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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1582 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover American Journal on Addictions
  [SJR: 0.843]   [H-I: 57]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1055-0496 - ISSN (Online) 1521-0391
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1582 journals]
  • Perceived need for depression treatment among persons entering inpatient
           opioid detoxification
    • Authors: Michael D. Stein; Olga J. Santiago Rivera, Bradley J. Anderson, Genie L. Bailey
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesDepression is common among persons with opioid use disorder. We examined the perceived need for depression treatment (PNDT) among opioid-dependent patients and the relationship of PNDT to depression screening result.MethodsBetween May and December 2015, we surveyed consecutive persons (n = 440) seeking inpatient opioid detoxification. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) to screen for depression. To assess perceived need for depression services, participants were asked, “Do you believe you should be treated for depression?” Response options were recorded into four categories: “Not Depressed (ND),” “Perceive Need for Depression Treatment (PNDT),” “Depressed/Don't Want Treatment,” and “Currently Treated.”ResultsParticipants’ mean age was 32.3 (±8.7) years; 70.7% were male. Nearly two out of three persons screened positive for depression yet only 8.2% were being treated for depression prior to admission. Screening positive for depression was associated with a 2.95 (95%CI 1.82–4.81, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T12:18:04.238491-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12554
  • Substance use and suicide risk in a sample of young Colombian adults: An
           exploration of psychosocial factors
    • Authors: Angela J. Pereira-Morales; Ana Adan, Andrés Camargo, Diego A. Forero
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesYoung adults might engage in many risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, which could lead to mental health problems, such as suicide. The aim of this study was to examine specific psychosocial and clinical factors that could influence the possible relationship between polysubstance use (PSU) and suicide risk in a sample of young Colombian participants.MethodsA sample of 274 young participants (mean age = 21.3 years) was evaluated with two substance use screening tests (ASSIST and AUDIT) and five scales for clinical and psychosocial factors and suicide risk: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety scale, Family APGAR, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Plutchik Suicide Risk scale. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted.ResultsUse of cannabis and tobacco was significantly correlated with suicide risk in the total sample (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T12:18:02.559641-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12552
  • The influence of substance use on depressive symptoms among young adult
           black men: The sensitizing effect of early adversity
    • Authors: Steven M. Kogan; Junhan Cho, Assaf Oshri, James MacKillop
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesDepressive symptoms have been identified as an important consequence of substance use. Both heavy drinking and marijuana use have acute and short-term effects on systems that regulate emotion, increasing the potential for substance use to induce problems with negative affect and irritability. We investigated the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on depressive symptoms among a sample of young Black men. We also tested the stress sensitization hypothesis that exposure to adverse childhood experiences would amplify the influence of substance use on men's depressive symptoms.MethodsHypotheses were tested with 505 rural Black men who, at ages 19–22 years, provided data on their substance use, adverse childhood experiences, and depressive symptoms; they provided data again 18 months later.ResultsSubstance use forecasted increases in depressive symptoms; cross-lagged analyses yielded no evidence for the inverse path, depressive symptoms increasing substance use. The impact of substance use on depressive symptoms was amplified among young Black men who were exposed to adverse childhood experiences. Substance use did not significantly predict depressive symptoms when adversity was low.Discussion and ConclusionsOur findings suggest that, during young adulthood, substance use increases depressive symptoms among Black men who were exposed to childhood adversity. Because childhood adversity disproportionately affects Black men, these findings inform future cross-group research designed to investigate racial disparities in the consequences of substance use.Scientific SignificanceDepressive symptoms may be understood as an effect as well as a cause of substance use, particularly among vulnerable young Black men. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–7).
