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Pacific Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.785, h-index: 16)
Pacific Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 4)
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.317, h-index: 12)
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.966, h-index: 69)
Packaging Technology and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.463, h-index: 24)
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 54)
Pain Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 48)
Pain Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 25)
Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 36)
PAMM : Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Free  
Papers In Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.315, h-index: 29)
Parasite Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 51)
Parliamentary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 2)
Particle & Particle Systems Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.255, h-index: 26)
Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal  
Pathology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.657, h-index: 48)
Peace & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.295, h-index: 56)
Pediatric Anesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.994, h-index: 47)
Pediatric Blood & Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.952, h-index: 60)
Pediatric Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.57, h-index: 44)
Pediatric Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 36)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.156, h-index: 26)
Pediatric Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 72)
Pediatric Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.557, h-index: 45)
Pediatrics Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 38)
Performance Improvement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Performance Improvement Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.281, h-index: 5)
Periodontology 2000     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.112, h-index: 66)
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 42)
Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 41)
Personality and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.339, h-index: 71)
Perspectives In Psychiatric Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.431, h-index: 18)
Perspectives On Sexual and Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 60)
Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 6)
Pest Management Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 64)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 16)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 50)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacotherapy The J. of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 71)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 9)
Philosophical Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Philosophical Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Philosophical Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 1)
Philosophical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Philosophy & Public Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 25)
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.852, h-index: 8)
Philosophy Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
Photochemistry and Photobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 86)
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.694, h-index: 39)
Phycological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
physica status solidi (a)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.788, h-index: 67)
physica status solidi (b)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.775, h-index: 65)
physica status solidi (c)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 27)
Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 27)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal  
Physik J.     Hybrid Journal  
Physiologia Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 87)
Physiological Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, h-index: 35)
Physiological Reports     Open Access  
Physiotherapy Research Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 28)
Phytochemical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.703, h-index: 39)
Phytotherapy Research     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.718, h-index: 65)
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.86, h-index: 63)
Plant Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 47)
Plant Breeding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.625, h-index: 43)
Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.997, h-index: 44)
Plant Species Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.36, h-index: 25)
Plant, Cell & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.158, h-index: 112)
Plasma Processes and Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.124, h-index: 34)
Poe Studies     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
POLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.147, h-index: 1)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Policy Studies J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 25)
Political Insight     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 40)
Political Science Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 23)
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 36)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 10)
Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.438, h-index: 9)
Politics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 5)
Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 49)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 70)
Polymer Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.717, h-index: 61)
Polymers for Advanced Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.617, h-index: 51)
Population and Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.084, h-index: 50)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.42, h-index: 28)
Poverty & Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Practical Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Development in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Prenatal Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 64)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Presidential Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preventive Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (hardback)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 14)
Process Safety Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 20)
Production and Operations Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.479, h-index: 57)
Progress In Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Phytotherapy Research
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0951-418X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1573
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1603 journals]   [SJR: 0.718]   [H-I: 65]
  • Effect of Kuwanon G Isolated from the Root Bark of Morus alba on
           Ovalbumin‐induced Allergic Response in a Mouse Model of Asthma
    • Authors: Hyo Won Jung; Seok Yong Kang, Jong Seong Kang, A Ryun Kim, Eun‐Rhan Woo, Yong‐Ki Park
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)‐induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7 days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA‐specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL‐4, IL‐5, and IL‐13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA‐specific IgE and IL‐4, IL‐5, and IL‐13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-13T06:05:25.635971-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5191
  • Alkali‐Soluble Polysaccharide, Isolated from Lentinus edodes,
           Induces Apoptosis and G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in H22 Cells Through
           Microtubule Depolymerization
