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Journal Cover   Archaeological Prospection
  [SJR: 0.765]   [H-I: 15]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-2196 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0763
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1607 journals]
  • Quantitative Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies from Thick Bed,
           Horizontal Plate and Intermediate Models Under Complex
           Physical‐Geological Environments in Archaeological Prospection
    • Authors: Lev V. Eppelbaum
      Abstract: Magnetic prospecting is one of the most widely used methods for archaeological prospection in the world. Noise both of natural [main factors are inclined magnetization, complex geological (archaeological) structure of investigated sites, and uneven terrain relief] and artificial origin (different iron‐containing targets, electric power lines, etc.) strongly obscure interpretation of observed magnetic anomalies. For quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies produced by archaeological targets under aforementioned conditions a non‐conventional interpreting system has been developed. Methodology of magnetic anomalies interpretation from models of thin bed and horizontal circular cylinder (sphere) in conditions of oblique magnetization, rugged relief and unknown level of the total magnetic field by the use of improved versions of characteristic point and tangents has been earlier suggested. However, many archaeological targets have geometrical form of thick bed, thin horizontal plate and intermediate between these two models. In this paper methodology of magnetic anomalies produced by thick bed models in complex environments is explicitly described. It is shown that quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies due to intermediate (between the thick bed and thin horizontal plate) targets could be successfully carried out by the use of methodology developed for the thick bed model. In the case of thin horizontal plate with a large horizontal extent, the two measured anomalies may be interpreted as anomalies from thin beds. The interpretation methodology was successfully tested both on typical models and on real archaeological targets with some success. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T09:24:28.615264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1511
  • A Geophysical Tool for the Conservation of a Decorated Cave – a Case
           Study for the Lascaux Cave
    • Authors: Shan Xu; Colette Sirieix, Catherine Ferrier, Delphine Lacanette‐Puyo, Joelle Riss, Philippe Malaurent
      Abstract: The Lascaux Cave, located in the south‐eastern part of the department of the Dordogne (24, France), is considered to be one of the most important prehistoric caves in the world. The scope of this study is the protection and conservation of the Lascaux paintings from a hydrogeological and climatic environmental standpoint. Geophysical methods enable us to monitor the environment of the decorated cave in a non‐invasive way. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) using a pole–dipole array, together with analysis of the local effective rainfall (groundwater recharge) and the flow in the cave, helps us to identify an area where upstream underground water is probably stored e.g. a recharge zone. There is a relationship between resistivity change in this zone and the underground flow measured in the cave, but with a time lag. Thus systematic electrical surveys following rainy periods could be used to predict the beginning of the underground flow and in so doing provide valuable advice for the preservation of the Lascaux Cave. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T09:17:01.953399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1513
  • Use of Soil Apparent Electrical Resistivity Contact Sensors for the
           Extensive Study of Archaeological Sites
    • Authors: José María Terrón; Victorino Mayoral, José Ángel Salgado, Francisco Antonio Galea, Víctor Hurtado Pérez, Carlos Odriozola, Pedro Mateos, Antonio Pizzo
      Abstract: Geoelectrical soil mapping using contact sensors with mobile arrays is a widespread method implemented within Precision Agriculture practices since the 1990s, but only in recent times has it begun to be used extensively in the field of archeology. Vehicle towed equipment for the automatic recording of apparent electrical resistivity (ERa) are highly adaptable to land plot structure and are able to cover large areas quickly. In this article we will give an overview of a specific experience of ERa mapping at two archaeological sites with the VERIS 3150 system. This is a contact‐sensor that provides georeferenced measurements at two different depths (0–30/0–90 cm). The process of capture, refinement and normalization of raw data is explained. The work also deals with interpolation procedures used for the creation of continuous surfaces. Finally some examples are offered regarding the identification of buried archaeological and geomorphological features. ERa maps are integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment, in order to provide a more reliable basis for interpretation. The advantage of the VERIS 3150 sensor is stressed, in terms of cost over traditional electrical resistivity/conductivity mapping techniques for the acquisition of high‐quality archaeological information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-04T23:56:15.723049-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1512
  • Characterization of a Pre‐Trajan Wall by Integrated Geophysical
    • Authors: Luciana Orlando; Ettore Cardarelli, Michele Cercato, Giorgio De Donno
