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Journal Cover Phytotherapy Research
  [SJR: 0.842]   [H-I: 92]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0951-418X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1573
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Matrine Suppresses the ER-positive MCF Cells by Regulating Energy
           Metabolism and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathway
    • Authors: Yi Xiao; Dachang Ma, Honglei Wang, Duoming Wu, Ying Chen, Kun Ji, Tao Qin, Li Wu
      Abstract: Matrine (C15H24N2O), an alkaloid that is one of the main active components from Sophora flavescens. Matrine has been demonstrated to have therapeutic effects on various solid tumors, including breast cancer, but the mechanism still needs further study. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-positive Michigan Cancer Foundation cells were cultured, and matrine was added in various amounts to measure the dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to observed nuclear morphological changes. Apoptosis was measured by AnnexinV/PI double staining assay kit. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate and glycometabolism were detected by assay kit. The protein levels GRP78, p-eIF2α, CHOP, cytochrome c, and HexokinaseII were analyzed. Mechanistic investigations revealed that matrine treatment causes ER dilation and up-regulated the expression of ER stress markers GRP78, eIF2α, and CHOP, increases the levels of apoptotic in Michigan Cancer Foundation cells, subsequently, blocking the ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway, significantly decreased matrine-induced apoptotic but still has significant difference between control group. In addition, matrine not only promoted the occurrence of ER stress but also inhibited the expression of hexokinase II, down-regulated energy metabolism. In summary, the present study suggests that the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis by matrine and down-regulated energy metabolism may account for its cytotoxic effects in human breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T04:25:45.706711-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5785
       
  • Anticancer Activity of Punica granatum (Pomegranate): A Review
    • Authors: Nisha Panth; Bikash Manandhar, Keshav Raj Paudel
      Abstract: Cancer is a pathological condition where excessive and abnormal cell growth leads to widespread invasion within the body to affect various organ functions. It is known that chemotherapeutic agents are themselves possible candidate of cancer generation as they can kill normal cells. So, therapeutic approach for cancer treatment and prevention is weighed in terms of benefit to risk ratio. Nowadays, there is an immense interest for the search herbal formulation with cancer preventive effect because of the problems, generated with existing chemotherapeutic regimens. Research interest in fruits rich in polyphenols is increasing because of their anticancer potential. In this review, we highlight the potential health benefits of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and the underlying mechanism of its inhibition of cancer progression. Pomegranate has demonstrated anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on various cancer cell line in vitro as well as in vivo animal model or human clinical trial. Although several clinical trials are in progress for identifying the pomegranate as a candidate for various cancer treatment. It is necessary to replicate and validate its therapeutic efficacy by multiple clinical studies in order to formulate pomegranate products as an integral part of the dietary and pharmacological intervention in anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T04:11:38.898692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5784
       
  • Alkaloids from Piper nigrum Exhibit Antiinflammatory Activity via
           Activating the Nrf2/HO­1 Pathway
    • Authors: Quynh­Mai Thi Ngo; Phuong Thao Tran, Manh Hung Tran, Jeong Ah. Kim, Seong Soo Rho, Chi-Hwan Lim, Jin-Cheol Kim, Mi Hee Woo, Jae Sui Choi, Jeong-Hyung Lee, Byung Sun Min
      Abstract: In the present study, ten alkaloids, namely chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), retrofractamide A (3), pyrroperine (4), isopiperolein B (5), piperamide C9:1 (8E) (6), 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7), 4,5-dihydropiperine (8), dehydropipernonaline (9), and piperine (10), were isolated from the fruits of Piper nigrum. Among these, chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), retrofractamide A (3), isopiperolein B (5), and 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7) exhibited significant inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 6.8, 14.5, 30.2, 23.7, and 38.5 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in bone marrow-derived macrophages with IC50 value of 9.5 μM. Consistent with NO inhibition, treatment of RAW264.7 cells with chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), and 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7) suppressed expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), and 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7) induced heme-oxygenase-1 expression at the transcriptional level. In addition, compound 1 induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 target genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase catalytic subunit, in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells. These findings suggest that chabamide (1) from P. nigrum exert antiinflammatory effects via the activation of the Nrf2/heme-oxygenase-1 pathway; hence, it might be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T03:00:31.108928-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5780
       
  • Cryptotanshinone Inhibits STAT3 Signaling to Alleviate Cardiac Fibrosis in
           Type 1-like Diabetic Rats
    • Authors: Shih-Hsiang Lo; Chao-Tien Hsu, Ho-Shan Niu, Chiang-Shan Niu, Juei-Tang Cheng, Zhih-Cherng Chen
      Abstract: Cryptotanshinone is an active principal ingredient isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), a medicinal plant used in China to treat cardiac disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cryptotanshinone on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic model hyperglycemic rats (STZ-treated rats), fasting blood glucose levels and heart weight/body weight ratio were markedly increased but both were not modified by cryptotanshinone. Additionally, cardiac performance in catheterized STZ-treated rats was improved. The histological results from Masson staining showed that cryptotanshinone attenuated cardiac fibrosis in STZ-treated rats. Moreover, both the mRNA and protein levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), matrix metalloproteinase-9, and connective tissue growth factor were reduced by cryptotanshinone in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes, similar to the reductions observed in the hearts of STZ-treated rats. In conclusion, while STAT3 regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 and connective tissue growth factor expression in diabetic rats with cardiac fibrosis, cryptotanshinone inhibited fibrosis to improve cardiac function by suppressing the STAT3 pathway. Cryptotanshinone is suitable as an alternative remedy for therapy of cardiac fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T01:17:02.451312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5777
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Cissus quadrangularis L. in Clinical Use: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Ratree Sawangjit; Panupong Puttarak, Surasak Saokaew, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
      Abstract: Cissus quadrangularis L. (Cissus) is a medicinal plant commonly used for centuries for various conditions, but lacks critical appraisal of its clinical effects. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Cissus in all conditions. Publications from 12 electronic databases were searched from inception through November 2016. A total of nine studies with 1108 patients were included. Each outcome was pooled using a random effects model. Effects of Cissus on hemorrhoid symptoms were not different from any comparators but had significant effects on bone pain. Effects of Cissus combination products on body weight reduction, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were superior to placebo, with weighted mean difference of −5.19 kg (−8.82, −1.55), −14.43 mg/dl (−20.06, −8.80), −37.50 mg/dl (−48.71, −26.29), −50.50 mg/dl (−70.97, −30.04), and −10.39 mg/dl (−14.60, −6.18), respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Quality of evidence based on Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) indicated low (bone fractures) to high quality (hemorrhoids, body weight reduction).In conclusion, Cissus had benefit for bone fractures, but not for hemorrhoids. For obesity/overweight, only combination products are pooled and show benefit. However, high-quality studies remain needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T05:05:40.938863-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5783
       