    • Authors: Ru‐xu You; Jin‐yu Liu, Shi‐jun Li, Liu Wang, Kai‐ping Wang, Yu Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the pro‐apoptotic effects of polysaccharides derived from Lentinus edodes and further elucidated the mechanisms of this action. Our results demonstrated that marked morphological changes of apoptosis were observed after treatment of L. edodes polysaccharides [Lentinan (LTN)]. Moreover, LTN‐induced cell apoptosis was characterized by a rapid stimulation of reactive oxygen species production, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in intracellular concentration of Ca2+. In addition, the results of the haematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL assay further confirmed that LTN‐induced apoptosis in vivo. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that LTN could arrest the cell cycle at G2/M phase, and immunofluorescence showed LTN caused disruption of microtubule. These results suggest that disruption of cellular microtubule network, arrest of the cell cycle at G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis may be one of the possible mechanisms of anti‐tumour effect of LTN. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T06:28:19.018762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5209
  • Antiinflammatory Properties of the Stem‐bark of Anopyxis klaineana
           and its Major Constituent, Methyl Angolensate
    • Authors: Evelyn A. Mireku; Abraham Y. Mensah, Merlin L. K. Mensah, Derek A. Tocher, Solomon Habtemariam
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl. (Rhizophoraceae) is one of the reputed West African folkloric medicines that has never been investigated for its pharmacological effects or phytochemical constituents. In the present study, the antiinflammatory properties of the stem‐bark extracts were evaluated using the carrageenan‐induced paw oedema model in chicks. The petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts all showed a time and dose‐dependent antiinflammatory effect over the 5‐h observation period. Phytochemical analysis of the most active extract (methanol extract) yielded the principal constituent that was identified as methyl angolensate through extensive spectroscopic and X‐ray analysis studies. Although slightly less potent (ED50, 4.05 ± 0.0034 mg/kg, orally) than the positive control, diclofenac (ED50, 2.49 ± 0.023, intraperitoneally n = 5), this first ever compound isolated from A. klaineana showed promising antiinflammatory activity that may account to some of the reported medicinal uses of the plant. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T05:59:44.307133-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5212
  • Gallic Acid Regulates Skin Photoaging in UVB‐exposed Fibroblast and
           Hairless Mice
    • Authors: Eunson Hwang; Sang‐Yong Park, Hyun Ji Lee, Tae Youp Lee, Zheng‐wang Sun, Tae Hoo Yi
      Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary factor in skin photoaging, which is characterized by wrinkle formation, dryness, and thickening. The mechanisms underlying skin photoaging are closely associated with degradation of collagen via upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, which is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic compound, possesses a variety of biological activities including antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. We investigated the protective effects of GA against photoaging caused by UVB irradiation using normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) in vitro and hairless mice in vivo. The production levels of ROS, interlukin‐6, and MMP‐1 were significantly suppressed, and type I procollagen expression was stimulated in UVB‐irradiated and GA‐treated NHDFs. GA treatment inhibited the activity of transcription factor activation protein 1. The effects of GA following topical application and dietary administration were examined by measuring wrinkle formation, histological modification, protein expression, and physiological changes such as stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema index. We found that GA decreased dryness, skin thickness, and wrinkle formation via negative modulation of MMP‐1 secretion and positive regulation of elastin, type I procollagen, and transforming growth factor‐β1. Our data indicate that GA is a potential candidate for the prevention of UVB‐induced premature skin aging. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T01:33:04.742814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5198
  • Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. as an Adjuvant Treatment for Type‐2
           Diabetes Mellitus: A non‐Controlled, Pilot Study
    • Authors: Débora Simone Sales; Fabio Carmona, Bruna Cestari Azevedo, Silvia Helena Taleb‐Contini, Ana Carolina Duó Bartolomeu, Fernando B. Honorato, Edson Z. Martinez, Ana Maria Soares Pereira
      Abstract: Type‐2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent disease with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. However, there is no universally effective treatment, because response to different treatment regimens can vary widely among patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the use of the powdered dried leaves of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae) is effective as an adjuvant to the treatment of patients with type‐2 DM. Fifteen patients were enrolled in a pilot, non‐controlled study, and received E. punicifolia for 3 months. After treatment, we observed a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, thyroid‐stimulating hormone, C‐reactive protein, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There were no changes in fasting and postprandial glycemia. The compounds myricetin‐3‐O‐rhamnoside, quercetin‐3‐O‐galactoside, quercetin‐3‐O‐xyloside, quercetin‐3‐O‐rhamnoside, kaempferol‐3‐O‐rhamnoside, phytol, gallic acid, and trans‐caryophyllene present in the powdered dried leaves of E. punicifolia may be responsible for the therapeutic effect. In conclusion, the powdered leaves of E. punicifolia are promising as an adjuvant in the treatment of type‐2 DM and deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T07:40:47.985891-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5206
  • Lipid‐Lowering Effects of Curcumin in Patients with Metabolic
           Syndrome: A Randomized, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Yi‐Sun Yang; Ying‐Fang Su, Hui‐Wen Yang, Yu‐Hsien Lee, Janet I. Chou, Kwo‐Chang Ueng
      Abstract: Human studies of curcumin extract on lipid‐lowering effect have not been completely investigated and have had controversy results. This study tested the effect of daily curcumin extract for 12 weeks on weight, glucose, and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. Sixty‐five patients were randomized into two groups; 33 patients taking curcumin extract capsule (630 mg thrice daily) and 32 patients taking a placebo capsule thrice daily for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks after the curcumin extract consumption, the level of high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C) significantly increased from 40.96 ± 8.59 to 43.76 ± 2.79 mg/dL (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T07:35:50.344871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5197
  • Effects of Smilaxchinoside A and Smilaxchinoside C, Two Steroidal
           Glycosides from Smilax riparia, on Hyperuricemia in a Mouse Model
    • Authors: Xiao‐Hui Wu; Chong‐Zhi Wang, Jun Zhang, Shu‐Qing Wang, Lide Han, Yan‐Wen Zhang, Chun‐Su Yuan
      Abstract: The roots and rhizomes of Smilax riparia, called ‘Niu‐Wei‐Cai’ in traditional Chinese medicine, are believed to be effective in treating the symptoms of gout. However, the active constituents and their uricosuric mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we isolated two steroidal glycosides, named smilaxchinoside A and smilaxchinoside C, from the total saponins obtained from the ethanol extract of the roots of S. riparia. We then examined if these two compounds were effective in reducing serum uric acid levels in a hyperuricemic mouse model induced by potassium oxonate. We observed that these two steroidal glycosides possess potent uricosuric activities, and the observed effects accompanied the reduction of renal mURAT1 and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase, which contribute to the enhancement of uric acid excretion and the reduction of hyperuricemia‐induced renal dysfunction. Smilaxchinoside A and smilaxchinoside C may have a clinical utility in treating gout and other medical conditions caused by hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T00:13:47.100955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5207
