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Journal Cover Phytotherapy Research
  [SJR: 0.842]   [H-I: 92]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0951-418X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1573
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T00:59:54.052992-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5913
       
  • Thank you to our Reviewers
    • Pages: 174 - 182
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T00:59:55.763298-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6002
       
  • Antiadhesion activity of juniper (Juniperus communis L.) preparations
           against Campylobacter jejuni evaluated with PCR‐based methods
    • Authors: Anja Klančnik; Špela Zorko, Nataša Toplak, Minka Kovač, Franz Bucar, Barbara Jeršek, Sonja Smole Možina
      Abstract: The food‐borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni can cause bacterial gastrointestinal infections. Biofilm formation amplifies the risk of human infection by improving survival and persistence of C. jejuni in food processing environments and its transmission through the food chain. We aimed to control C. jejuni using an alternative strategy of low doses of Juniperus communis fruit preparations to target bacterial adhesion properties in the first step of biofilm formation. First, we defined the anti‐Campylobacter activity of a juniper fruit crude extract and its fractionated biflavonoids, flavone glycosides, and purified amentoflavone, of juniper fruit essential oil and of juniper fruit postdistillation waste material extract. For accurate quantification of adherent C. jejuni, we optimised digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and quantitative real‐time PCR for construction of standard curves and quantification. We show for the first time that juniper fruit formulations can effectively inhibit adhesion of C. jejuni to polystyrene. Furthermore, ≥94% of the antiadhesion activity of juniper fruit crude extract and juniper fruit essential oil remained under food‐related conditions: modified culture medium with glucose, or a stainless steel surface, or mixed co‐cultures of C. jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes. This study indicates that addition of juniper fruit formulations can control growth and adhesion of C. jejuni and thus limit food chain transmission of campylobacters.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T21:54:14.414322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6005
       
  • Phytotherapeutic effects of the fruits of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. on
           cancer, inflammation, and digestive dysfunction
    • Authors: Yongwoo Jang; Eun-Kyung Kim, Won-Sik Shim
      Abstract: Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. belongs to the family Rutaceae in the genus Poncirus. Its fruits are widely used to alleviate symptoms of various disorders. The mature fruit (MF) possesses anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. Extracts of the dried, immature fruit, Poncirus fructus (PF) are widely used as a traditional medicine for ameliorating symptoms of digestive dysfunction in East Asia. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of MF and PF extracts on cancer, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders have been extensively studied in the past decade. This review summarizes recent findings on the anticancer and antiinflammatory effects of MF and the prokinetic effects of PF. Although the therapeutic effects of MF and PF have been clearly elucidated, in‐depth further clinical studies are still required to completely verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the fruits of P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T00:55:46.530905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6008
       
  • Insulin resistance improvement by cinnamon powder in polycystic ovary
           syndrome: A randomized double‐blind placebo controlled clinical trial
    • Authors: Mahdie Hajimonfarednejad; Majid Nimrouzi, Mojtaba Heydari, Mohammad Mehdi Zarshenas, Mohammad Javad Raee, Bahia Namavar Jahromi
      Abstract: Our aim is to assess the effect of cinnamon powder capsules on insulin resistance, anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles, and androgens of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Out of 80 women that were diagnosed as PCOS by Rotterdam Criteria, 66 were enrolled in this randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled clinical trial. All of the PCOS women were taking medroxy progesterone acetate 10 mg/day for the last 10 days of their menstrual cycles. The cases were randomly allocated to 2 groups. The women in the first group were treated by cinnamon powder capsules 1.5 g/day in 3 divided doses for 12 weeks and the second group by similar placebo capsules. Anthropometric measurements, fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, blood glucose 2 hr after taking 75 g oral glucose, HbA1c, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, triglyceride, and cholesterol (low‐density lipoprotein, high‐density lipoprotein, and total) before and after the intervention were evaluated and compared as outcome measures. Fasting insulin (p = .024) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (p = .014) were reduced after 12 weeks in the cinnamon group compared with the placebo. There was also a significant decrease in low‐density lipoprotein in cinnamon group (p = .004) as compared with baseline that caused significant difference with placebo (p = .049). However, changes in other outcome measurements did not lead to statistically significant difference with placebo. The present results suggest that complementary supplementation of cinnamon significantly reduced fasting insulin and insulin resistance in women with PCOS.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T00:40:39.287929-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5970
       
  • Suppressive activities and mechanisms of ugonin J on vascular smooth
           muscle cells and balloon angioplasty‐induced neointimal hyperplasia
    • Authors: Chun-Hsu Pan; Pei-Chuan Li, Yi-Chung Chien, Wan-Ting Yeh, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Ming-Jyh Sheu, Chieh-Hsi Wu
      Abstract: Neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis) is primarily attributed to excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of ugonin J on VSMC proliferation and migration as well as neointimal formation. Cell viability and the cell‐cycle distribution were, respectively, analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry. Cell migration was examined using a wound‐healing analysis and a transwell assay. Protein expressions and gelatinase activities were, respectively, measured using Western blot and gelatin zymography. Balloon angioplasty‐induced neointimal formation was induced in a rat carotid artery model and then examined using immunohistochemical staining. Ugonin J induced cell‐cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis to inhibit VSMC growth. Ugonin J also exhibited marked suppressive activity on VSMC migration. Ugonin J significantly reduced activations of focal adhesion kinase, phosphoinositide 3‐kinase, v‐akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1, and extracellular signal‐regulated kinase 1/2 proteins. Moreover, ugonin J obviously reduced expressions and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase‐2 and matrix metalloproteinase‐9. In vivo data indicated that ugonin J prevented balloon angioplasty‐induced neointimal hyperplasia. Our study suggested that ugonin J has the potential for application in the prevention of balloon injury‐induced neointimal formation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T00:06:34.970649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5979
       
  • Coriolus versicolor aqueous extract ameliorates insulin resistance with
           PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways involved in diabetic skeletal
           muscle
    • Authors: Hui-min Xian; Hui Che, Ying Qin, Fan Yang, Song-yan Meng, Xiao-guang Li, Yun-long Bai, Li-hong Wang
      Abstract: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are usually with poor immunity and easier to suffer from cancer and microbial infections. Herein, we report an efficient anti‐diabetic medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor (CV). This study aimed to investigate the anti‐diabetic and anti‐insulin‐resistance effects of CV aqueous extract in myoblasts (L6 cells) and skeletal muscle of T2DM rat. Our results showed that CV extract treatment significantly reduced blood glucose levels of T2DM rats, whereas CV extract increased glucose consumption in insulin resistant L6 cells. Besides, the translocation and expression of glucose transporter 4 were enhanced by CV extract, which indicated that CV extract was effective in diabetic skeletal muscle. Moreover, CV extract treatments resulted in remarkable anti‐insulin‐resistance effects, which was reflected by the change of gene and protein expression levels in PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways. PI3K inhibitor, LY29004, and p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 confirmed it further. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the CV extract exhibited anti‐diabetic and anti‐insulin‐resistance effects in diabetic skeletal muscle, and the effects were mediated by PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings are remarkable when considering the use of commercially available CV by diabetic patients who also suffer from cancer or microbial infections.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15T03:40:07.059145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6007
       
  • Psoralea corylifolia L: Ethnobotanical, biological, and chemical aspects:
           A review
    • Authors: Fiaz Alam; Gul Nawaz Khan, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asad
      Abstract: Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) is a well‐known traditional medicinal plant used from ancient times for treatment of various ailments. It is widely distributed and an important part of therapeutics in Ayurveda and in Chinese medicines. The aim of this review is to present comprehensive and most up to date report on its ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, clinical, phytochemical, and side effects. Studies on the ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, clinical, phytochemical, and side effects of P. corylifolia were published until year 2017 and were searched using various scientific databases. The scientific literature searched revealed that these plant species has been extensively investigated in vivo and in vitro for various biological and phytochemical studies. It has cardiotonic, vasodilator, pigmentor, antitumor, antibacterial, cytotoxic, and anti‐helminthic properties and locally used for alopecia, inflammation, leukoderma, leprosy, psoriasis, and eczema. So far, about a hundred bioactive compounds have been isolated from seeds and fruits, and most important compounds identified belongs to coumarins, flavonoids, and meroterpenes groups. This review article summarized the most updated scientific literature on bioactive phytochemical and biological activities of P. corylifolia. This article will be a useful addition to providing information for future research, and more standard clinical trials are needed for the plant to be used as therapeutic agent.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15T03:37:08.763646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6006
       
  • Western herbal medicine consultations for common menstrual problems;
           practitioner experiences and perceptions of treatment
    • Authors: Carole Fisher; Jon Adams, Jane Frawley, Louise Hickman, David Sibbritt
      Abstract: To explore the prevalence with which Australian Western herbalists treat menstrual problems and their related treatment, experiences, perceptions, and interreferral practices with other health practitioners. Members of the Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative practice‐based research network identifying as Western Herbalists (WHs) completed a specifically developed, online questionnaire. Western Herbalists regularly treat menstrual problems, perceiving high, though differential, levels of effectiveness. For menstrual problems, WHs predominantly prescribe individualised formulas including core herbs, such as Vitex agnus‐castus, and problem‐specific herbs. Estimated clients' weekly cost (median = $25.00) and treatment duration (median = 4–6 months) covering this Western herbal medicine treatment appears relatively low. Urban‐based women are more likely than those rurally based to have used conventional treatment for their menstrual problems before consulting WHs (p = .001). Only 19% of WHs indicated direct contact by conventional medical practitioners regarding treatment of clients' menstrual problems despite 42% indicating clients' conventional practitioners recommended consultation with WH. Western herbal medicine may be a substantially prevalent, cost‐effective treatment option amongst women with menstrual problems. A detailed examination of the behaviour of women with menstrual problems who seek and use Western herbal medicine warrants attention to ensure this healthcare option is safe, effective, and appropriately co‐ordinated within women's wider healthcare use.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15T03:13:16.225321-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6001
       
  • Antiinflammatory properties of betulinic acid and xylopic acid in the
           carrageenan‐induced pleurisy model of lung inflammation in mice
    • Authors: Edmund Ekuadzi; Robert P. Biney, Charles K. Benneh, Bismark Osei Amankwaa, Jonathan Jato
      Abstract: This study investigated the antiinflammatory properties of betulinic acid (BA) and xylopic acid (XA) extracted from Margaritaria discoidea and Xylopia aethiopica, respectively. M. discoidea and X. aethiopica are plants native in Ghana and the West‐African region and used traditionally to treat different pathologies including inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory effect of BA and XA was established by an in vivo assay using the carrageenan‐induced pleural inflammation model in mice. Also, the ability of BA and XA to increase catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione levels and decrease lipid peroxidation level in reactive oxidative assays was assessed. In addition, the ability of XA and BA to prevent potential lung tissue damage was quantified. Pretreatment with BA and XA reduced significantly, signs of inflammation: neutrophil infiltration, oedema, and alveoli septal thickening in carrageenan‐treated lung tissue. Additionally, BA or XA pretreatment lowered the degree of lipid peroxidation in the lung tissue while increasing the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione in vivo. Comparatively, XA was more efficacious than BA in the prevention of lung tissue damage. BA and XA derived from X. aethiopica and M. discoidea possess antiinflammatory and in vivo antioxidant activities in mice pleurisy model. The effect of these compounds gives credence to the traditional use in the management of inflammatory conditions of the airway.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15T03:07:17.052214-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5993
       