  • Cognitive Ameliorating Effect of Acanthopanax koreanum Against
           Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice
    • Authors: Sunhee Lee; Ho Jae Park, Se Jin Jeon, Eunji Kim, Hyung Eun Lee, Haneul Kim, Yubeen Kwon, Jiabao Zhang, In Ho Jung, Jong Hoon Ryu
      Abstract: Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae) is one of the most widely cultivated medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea, and the roots and stem bark of A. koreanum have been traditionally used as a tonic agent for general weakness. However, the use of A. koreanum for general weakness observed in the elderly, including those with declined cognitive function, has not been intensively investigated. This study was performed to investigate the effect of the ethanol extract of A. koreanum (EEAK) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. To evaluate the ameliorating effects of EEAK against scopolamine-induced memory impairment, mice were orally administered EEAK (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), and several behavioral tasks, including a passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and a novel object recognition task, were employed. Besides, western blot analysis was conducted to examine whether EEAK affected memory-associated signaling molecules, such as protein kinase B (Akt), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance task, the Y-maze, and the novel object recognition task. The phosphorylation levels of both Akt and CaMKII were significantly increased by approximately two-fold compared with the control group because of the administration of EEAK (100 or 200 mg/kg) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T04:55:36.248793-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5764
       
  • Four Main Active Ingredients Derived from a Traditional Chinese Medicine
           Guanxin Shutong Capsule Cause Cardioprotection during Myocardial Ischemia
           Injury Calcium Overload Suppression
    • Authors: Feng Liu; Zhuang-Zhuang Huang, Yu-Hong Sun, Ting Li, Dong-Hua Yang, Gang Xu, Ying-Ying Su, Tao Zhang
      Abstract: Guanxin Shutong capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI). Previous studies have shown that the formula has four main active ingredients (FMAI), protocatechuic acid, cryptotanshinone, borneol, and eugenol. However, the mechanisms of action of these FMAI against MI injury are still not well known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the FMAI on MI in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated, the cell viability and apoptosis rate were, respectively, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and fluorescence activating cell sorter, and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and CaM and CaMKII δ mRNA as well as protein levels were determined. Meanwhile, their downstream targets of RyR2 and PLB were also measured by western blot. In vivo, a rat model of coronary artery ligation was used to evaluate the cardioprotective effects. Infarct sizes of heart tissues and levels of serum biochemical indicators, including creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, were measured. The in vitro results showed that the FMAI inhibited cell apoptosis, reduced [Ca2+]i, decreased the expression of CaM and CaMKII δ, and increased the expression of RyR2 and PLB. In vivo, the FMAI diminished infract size, reduced creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, our data suggest that the FMAI suppressed calcium overload and exerted its protective effect via its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anti-apoptosis activities. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T04:45:31.465701-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5787
       
  • Anti-Metastatic Effect of Dehydrocorydaline on H1299 Non-Small Cell Lung
           Carcinoma Cells via Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases and B Cell
           Lymphoma 2
    • Authors: Jihyun Lee; Eun Jung Sohn, Sang Wook Yoon, Chang Geun Kim, Sangil Lee, Joe Young Kim, Namin Baek, Sung-Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Though Dehydrocorydaline, an alkaloid isolated from Corydalis turtschaninovii tuber, was known to have anti-coronary artery disease, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, anti-allergic, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and antitumor effects, the underlying anti-metastatic mechanism of Dehydrocorydalin was never elucidated in lung cancer cells so far. Thus, in the present study, the anti-metastatic effect of Dehydrocorydaline was examined in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells, mainly targeting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) signaling. Here, Dehydrocorydaline exerted weak cytotoxicity and attenuated the protein expression of Bcl-2 and activated Bax in a concentration-dependent manner in NSCLC cells, such as A549, H460, H1299, and H596 cells. Also, Dehydrocorydaline suppressed the migration of H1299 cells by wound healing assay and transwell migration assay. Consistently, Dehydrocorydaline attenuated mRNA and protein levels of MMP7 and MMP9 as metastasis biomarkers in H1299 cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Of note, Bcl-2 overexpression reduced the cytotoxic and anti-metastatic effects of Dehydrocorydaline on pCDNA-Bcl-2 transfected H1299 cells. Overall, our findings provide scientific evidence that Dehydrocorydaline exerts anti-metastatic potential via suppression of MMPs and Bcl-2 signaling in NSCLC cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T22:05:40.035675-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5766
       
  • Antiinflammation Effects and Mechanisms Study of Geniposide on Rats with
           Collagen-Induced Arthritis
    • Authors: Rong Wang; Hong Wu, Jian Chen, Shu-Ping Li, Li Dai, Zheng-Rong Zhang, Wen-Yu Wang
      Abstract: Geniposide (GE), an iridoid glycoside compound purified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has antiinflammatory and other pharmacological effects, but its mechanism of actions on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been clarified. The purpose of this article was to investigate the pharmacological effects of GE on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and its feasible mechanisms. Collagen-induced arthritis was induced by injection of chicken type II collagen emulsion. The rats were orally administered with GE (33, 66, and 132 mg/kg) from days 14 to 30 after immunization. The histological examination showed that GE could attenuate histopathologic changes of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) in CIA rats. Geniposide inhibited the production of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-17, while promoting the production of IL-4 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in MLN lymphocytes (MLNLs). Moreover, the proliferation capability of MLNLs was increased after the administration of GE. In addition, the treatment with GE in vivo decreased the expressions of P-Raf, P-MEK, and P-Erk1/2 in MLNLs. These results may highlight the antiinflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of GE in MLNLs of RA. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T01:01:08.233778-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5775
       
  • Ethanol Extract of Potentilla supina Linne Suppresses LPS-induced
           Inflammatory Responses through NF-κB and AP-1 Inactivation in Macrophages
           and in Endotoxic mice
    • Authors: Hae-Jun Lee; Ji-Sun Shin, Kyoung-Goo Lee, Sang Cheol Park, Young Pyo Jang, Jung-Hwan Nam, Kyung-Tae Lee
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated the antiinflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of Potentilla. supina Linne (EPS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and septic mice. EPS suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β at production and mRNA levels in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, EPS attenuated the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 by downregulation of their promoter activities. Molecularly, EPS reduced the LPS-induced transcriptional activity and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and this was associated with a decrease of translocation and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB by inhibiting the inhibitory κB-α degradation and IKK-α/β phosphorylation. Furthermore, EPS inhibited the LPS-induced activation of activator protein-1 by reducing the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in nuclear. EPS also suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In an LPS-induced endotoxemia mouse model, pretreatment with EPS reduced the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the survival rate of mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of EPS were associated with the suppression of NF-κB and activator protein-1 activation and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of endotoxemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T00:45:36.081753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5773
       
