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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1589 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1589 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 420, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 247, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining
  [SJR: 1.725]   [H-I: 56]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1932-104X - ISSN (Online) 1932-1031
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Cover Image, Volume 12, Issue 1
    • Authors: Idania Valdez-Vazquez; Arturo Sanchez
      Abstract: The cover image, by Idania Valdez-Vazquez and Arturo Sanchez, is based on the Modeling and Analysis Proposal for biorefineries based on mixed cultures for lignocellulosic biofuel production: a techno-economic analysis,
      DOI : 10.1002/bbb.1828. Photo Credit: Idania Valdez-Vazquez.The cover image, by Idania Valdez-Vazquez and Arturo Sanchez, is based on the Modeling and Analysis Proposal for biorefineries based on mixed cultures for lignocellulosic biofuel production: a techno-economic analysis,
      DOI : 10.1002/bbb.1828. Photo Credit: Idania Valdez-Vazquez.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T02:59:55.193342-05:
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 4
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T02:59:59.081948-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1806
  • Time to Rethink Cellulosic Biofuels'
    • Authors: Bruce Dale
      Pages: 5 - 7
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T02:59:57.771932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1856
  • Business Highlights
    • Pages: 8 - 10
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T02:59:55.97818-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1854
  • Technology News
    • Pages: 11 - 11
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T02:59:58.369792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1855
  • Current state of bioethanol fuel blends in Mexico
    • Authors: Cynthia M. Galicia-Medina; Carlos Barrios-Estrada, Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández, Magdalena de Jesús Rostro-Alanís, J. Antonio Torres, Roberto Parra-Saldívar
      Abstract: Environmental damage concerns combined with low levels of domestic gasoline production and high import amounts makes it imperative for Mexico to seek renewable biofuel sources. This paper focuses on bioethanol research at public and private research centers, the regulatory framework and potential of second-generation bioethanol production, current and failed bioethanol introduction attempts, and a recent plan for a pilot introduction in three states in Mexico. Second-generation bioethanol based on agroindustry byproducts is a promising alternative. For example, 218 000 m3 of bioethanol could be produced annually from agave bagasse solids exceeding the estimated 123 000 m3 needed for the pilot program. However, knowledge gaps, an inadequate regulatory status, an unsuitable indifference price, and lack of government support to establish in Mexico a bioethanol industry have delayed its introduction. Finding solutions to factors preventing the introduction of 6% bioethanol to replace gasoline additives would benefit the environment and initiate Mexico's path to lower its dependence on nonrenewable fuels and gasoline imports. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T09:28:33.54086-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1842
  • Cellulose micro- and nanofibrils (CMNF) manufacturing - financial and risk
    • Authors: Camilla Abbati de Assis; Maria Celeste Iglesias, Michael Bilodeau, Donna Johnson, Richard Phillips, Maria Soledad Peresin, E.M. (Ted) Bilek, Orlando J. Rojas, Richard Venditti, Ronalds Gonzalez
      Abstract: Conversion economics, risk, and financial analyses for an industrial facility manufacturing cellulose micro- and nanofibrils (CMNF) from wood pulp is presented. Process data is based on mass and energy balances from a pilot facility in the University of Maine. Here, CMNF is produced from untreated wood pulp by using disk refining, with an assumed production capacity of 50 t (dry metric ton equivalent) per day. Stand-alone and co-location manufacturing facilities were simulated and assessed. Minimum product selling prices (MPSP, estimated to achieve a 16% hurdle rate) for different scenarios ranged from USD 1893/t CMNF to USD 2440/t CMNF (dry equivalent). Pulp and energy consumption were identified as major cost drivers. Consequently, it was found that the use of alternative feedstock, in addition to co-location configuration, can reduce MPSP by 37%. Since estimated MPSP of CMNF is lower than cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) – both estimated to achieve a 16% hurdle rate, we believe market adoption of CMNF in the near term is more promising, regardless of specific applications. This study provides state of the art business intelligence information on the conversion economics, risk, and financial analyses for CMNF manufacturing. Thus, the data represents valuable information to entrepreneurs, R&D scientists, and product developers who plan to adopt CMNF in their processes and products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T09:36:07.817567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1835
  • Global biomass trade for energy – Part 1: Statistical and
           methodological considerations
    • Authors: Svetlana Proskurina; Martin Junginger, Jussi Heinimö, Esa Vakkilainen