  • Fuzheng Huayu capsule as an adjuvant treatment for HBV‐related
           cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    • Authors: Tao Wang; Xuelin Zhou, Honghong Liu, Jiabo Wang, Ping Zhang, Yun Zhu, Kun Li, Shizhang Wei, Haotian Li, Lifu Wang, Ruilin Wang, Yanling Zhao
      Abstract: Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) capsule, a formulated traditional Chinese medicine product with 6 Chinese herbs, is widely used for HBV‐related cirrhosis as an adjuvant treatment. However, the efficacy of FZHY capsule for HBV‐induced cirrhosis did not be comprehensively proved by systematic analysis. Our current analysis was aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of FZHY capsule by an evidence‐based method. Databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wangfang, VIP medicine information system, Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, were searched, and the randomized controlled trials of FZHY capsule were used for the treatment of HBV‐associated liver cirrhosis. Meta‐analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.3. The efficacy rate, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), Procollagen III protein (PIIIP), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), Collagen C Type IV (IV‐C), Child‐Pugh score, portal vein diameter, spleen thickness, HBeAg negative conversion rate, and HBV‐DNA negative conversion rate were systematically assessed. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of eligible studies. Nineteen studies with 1,769 patients were included in the meta‐analysis. Compared to conventional treatment, FZHY capsule was effective by increasing the efficacy. FZHY capsule was more efficient in improving ALT, AST, TBIL, PIIIP, HA, LN, IV‐C, Child‐Pugh grading score, portal vein diameter, spleen thickness, and HBV‐DNA negative conversion rate with no serious adverse reactions. Nevertheless, a variety of well‐designed randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings since small samples were applied in the previous studies.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:34:58.411792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6009
       
  • The effects of hypoglycemia and weight loss of total lignans from Fructus
           Arctii in KKAy mice and its mechanisms of the activity
    • Authors: Yingying Gao; Chenchen Gu, Kai Wang, Haiying Wang, Kefeng Ruan, Zhaohui Xu, Yi Feng
      Abstract: Fructus Arctii (great burdock achene) is the dried ripe fruit of Arctium lappa L. (family Asteraceae) and is included in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. It has been reported that the clinical use of Fructus Arctii resulted in a satisfactory hypoglycemic effect in diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate antidiabetic activity and mechanism of total lignans from Fructus Arctii (TLFA) in KKAy mice, a spontaneous Type 2 diabetic rodent model that exhibits marked obesity. In this study, KKAy mice were gavaged once daily with solvents (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), TLFA (250 and 125 mg/kg), or metformin (200 mg/kg) for 11 weeks, and C57BL/6J mice treated with saline solution (0.9%, w/v) were used as normal control. The results indicate that TLFA has dual effects of hypoglycemia and weight loss, and administration of TLFA in KKAy mice could decrease fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and body weight; improve oral glucose tolerance; increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol; and decrease triglycerides and free fatty acid in mice serum. Its efficacy may associate with multiple mechanisms of action such as stimulation of insulin secretion, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase/protein kinase B, and adenosine‐monophosphate‐activated protein kinase signaling pathway, decreasing leptin.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:22:05.787568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6003
       
  • The effect of green tea ointment on episiotomy pain and wound healing in
           primiparous women: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled
           clinical trial
    • Authors: Hadis Shahrahmani; Nourossadat Kariman, Sharareh Jannesari, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Moghadameh Mirzaei, Sahar Ghalandari, Nasim Shahrahmani, Gashtasb Mardani
      Abstract: The delayed healing of episiotomy wound and its associated pain is a major problem in obstetrics. Because green tea has analgesic and wound‐healing properties, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of green tea ointment on episiotomy pain and wound‐healing. The green tea extract was also standardized by measuring its Phenolic and flavonoid compounds, antioxidant activity, and one of its active components, that is, Epigallocatechin gallate. The present clinical trial was conducted on 99 primiparous women visiting Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman in 2015. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups, including a green tea ointment group, a placebo ointment group, and a routine care group. The 2 ointment groups smeared 2 cm of the green tea or placebo ointments onto their sutured area twice daily for a total of 10 days. The severity of pain was assessed in the subjects using the visual pain scale and wound‐healing using the Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale before the intervention and on the 5th and 10th days after delivery. To standardize the extract, Epigallocatechin gallate was measured by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phenolic and flavonoid compounds, as well as antioxidant activity of the extract were also determined by spectrometry methods. Before the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the 3 groups in terms of their personal and obstetric details (p > .05), the severity of pain (p = .118), and the REEDA score (p = .212). On the 5th and 10th days after delivery, the severity of pain was significantly lower in the green tea group than in the other 2 groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:33:53.383088-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5999
       
  • Iron‐chelating effect of silymarin in patients with β‐thalassemia
           major: A crossover randomised control trial
    • Authors: Hadi Darvishi-Khezri; Ebrahim Salehifar, Mehrnoush Kosaryan, Hossein Karami, Mohammadreza Mahdavi, Abbas Alipour, Aily Aliasgharian
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the potential iron‐chelating effects of silymarin in patients with β‐thalassemia major receiving standard iron‐chelation therapy. We evaluated whether addition of silymarin to standard iron‐chelation therapy could improve iron burden markers and liver and cardiac function in these patients, via a placebo‐controlled, crossover clinical study. Silymarin (140 mg) or placebo were administered thrice daily to all patients (n = 82) for 12 weeks, and after a 2‐week washout period, patients were crossed over to the other groups. Silymarin efficacy was assessed by measuring serum iron level, ferritin level, total iron‐binding capacity and liver and cardiac function on magnetic resonance imaging. Silymarin treatment resulted in a negative change in the serum iron and ferritin levels and a positive change in the total iron‐binding capacity levels (treatment effect, p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:11:07.064028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5995
       
  • Melaleuca alternifolia and its application against dental plaque and
           periodontal diseases: A systematic review
    • Authors: Maísa Casarin; Josiele Pazinatto, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos, Fabricio Batistin Zanatta
      Abstract: This is a systematic review of clinical and laboratory studies evaluating the effect of Melaleuca alternifolia on periodontopathogens, dental plaque, gingivitis, periodontitis, and inflammatory responses. The PubMed, Cochrane, Web of science, Bireme, Lilacs, Prospero, Open Grey, and Clinical Trials databases were searched to identify potentially eligible studies through October 2016. Of 1,654 potentially eligible studies, 25 were included in the systematic review. Their methodology was evaluated through the Cochrane Handbook for clinical studies and the GRADE system for in vivo/in vitro studies. Although clinical studies must be interpreted with caution due to methodological limitations, laboratory studies have found promising results. In vitro evidences showed that M. alternifolia has bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects against the most prevalent periodontopathogens. Clinical studies found comparable effects to chlorhexidine 0.12% in reducing gingival inflammation, although the antiplaque effect was lower. M. alternifolia also showed antioxidant properties, which are beneficial to the host, allied to the reduction on immune‐inflammatory responses to pathogens. This systematic review suggests that the M. alternifolia has potential anti‐inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, which can be easily applied to the periodontal tissues. However, further clinical trials are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of its application.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T23:56:04.633473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5974
       
  • Metabolite profiling and isolation of biologically active compounds from
           Scadoxus puniceus, a highly traded South African medicinal plant
    • Authors: Devashan Naidoo; Lenka Poštová Slavětínská, Adeyemi O. Aremu, Jiri Gruz, Ondrej Biba, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden, Jeffrey F. Finnie
      Abstract: Scadoxus puniceus (Amaryllidaceae), a medicinal plant of high value in South Africa, is used as a component of a traditional herbal tonic prescribed to treat several ailments. Ultra‐high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry quantified the phenolic compounds in different organs of S. puniceus. Gravity column chromatography was used to separate fractions and active compounds. The structure of these compounds was determined using 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. A microplate technique was used to determine the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the pure compounds. Metabolite profiling revealed a greater profusion of hydroxycinnamic acids (69.5%), as opposed to hydroxybenzoic acids (30.5%). Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant (49.6% of hydroxycinnamic acids) compound. In addition to chlorogenic acid, the study is the first to report the presence of sinapic, gallic, and m‐hydroxybenzoic acids in the Amaryllidaceae. Chromatographic separation of S. puniceus led to the isolation of haemanthamine (1), haemanthidine (2), and a rare chlorinated amide, metolachlor (3), the natural occurrence of which is described for the first time. Haemanthamine, haemanthidine, and metolachlor displayed strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50; 23.1, 23.7, and 11.5 μM, respectively). These results substantiate the frequent use of S. puniceus as a medicinal plant and hold much promise for further pharmaceutical development.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T04:15:32.636307-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6000
       
  • Protective effect of gentiopicroside from Gentiana macrophylla Pall. in
           ethanol‐induced gastric mucosal injury in mice
    • Authors: Yang Yang; Ziye Wang, Li Zhang, Bing Yin, Le Lv, Jiao He, Ziyang Chen, Xin Wen, Boling Qiao, Wenji Sun, Minfeng Fang, Yongmin Zhang
      Abstract: Gentiopicroside isolated from gentiana macrophylla Pall. belongs to iridoid glycosides. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of gentiopicroside against ethanol‐induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice were proactively administrated with gentiopicroside by intragastric administration once a day for 3 consecutive days. On the 3rd day, gastric ulcer in mice was induced with 70% ethanol after the last intragastric administration. The stomach tissues were submitted for evaluation of the severity of gastric mucosal alterations. Gentiopicroside administrated orally ameliorated the severity of gastric mucosal alterations. Oral administration of gentiopicroside significantly increased heat shock protein‐70 and glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity, normalized epidermal growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor levels, and decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor‐α, interleukin‐6 and malondialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase activity in gastric tissue. These findings demonstrated that gentiopicroside has protective effect against ethanol‐induced gastric mucosal injury in mice through the improvements of antioxidative and anti‐inflammatory effects, as well as up‐regulation of heat shock protein‐70 level and normalization of epidermal growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The results presented in this study provide some evidence for the development of a novel antigastric ulcer agent.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T04:06:13.659137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5965
       