  • Artichoke Leaf Extract Inhibits AKR1B1 and Reduces NF-κB Activity in
           Human Leukemic Cells
    • Authors: Ivana Miláčková; Kristína Kapustová, Pavel Mučaji, Jan Hošek
      Abstract: The human intracellular enzyme AKR1B1 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. The AKR1B1-catalyzed reduction of aldehydes is part of the intracellular inflammatory pathway leading to the activation of NF-κB and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The present study is aimed at determining the inhibition of AKR1B1 brought about by an extract of artichoke leaves (bracts), and the effects of this extract and three participating compounds on the expression of AKR1B1, COX-2, and MMP-2 proteins in THP-1 cells. It seeks to identify the ability of the test substances to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NF-κB in cells and the intracellular oxidant effect of test substances after incubation with LPS. Low concentrations of the extract inhibit the enzyme AKR1B1. After stimulation by LPS, the extract attenuated the activity of NF-κB in THP-1 cells, but no changes in the expression of AKR1B1 were recorded. The extract diminished the expression of the inflammation-related enzymes COX-2 and MMP-2, probably by inhibiting the activity of NF-κB. The extract significantly diminished the intracellular reactive oxygen species after a brief LPS incubation, which may also have reduced intracellular inflammation. The diminished activity of NF-κB in the cells could be linked to the inhibition of the activity of AKR1B1. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T22:41:22.608011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5774
       
  • A Multifactorial Comparison of Ternary Combinations of Essential Oils in
           Topical Preparations to Current Antibiotic Prescription Therapies for the
           Control of Acne Vulgaris-Associated Bacteria.
    • Authors: Lucy Owen; Martin Grootveld, Randolph Arroo, Victor Ruiz-Rodado, Penny Price, Katie Laird
      Abstract: Acne vulgaris, a chronic condition associated with overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, is commonly treated with antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in a need for alternative therapies. The aim of this study is to develop a topical preparation incorporating essential oils (EOs) for use against acne-associated bacteria and assess its efficacy against prescription therapies Dalacin T and Stiemycin. Antimicrobial screening of rosewood, clove bud and litsea EOs was conducted before interactions between binary and ternary combinations were determined against P. acnes and S. epidermidis (type and clinical isolates) using minimum inhibitory concentrations and fractional inhibitory concentrations. The EOs were characterised by both gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. A combination of 0.53 mg/mL litsea, 0.11 mg/mL rosewood and 0.11 mg/mL clove bud was formulated into herbal distillates and compared with Dalacin T and Stiemycin against antibiotic sensitive and resistant isolates (erythromycin). The distillate with EO had synergistic activity against P. acnes (7log10 reduction) and indifferent activity against S. epidermidis (6log10 reduction); antimicrobial activity was either significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more antimicrobial or equivalent to that of Dalacin T and Stiemycin. This formulation may serve as a valuable alternative for the control of acne vulgaris-associated bacteria. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T00:30:30.704033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5762
       
  • Effects of Silymarin on Diabetes Mellitus Complications: A Review
    • Authors: Aline Maria Stolf; Cibele Campos Cardoso, Alexandra Acco
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that is caused by a deficit in the production of (type 1) or response to (type 2) insulin. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a state of chronic hyperglycemia and such symptoms as weight loss, thirst, polyuria, and blurred vision. These disturbances represent one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality nowadays, despite available treatments, such as insulin, insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, many efforts have been made to discover new drugs for diabetes treatment, including medicinal plant extracts. Silymarin is a powder extract of the seeds from Silybum marianum, a plant from the Asteraceae family. The major active ingredients include four isomers: silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin. Silymarin is indicated for the treatment of hepatic disorders, such as cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and gallstones. Moreover, several studies of other pathologies, including diabetes, sepsis, osteoporosis, arthritis, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, viral infections, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, have tested the effects of silymarin and reported promising results. This article reviews data from clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies on the use of silymarin, with a focus on the complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, neuropathy, healing delays, oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T22:37:31.037101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5768
       
  • White Ginseng Protects Mouse Hippocampal Cells Against Amyloid-Beta
           Oligomer Toxicity
    • Authors: Jin Gyu Choi; Namkwon Kim, Eugene Huh, Hwan Lee, Myeong Hwan Oh, Jong Dae Park, Mi Kyung Pyo, Myung Sook Oh
      Abstract: Amyloid-beta oligomer (AβO) is a soluble oligomer form of the Aβ peptide and the most potent amyloid-beta form that induces neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the effect of dried white ginseng extract (WGE) on neuronal cell damage and memory impairment in intrahippocampal AβO (10 μM)-injected mice. Mice were treated with WGE (100 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 12 days after surgery. WGE improved memory impairment by inhibiting hippocampal cell death caused by AβO. In addition, AβO-injected mice treated with WGE showed restoration of reduced synaptophysin and choline acetyltransferase intensity and lower levels of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 in the hippocampus compared with those of vehicle-treated controls. These results suggest that WGE reverses memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease by attenuating neuronal damage and neuroinflammation in the AβO-injected mouse hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T05:20:48.87445-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5776
       
  • Anthelmintic, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activity of Imidazole
           Alkaloids from Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaves
    • Authors: Jefferson A. Rocha; Ivanilza M. Andrade, Leiz M.C. Véras, Patrick V. Quelemes, David F. Lima, Maria J.S. Soares, Pedro L.S. Pinto, Simon J. Mayo, Galya Ivanova, Maria Rangel, Manuela Correia, Ana Carolina Mafud, Yvonne P. Mascarenhas, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Josué Moraes, Peter Eaton, José R.S.A. Leite
      Abstract: Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is a plant native to the northern and northeastern macroregions of Brazil. Several alkaloids from this species have been isolated. There are few reports of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities for these compounds. In this work, we report the antibacterial and anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids found in P. microphyllus leaves, namely, pilosine, epiisopilosine, isopilosine, epiisopiloturine and macaubine. Of these, only anthelmintic activity of one of the compounds has been previously reported. Nuclear magnetic resonance, HPLC and mass spectrometry were combined and used to identify and confirm the structure of the five compounds. As regards the anthelmintic activity, the alkaloids were studied using in vitro assays to evaluate survival time and damaged teguments for Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We found epiisopilosine to have anthelmintic activity at very low concentrations (3.125 μg mL−1); at this concentration, it prevented mating, oviposition, reducing motor activity and altered the tegument of these worms. In contrast, none of the alkaloids showed antibacterial activity. Additionally, alkaloids displayed no cytotoxic effect on vero cells. The potent anthelmintic activity of epiisopilosine indicates the potential of this natural compound as an antiparasitic agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:50:56.940068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5771
       