  • Investigation of the Efficacy of Adjunctive Therapy with
           Bioavailability‐Boosted Curcuminoids in Major Depressive Disorder
    • Authors: Yunes Panahi; Roghayeh Badeli, Nima Karami, Amirhossein Sahebkar
      Abstract: Current medications have limited efficacy in controlling the symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), and are associated with several adverse events on long‐term use. Curcuminoids are extremely safe and multifunctional phytopharmaceuticals that have been shown to alleviate depressive symptoms in a variety of experimental models. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of curcuminoids as an add‐on to standard antidepressants in patients with MDD. One hundred and eleven subjects were assigned to standard antidepressive therapy plus curcuminoids–piperine combination (1000–10 mg/day; n = 61) or standard antidepressive therapy alone (n = 50) for a period of 6 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in the psychological status on the basis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI‐II). The BDI‐II and HADS total and subscale scores were reduced by the end of trial in both study groups. There were significantly greater reductions in total HADS score and subscales of anxiety and depression in the curcuminoids versus control group (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T06:26:29.744501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5211
  • Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila
           melanogaster Parkinson's Disease Model
    • Authors: R. L. M. Jansen; B. Brogan, A. J. Whitworth, E. J. Okello
      Abstract: Current conventional treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin‐induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild‐type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-04T06:01:37.095359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5199
  • The Protective Effects of a Polyphenol‐Enriched Protein Powder on
           Exercise‐Induced Susceptibility to Virus Infection
    • Authors: Maryam Ahmed; Dru A. Henson, Matthew C. Sanderson, David C. Nieman, Nicholas D. Gillitt, Mary Ann Lila
      Abstract: Prolonged and intensive exercise induces transient immunosuppression and is associated with an increased risk and severity of infections. The goal of this study was to characterize the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of a blueberry–green tea‐polyphenol soy protein complex (PSPC) in the serum of supplemented subjects during a 3‐day intensified training period. Long‐distance runners, randomly divided into two groups, ingested 40 g/day PSPC or placebo (soy protein and colorings) for 17 days, with a 3‐day running period inserted at day 14. Blood serum samples were collected pre‐14 days and post‐14 days supplementation, and immediately and 14 h after the third day of running. The post‐exercise serum from both groups significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in culture by 20–70%, but returned to normal levels following recovery. Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting PSPC did not display antibacterial properties at any time point. In contrast, there was a significant difference in the ability of serum from PSPC‐supplemented versus placebo‐supplemented athletes to protect cells in culture from killing by vesicular stomatitis virus following strenuous exercise. In addition, the serum of subjects who ingested PSPC significantly delayed an exercise‐induced increase in virus replication. These results indicate that polyphenol complexes containing blueberry and green tea have the potential to protect athletes from virus infections following rigorous exercise. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-02T03:21:43.671858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5208
  • Involvement of Cerebral Nervous System Areas and Cytokines on
           Antihyperalgesic and Anti‐Inflammatory Activities of Kielmeyera
           rugosa Choisy (Calophyllaceae) in Rodents
    • Authors: M.S. Melo; R.G. Brito, P.L. Santos, P.C.L. Nogueira, V.R.S. Moraes, M.C.P. Matos, J.N.S. Ferro, E.O. Barreto, W. Lucca Junior, M.A. Botelho, L.J. Quintans Junior
      Abstract: Kielmeyera rugosa is a medicinal plant known in Northeastern Brazil as ‘pau‐santo’, and it is used in the treatment of several tropical diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. We evaluated antihyperalgesic and anti‐inflammatory activities of methanol stem extract of K. rugosa (MEKR) in mice. The mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan and tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α), prostaglandin E2, and dopamine were assessed. We also investigated the anti‐inflammatory effect of MEKR on carrageenan‐induced pleurisy and paw edema. Ninety minutes after the treatment, the animals were submitted to an imunofluorescence for Fos protein. MEKR (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg; p.o.) inhibited the development of mechanical hypernociception and edema. MEKR significantly decreased TNF‐α and interleukin 1β levels in pleural lavage and suppressed the recruitment of leukocytes. MEKR (1, 10, and 100 mg/mL) did not produce cytotoxicity, determined using the methyl‐thiazolyl‐tetrazolium assay in vitro. The locomotor activity was not affected. MEKR activated significantly the bulb olfactory, piriform cortex, and periaqueductal gray of the central nervous system. Our results provide first time evidence to propose that MEKR attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammation, in part, through an activation of central nervous system areas, mainly the periaqueductal gray and piriform cortex areas. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-02T01:46:38.761566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5205
  • Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Extract on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in
           Adolescent Female Rats
    • Authors: Ji Young Kim; Jeong‐Il Lee, MiKyung Song, Donghun Lee, Jungbin Song, Soo Young Kim, Juyeon Park, Ho‐Young Choi, Hocheol Kim
      Abstract: Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP‐2) and insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice‐daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP‐2 and IGF‐1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP‐2 and IGF‐1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP‐2 and IGF‐1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-02T00:34:35.834751-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5195
  • Review of the Botanical Characteristics, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology
           of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi)
    • Authors: Juan Fu; Zenghui Wang, Linfang Huang, Sihao Zheng, Dongmei Wang, Shilin Chen, Haitao Zhang, Shihai Yang
      Abstract: Astragalus membranaceus is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. It is used as immune stimulant, tonic, antioxidant, hepatoprotectant, diuretic, antidiabetic, anticancer, and expectorant. The current paper reviews the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragali Radix. Information on Astragali Radix was gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Medline Plus, CNKI, and Web of Science) as well as from libraries and local books. More than 100 compounds, including flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, and amino acids, have so far been identified, and the various biological activities of the compounds have been reported. As an important traditional Chinese medicine, further studies on Astragali Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapies for various diseases. The improvement of its utilization should be studied further. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01T23:09:05.80425-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5188