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to characterize a pre‐Trajan mosaic‐decorated wall structure located beneath the Cryptoporticus of the ‘Baths of Trajan’ complex in Rome. The surveyed wall is 15 m long, 0.9 m wide and 3 to 5 m high. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and P‐wave seismic refraction tomography profiles were used to reconstruct the wall's inner structure, generate a map of the fractures and to evaluate the seismic velocities of the building materials. The wall was surveyed with horizontally and vertically dense GPR profiles and two seismic lines. The seismic lines and GPR profiles were capable of detecting a discontinuity between brick and travertine materials that compose the wall. The combined interpretation of the two non‐invasive techniques allowed us to locate weak zones and fractures. This rapid, non‐destructive and multi‐parametric approach has proved to be effective for characterizing the current status of the wall and the results will be used by archaeologists to evaluate the wall's integrity and to preserve the structure in the future archaeological excavations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28T02:40:39.15221-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1509
  • Combined Geophysical Approach in a Complex Arctic Archaeological
           Environment: A Case Study from the LdFa‐1 Site, Southern Baffin
           Island, Nunavut
    • Authors: David B. Landry; Ian J. Ferguson, S. Brooke Milne, Robert W. Park
      Abstract: In 2014, we mapped the complex landscape of component Area 5 at LdFa‐1, a 3000‐year‐old Palaeoeskimo site located in the deep interior of southern Baffin Island, using a combined magnetic and electromagnetic approach to define the physical characteristics of any large‐ or small‐scale anthropogenic anomalies. Measurements were made using a GEM Systems Overhauser magnetometer‐gradiometer and Geonics EM31 instrument, and a survey configuration designed to map in high resolution the total magnetic field, magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity responses of the underlying soils. Data‐reduction methods were used for each survey, including, for example, removal of temporal drift, to produce final responses related closely to the subsurface physical properties. Six geophysical responses are presented in the results: total magnetic field, vertical magnetic gradient, horizontal‐ and vertical‐dipole‐mode apparent susceptibility, and horizontal‐ and vertical‐dipole‐mode apparent conductivity. Spatial assemblages of small‐scale (
      PubDate: 2015-03-20T01:10:45.544017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1505
  • On the Ability of Geophysical Methods to Image Medieval Turf Buildings in
    • Authors: Tina Wunderlich; Dennis Wilken, Jasmin Andersen, Wolfgang Rabbel, Davide Zori, Sven Kalmring, Jesse Byock
      Abstract: Structures in Iceland were traditionally built of turf, earth and, to a lesser extent, stone. As turf was the primary construction material, the contrast in geophysical parameters between building ruins and surrounding soil is expected to be low. To investigate the extent to which the remains of turf buildings can be detected by geophysical measurements, we applied several geophysical techniques to a known turf ruin in southwestern Iceland. The methods used were magnetics, ground‐penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic induction (EMI), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic Rayleigh‐wave resonance mapping (RRM). Magnetics identified an accumulation of stones inside and beside the ruin. The in‐phase component of the EMI measurements, which can be related to magnetic susceptibility, showed the same pattern. A very precise image of the stones lining the inside of the former turf walls was generated by GPR. In contrast, EMI conductivity and ERT imaged the actual turf in the walls. Turf walls have lower electrical conductivity compared with the surrounding soil, probably as a result of different porosities. The mapping of Rayleigh wave resonance clearly revealed the outline of the ruin, as indicated by weaker amplitudes compared with the surrounding soil. Overall the results indicate that geophysical methods can be used for subsurface mapping of Icelandic turf structures and that the combined application of the methods maximizes this potential. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15T22:53:09.989541-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1506
  • Interdisciplinary archaeological prospection, excavation and 3D
           documentation exemplified through the investigation of a burial at the
           Iron Age settlement site of Uppåkra in Sweden
    • Authors: Lars Larsson; Immo Trinks, Bengt Söderberg, Manuel Gabler, Nicolo Dell'unto, Wolfgang Neubauer, Torbjörn Ahlström
      Abstract: This paper presents the archaeological prospection, excavation and digital three‐dimensional documentation of a previously unknown neolithic grave, presumably late neolithic, at the outstanding Iron Age site of Uppåkra in southern Sweden, and exemplifies a multidisciplinary approach to modern archaeological fieldwork. In the framework of a large‐scale archaeological prospection pilot study conducted at the archaeological site of Uppåkra using remote sensing and large‐scale near‐surface geophysical prospection methods a peculiar circular structure was discovered and mapped using both manual and motorized high‐resolution ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. The structure, consisting of a ring ditch of ca. 10 m diameter, encloses an east–west oriented strongly reflecting rectangular body in the centre, which therefore was interpreted as being caused by the buried remains of a prehistoric barrow. Subsequent archaeological excavation was conducted across this structure in order to determine the exact cause of the GPR anomaly. This excavation resulted in detailed confirmation of the archaeological prospection results as well as in the discovery of dateable finds. The excavation was documented using the latest image‐based three‐dimensional modelling techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15T22:38:53.620999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1504