  • The Flavonoid 7,4′-Dihydroxyflavone Prevents Dexamethasone Paradoxical
           Adverse Effect on Eotaxin Production by Human Fibroblasts
    • Authors: Changda Liu; Nan Yang, Xiaoke Chen, Jody Tversky, Jixun Zhan, Mirna Chehade, Rachel L. Miller, Xiu-Min Li
      Abstract: Eotaxin/CCL-11 is a major chemoattractant that contributes to eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. Glucocorticoids inhibit inflammation, but long-time exposure may cause paradoxical adverse effects by augmenting eotaxin/CCL-11production. The aim of this study was to determine if 7,4′-dihydroxyflavone (7,4′-DHF), the eotaxin/CCL11 inhibitor isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, reduces in vitro eotaxin production induced by long-time dexamethasone (Dex) exposure, and if so, to elucidate the mechanisms of this inhibition. Human lung fibroblast-1 cells were used to identify the potency of 7,4′-DHF compared with other compounds from G. uralensis, to compare 7,4′-DHF with Dex on eotaxin production following 24-h short-time culture and 72-h longer-time (LT) culture, and to determine the effects of the 7,4′-DHF on Dex LT culture augmented eotaxin production and molecule mechanisms. 7,4′-DHF was the most potent eotaxin/CCL-11 inhibitor among the ten compounds and provided continued suppression. In contrast to short-time culture, Dex LT culture increased constitutively, and IL-4/TNF-α stimulated eotaxin/CCL11 production by human lung fibroblast-1 cells. This adverse effect was abrogated by 7,4′-DHF co-culture. 7,4′-DHF significantly inhibited Dex LT culture augmentation of p-STAT6 and impaired HDAC2 expression. This study demonstrated that 7,4′-DHF has the ability to consistently suppress eotaxin production and prevent Dex-paradoxical adverse effects on eotaxin production. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T00:26:48.37046-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5767
       
  • Piperine, a Pungent Alkaloid from Black Pepper, Inhibits B Lymphocyte
           Activation and Effector Functions
    • Authors: David A. Soutar; Carolyn D. Doucette, Robert S. Liwski, David W. Hoskin
      Abstract: Piperine has several well-documented anti-inflammatory properties; however, little is known regarding its effect on humoral immunity. In this study, we describe the immunosuppressive effect of piperine on B lymphocytes, which are integral to the humoral immune response. Mouse B cells were cultured in the absence or presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations (25, 50, and 100 μM) of piperine during T-dependent or T-independent stimulation. Piperine inhibited B cell proliferation by causing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in association with reduced expression of cyclin D2 and D3. The inhibitory effect of piperine was not mediated through transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel (TRPV1) because piperine also inhibited the proliferation of B cells from TRPV1-deficient mice. Expression of class II major histocompatibility complex molecules and costimulatory CD40 and CD86 on B lymphocytes was reduced in the presence of piperine, as was B cell-mediated antigen presentation to syngeneic T cells. In addition, piperine inhibited B cell synthesis of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 cytokines, as well as IgM, IgG2b, and IgG3 immunoglobulins. The inhibitory effect of piperine on B lymphocyte activation and effector function warrants further investigation for possible application in the treatment of pathologies related to inappropriate humoral immune responses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T00:00:26.89162-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5772
       
  • Nerolidol Protects Against LPS-induced Acute Kidney Injury via Inhibiting
           TLR4/NF-κB Signaling
    • Authors: Lu Zhang; Dandan Sun, Yan Bao, Yan Shi, Yan Cui, Minghao Guo
      Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical care syndrome, resulting in acute reduction of renal function and up to 22% mortality of hospitalized patients. Nerolidol is a major component in several essential oils that possesses various pharmacological properties. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of nerolidol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Nerolidol dose-dependently reduced the pathological injuries of kidney induced by LPS in rats. Nerolidol significantly decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in LPS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, nerolidol inhibited LPS-induced decrease of cell viability in NRK-52E rat proximal tubular cells, which effect was concentration dependent. Nerolidol notably inhibited the increase of TNFα and IL-1β in LPS-treated rats and the mRNA expression of TNFα and IL-1β in LPS-treated NRK-52E cells. Nerolidol suppressed the increase of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB in kidneys of LPS-treated rats and LPS-treated NRK-52E cells. Overexpression of TLR4 and p65 NF-κB significantly suppressed nerolidol-induced inhibition of TNFα and IL-1β expression and increase of cell viability in LPS-treated cells. In summary, we found that nerolidol played a critical anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling and protected against LPS-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T03:40:26.342455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5770
       
  • Nigella sativa Supplementation Improves Asthma Control and Biomarkers: A
           Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Abdulrahman Koshak; Li Wei, Emad Koshak, Siraj Wali, Omer Alamoudi, Abdulrahman Demerdash, Majdy Qutub, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Michael Heinrich
      Abstract: Poor compliance with conventional asthma medications remains a major problem in achieving asthma control. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is used traditionally for many inflammatory conditions such as asthma. We aimed to investigate the benefits of NSO supplementation on clinical and inflammatory parameters of asthma. NSO capsules 500 mg twice daily for 4 weeks were used as a supplementary treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in asthmatics (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02407262). The primary outcome was Asthma Control Test score. The secondary outcomes were pulmonary function test, blood eosinophils and total serum Immunoglobulin E. Between 1 June and 30 December 2015, 80 asthmatics were enrolled, with 40 patients in each treatment and placebo groups. After 4 weeks, ten patients had withdrawn from each group. Compared with placebo, NSO group showed a significant improvement in mean Asthma Control Test score 21.1 (standard deviation = 2.6) versus 19.6 (standard deviation = 3.7) (p = 0.044) and a significant reduction in blood eosinophils by −50 (−155 to −1) versus 15 (−60 to 87) cells/μL (p = 0.013). NSO improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percentage of predicted value by 4 (−1.25 to 8.75) versus 1 (−2 to 5) but non-significant (p = 0.170). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that NSO supplementation improves asthma control with a trend in pulmonary function improvement. This was associated with a remarkable normalization of blood eosinophlia. Future studies should follow asthmatics for longer periods in a multicentre trial. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T03:15:35.658963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5761
       
  • Amhezole, A Novel Fungal Secondary Metabolite from Aspergillus terreus for
           Treatment of Microbial Mouth Infection
    • Authors: Amani S. Awaad; Hind A. AL-Mudhayyif, Monerah R. Al-Othman, Mohamed E. Zain, Reham M. El-Meligy
      Abstract: Bio-guided fractionation of Aspergillus terreus extract leads to isolation of a novel terpenoidal secondary metabolite. The isolated compound and the total alcoholic extract of Aspergillus terreus showed a remarkable activity against microbial mouth infections; namely, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus gordonii, and S. mutan. Moreover, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the isolated compound was determined and showed low values. The combination of each of the alcoholic extract of A. terreus and the isolated compound Coe-Comfort tissue conditioner inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at concentrations of 500 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively, Lactobacillus acidophilus at concentrations of 250 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively, Streptococcus gordonii at concentrations of 1000 and 62.50 µg/mL, respectively, and S. mutans at concentrations of 1000 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. The oral dosing of the extract and the isolated compound did not show any significant effect on the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspirate aminotransferase, and the levels of blood urea and serum creatinine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T04:05:22.015568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5760
       
  • Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mills
    • Authors: Javier Rodríguez Villanueva; Laura Rodríguez Villanueva
      Abstract: Ziziphus jujuba Mills, ‘annab’ in Iran, ‘ber’ in India or ‘pomme sourette’ in France, is a species whose fruit (known warmly as ‘the fruits of life’ in China) has been consumed for centuries for its nutritional value. The food industry used it as a food additive and flavoring. The dry seeds, the crude leaves and the stem bark are still used in ethnopharmacology to treat digestive disorders and gastric ulcers as antitussive, laxative and hypotensive drugs; even now, it is used in China to treat children who suffer from typhoid fever, furuncle and ecthyma. In Taiwan, the dry seeds for the variety spinosa (Suan Zao Ren) are the second most commonly prescribed and used phytomedicine for insomnia. Its popularity and production have increased worldwide in recent years, especially in Europe. The European Pharmacopoeia Commission has been unable to elaborate upon the EP monograph on Ziziphi spinosae semen as was planned. The EMA has not made its recommendations yet. Is it still a gap in the scientific knowledge' Or is difficult for traditional Chinese medicinal herbs to fulfill the style and quality parameters that are required' Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T03:40:29.644387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5759
       
  • Anti-HCV Activity from Semi-purified Methanolic Root Extracts of Valeriana
           wallichii
    • Authors: Krishna Kumar Ganta; Anirban Mandal, Sukalyani Debnath, Banasri Hazra, Binay Chaubey
      Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130–150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant. Huh-7.5 cells infected with J6/JFH chimeric HCV strain were treated with water, chloroform, and methanol extracts at different concentrations. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction result demonstrated that methanolic extract showed reduction in HCV replication. The methanolic extract was fractionated by thin layer chromatography, and the purified fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were checked for anti-HCV activity. Significant viral inhibition was noted only in F4 fraction. Further, intrinsic fluorescence assay of purified HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B in the presence of F4 resulted in sharp quenching of intrinsic fluorescence with increasing amount of plant extract. Our results indicated that methanolic extract of V. wallichii and its fraction (F4) inhibited HCV by binding with HCV NS5B protein. The findings would be further investigated to identify the active principle/lead molecule towards development of complementary and alternative therapeutics against HCV. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T03:06:05.942526-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5765
       
  • Gentiana scabra Bunge. Formula for Herpes Zoster: Biological Actions of
           Key Herbs and Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety
    • Authors: Kaiyi Wang; Meaghan E. Coyle, Suzi Mansu, Anthony Lin Zhang, Charlie Changli Xue
      Abstract: This study reviewed the biological action of key herbs and evaluated systematically the efficacy and safety of oral Gentiana formula for herpes zoster (HZ). Experimental studies relevant to HZ were identified in PubMed. Randomized controlled trials using Gentiana formula for HZ were identified from nine English and Chinese databases. The primary outcome was evaluation of pain. Potential risk of bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Key herbs Gentiana scabra Bunge, Gentiana triflora Pall, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis have shown antiinflammatory actions through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes. Twenty-six clinical studies, involving 2955 participants, were included. Modified Gentiana formula resolved pain earlier than pharmacotherapy when used alone or combined with topical Chinese herbal medicine. Incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower (risk ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.74) with modified Gentiana formula plus topical Chinese herbal medicine. Mild adverse events were reported. Antiinflammatory actions of key herbs of Gentiana formula may explain clinical benefit in hastening pain relief and decreasing postherpetic neuralgia. Few adverse events were reported. Findings were limited by study quality and diversity in intervention and comparator dosage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T02:26:45.445812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5769
       
  • Anti-rheumatoid Arthritis Effect of Kaejadan via Analgesic and
           Antiinflammatory Activity in vivo and in vitro
    • Authors: Jung Jae Yoon; Eun Jung Sohn, Jung Hyo Kim, Jai Wha Seo, Sung-Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Although Kaejadan (KJD), an herbal cocktail of three medicinal plants (Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Cinnamomum loureirii, and Salvia miltiorrhiza), has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, its scientific evidence is not fully understood. Hence, we investigated antiinflammatory and analgesic mechanism of KJD in vivo and in vitro. Kaejadan suppressed the number of writhing responses in mice treated by acetic acid and showed antinociceptive effect by tail-flick test. Kaejadan abrogated serotonin or carrageenan or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced paw edema and also reduced the level of Evans Blue for vascular permeability. Furthermore, KJD effectively reduced the positive responses for C-reactive protein and rheumatoid arthritis test in FCA-treated rats. Of note, KJD inhibited the level of lipid peroxide malondialdehyde and enhanced the level of superoxide dismutase in the hepatic tissues of FCA-treated rats. Additionally, KJD abrogated the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Also, KJD reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 or inducible nitric oxide synthase at protein and mRNA levels in IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, our findings demonstrate that KJD exerts antiinflammatory and analgesic effects via enhancement of antioxidant activity and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T23:55:26.581205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5763
       
  • Issue Information
    • First page: 173
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T01:07:28.302742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5715
       
  • A systematic review on ethnomedicines of anti-cancer plants
    • Authors: Akash Tariq; Sehrish Sadia, Kaiwen Pan, Ihteram Ullah, Sakina Mussarat, Feng Sun, Olatunji Olusanya Abiodun, Altanzagas Batbaatar, Zilong Li, Dagang Song, Qinli Xiong, Riaz Ullah, Suliman Khan, Buddha Bahadur Basnet, Brawin Kumar, Rabiul Islam, Muhammad Adnan
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Cancer is a serious health problem and the second leading cause of death around the globe. Present review is an attempt to provide utmost information based on ethno-pharmacological and toxicological aspects of anti-cancer plants of the world. A total of 276 articles published in English journals and containing maximum ethnomedicinal information were reviewed using several data sources such as; Google scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and floras of different countries. A total of 199 anti-cancer plants were recorded in present review and results indicated that traditional medicines are mostly being use in developing countries for cancer treatment. Traditionally and scientifically skin and breast cancer types gained more focus. Seventy plants were reportedly analyzed for in-vitro activities while 32 plants were having in-vivo reports. Twenty nine pure compounds (mostly phenolic) were reportedly isolated from anti-cancer plants and tested against different cancer cell lines. Inspite having better efficiency of ethnomedicines as compared to synthetic drugs, several plants have also shown toxic effects on living system. Therefore, we invite researchers attention to carry out detailed ethno-pharmacological and toxicological studies on un-explored anti-cancer plants in order to provide reliable knowledge to the patients and develop novel anti-cancer drugs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T03:31:23.994627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5751
       
