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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1579 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1579 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 233, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
  [SJR: 1.115]   [H-I: 61]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1552-4825 - ISSN (Online) 1552-4833
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Homozygous indel mutation in CDH11 as the probable cause of
           Elsahy–Waters syndrome
    • Abstract: Two sisters from a consanguineous couple were seen in genetics department for facial dysmorphic features and glaucoma. They both had broad foreheads, hypertelorism, megalocorneas, thick eyebrows with synophrys, flat malar regions, broad and bulbous noses, and mild prognathism. Both had glaucoma, younger one also had cataracts and phthisis bulbi. Other findings included bilateral partial cutaneous syndactyly of 2nd and 3rd fingers, history of impacted teeth with dentigerous cyst in the elder one, and intellectual disability (mild and borderline). The sisters were considered to have Elsahy–Waters syndrome. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular cause, sisters and their healthy parents were genotyped by SNP arrays, followed by homozygosity mapping. Homozygous regions were further analyzed by exome sequencing in one affected individual. A homozygous indel variant segregating with the condition was detected in CDH11 (c.1116_1117delinsGATCATCAG, p.(Ile372MetfsTer9)), which was then validated by using Sanger sequencing. CDH11 encodes cadherin 11 (osteo‐cadherin) that regulates cell–cell adhesion, cell polarization and migration, as well as osteogenic differentiation. Further experiments revealed that CDH11 expression was decreased in patient‐derived fibroblasts as compared to the heterozygous parent and another healthy donor. Immunostaining showed absence of the protein expression in patient fibroblasts. In addition, cell proliferation rate was slow and osteogenic differentiation potential was delayed. We consider that this study reveals loss‐of‐function mutations in CDH11 as a probable cause of this phenotype. Next generation sequencing in further patients would both prove this gene as causative, and finely delineate this clinical spectrum further contributing in identification of other possibly involved gene(s).
       
  • A variant associated with sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis alters
           the regulatory function of a non‐coding element
    • Abstract: Craniosynostosis presents either as a nonsyndromic congenital anomaly or as a finding in nearly 200 genetic syndromes. Our previous genome‐wide association study of sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis identified associations with variants downstream from BMP2 and intronic in BBS9. Because no coding variants in BMP2 were identified, we hypothesized that conserved non‐coding regulatory elements may alter BMP2 expression. In order to identify and characterize noncoding regulatory elements near BMP2, two conserved noncoding regions near the associated region on chromosome 20 were tested for regulatory activity with a Renilla luciferase assay. For a 711 base pair noncoding fragment encompassing the most strongly associated variant, rs1884302, the luciferase assay showed that the risk allele (C) of rs1884302 drives higher expression of the reporter than the common allele (T). When this same DNA fragment was tested in zebrafish transgenesis studies, a strikingly different expression pattern of the green fluorescent reporter was observed depending on whether the transgenic fish had the risk (C) or the common (T) allele at rs1884302. The in vitro results suggest that altered BMP2 regulatory function at rs1884302 may contribute to the etiology of sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. The in vivo results indicate that differences in regulatory activity depend on the presence of a C or T allele at rs1884302.
       
  • Noncompaction cardiomyopathy in an infant with Walker–Warburg
           syndrome
    • Abstract: Walker–Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a rare autosomal recessive, congenital muscular dystrophy that is associated with brain and eye anomalies. Several genes encoding proteins involved in α‐dystroglycan glycosylation have been implicated in the aetiology of WWS. We describe a patient with nonclassical features of WWS presenting with heart failure related to noncompaction cardiomyopathy resulting in death at 4 months of age. Muscle biopsy revealed absent α‐dystroglycan on immunostaining and genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis with two previously described POMT2 mutations. This is the first reported case of WWS syndrome associated with noncompaction cardiomyopathy.
       
  • Clinical Report: Warsaw Breakage Syndrome with small radii and fibulae
    • Abstract: We present two new cases of Warsaw Breakage Syndrome (WABS), an autosomal recessive cohesinopathy, in sisters aged 13 and 11 years who both had compound heterozygous mutations in DDX11. After exclusion of Fanconi anemia, Bloom syndrome and Nijmegen breakage syndrome, whole exome sequencing revealed two novel variants—c.1523T>G, predicting (p.Leu508Arg) and c.1949‐1G>A (IVS19‐1G>A), that were confirmed with Sanger sequencing in both affected individuals. DDX11 encodes an iron‐sulfur‐containing DNA helicase, and mutations in this gene have been reported in the five WABS cases previously identified to date. The sisters reported here display the distinguishing clinical features of WABS: pre‐ and post‐natal growth restriction, microcephaly, intellectual disability, sensorineural hearing loss with cochlear abnormalities, and facial dysmorphic features. In addition, our cases had early menarche at 8 and 10 years of age, bilateral small thumbs, and the younger, more severely affected sister had small fibulae. These findings broaden the WABS phenotype and the limb malformations demonstrate further clinical overlap with Fanconi anemia and other cohesinopathies, such as Roberts Syndrome.
       
  • Clinical and risk factor analysis of cloacal defects in the National Birth
           Defects Prevention Study
    • Abstract: Cloacal exstrophy (CE) and persistent cloaca (PC) (alternatively termed urorectal septum malformation sequence [URSMS]), represent two major cloacal defects (CDs). Clinical characteristics and risk factors often are studied for both defects combined, rather than exploring if these defects have different etiologies. We enumerated clinical features for 47 CE and 54 PC (inclusive of URSMS) cases from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Thirty‐three CE cases were classified as isolated and 14 as multiple (presence of unassociated major defects); respective totals for PC cases were 26 and 28. We compared selected child and maternal characteristics between 11,829 non‐malformed controls and CE and PC cases using chi‐square or Fisher's exact tests. Compared to controls, CE and PC cases were statistically more likely (p 
       
  • BCL11A frameshift mutation associated with dyspraxia and hypotonia
           affecting the fine, gross, oral, and speech motor systems
    • Abstract: We report the case of a 7‐year‐old male of Western European origin presenting with moderate intellectual disability, severe childhood apraxia of speech in the presence of oral and manual dyspraxia, and hypotonia across motor systems including the oral and speech motor systems. Exome sequencing revealed a de novo frameshift protein truncating mutation in the fourth exon of BCL11A, a gene recently demonstrated as being involved in cognition and language development. Making parallels with a previously described patient with a 200 kb 2p15p16.1 deletion encompassing the entire BCL11A gene and displaying a similar phenotype, we characterize in depth how BCL11A is involved in clinical aspects of language development and oral praxis.
       
  • Prenatal diagnosis of femoral facial syndrome: Three case reports and
           literature review
    • Abstract: Facial femoral syndrome (FFS) is a rare congenital abnormality, also known as femoral hypoplasia‐unusual facies syndrome, characterized by variable degrees of femoral hypoplasia, associated with specific facial features. Other organ malformations are sometimes present. Most cases are sporadic, but rare family observations suggest genetic origin. However, no chromosomal or genetic abnormalities have ever been incriminated. We conducted a comprehensive literature review and added three new unreported observations. Through these 92 cases, authors aimed to determine sonographic signs that should direct towards diagnosis, and discuss potential genetic etiology. Diagnosis was suspected prenatally in 27.2% of cases, and maternal diabetes was found in 42.4% of patients. When fetal karyotype was available, it was normal in 97.1% of cases, but genomic variations of unknown significance were discovered in all three cases in which array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) techniques were applied. Femoral affection defining FFS was hypoplasia in 78.3% of cases, agenesis in 12%, and both in 9.8%. Affection was bilateral in 84.8% of cases. Retrognathia was present in 65.2% of cases, cleft lip and/or palate in 63%, and other organ malformations in 53.3%. Intellectual development was normal in 79.2% of cases. Better prenatal recognition of this pathology, notably frequently associated malformations, should lead to a more precise estimation of functional prognosis. It seems likely that today's tendency to systematically employ array‐CGH and exome/genome sequencing methods to investigate malformative sequences will allow the identification of a causal genetic abnormality in the near future.
       
  • Mutations in folate transporter genes and risk for human myelomeningocele
    • Abstract: The molecular mechanisms linking folate deficiency and neural tube defect (NTD) risk in offspring remain unclear. Folate transporters (SLC19A1, SLC46A1, SLC25A32, and FOLH1) and folate receptors (FOLR1, FOLR2, and FOLR3) are suggested to play essential roles in transporting folate from maternal intestinal lumen to the developing embryo. Loss of function variants in these genes may affect folate availability and contribute to NTD risk. This study examines whether variants within the folate transporter and receptor genes are associated with an increased risk for myelomeningocele (MM). Exons and their flanking intron sequences of 348 MM subjects were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing method and/or next generation sequencing to identify variants. Frequencies of alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MM subjects were compared to those from ethnically matched reference populations to evaluate alleles’ associated risk for MM. We identified eight novel variants in SLC19A1 and twelve novel variants in FOLR1, FOLR2, and FOLR3. Pathogenic variants include c.1265delG in SLC19A1 resulting in an early stop codon, four large insertion deletion variants in FOLR3, and a stop_gain variant in FOLR3. No new variants were identified in SLC46A1, SLC25A32, or FOLH1. In SLC19A1, c.80A>G (rs1051266) was not associated with our MM cohort; we did observe a variant allele G frequency of 61.7%, higher than previously reported in other NTD populations. In conclusion, we discovered novel loss of function variants in genes involved in folate transport in MM subjects. Our results support the growing evidence of associations between genes involved in folate transport and susceptibility to NTDs.
       
  • De novo mutations in HNRNPU result in a neurodevelopmental syndrome
    • Abstract: Exome sequencing in the context of developmental disorders is a useful technique, but variants found need to be interpreted in the context of detailed phenotypic information. Whole gene deletions and loss‐of‐function‐mutations in the HNRNPU gene have been associated with intellectual disability and seizures in some patients. However, a unifying syndromic phenotype has not been previously elucidated. Here, we report a total of seven patients (six patients identified through the Wellcome Trust Deciphering Developmental Disorders study, with one additional patient), who have heterozygous de novo mutations in HNRNPU. These were found via trio‐based exome sequencing. All but one of the mutations is predicted to cause loss‐of‐function. These patients have dysmorphic features in common, including prominent eyebrows, long palpebral fissures, overhanging columella, and thin upper lip. All patients have developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID), ranging from moderate to severe. Seizures are common from early childhood. These initially occur in the context of febrile episodes. This series demonstrates common phenotypic features, including emerging dysmorphism, associated with heterozygous HNRNPU mutations. This allows us to define a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome, with a likely mechanism of haploinsufficiency.
       
