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American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.381, h-index: 67)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.813, h-index: 121)
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Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 51)

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Journal Cover   Archaeological Prospection
  [SJR: 0.765]   [H-I: 15]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-2196 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0763
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • The Roman City of Altinum, Venice Lagoon, from Remote Sensing and
           Geophysical Prospection
    • Authors: Paolo Mozzi; Alessandro Fontana, Francesco Ferrarese, Andrea Ninfo, Stefano Campana, Roberto Francese
      Abstract: Geophysical prospection on 14 ha integrates the processing and interpretation of vertical multispectral and oblique aerial images for uncovering the archaeology of the Roman city of Altinum. This Iron Age and Roman harbour city was completely abandoned in the early Middle Ages, when people moved to nearby lagoon islands, and so the site is particularly fit for the application of non‐invasive techniques. Primary aims of the research were to test the interpretation of archaeological structures in the city centre, estimate their degree of preservation in the subsoil, and update previous knowledge on the urban landscape. Target areas were identified first through remote sensing with later magnetic gradiometer mapping of the consular road (via Annia) and its adjoining streets, foundations of large buildings, theatres, temple and forum, a main canal with possible boatyard/storing place and workshops. Multi‐electrode automatic resistivity profile produced a very detailed survey of the little theatre (odeon) and basilica. The ground‐penetrating radar traced the city walls, while frequency‐domain electromagnetics mapped the street pattern. Buried archaeological structures were located with an estimated error < 0.5 m. Floors and foundations of Roman buildings and infrastructures appear to be preserved between 0.5 and 2 m depth. They probably relate to a re‐organization of the city, which occurred between the second half of the second century and the end of the first century BC, having via Annia and the forum as the main city axis, and incorporating few elements of the Iron Age settlement, such as the canal and city boundary. Eight city districts could be recognized, each one showing prevalent public, residential and other productive functions. In the ancient past the monumental buildings of the city were potentially visible from ships in the Adriatic Sea, and could act as nautical signals of the entrance to the lagoon along this low and otherwise monotonous coast. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-03T04:41:42.069059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1520
  • The Investigation of the Ardales Cave, Spain – 3D Documentation,
           Topographic Analyses, and Lighting Simulations based on Terrestrial Laser
    • Abstract: This contribution shows the application of terrestrial laser scanning in an integrative approach for the documentation and analyses of the Ardales Cave, southern Spain, which is in many respects an important geoarchaeological site. For the survey of the cave, a combination of the Riegl LMS Z420i laser scanner with a real‐time kinematic global positioning system (RTK‐GPS) from Topcon and further tachymetric measurements were used. The achieved three‐dimensional (3D) model of the cave and the surrounding hill documents the current topography and dimensions of the cave. Additional geoarchaeological data were successfully integrated in a 3D geographical information system (GIS) database and high‐resolution records of a structured‐light scanner were combined with the 3D model of the cave. The 3D model is further used for the estimation of the ceiling thickness that reveals areas for additional entrances. Lighting simulations based on path tracing were conducted for the determination of areas that are reached by natural direct or indirect light. In this case, the weight and size of the instrument was a logistic constraint to reach certain areas and to achieve a complete model of the cave. Overall, the method is feasible for the documentation of this cave and the investigations based on the derived 3D models. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T11:47:29.955962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1519
  • Ground‐Penetrating Radar for Archaeology (3rd Edn) Lawrence B.
