning anatomy course
    • Authors: Rodney A. Green; Laura Y. Whitburn, Anita Zacharias, Graeme Byrne, Diane L. Hughes
      Abstract: Blended learning has become increasingly common in higher education. Recent findings suggest that blended learning achieves better student outcomes than traditional face‐to‐face teaching in gross anatomy courses. While face‐to‐face content is perceived as important to learning there is less evidence for the significance of online content in improving student outcomes. Students enrolled in a second‐year anatomy course from the physiotherapy (PT), exercise physiology (EP), and exercise science (ES) programs across two campuses were included (n = 500). A structural equation model was used to evaluate the relationship of prior student ability (represented by grade in prerequisite anatomy course) and final course grade and whether the relationship was mediated by program, campus or engagement with the online elements of the learning management system (LMS; proportion of documents and video segments viewed and number of interactions with discussion forums). PT students obtained higher grades and were more likely to engage with online course materials than EP and ES students. Prerequisite grade made a direct contribution to course final grade (P 
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:36:35.34004-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1761
  • Online instructional anatomy videos: Student usage, self-efficacy, and
           performance in upper limb regional anatomy assessment
    • Authors: Tracey Langfield; Kay Colthorpe, Louise Ainscough
      Abstract: Allied health professionals concur that a sound knowledge of practical gross anatomy is vital for the clinician, however, human anatomy courses in allied health programs have been identified as high-risk for attrition and failure. While anatomists and clinicians agree that learning anatomy via human cadaveric instruction is the preferred method, students vary in their reaction to the cadaveric learning experience and have differing levels of anatomy self-efficacy. This study investigated whether student self-efficacy had an effect on student usage of supplemental instructional videos and whether the use of videos had an impact on student self-efficacy and/or learning. Anatomy self-efficacy differed based on gender and prior performance. Student usage of the videos varied widely and students with lower self-efficacy were more inclined to use the resources. The provision of the videos did not improve overall cohort performance as compared to a historical cohort, however, those students that accessed all video sets experienced a greater normalized learning gain compared to students that used none or one of the four sets of videos. Student reports and usage patterns indicate that the videos were primarily used for practical class preparation and revision. Potentially, the videos represent a passive mode of teaching whereas active learning has been demonstrated to result in greater learning gains. Adapting the videos into interactive tutorials which will provide opportunity for feedback and the development of students' self-evaluation may be more appropriate. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T11:15:33.313194-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1756
  • Dissecting the role of sessional anatomy teachers: A systematic literature
    • Authors: Danielle Rhodes; Quentin A. Fogg, Michelle D. Lazarus
      Abstract: Worldwide there is a growing reliance on sessional teachers in universities. This has impacted all disciplines in higher education including medical anatomy programs. The objective of this review was to define the role and support needs of sessional anatomy teachers by reporting on the (1) qualifications, (2) teaching role, (3) training, and (4) performance management of this group of educators. A systematic literature search was conducted on the 27 July 2017 in Scopus, Web of Science, and several databases on the Ovid, ProQuest and EBSCOhost platforms. The search retrieved 5,658 articles, with 39 deemed eligible for inclusion. The qualifications and educational distance between sessional anatomy teachers and their students varied widely. Reports of cross-level, near-peer and reciprocal-peer teaching were identified, with most institutes utilizing recent medical graduates or medical students as sessional teachers. Sessional anatomy teachers were engaged in the full spectrum of teaching-related duties from assisting students with cadaveric dissection, to marking student assessments and developing course materials. Fourteen institutes reported that training was provided to sessional anatomy teachers, but the specific content, objectives, methods and effectiveness of the training programs were rarely defined. Evaluations of sessional anatomy teacher performance primarily relied on subjective feedback measures such as student surveys (n = 18) or teacher self-assessment (n = 3). The results of this systematic review highlight the need for rigorous explorations of the use of sessional anatomy teachers in medical education, and the development of evidence-based policies and training programs that regulate and support the use of sessional teachers in higher education. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T11:15:30.75472-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1753
  • What do medical students learn from dissection'
    • Authors: Natasha A.M.S. Flack; Helen D. Nicholson
      Abstract: Dissection has long been the accepted method for teaching anatomy to medical students. More recently, some educators have suggested that easier, cheaper, alternative methods are just as effective. But what do the students think' This paper aimed to identify what undergraduate medical students learn, how they cope, and what effects participating in dissection has on them as individuals. A cohort of 267 second year medical students at Otago Medical School were invited to complete three online surveys; before their first dissection laboratory class, after their first musculoskeletal system dissection and following the last semester of studying anatomy. Open-ended questions showcasing the attitudes, beliefs, and opinions on what dissection had taught the medical students over years two and three were analyzed. A general inductive approach was used and common emergent themes were identified. In total, 194 students completed the second, and 108 students completed the third questionnaire. Students commonly conveyed dissection as an appropriate and valuable educational tool, useful for teaching and learning anatomical knowledge and relationships, appreciating the body in three-dimension, teamwork, and how to cope with death/dead bodies. The noted effects of personal growth while participating in dissection were highly varied, but in general, impacted positively on the majority of students. This study shows that at Otago Medical School the students also believe that dissection is not only a useful tool to learn anatomy but also that it fosters teamwork, assists professional development and helps them come to terms with death and dying. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T11:05:24.99437-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1758
  • The interrupted learner: How distractions during live and video lectures
           influence learning outcomes