  • Coexistence of mutations in keratin 10 (KRT10) and the mitochondrial
           genome in a patient with ichthyosis with confetti and Leber's hereditary
           optic neuropathy
    • Abstract: Ichthyosis with confetti (IWC) is a severe congenital genodermatosis characterized by ichthyosiform erythroderma since birth and confetti‐like spots of normal skin appearing in childhood as a results of revertant mosaicism. This disorder is caused by mutations in KRT10 or KRT1 genes. We report a 16‐year‐old boy who presented ichthyosiform erythroderma with severe desquamation since birth and gradually worsening psycho‐neurological symptoms (mental retardation, ataxia, dystonia, hypoacusis). The patient conspicuously lacked typical confetti‐like spots at the age of 16. The molecular diagnostics by the whole exome sequencing showed a novel de novo (c.1374‐2A>C) mutation in the KRT10 gene responsible for the development of IWC (KRT10 defect was confirmed by immunofluorescent study). Concurrently, the m.14484T>C mutation in mitochondrial MTND6 gene (characteristic for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy or LHON) was detected in patient, his mother and brother. LHON causes frequent inherited blindness typically appearing during young adult life whose expression can be triggered by additional factors such as smoking or alcohol exposure. We speculate the effects of KRT10 and LHON mutations influence each other—skin inflammatory reaction due to severe ichthyosis might trigger the development of psychoneurological abnormalities whereas the mitochondrial mutation may reduce revertant mosaicism phenomenon resulting in the lack of confetti‐like spots characteristic for IWC. However, based on a single case we should be cautious about attributing phenotypes to digenic mechanisms without functional data.
       
  • Biallelic mutations in GPD1 gene in a Chinese boy mainly presented with
           obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver, and short stature
    • Abstract: Biallelic mutations in the GPD1 gene cause a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease known as transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia (OMIM #614480). To date, only five pathogenic variants have been reported in 15 patients from three studies. The clinical symptoms of the affected individuals present a certain degree of heterogeneity. Here, we describe a chinese adolescent patient who mainly presented with obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver, and short stature. Targeted next‐generation sequencing revealed a novel compound heterozygous variant in GPD1 gene (c.220‐2A>G and c.820G>A; p.Ala274Thr). In vitro studies demonstrated that the Ala274Thr variant induced a decrease in GPD1 protein expression. Further in vitro investigation of the splicing pattern in a minigene construct in HEK293 cells showed that the c.220‐2A>G variant generated an altered transcript with one cryptic splice site in exon 3, resulting in the loss of 69 bases in exon 3 (c.220_288del, p.74_96del). This is the first report involving an Asian who harbored GPD1 mutations. Our work not only expands the mutant spectrum of the GPD1 gene but also provides new insights on its resulting phenotype.
       
  • Finding the genetic mechanisms of folate deficiency and neural tube
           defects—Leaving no stone unturned
    • Abstract: Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur secondary to failed closure of the neural tube between the third and fourth weeks of gestation. The worldwide incidence ranges from 0.3 to 200 per 10,000 births with the United States of American NTD incidence at around 3–6.3 per 10,000 dependent on race and socioeconomic background. Human NTD incidence has fallen by 35–50% in North America due to mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products since 1998. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved the folic acid fortification of corn masa flour with the goal to further reduce the incidence of NTDs, especially among individuals who are Hispanic. However, the genetic mechanisms determining who will benefit most from folate enrichment of the diet remains unclear despite volumes of literature published on studies of association of genes with functions related to folate metabolism and risk of human NTDs. The advances in omics technologies provides hypothesis‐free tools to interrogate every single gene within the genome of NTD affected individuals to discover pathogenic variants and methylation targets throughout the affected genome. By identifying genes with expression regulated by presence of folate through transcriptome profiling studies, the genetic mechanisms leading to human NTDs due to folate deficiency may begin to be more efficiently revealed.
       
  • A randomized controlled trial of levodopa in patients with Angelman
           syndrome
    • Abstract: Treatment for Angelman syndrome (AS) is currently limited to symptomatic interventions. A mouse model of AS has reduced calcium/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II activity due to excessive phosphorylation of specific threonine residues, leading to diminished long‐term potentiation. In a rat model of Parkinson disease, levodopa reduced phosphorylation of various proteins, including calcium/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II. Further studies demonstrated that AS mice treated with levodopa performed better on rotarod testing than untreated AS mice. We conducted a multi‐center double‐blind randomized placebo‐controlled 1‐year trial of levodopa / carbidopa with either 10 or 15 mg/kg/day of levodopa in children with AS. The outcome of this intervention was assessed using either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Of the 78 participants enrolled, 67 participants received study medication (33 on levodopa, 34 on placebo), and 55 participants (29 on levodopa, 26 on placebo) completed the 1‐year study. There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the outcome measures over a 1‐year period comparing the levodopa and placebo groups. The number of adverse events reported, including the more serious adverse events, was similar in both groups, but none were related to treatment with levodopa. Our data demonstrate that levodopa is well‐tolerated by children with AS. However, in the doses used in this study, it failed to improve their neurodevelopment or behavioral outcome.
       
  • The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Cancer predisposition, platelet
           abnormalities and cytopenias
    • Abstract: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) is associated with variable phenotypic expression as findings range from severely affected individuals with the classical triad of DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes, including congenital heart disease, immunodeficiency, hypocalcemia, and palatal abnormalities, to subtly affected adults who only come to attention following the diagnosis of a more severely affected child. The multiple manifestations can affect all organ systems, including the hematologic system resulting in baseline lower platelet counts for individuals with 22q11.2DS and increased platelet size. In addition, there may be an associated increased risk of bleeding. Individuals with 22q11.2DS are also at increased risk of autoimmune cytopenias that can complicate the evaluation or management of other manifestations. Finally, there may be an increased risk of malignancy, although the mechanism for this risk is not fully understood. This review summarizes the currently available data on hematologic/oncologic manifestations of 22q11.2DS and reports on our findings within a large cohort of individuals with the deletion.
       
  • Loss‐of‐function variants in NFIA provide further support that NFIA is
           a critical gene in 1p32‐p31 deletion syndrome: A four patient series
    • Abstract: The association between 1p32‐p31 contiguous gene deletions and a distinct phenotype that includes anomalies of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly, developmental delay, seizures, and dysmorphic features has been long recognized and described. Recently, the observation of overlapping phenotypes in patients with chromosome translocations that disrupt NFIA (Nuclear factor I/A), a gene within this deleted region, and NFIA intragenic deletions has led to the hypothesis that NFIA is a critical gene within this region. The wide application and increasing accessibility of whole exome sequencing (WES) has helped identify new cases to support this hypothesis. Here, we describe four patients with loss‐of‐function variants in the NFIA gene identified through WES. The clinical presentation of these patients significantly overlaps with the phenotype described in previously reported cases of 1p32‐p31 deletion syndrome, NFIA gene disruptions and intragenic NFIA deletions. Our cohort includes a mother and daughter as well as an unrelated individual who share the same nonsense variant (c.205C>T, p.Arg69Ter; NM_001145512.1). We also report a patient with a frameshift NFIA variant (c.159_160dupCC, p.Gln54ProfsTer49). We have compared published cases of 1p32‐p31 microdeletion syndrome, translocations resulting in NFIA gene disruption, intragenic deletions, and loss‐of‐function mutations (including our four patients) to reveal that abnormalities of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly/hydrocephalus, macrocephaly, Chiari I malformation, dysmorphic features, developmental delay, hypotonia, and urinary tract defects are common findings. The consistent overlap in clinical presentation provides further evidence of the critical role of NFIA haploinsufficiency in the development of the 1p32‐p31 microdeletion syndrome phenotype.
       
  • Expected weight gain for children with microcephalic osteodysplastic
           primordial dwarfism type II
    •  
  • Experiences in feeding and gastrointestinal dysfunction in children with
           CHARGE syndrome
    • Abstract: Feeding issues are very common in individuals with CHARGE syndrome and can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to expand upon the limited knowledge base of feeding and gastrointestinal issues in individuals with CHARGE syndrome. Parents of individuals (age range 1–18 years) with CHARGE syndrome, with or without feeding/gastrointestinal issues, were recruited through international CHARGE syndrome associations and CHARGE syndrome Facebook pages. Parents completed three questionnaires: CHARGE diagnostic characteristics; Pediatric Assessment Scale for Severe Feeding Problems © and PedsQL™ Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scale; and open‐ended questions. Sixty‐nine completed questionnaires were included in the study analysis (median age 7; 58% females). Individuals who were completely tube fed (n = 21) had significantly more feeding difficulties than individuals who were either partially (n = 26) or completely orally fed (n = 20; p 
       
  • From clinical observations and molecular dissection to novel therapeutic
           strategies for primary immunodeficiency disorders
    • Abstract: The field of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) is rapidly expanding with more than 300 genetically defined disorders that have been clinically described and molecularly analyzed. The molecular dissection of these entities has led to the discovery of new immunologic pathways and to novel and effective disease‐specific therapies. This review provides a summary of these primary immune defects categorized by clinical phenotype and molecular similarity as defined by the International Union of Immunologic Societies (IUIS) Expert Committee for PID. In this synopsis, we discuss the molecular basis of various categories of PIDs including, but not limited to, severe combined immunodeficiencies, primary antibody deficiencies, immune dysregulation syndromes, as well as defects of the innate immune system such as phagocytic abnormalities, autoinflammatory fever syndromes, and complement deficiencies. We have attempted to focus on current strategies to prevent complications, ameliorate symptoms, or cure these disorders by promptly using antimicrobial therapies, immunoglobulin replacement, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, we will explore novel therapies such as molecularly targeted immunosuppression with monoclonal antibodies and specific immunomodulatory agents. Finally, we address experimental therapies targeting specific molecular defects, including gene therapy and gene editing.
       
  • The Influence of trisomy 21 on facial form and variability
    • Abstract: Triplication of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) results in Down syndrome (DS), the most common live‐born human aneuploidy. Individuals with DS have a unique facial appearance that can include form changes and altered variability. Using 3D photogrammatic images, 3D coordinate locations of 20 anatomical landmarks, and Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis methods, we quantitatively test the hypothesis that children with DS (n = 55) exhibit facial form and variance differences relative to two different age‐matched (4–12 years) control samples of euploid individuals: biological siblings of individuals with DS (n = 55) and euploid individuals without a sibling with DS (n = 55). Approximately 36% of measurements differ significantly between DS and DS‐sibling samples, whereas 46% differ significantly between DS and unrelated control samples. Nearly 14% of measurements differ significantly in variance between DS and DS sibling samples, while 18% of measurements differ significantly in variance between DS and unrelated euploid control samples. Of those measures that showed a significant difference in variance, all were relatively increased in the sample of DS individuals. These results indicate that faces of children with DS are quantitatively more similar to their siblings than to unrelated euploid individuals and exhibit consistent, but slightly increased variation with most individuals falling within the range of normal variation established by euploid samples. These observations provide indirect evidence of the strength of the genetic underpinnings of the resemblance between relatives and the resistance of craniofacial development to genetic perturbations caused by trisomy 21, while underscoring the complexity of the genotype–phenotype map.
       
  • The spectrum of DNMT3A variants in Tatton–Brown–Rahman syndrome
           overlaps with that in hematologic malignancies
    • Abstract: De novo, germline variants in DNMT3A cause Tatton–Brown–Rahman syndrome (TBRS). This condition is characterized by overgrowth, distinctive facial appearance, and intellectual disability. Somatic DNMT3A variants frequently occur in hematologic malignances, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. The Arg882 residue is the most common site of somatic DNMT3A variants, and has also been altered in patients with TBRS. Here we present three additional patients with this disorder attributed to DNMT3A germline variants that disrupt the Arg882 codon, suggesting that this codon may be a germline mutation hotspot in this disorder. Furthermore, based on the investigation of previously reported variants in patients with TBRS, we found overlap in the spectrum of DNMT3A variants observed in this disorder and somatic variants in hematological malignancies.
       
