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Journal Cover Phytotherapy Research
  [SJR: 0.842]   [H-I: 92]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0951-418X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1573
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Anti-HCV Activity from Semi-purified Methanolic Root Extracts of Valeriana
    • Authors: Krishna Kumar Ganta; Anirban Mandal, Sukalyani Debnath, Banasri Hazra, Binay Chaubey
      Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130–150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant. Huh-7.5 cells infected with J6/JFH chimeric HCV strain were treated with water, chloroform, and methanol extracts at different concentrations. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction result demonstrated that methanolic extract showed reduction in HCV replication. The methanolic extract was fractionated by thin layer chromatography, and the purified fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were checked for anti-HCV activity. Significant viral inhibition was noted only in F4 fraction. Further, intrinsic fluorescence assay of purified HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B in the presence of F4 resulted in sharp quenching of intrinsic fluorescence with increasing amount of plant extract. Our results indicated that methanolic extract of V. wallichii and its fraction (F4) inhibited HCV by binding with HCV NS5B protein. The findings would be further investigated to identify the active principle/lead molecule towards development of complementary and alternative therapeutics against HCV. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T03:06:05.942526-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5765
  • Gentiana scabra Bunge. Formula for Herpes Zoster: Biological Actions of
           Key Herbs and Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety
    • Authors: Kaiyi Wang; Meaghan E. Coyle, Suzi Mansu, Anthony Lin Zhang, Charlie Changli Xue
      Abstract: This study reviewed the biological action of key herbs and evaluated systematically the efficacy and safety of oral Gentiana formula for herpes zoster (HZ). Experimental studies relevant to HZ were identified in PubMed. Randomized controlled trials using Gentiana formula for HZ were identified from nine English and Chinese databases. The primary outcome was evaluation of pain. Potential risk of bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Key herbs Gentiana scabra Bunge, Gentiana triflora Pall, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis have shown antiinflammatory actions through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes. Twenty-six clinical studies, involving 2955 participants, were included. Modified Gentiana formula resolved pain earlier than pharmacotherapy when used alone or combined with topical Chinese herbal medicine. Incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower (risk ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.74) with modified Gentiana formula plus topical Chinese herbal medicine. Mild adverse events were reported. Antiinflammatory actions of key herbs of Gentiana formula may explain clinical benefit in hastening pain relief and decreasing postherpetic neuralgia. Few adverse events were reported. Findings were limited by study quality and diversity in intervention and comparator dosage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T02:26:45.445812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5769
  • Anti-rheumatoid Arthritis Effect of Kaejadan via Analgesic and
           Antiinflammatory Activity in vivo and in vitro
    • Authors: Jung Jae Yoon; Eun Jung Sohn, Jung Hyo Kim, Jai Wha Seo, Sung-Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Although Kaejadan (KJD), an herbal cocktail of three medicinal plants (Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Cinnamomum loureirii, and Salvia miltiorrhiza), has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, its scientific evidence is not fully understood. Hence, we investigated antiinflammatory and analgesic mechanism of KJD in vivo and in vitro. Kaejadan suppressed the number of writhing responses in mice treated by acetic acid and showed antinociceptive effect by tail-flick test. Kaejadan abrogated serotonin or carrageenan or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced paw edema and also reduced the level of Evans Blue for vascular permeability. Furthermore, KJD effectively reduced the positive responses for C-reactive protein and rheumatoid arthritis test in FCA-treated rats. Of note, KJD inhibited the level of lipid peroxide malondialdehyde and enhanced the level of superoxide dismutase in the hepatic tissues of FCA-treated rats. Additionally, KJD abrogated the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Also, KJD reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 or inducible nitric oxide synthase at protein and mRNA levels in IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, our findings demonstrate that KJD exerts antiinflammatory and analgesic effects via enhancement of antioxidant activity and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T23:55:26.581205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5763
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06T02:48:11.609293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5714
  • Thank you to our Reviewers
    • Pages: 168 - 172
      PubDate: 2017-01-06T02:48:11.409921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5758
  • Risk Assessment via Metabolism and Cell Growth Inhibition in a HepG2/C3A
           Cell Line Upon Treatment with Arpadol and its Active Component Harpagoside
    • Authors: Bruna Isabela Biazi; Gláucia Fernanda Rocha D'Epiro, Thalita Alves Zanetti, Marcelo Tempesta Oliveira, Lucia Regina Ribeiro, Mário Sérgio Mantovani
      Abstract: Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp) has been used as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The principal active component of Hp is harpagoside (HA). We tested the toxicity of this new therapeutic agent in a hepatic cell line (HepG2/C3A). Hp was found to be cytotoxic, and HA was found to decrease the number of cells in S phase, increase the number of cells in G2/M phase and induce apoptosis. Neither Hp nor HA was genotoxic. The expression of CDK6 and CTP3A4 was reduced by Hp, and both HA and Hp caused a significant reduction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 expression. It is possible that the cytotoxicity caused by HA and Hp does not involve transcriptional regulation of the cyclins and CDKs tested but is instead related to the inhibition of metabolism. This is evidenced by the results of an MTT assay and changes in the expression of genes related to drug metabolism, leading to cell death. Indeed, the cells exhibited decreased proliferation upon exposure to Hp and HA. The data show that treatment with either Hp or HA can be cytotoxic, and this should be taken into consideration when balancing the risks and benefits of treatments for rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T05:30:45.600201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5757