  • Inhibitory effect of sulphated polysaccharide porphyran (isolated from
           Porphyra yezoensis) on RANKL‐induced differentiation of RAW264.7 cells
           into osteoclasts
    • Authors: Mikinori Ueno; Kichul Cho, Shogo Isaka, Tomoki Nishiguchi, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Daekyung Kim, Tatsuya Oda
      Abstract: Safe and efficient therapeutic agents for bone diseases are required in natural sources. We previously found that edible seaweed‐derived polysaccharide porphyran exhibited anti‐inflammatory effects through the down regulation of nuclear factor‐κB. The aim of this study was to investigate the availability of porphyran as a therapeutic agent for bone diseases. The effects of porphyran on receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)‐induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells were examined. Porphyran suppressed RANKL‐induced osteoclast formation in a concentration‐dependent manner (6.25–50 μg/ml) without any cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, real‐time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that porphyran at 50 μg/ml significantly attenuated the RANKL‐induced increase in the mRNA levels of osteoclastogenesis‐related marker genes such as nuclear factor of activated T cells, tartrate‐resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, and matrix metalloproteinase‐9 in RAW264.7 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that edible‐seaweed‐derived polysaccharide porphyran can suppress RANKL‐induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results suggest that porphyran can be used as a safe therapeutic agent to improve osteoclast‐related pathological conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T01:25:44.710669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5988
       
  • Photoactive plants: Botany bad boys or horticultural heroes'
    • Authors: Mark Wainwright; William J. Stockburn, Clare L. Lawrence, Harry J. Stevens, Allison E. Jones, Robert B. Smith
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T02:27:24.728684-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5997
       
  • Myricetin attenuated LPS induced cardiac injury in vivo and in vitro
    • Authors: Nan Zhang; Hong Feng, Hai-Han Liao, Si Chen, Zheng Yang, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
      Abstract: Sepsis induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) is a common complication and leads to an increased mortality. SIMD is closely related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Myricetin exhibits strong capacities of anti‐inflammation and anti‐oxidative stress, but its pharmacological effects for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cardiac injury remains undefined. This study aimed to explore whether myricetin was efficient to alleviate SIMD in mice and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes injury. Mice administrated with myricetin (100 mg/kg, po, bid) or vehicle groups were challenged with LPS (10 mg/kg, ip), and cardiac functions examined by echocardiography after 12 hr LPS exposure. LPS markedly impaired mouse cardiac functions, which were significantly attenuated by myricetin administration. Myricetin significantly reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines both in serum and cardiac tissue. Myricetin could inhibit the nuclear translocation of p65, degradation of IκBα, and cellular apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Myricetin also prevented overexpression of iNOS and reduction of oxidoreductase (SOD and GPx) activity. Besides, Myricetin treatment could attenuate production of inflammatory cytokines of peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS in vitro. Thus we concluded that myricetin could attenuate the LPS induced cardiac inflammation injury in vivo and in vitro. Myricetin may be a potential therapy or adjuvant therapy for SIMD.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T02:17:40.098303-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5989
       
  • Alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits breast cancer growth by
           antiangiogenic activity via blocking VEGFR2 signaling
    • Authors: Ya-Rong Liu; Qin-Yi Cai, Yun-Ge Gao, Xin Luan, Ying-Yun Guan, Qin Lu, Peng Sun, Mei Zhao, Chao Fang
      Abstract: Alantolactone (ALA), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from several medicinal plants such as Inula helenium, has been identified to have attractive anticancer activity. However, its role in the inhibition of angiogenesis during tumor development remains unclear. In this study, we found ALA can inhibit the proliferation, motility, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. ALA also restrained angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and delayed the growth of human MDA‐MB‐231 breast cancer xenograft in mice through angiogenesis inhibition. Furthermore, ALA suppressed the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and its downstream protein kinase including PLCγ1, FAK, Src, and Akt in endothelial cells. Taken together, the antiangiogenic activity of ALA and its molecular mechanism are identified for the first time, indicating that ALA may be a potential drug candidate or lead compound for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T04:20:56.029603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6004
       
  • Proanthocyanidin‐rich Pinus radiata bark extract inhibits mast
           cell‐mediated anaphylaxis‐like reactions
    • Authors: Yun Ho Choi; Chang Ho Song, Sung Phil Mun
      Abstract: Mast cells play a critical role in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Pinus radiata bark extract exerts multiple biological effects and exhibits immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. However, its role in mast cell‐mediated anaphylactic reactions has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidin‐rich water extract (PAWE) isolated from P. radiata bark on compound 48/80‐induced or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)‐mediated anaphylaxis‐like reactions in vivo. In addition, we evaluated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of PAWE on mast cell activation, with a specific focus on histamine release, using rat peritoneal mast cells. PAWE attenuated compound 48/80‐induced or anti‐DNP IgE‐mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis‐like reactions in mice, and it inhibited histamine release triggered by compound 48/80, ionophore A23187, or anti‐DNP IgE in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Moreover, PAWE suppressed compound 48/80‐elicited calcium uptake in a concentration‐dependent manner and promoted a transient increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine‐3′,5′‐monophosphate levels. Together, these results suggest that proanthocyanidin‐rich P. radiata bark extract effectively inhibits anaphylaxis‐like reactions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T03:50:52.578915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5973
       
  • Effectiveness of fenugreek as a galactagogue: A network meta-analysis
    • Authors: Tahir Mehmood Khan; David Bin-Chia Wu, Anton V. Dolzhenko
      Abstract: A systematic review and network-meta analysis (NMA) were performed to test significance of the galactagogue effect of fenugreek administrated to lactating women versus other comparators (i.e., placebo/control/other galactagogues). A pairwise comparison for the treatment effect was carried out to generate the forest plot for the NMA. League tables were generated using treatment effect, weighted mean difference (WMD; 95% confidence interval, CI) for all pairwise comparisons, where WMD > 0 favors the column-defining treatment. Five studies were identified with 122 participants receiving treatment with fenugreek. The NMA results of 4 studies indicated that consumption of fenugreek significantly increased amount of the produced breast milk [11.11, CI 95% 6.77, 15.46] versus placebo. The pairwise comparison revealed that fenugreek was effective as a galactagogue compared to placebo, control, and reference groups WMD 17.79 [CI 11.71, 23.88]. However, the effect of fenugreek was substantially inferior to Coleus amboinicus Lour and palm date. The NMA using pairwise comparison demonstrated the effect of C. amboinicus and palm date in the stimulation of the breast milk production was comparable and superior to all comparators.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T02:30:45.560469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5972
       
  • Cytotoxic activity of carotenoid rich fractions from Haematococcus
           pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae and the identification of the
           phytoconstituents using LC-DAD/ESI-MS
    • Authors: Farouk K. El-Baz; Rehab A. Hussein, Khaled Mahmoud, Sayeda M. Abdo
      Abstract: Microalgae represent a rich source that satisfies the growing need for novel ingredients of nutriceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and food supplements. Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae are isolated from the Egyptian hydro-flora and are reported for their potent antioxidant activities. The cytotoxic activity of different fractions of both microalgae was investigated on 4 cell lines HePG2, MCF7, HCT116, and A549. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell line and moderate activity against both liver and breast cancer cell lines. On the other hand, the carotenoid rich fraction of D. salina showed mild cytotoxic activity on breast and liver cancer cell lines. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis was analysed using LC-DAD/ESI-MS and the major carotenoids were identified either free as well as bounded to fatty acids.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T23:50:36.247962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5976
       
  • (−)-Epicatechin-induced relaxation of isolated human saphenous vein:
           Roles of K+ and Ca2+ channels
    • Authors: Marija Marinko; Goran Jankovic, Dragoslav Nenezic, Predrag Milojevic, Ivan Stojanovic, Vladimir Kanjuh, Aleksandra Novakovic
      Abstract: In this study, we aimed to investigate relaxant effect of flavanol (−)-epicatechin on the isolated human saphenous vein (HSV), as a part of its cardioprotective action, and to define the mechanisms underlying this vasorelaxation. (−)-Epicatechin induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of HSV pre-contracted by phenylephrine. Among K+ channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine, margatoxin, and iberiotoxin significantly inhibited relaxation of HSV, while glibenclamide considerably reduced effects of the high concentrations of (−)-epicatechin. Additionally, (−)-epicatechin relaxed contraction induced by 80 mM K+, whereas in the presence of nifedipine produced partial relaxation of HSV rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine. In Ca2+-free solution, (−)-epicatechin relaxed contraction induced by phenylephrine, but had no effect on contraction induced by caffeine. A sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, significantly reduced relaxation of HSV produced by (−)-epicatechin. These results demonstrate that (−)-epicatechin produces endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated HSV rings. Vasorelaxation to (−)-epicatechin probably involves activation of 4-aminopyridine- and margatoxin-sensitive KV channels, BKCa channels, and at least partly, KATP channels. In addition, not only the inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx, but regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ release, via inositol-trisphosphate receptors and reuptake into sarcoplasmic reticulum, via stimulation of Ca2+-ATPase, as well, most likely participate in (−)-epicatechin-induced relaxation of HSV.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T23:40:34.418276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5969
       
  • Lonicera japonica Thunb. Induces caspase-dependent apoptosis through death
           receptors and suppression of AKT in U937 human leukemic cells
    • Authors: Cheol Park; Won Sup Lee, Min-Ho Han, Kyoung Seob Song, Su-Hyun Hong, Arulkumar Nagappan, Gi-Young Kim, Gon Sup Kim, Jin-Myung Jung, Chung Ho Ryu, Sung Chul Shin, Soon Chan Hong, Yung Hyun Choi
      Abstract: Decoctions obtained from the dried flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Indongcho) have been utilized in folk remedies against inflammatory diseases. Recently, many agents that have used for inflammatory diseases are showing anticancer effects. Here, we have isolated polyphenols extracted from lyophilized Lonicera japonica Thunb (PELJ) and investigated the anticancer effects of PELJ on U937 cells. Here, we demonstrated that PELJ induced apoptosis by upregulation of DR4 and Fas, and further it is augmented by suppression of XIAP. In addition, The PELJ-induced apoptosis is at least in part by blocking PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings suggest that PELJ may provide evidence of anticancer activities on U937 cells. Further study for detailed mechanism and the effects on animal models is warranted to determine whether PELJ provide more conclusive evidence that PELJ which may provide a beneficial effect for treating cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T21:01:04.608729-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5996
       