    • Authors: Andrew H. Zureick; Jesse Burk-Rafel, Joel A. Purkiss, Michael Hortsch
      Abstract: New instructional technologies have been increasingly incorporated into the medical school learning environment, including lecture video recordings as a substitute for live lecture attendance. The literature presents varying conclusions regarding how this alternative experience impacts students' academic success. Previously, a multi-year study of the first-year medical histology component at the University of Michigan found that live lecture attendance was positively correlated with learning success, while lecture video use was negatively correlated. Here, three cohorts of first-year medical students (N = 439 respondents, 86.6% response rate) were surveyed in greater detail regarding lecture attendance and video usage, focusing on study behaviors that may influence histology learning outcomes. Students who reported always attending lectures or viewing lecture videos had higher average histology scores than students who employed an inconsistent strategy (i.e., mixing live attendance and video lectures). Several behaviors were negatively associated with histology performance. Students who engaged in “non-lecture activities” (e.g., social media use), students who reported being interrupted while watching the lecture video, or feeling sleepy/losing focus had lower scores than their counterparts not engaging in these behaviors. This study suggests that interruptions and distractions during medical learning activities—whether live or recorded—can have an important impact on learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 00: 000–000. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T10:45:51.919579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1754
  • Optimizing quality of dental carving by preclinical dental students
           through anatomy theory reinforcement
    • Authors: Renato A. de Azevedo; Marcos B. Correa, Marcos A. Torriani, Rafael G. Lund
      Abstract: Knowledge of dental anatomy is of great importance in the practice of dentistry, especially in oral rehabilitation, because without this knowledge, professional practice is not possible. Dental carving plays a major role in training dental students as it develops their manual dexterity. This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the influence of didactic‐theoretical reinforcement on the theoretical and practical knowledge of dental anatomy of preclinical students by examining the quality of the anatomical restorations performed by these students before and after a didactic‐theoretical reinforcement. For the evaluation of theoretical knowledge, a questionnaire with closed questions about dental anatomy was used. To evaluate the effect of didactic reinforcement on dental carvings, two groups of 15 preclinical students were assessed. Experimental group (G1) received a three‐hour theoretical tutoring on dental anatomy, while the control group (G2) did not. The dental carving scores obtained by the two different groups were compared using Student's t‐test. Cohen's d was used to estimate the effect sizes between groups. The frequency of correct answers given for each theoretical knowledge question was compared in each group using Fisher's exact test. T‐test was also used to compare the means of the two groups' final scores of theoretical evaluations. To compare these final scores obtained in both carving and theoretical tests, a principal component analysis was performed with different items assessed in each test to obtain factor loading scores and a final weighted score, where factor loadings were considered for each item. Weighted scores were compared using t‐test. Also, scores obtained during the head and neck course were assessed and compared using t‐test. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess the correlation between scores obtained prior to the anatomy course and scores obtained in the dental carving exercise. The theoretical evaluation revealed no significant difference between the grades (mean ± SD) of G1 (85.1 ± 6.6%) and G2 (86.2 ± 9.1%) with the grades of a baseline test that was previously obtained when students submitted to the study (P = 0.725). Regarding the tooth carving assessment, the dental carving quality by students of G1 has significantly improved, except for tooth #23 (P = 0.096). Theoretical reinforcement of dental anatomy seems to improve the students' carving performance but does not enhance their knowledge about dental anatomy. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T14:30:25.780029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1752
  • Perceptions of first‐year medical students towards learning anatomy
           using cadaveric specimens through peer teaching
    • Authors: Andee Agius; Neville Calleja, Christian Camenzuli, Roberta Sultana, Richard Pullicino, Christian Zammit, Jean Calleja Agius, Cristoforo Pomara
      Abstract: During the last decade, global interest in the multiple benefits of formal peer teaching has increased. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of first‐year medical students towards the use of peer teaching to learn anatomy using cadaveric specimens. A descriptive, cross‐sectional, retrospective survey was carried out. Data were collected using an online questionnaire which was administered to all medical students who were in their second year of their medical school curriculum and who had participated in sessions taught by their peers during their first year. Peer teaching was perceived as an effective method of learning anatomy by more than half of the participants. Analysis of mean responses revealed that the peer teachers created a positive, non‐intimidating learning environment. Overall, participants gave positive feedback on their peer teachers. Six categories emerged from the responses given by participants as to why they would or would not recommend peer teaching. Ways of improvement as suggested by the respondents were also reported. Variables found to be significantly associated with the perceived benefits of the peer teaching program included sex differences, educational level and recommendations for peer teaching. This study brings to light the merits and demerits of peer teaching as viewed through the eyes of the peer learners. Peer teaching provides a sound platform for teaching and learning anatomy. Further discussions at higher levels are encouraged in order to explore the feasibility of introducing formal peer teaching in the medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T12:10:31.012556-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1751
  • Exploring anatomy and physiology using iPad applications
    • Authors: Tandra R. Chakraborty; Deborah F. Cooperstein