  • Ginseng Protein Reverses Amyloid Beta Peptide and H2O2 Cytotoxicity in
           Neurons, and Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in AD Rats Induced by a
           Combination of D-Galactose and AlCl3
    • Authors: Hongyan Li; Jie Song, Jianghua Zhang, Tianmin Wang, Yuhui Yan, Zhenyu Tao, Shaoheng Li, Hui Zhang, Tingguo Kang, Jingxian Yang
      Abstract: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most widely used herbal medicines worldwide. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of ginseng protein (GP) and its possible mechanisms in a cellular and animal model of AD. The results demonstrated that GP (10–100 µg/mL) significantly improved the survival rate of neurons and reduced the cells' apoptosis and the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, GP (0.1 g/kg) significantly shortened the escape latency, prolonged the crossing times and the percentage of residence time; reduced the level of Aβ1–42 and p-tau, the activity of T-NOS and iNOS, and the content of MDA and NO, improved the activity of SOD, the concentration of cAMP and the protein expression of p-PKA/PKA and -CREB/CREB. The results demonstrated that GP significantly inhibited Alzheimer-like pathophysiological changes induced by Aβ25–35 or H2O2 in cells or those induced by D-gal/ Al in animals. These neuroprotective effects of GP may be associated with the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. Also, in combination with our previous studies, these results indicate that the anti-AD mechanism of GP was likely to activate the CREB pathway through multiple channels. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T03:25:28.509742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5747
  • Effect of Perilla frutescens Extracts on Porcine Jejunal Epithelial Cells
    • Authors: Christine M. Kaufmann; Thomas Letzel, Johanna Grassmann, Michael W. Pfaffl
      Abstract: Green-leaved Perilla frutescens extracts were investigated on their effect on cell proliferation of the porcine jejunal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, as well as on the gene expression of cell cycle or cancer-related genes. Some extracted compounds were, however, susceptible to degradation in cell culture medium, whereas others were found to be stable during the entire experimental time. Control experiments also included the assessment of H2O2 generation in cell culture medium caused by oxidation of natural extract compounds, which was proved to be absent at low extract concentrations. A fast and significant inhibition of cell growth at low physiological extract concentrations could be observed. This finding, along with an immediate downregulation of 67 kDa laminin receptor and cyclin D1 expression, can be accounted to the presence of Perilla frutescens extract. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13T05:05:37.893802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5750
  • Mulberrofuran G Protects Ischemic Injury-induced Cell Death via Inhibition
           of NOX4-mediated ROS Generation and ER Stress
    • Authors: Sungeun Hong; Jaeyoung Kwon, Dong-Woo Kim, Hak Ju Lee, Dongho Lee, Woongchon Mar
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of mulberrofuran G (MG) in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia. MG was isolated from the root bark of Morus bombycis. MG inhibited nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) enzyme activity and oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced NOX4 protein expression in SH-SY5Y cells. MG inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 and cleaved poly adenine dinucleotide phosphate-ribose polymerase in OGD/R-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, MG protected OGD/R-induced neuronal cell death and inhibited OGD/R-induced reactive oxygen species generation in SH-SY5Y cells. In in vivo model, MG-treated groups (0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct volume in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion-induced ischemic rats. The MG-treated groups also reduced NOX4 protein expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion-induced ischemic rats. Furthermore, protein expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein/binding immunoglobulin protein, phosphorylated IRE1α, X-box-binding protein 1, and cytosine enhancer binding protein homologous protein, mediators of endoplasmic reticulum stress, were inhibited in MG-treated groups. Taken together, MG showed protective effect in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia through inhibition of NOX4-mediated reactive oxygen species generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This finding will give an insight that inhibition of NOX enzyme activity and NOX4 protein expression could be a new potential therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02T03:22:23.191257-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5754
  • Side-Effects of Irinotecan (CPT-11), the Clinically Used Drug for Colon
           Cancer Therapy, Are Eliminated in Experimental Animals Treated with Latex
           Proteins from Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae)
    • Authors: Nylane Maria Nunes Alencar; Flávio Silveira Bitencourt, Ingrid Samantha Tavares Figueiredo, Patrícia Bastos Luz, Roberto César P. Lima-Júnior, Karoline Sabóia Aragão, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Gerly Anne Castro Brito, Ronaldo Albuquerque Ribeiro, Ana Paula Fragoso Freitas, Marcio Viana Ramos
