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Journal Cover Phytotherapy Research
  [SJR: 0.842]   [H-I: 92]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0951-418X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1573
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Resistance-modifying Activity in Vinblastine-resistant Human Breast Cancer
           Cells by Oligosaccharides Obtained from Mucilage of Chia Seeds (Salvia
    • Authors: Daniel G. Rosas-Ramírez; Mabel Fragoso-Serrano, Sonia Escandón-Rivera, Alba L. Vargas-Ramírez, Juan P. Reyes-Grajeda, Manuel Soriano-García
      Abstract: The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is considered as a major cause of the failure in cancer chemotherapy. The acquisition of MDR is usually mediated by the overexpression of drug efflux pumps of a P-glycoprotein. The development of compounds that mitigate the MDR phenotype by modulating the activity of these transport proteins is an important yet elusive target. Here, we screened the saponification and enzymatic degradation products from Salvia hispanica seed's mucilage to discover modulating compounds of the acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic in breast cancer cells. Preparative-scale recycling HPLC was used to purify the hydrolysis degradation products. All compounds were tested in eight different cancer cell lines and Vero cells. All compounds were noncytotoxic at the concentration tested against the drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cells (IC50 > 29.2 μM). For the all products, a moderate vinblastine-enhancing activity from 4.55-fold to 6.82-fold was observed. That could be significant from a therapeutic perspective. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T01:21:37.820246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5815
  • Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activities of Nine Medicinal Herbs Used
           as Antidiabetic in the Region of Lubumbashi (DR Congo)
    • Authors: Bakari Amuri; Mwamba Maseho, Lumbu Simbi, Philippe Okusa, Pierre Duez, Kahumba Byanga
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of nine plants used as antidiabetic treatments in Lubumbashi and its surroundings. Those are Albizia adianthifolia, Azanza garckeana, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia sieberiana, Erythrina abyssinica, Gladiolus klattianus, Rauvolfia caffra, Strychnos spinosa, and Vitex madiensis. Aqueous extracts, obtained by decoction and maceration, were administered (500 mg/kg) per os to guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), both in glucose baseline conditions and in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) conditions (glucose, 2 g/kg; follow-up over 210 min). For OGTT experiments, area under the curve of blood glucose levels, maximum glucose concentration (Cmax), and time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were used to compare test groups with the control conditions (glucose group). In hypoglycemic tests, only three species induced significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T00:50:33.378578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5814
  • Effects of Avocado (Persea americana) on Metabolic Syndrome: A
           Comprehensive Systematic Review
    • Authors: Jamshid Tabeshpour; Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
      Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of risk factors including high blood glucose, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity that lead to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are among leading causes of death in the world. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVDs by approximately five and three folds, respectively. Therefore, it is of vital importance to manage such conditions with herbal options which have less undesirable adverse effects and may be more efficacious in comparison with synthetic options. Avocado is a well-known source of carotenoids, minerals, phenolics, vitamins, and fatty acids. The lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, and cardioprotective effects of avocado have been demonstrated in several studies. In this review, we aimed to find out avocado's pharmacological effects on different components of MetS. Moreover, this review report is performed on the MetS effects of peel, seed, flesh, and leaves of avocado. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:20:47.980408-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5805
  • Effect of Natural β-Glucosidase Inhibitors in Reducing Toxicity of
           Amygdalin in Persicae Semen
    • Authors: Chao Liu; Xia Li, Honggai Yang, Xinhui Mao, Juan Wang, Wenyuan Gao
      Abstract: Amygdalin can be decomposed into hydrocyanic acid, which is the primary source of Persicae Semen toxicity, by gut flora. Here, the inhibitory activity of β-glucosidase for test herb extracts was first determined and compared. In turn, optimization of the ratio of substrate and inhibitor in vitro and LD50 values of extracts, serum and liver contents of amygdalin in vivo was measured. Lycii Cortex was found to be the best inhibitory activity for β-glucosidase. The ratio of amygdalin-to-Lycii Cortex extract of 7.19:8.18 (mmol L−1/mg mL−1) can be relatively suitable for inhibiting β-glucosidase activity in test in vitro reaction system. After mixed with Lycii Cortex extract, the toxicity of Persicae Semen ethanol extract in mice is significantly reduced and more amygdalin can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The study provides useful information for reducing toxicity of Persicae Semen and suggests how to better use these natural β-glucosidase inhibitors in the utilization of glycosides and aglycones. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-09T23:45:28.901816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5798
  • Auraptene Induces Apoptosis via Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1-Mediated
           Activation of Caspases in PC3 and DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Jae Chul Lee; Eun Ah Shin, Bonglee Kim, Bo-Im Kim, Mahsa Chitsazian-Yazdi, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Sung-Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Although auraptene, a prenyloxy coumarin from Citrus species, was known to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, antiinflammatory, and anti-tumor activities, the underlying anti-tumor mechanism of auraptene in prostate cancers is not fully understood to date. Thus, in the present study, we have investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of auraptene mainly in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, because auraptene suppressed the viability of androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells better than androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Also, auraptene notably increased sub-G1 cell population and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells as features of apoptosis in two prostate cancer cells compared with untreated control. Consistently, auraptene cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2 and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), and also activated pro-apoptotic protein Bax in both prostate cancer cells. However, Mcl-1 overexpression reversed the apoptotic effect of auraptene to increase sub-G1 population and induce caspase-9/3 in both prostate cancer cells. Taken together, the results support scientific evidences that auraptene induces apoptosis in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells via Mcl-1-mediated activation of caspases as a potent chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T05:41:46.587499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5810