  • Women who carry a fragile X premutation are biologically older than
           noncarriers as measured by telomere length
    • Abstract: Women who carry a fragile X premutation, defined as having 55–200 unmethylated CGG repeats in the 5′ UTR of the X‐linked FMR1 gene, have a 20‐fold increased risk for primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). We tested the hypothesis that women with a premutation + FXPOI have shorter telomeres than those without FXPOI because they are “biologically older.” Using linear regression, we found that women carrying a premutation (n = 172) have shorter telomeres and hence, are “biologically older” than women carrying the normal size allele (n = 81). Strikingly, despite having shorter telomeres, age was not statistically associated with their telomere length, in contrast to non‐carrier controls. Further, telomere length within premutation carriers was not associated with repeat length but was associated with a diagnosis of FXPOI, although the latter finding may depend on FXPOI age of onset.
       
  • A cohort study of multiple families with FBN1 p.R650C variant, ectopia
           lentis, and low but not absent risk for aortopathy
    • Abstract: Marfan syndrome is a multisystem disease with cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, and skeletal features. Diagnosis is made clinically with emphasis on presence of aortic root dilation and ectopia lentis (EL). Most individuals meeting these criteria have a pathogenic variant in FBN1, usually unique or observed rarely. Individuals with EL alone may also have FBN1 pathogenic variants, and the risk for aortic disease is not well known. We identified a unique cohort of 31 individuals (mean age 29, range 2–78) from nine families ascertained by a proband with EL alone, who had the same FBN1 p.R650C variant. Comparison was made to individuals with Marfan syndrome (n = 103 from 97 families) at our institution. Those with the p.R650C variant had few skeletal features of Marfan syndrome. Age of onset of EL was later compared to others with cysteine variant changes. Aortic root dilation occurred in 4/16 (25%) of the p.R650C group versus 71/83 (86%) in the comparator group (p 
       
  • Confirmation that RIPK4 mutations cause not only Bartsocas‐Papas
           syndrome but also CHAND syndrome
    • Abstract: CHAND syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by curly hair, ankyloblepharon, and nail dysplasia. Only few patients were reported to date. A homozygous RIPK4 mutation was recently identified by homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing in three patients from an expanded consanguineous kindred with a clinical diagnosis of CHAND syndrome. RIPK4 was previously known to be implicated in Bartsocas‐Papas syndrome, the autosomal recessive form of popliteal pterygium syndrome. We report here two cases of RIPK4 homozygous mutations in a fetus with severe Bartsocas‐Papas syndrome and a patient with CHAND syndrome. The patient with CHAND syndrome harbored the same mutation as the one identified in the family previously reported. We thus confirm the implication of RIPK4 gene in CHAND syndrome in addition to Bartsocas‐Papas syndrome and discuss genotype/phenotype correlations.
       
  • Corrigendum: Psychiatric and psychological aspects in the
           Ehlers–Danlos syndromes
    •  
  • De novo SETD5 loss‐of‐function variant as a cause for intellectual
           disability in a 10‐year old boy with an aberrant blind ending bronchus
    • Abstract: Although rare, 3p microdeletion cases have been well described in the clinical literature. The clinical phenotype includes; intellectual disability (ID), growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, and cardiac malformations. Advances in chromosome microarray (CMA) testing narrowed the 3p25 critical region to a 124 kb region, and recent Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) studies have suggested that the SETD5 gene contributes significantly to the 3p25 phenotype. Loss‐of‐Function (LoF) variants in SETD5 are now considered a likely cause of ID. We report here a patient with a frameshift LoF variant in exon 12 of SETD5. This patient has features overlapping with other patients described with LoF SETD5 variants to include; similar facial morphology, feeding difficulties, ID, behavioral abnormalities and leg length discrepancy. In addition, he presents with an aberrant blind ending bronchus. This report adds to publications describing intragenic mutations in SETD5 and supports the assertion that de novo LoF mutations in SETD5 present with an overlapping but distinct phenotype in comparison with 3p25 microdeletion syndromes.
       
  • Cover Image, Volume 173A, Number 10, October 2017
    • Abstract: The cover image, by Rani A. Bashir et al., is based on the Original Article Lin‐Gettig syndrome: Craniosynostosis expands the spectrum of the KAT6B related disorders,
      DOI : 10.1002/ajmg.a.38355.
       
  • Table of Contents, Volume 173A, Number 10, October 2017
    •  
  • Publication schedule for 2017
    •  
  • Genome‐wide cell free fetal DNA screening spots variations standard
           screening doesn't
    •  
  • New intellectual disability syndrome identified
    •  
  • In this issue
    •  
  • Lin‐Gettig syndrome: Craniosynostosis expands the spectrum of the
           KAT6B related disorders
    • Abstract: We report two patients with sagittal craniosynostosis, hypoplastic male genitalia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, thyroid abnormalities, and dysmorphic features which include short palpebral fissures and retrognathia. The clinical presentation of both patients was initially thought to be suggestive of Lin‐Gettig syndrome (LGS), a multiple malformation syndrome associated with craniosynostosis that was initially reported in two brothers in 1990, with a third patient reported in 2003. Our first patient was subsequently found through exome sequencing to have a de novo mutation in KAT6B, c.4572dupT, p.(Thr1525Tyrfs*16). The second patient was ascertained as possible LGS, but KAT6B mutation testing was pursued clinically after the identification of the KAT6B mutation in Patient 1, and identified a de novo mutation, c.4205_4206delCT, p.(Ser1402Cysfs*5). The phenotypic spectrum of KAT6B mutations has been expanding since identification of KAT6B mutations in genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say Barber Biesecker Young Simpson (SBBYS) syndrome patients. We show that craniosynostosis, which has not been previously reported in association with KAT6B mutations, may be part of the genitopatellar/Say Barber Biesecker Young Simpson spectrum. These two patients also further demonstrate the overlapping phenotypes of genitopatellar and SBBYS syndromes recently observed by others. Furthermore, we propose that it is possible that one or more of the previous cases of LGS may have also been due to mutation in KAT6B, and that LGS may actually be a variant within the KAT6B spectrum and not a distinct clinical entity.
       
  • Congenital disorders of glycosylation: The Saudi experience
    • Abstract: We retrospectively reviewed Saudi patients who had a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Twenty‐seven Saudi patients (14 males, 13 females) from 13 unrelated families were identified. Based on molecular studies, the 27 CDG patients were classified into different subtypes: ALG9‐CDG (8 patients, 29.5%), ALG3‐CDG (7 patients, 26%), COG6‐CDG (7 patients, 26%), MGAT2‐CDG (3 patients, 11%), SLC35A2‐CDG (1 patient), and PMM2‐CDG (1 patient). All the patients had homozygous gene mutations. The combined carrier frequency of CDG for the encountered founder mutations in the Saudi population is 11.5 per 10,000, which translates to a minimum disease burden of 14 patients per 1,000,000. Our study provides comprehensive epidemiologic information and prevalence figures for each of these CDG in a large cohort of congenital disorder of glycosylation patients.
       
  • The phenotype of EZH2 haploinsufficiency—1.2‐Mb deletion at 7q36.1 in
           a child with tall stature and intellectual disability
    • Abstract: Weaver syndrome is a rare overgrowth syndrome with distinct facial features in young children and variable learning disability. Heterozygous missense mutations in EZH2 are present in over 90% of patients with Weaver syndrome but the exact mechanism by which EZH2 mutations cause Weaver syndrome is unknown. We report an 11‐year‐old boy with a de novo 1.2‐Mb deletion at 7q36.1 including EZH2 who has tall stature, significant intellectual disability, and some physical features of Weaver syndrome. Emerging evidence in the literature indicates that Weaver syndrome EZH2 mutations may result in loss of function of the gene and our report suggests that haploinsufficiency of EZH2 may replicate the clinical phenotype of Weaver syndrome.
       
  • HLX is a candidate gene for a pattern of anomalies associated with
           congenital diaphragmatic hernia, short bowel, and asplenia
    • Abstract: Isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia is often a sporadic event with a low recurrence risk. However, underlying genetic etiologies, such as chromosome anomalies or single gene disorders, are identified in a small number of individuals. We describe two fetuses with a unique pattern of multiple congenital anomalies, including diaphragmatic hernia, short bowel and asplenia, born to first‐cousin parents. Whole exome sequencing showed that both were homozygous for a missense variant, c.950A>C, predicting p.Asp317Ala, in the H.20‐Like Homeobox 1 (HLX1) gene. HLX is a homeobox transcription factor gene which is relatively conserved across species. Hlx homozygous null mice have a short bowel and reduced muscle cells in the diaphragm, closely resembling the anomalies in the two fetuses and we therefore suggest that the HLX mutation in this family could explain the fetal findings.
       
  • Compound heterozygous TRPV4 mutations in two siblings with a complex
           phenotype including severe intellectual disability and neuropathy
    • Abstract: TRPV4 encodes a polymodal calcium‐permeable plasma membrane channel. Dominant pathogenic mutations in TRPV4 lead to a wide spectrum of abnormal phenotypes. This is the first report of biallelic TRPV4 mutations and we describe two compound heterozygous siblings presenting with a complex phenotype including severe neuromuscular involvement. In light of previously well described dominant inheritance for TRPV4‐related neuromuscular disease, our study suggests a role for compound heterozygosity and loss‐of‐function as a potential novel disease mechanism for this group of disorders. Profound intellectual disability was also noted in both affected children, suggesting that TRPV4 may be necessary for normal brain development.
       
  • Treating pediatric neuromuscular disorders: The future is now
    • Abstract: Pediatric neuromuscular diseases encompass all disorders with onset in childhood and where the primary area of pathology is in the peripheral nervous system. These conditions are largely genetic in etiology, and only those with a genetic underpinning will be presented in this review. This includes disorders of the anterior horn cell (e.g., spinal muscular atrophy), peripheral nerve (e.g., Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease), the neuromuscular junction (e.g., congenital myasthenic syndrome), and the muscle (myopathies and muscular dystrophies). Historically, pediatric neuromuscular disorders have uniformly been considered to be without treatment possibilities and to have dire prognoses. This perception has gradually changed, starting in part with the discovery and widespread application of corticosteroids for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. At present, several exciting therapeutic avenues are under investigation for a range of conditions, offering the potential for significant improvements in patient morbidities and mortality and, in some cases, curative intervention. In this review, we will present the current state of treatment for the most common pediatric neuromuscular conditions, and detail the treatment strategies with the greatest potential for helping with these devastating diseases.
       