  • Risk Assessment via Metabolism and Cell Growth Inhibition in a HepG2/C3A
           Cell Line Upon Treatment with Arpadol and its Active Component Harpagoside
           
    • Authors: Bruna Isabela Biazi; Gláucia Fernanda Rocha D'Epiro, Thalita Alves Zanetti, Marcelo Tempesta Oliveira, Lucia Regina Ribeiro, Mário Sérgio Mantovani
      Abstract: Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp) has been used as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The principal active component of Hp is harpagoside (HA). We tested the toxicity of this new therapeutic agent in a hepatic cell line (HepG2/C3A). Hp was found to be cytotoxic, and HA was found to decrease the number of cells in S phase, increase the number of cells in G2/M phase and induce apoptosis. Neither Hp nor HA was genotoxic. The expression of CDK6 and CTP3A4 was reduced by Hp, and both HA and Hp caused a significant reduction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 expression. It is possible that the cytotoxicity caused by HA and Hp does not involve transcriptional regulation of the cyclins and CDKs tested but is instead related to the inhibition of metabolism. This is evidenced by the results of an MTT assay and changes in the expression of genes related to drug metabolism, leading to cell death. Indeed, the cells exhibited decreased proliferation upon exposure to Hp and HA. The data show that treatment with either Hp or HA can be cytotoxic, and this should be taken into consideration when balancing the risks and benefits of treatments for rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T05:30:45.600201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5757
       
  • Diterpenes as lead molecules against neglected tropical diseases
    • Authors: Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar; João Marcelo Castro e Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md. Torequl Islam
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs. For this, databases were searched using specific search terms. Among the 2338 collected reports, a total of 181 articles were included in this review. Of them, 148 dealt with investigations using single organisms, and 33 used multiple organisms. No mechanisms of action were reported in the case of 164 reports. A total of 93.92% were related to nonclinical studies, and 4.42% and 1.66% dealt with preclinical and clinical studies, respectively. The review displays that many diterpenes are effective upon Chagas disease, chikungunya, echinococcosis, dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis. Indeed, diterpenes are amazing drug candidates against NTDs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T02:35:36.182625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5749
       
  • Modulatory Effect of an Urera Aurantiaca Extract on Immune and Tumoral
           Cells During Inflammation
    • Authors: Carla Marrassini; Claudia Anesini
      First page: 265
      Abstract: There is a well known link between inflammation and cancer during initiation, propagation and metastasis. Urera aurantiaca (UA) Wedd. (Urticaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory processes with proven in vivo antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The effects of a methanolic extract (UA) and a purified fraction (PF) on the proliferation of normal and tumoral lymphocytes under the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and on nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages was evaluated. Both UA and PF stimulated normal lymphocytes but, in presence of PGE2, a modulatory effect was observed. The normal lymphocyte proliferation induced by PGE2 was driven by pathways involving both PKC and H2O2. In macrophages, UA and PF did not modify cell viability and abrogated the synthesis of nitric oxide induced by lipopolysaccharide. In tumoral lymphocytes, the UA exerted a biphasic effect: at low concentrations it increased cell proliferation, while at high concentrations, it displayed an antiproliferative effect. UA and PF were capable of reverting the proliferative action of PGE2. The tumoral cell proliferation induced by PGE2 is related to PKC, ERK 1/2 and MAP Kinase P38 pathways. The observed effects could be attributed to polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins. This work demonstrates the modulatory effects of the UA on different cell types during inflammatory conditions, which reinforces its antiinflammatory action. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:25:30.521593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5743
       
  • Polysaccharide of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction,
           Induces Expression of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Possibly Via Activation
           of NFκB Signaling in Cultured RAW 264.7 Cells
    • Authors: Amy GW Gong; Laura ML Zhang, Candy TW Lam, Miranda L Xu, Huai Y Wang, HQ Lin, Tina TX Dong, Karl WK Tsim
      First page: 274
      Abstract: Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing two herbs, Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR): this herbal decoction serves as dietary supplement for women during menopause. DBT has been known to modulate immune responses, and its polysaccharide is proposed to be one of the active components. However, the polysaccharide-induced signaling in immune activation is not revealed. Here, we are identifying that the immune activation, triggered by DBT, could be mediated by polysaccharide. In cultured macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells), the application of polysaccharide-enriched extract of DBT significantly increased the expressions of mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. The induction was much stronger than the polysaccharide extract generated singly from AR, or from ASR, or from their simple mixture. The induced cytokine release in cultured macrophage was revealed to be triggered by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, including (i) degradation of IkBα; (ii) translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytosol to nuclei; and (iii) activation of NF-κB transcriptional elements. These results verified the possible role of DBT polysaccharide in modulating immune responses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03T01:15:29.353662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5745
       
  • Ginseng Protein Reverses Amyloid Beta Peptide and H2O2 Cytotoxicity in
           Neurons, and Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in AD Rats Induced by a
           Combination of D-Galactose and AlCl3
    • Authors: Hongyan Li; Jie Song, Jianghua Zhang, Tianmin Wang, Yuhui Yan, Zhenyu Tao, Shaoheng Li, Hui Zhang, Tingguo Kang, Jingxian Yang
      First page: 284
      Abstract: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most widely used herbal medicines worldwide. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of ginseng protein (GP) and its possible mechanisms in a cellular and animal model of AD. The results demonstrated that GP (10–100 µg/mL) significantly improved the survival rate of neurons and reduced the cells' apoptosis and the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, GP (0.1 g/kg) significantly shortened the escape latency, prolonged the crossing times and the percentage of residence time; reduced the level of Aβ1–42 and p-tau, the activity of T-NOS and iNOS, and the content of MDA and NO, improved the activity of SOD, the concentration of cAMP and the protein expression of p-PKA/PKA and -CREB/CREB. The results demonstrated that GP significantly inhibited Alzheimer-like pathophysiological changes induced by Aβ25–35 or H2O2 in cells or those induced by D-gal/ Al in animals. These neuroprotective effects of GP may be associated with the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. Also, in combination with our previous studies, these results indicate that the anti-AD mechanism of GP was likely to activate the CREB pathway through multiple channels. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T03:25:28.509742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5747
       