  • Apple Polyphenol Extracts Protect Against Aspirin‐induced Gastric
           Mucosal Damage in Rats
    • Authors: Gunaranjan Paturi; Christine A. Butts, Kerry L. Bentley‐Hewitt, Tony K. McGhie, Zaid S. Saleh, Andrew McLeod
      Abstract: The protective role of two apple polyphenol extracts, Douglas‐FB (FB) and Douglas‐EF (EF), on gastric mucosal damage following aspirin ingestion was investigated in healthy rats. Polyphenol content of the apple extracts varied, with the EF extract having 20% w/w polyphenols and a high proportion of flavanols as epicatechin and procyanidin, whereas the FB extract comprised 12% w/w polyphenols, which were mostly flavonols as quercetin glycosides. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated to control, FB and EF groups and fed the experimental diet during the 10‐day trial. Control treatment rats received 1 mL of deionised water, whereas apple polyphenol treatment group rats, FB and EF received a concentration of 10−2 m polyphenols in 1 mL deionised water daily via oral gavage. At the end of 10‐day feeding period, rats were fasted overnight, and the following morning, aspirin (200 mg/kg) was given by oral gavage. Four hours after aspirin administration, the animals were euthanised, and samples taken for analysis. Both apple polyphenol extracts significantly reduced the ulcer area, ulcer lesion index and gastric injury score. The glutathione in gastric mucosa was increased significantly in rats given FB apple extract. Despite their different polyphenol compositions, FB and EF apple extracts assisted in protecting the gastric mucosa following acute aspirin administration in rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T06:20:14.25098-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5210
  • Phytochemistry and Antileishmanial Activity of the Leaf Latex of Aloe
           calidophila Reynolds
    • Authors: Fetene Abeje; Daniel Bisrat, Asrat Hailu, Kaleab Asres
      Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a major protozoal disease threatening the lives of 350 million people throughout the world. However, the therapeutic options for the disease are limited. In the present study, the antiprotozoal activity of the latex obtained from the Ethiopian plant Aloe calidophila Reynolds was evaluated by in vitro testing against Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania major. It was found that the latex possesses moderate activity against both parasites with IC50 values of 64.05 and 82.29 µg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical investigation resulted in the isolation of three anthrones identified as aloinoside, aloin, and microdontin on the basis of IR, MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectral data. The isolated compounds showed strong antileishmanial activity with IC50 values ranging from 1.76 to 6.32 µg/mL against L. aethiopica and from 2.09 to 8.85 µg/mL against L. major. Although these values were higher than those of amphotericin B (IC50 = 0.109 and 0.067 µg/mL), the selectivity indices (813.35 and 694.90, respectively, against L. aethiopica and L. major) of aloinoside were much better than those of the standard drug (423.49 and 688.96). The results indicate that the isolated compounds have the potential to be used as a scaffold for the development of safe and cost‐effective antileishmanial agents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T05:29:48.454181-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5204
  • A Chemically Standardized Extract of Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube)
           Stimulates Expressions of Neurotrophic Factors and Anti‐oxidant
           Enzymes in Cultured Astrocytes
    • Authors: Jianping Chen; Artemis L. Yan, Kelly Y. C. Lam, Candy T. W. Lam, Ning Li, Ping Yao, Aizhen Xiong, Tina T. X. Dong, Karl W. K. Tsim
      Abstract: The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., known as jujube or Chinese date, is commonly consumed as a health supplement worldwide. To study the role of jujube in brain benefits, the expression of neurotrophic factors and anti‐oxidant enzymes in the jujube‐treated cultured astrocytes was determined. Application of a chemical standardized water extract of jujube in cultured astrocytes for 24 h stimulated the expressions of nerve growth factor, brain‐derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line‐derived neurotrophic factor in a concentration‐dependent manner. The pre‐treatment with H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, attenuated the jujube‐induced expression of neurotrophic factors. In parallel, the treatment of jujube water extract induced the transcriptional expressions of the enzymes responsible for anti‐oxidation, i.e. NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1, glutamate‐cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate‐cysteine ligase modifier subunit and glutathione S‐transferase, in a concentration‐dependent manner. These results proposed the benefits of jujube in regulating expressions of neurotrophic factors and anti‐oxidant enzymes in cultured astrocytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28T05:21:06.635852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5202
  • Anti‐inflammatory Effects of Ginsenosides Rg5, Rz1, and Rk1:
           Inhibition of TNF‐α‐induced NF‐κB,
           COX‐2, and iNOS transcriptional expression
    • Authors: Sang Myung Lee
      Abstract: In the course of this experiment on the anti‐inflammatory effect of ginsenosides, protopanaxdiol ginsenosides have shown inhibition activities in inflammatory responses: NF‐κB, COX‐2, and iNOS were induced by TNF‐α. The responses of this experiment were evaluated by NF‐κB‐luciferase assay and RT‐PCR experiment of COX‐2 and iNOS genes. The NF‐κB expressions were inhibited by ginsenosides Rd, Rg5, Rz1, and Rk1 in a dose‐dependent manner. The IC50 values were 3.47, 0.61, 0.63, and 0.75 μM, respectively. Particularly, ginsenosides Rg5, Rz1, and Rk1 as converted ginsenosides from primary protopanaxdiol ginsenosidess significantly inhibited COX‐2 and iNOS gene expression. These inhibition levels were similar to sulfasalazine as reference material. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20T23:19:11.100975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5203
  • Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunological Effects of Carum copticum
           L. and Some of Its Constituents
    • Authors: Azam Alavinezhad; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
      Abstract: Carum copticum L. has been used traditionally for its various therapeutic effects. The plant contains various components such as thymol and carvacrol. Different therapeutic effects such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antilipidemic were described for the plant and its constituents. Therefore, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects of C. copticum and its constituents, thymol and carvacrol, were discussed in the present review. Previous studies have shown potent antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects for C. copticum and its constituents, thymol and carvacrol. Therefore, the plant and its constituents have therapeutic values in several inflammatory and immunological disorders as well as in the oxidative stress conditions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20T22:11:24.051702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5200
  • Evaluation of the Effect of Curcumin Capsules on Glyburide Therapy in
           Patients with Type‐2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Authors: Prasad Neerati; Raju Devde, Anil Kumar Gangi