  • Intrafamilial variability of the triphalangeal thumb phenotype in a Dutch
           population: Evidence for phenotypic progression over generations'
    • Abstract: Triphalangeal thumbs (TPTs) are regularly caused by mutations in the ZRS in LMBR1. Phenotypic variability can be present in TPT‐families. However, recent observations suggest an increased occurrence of severe phenotypes in the Dutch TPT‐population. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the progression of the clinical severity of TPT‐phenotype through generations. Index patients from a Dutch TPT‐population were identified. A 105C>G mutation in the ZRS has previously been confirmed in this population. Questionnaires regarding family occurrence and phenotypes were distributed. Subsequently, families were visited to validate the phenotype. Both occurrence and inheritance patterns of the TPT‐phenotype were analyzed through multiple generations. One hundred seventy patients with TPT were identified from 11 families. When considering all 132 segregations (parent‐to‐child transmission), 54% of the segregations produced a stable phenotype, 38% produced a more severe phenotype while only 8% of the phenotype was less severe when compared to the affected parents. Overall, 71% of the index patients had a more severe phenotype compared to their great‐grandparent. Although all family members share an identical mutation in the ZRS (105C>G), it does not explain the wide phenotypic range of anomalies. Our observational study provides better estimations for counseling and provides new insights in the long‐range regulation of SHH by the ZRS‐enhancer. In the current study, we provide evidence that the assumed variability in TPT‐phenotype is not random, but in fact it is more likely that the expression becomes more severe in the next generation. Therefore, we observe a pattern that resembles phenotypic anticipation in TPT‐families.
       
  • Pharmacological interventions to improve cognition and adaptive
           functioning in Down syndrome: Strides to date
    • Abstract: Although an increasing number of clinical trials have been developed for cognition in Down syndrome, there has been limited success to date in identifying effective interventions. This review describes the progression from pre‐clinical studies with mouse models to human clinical trials research using pharmacological interventions to improve cognition and adaptive functioning in Down syndrome. We also provide considerations for investigators when conducting human clinical trials and describe strategies for the pharmaceutical industry to advance the field in drug discovery for Down syndrome. Future research focusing on earlier pharmaceutical interventions, development of appropriate outcome measures, and greater collaboration between industry, academia, advocacy, and regulatory groups will be important for addressing limitations from prior studies and developing potential effective interventions for cognition in Down syndrome.
       
  • Genotypic‐phenotypic features and enzyme replacement therapy outcome in
           patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI from Turkey
    • Abstract: Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) characterized by a chronic, progressive course with multiorgan involvement. In our study, clinical, biochemical, molecular findings, and response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for at least 6 months were evaluated in 20 patients with MPS VI. Treatment effects on clinical findings such as liver and spleen sizes, cardiac and respiratory parameters, visual and auditory changes, joints’ range of motions, endurance tests and changes in urinary glycosaminoglycan excretions, before and after ERT were analyzed. ERT caused increased physical endurance and decreased urinary dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate ratios. Changes in growth parameters, cardiac, respiratory, visual, auditory findings, and joint mobility were not significant. All patients and parents reported out an increased quality of life, which were not correlated with clinical results. The most prevalent mutation was p.L321P, accounting for 58.8% of the mutant alleles and two novel mutations (p.G79E and p.E390 K) were found. ERT was a safe but expensive treatment for MPS VI, with mild benefits in severely affected patients. Early treatment with ERT is mandatory before many organs and systems are involved.
       
  • A novel missense variant in the GLI3 zinc finger domain in a family with
           digital anomalies
    • Abstract: Mutations in GLI3, which encodes a transcription factor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, cause several developmental anomalies linked to inappropriate tissue patterning. Here, we report a novel missense variant in the fifth zinc finger domain of GLI3 (c.1826G>A; p.(Cys609Tyr)) initially identified in a proband with preaxial polydactyly type IV, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies. Additional family members exhibited various digital anomalies such as preaxial polydactyly, syndactyly, and postaxial polydactyly either in isolation or combined. Functional studies of Cys609Tyr GLI3 in cultured cells showed abnormal GLI3 processing leading to decreased GLI3 repressor production, increased basal transcriptional activity, and submaximal GLI reporter activity with Hedgehog pathway activation, thus demonstrating an intriguing molecular mechanism for this GLI3‐related phenotype. Given the complexity of GLI3 post‐translational processing and opposing biological functions as a transcriptional activator and repressor, our findings highlight the importance of performing functional studies of presumed GLI3 variants. This family also demonstrates how GLI3 variants are variably expressed.
       
  • Survival beyond the perinatal period expands the phenotypes caused by
           mutations in GLE1
    • Abstract: Mutations in GLE1 underlie Lethal Congenital Contracture syndrome (LCCS) and Lethal Arthrogryposis with Anterior Horn Cell Disease (LAAHD). Both LCCS and LAAHD are characterized by reduced fetal movements, congenital contractures, and a severe form of motor neuron disease that results in fetal death or death in the perinatal period, respectively. We identified bi‐allelic mutations in GLE1 in two unrelated individuals with motor delays, feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency who survived beyond the perinatal period. Each affected child had missense variants predicted to result in amino acid substitutions near the C‐terminus of GLE1 that are predicted to disrupt protein–protein interaction or GLE1 protein targeting. We hypothesize that mutations that preserve function of the coiled‐coil domain of GLE1 cause LAAHD whereas mutations that abolish the function of the coiled‐coil domain cause LCCS. The phenotype of LAAHD is now expanded to include multiple individuals surviving into childhood suggesting that LAAHD is a misnomer and should be re‐named Arthrogryposis with Anterior Horn Cell Disease (AAHD).
       
  • Confirmation of an ARID2 defect in SWI/SNF‐related intellectual
           disability
    • Abstract: We present a 4‐year‐old girl with delayed neuromotor development, short stature of prenatal onset, and specific behavioral and craniofacial features harboring an intragenic deletion in the ARID2 gene. The phenotype confirmed the major features of the recently described ARID2‐related intellectual disability syndrome. However, our patient showed overlapping features with Nicolaides‐Baraitser syndrome and Coffin‐Siris syndrome, providing further arguments to reclassify these disorders as “SWI/SNF‐related intellectual disability syndromes.”
       
  • Novel homozygous missense mutation in NT5C2 underlying hereditary spastic
           paraplegia SPG45
    • Abstract: SPG45 is a rare form of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia associated with mental retardation. Detailed phenotyping and mutation analysis was undertaken in three individuals with SPG45 from a consanguineous family of Arab Muslim origin. Using whole‐exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in NT5C2 (c.1379T>C; p.Leu460Pro). Our data expand the molecular basis of SPG45, adding the first missense mutation to the current database of nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations. NT5C2 mutations seem to have a broad clinical spectrum and should be sought in patients manifesting either as uncomplicated or complicated HSP.
       
  • Congenital heart defects in molecularly proven Kabuki syndrome patients
    • Abstract: The prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in Kabuki syndrome ranges from 28% to 80%. Between January 2012 and December 2015, 28 patients had a molecularly proven diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome. Pathogenic variants in KMT2D (MLL2) were detected in 27 patients, and in KDM6A gene in one. CHD was diagnosed in 19/27 (70%) patients with KMT2D (MLL2) variant, while the single patient with KDM6A change had a normal heart. The anatomic types among patients with CHD included aortic coarctation (4/19 = 21%) alone or associated with an additional CHD, bicuspid aortic valve (4/19 = 21%) alone or associated with an additional CHD, perimembranous subaortic ventricular septal defect (3/19 = 16%), atrial septal defect ostium secundum type (3/19 = 16%), conotruncal heart defects (3/19 = 16%). Additional CHDs diagnosed in single patients included aortic dilatation with mitral anomaly and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. We also reviewed CHDs in patients with a molecular diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome reported in the literature. In conclusion, a CHD is detected in 70% of patients with KMT2D (MLL2) pathogenic variants, most commonly left‐sided obstructive lesions, including multiple left‐sided obstructions similar to those observed in the spectrum of the Shone complex, and septal defects. Clinical management of Kabuki syndrome should include echocardiogram at the time of diagnosis, with particular attention to left‐sided obstructive lesions and mitral anomalies, and annual monitoring for aortic arch dilatation.
       
  • Two novel mutations in XYLT2 cause spondyloocular syndrome
    • Abstract: We report on two new patients with spondyloocular syndrome. Both patients harbor novel homozygous mutations in the XYLT2 gene. The patients present severe generalized osteoporosis, multiple fractures, short stature, cataract, and mild hearing impairment. XYLT2 mutations have been identified in spondyloocular syndrome, however only five mutations have been reported previously. These two patients with novel mutations extend the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of spondyloocular syndrome.
       
  • Testing the face shape hypothesis in twins discordant for nonsyndromic
           orofacial clefting
    • Abstract: Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are complex traits characterized by multifactorial inheritance and wide phenotypic variability. Numerous studies have shown subtle differences in the faces of unaffected relatives from cleft families compared to controls, the implication being that such outward differences are an incomplete expression reflecting an underlying genetic predisposition. Twins discordant for OFCs provide a unique opportunity to further test this idea, as the unaffected co‐twin shares on average 50% (for dizygotic twins) and 100% (for monozygotic twins) of the genetic risk factors as the affected twin. We used 3D surface imaging and spatially‐dense morphometry to compare facial shape in a sample of 44 unaffected co‐twins and age‐ and sex‐matched unaffected controls (n = 241). Unaffected co‐twins showed statistically significant differences in the midface, lateral upper face, and forehead regions, compared to controls. Furthermore, co‐twins were characterized by a distinct pattern of midfacial retrusion, broader upper faces, and greater protrusion of the mandible and brow ridges. This same general facial pattern was shown in both unaffected monozygotic and dizygotic co‐twin subsets. These results provide additional support that altered facial shape is a phenotypic marker for OFC susceptibility.
       
  • FOXP1 haploinsufficiency: Phenotypes beyond behavior and intellectual
           disability'
    • Abstract: The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans. Supporting this hypothesis, we describe two individuals with novel variants of FOXP1 (NM_032682.5:c.975‐2A>C and NM_032682.5:c.1574G>A) and additional features. One had a lung disease resembling neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI), and the second had a skeletal disorder with undertubulation of the long bones and relapsing‐remitting fevers associated with flushing and edema. Although attribution of these traits to mutation of FOXP1 requires ascertainment of additional patients, we hypothesize that the variable expression of these additional features might arise by means of stochastic developmental variation.
       
  • Variable phenotypic expression in a large Noonan syndrome family
           segregating a novel SOS1 mutation
    • Abstract: Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem condition with a variable phenotype. The most characteristic features are short stature, congenital heart defects, and recognizable facial features. Mutations in SOS1 are found in 10–20% of patients with NS. Different genotype–phenotype studies mention correlations between SOS1 mutations and some features, such as ectodermal abnormalities and specific facial features. We present a large NS family with a novel pathogenic mutation; SOS1 c.3134C>G, p.Pro1045Arg. Ten family members with NS are included with genetically confirmed mutation and clinical evaluation. The phenotype shows a broad spectrum from only few suggestive features for NS in the older generation to typical features in the youngest generation. We report on a novel pathogenic mutation in the SOS1 gene and a large clinical spectrum in a NS family with ten genetically confirmed affected individuals.
       
  • Peeling skin syndrome associated with novel variant in FLG2 gene
    • Abstract: Peeling skin syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by variably pruritic superficial generalized peeling of the skin with several genes involved until now little is known about the association between FLG2 and peeling skin syndrome. We describe multiple family members from a consanguineous Saudi family with peeling skin syndrome. Next Generation Sequencing identifies a cosegregating novel variant in FLG2 c.632C>G (p.Ser211*) as a likely etiology in this family. Here, we reported on the clinical manifestation of homozygous loss of function variant in FLG2 as a disease‐causing gene for peeling skin syndrome and expand the dermatology findings.
       