      Abstract: Many countries have limited, low-cost biomass resources to satisfy their own demand for bioenergy. International trade of biomass in various solid and liquid forms is consequently increasing. The aim of this study is to present a quantitative overview of the development of international biomass trade for energy purposes, including a discussion of methodological issues. The paper focuses on the production, export, and import of solid and liquid biofuels, including industrial roundwood, wood chips, fuel wood, wood pellets, biodiesel, and bioethanol. The study highlights changes in trends that have occurred over the past decade. Trade on global bioenergy markets is increasing: total trade of biomass for energy purposes is estimated as having increased twofold from around 780 PJ in 2004 to 1250 PJ in 2015. Despite the importance of the bioenergy market and the growth of biomass trade for energy, accurate evaluation of energy-related biomass trade faces several methodological challenges, such as uncertainties in international statistics, inconsistent data regarding export and import ­volumes, as well as limited information about the final use of traded products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T20:25:30.712752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1841
  • Aspen plus simulation to predict steady state performance of biomass-CO2
           gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier
    • Authors: Narendra Sadhwani; Sushil Adhikari, Mario R. Eden, Pengcheng Li
      Abstract: The use of carbon dioxide as an oxidizing medium for the gasification of biomass has been explored to a limited extent in the literature. In the current study, the output performance of a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier for biomass-CO2 gasification was simulated using the Aspen plus simulator. The results from experimental studies conducted to understand the chemistry and kinetics of the process were incorporated in the model using a dynamically linked FORTRAN subr­outine. Different steps of the CO2 gasification process were simulated using a combination of various reactor configurations. Experimental data obtained from varying operating parameters such as CO2/C ratio and temperature were compared with the results from sensitivity analysis performed on the model. To evaluate the validity of the model, parameters such as syngas composition, individual gas yields, and heating value were compared. The results were also compared with the results from a thermodynamic equilibrium model to adjudge the credibility of using a comprehensive CO2 gasification Aspen plus model with kinetics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:55:41.470916-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1846
  • Opportunities and risks for ­sustainable biomass export from the
           south-eastern United States to Europe
    • Authors: Kevin R Fingerman; Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Leire Iriarte, Uwe R Fritsche, Igor Staritsky, Lotte Visser, Thuy Mai­-Moulin, Martin Junginger
      Abstract: Import of wood pellets to the EU from the southeastern United States has increased almost ten-fold over the past seven years, driven largely by mandates under the Renewable Energy Directive. While the displacement of fossil fuels with biomass can offer significant energy diversity and climate benefits, these must be balanced against the potential detriment from unsustainable extraction of biomass resources. This study projects the scale of the sustainable biomass resource base in the US southeast through 2030 under various scenarios of industry development and domestic market dynamics. We characterise this resource base at the county level, disaggregating it by material type and spatially constraining it to ensure biodiversity conservation. Our analysis shows that there could be as much as 70 million green metric tons of sustainable export potential from the US Southeast in 2030. However, we also show the extent to which sustainable sourcing criteria applied only to EU biomass energy imports could create leakage across biomass markets, erasing gains from any sustainability mandate. This leakage risk was fairly consistent across our study scenarios and time periods, ranging from 50 to over 63 million green tons of biomass per year. Meaningful biodiversity protections can only be achieved if sustainability criteria for biomass import to the EU are combined with more comprehensive support for sustainable sourcing across biomass industries in exporting regions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T10:07:08.137873-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1845
  • Renewable hydrocarbon fuels from hydrothermal liquefaction: A
           techno-economic analysis
    • Authors: Thomas Helmer Pedersen; Nick Høy Hansen, Oscar Miralles Pérez, Daniel Esteban Villamar Cabezas, Lasse A. Rosendahl