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess the possible beneficial effects of curcumin capsules as lipid‐lowering effects and as a permeability glycoprotein (P‐gp) inhibitor on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glyburide and as a P‐gp substrate with glyburide in patients with type‐2 diabetes mellitus. Open‐label, randomized control trial was carried out for 11 days on eight type‐2 diabetic patients on glyburide therapy. On the first day of the study, following the administration of 5 mg of glyburide, blood samples were collected from the patients at various time intervals ranging from 0.5 to 24 h. Blood sampling was repeated on the 11th day of the study, after treating the patients with curcumin for ten consecutive days. Glyburide concentrations changed at the second hour, Cmax was unchanged, the glucose levels were decreased, Area Under first Movement Curre (AUMC) was increased, and no patient has experienced the hypoglycaemia. The low‐density lipoprotein, very‐low‐density lipoprotein and triglycerides were decreased significantly, and the high‐density lipoprotein content increased. The co‐administration of curcumin capsules with glyburide may be beneficial to the patients in better glycaemic control. The lipid lowering and antidiabetic properties of the curcumin show as a potential future drug molecule. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-07-17T02:42:15.002799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5201
  • A Pilot Study on the Effectiveness of a Rose Hip Shell Powder in Patients
           Suffering from Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain
    • Authors: S. Chrubasik‐Hausmann; C. Chrubasik, E. Neumann, U. Müller‐Ladner
      Abstract: We carried out a 3‐month preliminary investigation on the effectiveness of a rose hip shell powder and its mechanism of action. Of 52 patients suffering from acute exacerbations of low back pain (n = 39) or knee pain (n = 13), 29 had participated earlier in the pilot study with the pseudofruit powder Litozin®. After assessing the baseline values, patients were offered up to 20 g of a rose hip shell powder per day. Patients were encouraged to adjust the daily dose upwards or downwards according to their symptoms for the period of 3 months. The examination for possible effectiveness was by intention‐to‐treat analysis with last observation carried forward. There was no difference in any generic or disease‐specific outcome variables between the patients consuming the rose hip shell powder and those consuming the pseudofruit powder Litozin® in the previous surveillance study. A human protein array system and fractions from the rose powders were used to study their effect on cytokine expression in vitro. The data indicate that lipophilic rose hip fractions from the shell and the pseudofruit inhibit cytokine expression and that the shell powder may be the better starting material for a future rose hip extract prepared with a lipophilic solvent. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-07-17T02:39:23.665587-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5192
  • Herbal Products in Pregnancy: Experimental Studies and Clinical Reports
    • Authors: Antonella Smeriglio; Antonio Tomaino, Domenico Trombetta
      First page: 1107
      Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide an update from an overview of the literature of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies during pregnancy, both alone and concomitantly with prescribed medications and particularly on their side effects to the mother and fetus. We have also analyzed some of the adverse interactions that may occur due to concomitant use of herbal and pharmaceutical products during pregnancy. Herbal remedies are not evaluated according to the same standards as pharmaceuticals, and in the USA some of it are not licensed but sold as food supplements. There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. If ‘traditional use’ is the only available information, the pregnant woman should be made aware of this to enable her to make an informed decision concerning potential use. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T21:32:08.857173-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5106
  • Centella asiatica in Dermatology: An Overview
    • Authors: Wiesława Bylka; Paulina Znajdek‐Awiżeń, Elżbieta Studzińska‐Sroka, Aleksandra Dańczak‐Pazdrowska, Małgorzata Brzezińska
      First page: 1117
      Abstract: Centella asiatica is a medicinal plant that was already used as a ‘panacea’ 3000 years ago. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecasosside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. We have conducted an overview to summarize current knowledge on the results of scientific in vitro and in vivo experiments focused on the improvement of the healing process of small wounds, hypertrophic scars and burns by C. asiatica. In this paper, we discuss the data on constituents, recommended preparations and the potential side effects of C. asiatica. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T21:43:37.008303-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5110
  • Review of Pharmacological Effects of Myrtus communis L. and its Active
    • Authors: Ghazal Alipour; Saeedeh Dashti, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
      First page: 1125
      Abstract: Myrtle (Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae) is a medicinal herb used worldwide in traditional medicine. A large number of components have been isolated from this herb. Polyphenols, myrtucommulone (MC), semimyrtucommulone (S‐MC), 1,8‐cineole, α‐pinene, myrtenyl acetate, limonene, linalool and α‐terpinolene are among the compounds considered to be the main biologically active components. Various parts of this herb such as its berries, leaves and fruits have been used extensively as a folk medicine for several centuries. The herb is used traditionally for the treatment of disorders such as diarrhea, peptic ulcer, hemorrhoid, inflammation, pulmonary and skin diseases, although clinical and experimental studies suggest that it possesses a broader spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic effects such as antioxidative, anticancer, anti‐diabetic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activity. The present review attempts to give an overview on the phytochemical, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies of total extracts and the most relevant active ingredients of M. communis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-04T06:54:21.564546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5122
  • Botanical and Phytochemical Therapy of Acne: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Whitney A. Fisk; Hadar A. Lev‐Tov, Raja K. Sivamani
      First page: 1137
      Abstract: Acne is prevalent among adolescents and adults with significant psychological effects. Standard oral and topical therapies can have significant side effects including skin irritation, gastrointestinal upset, and the development of drug‐resistant bacteria. The use of botanicals and phytochemicals in dermatological products is increasingly popular, and many patients are turning to these alternative therapies for treatment of acne. This study aimed to systematically review clinical studies that have investigated the use of botanical agents in the treatment of acne. PubMed and Embase databases were searched in March 2013 for trials assessing botanical therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Data from these trials are presented, and methodology of each study is assessed. Twenty‐three trials met inclusion criteria. Interventions included plant extracts, herbal formulations, and phytochemicals. All studies reported favorable results, and several showed equal or superior treatment to standard therapies. No serious adverse events were reported. Few studies were methodologically rigorous. Each botanical was studied in only one or two trials. Botanicals are promising therapies for acne vulgaris although further research is warranted, especially with regard to severe acne and acne resistant to conventional therapy. There is a need for standardized methods for grading acne and assessing therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-12T05:56:57.130532-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5125
  • Expression of Pro‐inflammatory Interleukin‐8 is Reduced by
           Ayurvedic Decoctions
    • Authors: Alessandra Guerrini; Irene Mancini, Silvia Maietti, Damiano Rossi, Ferruccio Poli, Gianni Sacchetti, Roberto Gambari, Monica Borgatti
      First page: 1173