  • Anticancer Properties of Solamargine: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Fatemeh Kalalinia; Iman Karimi-Sani
      Abstract: Cancers are usually treated by anticancer agents that are toxic for both normal and cancer cells, so these drugs have major side effects and they are not suitable and enough effective for cancer prevention. Solamargine, a steroidal alkaloid glycoside found in Solanum species such as Solanum nigrum, displayed several therapeutic activities. We aim to review the use of solamargine in experimental cancer studies. Articles published in biology journals between 1975 and 2017 were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science using relevant keywords. The scientific papers mainly focusing on solamargine with therapeutic efficacies against cancers were identified and tabulated. In addition, the reliability of experimental findings was determined under “Risk of Bias” criteria. The author manually reviewed 33 articles; 27 articles were found concerning the anti-cancer potential in cancer cells. Solamargine has been found to possess anticancer activities via its effect on a variety of biological pathways including cell survival pathways, tumor suppressor pathways, caspase activation pathway, mitochondrial pathways, death receptor pathways, protein kinase pathways, and signal pathways, which promote invasion/migration and multi drug resistance. Solamargine can be an anticancer agent candidate when complementary scientific evidences become available. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:44:46.289808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5809
  • The Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Interferon Combined with
           Matrine in Chronic hepatitis B: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    • Authors: Xiaotong Wang; Haixiong Lin, Ren Zhang
      Abstract: Currently, many studies have demonstrated certain beneficial effects of interferon (IFN) combined with matrine (Mat) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. However, the evidence from these randomized control trials is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy and safety of Mat combined with IFN for CHB. We performed a systematic search of seven databases to identify all randomized controlled trials that treated CHB with IFN or IFN plus Mat from their start date to September 30, 2015. The clinical efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated. Nine studies involving 1089 participants were included. Compared with IFN monotherapy, IFN 5 MU combined with Mat 150 mg augmented the hepatitis B e-antigen negative conversion rate after 3-month treatment [relative ratio (RR) = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.18, 1.69), p = 0.0002] and after 12-month treatment [RR = 1.96; 95% CI (1.21, 3.19), p = 0.006], hepatitis B virus DNA negative conversion rate after 3-month treatment [RR = 1.37; 95% CI (1.16, 1.62), p = 0.0002] and after 12-month treatment [RR = 1.96; 95% CI (1.21, 3.19), p = 0.006], hepatitis B virus e antibody (anti-HBe) conversion rate after 3-month treatment [RR = 1.47; 95% CI (1.19, 1.81), p = 0.0003], and AST level after 3-week treatment [weighted mean difference = −22; 95% CI (−40.41, −3.59), p = 0.02]. Furthermore, IFN 3 MU 3 months combined with Mat 150 mg after 2-month treatment reduced the risk of leucopenia and thrombocytopenia [RR = 0.55; 95% CI (0.36, 0.85), p = 0.007]. Unfortunately, all of the included trials were not in favor of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative conversion rate or influenza-like symptoms. Combination therapy with IFN plus Mat exhibited better clinical efficacy and fewer adverse effects than did IFN monotherapy in patients with CHB, except in the improvement of HBsAg negative conversion rate and influenza-like symptoms. Given the poor methodological quality of the evidence currently available, future high-quality, three-blinded randomized control trials are necessary to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:00:47.789595-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5808
  • Epimedii Herba: A Promising Herbal Medicine for Neuroplasticity
    • Authors: Jae-Heung Cho; Jae-Young Jung, Beom-Joon Lee, Kyungjin Lee, Jae-Woo Park, Youngmin Bu
      Abstract: Epimedii Herba (EH) is an herbal medicine originating from several plants of the genus Epimedium. It is a major therapeutic option for kidney yang deficiency syndrome, which is closely related to androgen hormones and also has been used to treat hemiplegia following a stroke in traditional medicine of Korea and PR China. To date, many clinical and basic researches of EH have shown the activities on functional recovery from brain diseases. Recently, neuroplasticity, which is the spontaneous reaction of the brain in response to diseases, has been shown to accelerate functional recovery. In addition, androgen hormones including testosterone are known to be the representative of neuroplasticity factors in the brain recovery processes. In this review, we described the neuro-pharmacological activities of EH, focusing on neuroplasticity. Thirty-three kinds of papers from MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI were identified and analyzed. We categorized the results into five types based on neuroplasticity mechanisms and presented the definition of each category and briefly described the results of these papers. Altogether, we can suggest that neuroplasticity is a novel viewpoint for guiding future brain research of EH and provide the evidence for the development of new clinical applications using EH in the treatment of brain diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T02:58:33.631475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5807
  • Diterpenes and Their Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents
    • Authors: Muhammad Torequl Islam
      Abstract: As therapeutic tools, diterpenes and their derivatives have gained much attention of the medicinal scientists nowadays. It is due to their pledging and important biological activities. This review congregates the anticancer diterpenes. For this, a search was made with selected keywords in PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, The American Chemical Society and miscellaneous databases from January 2012 to January 2017 for the published articles. A total 28, 789 published articles were seen. Among them, 240 were included in this study. More than 250 important anticancer diterpenes and their derivatives were seen in the databases, acting in the different pathways. Some of them are already under clinical trials, while others are in the nonclinical and/or pre-clinical trials. In conclusion, diterpenes may be one of the lead molecules in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:58:40.923387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5800
  • Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) Essential Oil Inhalation Improves Positive
           Feelings in the Waiting Room of a Mental Health Treatment Center: A Pilot
    • Authors: Xuesheng Han; Jacob Gibson, Dennis L. Eggett, Tory L. Parker