  • Metabolomics Reveals that Momordica charantia Attenuates Metabolic Changes
           in Experimental Obesity
    • Authors: Zhi-gang Gong; Jianbing Zhang, Yong-Jiang Xu
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Momordica charantia L., also known as bitter melon, has been shown to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. However, metabolic changes regulated by M. charantia in obesity are not clearly understood. In this study, serums obtained from obese and M. charantia-treated mice were analyzed by using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistical analysis was performed by Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results from this study indicated that body weight fat and insulin levels of obese mice are dramatically suppressed by 8 weeks of dietary supplementation of M. charantia. Metabolomic data revealed that overproductions of energy and nutrient metabolism in obese mice were restored by M. charantia treatment. The antiinflammatory and inhibition of insulin resistance effect of M. charantia in obesity was illustrated with the restoration of free fatty acids and eicosanoids. The findings achieved in this study further strengthen the therapeutic value of using M. charantia to treat obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T02:13:19.627537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5748
       
  • Effect of Perilla frutescens Extracts on Porcine Jejunal Epithelial Cells
    • Authors: Christine M. Kaufmann; Thomas Letzel, Johanna Grassmann, Michael W. Pfaffl
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Green-leaved Perilla frutescens extracts were investigated on their effect on cell proliferation of the porcine jejunal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, as well as on the gene expression of cell cycle or cancer-related genes. Some extracted compounds were, however, susceptible to degradation in cell culture medium, whereas others were found to be stable during the entire experimental time. Control experiments also included the assessment of H2O2 generation in cell culture medium caused by oxidation of natural extract compounds, which was proved to be absent at low extract concentrations. A fast and significant inhibition of cell growth at low physiological extract concentrations could be observed. This finding, along with an immediate downregulation of 67 kDa laminin receptor and cyclin D1 expression, can be accounted to the presence of Perilla frutescens extract. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13T05:05:37.893802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5750
       
  • Side-Effects of Irinotecan (CPT-11), the Clinically Used Drug for Colon
           Cancer Therapy, Are Eliminated in Experimental Animals Treated with Latex
           Proteins from Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae)
    • Authors: Nylane Maria Nunes Alencar; Flávio Silveira Bitencourt, Ingrid Samantha Tavares Figueiredo, Patrícia Bastos Luz, Roberto César P. Lima-Júnior, Karoline Sabóia Aragão, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Gerly Anne Castro Brito, Ronaldo Albuquerque Ribeiro, Ana Paula Fragoso Freitas, Marcio Viana Ramos
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Intestinal mucositis (IM) is the critical side effect of irinotecan (CPT-11), which is the front-line drug used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of latex proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera to prevent IM and diarrhea in animals. Swiss mice were treated daily with saline or LP (1, 5, or 50 mg/kg, i.v.) 24 h prior to CTP-11 (75 mg/kg/4 days, i.p) and for additional 6 days. Animal survival, body weight variation, and diarrhea were registered. After animal sacrifice (day 7 post first injection of CPT-11), intestinal samples were collected to study morphology and inflammatory parameters. Animals given LP exhibited improved parameters (survival, body weight, and absence of diarrhea) as compared with the CPT-11 control. The severity of IM observed in animals given CPT-11 was reduced in animals treated with LP. Treatment with LP also prevented the reduction in the villus/crypt ratio promoted by CPT-11. The rise in MPO activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines, over-contractility of the smooth muscle, and diarrhea were all abrogated in LP-treated mice. Markedly reduced immunostaining intensity for COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and NF-κB was observed in the intestinal tissue of animals treated with LP. The side-effects of CPT-11 were eliminated by LP treatment in experimental animals and improved clinical parameters characteristic of IM All known biochemical pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02T03:05:46.897566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5752
       
  • Mulberrofuran G Protects Ischemic Injury-induced Cell Death via Inhibition
           of NOX4-mediated ROS Generation and ER Stress
    • Authors: Sungeun Hong; Jaeyoung Kwon, Dong-Woo Kim, Hak Ju Lee, Dongho Lee, Woongchon Mar
      First page: 321
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of mulberrofuran G (MG) in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia. MG was isolated from the root bark of Morus bombycis. MG inhibited nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) enzyme activity and oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced NOX4 protein expression in SH-SY5Y cells. MG inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 and cleaved poly adenine dinucleotide phosphate-ribose polymerase in OGD/R-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, MG protected OGD/R-induced neuronal cell death and inhibited OGD/R-induced reactive oxygen species generation in SH-SY5Y cells. In in vivo model, MG-treated groups (0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct volume in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion-induced ischemic rats. The MG-treated groups also reduced NOX4 protein expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion-induced ischemic rats. Furthermore, protein expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein/binding immunoglobulin protein, phosphorylated IRE1α, X-box-binding protein 1, and cytosine enhancer binding protein homologous protein, mediators of endoplasmic reticulum stress, were inhibited in MG-treated groups. Taken together, MG showed protective effect in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia through inhibition of NOX4-mediated reactive oxygen species generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This finding will give an insight that inhibition of NOX enzyme activity and NOX4 protein expression could be a new potential therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02T03:22:23.191257-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5754
       
  • Flavonoids of Herba Epimedii Enhances Bone Repair in a Rabbit Model of
           Chronic Osteomyelitis During Post-infection Treatment and Stimulates
           Osteoblast Proliferation in Vitro
    • Authors: Dan Shou; Yang Zhang, Lifeng Shen, Rongzong Zheng, Xiaowen Huang, Zhujun Mao, Zhongming Yu, Nani Wang, Yan Zhu
      First page: 330
      Abstract: Flavonoids are the active component of the Herba Epimedii (H. Epimedii), which is commonly used in Asia. This study is to investigate the effect of H. Epimedii on bone repair after anti-infection treatment in vivo. The bioactive-composition group of H. Epimedii (BCGE) contained four flavonoids with the total content of 43.34%. Rabbits with chronic osteomyelitis in response to injection with Staphylococcus aureus were treated with BCGE of 242.70 mg/kg/day intragastrically after vancomycin-calcium sulphate treatment. Micro-computerd tomography (CT), morphology, blood biochemistry and osteocalcin levels were assessed for effect evaluation. In addition, the rat calvarial osteoblasts infected with S. aureus were treated with vancomycin and BCGE. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone morphogenetic protein 2, Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand mRNA levels and protein expression were assessed. Our results indicated that BCGE promoted bone repair via increasing the bone mass, the volume of bone, promoting osteocalcin secretion after vancomycin-calcium sulfate treatment. BCGE enhanced the cell proliferation, by regulating bone morphogenetic protein 2, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand mRNA and protein expression to maintain the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Therefore, BCGE is a potential adjuvant herbal remedy for the post-infection treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T00:50:36.141806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5755
       