           Conyers, Series Editors: Lawrence B. Conyers and Kenneth L. Kvamme,
           Geophysical Methods for Archaeology No. 4, AltaMira Press, Lanham, MD,
           2013, xv + 241 pp., £22.95, ISBN
           978‐0‐7591‐2349‐6 (paperback)
    • Authors: Lieven Verdonck
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T11:46:21.957459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1518
  • A Multidimensional Research Strategy for the Evaluation of Settlement
           Pits: 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Magnetic Prospection and Soil
    • Abstract: Irrespective of the region and time period, settlement pits are common features at archaeological sites. Variations in shape, size and fill reflect great diversity in terms of primary and secondary functions. Careful analysis of these aspects and a pit's refilling history yield key information for the reconstruction of economic, social and chronological aspects of settlement history. At present, it is unusual for a settlement site to undergo complete excavation; in most cases, only small areas within a larger settlement are opened to archaeological inquiry and, accordingly, only a scarce few pits can be excavated. Therefore, the application of a combination of new prospection methods can help to classify and preselect representative pits for subsequent excavation in order to guarantee the highest information output. The interdisciplinary investigations at the Early Bronze Age of Fidvár in Slovakia enabled the development of just such a multidimensional research strategy for the evaluation of settlement pits. Used in concert, magnetic survey and electromagnetic prospection delivered 2D data which revealed the locations of pits at the site. This was the basis for the 3D electrical resistivity tomography measurements which followed, enabling the three‐dimensional reconstruction of prehistoric pits' geometries. Supplementary sedimentological and geochemical investigations of the pits' contents revealed important information about the pits' former functions as well as the mechanisms of the processes through which they were filled in. Thus, the integrated approach provides us with a new means of obtaining an overview of pit assemblages at archaeological sites in general and demonstrates its potential for the acquisition of valuable information about the food acquisition and storage processes at Fidvár in specific. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26T20:57:55.856309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1510
  • The Discovery of an Ancient Greek Vineyard
    • Authors: Tatiana N. Smekalova; Bruce W. Bevan, Andrei V. Chudin, Alexander S. Garipov
      Abstract: Relatively few geophysical surveys have shown how buried traces of agricultural fields can be revealed. An ancient Greek vineyard on the Crimean peninsula was first suggested in a satellite photograph; however, it was discovered only with a magnetic survey. This survey found a 5.7‐ha field that is crossed by about 80 buried stone walls that are parallel and spaced by 2.6 m; this pattern is found only in the vineyard. Later excavations revealed underground walls in this vineyard. The magnetic survey also detected simple magnetic anomalies at three of the four corners of the vineyard. Excavations found that these anomalies are caused by pits that were dug by the ancient Greeks into bedrock to a depth of 2.5 m; the purpose of these pits is not known. The magnetic properties of soil and stone were measured in the excavations, and the magnetic anomalies of the features were calculated. These calculations agree with the measurements, and this means that the entire source of the anomalies was discovered. The interpretation of the magnetic map was adaptive, and it improved as excavations added more information. The archaeological importance of the Ortli vineyard is described along with the efficient procedures that allowed its discovery and mapping. Using the same techniques that were applied at Ortli, another ancient Greek vineyard and farmhouse was later found 1.5 km away. This vineyard has dimensions that are 25% larger than those of the first vineyard. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16T11:23:10.409866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1517
  • 3D Reconstruction of Buried Structures from Magnetic, Electromagnetic and
           ERT Data: Example from the Archaeological Site of Phaistos (Crete, Greece)
    • Authors: Rosa Di Maio; Mauro La Manna, Ester Piegari
      Abstract: A multi‐methodological geophysical prospecting was performed in a survey area of the archaeological Phaistos site on the Greek island of Crete, as part of an international research project aimed at investigating the less excavated hills of Phaistos and the underlying plateau. The article provides an assessment of the resolution of the chosen techniques for non‐destructive testing of buried ancient structures in the geological landscape of Phaistos. The magnetic and electromagnetic surveys clearly detected anomalies related to human activity, some of which were subsequently defined in detail by resistivity tomography imaging. In particular, variations of the observed electrical and magnetic parameters perfectly correlate to a wall structure made of calcareous material, which has been brought to light by subsequent excavations that unearthed large sectors of a fortification in a double curtain wall, chronologically consistent with the historical sources about the destruction of Phaistos in 150 bc. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16T11:02:21.660435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1516
  • Rayleigh‐wave Resonance Analysis: a Methodological Test on a Viking