      Abstract: Mental health issues have been increasingly recognized as public health problems globally. Their burden is projected to increase over the next several decades. Additional therapies for mental problems are in urgent need worldwide due to the limitations and costs of existing healthcare approaches. Essential oil aromatherapy can provide a cost-effective and safe treatment for many mental problems. This pilot study observed the effects of bergamot essential oil inhalation on mental health and well-being, as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, in a mental-health treatment center located in Utah, USA. Fifty-seven eligible participants (50 women, age range: 23–70 years) were included for analysis. Fifteen minutes of bergamot essential oil exposure improved participants' positive feelings compared with the control group (17% higher). Unexpectedly, more participants participated in experimental periods rather than control periods, suggesting even brief exposure to essential oil aroma may make people more willing to enroll in clinical trials. This study provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy and safety of bergamot essential oil inhalation on mental well-being in a mental health treatment center, suggesting that bergamot essential oil aromatherapy can be an effective adjunct treatment to improve individuals' mental health and well-being. © 2017 The
      Authors . Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T02:21:18.615804-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5806
  • Standardized Sophora pachycarpa Root Extract Enhances Osteogenic
           Differentiation in Adipose-derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    • Authors: Samaneh Mollazadeh; Vajiheh Neshati, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Majid Mojarrad, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin, Mohammad Amin Kerachian
      Abstract: Bone defect is an important topic in public health. Novel therapies are based on osteogenic induction by natural antiosteoporotic compounds including plant-derived estrogens. In the current study, the osteogenic potential of Sophora pachycarpa root extract (SPRE) was explored on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Herein, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were osteoinducted in the presence of increased concentrations of the extract for 21 days. Then, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, and the differentiated cells were stained by Alizarin Red S for calcium deposition and subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay for enzymatic activity. To assess the expression of bone-related genes, treated cells were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MTT test demonstrated that SPRE had no toxic effects on the cell viability. Treating the cells with SPRE noticeably promoted ALP activity, mineralization, and mRNA expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1). Additionally, cells subjected to 0.1 μg/mL SPRE showed the highest osteogenic effects. According to high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of SPRE, the osteoprotective effects of SPRE is probably due to presence of phytochemicals with estrogen-like activity in the extract. Thus, SPRE might be a suitable therapeutic agent for bone defects therapy in the future research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T01:50:33.865979-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5803
  • The Effect of Butin on the Vitiligo Mouse Model Induced by Hydroquinone
    • Authors: Shi-Xia Huo; Qiong Wang, Xin-Min Liu, Chun-Hui Ge, Li Gao, Xiao-Ming Peng, Ming Yan
      Abstract: Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd has been traditionally used in the treatment of vitiligo in Uyghur medicine. This study used butin, the main component of V. anthelmintica, to study the influence on hydroquinone-induced vitiligo in mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 4.25 mg/kg), and butin (0.425, 4.25, and 42.5 mg/kg) groups. The number of melanin-containing hair follicles, basal layer melanocytes, melanin-containing epidermal cells, the expression of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), the malondialdehyde (MDA), and cholinesterase (CHE) activity in serum were measured. Our results indicated that compared with the model group, the melanin-containing hair follicles, the expression of TYR and TRP-1 increased, the activity of CHE decreased after treatment with 8-MOP and all doses of butin (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:35:42.507836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5794
  • Alantolactone and Isoalantolactone Prevent Amyloid β25–35-induced
           Toxicity in Mouse Cortical Neurons and Scopolamine-induced Cognitive
           Impairment in Mice
    • Authors: Ji Yeon Seo; Soon Sung Lim, Jiyoung Kim, Ki Won Lee, Jong-Sang Kim
      Abstract: Given the evidence for detoxifying/antioxidant enzyme-inducing activities by alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AL and IAL on Aβ25–35-induced cell death in mouse cortical neuron cells and to determine their effects on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Our data demonstrated that both compounds effectively attenuated the cytotoxicity of Aβ25–35 (10 μM) in neuronal cells derived from the mouse cerebral cortex. It was also found that the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion induced by Aβ25–35, was inhibited. Moreover, the administration of the sesquiterpenes reversed scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments as assessed by Morris water, Y-maze, and the passive avoidance tests, and the compounds decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, AL and IAL did not improve scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit in Nrf2−/− mice, suggesting that memory improvement by sesquiterpenes was mediated not only by the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway but also by their inhibitory activity against AChE. In conclusion, our results showed that AL and IAL had neuroprotective effects and reversed cognitive impairments induced by scopolamine in a mouse model. Therefore, AL and IAL deserve further study as potential therapeutic agents for reactive oxygen species-related neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:59:40.08499-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5804
  • Effectiveness of Ageratina pichinchensis Extract in Patients with
           Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Controlled Pilot
    • Authors: Ofelia Romero-Cerecero; Ana Laura Islas-Garduño, Alejandro Zamilpa, Jaime Tortoriello
      Abstract: Previous clinical studies have demonstrated the antifungal effectiveness of Ageratina pichinchensis extracts when topically administered to patients with dermatomycosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of a 7% standardized extract of A. pichinchensis (intravaginal) in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The extract was standardized in terms of its encecalin content and administered during 6 days to patients with Candida albicans-associated vulvovaginitis. The positive control group was treated with Clotrimazole (100 mg). On day 7 of the study, a partial evaluation was carried out; it demonstrated that 94.1% of patients treated with Clotrimazole and 100% of those treated with the A. pichinchensis extract referred a decrease or absence of signs and symptoms consistent with vulvovaginal candidiasis. In the final evaluation, 2 weeks after concluding administration, 86.6% of patients in the control group and 81.2% (p = 0.65) of those treated with the A. pichinchensis extract demonstrated therapeutic success. Statistical analysis evidenced no significant differences between the two treatment groups. With the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the standardized extract from A. pichinchensis, intravaginally administered, showed therapeutic and mycological effectiveness, as well as tolerability, in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, without noting statistical differences in patients treated with Clotrimazole. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:41:56.934535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5802