      Abstract: This study demonstrates the economic feasibility of producing renewable transportation drop-in fuels from lignocellulosic biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading. An Aspen Plus® process model is developed based on extensive experimental data to document a techno-economic assessment of a hydrothermal liquefaction process scheme. Based on a 1000 tonnes organic matter per day plant size capacity, three different scenarios are analyzed to identify key economic parameters and minimum fuel selling prices (MFSP). Scenario I, the baseline scenario, is based on wood-glycerol co-liquefaction, followed by thermal cracking and hydroprocessing. Results show that a minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of 1.14 $ per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE) can be obtained. In Scenario II, only wood is used as feedstock, which reduces the MFSP to 0.82 $/LGE. Scenario III is also based on a pure wood feedstock, but investigates a full saturation situation (a maximum hydrogen consumption scenario), resulting in a slightly higher MFSP of 0.94 $/LGE. A sensitivity analysis is performed identifying biocrude yield, hydrogen, and feedstock prices as key cost factors affecting the MFSP. In conclusion, the study shows that renewable fuels, via HTL and upgrading, can be highly cost competitive to other alternative fuel processes. © 2017 The
      Authors . Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T08:12:32.767134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1831
  • Economic analysis of bioethanol and electricity production from sugarcane
           in South Africa
    • Authors: Abdul M. Petersen; Willem A. Van der Westhuizen, Mohsen A. Mandegari, Johann F. Görgens
      Abstract: An economic analysis for ethanol and electricity production in the sugarcane crushing industry in South Africa through first- and second-generation technologies, and integration strategies was carried out. The analysis included capital allowances to upgrade the energy efficiencies of existing sugar mills, to allow co-production of electricity, production of second-generation ethanol from hemicellulose, and export of lignocellulose residues from these facilities. Methodologies included mass and energy balances in Aspen Plus® and economic models in MS Excel to determine the required selling prices for electricity, sugarcane residues and ethanol, for these investments. The required selling price for electricity for the sugarcane crushing industry was US$ 97/MWhr, while that of bagasse residues was US$ 90/ton. A first-generation ethanol plant with electricity co-generation from bagasse has an ethanol selling price of US$ 0.84/l, which was highly dependent of the cane price, and reduced significantly when second-generation production from hemicelluloses of bagasse and trash was incorporated. The selling price of US$ 0.38/l for integrated second-generation ethanol at a sugar mill was the lowest, but however, was highly dependent on technological efficiency. Standalone second-generation ethanol was unfeasible due to the costs of the infrastructure needed to provide bagasse as a ­feedstock. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T07:41:01.917918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1833
  • Sequential crops for food, energy, and economic development in rural
           areas: the case of Sicily
    • Authors: Roberta Selvaggi; Francesca Valenti, Gioacchino Pappalardo, Lorella Rossi, Stefano Bozzetto, Biagio Pecorino, Bruce E. Dale
      Abstract: In this paper, we apply the principles of Biogasdoneright® to agriculture in Sicily (Italy), or more generally to Mediterranean agriculture. We propose new potential crop rotation schemes using Sorghum spp. drip irrigated second harvest and Italian sainfoin (Hedysarum coronarium L.) between two cycles of durum wheat to produce biogas and perhaps biomethane subsequently under the Biogasdoneright system. The Biogasdoneright system is a new model for sustainable biogas production based on sequential cropping and integration with food production. In Sicily, as in other Mediterranean countries, sequential crops and some perennial crops such as Opuntia spp. might be cultivated in environmentally critical areas prone to erosion, desertification, and fires. Therefore, biogas produced according to the crop rotation schemes as illustrated in this paper avoids competition with food and feed crops, while offering to the Sicilian agricultural sector many agronomic, economic, environmental, and social benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T02:46:01.255208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1844
  • Corn stover cannot simultaneously meet both the volume and GHG reduction
           requirements of the renewable fuel standard
    • Authors: Seungdo Kim; Xuesong Zhang, Bruce Dale, Ashwan Daram Reddy, Curtis Dinneen Jones, Keith Cronin, Roberto Cesar Izaurralde, Troy Runge, Mahmoud Sharara
      Abstract: Corn stover is expected to supply much of the cellulosic biomass required to meet the 61 billion liters per year target under the US Energy Independence and Security Act. The Act also requires that cellulosic biofuels achieve a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of 60% compared to gasoline. If corn stover is harvested for biofuels, it can no longer help replenish soil organic matter, and net soil carbon emissions increase. So meeting the GHG reduction target is a concern. We studied the effect of stover removal on overall GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol systems in the 12-state Corn Belt region. Even at a stover removal rate of 66%, no more than 20 billion liters can be annually produced while simultaneously satisfying the 60% GHG reduction. Moreover, no GHG reduction relative to gasoline occurs in short time periods. The GHG benefits of corn stover ethanol only appear after longer time periods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T02:41:53.392048-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1830
  • Bio-based polymers production in a kraft lignin biorefinery:
           techno-economic assessment
    • Authors: Luana Dessbesell; Zhongshun Yuan, Shawn Hamilton, Mathew Leitch, Reino Pulkki, Chunbao (Charles) Xu
      Abstract: This paper presents a techno-economic and risk analysis of a kraft lignin (KL) biorefinery (3000 tonne of KL·year-1 capacity), where KL is depolymerized to produce depolymerized kraft lignin (DKL) as a bio-substitute to polyol and phenol for the production of bio-based polymers (polyurethane and phenolic resins). Three scenarios were examined: (i) DKL as a phenol substitute, (ii) DKL as a polyol substitute, and (iii) oxypropylated depolymerized kraft lignin (Oxy-DKL) a polyol substitute. The Net Present Value was calculated to compare these scenarios. To address the uncertainty risks in feedstock and product price, a sensitivity analysis and a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results show that DKL and Oxy-DKL derived from the KL biorefinery are a feasible bio-substitute for petroleum-based polyols with a minimum selling price of 1440 and 1623 US$·t-1, respectively. However, DKL is likely not feasible when replacing phenol (minimum selling price of 1421 US$·t-1) due to the current low market price of phenol. The feasibility of the KL biorefinery is highly sensitive to the market prices of the products. Feedstock supply and market demand for lignin-derived biopolyols are still uncertain; therefore, a supply chain design model is necessary for decision-making. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T05:12:11.653346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1834
  • Determining the quantity and quality of biomass obtained from the thinning
           of Turkish red pine stands
    • Authors: Mehmet Eker; Raffaele Spinelli, Nevzat Gürlevik
      Abstract: Red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is the most common tree species in Turkey, where it covers almost 6 million hectares. The first thinning of red pine stands is a fundamental tending measure that may yield between 4 and 12 dry tons of biomass per hectare. While this is not a very large amount per se, it is larger than obtained from the recovery of logging residues from final felling operations, which have represented the main subject of previous studies. What is more, valorization of the non-commercial biomass component can boost work productivity and increase owner revenues, with strong benefits on the financial sustainability of an operation that normally incurs substantial cost and tends to be neglected. Therefore, increased use of biomass can support proper tending of young stands and a general improvement of their quality and future value. The study also indicates that small-tree size favors whole-tree harvesting, even when performed with animal or manual power, as customary in Turkey and in most developing economies. Whole-tree chipping is probably the best option in stands growing on poor yield sites, whereas multi-product harvesting is advisable on good yield sites. This study addresses specifically Turkish red pine, but it frames a general paradigm that applies to most forest stands and countries, and as such it can be generalized to a great extent. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:22:09.292073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1836
  • Bringing plant cell wall-degrading enzymes into the lignocellulosic
           biorefinery concept
    • Authors: Caio O.G. Silva; Raissa P. Vaz, Edivaldo X.F. Filho
      Abstract: Recent decades have seen the growth of immense interest in lignocellulosic biomass conversion technologies. This interest is motivated by their huge potential for energy and bioproduct generation and reduced dependency on non-renewable feedstocks, leading to improved air quality and reduced emission of greenhouse gases. It is in this context that the lignocellulose biorefinery concept arises. Among the lignocellulose conversion technologies available, enzymatic conversion has emerged as a promising candidate, since it represents a biomass management approach that integrates recycling and remediation in an environmentally friendly manner. Although already in existence, biorefineries employing enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose are at an incipient stage. There remain many operational difficulties, resulting in a very costly overall process that is reflected in product price, reducing market competitiveness. Therefore, much research is still needed to improve the operational and financial feasibility of this process. This paper covers general biorefinery concepts, as well as new and associated concepts, such as the circular economy, bioeconomy, and waste biorefinery. Subsequently, the global outlook, including examples of currently existing enzyme-based lignocellulose biorefineries and their status, is described. The main technical and economic challenges are also discussed, and various potential tools for the optimization of biomass degradation in enzyme-based biorefineries are presented. Finally, the future perspectives for the sector are considered, and models of the ideal biorefinery and globally integrated biorefinery hubs are proposed. These models may contribute to the future establishment of such biorefineries as competitive industries, consistent with the sustainable bioelectro economy paradigm. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T04:45:43.52327-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1832
  • Toward a harmonization of national sustainability requirements and