           Age Pit House
    • Authors: Dennis Wilken; Tina Wunderlich, Bente Majchczack, Jasmin Andersen, Wolfgang Rabbel
      Abstract: Seismic surface‐waves may show amplitude resonances at certain frequencies depending on the thickness and elastic parameters of near‐surface layers. We investigate if resonance frequencies of Rayleigh‐waves, (seismic surface‐waves polarized in the vertical plane) can be used to prospect archaeological remains of small‐scale buildings such as pit houses. Our test site is a newly detected Viking age village on the island of Föhr (north Germany) where we concentrated on one typical pit house. The results from resonance analysis are compared with magnetic data, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and classical seismic refraction measurements. The method of Rayleigh‐wave resonance mapping used in this paper is based on the idea that Rayleigh‐wave oscillations on top of anthropogenic structures will show different resonances than on undisturbed soil. We perform spectral analysis of these oscillations to provide information related to the seismic site response. We process single vertical component recordings and map the change in resonance frequency that can be related to the archaeological objects. The test showed that the pit house can be mapped by Rayleigh‐wave resonance analysis with a horizontal resolution of ~0.6 m. Corresponding computations of the depth of the pit house agree with the results from GPR, magnetic modelling and refraction seismics. A modelling study helped to understand the connection between subsoil shear‐wave velocity model and the signal generated by the pit house. The progress of seismic field measurement is slow compared to GPR and magnetometry. However, since seismic methods are based on elastic subsoil parameters, it can be applied in cases where magnetic contrasts are low or GPR fails because of high electromagnetic wave absorption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T15:41:53.562984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1508
  • Western Section of the ‘Dry Moat’ Channel Surrounding Step
           Pyramid Complex in Saqqara in the Light of Ground‐penetrating Radar
    • Abstract: The Dry Moat is one of the most impressive and at the same time puzzling architectonic structure preserved within the famous royal necropolis at Saqqara, Egypt. It is a rock‐hewn ditch about 40 m wide and of variable depth, which surrounds the Step Pyramid complex built by Pharaoh Djoser from the Third Dynasty which was was the first monumental structure totally built of stone blocks in human history. The function and intention of the Dry Moat remained unknown prior to this study and was unique in the Old Kingdom (ca. 4600–4200 BP). The main focus of the ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) survey conducted in 2012 was recognizing the course of the western section of the Dry Moat and determining the geometry of this structure. The GPR survey confirmed the effectiveness of the GPR method and determined that this vast architectural structure is a ditch surrounding the Step Pyramid. The western section of the Dry Moat was found to have a different geometry than previously thought. The stratigraphy of the infilling beds suggests that it is deeper in the western part than in the eastern one. In the light of conducted GPR prospection it seems likely that the Dry Moat served originally as the huge quarry for material used for construction of the Step Pyramid. It may have also had a secondary function that was purely religious in nature, as has been suggested by some scholars. The Dry Moat seems to be a unique stone work without any known analogies from ancient Egypt. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T10:42:49.475567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1514
  • The Impact of Coder Reliability on Reconstructing Archaeological
           Settlement Patterns from Satellite Imagery: a Case Study from South Africa
    • Authors: Karim Sadr
      Abstract: A large archaeological remote sensing project is underway to digitize and classify the pre‐colonial stone walled structures (SWS) on Google Earth satellite imagery in the southern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. Over 7000 such SWS have been digitized in a study area of some 8000 km2. Several research assistants have been involved in classifying the structures. The problem is that different analysts may assign the same SWS to different types and even digitize their outline differently no matter how well they have been trained. Such inter‐analyst variability is a common problem in many fields. In order to minimize its impact, a thorough study of coder reliability in classification of remotely sensed Iron Age SWS has been initiated. The results show unacceptably high variability in the classification of individual SWS. Several contributing factors have been identified. Surprisingly, at the regional level, relatively high levels of inter‐analyst agreement are seen in the same data. The reason probably has to do with strong agreement on the classification of the most diagnostic structures. This may suffice to produce the replicable results at the regional level. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T17:47:19.555223-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1515
  • Quantitative Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies from Thick Bed,
           Horizontal Plate and Intermediate Models Under Complex
           Physical‐Geological Environments in Archaeological Prospection
    • Authors: Lev V. Eppelbaum