  • Ethanol Extract of Pinus koraiensis Leaf Ameliorates Alcoholic Fatty Liver
           via the Activation of LKB1–AMPK Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo
    • Authors: Sang-Hyuk Hong; Hyemin Lee, Hyo-Jung Lee, Bonglee Kim, Min-Ho Nam, Bum-Sang Shim, Sung-Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Although Pinus koraiensis leaf (PKL) was reported for its anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and anticancer effects as a folk remedy, the inhibitory effect of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver has never been elucidated yet. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver in HepG2 cells, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice. Pinus koraiensis leaf increased phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, low-density lipoprotein receptor and decreased fatty acid biosynthesis-related proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in HepG2 cells. In SD rats with 25% alcohol-induced fatty liver, PKL suppressed the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride and also enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione s-transferase compared with untreated control. Furthermore, PKL increased serum alcohol dehydrogenase and serum aldehyde dehydrogenase, but decreased serum alcohol concentration in ICR mice after alcohol administration. Consistently, histochemical analysis revealed that PKL attenuated alcohol-induced fatty liver in SD rats. Overall, these findings suggest that PKL ameliorates alcohol-induced fatty liver via activation of LKB1–AMP-activated protein kinase and modulation of proteins related to lipogenesis synthesis, cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T02:11:09.2809-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5801
  • The Role of Plant-derived Products in Pancreatitis: Experimental and
           Clinical Evidence
    • Authors: Pratibha Anchi; Amit Khurana, Swarna Bale, Chandraiah Godugu
      Abstract: Pancreatitis is a gastrointestinal disease with a worldwide sharp surge during the past decade. Pancreatitis includes acute and chronic subtypes, which are graded based on the amount of pancreatic inflammation. Phytoconstituents represent a promising class of therapeutic agents with wide acceptability not only based on folk practices but sound presence of pharmacological and molecular evidences. Growing research evidence indicates that different molecular mechanisms are involved in their protective effect. Many phytoremedies have been tried for the treatment of pancreatic injuries and have shown success in preclinical animal models of pancreatitis. The literature was largely collected through PubMed and Google scholar database. A large proportion of phytochemicals targets the inflammatory cascade and modulates the overtly acting redox balance among which nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells is the key molecule. Inhibition of apoptosis (artemisinin, embelin), inflammasome (withaferin A), neutrophil rolling (fucoidan), Ca+2 release (caffeine), mitogen activated protein kinase (guggulsterone) and many other novel mechanisms apart from antioxidant effect have been postulated behind the protective effect of phytoconstituents. The present review deals to fill the gap of hitherto unavailable comprehensive review on various plant products screened for the treatment of pancreatitis. The possible mechanistic profile of these phytochemicals is summarized. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T02:50:44.403208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5792
  • A Polyphenol-rich Pomegranate Fruit Extract Suppresses NF-κB and IL-6
           Expression by Blocking the Activation of IKKβ and NIK in Primary Human
    • Authors: Abdul Haseeb; Nazir M. Khan, Omer S. Ashruf, Tariq M. Haqqi
      Abstract: Pomegranate fruit extract (PE) rich in polyphenols has been shown to exert chondroprotective effects, but the mechanism is not established. Here, we used an in vitro model of inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) to investigate the potential of PE to suppress interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-6, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and investigated the mechanism of NF-κB inhibition by analyzing the activation of the kinases upstream of IκBα in primary human chondrocytes. Total and phosphorylated forms of kinases and expression of IL-6 were determined at protein and mRNA levels by western immunoblotting and Taqman assay, respectively. Dihydrorhodamine 123 staining estimated ROS generation. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of IL-6, generation of ROS, and inhibited the IL-1β-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta (IKKβ), expression of IKKβ mRNA, degradation of IκBα, and activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 in human chondrocytes. Importantly, phosphorylation of NF-κB-inducing kinase was blocked by PE in IL-1β-treated human OA chondrocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that PE exerts the chondroprotective effect(s) by suppressing the production of IL-6 and ROS levels. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by PE was blocked via modulation of activation of upstream kinases in human OA chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T02:30:51.812358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5799
  • Effect of Ziziphus jujube Fruit Infusion on Lipid Profiles, Glycaemic
           Index and Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized
           Controlled Clinical Trial
    • Authors: Zeinab Yazdanpanah; Akram Ghadiri-Anari, Alireza Vahidi Mehrjardi, Ali Dehghani, Hadi Zare Zardini, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh
      Abstract: This study was designed to assess the effects of Ziziphus jujube fruit (ZJF) infusion on lipid profiles, glycaemic control and antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 116 participants with T2DM (older than 30 years) were assigned to consume a balanced diet or diet plus ZJF infusion (10 g/100 mL boiling water) three times/day before main meals for 12 weeks. Diet was designed to be energy restricted (500 kcal/day deficit from estimated energy requirements), and macronutrient content was similar in both groups (55% carbohydrate, 15% protein and 30% fat). The consumption of ZJF infusion compared with the control group was associated with significant improvement in glycosylated haemoglobin (−0.68 ± 0.65 vs. −0.44 ± 0.55%; p = 0.03), total cholesterol (−24.29 ± 28.89 vs. −11.21 ± 29.98 mg/dL; p = 0.02), triglycerides (−43.3 ± 39.26 vs. −27.16 ± 46.84 mg/dL; p = 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−19.85 ± 27.62 vs. −6.55 ± 27.82 mg/dL; p = 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.56 ± 0.80 vs. −0.2 ± 0.72; p = 0.01) and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (−0.73 ± 0.94 vs. −0.35 ± 0.77; p = 0.02). ZJF had beneficial effects on glycosylated haemoglobin and lipid profile in T2DM patients. Further research is needed to identify the mechanism of ZJF action on glucose and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T21:25:27.243385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5796