      Abstract: Intestinal mucositis (IM) is the critical side effect of irinotecan (CPT-11), which is the front-line drug used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of latex proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera to prevent IM and diarrhea in animals. Swiss mice were treated daily with saline or LP (1, 5, or 50 mg/kg, i.v.) 24 h prior to CTP-11 (75 mg/kg/4 days, i.p) and for additional 6 days. Animal survival, body weight variation, and diarrhea were registered. After animal sacrifice (day 7 post first injection of CPT-11), intestinal samples were collected to study morphology and inflammatory parameters. Animals given LP exhibited improved parameters (survival, body weight, and absence of diarrhea) as compared with the CPT-11 control. The severity of IM observed in animals given CPT-11 was reduced in animals treated with LP. Treatment with LP also prevented the reduction in the villus/crypt ratio promoted by CPT-11. The rise in MPO activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines, over-contractility of the smooth muscle, and diarrhea were all abrogated in LP-treated mice. Markedly reduced immunostaining intensity for COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and NF-κB was observed in the intestinal tissue of animals treated with LP. The side-effects of CPT-11 were eliminated by LP treatment in experimental animals and improved clinical parameters characteristic of IM All known biochemical pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02T03:05:46.897566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5752
  • Diterpenes as lead molecules against neglected tropical diseases
    • Authors: Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar; João Marcelo Castro e Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md. Torequl Islam
      Abstract: Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs. For this, databases were searched using specific search terms. Among the 2338 collected reports, a total of 181 articles were included in this review. Of them, 148 dealt with investigations using single organisms, and 33 used multiple organisms. No mechanisms of action were reported in the case of 164 reports. A total of 93.92% were related to nonclinical studies, and 4.42% and 1.66% dealt with preclinical and clinical studies, respectively. The review displays that many diterpenes are effective upon Chagas disease, chikungunya, echinococcosis, dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis. Indeed, diterpenes are amazing drug candidates against NTDs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T02:35:36.182625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5749
  • Flavonoids of Herba Epimedii Enhances Bone Repair in a Rabbit Model of
           Chronic Osteomyelitis During Post-infection Treatment and Stimulates
           Osteoblast Proliferation in Vitro
    • Authors: Dan Shou; Yang Zhang, Lifeng Shen, Rongzong Zheng, Xiaowen Huang, Zhujun Mao, Zhongming Yu, Nani Wang, Yan Zhu
      Abstract: Flavonoids are the active component of the Herba Epimedii (H. Epimedii), which is commonly used in Asia. This study is to investigate the effect of H. Epimedii on bone repair after anti-infection treatment in vivo. The bioactive-composition group of H. Epimedii (BCGE) contained four flavonoids with the total content of 43.34%. Rabbits with chronic osteomyelitis in response to injection with Staphylococcus aureus were treated with BCGE of 242.70 mg/kg/day intragastrically after vancomycin-calcium sulphate treatment. Micro-computerd tomography (CT), morphology, blood biochemistry and osteocalcin levels were assessed for effect evaluation. In addition, the rat calvarial osteoblasts infected with S. aureus were treated with vancomycin and BCGE. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone morphogenetic protein 2, Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand mRNA levels and protein expression were assessed. Our results indicated that BCGE promoted bone repair via increasing the bone mass, the volume of bone, promoting osteocalcin secretion after vancomycin-calcium sulfate treatment. BCGE enhanced the cell proliferation, by regulating bone morphogenetic protein 2, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand mRNA and protein expression to maintain the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Therefore, BCGE is a potential adjuvant herbal remedy for the post-infection treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T00:50:36.141806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5755
  • (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Antihyperalgesic Effect Associates With
           Reduced CX3CL1 Chemokine Expression in Spinal Cord
    • Authors: Marc Bosch-Mola; Judit Homs, Beltrán Álvarez-Pérez, Teresa Puig, Francisco Reina, Enrique Verdú, Pere Boadas-Vaello
      Abstract: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea with beneficial effects on the neuropathic pain alleviation in animal models. Because chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) has been suggested as an important signal during neuropathic pain development, this study aimed to investigate whether CX3CL1 expression may be modulated by EGCG treatment reducing hyperalgesia in chronic constriction injured mice. To this end, Balb/c mice were subjected to a chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI) and treated with EGCG or vehicle once a day during the first week following surgery. Thermal hyperalgesia was tested at 7 and 14 days post-surgery, and the expression of CX3CL1 and its mRNA were analyzed in spinal cord at the end of the experimental period. Results revealed that EGCG treatment significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia in CCI-injured mice at short time, and this antihyperalgesic effect was associated with a down-regulation of CX3CL1 protein expression in the spinal cord. On the other hand, EGCG treatment did not affect the CX3CL1 transcription. Overall, our results suggest a new role of EGCG-treatment in an experimental model of neuropathic pain as a mediator of nociceptive signaling cross talk between neurons and glial cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T00:15:28.639686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5753
  • Metabolomics Reveals that Momordica charantia Attenuates Metabolic Changes
           in Experimental Obesity
    • Authors: Zhi-gang Gong; Jianbing Zhang, Yong-Jiang Xu