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T08:51:31.262971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12555
  • Access to treatment for opioid use disorders: Medical student preparation
    • Authors: Elinore F. McCance-Katz; Paul George, Nicole Alexander Scott, Richard Dollase, Allan R. Tunkel, James McDonald
      Abstract: The current opioid epidemic requires new approaches to increasing access to treatment for patients with opioid use disorders and to improve availability of medication assisted treatment. We propose a model where medical students complete the necessary training to be eligible for the waiver to prescribe opioid medications to treat these disorders by the time of medical school graduation. This plan would increase the number of Drug Abuse Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA 2000) waivered physicians who could gain additional experience in treating substance use disorders during residency and provide the access to clinical care needed for individuals suffering with opioid use disorder. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–3)
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T10:05:26.074863-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12550
  • Recovery from alcohol dependence: Do smoking indicators predict
    • Authors: Anna Hufnagel; Ulrich Frick, Monika Ridinger, Norbert Wodarz
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesThere is inconsistent evidence about the potential influence of smoking on recovery from alcohol dependence. Our study aimed at assessing the impact of smoking-behavior on relapse during a 12 months follow-up period following a detoxification in patients with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD).MethodsThree hundred Patients with AUD (74.9% smoking) were recruited from two inpatient detoxification units in psychiatric hospitals in Germany and their alcohol consumption was prospectively followed for 1 year. Data on different indicators of smoking behavior was gathered. Cox regression model was used to evaluate potential risk factors on time to relapse of alcohol consumption. Two hundred seventy-nine participants (n = 279) were included in the final analysis.ResultsSmoking increased the risk for alcohol relapse (hazard ratio = 3.962, 95% CI 1.582–9.921). However, this increased risk is slightly reduced with higher numbers of daily consumed cigarettes (hazard ratio per cigarette = .986, 95% CI .976–.995).ConclusionSmoking reduced the probability of maintaining alcohol abstinence significantly, whereas higher number of cigarettes smoked daily diminished the increased risk of alcohol relapse in alcohol-dependent patients.Scientific SignificanceCoordinated psychiatric and substance abuse interventions for different subgroups of patients with AUD in the post-acute treatment phase are necessary. Individualized treatment planning is especially important in smoking patients with AUD who are vulnerable for a relapse to alcohol drinking and for somatic complications. Our findings might support individualized treatment plans.(Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–8)
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T11:30:32.937158-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12535
  • Learning from Latino voices: Focus Groups’ Insights on Participation
           in Genetic Research
    • Authors: Priscilla Martinez; Cory Cummings, Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, Karen G. Chartier
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesThere is a paucity of genetics research examining alcohol use among Latinos. The purpose of this study is to examine Latino perceptions of participation in alcohol studies that collect biological samples, an important precursor to increasing their participation in genetics research.MethodsA synthesis of the literature addressing participation of racial/ethnic minorities in alcohol genetics research was undertaken. We developed a framework of themes related to barriers and facilitators for participation, which we then used to analyze two focus groups held with 18 Latino participants.ResultsFrom the literature review, we identified nine themes related to facilitators of and barriers to participation. They are, on continua: curiosity to disinterest; trust to mistrust; understanding to confusion; safety to danger; inclusion to exclusion; sense of connection to disconnection; hope to despair; ease to hassle; and benefit to cost. Another theme emerged from the focus groups: previous experience to no previous experience with health research.ConclusionsApplying the themes from the literature review to Latino perspectives on providing biological samples for alcohol research helps expand their definition and applicability. Consideration of these themes when designing recruitment/retention materials and strategies may encourage Latino participation in alcohol genetics research.Scientific SignificanceAn understanding of these themes and their significance for Latinos is offered in the form of “guiding questions” for researchers to consider as we strive for more inclusive research. Focus group participants were Mexican American; future research should further explore perspectives of this heterogeneous demographic group by studying other Latino subgroups. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–9)
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T11:30:30.053937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12531
  • E-cigarette use of young adults motivations and associations with
           combustible cigarette alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs
    • Authors: Jeff R. Temple; Ryan C. Shorey, Yu Lu, Elizabeth Torres, Gregory L. Stuart, Vi D. Le