  • Curcumin, an antibiotic resistance breaker against a multiresistant
           clinical isolate of Mycobacterium abscessus
    • Authors: Emanuela Marini; Mara Di Giulio, Gloria Magi, Silvia Di Lodovico, Maria Enrica Cimarelli, Andrea Brenciani, Antonia Nostro, Luigina Cellini, Bruna Facinelli
      Abstract: Curcumin, a phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa, exerts multiple pharmacological effects, including an antimicrobial action. Mycobacterium abscessus, an environmental, nontuberculous, rapidly growing mycobacterium, is an emerging human pathogen causing serious lung infections and one of the most difficult to treat, due to its multidrug resistance and biofilm-forming ability. We wanted to evaluate the antimicrobial and antivirulence activity of curcumin and its ability to synergize with antibiotics against a clinical M. abscessus strain (29904), isolated from the bronchoaspirate of a 66-year-old woman admitted to hospital for suspected tuberculosis. Curcumin [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) = 128 mg/L] was synergic (fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤0.5) with amikacin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and linezolid, to which strain 29904 showed resistance/intermediate susceptibility. Curcumin at 1/8 × MIC significantly reduced motility, whereas at 4 × MIC, it completely inhibited 4- and 8-day mature biofilms. Synergistic combinations of curcumin and amikacin induced a general reduction in microbial aggregates and substantial loss in cell viability. Disruption of 4- and 8-day biofilms was the main effect detected when curcumin was the predominant compound. The present findings support previous evidence that curcumin is a potential antibiotic resistance breaker. Curcumin, either alone or combined with antibiotics, could provide a novel strategy to combat antibiotic resistance and virulence of M. abscessus.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T20:50:44.902365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5994
       
  • Epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances differentiation of acute promyelocytic
           leukemia cells via inhibition of PML-RARα and HDAC1
    • Authors: Maliheh Moradzadeh; Abazar Roustazadeh, Alijan Tabarraei, Saiedeh Erfanian, Amirhossein Sahebkar
      Abstract: The use of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has dramatically improved the treatment and survival rate of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, toxicity and resistance to this drug are major problems in the treatment of APL with ATRA. Earlier studies have suggested that the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) induces cell death in hematopoietic neoplasms without adversely affecting normal cells. In the present study, the potential therapeutic effect of EGCG in APL and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. EGCG (100 μM) significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HL-60 and NB4 cells. This effect was associated with decreased expressions of multidrug resistance proteins ABCB1, and ABCC1, whereas the expressions of pro-apoptotic genes CASP3, CASP8, p21, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were significantly increased. EGCG, at 25 μM concentration, induced differentiation of leukemic cells towards granulocytic pattern in a similar manner to that observed for ATRA (1 μM). Furthermore, EGCG suppressed the expression of clinical marker PML/RARα in NB4 cells and reduced the expression of HDAC1 in leukemic cells. In conclusion, the results suggested that EGCG can be considered as a potential treatment for APL.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T20:45:52.176285-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5990
       
  • Anti‐MRSA activity of oxysporone and xylitol from the endophytic fungus
           Pestalotia sp. growing on the Sundarbans mangrove plant Heritiera fomes
    • Authors: Tauhidur Rahman Nurunnabi; Lutfun Nahar, Shaymaa Al-Majmaie, S.M. Mahbubur Rahman, Md. Hossain Sohrab, Md. Morsaline Billah, Fyaz M.D. Ismail, M. Mukhlesur Rahman, George P. Sharples, Satyajit D. Sarker
      Abstract: Heritiera fomes Buch.‐Ham., a mangrove plant from the Sundarbans, has adapted to a unique habitat, muddy saline water, anaerobic soil, brackish tidal activities, and high microbial competition. Endophytic fungal association protects this plant from adverse environmental conditions. This plant is used in Bangladeshi folk medicine, but it has not been extensively studied phytochemically, and there is hardly any report on investigation on endophytic fungi growing on this plant. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized cladodes and leaves of H. fomes. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against two Gram‐positive and two Gram‐negative bacteria and the fungal strain, Candida albicans. Extracts of Pestalotia sp. showed activities against all test bacterial strains, except that the ethyl acetate extract was inactive against Escherichia coli. The structures of the purified compounds, oxysporone and xylitol, were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The anti‐MRSA potential of the isolated compounds were determined against various MRSA strains, that is, ATCC 25923, SA‐1199B, RN4220, XU212, EMRSA‐15, and EMRSA‐16, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 32 to 128 μg/ml. This paper, for the first time, reports on the anti‐MRSA property of oxysporone and xylitol, isolation of the endophyte Pestalotia sp. from H. fomes, and isolation of xylitol from a Pestalotia sp.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T04:20:22.794743-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5983
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera ssp.) on oral pathogens:
           Systematic review
    • Authors: Ana Lúcia Diefenbach; Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes Muniz, Harry Juan Rivera Oballe, Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing
      Abstract: Copaifera ssp. produces an oil‐resin that presents antiinflammatory, antitumor, antiseptic, germicidal, antifungal, and antibacterial activity. This systematic review aimed to analyze the antimicrobial action of Copaiba oil against oral pathogens, when compared to that of control substances. A search on Medline/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases were performed up to March 2017. To be included, the studies needed to perform any antimicrobial activity essay, using copaiba oil and a control substance. The antimicrobial effect of each substance, in each study, was extracted. Eleven studies were included, and several copaiba species were used. All studies showed that copaiba oil, regardless of its species, presented a bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic effect in in vitro analyzes. Only one study showed that the antimicrobial effect of the Copaifera officinalis was similar to the one found in chlorhexidine. A higher risk of bias was detected in most of the included studies. The studies demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil, in most cases, is lower than chlorhexidine, which is considered the gold standard. However, there is great potential against oral bacteria. Further high quality studies are warranted in order to assess the efficacy of copaiba oil on oral pathogens.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T04:10:49.258244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5992
       
  • A systematic review of the anti‐obesity and weight lowering effect of
           ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action
    • Authors: Vahideh Ebrahimzadeh Attari; Aida Malek Mahdavi, Zeinab Javadivala, Sepideh Mahluji, Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Alireza Ostadrahimi
      Abstract: Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti‐obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty‐seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T03:55:33.193455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5986
       
  • Comprehensive evaluation of the role of soy and isoflavone supplementation
           in humans and animals over the past two decades
    • Authors: Yunqi Xiao; Shan Zhang, Haibing Tong, Shourong Shi
      Abstract: Soy and soy‐based foods are considered healthy, particularly in many Asia–Pacific countries, where soy products have long been consumed. Soy and soy‐related products have been found to help prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer, such as breast and prostate cancer. These products can also have antioxidative effects that alleviate hot flashes during menopause and bone loss. These biological and therapeutic functions are primarily due to the isoflavones derived from soy, whose structure is similar to the structure of 17‐β‐oestradiol. Despite the many health benefits for humans and animals, the application of isoflavones remains controversial because of their anti‐oestrogenic properties. We focused on general information regarding isoflavones, as well as their structure, function, and application. We summarized evidence showing that dietary or supplemental isoflavones exert protective effects on the health of humans and animals. Based on the literature, we conclude that soy foods and isoflavones may be effective and safe; however, more high‐quality trials are needed to fully substantiate their potential use.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T03:30:37.77471-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5966
       
  • The influence and mechanism of ligustilide, senkyunolide I, and
           senkyunolide A on echinacoside transport through MDCK‐MDR1 cells as
           blood–brain barrier in vitro model
    • Authors: Qin Zheng; Yu Tang, Peng-Yi Hu, Dan Liu, Delin Zhang, Pengfei Yue, Yuanyuan Guo, Ming Yang
      Abstract: Efficient transcytosis across the blood–brain‐barrier is an important strategy for accessing drug targets within the central nervous system. Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. was used as a messenger drug to increase the distribution of drugs in brain tissue in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The present study investigates the transport of echinacoside (ECH) through MDCK‐MDR1 cell and the effects of ligustilide (LIG), senkyunolide A (SENA) and senkyunolide I (SENI) in chuanxiong on its transport. The results indicated that the absorption of ECH was relatively poor in MDCK‐MDR1cells, and was concentration dependent and not saturable. The P‐glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil could significantly increase the transport of ECH. It indicated that the transport mechanism might be passive diffusion as the dominating process with the active transportation mediated mechanism involved. The increased apparent permeability of ECH in A → B direction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid‐Na2 suggested that ECH was absorbed via the paracellular route. The transport of ECH in A → B direction significantly increased when co‐administrated with increasing concentrations of LIG, SENI and SENA. Western blot analysis and a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance during the permeation experiment indicated that LIG, SENI and SENA had enhanced the transport of ECH in the BBB models attribute to down‐regulate the expressions of claudin‐5 and zonula occludens‐1 expression.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T03:10:44.334658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5985
       
  • What phytotherapy needs: Evidence‐based guidelines for better
           clinical practice
    • Authors: Cristiano Colalto
      Abstract: In recent decades, the pharmacological properties of numerous medicinal plants and opportunities in phytotherapy have been explored through research projects, reviews, and monographs. These studies confirm that medicinal plants offer new approaches to tackling diseases. However, improvement of phytotherapy in clinical practice relies on a number of critical factors. In particular, the studies are very heterogeneous, and results and their interpretation by healthcare workers vary greatly, so preventing consistency in clinical practice. There is therefore a lost opportunity to improve phytotherapy practice, because the work being done and the related systematic reviews cannot act as a body of data on which to base clear clinical recommendations. Approaches such as the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation or the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology could easily help standardise the use of phytotherapy in clinical practice. In this context, evidence‐based phytotherapy guidelines could offer new healthcare approaches to the treatment of diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:11:46.56753-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5977
       
  • Efficacy and safety of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F for CKD in Mainland
           China: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    • Authors: Duo Wang; Xiao-Han Zhao, Yi Cui, Tian-Tian Zhang, Fang Wang, Yong-Hong Hu
      Abstract: Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) is a promising Chinese traditional medicine used to significantly reduce proteinuria and improve renal function. However, its efficacy and safety in treatment of chronic kidney disease need to be further explored in order to promote its application in clinics. This review compared the efficacy and safety of TwHF with the placebo, conventional Western medicine and other immunosuppressive medicine in a range of kidney disorders. One hundred three randomized controlled trials were included. TwHF therapy decreased 24‐hr proteinuria by 0.59 g/day (95% confidence interval [CI; −0.68, −0.50]), serum creatinine level by 1.93 μmol/L (95% CI [−3.69, −0.17]), and blood urea nitrogen level by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI [−0.41, −0.07]); increased the total effective rate by 27% (95% CI [1.24, 1.30]); and decreased the incidence of adverse reactions by 19% (95% CI [0.68, 0.96]) overall. Meta regression results showed that the duration of therapy and mean age of participants were the major sources of high heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that our statistic results were relatively stable and credible. The present findings suggested that TwHF possibly has nephroprotective effects by decreasing proteinuria, serum creatinine level, and blood urea nitrogen level and no more adverse reactions compared with control group in most kidney disorders. However, these findings still need to be further confirmed by high‐quality trials.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:11:14.941046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5987
       