      Abstract: Magnetic prospecting is one of the most widely used methods for archaeological prospection in the world. Noise both of natural [main factors are inclined magnetization, complex geological (archaeological) structure of investigated sites, and uneven terrain relief] and artificial origin (different iron‐containing targets, electric power lines, etc.) strongly obscure interpretation of observed magnetic anomalies. For quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies produced by archaeological targets under aforementioned conditions a non‐conventional interpreting system has been developed. Methodology of magnetic anomalies interpretation from models of thin bed and horizontal circular cylinder (sphere) in conditions of oblique magnetization, rugged relief and unknown level of the total magnetic field by the use of improved versions of characteristic point and tangents has been earlier suggested. However, many archaeological targets have geometrical form of thick bed, thin horizontal plate and intermediate between these two models. In this paper methodology of magnetic anomalies produced by thick bed models in complex environments is explicitly described. It is shown that quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies due to intermediate (between the thick bed and thin horizontal plate) targets could be successfully carried out by the use of methodology developed for the thick bed model. In the case of thin horizontal plate with a large horizontal extent, the two measured anomalies may be interpreted as anomalies from thin beds. The interpretation methodology was successfully tested both on typical models and on real archaeological targets with some success. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T09:24:28.615264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1511
  • A Geophysical Tool for the Conservation of a Decorated Cave – a Case
           Study for the Lascaux Cave
    • Abstract: The Lascaux Cave, located in the south‐eastern part of the department of the Dordogne (24, France), is considered to be one of the most important prehistoric caves in the world. The scope of this study is the protection and conservation of the Lascaux paintings from a hydrogeological and climatic environmental standpoint. Geophysical methods enable us to monitor the environment of the decorated cave in a non‐invasive way. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) using a pole–dipole array, together with analysis of the local effective rainfall (groundwater recharge) and the flow in the cave, helps us to identify an area where upstream underground water is probably stored e.g. a recharge zone. There is a relationship between resistivity change in this zone and the underground flow measured in the cave, but with a time lag. Thus systematic electrical surveys following rainy periods could be used to predict the beginning of the underground flow and in so doing provide valuable advice for the preservation of the Lascaux Cave. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T09:17:01.953399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1513
  • Use of Soil Apparent Electrical Resistivity Contact Sensors for the
           Extensive Study of Archaeological Sites
    • Abstract: Geoelectrical soil mapping using contact sensors with mobile arrays is a widespread method implemented within Precision Agriculture practices since the 1990s, but only in recent times has it begun to be used extensively in the field of archeology. Vehicle towed equipment for the automatic recording of apparent electrical resistivity (ERa) are highly adaptable to land plot structure and are able to cover large areas quickly. In this article we will give an overview of a specific experience of ERa mapping at two archaeological sites with the VERIS 3150 system. This is a contact‐sensor that provides georeferenced measurements at two different depths (0–30/0–90 cm). The process of capture, refinement and normalization of raw data is explained. The work also deals with interpolation procedures used for the creation of continuous surfaces. Finally some examples are offered regarding the identification of buried archaeological and geomorphological features. ERa maps are integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment, in order to provide a more reliable basis for interpretation. The advantage of the VERIS 3150 sensor is stressed, in terms of cost over traditional electrical resistivity/conductivity mapping techniques for the acquisition of high‐quality archaeological information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-04T23:56:15.723049-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1512
  • Characterization of a Pre‐Trajan Wall by Integrated Geophysical
    • Authors: Luciana Orlando; Ettore Cardarelli, Michele Cercato, Giorgio De Donno
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to characterize a pre‐Trajan mosaic‐decorated wall structure located beneath the Cryptoporticus of the ‘Baths of Trajan’ complex in Rome. The surveyed wall is 15 m long, 0.9 m wide and 3 to 5 m high. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and P‐wave seismic refraction tomography profiles were used to reconstruct the wall's inner structure, generate a map of the fractures and to evaluate the seismic velocities of the building materials. The wall was surveyed with horizontally and vertically dense GPR profiles and two seismic lines. The seismic lines and GPR profiles were capable of detecting a discontinuity between brick and travertine materials that compose the wall. The combined interpretation of the two non‐invasive techniques allowed us to locate weak zones and fractures. This rapid, non‐destructive and multi‐parametric approach has proved to be effective for characterizing the current status of the wall and the results will be used by archaeologists to evaluate the wall's integrity and to preserve the structure in the future archaeological excavations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28T02:40:39.15221-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1509