      Abstract: Momordica charantia L., also known as bitter melon, has been shown to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. However, metabolic changes regulated by M. charantia in obesity are not clearly understood. In this study, serums obtained from obese and M. charantia-treated mice were analyzed by using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistical analysis was performed by Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results from this study indicated that body weight fat and insulin levels of obese mice are dramatically suppressed by 8 weeks of dietary supplementation of M. charantia. Metabolomic data revealed that overproductions of energy and nutrient metabolism in obese mice were restored by M. charantia treatment. The antiinflammatory and inhibition of insulin resistance effect of M. charantia in obesity was illustrated with the restoration of free fatty acids and eicosanoids. The findings achieved in this study further strengthen the therapeutic value of using M. charantia to treat obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23T02:13:19.627537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5748
  • Characterization of Phase I and Phase II Hepatic Metabolism and Reactive
           Intermediates of Larrea nitida Cav. and Its Lignan Compounds
    • Authors: Hyesoo Jeong; Soolin Kim, Jimin Lee, Jin Young Park, Wenmei Zhou, Xiyuan Liu, So Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song, Chang-Young Jang, Sei-Ryang Oh, Sangho Choi, Minsun Chang
      Abstract: Larrea nitida Cav. (LNC), which belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae, is widely indigenous and used in South America to treat various pathological conditions. It contains the antioxidant and antiinflammatory but toxic nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) as well as O-methylated metabolite of NDGA (MNDGA) as bioactive compounds. The hepatic metabolism-based toxicological potential of extracts of LNC (LNE), NDGA, and MNDGA has not previously been reported. The present study aimed to characterize the phase I and phase II hepatic metabolism and reactive intermediates of LNE, NDGA, and MNDGA and their effects on the major drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro and ex vivo. A methanol extract of LNC collected from Chile as well as NDGA and MNDGA isolated from LNE were subjected to metabolic stability assays in liver microsomes in the presence of the cofactors reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and/or uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA). Cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assays were performed using CYP isozyme-specific model substrates to examine the inhibitory activities of LNE, NDGA, and MNDGA, which were expressed as % inhibition and IC50 values. Ex vivo CYP induction potential was investigated in the liver microsomes prepared from the rats intraperitoneally administered with LNE. Glutathione (GSH) adduct formation was monitored by LC-MS3 analysis of the microsomal incubation samples with either NDGA or MNDGA and an excess of GSH to determine the formation of electrophilic reactive intermediates. Both NDGA and MNDGA were stable to NADPH-dependent phase I metabolism, but labile to glucuronide conjugation. LNE, NDGA, and MNDGA showed significant inhibitory effects on CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and/or 3A4, with IC50 values in the micromolar range. LNE was found to be a CYP1A2 inducer in ex vivo rat experiments, and mono- and di-GSH adducts of both NDGA and MNDGA were identified by LC-MS3 analysis. Our study suggests that hepatic clearance is the major elimination route for the lignans NDGA and MNDGA present in LNE. These lignans may possess the ability to modify biomacromolecules via producing reactive intermediates. In addition, LNE, NDGA, and MNDGA are found to be inhibitors for various CYP isozymes such as CYP2C9 and 3A4. Thus, the consumption of LNC as an herbal preparation or NDGA may cause metabolism-driven herb–drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T05:07:43.144026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5742
  • Polysaccharide of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction,
           Induces Expression of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Possibly Via Activation
           of NFκB Signaling in Cultured RAW 264.7 Cells
    • Authors: Amy GW Gong; Laura ML Zhang, Candy TW Lam, Miranda L Xu, Huai Y Wang, HQ Lin, Tina TX Dong, Karl WK Tsim
      Abstract: Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing two herbs, Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR): this herbal decoction serves as dietary supplement for women during menopause. DBT has been known to modulate immune responses, and its polysaccharide is proposed to be one of the active components. However, the polysaccharide-induced signaling in immune activation is not revealed. Here, we are identifying that the immune activation, triggered by DBT, could be mediated by polysaccharide. In cultured macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells), the application of polysaccharide-enriched extract of DBT significantly increased the expressions of mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. The induction was much stronger than the polysaccharide extract generated singly from AR, or from ASR, or from their simple mixture. The induced cytokine release in cultured macrophage was revealed to be triggered by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, including (i) degradation of IkBα; (ii) translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytosol to nuclei; and (iii) activation of NF-κB transcriptional elements. These results verified the possible role of DBT polysaccharide in modulating immune responses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03T01:15:29.353662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5745
  • Modulatory Effect of an Urera Aurantiaca Extract on Immune and Tumoral
           Cells During Inflammation
    • Authors: Carla Marrassini; Claudia Anesini
      Abstract: There is a well known link between inflammation and cancer during initiation, propagation and metastasis. Urera aurantiaca (UA) Wedd. (Urticaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory processes with proven in vivo antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The effects of a methanolic extract (UA) and a purified fraction (PF) on the proliferation of normal and tumoral lymphocytes under the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and on nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages was evaluated. Both UA and PF stimulated normal lymphocytes but, in presence of PGE2, a modulatory effect was observed. The normal lymphocyte proliferation induced by PGE2 was driven by pathways involving both PKC and H2O2. In macrophages, UA and PF did not modify cell viability and abrogated the synthesis of nitric oxide induced by lipopolysaccharide. In tumoral lymphocytes, the UA exerted a biphasic effect: at low concentrations it increased cell proliferation, while at high concentrations, it displayed an antiproliferative effect. UA and PF were capable of reverting the proliferative action of PGE2. The tumoral cell proliferation induced by PGE2 is related to PKC, ERK 1/2 and MAP Kinase P38 pathways. The observed effects could be attributed to polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins. This work demonstrates the modulatory effects of the UA on different cell types during inflammatory conditions, which reinforces its antiinflammatory action. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T02:25:30.521593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5743