  • The Impact of Green Tea Supplementation on Anthropometric Indices and
           Inflammatory Cytokines in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    • Authors: Esmat Mombaini; Sima Jafarirad, Durdana Husain, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh, Parivash Padfar
      Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the effect of a green tea supplement on anthropometric indices and inflammatory factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this randomized clinical trial, 45 women with PCOS were randomly allocated into two groups receiving green tea tablets or placebo. The period of intervention was 45 days. The serum levels of interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor α were measured before and after intervention period using the related kits. Anthropometric indices also were measured. The mean of body mass index, weight, waist circumference, and body fat percentage in the green tea group were reduced significantly. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Also, there was no significant effect on the levels of inflammatory factors. The present results suggest that daily consumption of green tea tablets did not cause any effect on inflammation biomarkers in PCOS women. However, it may be effective as a complementary treatment for weight control in these women. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T05:40:47.414511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5795
  • Exploring the Effect of Ginsenoside Rh1 in a Sleep Deprivation-Induced
           Mouse Memory Impairment Model
    • Authors: Cong Lu; Zhe Shi, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Pan Xu, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu, Xinmin Liu
      Abstract: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for enhancing cognition for thousands of years. Ginsenoside Rh1, a constituent of ginseng root, as with other constituents, has memory-improving effects in normal mice and scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with memory impairment through induction of oxidative stress. The present study investigated the effect of Rh1 against SD-induced cognitive impairment and attempted to define the possible mechanisms involved. Ginsenoside Rh1 (20 μmol/kg; 40 μmol/kg) and modafinil (0.42 g/kg) were administered to the mice intraperitoneally for 23 days. After 14-day SD, locomotor activity was examined using the open field test, and the object location recognition and Morris water maze tests were used to evaluate cognitive ability. The cortex and hippocampus were then dissected and homogenized, and levels and activities of antioxidant defense biomarkers were evaluated to determine the level of oxidative stress. The results revealed that Rh1 prevented cognitive impairment induced by SD, and its ability to reduce oxidative stress in cortex and hippocampus may contribute to the mechanism of action. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:15:50.141583-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5797
  • Radicol, a Novel Trinorguaiane-Type Sesquiterpene, Induces
           Temozolomide-Resistant Glioma Cell Apoptosis via ER Stress and Akt/mTOR
           Pathway Blockade
    • Authors: Zong-Yang Li; Ce Zhang, Lei Chen, Bao-Dong Chen, Qing-Zhong Li, Xie-Jun Zhang, Wei-Ping Li
      Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent, lethal and aggressive tumour of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Multidrug resistance (MDR) results in undesirable prognosis during GBM chemotherapy. In this study, we determined that Radicol (RAD), a novel trinorguaiane-type sesquiterpene originally isolated from the root of Dictamnus radicis Cortex, exhibited potently cytotoxic effect on temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant GBM cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Radicol-induced apoptosis was confirmed with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) staining. Studies investigating the mechanism revealed that RAD triggered an attenuation of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) and induced the unmitigated unfolded protein response (UPR) and lethal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Simultaneously, we further demonstrated that RAD suppressed the activation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K phosphorylation by up-regulating the induction of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). These results established a link between RAD-induced ER stress and inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and the attenuation of PDI and activation of GSK-3β might be the synergistic target of antineoplastic effects during RAD-induced apoptosis. These findings suggested that RAD, possessing multiple cytotoxicity targets, low molecular weight and high lipid solubility, could be a promising agent for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:45:34.522716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5793
  • Phytochemical Characterization, Antibacterial, Acetylcholinesterase
           Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Properties of Cryptostephanus vansonii, an
           Endemic Amaryllid
    • Authors: Mack Moyo; Adeyemi O. Aremu, Jude C. Chukwujekwu, Jiri Gruz, Jiri Skorepa, Karel Doležal, Cuthbert A.T. Katsvanga, Johannes Van Staden
      Abstract: Cryptostephanus vansonii I. Verd., an endemic Amaryllidaceae species from Zimbabwe, was evaluated for its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and cytotoxicity properties using Ellman's colorimetric method and the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against Vero monkey kidney cells, respectively. The plant extracts were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against five bacteria. Furthermore, phytochemical profiles of the extracts were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A plant part-dependent AChE inhibitory activity was observed, in the order, root > rhizome > basal leaf > leaf. Overall, C. vansonii extracts exhibited better antibacterial activity against Gram-negative compared with Gram-positive bacteria. Cytotoxic effects were not detected in Vero monkey kidney cell lines suggesting the possible absence of toxophores in C. vansonii extracts. Similar to the trend in biological activity, a distinct plant part-dependent variation in hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates and flavonoids was observed in the plant extracts. In addition, 5-hydroxymetylfurfural and eucomic acid were detected in the different plant parts of C. vansonii. The results of the present study provide valuable AChE inhibition activity, toxicological and phytochemical profiles of C. vansonii. Further studies on isolation of bioactive compounds and their subsequent evaluation in other pharmacological and toxicological model systems are required. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T02:55:24.917042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5788
  • Magnesium Lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Ameliorates
           Aging-Induced Renal Inflammation and Senescence via NADPH Oxidase-Mediated