  • Curcumin nanomicelle improves semen parameters, oxidative stress,
           inflammatory biomarkers, and reproductive hormones in infertile men: A
           randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: Fatemeh Alizadeh; Maryam Javadi, Ali Akbar Karami, Fereshteh Gholaminejad, Maria Kavianpour, Hossein Khadem Haghighian
      Abstract: At least 50% of infertile couple's problems are related to male factor infertility. This Randomized, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Clinical Trial conducted in Urology unit of Infertility Clinic on 60 infertile men. Patients were randomly assigned to one of intervention and placebo (n = 30) groups. Finally, 28 subjects in each group completed the study. Participants in the intervention group took daily 80 mg curcumin nanomicelle and those in the placebo group took daily placebo for 10 weeks. Semen analysis, anthropometric, physical activity assessments, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, inflammatory factors, and reproductive hormones were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study. At the end of study, statistically significant differences were seen in the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and motility in the intervention group to the control group. In treatment group, the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and motility levels were also statistically increased at the end of study compared to the baseline values. Curcumin nanomicelle supplementation also resulted in a statistically significant improvement in plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, C‐reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor a in comparison to the placebo. Medical therapy of asthenoteratospermia with curcumin nanomicelle supplement could improve quality of semen parameters. However, further investigation is suggested in this regard.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:10:21.666438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5998
       
  • Decursin attenuates the amyloid‐β‐induced inflammatory response in
           PC12 cells via MAPK and nuclear factor‐κB pathway
    • Authors: Li Li; Yiqiu Yang, Jingbin Zheng, Guodi Cai, Yongwoo Lee, Jikun Du
      Abstract: Decursin, the major bioactive component of Angelica gigas Nakai, exhibited neuroprotective properties. Our previous studies showed that decursin conferred neuroprotective effects in PC12 cells induced by Amyloid‐β (Aβ)25–35 via antiapoptosis and antioxidant. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of decursin against PC12 cells injury stimulated by Aβ25–35 were assessed. Our results demonstrated that decursin suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase‐2 protein and prostaglandin E2 content which was stimulated by Aβ25–35 in PC12 cells. Meanwhile, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor‐κB in Aβ25–35‐treated PC12 cells was also inhibited by decursin. In addition, decursin suppressed phosphorylation of the two upstream pathway kinases, p38 and c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase. Overall, our findings indicate that decursin exerts protective effects against neuroinflammation stimulated by Aβ25–35 in PC12 cells by abolishing cyclooxygenase‐2 protein expression through inactivation of nuclear factor‐κB via the upstream kinases including p38 and c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase. This work provides a new insight into the pharmacological mode of decursin and should facilitate its therapeutic application in treatment of inflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:05:48.608443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5962
       
  • More insights into the pharmacological effects of artemisinin
    • Authors: Abdelmajid Zyad; Mounir Tilaoui, Abdeslam Jaafari, Moulay Ali Oukerrou, Hassan Ait Mouse
      Abstract: Artemisinin is one of the most widely prescribed drugs against malaria and has recently received increased attention because of its other potential biological effects. The aim of this review is to summarize recent discoveries of the pharmaceutical effects of artemisinin in basic science along with its mechanistic action, as well as the intriguing results of recent clinical studies, with a focus on its antitumor activity. Scientific evidence indicates that artemisinin exerts its biological activity by generating reactive oxygen species that damage the DNA, mitochondrial depolarization, and cell death. In the present article review, scientific evidence suggests that artemisinin is a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases. Thus, this review is expected to encourage interested scientists to conduct further preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate these biological activities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:00:33.134632-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5958
       
  • Effects of nutraceuticals on sexual satisfaction and lower urinary tract
           symptoms in a cohort of young–old men
    • Authors: Anna Perri; Alessandro Ilacqua, Marina Valenti, Antonio Aversa
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nutraceuticals containing multiple supplemental facts (Virherbe®/Rekupros®) on sexual satisfaction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in young–old men. In an open‐label trial, 40 males (mean age 66 ± 13) with sexual disturbances and mild LUTS but without cognitive/motor impairment and clinical hypogonadism were enrolled. Sexual desire (SD; IIEF‐SD domain) and satisfaction (Global Assessment Question; GAQ), the capacity to perform daily activities (evaluated by 6‐min walking test [6MWT]), and International Prostate Symptoms Scores (IPSS) were evaluated before and after oral administration of 2 capsules/day of each supplement for 8 weeks. The difference from baseline for SD was +2.6 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:40:57.024872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5971
       
  • Beneficial effects of an investigational wristband containing Synsepalum
           dulcificum (miracle fruit) seed oil on the performance of hand and finger
           motor skills in healthy subjects: A randomized controlled preliminary
           study
    • Authors: Steven Gorin; Charles Wakeford, Guodong Zhang, Elvira Sukamtoh, Charles Joseph Matteliano, Alfred Earl Finch
      Abstract: Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) seed oil (MFSO) contains phytochemicals and nutrients reported to affect musculoskeletal performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a compression wristband containing MFSO on its ability to measurably improve the hand and finger motor skills of participants. Healthy right‐handed participants (n = 38) were randomized in this double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study of MFSO and vehicle wristbands. Subjects wore the wristband on their left hand 4–6 weeks and then only on their right hand 2–4 weeks; the contralateral untreated hand served as an additional control. Twelve hand/finger motor skills were measured using quantitative bio‐instrumentation tests, and subject self‐assessment questionnaires were conducted. With each hand, in 9/12 tests, the MFSO group showed a clinically meaningful average improvement compared with an average worsening in the vehicle group. Statistical superiority to the control treatment group was exhibited in 9/12 tests for each hand (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:40:45.191529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5980
       
  • Ethanol Iris tenuifolia extract reduces brain damage in a mouse model of
           cerebral ischaemia
    • Authors: Aldarmaa Jalsrai; Annegret Reinhold, Axel Becker
      Abstract: In the previous experiments, the neuroprotective role of Iris tenuifolia Pall. (IT) in the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. In addition, the concentrations of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor‐alpha and interleukin‐6 in blood plasma were measured. It was found that IT administered 1 hr prior to MCAO or immediately after MCAO reduced infarct volume significantly. IT application 1 and 4 hr after MCAO, respectively, was without any effect on infarct volume. There were no significant changes as regards tumour necrosis factor‐alpha, whereas interleukin‐6 concentrations were increased in blood plasma. This is the first evidence that flavonoids from Iris tenuifolia exert protective effects in the in vivo MCAO model. Our results suggest that these flavonoids are likely to be beneficial to humans by virtue of their ability to reduce infarct volume.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:35:48.038262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5981
       
  • Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy: Overview of
           systematic reviews
    • Authors: Victor Schussel; Lucas Kenzo, Andreia Santos, Júlia Bueno, Ellen Yoshimura, Carolina Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
      Abstract: Nausea and vomiting are common and distressing adverse events of chemotherapy. This review focuses on the findings and quality of systematic reviews (SRs) of cannabinoids for chemotherapy‐induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Review of SRs, a systematic literature search, was conducted in several electronic databases and included SRs evaluating cannabinoids for CINV in cancer patients. Methodological quality and quality of reporting were evaluated by AMSTAR and PRISMA, respectively. Initial search retrieved 2,206 records, and 5 SRs were included. On the basis of findings of the sole SR judged as high methodological quality, cannabinoids seem to be more effective than placebo, equal to prochlorperazine for reducing CINV, and to be preferred by patients. The response to different combinations of antiemetic agents seems to be equal to 1 antiemetic alone. The average of AMSTAR score was 5, and the average of PRISMA score was 13.2. Cannabinoids represent a valuable option for treating CINV, despite the adverse events related to treatment, such as drowsiness and cognitive impairment. There is no good quality evidence to recommend or not the use of cannabinoids for CINV. More studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cannabinoids when compared with modern antiemetics.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:30:05.336023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5975
       
  • Curcumin mediated down‐regulation of αVβ3 integrin and up‐regulation
           of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in Erlotinib resistant SW480
           colon cancer cells
    • Authors: Samira Javadi; Kobra Rostamizadeh, Jalal Hejazi, Maliheh Parsa, Mojtaba Fathi
      Abstract: Erlotinib is a potent, selective, and orally active inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor, but the development of erlotinib resistance during chemotherapy can lead to treatment failure. To shed light on the erlotinib‐resistant pathway, this study investigated the effect of combination therapy using curcumin‐ and erlotinib‐loaded nanoparticles on the expression of αvβ3 integrin and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in an erlotinib‐resistant SW480 colon cancer cell line. An erlotinib‐resistant SW480 colon cancer cell line was produced by long‐term exposure to erlotinib. Curcumin‐loaded Methoxy poly ethylene glycol Poly caprolactone (cur/mPEG‐PCL) and erlotinib‐loaded mPEG‐PCL (erl/mPEG‐PCL) micelles were provided using a single step nanoprecipitation method and used as combination therapy of resistant SW480 cancer cells. After that, gene expression levels of PDK4, αv, and β3 mRNA were determined by the semiquantitative reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels of whole αvβ3 integrin were evaluated using the enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay method. In SW480 cell line, the IC50 of nonresistant and resistant cells was 87.6 ± 1.2 nM and 19.1 ± 0.14 μM, for erlotinib and it was about 21.8 and 30 μM for curcumin, respectively. Although PDK4 expression was not significantly different in resistant and nonresistant cells, its expression was up regulated (1.4 fold) in resistant cells by a combination therapy of cur/mPEG‐PCL at a dose of 3 μM and erl/mPEG‐PCL at a dose of 5 μM. β3 mRNA and the protein level of whole αvβ3 integrin was significantly higher in resistant SW480 cells as compared with those in nonresistant cells. In terms of treatment, a combination of 6‐μM cur/mPEG‐PCL and 5‐μM erl/mPEG‐PCL down regulated β3 gene expression 6.6‐fold in resistant cells as compared with nonresistant cells. At the protein level, a combination of 3‐μM‐cur/mPEG‐PCL and 10‐μM erl/mPEG‐PCL reduced αvβ3 protein in resistant cells. The results indicated that combination therapy using cur/mPEG‐PCL and erl/mPEG‐PCL could decrease αvβ3 integrin expression and increase PDK4 gene expression in resistant colon cancer cells, which may have effects on drug resistance signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:29:46.108395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5984
       