  • A Comprehensive Review on Chemical Profiling of Nelumbo Nucifera:
           Potential for Drug Development
    • Authors: Bhesh Raj Sharma; Lekh Nath S. Gautam, Deepak Adhikari, Rajendra Karki
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Nelumbo nucifera, also known as sacred lotus, has primarily been used as food throughout the Asian continent, and its medicinal values have been described in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the chemical profiling and pharmacological activities of N. nucifera. Herein, we critically reviewed and analysed the phytochemical and pharmacological reports of N. nucifera. Our search for the keyword ‘Nelumbo nucifera pharmacology’ in all databases reported in Web of Science yielded 373 results excluding reviews and abstracts in document types. Two hundred and forty‐three spectrum natural compounds from different parts of N. nucifera belonging to diverse chemical groups, including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids, proteins, minerals, and vitamins have been reported. In addition, distinct pharmacological activities, mainly against cancer, microbial infection, diabetes, inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity, have been associated with crude extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds. This review highlights potential use of neferine, liensinine, isoliensinine, and nuciferine in clinical trials. In depth, mechanism of the potential chemical entities from N. nucifera via structure activity relationship needs to be explored to guarantee the stability and safety for the clinical use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-09-26T00:41:26.53895-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5732
  • Clinical Pharmacology of Citrus bergamia: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Carmen Mannucci; Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Raffaele Squeri, Sebastiano Gangemi, Gioacchino Calapai
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau (“Bergamot”) originated from the Mediterranean ecoregion (southern Italy, Calabria). Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is used in perfumes, cosmetics, and for stress reduction. Juice from C. bergamia has been used for hyperlipidemia. We evaluated literature published on C. bergamia clinical applications. Clinical trials on C. bergamia not combined with other substances, published in English, were searched. We selected ten articles, six describing BEO effects on stress, three reporting effects of polyphenolic fraction of C. bergamia juice in hyperlipidemia and the last describing BEO effects in chronic psoriasis. Clinical studies were analyzed following Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials for herbal therapy. Studies were conducted on small sample sizes and not have high quality level. Analysis indicates that BEO aromatherapy could be safe and useful to reduce stress symptoms. One study suggests its potential supportive role in ultraviolet B therapy against psoriasis. Supplementation with polyphenols from bergamot juice reduces plasma lipids and improves lipoprotein profile in moderate hyperlipidemia. Effectiveness and safety of C. bergamia cannot be definitively drawn because of publication bias and low quality level of the majority of studies. Further large-scale trials with rigorous design are required to define the role of C. bergamia in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:17:30.801422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5734
  • Role of Medicinal Plants for Liver-Qi Regulation Adjuvant Therapy in
           Post-stroke Depression: A Systematic Review of Literature
    • Authors: Ling-Feng Zeng; Ye Cao, Lu Wang, Yun-Kai Dai, Ling Hu, Qi Wang, Li-Ting Zhu, Wen-Hu Bao, Yuan-Ping Zou, Yun-Bo Chen, Wei-Hua Xu, Wei-Xiong Liang, Ning-Sheng Wang
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Current evidence demonstrated certain beneficial effects of medicinal herbs as an adjuvant therapy for post-stroke depression (PSD) in China; Chai-hu (Chinese Thorowax Root, Radix Bupleuri) is an example of a medicinal plant for Liver-Qi regulation (MPLR) in the treatment of PSD. Despite several narrative reports on the antidepressant properties of MPLR, it appears that there are no systematic reviews to summarize its outcome effects. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of MPLR adjuvant therapy in patients with PSD. Seven databases were extensively searched from January 2000 until July 2016. Randomized control trials (RCTs) involving patients with PSD that compared treatment with and without MPLR were taken into account. The pooled effect estimates were calculated based on Cochrane Collaboration's software RevMan 5.3. Finally, 42 eligible studies with 3612 participants were included. Overall, MPLR adjuvant therapy showed a significantly higher effective rate (RR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.19, 1.27; p 
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T04:30:27.496107-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5740
  • Antiinflammatory Effects of Functionally Active Compounds Isolated from
           Aged Black Garlic
    • Authors: Dong-gyu Kim; Min Jung Kang, Seong Su Hong, Yun-Hyeok Choi, Jung Hye Shin