  • (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Antihyperalgesic Effect Associates With
           Reduced CX3CL1 Chemokine Expression in Spinal Cord
    • Authors: Marc Bosch-Mola; Judit Homs, Beltrán Álvarez-Pérez, Teresa Puig, Francisco Reina, Enrique Verdú, Pere Boadas-Vaello
      First page: 340
      Abstract: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea with beneficial effects on the neuropathic pain alleviation in animal models. Because chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) has been suggested as an important signal during neuropathic pain development, this study aimed to investigate whether CX3CL1 expression may be modulated by EGCG treatment reducing hyperalgesia in chronic constriction injured mice. To this end, Balb/c mice were subjected to a chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI) and treated with EGCG or vehicle once a day during the first week following surgery. Thermal hyperalgesia was tested at 7 and 14 days post-surgery, and the expression of CX3CL1 and its mRNA were analyzed in spinal cord at the end of the experimental period. Results revealed that EGCG treatment significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia in CCI-injured mice at short time, and this antihyperalgesic effect was associated with a down-regulation of CX3CL1 protein expression in the spinal cord. On the other hand, EGCG treatment did not affect the CX3CL1 transcription. Overall, our results suggest a new role of EGCG-treatment in an experimental model of neuropathic pain as a mediator of nociceptive signaling cross talk between neurons and glial cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T00:15:28.639686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5753
       
  • Magnesium Lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Ameliorates
           Aging-Induced Renal Inflammation and Senescence via NADPH Oxidase-Mediated
           Reactive Oxygen Generation
    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to examine whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae radix was renoprotective in pathways related to age-related oxidative stress in aged rats. Magnesium lithospermate B was orally administered at a dose of 2- or 8-mg/kg body weight for 16 consecutive days, and the effects were compared with those of vehicle in old and young rats. Magnesium lithospermate B administration to old rats ameliorated renal oxidative stress through reduction of reactive oxygen species. The old rats exhibited a dysregulation of the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidneys, and MLB administration significantly reduced the protein expression of major subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox4 and p22phox), phospho-p38, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, MLB-treated old rats showed lower levels of senescence-related proteins such as p16, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, p53, and p21 through effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Magnesium lithospermate B administration also significantly attenuated the age-related increase in serum urea nitrogen, reflecting renal dysfunction, up-regulated podocyte structural proteins, and reduced renal structural injury. Our results provide important evidence that MLB reduces the renal damage of oxidative stress in old rats. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Methyl Jasmonate Ameliorates Testosterone Propionate-induced Prostatic
           Hyperplasia in Castrated Wistar Rats
    • Abstract: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is related to age. Known therapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH are associated with toxicity. Therefore, chemoprevention could be an effective approach. We investigated the ameliorative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH in castrated rats. Castration was performed by removing both testes through the scrotum sack under ketamine anesthesia. Rats were assigned into seven groups of seven animals each: non-castrated control, castrated control, castrated rats that received TP, castrated rats that received TP and MeJA, castrated rats that received TP and finasteride, castrated rats that received MeJA, and castrated rats that received finasteride. Results indicate that BPH rats had significantly (p 
       
  • Ethno-Herbal-Medico in Wound Repair: An Incisive Review
    • Abstract: Wound healing/cicatrization is a complex series of intricate processes that involve renewal of skin/epidermis after injury. A large number of ethno-medicinal plants/plant extracts are used by tribal and folklore traditions in developing world for the treatment of wounds, burns and cuts in distinct appearances. Moreover, plants/plant extracts have a significant history and successful clinical track record as indigenous drugs in wound repair systems. This review provides detailed information on molecular and cellular mechanism of plant/plant extracts on wound healing applications and further analyses the opportunities and scope with its future openings and prospects owing to the multifaceted challenges attached with neo-tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • A Review of the Antiviral Properties of Black Elder (Sambucus nigra L.)
           Products
    • Abstract: Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) has a long ethnobotanical history across many disparate cultures as a treatment for viral infection and is currently one of the most-used medicinal plants worldwide. Until recently, however, substantial scientific research concerning its antiviral properties has been lacking. Here, we evaluate the state of current scientific research concerning the use of elderberry extract and related products as antivirals, particularly in the treatment of influenza, as well as their safety and health impacts as dietary supplements. While the extent of black elder's antiviral effects are not well known, antiviral and antimicrobial properties have been demonstrated in these extracts, and the safety of black elder is reflected by the United States Food and Drug Administration approval as generally recognized as safe. A deficit of studies comparing these S. nigra products and standard antiviral medications makes informed and detailed recommendations for use of S. nigra extracts in medical applications currently impractical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine and Natural Killer Cells for Cancer
           Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Traditional oriental herbal medicine (HM) is used by cancer patients to improve immunity. Natural killer (NK) cells are associated with development and progression of tumor and survival of cancer patients. This literature review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in four electronic databases until October 2015 to evaluate the effects of oral HM on NK cells in cancer patients. Data were pooled and computed in a meta-analysis. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Sixteen RCTs involving 1326 cancer patients were identified. Combination of HM and conventional treatment was associated with significantly higher level of NK cells compared with conventional cancer treatments (standardized mean difference, 1.218; 95% confidence interval 0.719–1.717; p 
       
  • Effects of Curcumin on Serum Vitamin E Concentrations in Individuals with
           Metabolic Syndrome
    • Abstract: Vitamin E is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on serum vitamin E levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 120 subjects aged 18–65 years old with MetS were recruited in this study according to the International Diabetic Federation Criteria. Included subjects were randomized into three groups: subjects receiving lecithinized curcumin (1 g/day equivalent to 200-mg pure curcumin per day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40), patients receiving unformulated curcumin (1 g/day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40) and a control group receiving placebo for the same period (n = 40). Vitamin E was determined in all patients before and after the intervention using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results showed that curcumin has no improving effect on serum levels of vitamin E (p > 0.05). There were significant differences between pre-trial and post-trial levels of vitamin E/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (p 
       
  • Curcumin Suppresses Lung Cancer Stem Cells via Inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin
           and Sonic Hedgehog Pathways
    • Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are highly implicated in the progression of human cancers. Thus, targeting CSCs may be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways play an important regulatory role in maintaining CSC characteristics. Natural compounds, such as curcumin, possess chemopreventive properties. However, the interventional effect of curcumin on lung CSCs has not been clarified. In the present study, tumorsphere formation assay was used to enrich lung CSCs from A549 and H1299 cells. We showed that the levels of lung CSC markers (CD133, CD44, ALDHA1, Nanog and Oct4) and the number of CD133-positive cells were significantly elevated in the sphere-forming cells. We further illustrated that curcumin efficiently abolished lung CSC traits, as evidenced by reduced tumorsphere formation, reduced number of CD133-positive cells, decreased expression levels of lung CSC markers, as well as proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. Moreover, we demonstrated that curcumin suppressed the activation of both Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. Taken together, our data suggested that curcumin exhibited its interventional effect on lung CSCs via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. These novel findings could provide new insights into the potential therapeutic application of curcumin in lung CSC elimination and cancer intervention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
 
 
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