      Abstract: This study examined the use of iPads with anatomy applications (apps) in the laboratory sections of the largest undergraduate course at the university, Anatomy and Physiology, serving more than 300 students. The majority of these students were nursing, exercise science/physical education and biology majors. With a student survey (student opinion) and student practicum grades as metrics, this study determined whether the introduction of this novel mobile technology improved student grades and aided the students in learning the course material. The results indicated that students’ grades improved with the introduction of the iPads, and 78% of the students reported that the iPads facilitated their ability to learn the course material. There was a positive association between frequency of app use and standardized mastery of the course material, as students who used the apps more frequently scored higher and indicated that they felt as though they had learned the material more comprehensively. Owning or having an iPad at home did not have a significant effect on the learning of the material. The general consensus by students was that iPad anatomy apps should be used frequently to better develop student understanding of the course material. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T12:10:23.368282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1747
  • What do the public know about anatomy' Anatomy education to the public
           and the implications
    • Authors: Adam M. Taylor; Peter Diggle, Quenton Wessels
      Abstract: Public knowledge of the anatomical “self” is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty‐three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures on a blank human body template. Responses were scored independently and then collated. A mixed effects logistic model was used to examine any associations with participants' as a random effect and all other factors as fixed effects. Results showed a statistically significant quadratic trend with age. Participants in health‐related employment scored significantly higher than those not in health‐related employment. There was a significant interaction between gender and organ type with males scoring higher than females in identifying muscles, but not in identifying internal organs. The current study demonstrates the general public's eagerness to learn anatomy despite their limited knowledge of the human body, and the need for widening participation. Furthermore, it raises an awareness of the anatomical literacy needs of the general public, especially in school children and young adults. Furthermore, it emphasizes the value of health literacy as a focus in undergraduate medical education. Anatomy literacy appears to be neglected, and this experience provides an example of a possible mode of public engagement in anatomy. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T08:55:26.345618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1746
  • What type of learner are your students' Preferred learning styles of
           undergraduate gross anatomy students according to the index of learning
           styles questionnaire
    • Authors: Melissa M. Quinn; Theodore Smith, Eileen L. Kalmar, Jennifer M. Burgoon
      Abstract: Students learn and process information in many different ways. Learning styles are useful as they allow instructors to learn more about students, as well as aid in the development and application of useful teaching approaches and techniques. At the undergraduate level there is a noticeable lack of research on learning style preferences of students enrolled in gross anatomy courses. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in a large enrollment undergraduate gross anatomy course with laboratory to determine their preferred learning styles. The predominant preferred learning styles of the students (n = 505) enrolled in the gross anatomy course were active (54.9%), sensing (85.1%), visual (81.2%), and sequential (74.4%). Preferred learning styles profiles of particular majors enrolled in the course were also constructed; analyses showed minor variation in the active/reflective dimension. An understanding of students' preferred learning styles can guide course design but it should not be implemented in isolation. It can be strengthened (or weakened) by concurrent use of other tools (e.g., flipped classroom course design). Based on the preferred learning styles of the majority of undergraduate students in this particular gross anatomy course, course activities can be hands on (i.e., active), grounded in concrete information (i.e., sensing), utilize visual representation such as images, figures, models, etc. (i.e., visual), and move in small incremental steps that build on each topic (i.e., sequential). Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T11:20:22.170168-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1748
  • Anonymous body or first patient' A status report and needs assessment
           regarding the personalization of donors in dissection courses in German,
           Austrian, and Swiss Medical Schools
    • Authors: Friederike Hasselblatt; David A. C. Messerer, Oliver Keis, Tobias M. Böckers, Anja Böckers
      Abstract: Many Anglo‐American universities have undertaken a paradigm shift in how the dissection of human material is approached, such that students are encouraged to learn about the lives of body donors, and to respectfully “personalize” them as human beings, rather than treating the specimens as anonymous cadavers. For the purposes of this study, this provision of limited personal information regarding the life of a body donor will be referred to as “personalization” of body donors. At this time, it is unknown whether this paradigm shift in the personalization of body donors can be translated into the German‐speaking world. A shift from donor anonymity to donor personalization could strengthen students' perception of the donor as a “first patient,” and thereby reinforce their ability to empathize with their future patients. Therefore, this study aimed to collect data about the current status of donation practices at German‐speaking anatomy departments (n = 44) and to describe the opinions of anatomy departments, students (n = 366), and donors (n = 227) about possible donor personalization in medical education. Anatomy departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were invited to participate in an online questionnaire. One‐tenth of registered donors at Ulm University were randomly selected and received a questionnaire (20 items, yes‐no questions) by mail. Students at the University of Ulm were also surveyed at the end of the dissection course (31 items, six‐point Likert‐scale). The majority of students were interested in receiving additional information about their donors (78.1%). A majority of donors also supported the anonymous disclosure of information about their medical history (92.5%). However, this information is only available in about 28% of the departments surveyed and is communicated to the students only irregularly. Overall, 78% of anatomy departments were not in favor of undertaking donor personalization. The results appear to reflect traditional attitudes among anatomy departments. However, since students clearly preferred receiving additional donor information, and most donors expressed a willingness to provide this information, one could argue that a change in attitudes is necessary. To do so, official recommendations for a limited, anonymous personalization of donated cadaveric specimens might be necessary. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T09:55:21.494157-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1744
  • The histopathologic reliability of tissue taken from cadavers within the
           gross anatomy laboratory
    • Authors: Guenevere Rae; William P. Newman, Robin McGoey, Supriya Donthamsetty, Aryn C. Karpinski, Jeffrey Green