      Abstract: Eleven decoctions, obtained from indian plants widely used in ayurvedic medicine, have been investigated as a possible source of molecules exhibiting biological activity on the interaction between DNA and NF‐kB, a transcription factor involved in the expression of proinflammatory genes. Cystic fibrosis (CF) cell line stimulated by TNF‐α has been used as inflammatory cellular model to determinate interleukin‐8 (IL‐8), one of the most relevant pro‐inflammatory mediator in CF regulated by the NF‐kB. The chemical characterization of these 11 decoctions by spectrophotometric analysis and NMR fingerprinting highlighted that sugars and polyphenols seemed to be the main compounds. Our results demonstrated that Azadirachta indica, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula, Hemidesmus indicus, Emblica officinalis and Swertia chirata are the most active decoctions in inhibiting NF‐kB/DNA interactions by EMSA assay and in reducing pro‐inflammatory IL‐ 8 expression in CF cells at IC50 concentrations by Real‐Time and Bio‐plex analyses. Finally, we observed the increase of all inhibitory activities with the rise of total polyphenols, procyanidins and flavonoids, except for the levels of IL‐8 mRNA accumulation, that were as high as flavonoid content grown up by the statistical multivariate analyses. In conclusion, these six decoctions might be interesting to explore new anti‐inflammatory treatments for diseases, such as CF. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-06T21:40:44.922636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5109
  • Pharmacological Studies on the Antispasmodic, Bronchodilator and
           Anti‐Platelet Activities of Abies webbiana
    • Authors: Mamoona Yasin; Khalid Hussain Janbaz, Imran Imran, Anwar‐ul‐Hassan Gilani, Samra Bashir
      First page: 1182
      Abstract: This study evaluated the antispasmodic, bronchodilator and anti‐platelet activities of Abies webbiana to rationalize some of its folk uses in gut and airways disorders and inflammation. The crude extract of A. webbiana (Aw.Cr) caused a complete relaxation of both spontaneous and K+ (80 mM)‐induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum in a concentration‐dependent manner. Aw.Cr shifted the Ca++ concentration–response curves (CRCs) to the right, in a fashion similar to verapamil, confirming its Ca++ channel blocking (CCB) effect. In isolated rabbit tracheal preparations, it caused relaxation of carbachol (1 μM) and K+ (80 mM)‐induced contractions comparable to verapamil suggesting that the bronchodilatory effect may possibly be mediated through CCB activity. Aw.Cr was found to be the inhibitor of both ADP‐ and epinephrine‐induced aggregation of human platelets thereby suggesting therapeutic potential in this plant against thrombo‐embolic conditions. The exhibited anti‐platelet effect was observed at low doses against epinephrine as compared to ADP. This study confirmed the presence of spasmolytic activity in Abies webbiana through possible blockade of Ca++ channels providing evidence for its folkloric use in gut and respiratory disorders in addition to anti‐platelet activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-06T21:44:13.403817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5112
  • Prevention of Arthritis Markers in Experimental Animal and Inflammation
           Signalling in Macrophage by Karanjin Isolated from Pongamia pinnata Seed
    • Authors: Madhura Bose; Mousumi Chakraborty, Sourav Bhattacharya, Debarati Mukherjee, Suvra Mandal, Roshnara Mishra
      First page: 1188
      Abstract: Karanjin, the furanoflavonoid reported to possess gastroprotective and anti‐diabetic properties, was investigated against experimental arthritis and its molecular signalling in inflammation was explored in macrophages. Karanjin was isolated from hexane extract of Pongamia pinnata seeds and was evaluated on arthritis markers in adjuvant induced arthritis model (AIA) in two doses (per oral; 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day). Karanjin dose dependently reduced collagen and cartilage breakdown markers viz. urinary hydroxyproline and glucosamine, respectively, serum lysosomal enzymes responsible for articular cartilage damage, and major proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, secreted by macrophages involved in articular inflammation and destruction. Karanjin also prevented joint damage as evidenced from arthritis score, radiographic and histopathological analysis. To delineate the molecular target of Karanjin, in vitro study on LPS induced macrophages were performed at calibrated non toxic doses (4 µg/mL and 6 µg/mL). Karanjin reduced TNFα production and also showed potent inhibitory effect on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production which is generally induced by TNFα from activated macrophages. NF‐κB, the key regulator of TNFα signalling during inflammation was significantly suppressed by Karanjin. Our study for the first time highlights the anti‐inflammatory role of Karanjin in experimental arthritis model as well as on macrophage signalling, thereby depicting its probable mechanism of action. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T21:22:15.323471-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5113
  • Labda‐8(17),12,14‐trien‐19‐oic Acid Contained in
           Fruits of Cupressus sempervirens Suppresses Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
           in Rat and In Vitro Human Models Through Inhibition of Androgen and
           STAT‐3 Signaling
    • Authors: Vikas Verma; Vikas Sharma, Vishal Singh, Rajeev Kumar, Mohammad F. Khan, Anil K. Singh, Rolee Sharma, Kamal R. Arya, J.P. Maikhuri, Diwakar Dalela, Rakesh Maurya, Gopal Gupta
      First page: 1196
      Abstract: Fruit extract of Cupressus sempervirens (CS), which is used traditionally to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)‐like urinary symptoms in patients, was scientifically validated for anti‐BPH activity. The ethanolic fruit extract of CS inhibited proliferation of human BPH‐stromal cells and the activity was localized to its chloroform‐soluble, diterpene‐rich fraction. Eight major diterpenes isolated from this fraction exhibited moderate to potent activity and the most active diterpene (labda‐8(17),12,14‐trien‐19‐oic acid) exhibited an IC50 of 37.5 μM (antiproliferative activity against human BPH‐stromal cells). It significantly inhibited activation (phosphorylation) of Stat‐3 in BPH‐stromal cells and prevented transactivation of androgen sensitive KLK3/PSA and TMPRSS2 genes in LNCaP cells. Labda‐8(17),12,14‐trien‐19‐oic acid‐rich CS fraction prevented prostatic hyperplasia in rat model and caused TUNEL labeling of stromal cells with lower expressions of IGF‐I, TGF‐ß and PCNA, and bcl‐2/bax ratio. Human BPH tissues exhibited precise lowering of stromal component after incubation in labda‐8(17),12,14‐trien‐19‐oic acid, ex vivo. We conclude that labda‐8(17),12,14‐trien‐19‐oic acid contained in CS exhibits anti‐BPH activity through inhibition of stromal proliferation and suppression of androgen action in the prostate, presenting a unique lead structure for further optimization of anti‐BPH activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T21:57:55.073486-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5114
  • Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Hungarian Wild‐Growing
    • Authors: Attila Ványolós; Orsolya Orbán‐Gyapai, Judit Hohmann
      First page: 1204
      Abstract: Mushrooms represent a remarkable and yet largely unexplored source of new, biologically active natural products. In this work, we report on the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of 47 wild‐growing mushrooms native to Hungary. Aqueous and organic (n‐hexane, chloroform, and 50% methanol) extracts of selected mushrooms from different families were screened for their XO inhibitory activities. Among the 188 extracts investigated, the chloroform and 50% methanol fractions proved to be the most effective. Some species exhibited high inhibitory activity, e.g., Hypholoma fasciculare (IC50 = 67.76 ± 11.05 µg/mL), Suillus grevillei (IC50 = 13.28 ± 1.58 µg/mL), and Tricholoma populinum (IC50 = 85.08 ± 15.02 µg/mL); others demonstrated moderate or weak activity. Additional studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the XO inhibitory activity of mushroom extracts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-16T23:53:47.08935-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5115