           criteria for solid biomass
    • Authors: Thuy Mai-Moulin; Simon Armstrong, Jinke van Dam, Martin Junginger
      Abstract: This paper compares national sustainability support schemes and sustainability requirements in four countries that import solid biomass for heat and power generation: Belgium, Denmark, the UK, and the Netherlands. The paper also reviews voluntary certification schemes for solid biomass that may be used to demonstrate sustainability compliance. In the absence of mandatory EU criteria for solid biomass, different national support schemes and sustainability requirements may present barriers to trade. This paper identifies some possibilities for harmonization and provides suggestions for policymakers for the improvement and alignment of national sustainability requirements. Ultimately the paper suggests establishing a harmonized certification scheme in the short term based on legislative requirements in the four countries and in voluntary initiatives. The proposed harmonized certification scheme may also reduce both implementation costs and complexity for biomass suppliers and generators. In the long term, the paper recommends binding criteria on sustainability requirements for solid biomass at EU level. © 2017 The
      Authors . Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:40:32.067288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1822
  • Economic, environmental, and social impacts of different sugarcane
           production systems
    • Authors: Terezinha F. Cardoso; Marcos D.B. Watanabe, Alexandre Souza, Mateus F. Chagas, Otávio Cavalett, Edvaldo R. Morais, Luiz A.H. Nogueira, M. Regis L.V. Leal, Oscar A. Braunbeck, Luis A.B. Cortez, Antonio Bonomi
      Abstract: Mechanization in the sugarcane agriculture has increased over the last few years, especially in harvesting and planting operations, in the Brazilian Center-South region. The consequences of such a technological shift, however, are not fully comprehended when multiple perspectives are considered such as economic aspects, environmental regulations, and social context. The main goal of this study is to generate comprehensive information to subsidize decision-making processes not only in Brazil but also in other countries where sugarcane production is still under development. Manual and mechanical technologies for planting and harvesting were evaluated (with and without pre-harvest burning), as well as straw recovery, seeking to identify their advantages and disadvantages, considering economic, environmental, and social aspects. Considering vertically integrated production systems (agricultural and industrial phases), sugarcane production scenarios were compared under the metrics from engineering economics, life cycle assessment (LCA), and social LCA. Manual technologies were related to the highest job creation levels; however, lower internal rates of return and higher ethanol production costs were also observed. In general, mechanized scenarios were associated with lower ethanol production costs and higher internal rates of return due to lower biomass production cost, higher ethanol yield, and higher electricity surplus. Considering the restrictions for sugarcane burning and practical difficulties of manual harvesting of green cane, environmental analysis showed that mechanical harvesting of green cane with straw recovery presents, in general, the best comparative balance of environmental impacts. A multi-criteria decision analysis was performed to generate an output rank, confirming that mechanized scenarios presented the best sustainability performances. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T03:51:05.827871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1829
  • Proposal for biorefineries based on mixed cultures for lignocellulosic
           biofuel production: a techno-economic analysis
    • Authors: Idania Valdez-Vazquez; Arturo Sanchez
      Abstract: An innovative conceptual design is introduced for lignocellulosic-based biochemical platform biorefineries using three mixed-culture bioprocesses that sequentially disintegrate each polysaccharide fraction into different target biofuels: hydrogen, methane, and fuel butanol. This mixed-culture biorefinery circumvents the use of corrosive chemicals, energy-demanding pre-treatments, costly enzymes, separate units for saccharification and fermentation, steam for sterilization, and expensive steel bioreactors. The concept mimics bioprocesses occurring in nature to degrade complex substrates. A techno-economic analysis of these biorefineries is carried out focusing on the impact of residence times (8–120 h) and butanol titers (10–20 g/L) of the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) on the total production costs (TPC) of butanol. The design includes electricity-steam cogeneration from gaseous biofuels and lignin, as well as solvent purification. Simulation results show that the highest butanol titer impacts TPC to a greater extent than the lowest residence time. TPC range from US$1.04 to US$1.27 per liter of butanol in facilities with 20 g/L of butanol irrespective of residence time. The end-use energy ratio for all facilities was close to 2 or higher. These biorefineries display lower energy consumption and environmental impacts than conventional second-generation lignocellulosic biofuels biorefineries, and its cost structure is determined by the substrate similar to bioprocesses with mature technology. Finally, this study provides an insight to the advancements made in realizing viable mixed-culture fermentations for different fields of biotechnology and therefore might be encouraging for further studies of lignocellulosic biorefineries based on mixed cultures. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T02:50:39.292667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1828