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin‐based fixative solution. The tissue was processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at six micrometers, and stained with H&E. The microscope slides were evaluated by a board certified pathologist to determine whether the cellular components of the tissues were preserved at a high enough quality to allow for histopathologic diagnosis. There was a statistically significant relationship between ratings and organ groups. Across all organs, there was a smaller proportion of “poor” ratings. The lung group had the highest percentage of “poor” ratings (23.1%). The heart group had the least “poor” ratings (0.0%). The largest percentage of “satisfactory” ratings were in the lung group (52.8%), and the heart group contained the highest percentage of “good” ratings (58.5%) The lung group had the lowest percentage of “good” ratings (24.2%). These results indicate that heart tissue is more reliable than lung, kidney, or liver tissue when utilizing tissue from the gross anatomy laboratory for research and/or educational purposes. This information advises educators and researchers about the quality and histopathologic reliability of tissue samples obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T10:35:34.120796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1743
  • Ask an anatomist: Identifying global trends, topics and themes of academic
           anatomists using twitter
    • Authors: Madeleine J. Marsland; Michelle D. Lazarus
      Abstract: Social media (SoMe) is increasingly used in higher education (HE) to access knowledge and enable global communication. The SoMe platform Twitter® is particularly beneficial in these contexts because it is readily accessible, easily searchable (via hashtags) and global. Given these advantages, the twitter platform @AskAnatomist was created to foster a global weekly tweet chat, where students and academics from can ask and address anatomy‐related questions. The aim of this study was to identify themes arising in the early stages of the @AskAnatomy Twitter community to gain insights into current needs/key areas for academic anatomists, students, and other followers. A qualitative analysis of tweets including the hashtag #AnatQ, (the associated @AskAnatomist hashtag), was undertaken to achieve this aim. Thematic analysis revealed three core themes arising in the formative stages of the @AskAnatomist Twitter site: (1) anatomical education modalities, (2) specific anatomy content, and (3) research motivations. These themes reveal controversies within the field of anatomical sciences, areas for potential education resource improvement and research, as well as the humor of anatomists. Though the original intent of the @AskAnatomist site was to engage the general public in anatomy content and knowledge, tweet analysis suggests that academic anatomists were the primary active “tweeters”. Interestingly, this analysis reveals that the @AskAnatomist site progressed into a web‐based community of practice (CoP), suggesting an additional benefit of SoMe communities in the field of anatomy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T10:40:20.68806-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1738
  • Evaluating a bedside tool for neuroanatomical localization with
           extended‐matching questions
    • Authors: Kevin Tan; Han Xin Chin, Christine W.L. Yau, Erle C.H. Lim, Dujeepa Samarasekera, Gominda Ponnamperuma, Nigel C.K. Tan
      Abstract: Neuroanatomical localization (NL) is a key skill in neurology, but learners often have difficulty with it. This study aims to evaluate a concise NL tool (NLT) developed to help teach and learn NL. To evaluate the NLT, an extended‐matching questions (EMQ) test to assess NL was designed and validated. The EMQ was validated with fourth‐year medical students and internal medicine and neurology residents. The NLT's usability was evaluated with third‐ and fourth‐year students, and the effectiveness was evaluated with an experimental study of second‐year students, using the EMQ as the outcome measure. Students were taught how to use both the NLT and textbook algorithms (control) to perform NL, then randomized into either group, and only allowed to use their assigned tool to complete the EMQ. Primary outcome was the difference in mean EMQ scores expressed as a percentage of total score. For EMQ validation, students (n = 56) scored lower than residents (n = 50) (76.7% ± 1.7 vs. 83.0% ± 1.6; mean ± standard error of mean, P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T08:45:26.559089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1741
  • Learning and study strategies correlate with medical students' performance
           in anatomical sciences
    • Authors: Mohammed K. Khalil; Shanna E. Williams, H. Gregory Hawkins
      Abstract: Much of the content delivered during medical students' preclinical years is assessed nationally by such testing as the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) Step 1 and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination® (COMPLEX‐USA®) Step 1. Improvement of student study/learning strategies skills is associated with academic success in internal and external (USMLE Step 1) examinations. This research explores the strength of association between the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores and student performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. The LASSI inventory assesses learning and study strategies based on ten subscale measures. These subscales include three components of strategic learning: skill (Information processing, Selecting main ideas, and Test strategies), will (Anxiety, Attitude, and Motivation) and self‐regulation (Concentration, Time management, Self‐testing, and Study aid). During second year (M2) orientation, 180 students (Classes of 2016, 2017, and 2018) were administered the LASSI survey instrument. Pearson Product‐Moment correlation analyses identified significant associations between five of the ten LASSI subscales (Anxiety, Information processing, Motivation, Selecting main idea, and Test strategies) and students' performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. Identification of students lacking these skills within the anatomical sciences curriculum allows targeted interventions, which not only maximize academic achievement in an aspect of an institution's internal examinations, but in the external measure of success represented by USMLE Step 1 scores. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T08:45:21.669792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1742
  • Analysis of testing with multiple choice versus open‐ended questions:
           Outcome‐based observations in an anatomy course
    • Authors: Cheryl A. Melovitz Vasan; David O. DeFouw, Bart K. Holland, Nagaswami S. Vasan