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesAlthough the prevalence of e-cigarette use among adolescents and young adults has caught up to or eclipsed that of combustible cigarette use, there is relatively little known about (a) the link between e-cigarettes and other substances and (b) the reasons underlying this increase in e-cigarette use. To address this gap in knowledge, the current study examined associations between e-cigarette use and other substances and identified motives for e-cigarette use among young adults.MethodsParticipants included an ethnically diverse sample of African American, White, and Hispanic young adults (N = 662; 61% female) who were participating in an ongoing survey-based longitudinal study of health and risky behaviors.ResultsHispanic, White, and male young adults reported significantly greater past year e-cigarette use compared to their African American and female counterparts. Bivariate correlations showed that use of e-cigarettes was positively associated with use of combustible cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, inhalants, hallucinogens, ecstasy, and misuse of over-the-counter and prescription medications. Furthermore, e-cigarette users reported a higher prevalence of substance use relative to those who did not use e-cigarettes. The taste of e-cigarettes was identified as an important motive for use.Conclusions and SignificanceAlthough the potential harm associated with e-cigarettes remains largely unknown, e-cigarettes appear to be a risk marker for the use of substances that are known to pose substantial health problems. Health care providers should screen for e-cigarette use, and youth substance use prevention programs should target the reduction of e-cigarette use with particular attention to addressing their taste appeal. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1–6)
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T07:30:23.864251-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12530
  • Prevalence of substance misuse among US veterans in the general population
    • Authors: Katherine J. Hoggatt; Keren Lehavot, Marketa Krenek, Catherine Amanda Schweizer, Tracy Simpson
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesEpidemiologic data on substance misuse prevalence among US Veterans are crucial to plan for Veterans’ future healthcare needs. We estimated US Veterans’ age-specific, overall, and age-adjusted prevalence of substance misuse, assessed whether prevalence differed between Veterans and civilians, and examined temporal trends in prevalence.MethodsSubstance-related measures were obtained from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2002–2012 (N = 24,210 Veterans; 338,556 civilians).ResultsAmong women and men Veterans overall, past-month heavy episodic drinking and daily cigarette smoking were the most prevalent types of substance misuse. For Veteran women and men ages 18–25, the prevalence of past-year illicit drug use was 29% and 38%, which was comparable to the prevalence of past-month daily cigarette smoking, and the prevalence of past-year prescription drug misuse was 14% and 18%. For men ages 18–25, heavy episodic drinking, daily cigarette smoking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and substance use disorder were more prevalent among Veterans than civilians. For women, the age-specific, overall, and age-adjusted prevalence of daily cigarette smoking was generally greater among Veterans than civilians. There was a decreasing temporal trend in overall AUD prevalence among Veteran men, reflecting a decreasing trend in age-specific prevalence among Veteran men ages 35–49.Discussion and ConclusionsYoung Veterans’ high prevalence of substance misuse, and the generally high prevalence of daily smoking among Veterans, underscore the need for evidence-based assessments and treatment options that are accessible and effective for Veterans.Scientific SignificanceThis study provides foundational information on the epidemiology of substance misuse among Veterans. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–9)
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T12:19:20.950673-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12534
  • Psychopathology and personality traits associated with driving while
           intoxicated in Beijing, China: Implications for interventions
    • Authors: Rong-Jiang Zhao; Wei Sun, Li-Li Zhang, Yan-Ping Bao, Liang Huang, Ping Dong, Shuang-Jiang Zhou, Zhi-Qing Wang, Thomas R. Kosten, Hong-Qiang Sun
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesDriving while intoxicated (DWI) represents an area of grave concern in China, yet little research has focused on it or on the personality traits and psychiatric disorders among these drivers.MethodsWe enrolled 325 of 382 residents charged with DWI in a compulsory detention center in Beijing, China. And 351 male drivers who had never had any alcohol arrests as control participants. All were screened for Axis I disorders using the Chinese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR (SCID), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).ResultsThe subjects were all males with a mean (±SD) age of 34.41 ± 8.48 years, and almost 30% met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence (n = 92). Compared to normal controls they showed greater Social Boldness, edness, Apprehension, Liveliness and Tension, and poorer Reasoning, Vigilance, Openness to Change, and Self-reliance. On the MMPI-2, DWI subjects showed greater Hypochondriasis, Psychopathic Deviate, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia and Hypomania; and lower Social introversion.Conclusions and Scientific SignificanceSevere alcohol problems are more common in Beijing's drunk drivers than in the Chinese general population. These DWI drivers also have a broad variety of traits that increase their tendency to be venturesome and socially bold while enjoying excitement and risk-taking. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–5)
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:00:39.709297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12536
  • Long-term follow-up study of community-based patients receiving XR-NTX for
           opioid use disorders