  • Combined Geophysical Approach in a Complex Arctic Archaeological
           Environment: A Case Study from the LdFa‐1 Site, Southern Baffin
           Island, Nunavut
    • Authors: David B. Landry; Ian J. Ferguson, S. Brooke Milne, Robert W. Park
      Abstract: In 2014, we mapped the complex landscape of component Area 5 at LdFa‐1, a 3000‐year‐old Palaeoeskimo site located in the deep interior of southern Baffin Island, using a combined magnetic and electromagnetic approach to define the physical characteristics of any large‐ or small‐scale anthropogenic anomalies. Measurements were made using a GEM Systems Overhauser magnetometer‐gradiometer and Geonics EM31 instrument, and a survey configuration designed to map in high resolution the total magnetic field, magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity responses of the underlying soils. Data‐reduction methods were used for each survey, including, for example, removal of temporal drift, to produce final responses related closely to the subsurface physical properties. Six geophysical responses are presented in the results: total magnetic field, vertical magnetic gradient, horizontal‐ and vertical‐dipole‐mode apparent susceptibility, and horizontal‐ and vertical‐dipole‐mode apparent conductivity. Spatial assemblages of small‐scale (
      PubDate: 2015-03-20T01:10:45.544017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1505
  • On the Ability of Geophysical Methods to Image Medieval Turf Buildings in
    • Authors: Tina Wunderlich; Dennis Wilken, Jasmin Andersen, Wolfgang Rabbel, Davide Zori, Sven Kalmring, Jesse Byock
      Abstract: Structures in Iceland were traditionally built of turf, earth and, to a lesser extent, stone. As turf was the primary construction material, the contrast in geophysical parameters between building ruins and surrounding soil is expected to be low. To investigate the extent to which the remains of turf buildings can be detected by geophysical measurements, we applied several geophysical techniques to a known turf ruin in southwestern Iceland. The methods used were magnetics, ground‐penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic induction (EMI), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic Rayleigh‐wave resonance mapping (RRM). Magnetics identified an accumulation of stones inside and beside the ruin. The in‐phase component of the EMI measurements, which can be related to magnetic susceptibility, showed the same pattern. A very precise image of the stones lining the inside of the former turf walls was generated by GPR. In contrast, EMI conductivity and ERT imaged the actual turf in the walls. Turf walls have lower electrical conductivity compared with the surrounding soil, probably as a result of different porosities. The mapping of Rayleigh wave resonance clearly revealed the outline of the ruin, as indicated by weaker amplitudes compared with the surrounding soil. Overall the results indicate that geophysical methods can be used for subsurface mapping of Icelandic turf structures and that the combined application of the methods maximizes this potential. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15T22:53:09.989541-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1506
  • Interdisciplinary archaeological prospection, excavation and 3D
           documentation exemplified through the investigation of a burial at the
           Iron Age settlement site of Uppåkra in Sweden
    • Abstract: This paper presents the archaeological prospection, excavation and digital three‐dimensional documentation of a previously unknown neolithic grave, presumably late neolithic, at the outstanding Iron Age site of Uppåkra in southern Sweden, and exemplifies a multidisciplinary approach to modern archaeological fieldwork. In the framework of a large‐scale archaeological prospection pilot study conducted at the archaeological site of Uppåkra using remote sensing and large‐scale near‐surface geophysical prospection methods a peculiar circular structure was discovered and mapped using both manual and motorized high‐resolution ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. The structure, consisting of a ring ditch of ca. 10 m diameter, encloses an east–west oriented strongly reflecting rectangular body in the centre, which therefore was interpreted as being caused by the buried remains of a prehistoric barrow. Subsequent archaeological excavation was conducted across this structure in order to determine the exact cause of the GPR anomaly. This excavation resulted in detailed confirmation of the archaeological prospection results as well as in the discovery of dateable finds. The excavation was documented using the latest image‐based three‐dimensional modelling techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15T22:38:53.620999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1504
  • Characterizing Elements of Urban Planning in Magna Graecia Using
           Geophysical Techniques: the Case of Tirena (Southern Italy)
    • Authors: F. Cella; V. Paoletti, G. Florio, M. Fedi