      Abstract: The pedagogical approach for both didactic and laboratory teaching of anatomy has changed in the last 25 years and continues to evolve; however, assessment of student anatomical knowledge has not changed despite the awareness of Bloom's taxonomy. For economic reasons most schools rely on multiple choice questions (MCQ) that test knowledge mastered while competences such as critical thinking and skill development are not typically assessed. In contrast, open‐ended question (OEQ) examinations demand knowledge construction and a higher order of thinking, but more time is required from the faculty to score the constructed responses. This study compares performances on MCQ and OEQ examinations administered to a small group of incoming first year medical students in a preparatory (enrichment) anatomy course that covered the thorax and abdomen. In the thorax module, the OEQ examination score was lower than the MCQ examination score; however, in the abdomen module, the OEQ examination score improved compared to the thorax OEQ score. Many students attributed their improved performance to a change from simple memorization (superficial learning) for cued responses to conceptual understanding (deeper learning) for constructed responses. The results support the view that assessment with OEQs, which requires in depth knowledge, would result in student better performance in the examination. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T08:35:26.39119-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1739
  • Best evidence of anatomy education' Insights from the most recent
    • Authors: Mauro Vaccarezza
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T08:35:18.345217-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1740
  • Is the supply of continuing education in the anatomical sciences keeping
           up with the demand' Results of a national survey
    • Authors: Adam B. Wilson; J. Bradley Barger, Patricia Perez, William S. Brooks
      Abstract: Continuing education (CE) is an essential element in the life‐long learning of health care providers and educators. Despite the importance of the anatomical sciences in the training and practice of clinicians, no studies have examined the need/state of anatomy‐related CE nationally. This study assessed the current landscape of CE in the anatomical sciences to contextualize preferences for CE, identify factors that influence the perceived need for CE, and examine the association between supply and demand. Surveys were distributed to educators in the anatomical sciences, practicing physical therapists (PTs), and anatomy training programs across the United States. Twenty‐five percent (9 of 36) of training programs surveyed offered CE, certificates, or summer series programs related to anatomy. The majority of PTs (92%) and anatomy educators (81%) felt they had a potential or actual need for anatomy related CE with the most popular formats being online videos/learning modules and intensive, hands‐on workshops. The most commonly perceived barriers to participating in CE for both groups were program location, cost, and duration, while educators also perceived time of year as a significant factor. Logistic regression analyses revealed that no investigated factor influenced the need or desire for PTs to engage in anatomy related CE (P ≤ 0.124), while teaching experience and the highest level of learner taught significantly influenced the perceived need among anatomy educators (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T10:02:38.101118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1726
  • Benefits of extracurricular participation in dissection in a
           prosection‐based medical anatomy program
    • Authors: Alexander Whelan; John J. Leddy, Christopher J. Ramnanan
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extracurricular cadaveric dissection program available to medical students at an institution with a modern (time‐compressed, student‐centered, and prosection‐based) approach to medical anatomy education. Quantitative (Likert‐style questions) and qualitative data (thematic analysis of open‐ended commentary) were collated from a survey of three medical student cohorts who had completed preclerkship. Perceived benefits of dissection included the hands‐on learning style and the development of anatomy expertise, while the main barrier that limited participation was the time‐intensive nature of dissection. Despite perceived benefits, students preferred that dissection remain optional. Analysis of assessments for the MD2016 cohort revealed that dissection participation was associated with enhanced performance on anatomy items in each systems‐based unit examination, with the largest benefits observed on discriminating items that assessed knowledge application. In conclusion, this study revealed that there are academic and perceived benefits of extracurricular participation in dissection. While millennial medical students recognized these benefits, these students also indicated strong preference for having flexibility and choice in their anatomy education, including the choice to participate in cadaveric dissection. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T11:25:19.654931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1724
  • Anatomy education in occupational therapy curricula: Perspectives of
           practitioners in the United States
    • Authors: Katherine A. Schofield
      Abstract: The study of human anatomy is an integral component in the education of future occupational therapists, yet there is a paucity of research that explores the anatomy needs of students and new practitioners. As a follow up from a pilot study that surveyed a small cohort of practicing therapists, this article aimed to determine occupational therapy (OT) practitioners' views on anatomy course structure and content deemed important to include in OT curricula, entry level practitioners' anatomy knowledge, and application of anatomy in current practice. A Likert scale and free text questionnaire was distributed to practicing occupational therapists across the United States. Fifty‐four percent of the participants in this cohort favored a standalone course, as compared to 94% in the pilot study group. Anatomy course content areas were comparable across groups. Systems identified as essential to cover in an OT anatomy course included skeletal, muscular, and nervous. Regions included the upper limb, thorax/trunk, head and neck, and lower limb. Seventy percent of participants in both groups felt that entry‐level practitioners had adequate anatomy knowledge; 30% did not. Practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge included assessment of joint movement, muscle strength, pain, and functional mobility. Qualitative analysis of free text response data revealed the importance of anatomy knowledge in OT assessment and intervention strategies, determining the impact of injury or disease on occupational performance, client safety, and communication with other health care professionals and families. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T10:55:28.352887-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1723
  • Improved medical student perception of ultrasound using a paired anatomy
           teaching assistant and clinician teaching model
    • Authors: Jacob P. Smith; John L. Kendall, Danielle F. Royer
      Abstract: This study describes a new teaching model for ultrasound (US) training, and evaluates its effect on medical student attitudes toward US. First year medical students participated in hands-on US during human gross anatomy (2014 N = 183; 2015 N = 182). The sessions were facilitated by clinicians alone in 2014, and by anatomy teaching assistant (TA)-clinician pairs in 2015. Both cohorts completed course evaluations which included five US-related items on a four-point scale; cohort responses were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests with significance threshold set at 0.05. The 2015 survey also evaluated the TAs (three items, five-point scale). With the adoption of the TA-clinician teaching model, student ratings increased significantly for four out of five US-items: “US advanced my ability to learn anatomy” increased from 2.91 ± 0.77 to 3.35 ± 0.68 (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T09:50:29.445052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1722