    • Authors: Arthur Robin Williams; Vincent Barbieri, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R. Levin, Edward V. Nunes, John J. Mariani, Adam Bisaga
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesExtended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is FDA-approved to prevent relapse in patients with Opioid Use Disorder. However little is known about long-term use among community-based outpatients.MethodsRetrospective chart review and long-term follow-up survey among individuals (N = 168) who entered an outpatient XR-NTX trial between 2011 and 2015, during which participants were offered three monthly injections of XR-NTX at no cost. The survey consisted of 35 questions covering a total of four domains: (1) substance use; (2) treatment continuation; (3) barriers; and (4) attitudes.ResultsFifty-seven respondents were successfully surveyed, including 50% of those initially receiving all three XR-NTX injections (“study completers”) in the parent study. Study completion was associated with superior outcomes and less likely relapse (defined as daily use), with a much greater time to relapse despite higher rates of concurrent non-opioid substance use. However the majority of participants discontinued treatment with XR-NTX at study completion, largely due to attitudes of “feeling cured” and “wanting to do it on my own” rather than external barriers such as cost or side effects.ConclusionPatients who initiate treatment with XR-NTX might benefit from anticipatory guidance and motivational techniques to encourage long-term adherence as many will experience internal barriers to continuation. Our findings are reassuring that few patients experience side effects or adverse events complicating the effectiveness or safety of long-term use of XR-NTX.Scientific SignificanceAmong outpatients who successfully receive 3 monthly XR-NTX injections, many will prematurely discontinue treatment due to internal attitudes, such as “feeling cured.”(Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–7)
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:25:25.693881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12527
  • Hospitalized opioid-dependent patients: Exploring predictors of
           buprenorphine treatment entry and retention after discharge
    • Authors: Christina S. Lee; Jane M. Liebschutz, Bradley J. Anderson, Michael D. Stein
      Abstract: ObjectivesFew studies have explored predictors of entry into and retention in buprenorphine treatment following linkage from an acute medical hospitalization.MethodsThis secondary analysis of a completed clinical trial focuses on medically hospitalized, opioid-dependent patients (n = 72) who were randomized to an intervention including buprenorphine induction and dose stabilization during hospitalization followed by post-discharge transition to office-based buprenorphine treatment (OBOT). Predictors included demographics, days hospitalized, prior buprenorphine/methadone treatment, PTSD symptoms, social support, and readiness for drug use cessation. Outcome variables were treatment entry and retention (number of days in OBOT).ResultsPrevious buprenorphine treatment, more days hospitalized, and higher PTSD symptoms predicted OBOT entry. Prior treatment, older age, and non-minority status were associated with a higher mean number of days in OBOT.ConclusionsOBOT may appeal to patients who have tried buprenorphine in other settings. Linking hospitalized patients to OBOT may improve utilization of addiction treatment.Scientific SignificancePrior substance treatment, longer hospital stay, and mental health should be examined in future linkage studies. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–6)
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T12:06:40.181606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12533
  • (Invited review) genetic research on alcohol use outcomes in African
           American populations: A review of the literature, associated challenges,
           and implications
    • Authors: Danielle M. Dick; Peter Barr, Mignonne Guy, Aashir Nasim, Denise Scott
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesThere have been remarkable advances in understanding genetic influences on complex traits; however, individuals of African descent have been underrepresented in genetic research.MethodsWe review the limitations of existing genetic research on alcohol phenotypes in African Americans (AA) including both twin and gene identification studies, possible reasons for underrepresentation of AAs in genetic research, the implications of the lack of racially diverse samples, and special considerations regarding conducting genetic research in AA populations.ResultsThere is a marked absence of large-scale AA twin studies so little is known about the genetic epidemiology of alcohol use and problems among AAs. Individuals of African descent have also been underrepresented in gene identification efforts; however, there have been recent efforts to enhance representation. It remains unknown the extent to which genetic variants associated with alcohol use outcomes in individuals of European and African descent will be shared. Efforts to increase representation must be accompanied by careful attention to the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetic research. This is particularly true for AAs due to the history of abuse by the biomedical community and the persistent racial discrimination targeting this population.Conclusions and Scientific SignificanceLack of representation in genetic studies limits our understanding of the etiological factors that contribute to substance use and psychiatric outcomes in populations of African descent and has the potential to further perpetuate health disparities. Involving individuals of diverse ancestry in discussions about genetic research will be critical to ensure that all populations benefit equally from genetic advances. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–8)