      Abstract: We present the results of a geophysical study at the site of Pian della Tirena, near the town of Nocera Terinese (Calabria, Italy). Geophysical imaging is a recent technique providing a reliable mapping of the three‐dimensional magnetization distribution below the ground and, thus, effectively estimating the depth of buried structures. The site studied gained archaeological interest following the hypothesis of the presence of two adjacent, but distinct, settlements. The first one of Hellenic/Hellenistic age (the Temesa of Brettian age), the second (called Tempsa) of Roman age. Even though the site was recently excavated, extensive investigation was not possible due to the broadness of the area and the scarceness of traces at the surface, making it difficult to plan a targeted survey. Two detailed geophysical (magnetic and electromagnetic) surveys were performed in 2006 and 2013 to provide the archaeologists with precise information about the type and position of the buried structures, and increase the efficiency of the investigation. The survey aimed to: (i) confirm and outline the existence of a true urban settlement instead of isolated dwellings; (ii) locate centres of manufacturing activities (local pottery and metal handicrafts); (iii) verify the existence of a boundary wall or road around the settlement. Our three‐dimensional analysis and interpretation detected several anomaly trends, most of which show a rather regular shape and orientation. This allowed us to infer the possible existence of a well‐developed urban network. The final results provided an archaeological interpretation, building upon the urban network and different use‐zones within the town. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T00:22:14.896179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1507
  • Spatial Configurations of Water Management at an Early Angkorian Capital
           – Combining GPR and TerraSAR‐X Data to Complement an
           Archaeological Map
    • Authors: Till Frieder Sonnemann
      Abstract: Hariharalaya was a medieval political centre of the eighth–ninth century ce, located on the northern shore of Lake Tonle Sap in Cambodia. Mapped in detail in the 1990s by means of aerial photographs and ground surveys, more recently ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) and high‐resolution satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were applied to further interpret this complex archaeological landscape. In combination with remote sensing imagery, the two radiofrequency‐based imaging techniques were used to complement the existing archaeological maps. The area housed an extensive low‐density urban complex of earthen mounds and ponds, approximately 5 × 5 km square and centring on the Bakong, an early Angkorian state temple, crossed and encircled by a mostly disconnected water‐management network of embankments and canals. Extensive GPR surveys, conducted predominantly on the existing small roads and paths criss‐crossing the landscape, appraise the visible archaeological features with subsurface information. The analysis verifies the existence of channels and embankments, complementing the information with depth and width. The identification of additional, now desiccated, canals and river channels assisted in connecting a number of already mapped archaeological features, and helped to distinguish possible later additions, thereby untangling the water‐management network. Spotlight TerrSAR‐X satellite data together with satellite images of the visual spectrum complemented the analysis, by providing information about water saturation in areas inaccessible to ground surveys, marking out palaeochannels and providing clues about the landscape before development took place. This three‐dimensional interpretation informs on the functioning of this particular early Angkorian hydraulic system, adding to the understanding of water management in medieval Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T21:01:03.506797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1502
  • Green Waste and Archaeological Geophysics
    • Authors: James Gerrard; Liz Caldwell, Alisa Kennedy
      Abstract: Environmental concerns, supported by regulatory frameworks, have encouraged the conversion of organic and biological waste into fertilizers and soil conditioners (so‐called green waste) that are being increasingly used on arable fields. Recent work has shown that the level of ferrous contaminants within this waste can have a detrimental impact on shallow geophysical prospection methods that use the principles of magnetism. This paper highlights the negative impact of this new agricultural practice on the historic environment and calls for tighter regulation of green waste. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T19:27:02.728164-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1503
  • The Impact of Spatial Sampling and Migration on the Interpretation of
           Complex Archaeological Ground‐penetrating Radar Data
    • Authors: Lieven Verdonck; Devi Taelman, Frank Vermeulen, Roald Docter
      Abstract: In this paper, the impact of spatial sample density and three‐dimensional migration processing on the interpretation of archaeological ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) data is assessed. First, the question of how to determine the sample interval required to take full advantage of the spatial resolution capabilities of GPR without oversampling is addressed. To this end, we transform a test profile into the frequency–wavenumber (f–k) domain and estimate the required sample interval from the wavenumber values. For the presented data set, collected at the Roman town Ammaia (Portugal), this resulted in a transect spacing approximately three times the distance prescribed by the λmin/4 criterion (where λmin is the minimum observed wavelength). Second, the effect of three‐dimensional migration is assessed. The data set, sampled as prescribed by the analysis of the f–k plot, is migrated with two‐ and three‐dimensional phase‐shift algorithms, and the migrated results are compared with non‐migrated data. It is shown that certain subtle features are better resolved by three‐dimensional migration. Third, it is investigated whether three‐dimensional migration following the application of an interpolation algorithm such as Delaunay triangulation or interpolation based on τ‐p transform, can further relax spatial sampling requirements. For the GPR data shown in this article, it is demonstrated that interpolation and three‐dimensional migration of slightly aliased data, collected with a transect spacing equal to five times the outcome of the λmin/4 criterion, still allow a faithful reconstruction of the original, non‐aliased time‐slices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-01-28T23:17:28.000937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1501