  • Novel dissection of the central nervous system to bridge gross anatomy and
           neuroscience for an integrated medical curriculum
    • Authors: Rebecca J. Hlavac; Rachel Klaus, Kourtney Betts, Shilo M. Smith, Maureen E. Stabio
      Abstract: Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated. However, this dissection is rarely, if ever, performed likely due to time constraints, perceived difficulty, and lack of instructions. The goals of this project were (i) to provide a comprehensive, step-by-step guide for an en bloc CNS extraction and (ii) to determine effective strategies to implement this dissection/prosection within modern curricula. Optimal dissection methods were determined after comparison of various approaches/tools, which reduced dissection time from approximately 10 to 4 hours. The CNS prosections were piloted in small group sessions with two types of learners in two different settings: graduate students studied wet CNS prosections within the dissection laboratory and medical students used plastinated CNS prosections to review clinical neuroanatomy and solve lesion localization cases during their neurology clerkship. In both cases, the CNS was highly rated as a teaching tool and 98% recommended it for future students. Notably, 90% of medical students surveyed suggested that the CNS prosection be introduced prior to clinical rotations. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T09:46:09.509249-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1721
  • Performance equivalency between computer-based and traditional
           pen-and-paper assessment: A case study in clinical anatomy
    • Authors: Bruno Guimarães; José Ribeiro, Bernardo Cruz, André Ferreira, Hélio Alves, Ricardo Cruz-Correia, Maria Dulce Madeira, Maria Amélia Ferreira
      Abstract: The time, material, and staff-consuming nature of anatomy's traditional pen-and-paper assessment system, the increase in the number of students enrolling in medical schools and the ever-escalating workload of academic staff have made the use of computer-based assessment (CBA) an attractive proposition. To understand the impact of such shift in the assessment method, an experimental study evaluating its effect on students' performance was designed. Additionally, students' opinions toward CBA were gathered. Second-year medical students attending a Clinical Anatomy course were randomized by clusters in two groups. The pen-and-paper group attended two sessions, each consisting of a traditional sectional anatomy steeplechase followed by a theoretical examination, while the computer group was involved in two similar sessions conducted in a computerized environment. At the end of each of the computer sessions, students in this group filled an anonymous questionnaire. In the first session, pen-and-paper group students scored significantly better than computer-group students in both the steeplechase (mean ± standard deviation: 66.00 ± 14.15% vs. 43.50 ± 19.10%; P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T09:45:26.920173-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1720
  • Validation of clay modeling as a learning tool for the periventricular
           structures of the human brain
    • Authors: Veronica Akle; Ricardo A. Peña-Silva, Diego M. Valencia, Carlos W. Rincón-Perez
      Abstract: Visualizing anatomical structures and functional processes in three dimensions (3D) are important skills for medical students. However, contemplating 3D structures mentally and interpreting biomedical images can be challenging. This study examines the impact of a new pedagogical approach to teaching neuroanatomy, specifically how building a 3D-model from oil-based modeling clay affects learners' understanding of periventricular structures of the brain among undergraduate medical students in Colombia. Students were provided with an instructional video before building the models of the structures, and thereafter took a computer-based quiz. They then brought their clay models to class where they answered questions about the structures via interactive response cards. Their knowledge of periventricular structures was assessed with a paper-based quiz. Afterward, a focus group was conducted and a survey was distributed to understand students' perceptions of the activity, as well as the impact of the intervention on their understanding of anatomical structures in 3D. Quiz scores of students that constructed the models were significantly higher than those taught the material in a more traditional manner (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T15:00:30.336664-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1719
  • Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student
           perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy
    • Authors: Larissa Kennel; David M. A. Martin, Hannah Shaw, Tracey Wilkinson
      Abstract: Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T14:05:33.916142-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1715
  • Current status of cadaver sources in Turkey and a wake-up call for Turkish
    • Authors: İlke Ali Gürses; Osman Coşkun, Adnan Öztürk
      Abstract: Persisting difficulties in body procurement in Turkey led to the acquisition of donated, unclaimed, autopsied, and imported bodies regulated under current legislature. Yet, no study had investigated the extent of the on-going cadaver problem. This study was aimed to outline cadaver sources in anatomy departments and their effectiveness by means of an online survey. Additionally, official websites of each department were investigated regarding any information on body donation. Unclaimed cadavers (84.8%) were the major source for anatomy departments, followed by donated (50%) and imported cadavers (39.1%). Foundation-based medical faculties were more likely to import cadavers (P = 0.008). There was a moderate increase (rs = 0.567; P = 0.018) in donation registrations to our department after 2000. The departments in cities with significantly higher City-Based Gross Domestic Product measures (US$9,900 vs. US$16,772, P = 0.041), frequencies for mid- or high-school graduates (30.4% vs. 31.3%, P = 0.041), and frequencies for under- or post-graduates (13.1% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.24) had managed to use donated cadavers. Anatomy departments' major reasons for using unclaimed cadavers were education (45.9%), unclaimed cadavers being the only source (24.3%), and receiving inadequate donations (21.6%). Nine out of seventy-four departments (12.2%) provided information regarding body donation on their websites. Body procurement remains as a serious problem in Turkey and it is apparent that current legislature does not provide a sufficient cadaver inflow. Similarly, anatomy departments' effectiveness in public awareness of body donation and support in the National Body Donation Campaign seems questionable. Anat Sci Educ, © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T08:10:54.274997-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1713