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T11:20:24.759753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12495
  • Electronic cigarettes and mental illness: Reviewing the evidence for help
           and harm among those with psychiatric and substance use disorders
    • Authors: Kathryn Hefner; Gerald Valentine, Mehmet Sofuoglu
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesAdults with mental illness (MI) use combustible tobacco at increased rates and have greater difficulty quitting smoking. Given the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), their use by those with MI has important health implications. While preliminary evidence suggests potential benefits of e-cigarette use for those with MI, well-controlled, systematic research examining appeal, correlates, and consequences of e-cigarette use in this vulnerable population is lacking. This review evaluated current knowledge of e-cigarette use and potential for help and/or harm among adults with MI.MethodsThe search strategy resulted in k = 88 reports, of which k = 9 were deemed relevant.ResultsE-cigarette use is prevalent among those with MI, as is concurrent use of e-cigarettes and combustibles. E-cigarettes appeal to those with MI as a viable alternative to combustible tobacco, and their use does not appear to exacerbate nicotine addiction or psychiatric symptoms. However, the long-term impact of e-cigarette use on combustible tobacco use and other health indices is largely unknown.Discussion and ConclusionsRigorous research and improved knowledge regarding risks and benefits of e-cigarette use within this vulnerable population are needed to inform whether special consideration is warranted towards those with MI in developing tobacco control policies and health communications. Recommendations for future e-cigarette research include improved assessment of the following: 1) psychodiagnostic variability, 2) flavor preferences, 3) the longitudinal impact on combustible tobacco use, and 4) impact of tobacco product communications.Scientific SignificanceAs with combustible cigarettes, individuals with MI may display unique e-cigarette use patterns from that of the general population. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–10)
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T10:05:56.22276-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12504
  • Environmental influences on alcohol use: Informing research on the joint
           effects of genes and the environment in diverse U.S. populations
    • Authors: Karen G. Chartier; Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, Cory R. Cummings, Kenneth S. Kendler
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesThis review aimed to inform the current state of alcohol research on the joint effects of genes and the environment conducted in U.S. racial/ethnic minority populations, focusing on African Americans, Latinos/Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians.MethodsA key-word and author-based search was conducted and supplemented with direct contact to researchers in this area to ensure a comprehensive inclusion of published, peer-reviewed studies. These studies were considered in terms of the racial/ethnic population groups, phenotypes, genetic variants, and environmental influences covered. Research findings from alcohol epidemiologic studies were highlighted to introduce some potential environmental variables for future studies of gene and environment (G–E) relationships.ResultsTwenty-six (N = 26) studies were reviewed. They predominantly involved African American and Asian samples and had a very limited focus on Latinos/Hispanics and American Indians. There was a wide range of alcohol-related phenotypes examined, and studies almost exclusively used a candidate gene approach. Environmental influences focused on the most proximate social network relationships with family and peers. There was far less examination of community- and societal-level environmental influences on drinking. Epidemiologic studies informing the selection of potential environmental factors at these higher order levels suggest inclusion of indicators of drinking norms, alcohol availability, socioeconomic disadvantage, and unfair treatment.ConclusionsThe review of current literature identified a critical gap in the study of environments: There is the need to study exposures at community and societal levels.Scientific SignificanceThese initial studies provide an important foundation for evolving the dialogue and generating other investigations of G–E relationships in diverse racial/ethnic groups. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–15)
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T11:55:26.080404-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12478
  • Use of Asian samples in genetic research of alcohol use disorders: Genetic
    • Authors: Sachio Matsushita; Susumu Higuchi
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesEpidemiological studies consistently find that Asian populations report lower rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) compared with other racial groups. These differences result from a variety of biological, genetic, and environmental influences, some of which are related to the metabolism of alcohol. We will review several studies of these metabolic factors, including several alcohol clamping studies conducted in our laboratory, that provide further insight into the role of the alcohol metabolizing genes and drinking behavior among Japanese drinkers.MethodsThis manuscript reviewed studies investigating genetic variations of alcohol metabolizing enzymes among Asians and several mechanisms by which these genes are thought to give rise to differences in rates of alcohol dependence.ResultsThe inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and highly active alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) genes are protective factors for the development of AUD. The inactive ALDH2 provides its protective effect through the accumulation of