  • Formate-assisted pyrolysis of biomass: an economic and modeling analysis
    • Authors: Hamad AlMohamadi; Sampath Gunukula, William J. DeSisto, M. Clayton Wheeler
      Abstract: An economic analysis was performed to determine the economic potential and commercialization barriers of producing renewable gasoline and diesel (RGD) fuel blendstocks via formate-assisted pyrolysis (FAsP) followed by hydrodeoxygenation processes. A process model was simulated using Aspen Plus® to estimate material and energy balances for the conversion of 2000 dry MT per day of pine sawdust. Scenarios were considered for the regeneration of formate salts from either -biomass-derived and natural-gas-derived carbon monoxide. The material and energy balances were used to calculate capital and operating costs of RGD fuel production. An economic model was built using capital and operating costs to estimate the minimum selling price (MSP) of RGD fuel. The MSP of RGD fuels were estimated at $4.58 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE) and $4.80 per GGE for natural gas and biomass-derived CO scenarios, respectively. The total capital investments of these plants were $448 million and $497 million. The feedstock cost was found to be the major cost contributor to the MSP of RGD fuel. Improving FAsP process yields will significantly reduce the production cost of RGD fuel. It has been learned that an increase in deoxygenation of bio-oil in pyrolysis reactor decreases the capital and operating costs of bio-oil upgrading to RGD fuel. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T01:20:36.486874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1827
  • Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and
           chemical properties
    • Authors: Alok Satlewal; Ruchi Agrawal, Samarthya Bhagia, Parthapratim Das, Arthur J. Ragauskas
      Abstract: The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage, and environmental pollution caused by its inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pre-treatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions, and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T04:16:26.887203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1818
  • An optimization-based web application for synthesis and analysis of
           biomass-to-fuel strategies
    • Authors: Rex T. L. Ng; Sean Patchin, Wenzhao Wu, Nihar Sheth, Christos T. Maravelias
      Abstract: We develop an optimization-based web application for assessing biomass-to-fuels strategies based on the Biomass Utilization Superstructure (BUS) framework. This web application allows researchers with limited knowledge of optimization to assess different technologies employed at different strategies and identify the major cost drivers. The user must only provide the necessary parameters and create an optimization run after identifying the question to be addressed and the assessment metric. The web application generates visual representations of the results once the optimal solution is obtained. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of the web application through an example. © 2017 The
      Authors . Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T05:30:53.362731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1821
  • Strengths, challenges, and opportunities for hydrothermal pretreatment in
           lignocellulosic biorefineries
    • Authors: Bin Yang; Ling Tao, Charles E. Wyman
      Abstract: Pretreatment prior to or during biological conversion is required to achieve high sugar yields essential to economic production of fuels and chemicals from low cost, abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Aqueous thermochemical pretreatments achieve this performance objective from pretreatment coupled with subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, but chemical pretreatment can also suffer from additional costs for exotic materials of construction, the need to recover or neutralize the chemicals, introduction of compounds that inhibit downstream operations, and waste disposal, as well as for the chemicals themselves. The simplicity of hydrothermal pretreatment with just hot water offers the potential to greatly improve the cost of the entire conversion process if sugar degradation during pretreatment, production of un-fermentable oligomers, and the amount of expensive enzymes needed to obtain satisfactory yields from hydrothermally pretreated solids can be reduced. Biorefinery economics would also benefit if value could be generated from lignin and other components that are currently fated to be burned for power. However, achieving these goals will no doubt require development of advanced hydrothermal pretreatment configurations. For example, passing water through a stationary bed of lignocellulosic biomass in a flowthrough configuration achieves very high yields of hemicellulose sugars, removes more than 75% of the lignin for potential valorization, and improves sugar release from the pretreated solids with lower enzyme loadings. Unfortunately, the large quantities of water needed to achieve this performance result in very dilute sugars, high energy costs for pretreatment and product recover, and large amounts of oligomers. Thus, improving our understanding of hydrothermal pretreatment fundamentals is needed to gain insights into R&D opportunities to improve performance, and help identify novel configurations that lower capital and operating costs and achieve higher yields. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T09:05:29.337399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1825