           Reactive Oxygen Generation
    • Authors: Chan Hum Park; Sung Ho Shin, Eun Kyeong Lee, Dae Hyun Kim, Min-Jo Kim, Seong-Soo Roh, Takako Yokozawa, Hae Young Chung
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to examine whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae radix was renoprotective in pathways related to age-related oxidative stress in aged rats. Magnesium lithospermate B was orally administered at a dose of 2- or 8-mg/kg body weight for 16 consecutive days, and the effects were compared with those of vehicle in old and young rats. Magnesium lithospermate B administration to old rats ameliorated renal oxidative stress through reduction of reactive oxygen species. The old rats exhibited a dysregulation of the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidneys, and MLB administration significantly reduced the protein expression of major subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox4 and p22phox), phospho-p38, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, MLB-treated old rats showed lower levels of senescence-related proteins such as p16, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, p53, and p21 through effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Magnesium lithospermate B administration also significantly attenuated the age-related increase in serum urea nitrogen, reflecting renal dysfunction, up-regulated podocyte structural proteins, and reduced renal structural injury. Our results provide important evidence that MLB reduces the renal damage of oxidative stress in old rats. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T22:30:39.994464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5789
  • Methyl Jasmonate Ameliorates Testosterone Propionate-induced Prostatic
           Hyperplasia in Castrated Wistar Rats
    • Authors: Olubukola Oyebimpe Akanni; Olusoji John Abiola, Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye
      Abstract: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is related to age. Known therapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH are associated with toxicity. Therefore, chemoprevention could be an effective approach. We investigated the ameliorative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH in castrated rats. Castration was performed by removing both testes through the scrotum sack under ketamine anesthesia. Rats were assigned into seven groups of seven animals each: non-castrated control, castrated control, castrated rats that received TP, castrated rats that received TP and MeJA, castrated rats that received TP and finasteride, castrated rats that received MeJA, and castrated rats that received finasteride. Results indicate that BPH rats had significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T22:15:34.398563-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5778
  • Ethno-Herbal-Medico in Wound Repair: An Incisive Review
    • Authors: Urmimala Das; Sudhanshu Shekhar Behera, Krishna Pramanik
      Abstract: Wound healing/cicatrization is a complex series of intricate processes that involve renewal of skin/epidermis after injury. A large number of ethno-medicinal plants/plant extracts are used by tribal and folklore traditions in developing world for the treatment of wounds, burns and cuts in distinct appearances. Moreover, plants/plant extracts have a significant history and successful clinical track record as indigenous drugs in wound repair systems. This review provides detailed information on molecular and cellular mechanism of plant/plant extracts on wound healing applications and further analyses the opportunities and scope with its future openings and prospects owing to the multifaceted challenges attached with neo-tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T04:25:26.297302-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5786
  • A Review of the Antiviral Properties of Black Elder (Sambucus nigra L.)
    • Authors: Randall S. Porter; Robert F. Bode
      Abstract: Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) has a long ethnobotanical history across many disparate cultures as a treatment for viral infection and is currently one of the most-used medicinal plants worldwide. Until recently, however, substantial scientific research concerning its antiviral properties has been lacking. Here, we evaluate the state of current scientific research concerning the use of elderberry extract and related products as antivirals, particularly in the treatment of influenza, as well as their safety and health impacts as dietary supplements. While the extent of black elder's antiviral effects are not well known, antiviral and antimicrobial properties have been demonstrated in these extracts, and the safety of black elder is reflected by the United States Food and Drug Administration approval as generally recognized as safe. A deficit of studies comparing these S. nigra products and standard antiviral medications makes informed and detailed recommendations for use of S. nigra extracts in medical applications currently impractical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T03:40:43.639656-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5782
  • Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine and Natural Killer Cells for Cancer
           Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Kyeore Bae; Ji-hye Park, Jeehye Kim, Chong-kwan Cho, Byeongsang Oh, Daniel Costa, Stephanie Lim, Gary Deng, Hwa-Seung Yoo
      Abstract: Traditional oriental herbal medicine (HM) is used by cancer patients to improve immunity. Natural killer (NK) cells are associated with development and progression of tumor and survival of cancer patients. This literature review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in four electronic databases until October 2015 to evaluate the effects of oral HM on NK cells in cancer patients. Data were pooled and computed in a meta-analysis. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Sixteen RCTs involving 1326 cancer patients were identified. Combination of HM and conventional treatment was associated with significantly higher level of NK cells compared with conventional cancer treatments (standardized mean difference, 1.218; 95% confidence interval 0.719–1.717; p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T03:25:51.488198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5781
  • Effects of Curcumin on Serum Vitamin E Concentrations in Individuals with
           Metabolic Syndrome
    • Authors: Akram Mohammadi; Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Maryam Saberi-Karimian, Hamideh Safarian, Gordon A. Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Amirhossein Sahebkar
      Abstract: Vitamin E is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on serum vitamin E levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 120 subjects aged 18–65 years old with MetS were recruited in this study according to the International Diabetic Federation Criteria. Included subjects were randomized into three groups: subjects receiving lecithinized curcumin (1 g/day equivalent to 200-mg pure curcumin per day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40), patients receiving unformulated curcumin (1 g/day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40) and a control group receiving placebo for the same period (n = 40). Vitamin E was determined in all patients before and after the intervention using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results showed that curcumin has no improving effect on serum levels of vitamin E (p > 0.05). There were significant differences between pre-trial and post-trial levels of vitamin E/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T01:45:27.776536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5779