  • Barberry Treatment Reduces Serum Anti‐Heat Shock Protein 27 and 60
           Antibody Titres and High‐sensitivity C‐reactive Protein in
           Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Double‐blind, Randomized
           Placebo‐controlled Trial
    • Authors: Marzie Zilaee; Tayyebeh Kermany, Shima Tavalaee, Maryam Salehi, Majid Ghayour‐Mobarhan, Gordon A. A. Ferns
      First page: 1211
      Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heat shock proteins (HSPs) are associated with risk factors for CVD. The aim of the present study was to survey the effect of barberry on antibody titres to HSPs and high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hs‐CRP) in patients with metabolic syndrome. In our study, subjects (N = 106, 79 women and 27 men, 18–65 years old) with metabolic syndrome were randomized into two groups: a group of patients who received three capsules of barberry and a control group who received three capsules of placebo for 6 weeks. Antibodies against HSPs 27, 60/65 and 70, hs‐CRP and lipid profile were determined in patients before (week 0) and after (week 6) intervention. spss software (version 16.0; Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for data analysis. Results showed that barberry had no significant effect on serum level of anti‐HSPs 65 and 70. But there was a significant decrease in anti‐HSP 27 in both case and control groups (p = 0.001 and p 
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T23:17:40.818901-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5117
  • The Neoflavonoid Latifolin Isolated from MeOH Extract of Dalbergia
           odorifera Attenuates Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting NF‐κB
           Activation via Nrf2‐Mediated Heme Oxygenase‐1 Expression
    • Authors: Dong‐Sung Lee; Kyoung‐Su Kim, Wonmin Ko, Bin Li, Samell Keo, Gil‐Saeng Jeong, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn‐Chul Kim
      First page: 1216
      Abstract: In Korea and China, the heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is an important traditional medicine used to treat blood disorders, ischemia, swelling, and epigastric pain. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of latifolin, a major neoflavonoid component isolated from the MeOH extract of D. odorifera, on the inflammatory reaction of thioglycollate‐elicited peritoneal macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide, with a particular focus on heme oxygenase‐1 (HO‐1) expression and nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) signaling. Latifolin significantly inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX‐2, reduced NO, prostaglandins E2, tumor necrosis factor‐α, and interleukin‐1β production in primary murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Latifolin also suppressed inhibitor κB‐α levels, NF‐κB nuclear translocation, and NF‐κB DNA‐binding activity. Furthermore, latifolin upregulated HO‐1 expression via nuclear transcription factor‐E2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO‐1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of latifolin on the proinflammatory mediators and NF‐κB DNA‐binding activity were associated with the HO‐1 expression. These results suggested that the latifolin‐mediated up‐regulation of HO‐1 expression played a critical role in anti‐inflammatory effects in macrophages. This study therefore identified potent therapeutic effects of latifolin, which warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29T03:01:38.278053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5119
  • Madecassoside Ameliorates Bleomycin‐Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in
           Mice by Downregulating Collagen Deposition
    • Authors: Guo‐Xun Lu; Di‐Fei Bian, Yu Ji, Jiao‐Mei Guo, Zhi‐Feng Wei, Si‐De Jiang, Yu‐Feng Xia, Yue Dai
      First page: 1224
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the protective effects of madecassoside (Mad), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centella asiatica herbs, on experimental pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and underlying mechanisms. PF model was established in mice by endotracheal instillation with bleomycin (5 mg/kg). Mice were orally administered with Mad (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) and prednisone (5 mg/kg) for 7 or 21 days. Mad (20, 40 mg/kg) significantly improved lung pathological changes and reduced collagen deposition. In the aspect of collagen synthesis, Mad (20, 40 mg/kg) reduced the expressions of α‐smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor‐β1 (TGF‐β1), and inhibited the phosphorylations of Smad2 and Smad3 in the lung tissues. However, in vitro, Mad showed little effect on TGF‐β1‐induced phosphorylation of either Smad2 or Smad3 in primary mouse lung fibroblasts. Moreover, Mad (20, 40 mg/kg) attenuated oxidative damage and inflammation presented at the early stage of PF, evidenced by reduced total leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde level, and increased super‐oxide dismutase activity and glutathione level in lung tissues. On the other hand, Mad (40 mg/kg) elevated the matrix metalloproteinase 1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 ratio in lung tissues of PF mice mainly by downregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression. The present study demonstrated that Mad can ameliorate PF by preventing the deposition of extracellular matrix, which might be achieved mainly through attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress and consequent TGF‐β1 overexpression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T20:41:01.099708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5120
  • The Essential Oil of Bergamot Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species
           Production in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
    • Authors: Marco Cosentino; Alessandra Luini, Raffaella Bombelli, Maria T. Corasaniti, Giacinto Bagetta, Franca Marino
      First page: 1232
      Abstract: Bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia) essential oil (BEO) is used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and anthelminthic and to facilitate wound healing. Evidence indicates that BEO has substantial antimicrobial activity; however its effects on immunity have never been examined. We studied the effects of BEO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the role of Ca2+ in the functional responses evoked by BEO in these cells. Results show that BEO increased intracellular ROS production in human PMN, an effect that required the contribution of extracellular (and, to a lesser extent, of intracellular) Ca2+. Bergamot essential oil also significantly increased ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide N‐formyl‐Met‐Leu‐Phe and reduced the response to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the ability of BEO to increase ROS production in human PMN. This effect could both contribute to the activity of BEO in infections and in tissue healing as well as underlie an intrinsic proinflammatory potential. The relevance of these findings for the clinical uses of BEO needs careful consideration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T20:41:37.161351-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5121
  • The Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Tea Tree Oil‐Reduced
           Susceptibility Mutants
    • Authors: Jesus A. Cuaron; Santosh Dulal, Peter H. Cooke, Nathanial J. Torres, John E. Gustafson
      First page: 1240