  • A pilot pharmacokinetic study of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on rabbit
           sera using polyclonal antibody‐based icELISA analysis
    • Authors: Tharita Kitisripanya; Orapin Udomsin, Jukrapun Komaikul, Chadathorn Inyai, Supattra Limsuwanchote, Gorawit Yusakul, Waraporn Putalun
      Abstract: Miroestrol (ME) and deoxymiroestrol (DME) are the most potent phytoestrogens and bioactive markers in Pueraria candollei var. mirifica tuberous roots. To understand their pharmacokinetic profiles, a pharmacokinetic study of ME and DME, at 0.43 and 0.21 mg per kg body weight, respectively, in three rabbits was performed after orally administering a single dose of P. candollei var. mirifica enriched fraction extract. Two established polyclonal antibody‐based indirect competitive enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assays were validated to determine ME and DME in rabbit sera. In rabbits, the area under the 0‐ to 48‐hr concentration‐time curve of ME and DME were 854.92 and 1,692.84 ng·h/ml, respectively. The maximum concentration of ME was measured 1 hr after administration as 69.62 ± 8.28 ng/ml, and the maximum concentration of DME was measured at 3 hr as 81.8 ± 5.43 ng/ml. These results provide an initial approach for designing and studying the relationship between the ME and DME levels and their therapeutic effects based on their pharmacokinetic profiles.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:29:14.632716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5991
       
  • Evaluation of the effect of quercetin treatment on CYP2C9 enzyme activity
           of diclofenac in healthy human volunteers
    • Authors: Satish Kumar Bedada; Prasad Neerati
      Abstract: The purpose of present study was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium (DIC) in healthy volunteers. The open‐label, 2 period, sequential study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers. DIC 100 mg was administered during control and after quercetin phases. Quercetin 500 mg was administered twice daily for 10 days during quercetin phase. Treatment with quercetin significantly enhanced maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC0‐∞), and half life, while significantly decreased elimination rate constant (kel) and apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of DIC compared with control. On the other hand, Cmax and AUC0‐∞ of 4‐hydroxydiclofenac (4‐OHDIC) were decreased after quercetin treatment. In addition, geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals for Cmax and AUC0‐∞ of DIC and 4‐OHDIC were both out of the no‐effect limits of 0.80–1.25, which indicates a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between quercetin and DIC. Furthermore, quercetin treatment significantly decreased metabolic ratios of Cmax and AUC0‐∞ suggesting that reduced formation of DIC to 4‐OHDIC. The results suggest that quercetin might have inhibited CYP2C9‐mediated metabolism of DIC. Accordingly, caution should be taken when quercetin is used in combination with therapeutic drugs metabolized by CYP2C9, and dose adjustment of CYP2C9 substrates may be necessary.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:28:38.253903-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5978
       
  • 6‐shogaol induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in head and
           neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines
    • Authors: Ulana Kotowski; Lorenz Kadletz, Sven Schneider, Elisabeth Foki, Rainer Schmid, Rudolf Seemann, Dietmar Thurnher, Gregor Heiduschka
      Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is used for a wide array of conditions in traditional medicine in Asia, but little is known about the effect on head and neck cancer. In this study, the effect of two major pharmacologically active compounds of ginger, 6‐gingerol and 6‐shogaol, were studied on head and neck cancer cell lines. Furthermore, experiments in combination with established treatment methods for head and neck cancer were performed. Proliferation assays showed a dose‐dependent reduction of cell viability. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that the antiapoptotic protein survivin was suppressed after treatment. Although a combination of 6‐shogaol with cisplatin exhibited no synergistic effect, the combination with irradiation showed a synergistic reduction of clonogenic survival. In conclusion, ginger compounds have many noteworthy effects on head and neck cancer cell lines. In particular, the enhancement of radiosensitivity is remarkable.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:28:15.46107-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5982
       
  • A systematic review of randomized controlled trials with herbal medicine
           on chronic rhinosinusitis
    • Authors: Majid Anushiravani; Mahdi Bakhshaee, Ali Taghipour, Hamideh Naghedi-Baghdar, Masoumeh Kaboli Farshchi, Seyed Saeed Hoseini, Mohammad Reza Mehri
      Abstract: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease with evidence to show that its incidence and prevalence are increasing. Medicinal plants are commonly used to treat CRS. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of herbal preparations for treatment of the patients with CRS. Cochran, Embase, ISI, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched until August 1, 2016. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Four randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review. Various medicinal plants were studied in each article. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, and outcome measures varied among different articles. The results of this trials showed that this special medicinal plants may be effective in the treatment of CRS. No serious reactions were reported during the administration of herbal remedies in the 4 studies. However, trials with a well‐designed approach are needed to study the actual safety and efficacy of herbs in the treatment of CRS.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T20:55:21.921369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5968
       
  • Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate cardiomyocyte apoptosis through
           mitochondrial pathway in natural aging rats
    • Authors: Zhiyong Zhou; Jiao Wang, Yanan Song, Yumin He, Changcheng Zhang, Chaoqi Liu, Haixia Zhao, Yaoyan Dun, Ding Yuan, Ting Wang
      Abstract: Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have been widely used in the cardiovascular system for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in China. In this study, we investigated the anti‐apoptotic effect of PNS on cardiomyocytes in the natural aging rat and explored the potential mechanisms regarding oxidative stress and mitochondrial function signaling pathways. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: adult control (3‐month old), aging control (24‐month old), and different doses of PNS‐treated aging rat groups (10, 30, 60 mg/kg/day, orally). After treatment of PNS or saline for 6 months, the effects of PNS on the cardiomyocytes were evaluated. Results showed that PNS significantly improved the morphological changes in myocardium, prevented the increase of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the aging rats, and improved mitochondrial dysfunction associated aging in a dose‐dependent manner. PNS also significantly reversed the down‐regulation of FoxO3a and Mn‐SOD and up‐regulated PGC‐1α, LC3β, and Beclin‐1 levels. Our data demonstrated that during aging, mitochondrial dysfunction caused an increase of oxidative damage, which played a key role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PNS exerted an anti‐apoptotic effect via attenuating oxidative damage through oxidative stress‐ and mitochondrial function‐related signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T19:55:44.037397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5961
       
  • The impact of argan oil on plasma lipids in humans: Systematic review and
           meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Authors: Sorin Ursoniu; Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maria-Corina Serban, Maciej Banach,
      Abstract: The study aims to investigate the effect of argan oil on plasma lipid concentrations through a systematic review of the literature and a meta‐analysis of available randomized controlled trials. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the impact of at least 2 weeks of supplementation with argan oil on plasma/serum concentrations of at least 1 of the main lipid parameters were eligible for inclusion. Effect size was expressed as the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Meta‐analysis of data from 5 eligible trials with 292 participants showed a significant reduction in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (WMD: −16.85 mg/dl, 95% CI [−25.10, −8.60], p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T19:45:24.342063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5959
       
  • Selected hepatoprotective herbal medicines: Evidence from ethnomedicinal
           applications, animal models, and possible mechanism of actions
    • Authors: Muhammad Ali; Tariq Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Qurat ul Ain Ali, Muhammad Ovais, Ali Talha Khalil, Ikram Ullah, Abida Raza, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Idrees
      Abstract: Insight into the hepatoprotective effects of medicinally important plants is important, both for physicians and researchers. Main reasons for the use of herbal medicine include their lesser cost compared with conventional drugs, lesser undesirable drug reactions and thus high safety, and reduced side effects. The present review focuses on the composition, pharmacology, and results of experimental trials of selected medicinal plants: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, Capparis spinosa (L.), Cichorium intybus (L.), Solanum nigrum (L.), Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., Ginkgo biloba (L.), Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Vitex trifolia (L.), Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Cuscuta chinensis (Lam.), Lycium barbarum, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, and Litsea coreana (H. Lev.). The probable modes of action of these plants include immunomodulation, stimulation of hepatic DNA synthesis, simulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase to inhibit oxidation in hepatocytes, reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species by enhancing levels of antioxidants, suppression of ethanol‐induced lipid accumulation, inhibition of nucleic acid polymerases to downregulate viral mRNA transcription and translation, free radical scavenging and reduction of hepatic fibrosis by decreasing the levels of transforming growth factor beta‐1, and collagen synthesis in hepatic cells. However, further research is needed to identify, characterize, and standardize the active ingredients, useful compounds, and their preparations for the treatment of liver diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T01:58:10.168346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5957
       
  • Pharmacological and chemical features of Nepeta L. genus: Its importance
           as a therapeutic agent
    • Authors: Ipek Süntar; Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Davide Barreca, Nicolas Fischer, Thomas Efferth
      Abstract: Medicinal plants have always had great value for the human population due to their valuable constituents and potential bioactivities. The objective of this review is to present an updated overview of an important medicinal plant genus Nepeta L., from the family Lamiaceae, revealing its traditional utilization, biological activity, phytoconstituents, and mechanisms of action. For this purpose, a literature survey was carried out by using SciFinder, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science followed by a revision of the bibliographies of the related articles. We have described and analyzed the role of plants in drug discovery and the importance of Nepeta species. Information on the utilization purposes of Nepeta species in folk medicine has been emphasized, and scientific studies on the biological effects and secondary metabolites are addressed. Nepeta species are characterized by terpenoid‐type compounds and phenolic constituents, which exert several activities such as an antimicrobial, repellent against major pathogen vector mosquitoes, insecticide, larvicide against Anopheles stephensi, cytotoxic anticarcinogen, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti‐inflammatory agent, and antidepressant, revealing its importance in medicinal and agricultural fields. On the basis of numerous studies, the Nepeta genus demonstrates remarkable therapeutic effects against various diseases. However, clinical studies are warranted to confirm preclinical findings.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T04:31:41.84735-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5946
       
  • Dose–Response Effects of p-Synephrine on Fat Oxidation Rate During
           Exercise of Increasing Intensity
    • Authors: Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín; Juan Del Coso
      Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects different doses of p-synephrine on maximal fat oxidation during exercise. Seventeen healthy subjects volunteered to participate in a double-blind and randomised experimental design composed of four identical experimental trials. On four trials separated by 72 h, participants ingested a placebo or 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine. After resting for 60 min to allow substance absorption, participants performed an exercise test of increasing intensity on a cycle ergometer while gas exchange was measured continuously. None of the doses of p-synephrine affected energy expenditure or heart rates during the test. The highest rate of fat oxidation with the placebo (0.35 ± 0.05 g/min) was reached at 38.0 ± 1.9% of VO2max. The ingestion of 1 mg/kg increased maximal fat oxidation to 0.47 ± 0.11 g/min (p = 0.01) but did not change the intensity at which it was obtained (42.0 ± 9.4% of VO2max). The ingestion of 2 and 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine increased maximal fat oxidation to 0.55 ± 0.14 g/min (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:50:25.948852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5937
       