  • Chimerism for 20q11.2 microdeletion of GDF5 explains discordant phenotypes
           in monochorionic‐diamniotic twins
    • Abstract: Microdeletions of 20q11.2 are rare but have been associated with characteristic clinical findings. A 1.6 Mb minimal critical region has been identified that includes three OMIM genes: GDF5, EPB41L1, and SAMHD. Here we describe a male monozygotic, monochorionic‐diamniotic twin pair with discordant phenotypes, one with multiple findings that overlap with those reported in 20q11.2 deletions, and the other unaffected. Microarray analysis revealed mosaicism for a 363 Kb deletion encompassing GDF5 in the peripheral blood of both twins, which was confirmed by FISH. Subsequent FISH on buccal cells identified the deletion only in the affected twin. The blood FISH findings were interpreted as representing chimerism resulting from anastomosis and the blood exchange between the twins in utero. The implications of this finding are discussed, as is the contribution of GDF5 to the associated clinical findings of 20q11.2 deletions.
       
  • Challenges in measuring the effects of pharmacological interventions on
           cognitive and adaptive functioning in individuals with Down syndrome: A
           systematic review
    • Abstract: We systematically reviewed the measures used in pharmaceutical trials in children/adults with Down syndrome without dementia. Our purpose was to identify developmentally appropriate outcome measures capable of detecting changes in cognitive and adaptive functioning in this population. Eleven studies were included and used diverse outcome measures across the domains of language, memory, attention, behavior, and executive/adaptive functioning. Our results highlight the challenges in selecting measures capable of capturing improvements in pharmaceutical trials in individuals with DS. We offer suggestions to enhance future research, including: conducting studies with larger samples of participants with a range of developmental abilities; modifying existing/developing novel outcome measures; incorporating advances from related areas and DS observational studies; and considering alternative analytic techniques to characterize treatment effects.
       
  • Encephalopathy caused by novel mutations in the CMP‐sialic acid
           transporter, SLC35A1
    • Abstract: Transport of activated nucleotide‐sugars into the Golgi is critical for proper glycosylation and mutations in these transporters cause a group of rare genetic disorders termed congenital disorders of glycosylation. We performed exome sequencing on an individual with a profound neurological presentation and identified rare compound heterozygous mutations, p.Thr156Arg and p.Glu196Lys, in the CMP‐sialic acid transporter, SLC35A1. Patient primary fibroblasts and serum showed a considerable decrease in the amount of N‐ and O‐glycans terminating in sialic acid. Direct measurement of CMP‐sialic acid transport into the Golgi showed a substantial decrease in overall rate of transport. Here we report the identification of the third patient with CMP‐sialic acid transporter deficiency, who presented with severe neurological phenotype, but without hematological abnormalities.
       
  • Factors related to home health‐care transition in trisomy 13
    • Abstract: Trisomy 13 (T13) is accompanied by severe complications, and it can be challenging to achieve long‐term survival without aggressive treatment. However, recently, some patients with T13 have been receiving home care. We conducted this study to investigate factors related to home health‐care transition for patients with T13.We studied 28 patients with T13 born between January 2000 and December 2014. We retrospectively compared nine home care transition patients (the home care group) and 19 patients that died during hospitalization (the discharge at death group). The median gestational age of the patients was 36.6 weeks, with a median birth weight of 2,047 g. Currently, three patients (11%) have survived, and 25 (89%) have died. The home care group exhibited a significantly longer gestational age (38.9 vs. 36.3 weeks, p = 0.039) and significantly larger occipitofrontal circumference Z score (−0.04 vs. −0.09, p = 0.019). Congenital heart defects (CHD) was more frequent in the discharge at death group, with six patients in the home care group and 18 patients in the discharge at death group (67% vs. 95%, p = 0.047), respectively. Survival time was significantly longer in the home care group than in the discharge at death group (171 vs. 19 days, p = 0.012). This study has shown that gestational age, occipitofrontal circumference Z score at birth, and the presence of CHD are helpful prognostic factors for determining treatment strategy in patients with T13.
       
  • Congenital neurodevelopmental anomalies in pediatric and young adult
           cancer
    • Abstract: Congenital anomalies that are diagnosed in at least 120,000 US infants every year are the leading cause of infant death and contribute to disability and pediatric hospitalizations. Several large‐scale epidemiologic studies have provided substantial evidence of an association between congenital anomalies and cancer risk in children, suggesting potential underlying cancer‐predisposing conditions and the involvement of developmental genetic pathways. Electronic medical records from 1,107 pediatric, adolescent, and young adult oncology patients were reviewed. The observed number (O) of congenital anomalies among children with a specific pediatric cancer subtype was compared to the expected number (E) of anomalies based on the frequency of congenital anomalies in the entire study population. The O/E ratios were tested for significance using Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to compare overall and neurological malignancy survival rates following tumor diagnosis. Thirteen percent of patients had a congenital anomaly diagnosis prior to their cancer diagnosis. When stratified by congenital anomaly subtype, there was an excess of neurological anomalies among children with central nervous system tumors (O/E = 1.56, 95%CI 1.13–2.09). Male pediatric cancer patients were more likely than females to have a congenital anomaly, particularly those
       
  • De novo pathogenic variant in TUBB2A presenting with arthrogryposis
           multiplex congenita, brain abnormalities, and severe developmental delay
    • Abstract: Disorders of brain formation can occur from pathogenic variants in various alpha and beta tubulin genes. Heterozygous pathogenic variants in the beta tubulin isotype A gene, TUBB2A, have been recently implicated in brain malformations, seizures, and developmental delay. Limited information is known regarding the phenotypic spectrum associated with pathogenic variants in this gene given the rarity of the condition. We report the sixth individual with a de novo heterozygous TUBB2A pathogenic variant, who presented with a severe neurological phenotype along with unique features of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, optic nerve hypoplasia, dysmorphic facial features, and vocal cord paralysis, thereby expanding the gene-related phenotype.
       
  • A new CUL4B variant associated with a mild phenotype and an exceptional
           pattern of leukoencephalopathy
    • Abstract: Cabezas type of X-linked syndromic intellectual disability (MRXSC; MIM300354) is a rare X-linked recessive intellectual disability characterized primarily by intellectual disability, short stature, hypogonadism, and gait abnormalities. It is caused by a wide spectrum of hemizygous variants in CUL4B. In a 10-year-old boy with an exceptional leukoencephalopathy pattern, we identified a new missense variant p.Leu329Gln in CUL4B using “Mendeliome” sequencing. However, his phenotype does not include the severe characteristics currently known for MRXSC. We discuss the divergent phenotype and propose a potential connection between the different CUL4B variants and corresponding phenotypes in the context of the current literature as well as 3D homology modeling.
       
  • Prenatal presentation of Mabry syndrome with congenital diaphragmatic
           hernia and phenotypic overlap with Fryns syndrome
    • Abstract: We report on a family in which initial features were compatible with Fryns syndrome. The first sibling was a stillborn female with a left diaphragmatic hernia (DH). Her clinical features overlapped with Fryns syndrome. The second pregnancy, a male fetus, was followed for polyhydramnios, hypoplastic mandible, mild enlargement of the fetal bladder, hydronephrosis, and rocker bottom foot deformities. He had facial features similar to his sibling and a large cleft of the secondary palate, small jaw, and secundum atrial septal defect. He underwent surgical repair of imperforate anus, intestinal malrotation, and placement of mucous fistula for biopsy positive Hirschsprung disease. An elevated alkaline phosphatase level of 1569 U/L was reported. Whole exome sequencing performed on the second child demonstrated compound heterozygosity for the PIGV gene with the p.A341E and p.A418D variants in trans. Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS) is caused by mutations in PIGV and includes hyperphosphatasia as a diagnostic hallmark. Our patient exhibited hyperphosphatasia but without any storage material in his skin cells. His features remain similar to his sister's, but includes seizures and lacks diaphragmatic hernia. Until now, HPMRS and Fryns syndrome, despite overlapping features, were considered mutually exclusive as HPMRS involves hyperphosphatasia and Fryns typically exhibits DH. Recent identification of PIGN mutations associated with several cases of Fryns syndrome point to a common pathogenetic etiology involving inborn errors of the glycosylphosphatidylinositiol anchor biosynthetic pathway. A diagnosis of HPMRS should be considered when DH is encountered on prenatal ultrasound.
       
  • Stakeholders in psychiatry and their attitudes toward receiving pertinent
           and incident findings in genomic research
    • Abstract: Increasingly more psychiatric research studies use whole genome sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Consequently, researchers face difficult questions, such as which genomic findings to return to research participants and how. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes among potential research participants and health professionals toward receiving pertinent and incidental findings. A cross-sectional online survey was developed to investigate the attitudes among research participants toward receiving genomic findings. A total of 2,637 stakeholders responded: 241 persons with mental disorders, 671 relatives, 1,623 blood donors, 74 psychiatrists, and 28 clinical geneticists. Stakeholders wanted both pertinent findings (95%) and incidental findings (91%) to be made available for research participants. The majority (77%) stated that researchers should not actively search for incidental findings. Persons with mental disorders and relatives were generally more positive about receiving any kind of findings than clinical geneticists and psychiatrists. Compared with blood donors, persons with mental disorders reported to be more positive about receiving raw genomic data and information that is not of serious health importance. Psychiatrists and clinical geneticists were less positive about receiving genomic findings compared with blood donors. The attitudes toward receiving findings were very positive. Stakeholders were willing to refrain from receiving incidental information if it could compromise the research. Our results suggest that research participants consider themselves as altruistic participants. This study offers valuable insight, which may inform future programs aiming to develop new strategies to target issues relating to the return of findings in genomic research.
       
  • The facial morphology in Down syndrome: A 3D comparison of patients with
           and without obstructive sleep apnea
    • Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs at a high prevalence in patients with Down syndrome (DS). A polysomnogram, which is often cumbersome and challenging, remains the gold standard method of diagnosing OSA. OSA in patients with DS is often attributed to skeletal and soft-tissue structural alterations that are characteristic of the DS phenotype; as such, we hypothesized that assessing anthropometric facial measurements may be predictive of OSA in patients with DS. We used the 3dMDface sterophotography system to capture and create 3D facial images, and we subsequently identified facial landmarks using a single, experienced investigator and utilizing proprietary software to calculate inter-landmark distances and angles. We compared our findings with similar data for neurotypically developing participants. We further compared the findings in participants with DS with and without OSA. Participants with DS had maxillomandibular hypoplasia with smaller ear, nose, and eye measurements compared to neurotypically developing peers. We found no statistically significant differences in 3D photogrammetric measurements between participants with DS with or without OSA.
       