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The antiinflammatory effects of functionally active compounds isolated from aged black garlic (AGE-1 and AGE-2) were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response model. To examine the potential antiinflammatory properties of AGE-1 and AGE-2, cell viability as well as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, and IL-1β] levels were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results indicated that AGE-1 and AGE-2 were not cytotoxic to macrophages. Nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels decreased significantly with increasing concentration of AGE-1 (IC50 = 29.6 and 1.41 µg/mL, respectively), but not AGE-2. The secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β was also suppressed by AGE-1 in a dose-dependent manner, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA, and protein expression decreased with AGE-1 treatment. Furthermore, AGE-1 attenuated the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun terminal kinase in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that compound AGE-1 may have significant effects on inflammatory factors and could potentially be used as an antiinflammatory therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30T03:15:40.061318-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5726
  • Characterization of Phloroglucinol‐enriched Fractions of Brazilian
           Hypericum Species and Evaluation of Their Effect on Human Keratinocytes
    • Authors: Henrique Bridi; Aline Beckenkamp, Gari Vidal Ccana-Ccapatinta, Sérgio Augusto Loreto Bordignon, Andréia Buffon, Gilsane Lino Poser
      First page: 62
      Abstract: In this study, a phytochemical and biological investigation on five South Brazilian Hypericum species (Hypericum caprifoliatum, Hypericum carinatum, Hypericum connatum, Hypericum myrianthum, and Hypericum polyanthemum) was carried out. The phloroglucinol‐enriched fractions (PEF) of the flowering aerial parts were analyzed by high‐performance liquid chromatography for the content of uliginosin A (1), japonicin A (2), uliginosin B (3), hyperbrasilol B (4), and the three benzopyrans, that is, 6‐isobutyryl‐5,7‐dimethoxy‐2,2‐dimethyl‐benzopyran (HP1) (5), 7‐hydroxy‐6‐isobutyryl‐5‐methoxy‐2,2‐dimethyl‐benzopyran (HP2) (6), and 5‐hydroxy‐6‐isobutyryl‐7‐methoxy‐2,2‐dimethyl‐benzopyran (HP3) (7). After chemical characterization, the PEF were assayed for cell proliferation on human keratinocyte cell line by MTT. The H. carinatum and H. polyanthemum PEF demonstrated better results with an increase in cell proliferation (138.7% and 120.6%, respectively). The cell counting and Ki‐67 assay with H. carinatum PEF confirmed the MTT results. The cell cycle distribution indicates an increase in the cells at S and G2/M phases, which is indicative of proliferation induction. In summary, the results indicate an induction of HaCaT proliferation by the treatment with H. carinatum PEF (at 10 and 15 µg/mL), suggesting a possible use as wound healing agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T00:46:29.674453-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5727
  • Inhibitory Effects of Multiple-Dose Treatment with Baicalein on the
           Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Rats
    • Authors: Youn-Hwan Hwang; Hye Jin Yang, Dong-Gun Kim, Jin Yeul Ma
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Ciprofloxacin is used as a treatment for urinary and respiratory tract infections in clinical practice. Baicalein, a major flavonoid present in Scutellaria baicalensis, is a well-known and potent antibacterial compound used in complementary and alternative medicine practices. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of multiple-dose treatment with baicalein on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in rats. Following the oral administration of baicalein (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) for five consecutive days, the rats received an oral administration of ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected at specific time points, and the plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying the interaction between baicalein and ciprofloxacin, a rhodamine 123 accumulation assay was performed in LS-180 cells. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that multiple-dose treatment with baicalein significantly decreased the peak serum concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC0  480 min), and relative bioavailability (Frel) of ciprofloxacin (p 
      PubDate: 2016-09-26T20:40:26.83898-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5728
  • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Andrographolide and
           Standardized Extract of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) with Nabumetone in
           Wistar Rats
    • Authors: Aishwarya Balap; Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Arulmozhi Sinnathambi, Kakasaheb Mahadik
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the herb–drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae) and Andrographolide (AN) with nabumetone (NAB) in wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were studied after co-administration of APE and AN with NAB in Wistar rats. In pharmacokinetic studies, significant decrease in Cmax, AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ of 6-MNA after co-administration with pure AN and APE has been observed. Tmax of 6-MNA has been increased to 2 h from 1.5 h in AN + NAB treated group. Changes in mean residential time, clearance and volume of distribution of 6-MNA in APE + NAB treated group and AN + NAB treated group indicated interference of other components of APE other than AN. In pharmacodynamic study, significant decrease in antiarthritic activity of NAB on concomitant administration with APE and AN has been observed. The study concludes that NAB exhibits pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with APE and AN in rats thus alarms the concomitant use of herbal preparations containing APE and AN with NAB. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism and predict the herb–drug interaction in humans.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T04:16:16.647225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5731
  • Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Learning and Memory in a Reward-directed
           Instrumental Conditioning Task in Chronic Restraint Stressed Rats
    • Authors: Wang Kezhu; Xu Pan, Lu Cong, Dong Liming, Zhang Beiyue, Lu Jingwei, Yang Yanyan, Liu Xinmin
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model. Our results showed that rat subjected to CRS became insensitive to the changes in outcome value, and it significantly harmed the rat's performance in conditional visual discrimination task. Moreover, the levels of BDNF, TrkB, and Erk phosphorylation were decreased in the prefrontal cortex of CRS rats. However, these changes were effectively reversed by Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, it demonstrated that Rg1 has a good ability to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T04:15:33.05086-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5733