acetaldehyde after consuming alcohol, resulting in unpleasant effects, and heightened sensitivity to alcohol. However, the suppressive effects of inactive ALDH2 and highly active ADH1B for AUDs are only partial and interact with other factors, such as personality traits, psychiatric comorbidities, and environmental factors.Discussion and ConclusionsWhile Asians are excellent models for the study of certain genetic effects on the development and consequences of AUD, few clinical studies of this population have been conducted. Further exploration of the interactions between various genetic, individual, and environmental factors influencing drinking behavior and, thus affecting the risk of AUD, would enhance our understanding of how alcohol-related problems develop.Scientific SignificanceThe heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 genotype has only partial effects on limiting drinking behavior, suggesting the potential interaction with other factors. Therefore AUD patients with inactive ALDH2 may be a useful model to identify and to test a variety of other risk factors of AUD. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1–8)
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T06:05:39.520792-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12477
  • Review: Pharmacogenetics of alcoholism treatment: Implications of ethnic
    • Authors: Anita Cservenka; Megan M. Yardley, Lara A. Ray
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesPharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing pharmacogenetic studies of treatments for AUD in individuals of European, East Asian, African, and American Indian/Alaska Native ancestry.MethodsElectronic databases were searched for pharmacogenetic studies of AUD treatment that included individuals of diverse ancestral backgrounds.ResultsPharmacogenetic studies of AUD reviewed here have primarily investigated genetic variation thought to play a role in the response to naltrexone, ondansetron, and topiramate. There is support that the A118G polymorphism should be further investigated in individuals of East Asian ancestry.Discussion and ConclusionsGiven the lack of pharmacogenetic research on response to AUD medication in ethnic minority populations and the mixed results, there is a critical need for future studies among individuals of different ancestries. More efforts should be devoted to standardizing procedures such that results can be more readily integrated into a body of literature that can directly inform clinical practice.Scientific SignificanceThis review highlights the importance for future research to aim for inclusiveness in pharmacogenetic studies of AUD and increase diversity of clinical trials in order to provide the best treatment outcomes for individuals across different racial and ethnic groups. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1–10)
      PubDate: 2016-11-04T10:25:49.904374-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12463
  • A review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of addictions in US
           ethnic/racial groups: Implications for genetic research
    • Authors: Susan E. Luczak; Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L. Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesWe conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions.MethodsWe utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available.ResultsThis review indicates very little research has examined the interrelationships of addictive behaviors among US ethnic groups. The studies that exist have focused nearly exclusively on comorbidity of substances and gambling behaviors. Overall findings suggest differences among US ethnic groups in prevalence of addictions and in prevalence of addiction among those who use substances or engage in gambling. Almost no ethnic group comparisons of other addictive behaviors including eating/food, internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping were identified in the literature.ConclusionsDespite large-scale research efforts to examine alcohol and substance use disorders in the United States, few studies have been published that examine these addictive behaviors among ethnic groups, and even fewer examine co-occurrence and comorbidity with other addictions.Scientific SignificanceEven with the limited studies, these findings have implications for genetic research on addictive behaviors. We include a discussion of these implications, including issues of population stratification, disaggregation, admixture, and the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in understanding the etiology and treatment of addictions. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1–13)
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T08:40:25.024813-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12464
  • DNA methylation and alcohol use disorders: Progress and challenges
    • Authors: Huiping Zhang; Joel Gelernter
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesRisk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is influenced by gene–environment interactions. Environmental factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review outlines the findings regarding the association of DNA methylation and AUDs.MethodsWe searched PubMed (by April 2016) and identified 29 studies that examined the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. We also evaluated the methods used in these studies.ResultsTwo studies demonstrated elevated global (repetitive element) DNA methylation levels in AUD subjects. Fifteen candidate gene studies showed hypermethylation of promoter regions of six genes (AVP, DNMT3B, HERP, HTR3A, OPRM1, and SNCA) or hypomethylation of the GDAP1 promoter region in AUD subjects. Five genome-wide DNA methylation studies demonstrated widespread DNA methylation changes across the genome in AUD subjects. Six studies showed significant correlations of DNA methylation with gene expression in AUD subjects. Three studies revealed interactive effects of genetic variation and DNA methylation on susceptibility to AUDs. Most studies analyzed AUD-associated DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood; a few studies examined DNA methylation changes in postmortem brains of AUD subjects.Discussion and ConclusionsChronic alcohol consumption may result in DNA methylation changes, leading to neuroadaptations that may underlie some of the mechanisms of AUD risk and persistence. Future studies are needed to confirm the few existing results, and then to elucidate whether DNA methylation changes are the cause or consequence of AUDs.Scientific SignificanceDNA methylation profiles may be used to assess AUD status or monitor AUD treatment response. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1–14)