  • A splice-site variant in ANKRD11 associated with classical KBG syndrome
    •  
  • Cystic kidneys in fetal Walker–Warburg syndrome with POMT2 mutation:
           Intrafamilial phenotypic variability in four siblings and review of
           literature
    • Abstract: Walker–Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy secondary to α-dystroglycanopathy with muscle, brain, and eye abnormalities often leading to death in the first weeks of life. It is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern, and has been linked to at least 15 different genes; including protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1), protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2), protein O-mannose beta-1,2-N acetylglucosaminyltransferase (POMGNT1), fukutin (FKTN), isoprenoid synthase domain-containing protein (ISPD), and other genes. We report on a consanguineous family with four consecutive siblings affected by this condition with lethal outcome in three (still birth), and termination of the fourth pregnancy based on antenatal MRI identification of brain and kidney anomalies that heralded proper and deep clinical phenotyping. The diagnosis of WWS was suggested based on the unique collective phenotype comprising brain anomalies in the form of lissencephaly, subcortical/subependymal heterotopia, and cerebellar hypoplasia shared by all four siblings; microphthalmia in one sibling; and large cystic kidneys in the fetus and another sibling. Other unshared neurological abnormalities included hydrocephalus and Dandy-Walker malformation. Whole exome sequencing of the fetus revealed a highly conserved missense mutation in POMT2 that is known to cause WWS with brain and eye anomalies.In conclusion, the heterogeneous clinical presentation in the four affected conceptions with POMT2 mutation expands the current clinical spectrum of POMT2-associated WWS to include large cystic kidneys; and confirms intra-familial variability in terms of brain, kidney, and eye anomalies.
       
  • New intragenic rearrangements in non-Finnish mulibrey nanism
    • Abstract: Prenatal growth is a complex dynamic process controlled by various genetic and environmental factors. Among genetic syndromes characterized by growth restriction, MULIBREY nanism represents a rare autosomal recessive condition presenting with severe pre- and post-natal growth failure, characteristic dysmorphic features but normal neurological development. The phenotype of MULIBREY nanism is variable and overlaps with others such as the Silver-Russell syndrome. We report here three patients in two distinct non-Finnish families from North France who were first suspected to have Silver–Russell syndrome which failed to be confirmed on molecular analyses. Clinical features in the three patients led us to also consider the diagnosis of MULIBREY nanism. Sequencing of the TRIM37 gene showed the three patients shared a novel nonsense mutation (c.181 C>T p.Arg61*) in a heterozygous state. Quantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR identified a new deletion of exons 15 and 16 in TRIM37 in one isolated patient and another deletion of exon 9 in two siblings. Breakpoints of both the deletions were localized in Alu sequences. Given the high number of Alu repeats, which predispose to gene rearrangements, one should always consider such genetic rearrangements in the molecular diagnosis of non-Finnish MULIBREY nanism patients. Early diagnosis of the disease would prompt careful cardiac follow up of such patients as cardiological complication is a characteristic feature of the MULIBREY nanism as described in this report.
       
  • Diaphanospondylodysostosis and ischiospinal dysostosis, evidence for one
           disorder with variable expression in a patient who has survived to age 9
           years
    • Abstract: Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) and ischiospinal dysostosis (ISD) are both rare skeletal dysplasias consisting of abnormal axial skeletal development but normal appendicular skeletal development. Both disorders recently have been found to result from mutations in the BMPER gene. We report a patient with one deletion and one mutation of the BMPER gene who has features most consistent with DSD but who has survived to age 9 years. Survival suggests that DSD and ISD reflect a spectrum of severity of one disease process.
       
  • The role of IQSEC2 in syndromic intellectual disability: Narrowing the
           diagnostic odyssey
    • Abstract: While X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, an increasing number of recognized disorders and their genetic etiologies are providing answers for patients and their families. The availability of clinical exome sequencing is broadening the ability to identify mutations in genes previously unrecognized as causing XLID. In recent years, the IQSEC2 gene, located at Xp11.22, has emerged as the cause of multiple cases of both nonsyndromic and syndromic XLID. Herein we present a case series of six individuals (five males, one female) with intellectual disability and seizures found to have alterations in IQSEC2. In all cases, the diagnostic odyssey was extensive and expensive, often including invasive testing such as muscle biopsies, before ultimately reaching the diagnosis. We report these cases to demonstrate the exhaustive work-up prior to finding the changes in IQSEC2 gene, recommend that this gene be considered earlier in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with global developmental delay, microcephaly, and severe, intractable epilepsy, and support the use of intellectual disability panels including IQSEC2 in the first-line evaluation of these patients.
       
  • Neonatal fractures as a presenting feature of LMOD3-associated congenital
           myopathy
    • Abstract: Nemaline myopathy is a rare inherited disorder characterized by weakness, hypotonia, and depressed deep tendon reflexes. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with the most severe phenotype presenting as perinatal akinesia, severe muscle weakness, feeding difficulties and respiratory failure, leading to early mortality. Pathogenic variants in 12 genes, encoding components of the sarcomere or factors related to myogenesis, have been reported in patients affected with the disorder. Here, we describe an early, lethal presentation of decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, muscle weakness, and neonatal respiratory failure requiring ventilator support in three siblings from a consanguineous family. All exhibited perinatal fractures, and thus, a skeletal dysplasia was considered as possibly contributing to the phenotype. However, whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous, loss-of-function pathogenic variant in LMOD3, which has recently been associated with nemaline myopathy and, in a subset of patients, perinatal fractures. This case demonstrates the importance of considering congenital neuromuscular disorders in the differential diagnosis of perinatal fractures.
       
  • The pregnancy in neurofibromatosis 1: A retrospective register-based total
           population study
    • Abstract: The objective of this retrospective total population study was to form a view of the pregnancies of the patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). A cohort of 1,410 Finnish patients with NF1 was acquired by searching NF1-related inpatient and outpatient hospital visits and confirming the diagnoses by reviewing the medical records. Ten matched control persons per patient with NF1 were collected from Population Register Centre. Study persons were linked to data from Medical Birth Register and Care Register for Health Care through the personal identity code. Cesarean deliveries, hypertension/preeclampsia, and placental abruptions were more common among mothers with NF1 with adjusted odds ratios of 2.24 (95%CI 1.63–3.07), 1.96 (95%CI 1.18–3.24), and 13.40 (95%CI 4.26–42.13), respectively. The adjusted mean pregnancy duration was 0.65 (95%CI 0.42–0.88) weeks shorter among the mothers with NF1 than in the control group consisting of non-NF1 mothers giving birth to a non-NF1 child. The pregnancies of non-NF1 mothers giving birth to a NF1 child were 0.43 (95%CI 0.24–0.62) weeks shorter than in the control group. In summary, NF1 of the mother was associated with a shortened pregnancy and increased pregnancy complications. Also, the NF1 of the fetus slightly shortened pregnancy. Since mothers with NF1 are at increased risk for pregnancy complications, careful evaluation of their pregnancies is warranted.
       
  • Continuous hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in monochorionic twins
           discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
    •  
  • Challenges of developing and conducting clinical trials in rare disorders
    • Abstract: Rare disease drug development is a rapidly expanding field. Clinical researchers in rare diseases face many challenges when conducting trials in small populations. Disease natural history is often poorly understood and the ability to detect clinically meaningful outcomes requires understanding of their rate of occurrence and variability, both of which contribute to difficulties in powering a study. Standard trial designs are not optimized to obtain adequate safety and efficacy data from small numbers of patients, so alternative designs (enrichment, crossover, adaptive, N-of 1) need to be considered. The affected patients can be hard to identify, especially early in the course of their disease, are generally geographically dispersed, and are often children. Trials are frequently conducted on an international scale and may be subject to complex or multiple regulatory agency oversights and may be affected by local customs, cultures, and practices. A basic understanding of the FDA programs supporting development of drugs for rare diseases is provided by this review and the role of early consultation with the FDA is emphasized. Of recent FDA New Molecular Entities (NME) approvals, 41% (17 approvals) in 2014, 47% (21 approvals) in 2015, and 41% (9 approvals) in 2016 were for rare disease indications. Through effective interactions and collaborations with physicians, institutions, and patient groups, sponsors have been successful in bringing new treatments to market for individuals affected by rare diseases. Challenges to drug development have been overcome through the focused efforts of patients/families, non-profit patient advocacy groups, drug developers, and regulatory authorities.
       
  • Progressive macrothrombocytopenia and hearing loss in a large family with
           DIAPH1 related disease
    • Abstract: In this study, we describe a Japanese family with progressive hearing loss and macrothrombocytopenia. Using next-generation and Sanger sequencing analyses, we identified a heterozygous variant in exon 27 of the DIAPH1 gene (NM_005219), c.3637C>T, p.R1213X. All patients in the family had sensorineural hearing loss and macrothrombocytopenia. None of the patients exhibited a tendency to bleed. No pathogenic variants were found in the MYH9 gene. Hearing loss began with high-frequency loss during early childhood and progressed to severe hearing loss involving all frequencies. Analyses of the mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width indicated that the macrothrombocytopenia is progressive in patients with DIAPH1 related disease.There are no reports describing progressive macrothrombocytopenia in patients with pathogenic variants of DIAPH1. Thus, progressive macrothrombocytopenia may be a novel feature of deafness patients with pathogenic variants in DIAPH1.
       
  • Estimation of live birth and population prevalence of Down syndrome in
           nine U.S. states
    • Abstract: For all of the U.S. states with sufficient data, we estimated live birth and population prevalences for Down syndrome (DS). As social service resources vary between states, such data are important for public policy discussions and state planning. We predicted the actual and nonselective live birth prevalence, and population prevalence, for DS in nine U.S. states based on publicly available datasets from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. As of 2010, we estimated a population size for people with DS of 4,554 in MA (population prevalence 1 in 1,440), 6,101 in NJ (1 in 1,443), 14,315 in NY (1 in 1,355), 9,739 in IL (1 in 1,319), 4,354 in IN (1 in 1,491), 7,295 in MI (1 in 1,354), 9,099 in FL (1 in 2,071), 3,014 in KY (1 in 1,442), and 3,596 in AZ (1 in 1,784). The number of people living with DS has steadily increased from 1950 until 2010 in these nine U.S. states. Population prevalence would have been higher absent DS-related elective terminations. Racial and ethnic groups, other than non-Hispanic whites, comprise a growing proportion within these DS communities, particularly among younger-aged persons.
       
  • Preaxial polydactyly in an individual with Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome
           caused by a novel nonsense mutation in KMT2A
    • Abstract: Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WDSTS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertrichosis, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic facial appearances (down-slanted vertically narrow palpebral fissures, wide nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, and thick eyebrows). In 2012, Jones and co-workers identified heterozygous mutations in KMT2A (lysine methyltransferase 2A) as the molecular cause of WDSTS. Although the phenotype of this syndrome continues to expand, the associated features are not fully understood. Here, we report WDSTS in a 12-year-old Japanese boy with a novel nonsense mutation in KMT2A. He had right preaxial polydactyly, which has not been previously reported in WDSTS. We could not identify a causal relationship between the KMT2A mutation and preaxial polydactyly, and cannot exclude the preaxial polydactyly is a simple coincidence. We summarized the clinical features of WDSTS associated with KMT2A mutation and discussed the cardinal symptoms in detail.
       