  • Daikenchuto (TU-100) Suppresses Tumor Development in the Azoxymethane and
           APCmin/+ Mouse Models of Experimental Colon Cancer
    • Authors: Takumu Hasebe; Jun Matsukawa, Daina Ringus, Jun Miyoshi, John Hart, Atsushi Kaneko, Masahiro Yamamoto, Toru Kono, Mikihiro Fujiya, Yutaka Kohgo, Chong-Zi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan, Marc Bissonnette, Mark W. Musch, Eugene B. Chang
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Chemopreventative properties of traditional medicines and underlying mechanisms of action are incompletely investigated. This study demonstrates that dietary daikenchuto (TU-100), comprised of ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper effectively suppresses intestinal tumor development and progression in the azoxymethane (AOM) and APCmin/+ mouse models. For the AOM model, TU-100 was provided after the first of six biweekly AOM injections. Mice were sacrificed at 30 weeks. APCmin/+ mice were fed diet without or with TU-100 starting at 6 weeks, and sacrificed at 24 weeks. In both models, dietary TU-100 decreased tumor size. In APC min/+ mice, the number of small intestinal tumors was significantly decreased. In the AOM model, both TU-100 and Japanese ginseng decreased colon tumor numbers. Decreased Ki-67 and β-catenin immunostaining and activation of numerous transduction pathways involved in tumor initiation and progression were observed. EGF receptor expression and stimulation/phosphorylation in vitro were investigated in C2BBe1 cells. TU-100, ginger, and 6-gingerol suppressed EGF receptor induced Akt activation. TU-100 and ginseng and to a lesser extent ginger or 6-gingerol inhibited EGF ERK1/2 activation. TU-100 and some of its components and metabolites of these components inhibit tumor progression in two mouse models of colon cancer by blocking downstream pathways of EGF receptor activation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12T00:51:00.879141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5735
  • Triterpenoids-Enriched Extract from the Aerial Parts of Salvia
           miltiorrhiza Regulates Macrophage Polarization and Ameliorates Insulin
           Resistance in High-Fat Fed Mice
    • Authors: Jing Leng; Mei-Hong Chen, Zhi-Hui Zhou, Ya-Wen Lu, Xiao-Dong Wen, Jie Yang
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage polarization are tightly associated with the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our previous studies have demonstrated the triterpenoids-enriched extract from the aerial parts of Salvia miltiorrhiza (TTE) could significantly improve atherosclerosis in LDLR−/− mice. However, its molecular mechanisms of TTE ameliorating insulin resistance remain unclear. In the present study, obesity model with insulin resistance induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) was established. Dietary TTE attenuated hyperlipidemia, improved glucose intolerance in mice and mediated the activation of IRS-1/PI3K/Akt insulin signaling pathway. Meanwhile, dietary TTE also attenuated macrophage infiltrations into adipose tissue and modified the phenotype ratio of M1/M2 macrophages. Furthermore, our results showed that TTE regulated the polarization of macrophages partly via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK). Taken together, these findings suggested that TTE has a potential clinical utility in improving insulin resistance. Its mechanisms might be contributed to its beneficial effects on macrophage polarization via AMPK. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T21:37:17.477428-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5736
  • The Impact of Resveratrol Supplementation on Blood Glucose, Insulin,
           Insulin Resistance, Triglyceride, and Periodontal Markers in Type 2
           Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis
    • Authors: Ahmad Zare Javid; Razie Hormoznejad, Hojat allah Yousefimanesh, Mehrnoosh Zakerkish, Mohammad Hosein Haghighi-zadeh, Parvin Dehghan, Maryam Ravanbakhsh
      First page: 108
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of resveratrol supplementation along with non-surgical periodontal treatment on blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, triglyceride (TG), and periodontal markers in patients with type 2 diabetes with periodontal disease. In this double-blind clinical trial study, 43 patients with diabetes with chronic periodontitis were participated. Subjects were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The intervention and control groups received either 480 mg/day of resveratrol or placebo capsules (two pills) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TGs, and pocket depth were measured in all subjects' pre-intervention and post-intervention. The mean serum levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) were significantly lower in the intervention group compared with control group (10.42 ± 0.28 and 10.92 ± 0.9; 3.66 ± 0.97 and 4.49 ± 1.56, respectively). There was a significant difference in the mean pocket depth between intervention and control groups (2.35 ± 0.6 and 3.38 ± 0.5, respectively) following intervention. No significant differences were observed in the mean levels of fasting blood glucose and TGs between two groups' post-intervention. It is recommended that resveratrol supplementation may be beneficial as adjuvant therapy along with non-surgical periodontal treatment in insulin resistance and improving periodontal status among patients with diabetes with periodontal disease.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03T00:41:03.374538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5737
  • Bilberry: Chemical Profiling, in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity
           and Nephroprotective Effect against Gentamicin Toxicity in Rats
    • Authors: Milica Veljković; Dragana R. Pavlović, Nenad Stojiljković, Sonja Ilić, Ivan Jovanović, Nataša Poklar Ulrih, Violeta Rakić, Ljubinka Veličković, Dušan Sokolović
      First page: 115