  • Cost-effective teaching of radiology with preclinical anatomy
    • Authors: James S. Wilson; Jacqueline Alvarez, Bonnie C. Davis, Andre J. Duerinckx
      Abstract: Graduating physicians in all subspecialties have an increased need for competency in radiology, particularly since the use of diagnostic imaging continues to grow. To integrate the teaching of radiology with anatomy during the first year of medical school at Howard University, a novel approach was developed to overcome the limitations of resources including funding, faculty, and curricular time. The resulting program relies on self-study and peer-to-peer interactions to develop proficiency at manipulating free versions of medical image viewer software (using the DICOM standard), identifying normal anatomy in medical images, and applying critical thinking skills to understand common clinical conditions. An effective collaborative relationship between a radiologist and anatomist was necessary to develop and implement the program of anatomic–radiographic instruction which consists of five tiers: (1) initial exposure to anatomy through dissection which provides a foundation of knowledge; (2) study of annotated radiographs from atlases; (3) a radiology quiz open to group discussions; (4) small group study of clinical cases with diagnostic images; and (5) radiographic tests. Students took all quizzes and tests by working from image datasets preloaded on their personal computers, mimicking the approach by which radiologists analyze medical images. In addition to stimulating student support of a new teaching initiative, the strengths of Howard's program are that it can be introduced into an existing preclinical curriculum in almost any medical school with minimal disruption, it requires few additional resources to implement and run, and its design is consistent with the principles of modern education theory. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T13:35:27.202427-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1710
  • An exploration of anatomists’ views toward the use of body painting in
           anatomical and medical education: An international study
    • Authors: Natalie E. Cookson; Justine J. Aka, Gabrielle M. Finn
      Abstract: Previous research has explored the experiences of medical students using body painting as a learning tool. However, to date, faculty experiences and views have not been explored. This international qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach with data collection through interviews with academics and clinicians who utilized body painting as part of their anatomical teaching. Twenty-six anatomists participated in the study from 14 centers worldwide. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the efficacy of body painting, (2) the promotion of knowledge retention and recall, (3) considerations and practicalities regarding the use of body painting as a teaching tool. Subthemes show that body painting is used as an adjunct to the curriculum for teaching surface anatomy and peer examination. Benefits included diffusing the formal curricula, high student engagement and learning for future clinical practice. Body painting was advocated for promoting knowledge retention and recall, particularly learning through the process of cognitive load due to combining the use of color and kinesthetic learning with anatomical theory. Critical discussions surfaced on the topic of undressing in the classroom due to cultural and personal considerations possibly leading to unequal involvement and different learning experiences. Overall results support previous research showing that anatomists appreciate body painting as an effective, enjoyable, engaging and cost efficient adjunct to the multimodal anatomy curriculum. The role of cognitive load theory in learning anatomy through body painting emerged from the data as a possible theoretical framework supporting learning benefits from body painting and is suggested for further investigation. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T11:45:27.059479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ase.1698
  • Improving Online Interactions: Lessons from an Online Anatomy Course with
           a Laboratory for Undergraduate Students
    • Abstract: An online section of a face‐to‐face (F2F) undergraduate (bachelor's level) anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered in 2013–2014. Lectures for F2F students (353) were broadcast to online students (138) using Blackboard Collaborate (BBC) virtual classroom. Online laboratories were offered using BBC and three‐dimensional (3D) anatomical computer models. This iteration of the course was modified from the previous year to improve online student–teacher and student–student interactions. Students were divided into laboratory groups that rotated through virtual breakout rooms, giving them the opportunity to interact with three instructors. The objectives were to assess student performance outcomes, perceptions of student–teacher and student–student interactions, methods of peer interaction, and helpfulness of the 3D computer models. Final grades were statistically identical between the online and F2F groups. There were strong, positive correlations between incoming grade average and final anatomy grade in both groups, suggesting prior academic performance, and not delivery format, predicts anatomy grades. Quantitative student perception surveys (273 F2F; 101 online) revealed that both groups agreed they were engaged by teachers, could interact socially with teachers and peers, and ask them questions in both the lecture and laboratory sessions, though agreement was significantly greater for the F2F students in most comparisons. The most common methods of peer communication were texting, Facebook, and meeting F2F. The perceived helpfulness of the 3D computer models improved from the previous year. While virtual breakout rooms can be used to adequately replace traditional prosection laboratories and improve interactions, they are not equivalent to F2F laboratories. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
  • Anatomical Sciences Education Vol. 11, Issue 2, 2018 Cover Image
  • Editorial Board and Table of Contents
  • The virtual microscopy database—sharing digital microscope images
           for research and education
    • Abstract: Over the last 20 years, virtual microscopy has become the predominant modus of teaching the structural organization of cells, tissues, and organs, replacing the use of optical microscopes and glass slides in a traditional histology or pathology laboratory setting. Although virtual microscopy image files can easily be duplicated, creating them requires not only quality histological glass slides but also an expensive whole slide microscopic scanner and massive data storage devices. These resources are not available to all educators and researchers, especially at new institutions in developing countries. This leaves many schools without access to virtual microscopy resources. The Virtual Microscopy Database (VMD) is a new resource established to address this problem. It is a virtual image file‐sharing website that allows researchers and educators easy access to a large repository of virtual histology and pathology image files. With the support from the American Association of Anatomists (Bethesda, MD) and MBF Bioscience Inc. (Williston, VT), registration and use of the VMD are currently free of charge. However, the VMD site is restricted to faculty and staff of research and educational institutions. Virtual Microscopy Database users can upload their own collection of virtual slide files, as well as view and download image files for their own non‐profit educational and research purposes that have been deposited by other VMD clients. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