  • GABA‐modulating phytomedicines for anxiety: A systematic review of
           preclinical and clinical evidence
    • Authors: Karen Savage; Joseph Firth, Con Stough, Jerome Sarris
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Anxiety disorders are chronic and functionally disabling conditions with high psychological stress, characterised by cognitive symptoms of excessive worry and focus difficulties and physiological symptoms such as muscle tension and insomnia. Gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system and is a key target of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of anxiety. Although current pharmaceutical treatments are often efficacious, they may cause undesirable side effects including cognitive decrements and withdrawal symptoms. Plant‐based “phytomedicines” may provide novel treatment options, to act as an adjunctive or alternative to existing anxiolytic medications. As such, we conducted a systematic review to assess the current body of literature on anxiolytic phytomedicines and/or phytoconstituents. An open‐ended search to 5 July 2017 was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Cochrane library online databases and performed in a stepped format from preclinical to clinical investigations. Eligible studies must have had (a) in vitro evidence of GABA‐modulating activity, (b) animal studies using anxiety models to test an anxiolytic effect, and (c) human clinical trials. Ten phytomedicines were identified as having preclinical investigations showing interaction with the GABA system, in addition to human clinical trials: kava, valerian, pennywort, hops, chamomile, Ginkgo biloba, passionflower, ashwagandha, skullcap, and lemon balm. Collectively, the literature reveals preclinical and clinical evidence for various phytomedicines modulating GABA‐pathways, with comparative anxiolytic effect to the current array of pharmaceuticals, along with good safety and tolerability profiles.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:27:39.036951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5940
       
  • Medicinal plants of the genus Macleaya (Macleaya cordata, Macleaya
           microcarpa): A review of their phytochemistry, pharmacology, and
           toxicology
    • Authors: Li Lin; Yan-Chun Liu, Jia-Lu Huang, Xiu-Bin Liu, Zhi-Xing Qing, Jian-Guo Zeng, Zhao-Ying Liu
      First page: 19
      Abstract: In the genus Macleaya, Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa have been recognized as traditional herbs that are primarily distributed in China, North America, and Europe and have a long history of medicinal usage. These herbs have been long valued and studied for detumescence, detoxification, and insecticidal effect. This review aims to provide comprehensive information on botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies on plants in the genus Macleaya. Plants from the genus of Macleaya provide a source of bioactive compounds, primarily alkaloids, with remarkable diversity and complex architectures, thereby having attracted attention from researchers. To date, 291 constituents have been identified and/or isolated from this group. These purified compounds and/or crude extract possess antitumor, anti‐inflammatory, insecticidal, and antibacterial activities in addition to certain potential toxicities. Macleaya species hold potential for medicinal applications. However, despite the pharmacological studies on these plants, the mechanisms underlying the biological activities of active ingredients derived from Macleaya have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Additionally, there is a need for research focusing on in vivo medical effects of Macleaya compounds and, eventually, for clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T20:00:33.132178-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5952
       
  • Effects of Astragalus Extract Mixture HT042 on Height Growth in Children
           with Mild Short Stature: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Donghun Lee; Sun Haeng Lee, Jungbin Song, Hee-Jung Jee, Sung Ho Cha, Gyu Tae Chang
      First page: 49
      Abstract: HT042 is a standardized functional food ingredient approved by Korean Food and Drug Administration with a claim ‘HT042 can help height growth of children’. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HT042 on height growth in children with mild short stature. A multicenter, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled parallel study was performed on children aged 6–8 years with height ranked below the 25th percentile. In 129 children, height gain was significantly higher in HT042 group than placebo group after 24 weeks (mean difference, 0.29 cm; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.57 cm; p = 0.027). The difference was elevated when the efficacy analysis was restricted to children below the 10th percentile (mean difference, 0.45 cm; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.87 cm; p = 0.031). Because bone age advancement was lower in HT042 group, height standard deviation score gain for bone age was higher in HT042 group and the difference was significant in children below the 10th percentile (mean difference, 0.20 score; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.39 points; p = 0.045). Serum IGF‐1 and IGFBP‐3 levels were significantly increased compared with baseline within HT042 group, but group difference was not significant. HT042 supplementation helped to increase height growth in children without skeletal maturation and was more effective in much shorter children. The effects might be mediated by increases in serum IGF‐1 and IGFBP‐3 levels. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T19:30:24.118785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5886
       
  • The yerba mate intake has a neutral effect on bone: A case–control study
           in postmenopausal women
    • Authors: Denise T. A. Veiga; Raísa Bringhenti, Aline A. Bolignon, Etiane Tatsh, Rafael N. Moresco, Fabio V. Comim, Melissa O. Premaor
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Nutritional factors have been associated with osteoporosis and fractures. The intake of coffee may increase the risk of fracture whereas the intake of black and green tea is associated with its reduction. Recently, consumption of yerba mate was associated with increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, its influence on fracture is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yerba mate tea intake on fractures, bone markers, calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. A case–control study was carried out in South Brazil, 46 women with fractures and 49 controls completed the study. There was no significant difference between the frequency of fractures in women who drank mate tea and women who did not (48.3% vs. 48.5%, p = .99). Moreover, there was no significant difference concerning the serum levels of total calcium, phosphorus, PTH, vitamin D, P1NP, and CTX in the subjects with the history of yerba mate use when compared to controls. Higher serum levels of NOx were found in women who drank the yerba mate infusion. In conclusion, the yerba mate intake is not associated with fracture, and it appears to have a neutral effect on the bone metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T01:25:20.937596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5947
       
  • Chelidonine inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation by suppressing the NF-κB
           pathways in HCT116 cells
    • Authors: Zhi Hong Zhang; Chunliu Mi, Ke Si Wang, Zhe Wang, Ming Yue Li, Hong Xiang Zuo, Guang Hua Xu, Xuezheng Li, Lian Xun Piao, Juan Ma, Xuejun Jin
      Pages: 65 - 75
      Abstract: Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a complex that regulates several hundreds of genes, including those involved in immunity and inflammation, survival, proliferation, and the negative feedback of NF-κB signaling. Chelidonine, a major bioactive, isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus, exhibits antiinflammatory pharmacological properties. However, its antiinflammatory molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this work, we explored the effect of chelidonine on TNF-induced NF-κB activation in HCT116 cells. We found chelidonine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB alpha and nuclear translocation of RELA. Furthermore, by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, chelidonine downregulated target genes involved in inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Chelidonine also inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation by blocking c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 phosphorylation. These results suggest that chelidonine may be a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory diseases in which inhibition of NF-κB activity plays an important role.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:16:18.781818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5948
       
  • The effect of Rosa (L. Rosa canina) on the incidence of urinary tract
           infection in the puerperium: A randomized placebo-controlled trial
    • Authors: Mahdieh Seifi; Shamsi Abbasalizadeh, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Laleh Khodaie, Mojgan Mirghafourvand
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that can occur in any area of the urinary tract which is characterized by a positive urine culture (U/C). The risk of UTI following cesarean section (CS) increases due to procedures such as catheterization. In vitro studies have demonstrated the effect of Rosa canina fruit in preventing Escherichia coli growth. This study was conducted to determine the effect of R. canina fruit in preventing the incidence of UTI in women following CS. This triple-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted in 2016 on 400 women following CS with negative U/C in Alzahra and Taleghani educational hospitals in the city of Tabriz-Iran. Participants were assigned into two groups of 200 women using block randomization. Each group received a twice daily dose of 500 mg capsules containing R. canina or placebo from the second day after CS for 20 days. Women were assessed by U/C on the 7th–10th and 20th days following CS. UTI was significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control in the follow-ups conducted on the 7th–10th days (odds ratio = 0.22; confidence interval 95% [0.07, 0.67]; p = .006) and 20th day (odds ratio = 0.32; confidence interval 95% [0.14, 0.75]; p = .008). But the incidence of cystitis in the two groups was not statistically significant (p > .05). R. canina fruit capsules were able to reduce the incidence of UTI after CS. Thus, it is likely that administration of this medication can promote maternal health following CS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T03:31:04.122747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5950
       
  • Effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on metabolic parameters
           in women with metabolic syndrome: Influence of TCF7L2‐rs7903146 and
           FTO‐rs9939609 polymorphisms
    • Authors: Khatereh Rezazadeh; Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi, Leila Mohammadnejad, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Abbas Delazar
      First page: 84
      Abstract: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multicomponent condition with a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown favorable effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ALE supplementation on metabolic parameters in women with MetS, using a nutrigenetics approach. In this double‐blind randomized clinical trial, 50 women (aged 20–50 years) with MetS were randomly allocated into the two groups: “ALE group” (received 1,800 mg hydroalcoholic extract of artichoke as four tablets per day) and “placebo group” (received placebo consisted of corn starch, lactose, and avicel as four tablets per day) for 12 weeks. The biochemical and anthropometric parameters were determined before and after the intervention. The FTO‐rs9939609 and the TCF7L2‐rs7903146 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction‐restriction fragment length polymorphism. In carriers of A allele of the FTO‐rs9939609, ALE supplementation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in serum triglyceride level compared with placebo (−19.11% vs. 10.83%; p  .05). These findings suggest that ALE supplementation may improve serum triglyceride level in A allele genotype of FTO‐rs9939609 polymorphism in women with MetS.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T03:25:59.904639-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5951
       
  • Acute cardiovascular effects of bitter orange extract (p‐synephrine)
           consumed alone and in combination with caffeine in human subjects: A
           placebo‐controlled, double‐blind study
    • Authors: Nicholas A. Ratamess; Jill A. Bush, Sidney J. Stohs, Nicole L. Ellis, Ira T. Vought, Elizabeth A. O'Grady, Jeremy D. Kuper, Saif B. Hasan, Jie Kang, Avery D. Faigenbaum
      First page: 94
      Abstract: The purpose was to examine cardiovascular responses to supplementation with p‐synephrine alone and in combination with caffeine during quiet sitting. Sixteen subjects were given (in double‐blind manner) either 103 mg of p‐synephrine (S), 233 mg of caffeine +104 mg of p‐synephrine (LC + S), 240 mg of caffeine (LC), 337 mg of caffeine +46 mg of p‐synephrine (HC + S), 325 mg of caffeine (HC), or a placebo. The subjects sat quietly for 3 hr while heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured. Only HC + S and HC significantly increased mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) during the second hour and tended to increase mean SBP during the third hour. Mean diastolic blood pressure in S was significantly lower than the other trials during the first and second hours, and mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in S compared to the LC, LC + S, HC, and HC + S trials. No differences were observed in HR. Consumption of p‐synephrine may acutely reduce diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure and not affect SBP or HR during quiet sitting. The addition of p‐synephrine to caffeine did not augment SBP or HR indicating that consumption of up to 104 mg of p‐synephrine does not induce cardiovascular stress during quiet sitting.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T02:01:18.146969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5953
       