      Abstract: We assessed possible protective effect of bilberry diet in rat model of nephrotoxicity. In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical profiling of this functional food was performed. With aid of HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric method, 15 individual anthocyanins were quantified alongside total tannin, phenylpropanoid, and anthocyanin content. The study was conducted on four groups of rats: control, treated with only gentamicin, treated with only bilberry, and treated with both gentamicin and bilberry. Kidney function was evaluated by tracking urea and creatinine. Morphology of renal tissue and its changes were recorded pathohistologically and quantified morphometrically. Bilberry (100 mg/kg daily) showed strong nephroprotective effect against gentamicin toxicity in rats (as shown through MDA, AOPP, and catalase levels). In conclusion, the demonstrated protective activity of bilberry extract matched well with the assessed in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity as well as with its polyphenolic content, particularly with high anthocyanin levels. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T21:50:40.006447-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5738
  • Anti-Dermatophyte and Anti-Malassezia Activity of Extracts Rich in
           Polymeric Flavan-3-ols Obtained from Vitis vinifera Seeds
    • Authors: Giovanna Simonetti; Felicia Diodata D'Auria, Nadia Mulinacci, Marzia Innocenti, Donato Antonacci, Letizia Angiolella, Anna Rita Santamaria, Alessio Valletta, Livia Donati, Gabriella Pasqua
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur. Dried grape seed extracts analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS showed different quali–quantitative compositions in terms of monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and for M. furfur were inversely correlated with the amount of the polymeric fraction (r = −0.7639 and r = −0.7228, respectively). Differently, the antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes was not correlated to the content of flavan-3-ol monomers (r = 0.2920) and only weakly correlated for M. furfur (r = −0.53604). These results suggest that extracts rich in polymeric flavan-3-ols, recovered from V.  vinifera seeds, could be used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T23:41:03.447453-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5739
  • Hovenia Dulcis Extract Reduces Lipid Accumulation in Oleic Acid-Induced
           Steatosis of Hep G2 Cells via Activation of AMPK and PPARα/CPT-1 Pathway
           and in Acute Hyperlipidemia Mouse Model
    • Authors: Bonglee Kim; Moon-Jea Woo, Chul-Soo Park, Sang-Hun Lee, Jin-Soo Kim, Boim Kim, Seho An, Sung-Hoon Kim
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (HDT) was known to have anti-fatigue, anti-diabetes, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-fatty liver mechanism of HDT was elucidated in oleic acid (OA)-treated Hep G2 cells and acute hyperlipidemia mouse model using Triton WR-1339. Here, HDT activated p-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), proliferator activated receptor-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase and also inhibited the expression of lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis proteins, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, SREBP-2, and fatty acid synthase in OA-treated Hep G2 cells. Conversely, AMPK inhibitor compound C blocked the anti-fatty liver effect of HDT to induce AMPK phosphorylation and decrease 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and lipid accumulation by oil red O staining in OA-treated Hep G2 cells. Additionally, HDT pretreatment protected against the increase of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and phospholipid in an acute hyperlipidemia mouse model with enhancement of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. Taken together, HDT inhibits OA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation via activation of AMPK and proliferator activated receptor-α/carnitine palmitoyltransferase signaling and enhancement of antioxidant activity as a potent candidate for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T05:00:30.987137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5741
  • Withanolides against TLR4-Activated Innate Inflammatory Signalling
           Pathways: A Comparative Computational and Experimental Study
    • Authors: Preethi M. Purushotham; Jin-Man Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Kalaiselvi Senthil
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Innate inflammations are dominant causes of poor health and high mortality. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are sensed by immune cells through activation of toll-like receptor 4 leading to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB activations. Controlled MAPK and Nf-κB inhibitors have been proposed as potential antiinflammatory drugs. Withania somnifera is an important medicinal herb with known antiinflammatory activity. In this study, the selected Withania somnifera extracts and withanolides were analysed on LPS-induced macrophages comparatively. Molecular docking analysis revealed withaferin A, withanone and withanolide A as effective withanolides against inflammatory target molecules. In experiments, withaferin A and withanone treatment had prominent suppressions on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Withaferin A regulated all the major four pathways (MAPKs and NF-κB) involved in innate inflammations. Similarly among the Withania extracts analysed, the in vitro propagated leaf and field grown root extracts containing high withaferin A content suppressed the inflammatory molecules through NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Withaferin A was found to be best in suppressing the activated inflammatory pathways among all the analysed withanolides. Therefore, withaferin A and extracts with high withaferin A content can be used as promising drug candidates against innate inflammations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T00:23:08.972845-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5746
  • Compendium of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany (1991–2015)
    • Authors: Elizabeth M Williamson
      First page: 164
      PubDate: 2016-10-20T04:11:50.437004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5744
  • Impact of Cocoa Flavanols on Cardiovascular Health: Additional
           Consideration of Dose and Food Matrix.
    • Authors: Kade Davison; Peter RC Howe
      First page: 165
      PubDate: 2016-10-09T22:16:35.648596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5729
  • Clarification of similarities in control figures published in Phytotherapy
           Research and the Journal of Ethopharmacology
    • First page: 167
      PubDate: 2016-12-08T00:36:25.903113-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5756
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