  • A novel heterozygous mutation in FGFR2 gene causing Pfeiffer syndrome
    •  
  • Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Angelman syndrome
    • Abstract: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, expressive speech impairment, movement disorder, epilepsy, and a happy demeanor. Children with AS are frequently reported to be poor feeders during infancy and as having gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, reflux, and abnormal food related behaviors throughout their lifetime. To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with AS, we retrospectively analyzed medical records of 120 individuals seen at the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital and 43 individuals seen at the University of North Carolina Comprehensive Angelman Clinic. The majority of patients’ medical records indicated at least one symptom of gastrointestinal dysfunction, with constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) the most common. Other gastrointestinal issues reported were cyclic vomiting episodes, difficulty swallowing, excessive swallowing, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as GERD, swallowing difficulties, cyclic vomiting, and eosinophilic esophagitis were more common in those with deletions and uniparental disomy, likely related to the involvement of multiple genes and subsequent hypotonia. The frequency of constipation is consistent among all genetic subtypes while early feeding issues appear to mainly affect those with deletions. Caregivers and healthcare providers should be aware of the high prevalence of these issues, as proper treatment may improve not only gastrointestinal dysfunction but also sleep and behavioral issues.
       
  • Clinical and molecular characterization of de novo loss of function
           variants in HNRNPU
    • Abstract: DNA alterations in the 1q43-q44 region are associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, microcephaly, seizures, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. HNRNPU is located within the 1q43-q44 region and mutations in the gene have been reported in patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we report on the clinical presentation of four patients with de novo heterozygous HNRNPU loss-of-function mutations detected by clinical whole exome sequencing: c.651_660del (p.Gly218Alafs*118), c.1089G>A (p.Trp363*), c.1714C>T (p.Arg572*), and c.2270_2271del (p.Pro757Argfs*7). All patients shared similar clinical features as previously reported including seizures, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, variable neurologic regression, behavior issues, and dysmorphic facial features. Features including heart defects and kidney abnormalities were not reported in our patients. These findings expands the clinical spectrum of HNRNPU-related disorder and shows that HNRNPU contributes to a subset of the clinical phenotypes associated with the contiguous 1q43-q44 deletion syndrome.
       
  • Interstitial deletion 5p14.1-p15.2 and 5q14.3-q23.2 in a patient with
           clubfoot, blepharophimosis, arthrogryposis, and multiple congenital
           abnormalities
    • Abstract: Interstitial deletions of the short and long arms of chromosome 5 are rare cytogenetic abnormalities. The 5p distal deletion is a genetic disorder characterized by a high-pitched cat-like cry, microcephaly, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, severe intellectual disability and motor delays. Previously, more than 46 patients with the 5q deletion have been reported. Here, we report de novo interstitial deletions involving 5p14.1–p15.2 and 5q14.3–q23.2 in a patient with multiple congenital abnormalities, including blepharophimosis, arthrogryposis, short neck, round face, pelvic kidney, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and clubfoot. The deletions were characterized using GTG banding and aCGH microarray analysis. Concurrent 5p and 5q interstitial deletions in humans have not been previously reported. We also discussed the relationship between the 5q deleted region and clubfeet.
       
  • Epilepsy in fragile-X-syndrome mimicking panayiotopoulos syndrome:
           Description of three patients
    • Abstract: Fragile-X-syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. Epilepsy is reported to occur in 10–20% of individuals with Fragile-X-syndrome. A frequent seizure/electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern resembles that of benign rolandic epilepsy. We describe the clinical features, EEG findings and evolution in three patients affected by Fragile-X-syndrome and epilepsy mimicking Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Age at seizure onset was between 4 and about 7 years. Seizures pattern comprised a constellation of autonomic symptoms with unilateral deviation of the eyes and ictal syncope. Duration of the seizures could be brief or lengthy. Interictal EEGs revealed functional multifocal abnormalities. The evolution was benign in all patients with seizures remission before the age of 14. This observation expands the spectrum of benign epileptic phenotypes present in Fragile-X-syndrome and may be quite helpful in guiding anticonvulsant management and counseling families as to expectations regarding seizure remission.
       
  • Paternal transmission of a FMR1 full mutation allele
    • Abstract: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism. In most of cases, the molecular basis of this syndrome is a CGG repeat expansion in the 5′ untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. It is inherited as an X linked dominant trait, with a reduced penetrance (80% for males and 30% for females). Full mutation (FM) expansion from premutated alleles (PM) is only acquired via maternal meiosis, while paternal transmission always remains in the PM range. We present a 16-year-old girl with a mild fragile X syndrome phenotype. FMR1 gene study showed that the patient inherited a mosaic premutation-full mutation with an unmethylated uninterrupted allele (175, >200 CGG) from her father. The father showed an 88 CGG uninterrupted unmethylated allele in blood and sperm cells. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a FMR1 mosaic premutation-full mutation allele inherited from a PM father. In our opinion, the most likely explanation could be a postzygotic somatic expansion. We can conclude that in rare cases of a child with a full mutation whose mother does not carry a premutation, the possibility of paternal transmission should be considered.
       
  • Vitamin D levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
    • Abstract: Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive congenital malformation syndrome caused by mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene. This inborn error of cholesterol synthesis leads to elevated concentrations of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). 7-DHC also serves as the precursor for vitamin D synthesis. Limited data is available on vitamin D levels in individuals with SLOS. Due to elevated concentrations of 7-DHC, we hypothesized that vitamin D status would be abnormal and possibly reach toxic levels in patients with SLOS. Through a retrospective analysis of medical records between 1998 and 2006, we assessed markers of vitamin D and calcium metabolism from 53 pediatric SLOS patients and 867 pediatric patients who were admitted to the NIH Clinical Center (NIHCC) during the same time period. SLOS patients had significantly higher levels of 25(OH)D (48.06 ± 19.53 ng/ml, p 
       
  • Co-occurrence of Sturge–Weber syndrome and Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber
           syndrome phenotype: Consideration of the historical aspect
    •  
  • Identification of STAC3 variants in non-Native American families with
           overlapping features of Carey–Fineman–Ziter syndrome and Moebius
           syndrome
    • Abstract: Horstick et al. (2013) previously reported a homozygous p.Trp284Ser variant in STAC3 as the cause of Native American myopathy (NAM) in 5 Lumbee Native American families with congenital hypotonia and weakness, cleft palate, short stature, ptosis, kyphoscoliosis, talipes deformities, and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH). Here we present two non-Native American families, who were found to have STAC3 pathogenic variants. The first proband and her affected older sister are from a consanguineous Qatari family with a suspected clinical diagnosis of Carey–Fineman–Ziter syndrome (CFZS) based on features of hypotonia, myopathic facies with generalized weakness, ptosis, normal extraocular movements, cleft palate, growth delay, and kyphoscoliosis. We identified the homozygous c.851G>C;p.Trp284Ser variant in STAC3 in both sisters. The second proband and his affected sister are from a non-consanguineous, Puerto Rican family who was evaluated for a possible diagnosis of Moebius syndrome (MBS). His features included facial and generalized weakness, minimal limitation of horizontal gaze, cleft palate, and hypotonia, and he has a history of MH. The siblings were identified to be compound heterozygous for STAC3 variants c.851G>C;p.Trp284Ser and c.763_766delCTCT;p.Leu255IlefsX58. Given the phenotypic overlap of individuals with CFZS, MBS, and NAM, we screened STAC3 in 12 individuals diagnosed with CFZS and in 50 individuals diagnosed with MBS or a congenital facial weakness disorder. We did not identify any rare coding variants in STAC3. NAM should be considered in patients presenting with facial and generalized weakness, normal or mildly abnormal extraocular movement, hypotonia, cleft palate, and scoliosis, particularly if there is a history of MH.
       
  • A human case of SLC35A3-related skeletal dysplasia
    • Abstract: Researchers have identified a subset of Holstein having a range of skeletal deformities, including vertebral anomalies, referred to as complex vertebral malformation due to mutations in the SLC35A3 gene. Here, we report the first case in humans of SLC35A3-related vertebral anomalies. Our patient had prenatally diagnosed anomalous vertebrae, including butterfly, and hemivertebrae throughout the spine, as well as cleft palate, micrognathia, patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus, posterior embryotoxon, short limbs, camptodactyly, talipes valgus, rocker bottom feet, and facial dysmorphism including proptosis, nevus flammeus, and a cupped left ear. Clinical exome sequencing revealed a novel missense homozygous mutation in SLC35A3. Follow-up biochemical analysis confirmed abnormal protein glycosylation, consistent with a defective Golgi UDP-GlcNAc transporter, validating the mutations. Congenital disorders of glycosylation, including SLC35A3-CDG, can present as a wide phenotypic spectrum, including skeletal dysplasia. Previously reported patients with SLC35A3-CDG have been described with syndromic autism, epilepsy, and arthrogryposis.
       
  • A novel genetic syndrome with STARD9 mutation and abnormal spindle
           morphology
    • Abstract: Intellectual disability (ID) is one of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by serious defects in both intelligence and adaptive behavior. Although it has been suggested that genetic aberrations associated with the process of cell division underlie ID, the cytological evidence for mitotic defects in actual patient's cells is rarely reported. Here, we report a novel mutation in the STARD9 (also known as KIF16A) gene found in a patient with severe ID, characteristic features, epilepsy, acquired microcephaly, and blindness. Using whole-exome sequence analysis, we sequenced potential candidate genes in the patient. We identified a homozygous single-nucleotide deletion creating a premature stop codon in the STARD9 gene. STARD9 encodes a 4,700 amino acid protein belonging to the kinesin superfamily. Depletion of STARD9 or overexpression of C-terminally truncated STARD9 mutants were known to induce spindle assembly defects in human culture cells. To determine cytological features in the patient cells, we isolated lymphoblast cells from the patient, and performed immunofluorescence analysis. Remarkably, mitotic defects, including multipolar spindle formation, fragmentation of pericentriolar materials and centrosome amplification, were observed in the cells. Taken together, our findings raise the possibility that controlled expression of full-length STARD9 is necessary for proper spindle assembly in cell division during human development. We propose that mutations in STARD9 result in abnormal spindle morphology and cause a novel genetic syndrome with ID.
       
  • ALG13-CDG in a male with seizures, normal cognitive development, and
           normal transferrin isoelectric focusing
    • Abstract: ALG13-CDG has been recently discovered as a disorder of severe developmental, intellectual and speech disability, microcephaly, visual abnormalities, seizures, hepatomegaly, coagulation abnormalities, and abnormal serumtransferrin isoelectric focusing in serum. A male with seizures, delayed motor, and speech development, but normal cognition carried a hemizygous, predicted pathogenic ALG13 variant (p.E463G). N-glycosylation studies in plasma were normal. ICAM-1 expression was decreased in patient fibroblasts, supporting the variant's pathogenicity. Adding D-galactose to the patient's fibroblast culture increased ICAM-1 expression in vitro, offering a potential treatment option in ALG13-CDG. The present report is a new example for an N-glycosylation disorder, that may present with normal transferrin isoform analysis, and also demonstrates, that CDG type I patients can have normal cognitive development.
       