      Abstract: Tea tree oil (TTO)‐reduced susceptibility (TTORS) mutants of two Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strains were isolated utilizing TTO gradient plates. Attempts to isolate TTORS mutants employing agar plates containing single TTO concentrations failed. All TTORS mutants demonstrated a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype and produced cells with a smaller diameter, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of SCV auxotrophic supplements to media did not lead to an increase in TTORS mutant colony size. Revertants were also isolated from the TTORS mutants following growth in drug‐free media, and all revertant strains demonstrated phenotypes similar to their respective parent strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that an SH1000 TTORS mutant demonstrated a thinner cell wall and novel septal invaginations compared with parent strain SH1000. In addition, comparative genomic sequencing did not reveal any mutations in an SH1000 TTORS mutant previously linked to well‐characterized SCV genotypes. This study demonstrates that TTO can select for a unique SCV phenotype. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-12T04:26:35.312298-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5123
  • Salicin, an Extract from White Willow Bark, Inhibits Angiogenesis by
           Blocking the ROS‐ERK Pathways
    • Authors: Chang‐Seok Kong; Ka‐Hyun Kim, Jae‐Sun Choi, Ja‐Eun Kim, Chan Park, Joo‐Won Jeong
      First page: 1246
      Abstract: Salicin has been studied as a potent antiinflammatory agent. Angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor progression, and negative regulation of angiogenesis provides a good strategy for antitumor therapy. However, the potential medicinal value of salicin on antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic effects remain unexplored. In this study, we examined the antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activity of salicin and its underlying mechanism of action. Salicin suppressed the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells, such as migration, tube formation, and sprouting from an aorta. Moreover, salicin reduced reactive oxygen species production and activation of the extracellular signal‐regulated kinase pathway. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was also decreased by salicin in endothelial cells. When the salicin was administered to mice, salicin inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse tumor model. Taken together, salicin targets the signaling pathways mediated by reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal‐regulated kinase, providing new perspectives into a potent therapeutic agent for hypervascularized tumors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T23:18:35.148811-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5126
  • Maintenance of Immunological Homeostasis by Indukantha Ghritha in Patients
           with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections—A Pilot Study
    • Authors: Rajesh Radhakrishnan; Suraj K. George, Sunil Kumar, Prabha Balaram
      First page: 1252
      Abstract: Indukantha Ghritha (IG), a polyherbal drug used for centuries in Ayurveda, is claimed to be successful in the treatment of respiratory diseases and as a rejuvenating drug. To date, little is known about the immunomodulatory role of IG in recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (RURIs). This study was designed to scientifically validate and evaluate the immunological response mechanisms in patients with RURI. Primarily, immunological functioning of the lymphocyte subsets, Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and immunoglobulins was evaluated before and after administration of IG in patients (n = 48) and normal subjects (n = 25) for a period of 28 days. Flow cytometry revealed a significant increase in the CD3+, CD4+ T cells and CD56+ natural killer cells with a concomitant reduction of percentage of B cells during IG treatment. Increased Th1 cytokines, IL‐2 and IFN‐γ, and decreased Th2 cytokine, IL‐4, were also observed with IG treatment. IgG was markedly decreased, and IgM was increased with no changes in IgA. Assessment of liver and kidney functions and cholesterol levels was within normal limits in patients administered IG, which reinforces its drug utility as a non‐toxic polyherbal drug. Overall, IG provides symptomatic relief by functioning as a potent immunostimulator that can induce type 1 and decrease type 2 immune responses thereby maintaining immunological homeostasis in RURI patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-20T20:21:23.170926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5132
  • Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability of Bioactive Withanamides Present
           in Withania somnifera Fruit Extract
    • Authors: Shaiju K. Vareed; Alison K. Bauer, Kavitha M. Nair, Yunbao Liu, Bolleddula Jayaprakasam, Muraleedharan G. Nair
      First page: 1260
      Abstract: The neuroprotective effect of Withania somnifera L. Dunal fruit extract, in rodent models, is known. Withanamides, the primary active constituents in W. somnifera fruit extract exhibited neuroprotective effects against β‐amyloid‐induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cell culture studies. Therefore, we investigated the blood–brain barrier permeability of withanamides in W. somnifera fruit extract in mice using HPLC coupled with high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (Q‐TOF/MS) detection. Mice were administered with 250 mg/kg of W. somnifera extract by intraperitoneal injection, and the blood and brain samples analyzed by Q‐TOF/MS detection. Four major withanamides were detected in brain and blood of mice administered with W. somnifera extract. The results suggested that the withanamides crossed the blood–brain barrier. These results may help to develop W. somnifera fruit extract as a preventive or therapeutic botanical drug for stress‐induced neurological disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T21:04:19.480475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5118
  • Graveoline Isolated from Ethanolic Extract of Ruta graveolens Triggers
           Apoptosis and Autophagy in Skin Melanoma Cells: A Novel
           Apoptosis‐Independent Autophagic Signaling Pathway
    • Authors: Samrat Ghosh; Kausik Bishayee, Anisur Rahman Khuda‐Bukhsh
      First page: 1153
      Abstract: Anti‐cancer drugs generally kill cancer cells by apoptosis but fail to do so when they become resistant and escape apoptosis signals. But these resistant cells can still be killed by autophagy. Therefore, drugs having both apoptotic and autophagic abilities are solicited in effective cancer management. In search of such a drug, we examined the efficacy of graveoline, a bioactive compound isolated from Ruta graveolens on skin melanoma A375 cells through the use of specific signaling cascades and their inhibitors. Cytotoxicity of graveoline was tested by conducting MTT assay. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis was checked. Expression of related proteins and their localization were studied by conducting immunoblot assay and through confocal microscopy, respectively. We found graveoline‐induced Beclin‐1 associated autophagy in A375 cells and 3‐methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy did not affect apoptosis. Conversely, caspase inhibitor that blocked apoptosis did not affect autophagic cell death, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers inhibited cell death, but blocking autophagy did not affect graveoline‐induced ROS generation, suggesting that ROS generation ensued autophagy. Thus, graveoline‐induced both apoptotic and autophagic cell death in skin melanoma cells, a desirable quality in effective anti‐cancer drug design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T02:00:21.800394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5107
  • Combination of Mangifera indica L. Extract Supplementation Plus
           Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Pilot Study
    • Authors: Ana M. López Mantecón; Gabino Garrido, René Delgado‐Hernández, Bárbara B. Garrido‐Suárez
      First page: 1163
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5–10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n = 10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n = 10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score‐28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX‐Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX‐Vimang group at the 90 days (p 
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T01:42:05.639377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5108
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