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T08:35:22.395182-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12465
  • Differences between White and Black young women in the relationship
           between religious service attendance and alcohol involvement
    • Authors: Arpana Agrawal; Julia D. Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A.F. Madden, Andrew C. Heath, Kathleen K. Bucholz, Carolyn E. Sartor
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesWe examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association.MethodsData on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18–29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study. Significant correlations between C-RA or A-RA and alcohol involvement were parsed into their additive genetic, shared environmental, and individual-specific environmental sources.ResultsC-RA was associated with ever drinking and timing of first alcohol use in Whites. A-RA was associated with ever drinking and AUD in both Whites and Blacks. Shared environmental influences did not contribute to alcohol or religiosity phenotypes in Blacks. In Whites, the association between C-RA and alcohol was due to shared environmental influences, whereas the association between A-RA and alcohol was attributable to additive genetic, shared environmental, and individual-specific environmental sources. Individual-specific environment and genetics contributed to associations between A-RA and ever drinking and AUD, respectively, in Blacks.ConclusionsFactors other than C-RA contribute to lower rates of alcohol involvement in Blacks. Shared environment does not contribute to links between A-RA and alcohol involvement in Blacks.Scientific SignificanceThe protective impact of childhood religiosity on alcohol use and misuse is important in Whites and is due to familial factors shared by religiosity and alcohol involvement. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1–9)
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T10:55:26.447112-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12462
  • Genetic and environmental risk factors for alcohol use disorders in
           American Indians and Alaskan Natives
    • Authors: Mary-Anne Enoch; Bernard J. Albaugh
      Abstract: Background and ObjectivesGenetic and environmental predictors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) are both important in the general population. As a group, American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals (AI/AN) are at increased risk for alcohol-related morbidity /mortality, early onset problem drinking and AUD.MethodsAlcohol consumption behaviors amongst AI/AN tribes, environmental stressors and genetic studies in AI/AN and European-ancestry individuals are reviewed followed by an analysis of unique difficulties for undertaking research with AI/AN.ResultsSome AI/AN tribes have high rates of childhood trauma that predict psychopathology including AUD. The deleterious effects of historical trauma and forced placement in boarding schools cross generations to the present day. There are scanty numbers of genetic studies of AUD in AI/AN and these derive from only a few tribes. However, it is important to note that the results are largely similar to findings in European-ancestry individuals indicating that AI/AN do not have increased genetic risk for AUD. Conducting AI/AN genetic studies has been challenging, in part because of tribe disillusionment and mistrust over past experiences and unique hurdles in getting consent from tribes, each a sovereign nation. However, it is encouraging that a new way forward has been established—community-based participatory research with tangible health benefits and a focus on strength-based approaches.Conclusions and Scientific SignificanceGiven the high prevalence of AUD in many AI/AN tribes and limited knowledge about genetic risk-resilience factors, it is important for our understanding of prevention and treatment that AI/AN research progresses and that more tribes are represented. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1–8)
      PubDate: 2016-09-06T10:00:24.549479-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12420
  • Investigating the association between strategic and pathological gambling
           behaviors and substance use in youth: Could religious faith play a
           differential role'
    • Abstract: ObjectivesThis study investigated the link between gambling behaviors and the use of alcohol, drugs, and nonprescribed prescription medications, while exploring the moderating role of distinct religious faiths.MethodsIn 2010, 570 students from the American University of Beirut completed a self-reported, anonymous English questionnaire, which included lifetime gambling and past-year substance use measures.ResultsHalf (55%) were lifetime gamblers, of whom, 12% were probable pathological gamblers. About 60% were strategic gamblers. Lifetime gamblers were more than twice as likely as nongamblers to report past-year illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Probable pathological gamblers were also more than four times as likely as nongamblers to report nonmedical prescription drug use, illegal drug use, and alcohol abuse. Compared to nonstrategic gamblers, strategic gamblers had more than three times the odds of illegal drug and cigarette use. The link between alcohol abuse and gambling was stronger among Christians than Muslims. Conversely, Muslims were more likely to report the co-occurrence of various gambling behaviors (lifetime, probable pathological, and strategic gambling) with both illegal drug use and cigarette use.ConclusionsGambling and substance use behaviors were strongly linked in this sample of youth from Lebanon, corroborating the evidence from North America. Particularly novel are the co-occurrence of pathological gambling and nonmedical prescription drug use and the potential differential role of religion. (Am J Addict 2013;XX:1–8)