  • Gradiometer and Ground‐penetrating Radar Survey of Two
           Reducción Settlements in the Zaña Valley, Peru
    • Authors: Parker Vanvalkenburgh; Chester P. Walker, Jennie O. Sturm
      Abstract: In this study, we utilize ground‐penetrating radar and gradiometer survey to map buried architecture and investigate the political dimensions of the built environment at two Spanish colonial period archaeological sites in Peru's north coast region, Carrizales (C123) and Mocupe Viejo (74). Based on historical sources, we argue that both sites were founded during the Toledan reducción movement – a large‐scale attempt by Peru's viceregal government to forcibly resettle indigenous populations into planned towns in the 1570s ce. Coupled with excavations, geophysical survey has revealed diversity in how these planned towns were constructed. At Carrizales, domestic architectural features revealed through gradiometer survey and confirmed through excavations suggest that the town's layout broadly conformed to the prescriptions of reducción plans, centring on a large plaza and following a rectilinear layout. Ground‐penetrating radar results at the site were limited by high soil salinity. In contrast, at Mocupe Viejo, ground‐penetrating radar, gradiometer survey, and excavations have recovered no evidence of a gridded street plan, and demonstrate that the church was located in an idiosyncratic position. Together, these results suggest that the resettlement process was contested and that plans were modified to serve more proximate political, ecclesiastical, and practical concerns, illustrating the limited reach of colonial state power in the sixteenth century. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:14:18.912505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1499
  • Geophysical Investigations on the Viking Period Platform Mound at Aska in
           Hagebyhöga Parish, Sweden
    • Authors: Martin Rundkvist; Andreas Viberg
      Abstract: Aska hamlet in Hagebyhöga parish, Östergötland (Sweden), is famous among Viking scholars for a rich female burial under a low cairn that was excavated in 1920. The main visible archaeological feature of the site is an enormous barrow, but its contents have not been excavated. As the barrow is oval and has an extensive flat top, it has been hypothesized previously that rather than a grave superstructure, this might be an uncommonly large raised foundation for a long house. We occasionally see this type of feature at elite manorial sites from the period ad 400–1100. We have tested this idea at Aska with ground‐penetrating radar, securing the clear and detailed floor plan of a post‐supported hall building almost 50 m long. Its closest known architectural parallel, also sitting on a similar platform, has been excavated at Old Uppsala, the late first millennium ad political and ceremonial centre of the ancient Swedes. At Aska, it appears that we have found another such real‐world correlate of the Beowulf poem's royal mead‐hall Heorot, but in this case located in a smaller and less powerful polity. This all suggests a petty royal status for the owners of the Aska hall, who enjoyed connections with Scandinavia's top political elite. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T01:02:32.966445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1500
  • CORONA Photographs in Monsoonal Semi‐arid Environments: Addressing
           Archaeological Surveys and Historic Landscape Dynamics over North Gujarat,
    • Authors: Francesc C. Conesa; Marco Madella, Nikolaos Galiatsatos, Andrea L. Balbo, S. V. Rajesh, P. Ajithprasad
      Abstract: Here we illustrate a ground map approach that uses orthorectified CORONA KH4B images and declassified topographical maps to study historical land‐use dynamics and to help planning archaeological survey in the monsoonal semi‐arid alluvial plains of North Gujarat, India. In spite of its generalized use in archaeological applications, CORONA photographs have rarely been used in Indian archaeological contexts. The methods discuss a cost‐effective and integrated protocol for: (i) obtaining ground control points (GCPs) and orthorectify CORONA photographs when very high‐resolution imagery or detailed topographic maps are not available; and (ii) evaluating the integration of declassified datasets into Google Earth Pro for addressing archaeological surveys in remote areas. The merging of CORONA imagery with declassified USA and the former USSR historical military maps provided a picture of the human–environment interaction in North Gujarat of the past 40 years, prior to the intense development of mechanical agriculture and regional irrigation channels. We conclude by identifying the human and climate‐induced taphonomical processes that are obliterating a fragile landscape characterized by archaeological scatters located in fossilized sand dunes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T06:28:18.7725-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1498
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