  • Expanding the phenotype of DST-related disorder: A case report suggesting
           a genotype/phenotype correlation
    • Abstract: The gene DST encodes for the large protein BPAG1 involved in hemidesmosomes. Its alternative splicing gives rise to tissue-enriched isoforms in brain, muscle, and skin. The few patients described so far with bi-allelic mutations in the DST gene have either a skin phenotype of epidermolysis bullosa simplex or a neurological phenotype. Here, we report a 17-year-old female individual presenting with a more complex phenotype consisting of both skin and neuronal involvement, in addition to several previously unreported findings, such as iris heterochromia, cataract, hearing impairment, syringomyelia, behavioral, and gastrointestinal issues, osteoporosis, and growth hormone deficiency. Family-trio whole exome sequencing revealed that she was a compound heterozygous for two variants in the DST gene with highly-predicted functional impact, c.3886A>G (p.R1296X) in exon 29 and c.806C>T (p.H269R) in exon 7. Interestingly, exon 7 is included in the neuronal isoform whereas exon 29 is expressed in both skin and neuronal isoforms. The patient we described is the first case with a mutation affecting an exon expressed in both the neuronal and skin isoforms that can explain the more complex phenotype compared to previously reported cases.
       
  • Two unrelated children with overlapping 6q25.3 deletions, motor speech
           disorders, and language delays
    • Abstract: Interstitial and terminal 6q25 deletions are associated with developmental delays, hypotonia, eye pathologies, craniofacial dysmorphologies, and structural brain anomalies. In most cases, speech and language deficits are not described in detail. We report on a case (Patient 1, age 7 years) with a de novo 6q25.3-qter deletion, 11.1 Mb long and encompassing 108 genes, and a case (Patient 2, age 5 years) with an inherited interstitial 6q25.3 deletion, located within Patient 1's deletion region and 403 kb long, the smallest 6q25 deletion reported to date. Both children have hypotonia, motor speech disorders, and expressive language delays. Patient 1's speech was characterized by childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and dysarthria. Other findings include developmental delay, ataxic cerebral palsy, optic nerve dysplagia, and atypical brain morphologies regarding the corpus callosum and gyration patterns, a clinical profile that closely matches a previously reported case with a nearly identical deletion. Patient 2 had speech characterized by CAS and typical nonverbal processing abilities. His father, a carrier, had typical speech and language but showed difficulties with complex motor speech and hand motor tasks, similar to other adults with residual signs of CAS. The small deletion in this family contains the IGF2R-AIRN-SLC22A2-SLC22A3 gene cluster, which is associated with imprinting and maternal-specific expression of Igf2R, Slc22a2, and Slc22a3 in mice, whereas imprinting in humans is a polymorphic trait. The shared phenotypes in the two patients might be associated with the deletion of the gene cluster.
       
  • Monoallelic FGFR3 and Biallelic ALPL mutations in a Thai girl with
           hypochondroplasia and hypophosphatasia
    • Abstract: Skeletal dysplasias are a complex group of more than 350 disorders with phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity affecting bone and cartilage growth. We studied a 2-year-old girl and her 21-year-old mother with disproportionate short stature. In addition to typical features of hypochondroplasia found in both patients, the child had deformities of the extremity bones, metaphyseal flares, and bilateral transverse (Bowdler) fibular spurs with overlying skin dimples detected at birth. Intravenous pamidronate was started in the child since the age of 17 days, and then every two months. Exome sequencing revealed that the girl was heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.1651A>G, p.Ile538Val) in exon 13 of FGFR3, a known mutation for hypochondroplasia, inherited from her mother. Interestingly, the child also harbored compound heterozygous missense mutations in exon 12 of ALPL, c.1460C>T (p.Ala487Val) inherited from her mother and c.1479C>A (p.Asn493Lys) inherited from her healthy father. The former mutation was previously reported in perinatal hypophosphatasia while the latter was novel. Constantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase levels including the one before the pamidronate administration and a substantially elevated level of plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate detected at age 28 months supported the diagnosis of hypophosphatasia. After a definite diagnosis was achieved, pamidronate was withdrawn at the age of 28 months. No adverse events were observed during pamidronate therapy. In conclusion, we describe a unique case with monoallelic FGFR3 and biallelic ALPL mutations leading to features of both hypochondroplasia and hypophosphatasia.
       
  • Best practices in peri-operative management of patients with skeletal
           dysplasias
    • Abstract: Patients with skeletal dysplasia frequently require surgery. This patient population has an increased risk for peri-operative complications related to the anatomy of their upper airway, abnormalities of tracheal-bronchial morphology and function; deformity of their chest wall; abnormal mobility of their upper cervical spine; and associated issues with general health and body habitus. Utilizing evidence analysis and expert opinion, this study aims to describe best practices regarding the peri-operative management of patients with skeletal dysplasia. A panel of 13 multidisciplinary international experts participated in a Delphi process that included a thorough literature review; a list of 22 possible care recommendations; two rounds of anonymous voting; and a face to face meeting. Those recommendations with more than 80% agreement were considered as consensual. Consensus was reached to support 19 recommendations for best pre-operative management of patients with skeletal dysplasia. These recommendations include pre-operative pulmonary, polysomnography; cardiac, and neurological evaluations; imaging of the cervical spine; and anesthetic management of patients with a difficult airway for intubation and extubation. The goals of this consensus based best practice guideline are to provide a minimum of standardized care, reduce perioperative complications, and improve clinical outcomes for patients with skeletal dysplasia.
       
  • Three cases of multi-generational Pompe disease: Are current practices
           missing diagnostic and treatment opportunities'
    • Abstract: Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II, GSDII, or acid maltase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive metabolic myopathy with a broad clinical spectrum, ranging from infantile to late-onset presentations. In 2015, Pompe disease was added as a core condition to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for state newborn screening (NBS). The clinical importance of Pompe disease is evolving with the use of NBS, increasing awareness of the disease, and higher than previously reported disease prevalence; however, current practices miss additional diagnostic and potential treatment opportunities in close relatives of the family proband. In this report, we describe three families with multiple individuals in multiple generations affected by both infantile and late-onset clinical presentations of Pompe disease. The presence of multi-generational disease within these families highlights the importance of subsequent risk assessment through medical history and physical examination, with a low threshold for the screening of a proband's family members. We recommend enzymology (GAA activity assay) as the first screening method, as opposed to targeted mutation analysis, for at-risk family members. Given that the initial symptoms of the slowly progressive late-onset presentation of Pompe disease may be mild or non-specific, enzymatic testing of all parents of affected infants should be considered.
       
  • Co-occurring Down syndrome and SUCLA2-related mitochondrial depletion
           syndrome
    • Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 5 (MIM 612073) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the beta subunit of the succinate-CoA ligase gene located within the 13q14 band. We describe two siblings of Hispanic descent with SUCLA2-related mitochondrial depletion syndrome (encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria); the older sibling is additionally affected with trisomy 21. SUCLA2 sequencing identified homozygous p.Arg284Cys pathogenic variants in both patients. This mutation has previously been identified in four individuals of Italian and Caucasian descent. The older sibling with concomitant disease has a more severe phenotype than what is typically described in patients with either SUCLA2-related mitochondrial depletion syndrome or Down syndrome alone. The younger sibling, who has a normal female chromosome complement, is significantly less affected compared to her brother. While the clinical and molecular findings have been reported in about 50 patients affected with a deficiency of succinate-CoA ligase caused by pathogenic variants in SUCLA2, this report describes the first known individual affected with both a mitochondrial depletion syndrome and trisomy 21.
       
  • Whole exome sequencing identified genetic variations in Chinese
           hemangioblastoma patients
    • Abstract: Hemangioblastomas (HBs) are uncommon tumors characterized by the presence of inactivating alterations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in inherited cases and by infrequent somatic mutation in sporadic entities. We performed whole exome sequencing on 11 HB patients to further elucidate the genetics of HBs. A total of 270 somatic variations in 219 genes, of which there were 86 mutations in 67 genes, were found in sporadic HBs, and 184 mutations were found in 154 genes in familial HBs. C: G>T: A and T: A>C: G mutations are relatively common in most HB patients. Genes harboring the most significant mutations include PCDH9, KLHL12, DCAF4L1, and VHL in sporadic HBs, and ZNF814, DLG2, RIMS1, PNN, and MUC7 in familial HBs. The frequency of CNV varied considerably within sporadic HBs but was relatively similar within familial HBs. Five genes, including OTOGL, PLCB4, SCEL, THSD4, and WWOX, have CNVs in the six patients with sporadic HBs, and three genes, including ABCA6, CWC27, and LAMA2, have CNVs in the five patients with familial HBs. We found new genetic mutations and CNVs that might be involved in HBs; these findings highlight the complexity of the tumorigenesis of HBs and pinpoint potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of HBs.
       
  • Novel PRPS1 gain-of-function mutation in a patient with congenital
           hyperuricemia and facial anomalies
    • Abstract: Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRPPS) superactivity (OMIM 300661) is a rare inborn error of purine metabolism that is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the X-chromosomal gene PRPS1 (Xq22.3). Clinical characteristics include congenital hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria, gouty arthritis, urolithiasis, developmental delay, hypotonia, recurrent infections, short stature, and hearing loss. Only eight families with PRPPS superactivity and PRPS1 gain-of-function mutations have been reported to date. We report on a 7-year-old boy with congenital hyperuricemia, urolithiasis, developmental delay, short stature, hypospadias, and facial dysmorphisms. His mother also suffered from hyperuricemia that was diagnosed at age 13 years. A novel PRPS1 missense mutation (c.573G>C, p.[Leu191Phe]) was detected in the proband and his mother. Enzyme activity analysis confirmed superactivity of PRPP synthetase. Analysis of the crystal structure of human PRPPS suggests that the Leu191Phe mutation affects the architecture of both allosteric sites, thereby preventing the allosteric inhibition of the enzyme. The family reported here broadens the clinical spectrum of PRPPS superactivity and indicates that this rare metabolic disorder might be associated with a recognizable facial gestalt.
       
  • Additional report on Moreno-Nishimura-Schmidt overgrowth syndrome
    •  
  • Variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance in a large family with
           non-classical Diamond-Blackfan anemia associated with ribosomal protein
           L11 splicing variant
    • Abstract: Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous bone marrow failure disorders with or without congenital anomalies. Variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance have been observed within affected families. Diamond-Blackfan anemia-7 (DBA7), caused by heterozygous mutations in ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11), accounts for approximately 5% of DBA. DBA7 is usually characterized by early-onset bone marrow failure often accompanied by congenital malformations, especially thumb defects. Here, we present the case of a 2-year-old boy with chronic mild normocytic anemia, short stature, bilateral underdevelopment of the thumbs, atrial septal defect, and hypospadias. Hematological testing revealed slightly decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, normal HbF, and elevated eADA. Family history included maternal relatives with thumb defects, but the mother's thumbs were normal. Clinical exome sequencing detected a maternally-inherited RPL11 variant, c.396+3A>G, that is predicted to affect splicing. A family correlation study of the identified variant demonstrates segregation with thumb anomalies in the mother's family. RNA studies suggest that the variant produces an alternative transcript that is likely susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay. This report summarizes the prevalence of non-anemia findings in DBA7 and describes a non-classical familial presentation of DBA7 more associated with thumb anomalies than with anemia.
       
 
 
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