  • Characterizing Elements of Urban Planning in Magna Graecia Using
           Geophysical Techniques: the Case of Tirena (Southern Italy)
    • Authors: F. Cella; V. Paoletti, G. Florio, M. Fedi
      Abstract: We present the results of a geophysical study at the site of Pian della Tirena, near the town of Nocera Terinese (Calabria, Italy). Geophysical imaging is a recent technique providing a reliable mapping of the three‐dimensional magnetization distribution below the ground and, thus, effectively estimating the depth of buried structures. The site studied gained archaeological interest following the hypothesis of the presence of two adjacent, but distinct, settlements. The first one of Hellenic/Hellenistic age (the Temesa of Brettian age), the second (called Tempsa) of Roman age. Even though the site was recently excavated, extensive investigation was not possible due to the broadness of the area and the scarceness of traces at the surface, making it difficult to plan a targeted survey. Two detailed geophysical (magnetic and electromagnetic) surveys were performed in 2006 and 2013 to provide the archaeologists with precise information about the type and position of the buried structures, and increase the efficiency of the investigation. The survey aimed to: (i) confirm and outline the existence of a true urban settlement instead of isolated dwellings; (ii) locate centres of manufacturing activities (local pottery and metal handicrafts); (iii) verify the existence of a boundary wall or road around the settlement. Our three‐dimensional analysis and interpretation detected several anomaly trends, most of which show a rather regular shape and orientation. This allowed us to infer the possible existence of a well‐developed urban network. The final results provided an archaeological interpretation, building upon the urban network and different use‐zones within the town. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T00:22:14.896179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1507
  • Spatial Configurations of Water Management at an Early Angkorian Capital
           – Combining GPR and TerraSAR‐X Data to Complement an
           Archaeological Map
    • Authors: Till Frieder Sonnemann
      Abstract: Hariharalaya was a medieval political centre of the eighth–ninth century ce, located on the northern shore of Lake Tonle Sap in Cambodia. Mapped in detail in the 1990s by means of aerial photographs and ground surveys, more recently ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) and high‐resolution satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were applied to further interpret this complex archaeological landscape. In combination with remote sensing imagery, the two radiofrequency‐based imaging techniques were used to complement the existing archaeological maps. The area housed an extensive low‐density urban complex of earthen mounds and ponds, approximately 5 × 5 km square and centring on the Bakong, an early Angkorian state temple, crossed and encircled by a mostly disconnected water‐management network of embankments and canals. Extensive GPR surveys, conducted predominantly on the existing small roads and paths criss‐crossing the landscape, appraise the visible archaeological features with subsurface information. The analysis verifies the existence of channels and embankments, complementing the information with depth and width. The identification of additional, now desiccated, canals and river channels assisted in connecting a number of already mapped archaeological features, and helped to distinguish possible later additions, thereby untangling the water‐management network. Spotlight TerrSAR‐X satellite data together with satellite images of the visual spectrum complemented the analysis, by providing information about water saturation in areas inaccessible to ground surveys, marking out palaeochannels and providing clues about the landscape before development took place. This three‐dimensional interpretation informs on the functioning of this particular early Angkorian hydraulic system, adding to the understanding of water management in medieval Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-02-18T21:01:03.506797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1502
  • Green Waste and Archaeological Geophysics
    • Authors: James Gerrard; Liz Caldwell, Alisa Kennedy
      Abstract: Environmental concerns, supported by regulatory frameworks, have encouraged the conversion of organic and biological waste into fertilizers and soil conditioners (so‐called green waste) that are being increasingly used on arable fields. Recent work has shown that the level of ferrous contaminants within this waste can have a detrimental impact on shallow geophysical prospection methods that use the principles of magnetism. This paper highlights the negative impact of this new agricultural practice on the historic environment and calls for tighter regulation of green waste. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T19:27:02.728164-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1503
  • The Impact of Spatial Sampling and Migration on the Interpretation of
           Complex Archaeological Ground‐penetrating Radar Data
    • Authors: Lieven Verdonck; Devi Taelman, Frank Vermeulen, Roald Docter