  • Anatomy integration: Effective change or change of affect'
    • Abstract: Anatomy is fundamental to clinical practice, is considered a rite of passage in becoming a physician and is key to professional identity formation. The anatomy course that began the medical curriculum at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine was recently dissolved to address content and process gaps in the pre‐clinical curriculum. Anatomy was integrated into the organ system blocks to make room for new courses to address content gaps. Previous reports of anatomy integration document more positive attitudes and perceptions to teaching anatomy in context, as compared to an independent course. The current prospective study compared two medical student cohorts to determine the effects of teaching anatomy in and out of context on the cognitive and affective domains of learning. In a pre, post, and follow‐up design, methods included content assessments, confidence probes, and attitude surveys informed by focus groups. Results indicated that anatomical knowledge and student confidence was gained and mastered in both curricula. Initial acquisition of content was higher in the integrated curriculum, but not maintained. Students in the integrated curriculum displayed a different relationship to learning anatomy, appearing more concerned with their personal progression than with the connection of anatomy to medical practice or patient care. These students also agreed less with statements related to working in teams, reflective practices and professional identity formation. Further studies will determine if this difference will diminish with continued exposure to anatomy and may inform future curricular adjustments. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
  • Improving near‐peer teaching quality in anatomy by educating teaching
           assistants: An example from Sweden
    • Abstract: Peer‐assisted learning has gained momentum in a variety of disciplines, including medical education. In Gothenburg, Sweden, medical students who have finished their compulsory anatomy courses have the option of working as teaching assistants (TAs). Teaching assistants provide small group teaching sessions as a complement to lectures given by faculty. Previously, TAs were left to handle the role as junior teachers by themselves, but since 2011, a continuation course in anatomy has been developed with the aim of providing the TAs better anatomy knowledge and guidance for teaching. The course was designed to comprise 7.5 ECTS credits (equivalent to 5 weeks of full‐time studies), and today all TAs are required to take this course before undertaking their own teaching responsibilities. This study aims to compare course evaluations of TA teaching before and after the introduction of the anatomy continuation course, in order to understand how students perceived teaching performed by self‐learned versus trained TAs. The results of this study demonstrate that there was a trend towards better teaching performed by trained TAs. The variability in rankings decreased significantly after the introduction of the continuation course. This was mainly due to an improvement among the TAs with the lowest levels of performance. In addition to comparing student rankings, TAs were interviewed regarding their experiences and perceptions within the continuation course. The course was generally positively regarded. The TAs described a sense of cohesion and appreciation since the institute invested in a course dedicated specifically for them. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
  • A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and
           higher‐level thinking in lower performing students
    • Abstract: A flipped classroom is a growing pedagogy in higher education. Many research studies on the flipped classroom have focused on student outcomes, with the results being positive or inconclusive. A few studies have analyzed confounding variables, such as student's previous achievement, or the impact of a flipped classroom on long‐term retention and knowledge transfer. In the present study, students in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program in a traditional style lecture of gross anatomy (n = 105) were compared to similar students in a flipped classroom (n = 112). Overall, students in the flipped anatomy classroom had an increase in semester average grades (P = 0.01) and performance on higher‐level analytical questions (P 
  • Role of comprehension on performance at higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy:
           Findings from assessments of healthcare professional students
    • Abstract: The first four levels of Bloom's taxonomy were used to create quiz questions designed to assess student learning of the gross anatomy, histology, and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Information on GI histology and physiology was presented to separate samples of medical, dental, and podiatry students in computer based tutorials where the information from the two disciplines was presented either separately or in an integrated fashion. All students were taught GI gross anatomy prior to this study by course faculty as part of the required curriculum of their respective program. Student responses to the quiz questions were analyzed to assess both the validity of Bloom's cumulative hierarchy and the effectiveness of an integrated curriculum. No statistically significant differences were found between quiz scores from students who received the integrated tutorial and from those who received the separate tutorials. Multiple regression analyses provided partial support for a cumulative hierarchy where scores on the lower levels of Bloom's taxonomy predicted scores on higher levels. Notably, in the majority of regression analyses, the comprehension score was the key foundational predictor for application and analysis scores. This study supports the suggestion that educators increase the number of comprehension level questions, even at the expense of knowledge level questions, in course assessments both to evaluate lower order cognitive skills and also as a predictor of success on questions requiring application and analysis levels of the higher order cognitive skills of Bloom's taxonomy. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
  • Does Confucianism allow for body donation'
    • Abstract: Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
  • Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy
    • Abstract: Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42‐question peer‐reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e‐learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter‐professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple‐choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva‐voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
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