  • Syngas biomethanation: state-of-the-art review and perspectives
    • Authors: Antonio Grimalt-Alemany; Ioannis V. Skiadas, Hariklia N. Gavala
      Abstract: Significant research efforts are currently being made worldwide to develop more efficient biomethane production processes from a variety of waste streams. The biomethanation of biomass-derived syngas can contribute to increasing the potential of methane production as it opens the way for the conversion of recalcitrant biomasses, generally not fully exploitable by anaerobic digestion systems. Additionally, this biological process presents several advantages over its analogous process of catalytic methanation such as the use of inexpensive biocatalysts, milder operational conditions, higher tolerance to the impurities of syngas, and higher product selectivity. However, there are still several challenges to be addressed for this technology to reach commercial stage. This work reviews the progress made over the last few years in syngas biomethanation processes in order to provide an overview of the current state of the art of this technology. The most relevant aspects determining the performance of syngas biomethanation processes are extensively discussed here, including microbial diversity and metabolic interactions in mixed microbial consortia, the influence of operating parameters and bioreactor designs, and the potential of modelling as a tool for the design and control of this bioprocess. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T23:55:46.452612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1826
  • Rational strain engineering interventions to enhance cellulase secretion
           by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Authors: Heinrich Kroukamp; Riaan den Haan, John-Henry van Zyl, Willem Heber van Zyl
      Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass remains an attractive feedstock for the production of fuels if a technology can be developed to overcome its recalcitrance. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is one technology under development that aims to make this conversion process economically feasible. While no ideal CBP organism has been developed, several options have been pursued including engineering of the ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Considering the genetic malleability of this model organism, a variety of chemicals and chemical precursors could also be produced directly from cellulosic feedstocks, assuming an enzymatic system for the hydrolysis of the feedstock sugar polymers can be established. While there have been several accounts of the secretion of cellulases by strains of S. cerevisiae and the successful conversion of limited amounts of amorphous and model crystalline cellulose feedstocks to ethanol, substantial conversion of crystalline cellulose by these strains in the absence of exogenous cellulases has not been reported. The most cited reasons for this were the low secretion titer of cellulases in general and of cellobiohydrolases in particular. This review will compare the efforts that have been made to enhance heterologous protein secretion in the yeast S. cerevisiae through rational strain engineering with a focus on cellulases and will investigate important factors in developing successful CBP-yeast strains. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-08T23:45:41.206285-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1824
  • Setting the design space of biorefineries through sustainability values, a
           practical approach
    • Authors: Mar Palmeros Parada; Lotte Asveld, Patricia Osseweijer, John A. Posada
      Abstract: Sustainable development has become an outstanding aspiration in our society. However, the meaning of sustainability and how it should be operationalized is a complex issue that depends on subjective beliefs and values. To advance toward sustainable biobased production, we present an approach to delimit the design space of biorefineries by considering stakeholders’ values. Concepts from Design for Values were taken as the starting point for this approach, which was further developed with a biojet fuel production case in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. Design propositions that considered the interaction between stakeholders’ values, sustainability, and the production system were derived and used to suggest design space boundaries. These design boundaries are indicative, allowing for deliberation during future design activities. Through them, designers are prompted to actively reflect on the interaction between biorefinery systems and the socioeconomic and environmental context around them. By opening the design process to stakeholders’ values, we have developed a constructivist approach to incorporate sustainability in an inclusive and context-specific manner during the early stages of biorefinery design. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T10:45:23.974874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1819
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