  • Relationship between Motor Threshold and Externalizing Symptoms in
           Subjects at High Risk for Alcohol Dependence: A TMS Study
  • Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse edited by
           John Brick, PhD
  • Women and Addiction: A Comprehensive Textbook edited by Kathleen T. Brady,
           Sudie E. Back, Shelly F. Greenfield
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  • Interaction between ADH1B*3 and alcohol-facilitating social environments
           in alcohol behaviors among college students of african descent
    • Abstract: Background and ObjectivesAlthough alcohol-facilitating social environmental factors, such as alcohol offers and high perceived peer drinking norms, have been extensively studied as determinants of college drinking, their role among college students of African descent remains understudied. Furthermore, gene-environment interaction research suggests that the effects of alcohol-facilitating environments may differ as a function of genetic factors. Specifically, the alcohol dehydrogenase gene's ADH1B*3 allele, found almost exclusively in persons of African descent, may modulate the association of risky social environments with alcohol behaviors. The current study examined whether the ADH1B*3 allele attenuated the relationship between alcohol-facilitating environments (ie, alcohol offers and perceived peer drinking norms) and alcohol behaviors.MethodParticipants were 241 undergraduate students who self-identified as being of African descent (mean age = 20 years [SD = 4.11]; 66% female).ResultsSignificant interaction effects of ADH1B*3 with alcohol offers were found on alcohol use frequency (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.14) and on drinking consequences (IRR = 1.21). ADH1B*3 also interacted with perceived peer norms on drinking consequences (IRR = 1.41). Carriers of the ADH1B*3 allele drank less frequently and experienced fewer negative consequences than non-carriers when exposed to lower levels of alcohol offers and perceived peer drinking. In contrast, in high alcohol-facilitating environments, no protective genetic effect was observed.Discussion and ConclusionThis study demonstrates that ADH1B*3 may protect college students of African descent against alcohol outcomes, although only in low alcohol-facilitating environments.Scientific SignificanceFindings add to the growing body of knowledge regarding genetic and social determinants of alcohol behaviors among college students of African descent. (Am J Addict 2017;26:349–356)
  • Neuropsychological functioning in college students who misuse prescription
    • Abstract: Background and ObjectivesRelatively little is known about the neuropsychological profiles of college students who misuse prescription stimulant medications.MethodsData presented are from college students aged 18–28 years who misused prescription stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and controls (no prescription stimulant misuse). Students were assessed neuropsychologically using the self-report Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A), the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test and Battery (CANTAB), and other tests of cognitive functioning. The analyses included 198 controls (age 20.7 ± 2.6 years) and 100 prescription stimulant misusers (age 20.7 ± 1.7 years).ResultsOn the BRIEF-A, misusers were more likely than controls to endorse greater dysfunction on 8 of 12 measures including Inhibition, Self Monitor, Initiation, Working Memory, and Plan/Organize, when adjusting for race and sex (all p's 
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  • Three-year retention in buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder
           nationally in the Veterans Health Administration
    • Abstract: BackgroundBuprenorphine has become the major treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) but data on long treatment term retention and its correlates are sparse.MethodsAll veterans with OUD treated in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities nationally in fiscal year (FY) 2012, and who began treatment with buprenorphine as indicated by a first prescription after the first 60 days of the year were identified with the date of and their last prescription from FY 2012–2015. Veterans were classified into four groups based on time from first to last prescription: (0–30 days, 31–365 days; 1–3 years; and more than 3 years). These groups were compared on socio-demographic, diagnoses and service, and psychotropic drug use. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify variables independently associated with retention in buprenorphine treatment.ResultsVeterans newly started on buprenorphine (n = 3,151) were retained in treatment for a mean duration of 1.68 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.23), with 61.60% (n = 1,941) retained for more than a year and 31.83% (n = 1,003) for more than 3 years. Cox proportion hazards model showed that only black race (Hazards ratio [HR] 1.26; standard error [SE] .06; p.0003), the Charlson index (HR 1.03; SE .01; p.0132) and emergency room visits during FY 2012 (HR 1.03; SE .01; p 
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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