  • Protective effect of Salvianolic acid A on ischaemia‐reperfusion acute
           kidney injury in rats through protecting against peritubular capillary
           endothelium damages
    • Authors: Zuokai Zhang; Dong Qi, Xuekai Wang, Zhenfang Gao, Peng Li, Wenbo Liu, Xiao Tian, Yue Liu, Mingyan Yang, Ke Liu, Huaying Fan
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Renal ischaemia‐reperfusion (I/R) injury is the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Peritubular capillary (PTC) endothelium damages are an important pathogenesis during I/R AKI. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) possesses various pharmacological activities. The study investigated whether SAA ameliorated I/R AKI through protecting against PTC endothelium damages. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups: control, sham, I/R, and I/R plus SAA (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Rats were subjected to bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 60 min, and killed at 24 hr after reperfusion. Kidney injury, PTC endothelium damages and factors affecting PTC endothelium were evaluated. SAA significantly decreased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, and reduced urine kidney injury molecule‐1 concentration. Simultaneously, SAA alleviated histological damages, prevented PTC endothelium damages, preserved the density of PTC and improved renal hypoxia. Furthermore, SAA inhibited platelet activation, elevated Klotho protein expression and up‐regulated vascular endothelial growth factor A expression. Overall, SAA has protective effects on AKI induced by I/R. Preventing PTC endothelium damages and preserving PTC integrity to improve the renal hypoxia may be the ways for SAA to ameliorate AKI. All these indicate that SAA is likely to be a promising agent for AKI.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T01:51:00.036097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5954
       
  • A comparative study on the effect of promoting the osteogenic function of
           osteoblasts using isoflavones from Radix Astragalus
    • Authors: Xianghe Kong; Fang Wang, Yinbo Niu, Xianglong Wu, Yalei Pan
      Pages: 115 - 124
      Abstract: Radix Astragalus has been shown to exert beneficial effects regarding the prevention postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, its mechanism of action remains to be investigated. Calycosin, formononetin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside are the main isoflavone constituents of Astragalus. In this study, the abilities of these 3 compounds to promote osteogenic function of osteoblasts were compared, and the structure–activity relationships of these osteotrophic isoflavones were determined. Calycosin exhibited a greater effect than formononetin and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside regarding improvements in osteogenic function of osteoblasts, as demonstrated by cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen I and osteocalcin secretion, and the number and area of mineralized bone nodules. This suggests that calycosin may be better than formononetin and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside at preserving bone mass. In addition, calycosin, formononetin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside stimulate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt-related transcription factor 2 proteins, which indicates that all 3 agents may promote the osteogenesis of osteoblasts via regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression. In conclusion, calycosin may be the best candidate, with higher osteogenic activity than formononetin and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside. The higher osteogenic activity of calycosin could be attributable to the superiority of its chemical structure (a hydroxyl group at position C3 of Ring B and no glucosyl group).
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T02:30:55.23467-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5955
       
  • Safety evaluation of p‐synephrine following 15 days of oral
           administration to healthy subjects: A clinical study
    • Authors: Mohd Shara; Sidney J. Stohs, Mahmoud M. Smadi
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Extracts of bitter orange (BOE, Citrus aurantium L.) and its primary protoalkaloid p‐synephrine are extensively consumed as dietary supplements. p‐Synephrine is also present in foods and juices prepared from various Citrus species. The safety of p‐synephrine has been questioned as a result of structural similarities with ephedrine. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulant) and hemodynamic effects of BOE (49 mg p‐synephrine) daily given to 16 healthy subjects for 15 days in a placebo‐controlled, cross‐over, double‐blinded study. A physical evaluation by a cardiologist, as well as heart rates, blood pressures, and electrocardiograms were determined, and blood samples were drawn at baseline, and Days 5, 10, and 15. Serum levels for caffeine and p‐synephrine were measured at 1 and 2 weeks. Subjects completed a 10‐item health and metabolic questionnaire at baseline and on Day 15. No significant changes occurred in heart rate, electrocardiograms, systolic blood or diastolic pressures, blood cell counts, or blood chemistries in either the control or p‐synephrine treated groups at any time point. No adverse effects were reported in response to the bitter orange (p‐synephrine). Caffeine consumed by the participants varied markedly. Under these experimental conditions, BOE and p‐synephrine were without stimulant (cardiovascular) and adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T19:40:20.506964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5956
       
  • Immunostimulatory effects of cordycepin‐enriched WIB‐801CE from
           Cordyceps militaris in splenocytes and cyclophosphamide‐induced
           immunosuppressed mice
    • Authors: Ji-Sun Shin; Soo-Hak Chung, Woo-Seok Lee, Je-Young Lee, Jong-Lae Kim, Kyung-Tae Lee
      First page: 132
      Abstract: The medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to possess anticancer and immunomodulatory effects. We investigated the immunostimulatory effects of culture supernatant of C. militaris (WIB‐801CE) by examining its in vitro enhancing effects on cell proliferation and cytokine releases in splenocytes and its in vivo effects on cyclophosphamide‐induced immunosuppressed mice. WIB‐801CE enhanced normal and methotrexate‐induced cell proliferation. WIB‐801CE significantly ameliorated interleukin (IL)‐2, interferon‐γ, and tumor necrosis factor‐α secretion in methotrexate‐induced splenocytes. Oral administration of WIB‐801CE effectively increased the cyclophosphamide‐suppressed splenocyte proliferation and natural killer cytotoxic activity. WIB‐801CE effectively recovered cyclophosphamide‐induced decreases in IL‐2, interferon‐γ, tumor necrosis factor‐α, and IL‐10 level. The collective data implicate WIB‐801CE as a therapeutic candidate in ameliorating the immunosuppression through immunostimulatory properties.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:41:17.732209-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5960
       
  • A novel herbal composition containing extracts of Boswellia serrata gum
           resin and Aegle marmelos fruit alleviates symptoms of asthma in a placebo
           controlled double‐blind clinical study
    • Authors: Pothina Yugandhar; Konda Manikyeswara Rao, Krishanu Sengupta
      First page: 140
      Abstract: LI13109F is a novel herbal composition containing the extracts of Boswellia serrata gum resin and Aegle marmelos fruit. This composition dampens leukotriene dependent inflammatory reactions via inhibiting 5‐lipoxygenase pathway. In a Sephadex LH‐20 induced airway inflammation model of Sprague Dawley rats, LI13109F significantly reduced infiltrated granulocyte population in the bronco‐alveolar lavage fluid and normalized Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Further, a 56‐day placebo‐controlled and randomized double blind study (Clinical Trial Registration No. CTRI/2016/10/007393) on subjects with mild to moderate asthma has evaluated the clinical efficacy of LI13109F. The study subjects received either 200 mg/day of LI13109F (n = 18) or a similar dosage of placebo (n = 18). At the end of the trial period, LI13109F conferred significant improvements in the clinical parameters; the emotional function (p = .0305) and asthma symptoms scores (p = .0002) were improved even at 14 days, compared with the placebo. Further, 56 days supplementation of LI13109F resulted in significant increase in serum IFN‐γ (p = .0014) and reduction in IL‐4 (p = .0497), compared with placebo. LI13109F supplementation did not yield any serious adverse events or any abnormal observations in routine laboratory examinations during the study. Together, these observations suggest that LI13109F (AlvioLife®) is tolerable and an effective intervention for management of mild to moderate asthma such as airway inflammation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T03:35:28.949084-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5963
       
  • Possible therapeutic effect of carvacrol on asthmatic patients: A
           randomized, double blind, placebo‐controlled, Phase II clinical trial
    • Authors: Azam Alavinezhad; Mohammad Reza Khazdair, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
      First page: 151
      Abstract: The relaxant effects of carvacrol, a phenolic monoterpene, on tracheal smooth muscle and its preventive effect on asthmatic animals were reported. The effect of carvacrol in asthmatic patients was examined in the placebo group (Group P, n = 11) receiving placebo and treatment group (Group C, n = 12), which received carvacrol capsule (1.2 mg/kg/day) for 2 months in a double‐blind manner. Pulmonary function tests, respiratory symptoms, hematological indices, and high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hs‐CRP) were measured before, 1 and 2 months after starting treatment. At the end of treatment period, Pulmonary function tests values in Group C were significantly increased (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:05:35.948425-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5967
       
  • Citrus essential oils inhalation by mice: Behavioral testing, GCMS plasma
           analysis, corticosterone, and melatonin levels evaluation
    • Authors: Adriana Nunes Wolffenbüttel; Amanda Zamboni, Gabriela Becker, Maíra Kerpel Santos, Bruna Tassi Borille, Kristiane Cássia Mariotti, Ana Claudia Fagundes, Janaína Lucas Oliveira Salomón, Vanessa Rodrigues Coelho, Leire Virto Ruiz, Viviane Moura Linck, Eliane Dallegrave, Pilar Cano, Ana Isabel Esquifino, Mirna Bainy Leal, Renata Pereira Limberger
      First page: 160
      Abstract: The use of orange essential oils (EOs) as a complementary treatment is very common in Brazilian popular culture. The levels of melatonin (MEL) and corticosterone (CORT) hormones were investigated simultaneously, by the Luminex™ immunoassay system in mice plasma, after Citrus aurantium and Citrus sinensis EOs inhalation for 30 min. The plasma was analyzed by headspace through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for investigation of the EO components. Mice were submitted to behavioral testing to research anxiolytic‐like, sedative, and antidepressant‐like effects. The inhalation of atmosphere obtained from vaporization of 10% solution of this Citrus EO separately did not affect MEL or CORT plasma levels; that is, the MEL and CORT levels did not present variation in function of the EO in the schedule used. On the other hand, the imipramine positive control used altered the level of MEL as expected. The EO constituents were detected in plasma at different ratios that is present in inhaled EO. Behavioral tests showed that the inhalation of 10% C. sinensis EO presents an anxiolytic‐like and sedative effect. Thus, C. sinensis EO can be a valuable tool for treatment of the anxiety disturbs, apparently without interference with MEL and CORT physiological levels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:30:33.628135-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5964
       
  • Safranal Inhibits HeLa Cell Viability by Perturbing the Reassembly
           Potential of Microtubules
    • Authors: Sanith Cheriyamundath; Sinjan Choudhary, Manu Lopus
      Pages: 170 - 173
      Abstract: Saffron, a spice from Crocus sativus, has been known for its health benefits and medicinal properties. Safranal is a component of saffron and is known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. In this study, we elucidated a possible tubulin-targeted antiproliferative mechanism of action of safranal. In vitro, the compound perturbed secondary structure of tubulin without altering net microtubule polymer mass. It inhibited HeLa cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, with minimal damage to cellular microtubules. However, it strongly inhibited recovery of microtubule network after cold-induced disassembly, indicating its ability to interfere with the nucleation potential of tubulin. Further, as the acetylation pattern of the safranal-treated microtubules revealed, unlike many tubulin-targeted agents, the compound did not appear to induce persistent stabilization of microtubules. Our data shows an unusual, tubulin-targeted antiproliferative mechanism of safranal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T02:05:50.453666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5938
       
 
 
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