  • Curcumin Suppresses Lung Cancer Stem Cells via Inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin
           and Sonic Hedgehog Pathways
    • Authors: Jian-Yun Zhu; Xue Yang, Yue Chen, Ye Jiang, Shi-Jia Wang, Yuan Li, Xiao-Qian Wang, Yu Meng, Ming-Ming Zhu, Xiao Ma, Cong Huang, Rui Wu, Chun-Feng Xie, Xiao-Ting Li, Shan-Shan Geng, Jie-Shu Wu, Cai-Yun Zhong, Hong-Yu Han
      Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are highly implicated in the progression of human cancers. Thus, targeting CSCs may be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways play an important regulatory role in maintaining CSC characteristics. Natural compounds, such as curcumin, possess chemopreventive properties. However, the interventional effect of curcumin on lung CSCs has not been clarified. In the present study, tumorsphere formation assay was used to enrich lung CSCs from A549 and H1299 cells. We showed that the levels of lung CSC markers (CD133, CD44, ALDHA1, Nanog and Oct4) and the number of CD133-positive cells were significantly elevated in the sphere-forming cells. We further illustrated that curcumin efficiently abolished lung CSC traits, as evidenced by reduced tumorsphere formation, reduced number of CD133-positive cells, decreased expression levels of lung CSC markers, as well as proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. Moreover, we demonstrated that curcumin suppressed the activation of both Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. Taken together, our data suggested that curcumin exhibited its interventional effect on lung CSCs via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. These novel findings could provide new insights into the potential therapeutic application of curcumin in lung CSC elimination and cancer intervention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T00:50:39.689981-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5791
  • Matrine Suppresses the ER-positive MCF Cells by Regulating Energy
           Metabolism and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathway
    • Authors: Yi Xiao; Dachang Ma, Honglei Wang, Duoming Wu, Ying Chen, Kun Ji, Tao Qin, Li Wu
      Abstract: Matrine (C15H24N2O), an alkaloid that is one of the main active components from Sophora flavescens. Matrine has been demonstrated to have therapeutic effects on various solid tumors, including breast cancer, but the mechanism still needs further study. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-positive Michigan Cancer Foundation cells were cultured, and matrine was added in various amounts to measure the dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to observed nuclear morphological changes. Apoptosis was measured by AnnexinV/PI double staining assay kit. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate and glycometabolism were detected by assay kit. The protein levels GRP78, p-eIF2α, CHOP, cytochrome c, and HexokinaseII were analyzed. Mechanistic investigations revealed that matrine treatment causes ER dilation and up-regulated the expression of ER stress markers GRP78, eIF2α, and CHOP, increases the levels of apoptotic in Michigan Cancer Foundation cells, subsequently, blocking the ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway, significantly decreased matrine-induced apoptotic but still has significant difference between control group. In addition, matrine not only promoted the occurrence of ER stress but also inhibited the expression of hexokinase II, down-regulated energy metabolism. In summary, the present study suggests that the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis by matrine and down-regulated energy metabolism may account for its cytotoxic effects in human breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T04:25:45.706711-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5785
  • Anticancer Activity of Punica granatum (Pomegranate): A Review
    • Authors: Nisha Panth; Bikash Manandhar, Keshav Raj Paudel
      Abstract: Cancer is a pathological condition where excessive and abnormal cell growth leads to widespread invasion within the body to affect various organ functions. It is known that chemotherapeutic agents are themselves possible candidate of cancer generation as they can kill normal cells. So, therapeutic approach for cancer treatment and prevention is weighed in terms of benefit to risk ratio. Nowadays, there is an immense interest for the search herbal formulation with cancer preventive effect because of the problems, generated with existing chemotherapeutic regimens. Research interest in fruits rich in polyphenols is increasing because of their anticancer potential. In this review, we highlight the potential health benefits of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and the underlying mechanism of its inhibition of cancer progression. Pomegranate has demonstrated anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on various cancer cell line in vitro as well as in vivo animal model or human clinical trial. Although several clinical trials are in progress for identifying the pomegranate as a candidate for various cancer treatment. It is necessary to replicate and validate its therapeutic efficacy by multiple clinical studies in order to formulate pomegranate products as an integral part of the dietary and pharmacological intervention in anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T04:11:38.898692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5784
  • Alkaloids from Piper nigrum Exhibit Antiinflammatory Activity via
           Activating the Nrf2/HO­1 Pathway
    • Authors: Quynh­Mai Thi Ngo; Phuong Thao Tran, Manh Hung Tran, Jeong Ah. Kim, Seong Soo Rho, Chi-Hwan Lim, Jin-Cheol Kim, Mi Hee Woo, Jae Sui Choi, Jeong-Hyung Lee, Byung Sun Min
      Abstract: In the present study, ten alkaloids, namely chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), retrofractamide A (3), pyrroperine (4), isopiperolein B (5), piperamide C9:1 (8E) (6), 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7), 4,5-dihydropiperine (8), dehydropipernonaline (9), and piperine (10), were isolated from the fruits of Piper nigrum. Among these, chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), retrofractamide A (3), isopiperolein B (5), and 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7) exhibited significant inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 6.8, 14.5, 30.2, 23.7, and 38.5 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in bone marrow-derived macrophages with IC50 value of 9.5 μM. Consistent with NO inhibition, treatment of RAW264.7 cells with chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), and 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7) suppressed expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), and 6,7­dehydrobrachyamide B (7) induced heme-oxygenase-1 expression at the transcriptional level. In addition, compound 1 induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 target genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase catalytic subunit, in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells. These findings suggest that chabamide (1) from P. nigrum exert antiinflammatory effects via the activation of the Nrf2/heme-oxygenase-1 pathway; hence, it might be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T03:00:31.108928-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5780
  • Cryptotanshinone Inhibits STAT3 Signaling to Alleviate Cardiac Fibrosis in
           Type 1-like Diabetic Rats
    • Authors: Shih-Hsiang Lo; Chao-Tien Hsu, Ho-Shan Niu, Chiang-Shan Niu, Juei-Tang Cheng, Zhih-Cherng Chen
      Abstract: Cryptotanshinone is an active principal ingredient isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), a medicinal plant used in China to treat cardiac disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cryptotanshinone on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic model hyperglycemic rats (STZ-treated rats), fasting blood glucose levels and heart weight/body weight ratio were markedly increased but both were not modified by cryptotanshinone. Additionally, cardiac performance in catheterized STZ-treated rats was improved. The histological results from Masson staining showed that cryptotanshinone attenuated cardiac fibrosis in STZ-treated rats. Moreover, both the mRNA and protein levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), matrix metalloproteinase-9, and connective tissue growth factor were reduced by cryptotanshinone in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes, similar to the reductions observed in the hearts of STZ-treated rats. In conclusion, while STAT3 regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 and connective tissue growth factor expression in diabetic rats with cardiac fibrosis, cryptotanshinone inhibited fibrosis to improve cardiac function by suppressing the STAT3 pathway. Cryptotanshinone is suitable as an alternative remedy for therapy of cardiac fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T01:17:02.451312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5777
  • Efficacy and Safety of Cissus quadrangularis L. in Clinical Use: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Ratree Sawangjit; Panupong Puttarak, Surasak Saokaew, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
      Abstract: Cissus quadrangularis L. (Cissus) is a medicinal plant commonly used for centuries for various conditions, but lacks critical appraisal of its clinical effects. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Cissus in all conditions. Publications from 12 electronic databases were searched from inception through November 2016. A total of nine studies with 1108 patients were included. Each outcome was pooled using a random effects model. Effects of Cissus on hemorrhoid symptoms were not different from any comparators but had significant effects on bone pain. Effects of Cissus combination products on body weight reduction, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were superior to placebo, with weighted mean difference of −5.19 kg (−8.82, −1.55), −14.43 mg/dl (−20.06, −8.80), −37.50 mg/dl (−48.71, −26.29), −50.50 mg/dl (−70.97, −30.04), and −10.39 mg/dl (−14.60, −6.18), respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Quality of evidence based on Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) indicated low (bone fractures) to high quality (hemorrhoids, body weight reduction).In conclusion, Cissus had benefit for bone fractures, but not for hemorrhoids. For obesity/overweight, only combination products are pooled and show benefit. However, high-quality studies remain needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T05:05:40.938863-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5783
  • Antiinflammation Effects and Mechanisms Study of Geniposide on Rats with
           Collagen-Induced Arthritis
    • Authors: Rong Wang; Hong Wu, Jian Chen, Shu-Ping Li, Li Dai, Zheng-Rong Zhang, Wen-Yu Wang
      Abstract: Geniposide (GE), an iridoid glycoside compound purified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has antiinflammatory and other pharmacological effects, but its mechanism of actions on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been clarified. The purpose of this article was to investigate the pharmacological effects of GE on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and its feasible mechanisms. Collagen-induced arthritis was induced by injection of chicken type II collagen emulsion. The rats were orally administered with GE (33, 66, and 132 mg/kg) from days 14 to 30 after immunization. The histological examination showed that GE could attenuate histopathologic changes of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) in CIA rats. Geniposide inhibited the production of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-17, while promoting the production of IL-4 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in MLN lymphocytes (MLNLs). Moreover, the proliferation capability of MLNLs was increased after the administration of GE. In addition, the treatment with GE in vivo decreased the expressions of P-Raf, P-MEK, and P-Erk1/2 in MLNLs. These results may highlight the antiinflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of GE in MLNLs of RA. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T01:01:08.233778-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5775
  • Anthelmintic, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activity of Imidazole
           Alkaloids from Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaves
    • Authors: Jefferson A. Rocha; Ivanilza M. Andrade, Leiz M.C. Véras, Patrick V. Quelemes, David F. Lima, Maria J.S. Soares, Pedro L.S. Pinto, Simon J. Mayo, Galya Ivanova, Maria Rangel, Manuela Correia, Ana Carolina Mafud, Yvonne P. Mascarenhas, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Josué Moraes, Peter Eaton, José R.S.A. Leite
      Abstract: Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is a plant native to the northern and northeastern macroregions of Brazil. Several alkaloids from this species have been isolated. There are few reports of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities for these compounds. In this work, we report the antibacterial and anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids found in P. microphyllus leaves, namely, pilosine, epiisopilosine, isopilosine, epiisopiloturine and macaubine. Of these, only anthelmintic activity of one of the compounds has been previously reported. Nuclear magnetic resonance, HPLC and mass spectrometry were combined and used to identify and confirm the structure of the five compounds. As regards the anthelmintic activity, the alkaloids were studied using in vitro assays to evaluate survival time and damaged teguments for Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We found epiisopilosine to have anthelmintic activity at very low concentrations (3.125 μg mL−1); at this concentration, it prevented mating, oviposition, reducing motor activity and altered the tegument of these worms. In contrast, none of the alkaloids showed antibacterial activity. Additionally, alkaloids displayed no cytotoxic effect on vero cells. The potent anthelmintic activity of epiisopilosine indicates the potential of this natural compound as an antiparasitic agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:50:56.940068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5771
  • Issue Information
    • First page: 517
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T06:43:24.3833-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5717
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