      Abstract: In this paper, the impact of spatial sample density and three‐dimensional migration processing on the interpretation of archaeological ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) data is assessed. First, the question of how to determine the sample interval required to take full advantage of the spatial resolution capabilities of GPR without oversampling is addressed. To this end, we transform a test profile into the frequency–wavenumber (f–k) domain and estimate the required sample interval from the wavenumber values. For the presented data set, collected at the Roman town Ammaia (Portugal), this resulted in a transect spacing approximately three times the distance prescribed by the λmin/4 criterion (where λmin is the minimum observed wavelength). Second, the effect of three‐dimensional migration is assessed. The data set, sampled as prescribed by the analysis of the f–k plot, is migrated with two‐ and three‐dimensional phase‐shift algorithms, and the migrated results are compared with non‐migrated data. It is shown that certain subtle features are better resolved by three‐dimensional migration. Third, it is investigated whether three‐dimensional migration following the application of an interpolation algorithm such as Delaunay triangulation or interpolation based on τ‐p transform, can further relax spatial sampling requirements. For the GPR data shown in this article, it is demonstrated that interpolation and three‐dimensional migration of slightly aliased data, collected with a transect spacing equal to five times the outcome of the λmin/4 criterion, still allow a faithful reconstruction of the original, non‐aliased time‐slices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-01-28T23:17:28.000937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1501
  • Gradiometer and Ground‐penetrating Radar Survey of Two
           Reducción Settlements in the Zaña Valley, Peru
    • Authors: Parker Vanvalkenburgh; Chester P. Walker, Jennie O. Sturm
      Abstract: In this study, we utilize ground‐penetrating radar and gradiometer survey to map buried architecture and investigate the political dimensions of the built environment at two Spanish colonial period archaeological sites in Peru's north coast region, Carrizales (C123) and Mocupe Viejo (74). Based on historical sources, we argue that both sites were founded during the Toledan reducción movement – a large‐scale attempt by Peru's viceregal government to forcibly resettle indigenous populations into planned towns in the 1570s ce. Coupled with excavations, geophysical survey has revealed diversity in how these planned towns were constructed. At Carrizales, domestic architectural features revealed through gradiometer survey and confirmed through excavations suggest that the town's layout broadly conformed to the prescriptions of reducción plans, centring on a large plaza and following a rectilinear layout. Ground‐penetrating radar results at the site were limited by high soil salinity. In contrast, at Mocupe Viejo, ground‐penetrating radar, gradiometer survey, and excavations have recovered no evidence of a gridded street plan, and demonstrate that the church was located in an idiosyncratic position. Together, these results suggest that the resettlement process was contested and that plans were modified to serve more proximate political, ecclesiastical, and practical concerns, illustrating the limited reach of colonial state power in the sixteenth century. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:14:18.912505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1499
  • Geophysical Investigations on the Viking Period Platform Mound at Aska in
           Hagebyhöga Parish, Sweden
    • Authors: Martin Rundkvist; Andreas Viberg
      Abstract: Aska hamlet in Hagebyhöga parish, Östergötland (Sweden), is famous among Viking scholars for a rich female burial under a low cairn that was excavated in 1920. The main visible archaeological feature of the site is an enormous barrow, but its contents have not been excavated. As the barrow is oval and has an extensive flat top, it has been hypothesized previously that rather than a grave superstructure, this might be an uncommonly large raised foundation for a long house. We occasionally see this type of feature at elite manorial sites from the period ad 400–1100. We have tested this idea at Aska with ground‐penetrating radar, securing the clear and detailed floor plan of a post‐supported hall building almost 50 m long. Its closest known architectural parallel, also sitting on a similar platform, has been excavated at Old Uppsala, the late first millennium ad political and ceremonial centre of the ancient Swedes. At Aska, it appears that we have found another such real‐world correlate of the Beowulf poem's royal mead‐hall Heorot, but in this case located in a smaller and less powerful polity. This all suggests a petty royal status for the owners of the Aska hall, who enjoyed connections with Scandinavia's top political elite. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T01:02:32.966445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1500
  • CORONA Photographs in Monsoonal Semi‐arid Environments: Addressing
           Archaeological Surveys and Historic Landscape Dynamics over North Gujarat,
    • Authors: Francesc C. Conesa; Marco Madella, Nikolaos Galiatsatos, Andrea L. Balbo, S. V. Rajesh, P. Ajithprasad
      Abstract: Here we illustrate a ground map approach that uses orthorectified CORONA KH4B images and declassified topographical maps to study historical land‐use dynamics and to help planning archaeological survey in the monsoonal semi‐arid alluvial plains of North Gujarat, India. In spite of its generalized use in archaeological applications, CORONA photographs have rarely been used in Indian archaeological contexts. The methods discuss a cost‐effective and integrated protocol for: (i) obtaining ground control points (GCPs) and orthorectify CORONA photographs when very high‐resolution imagery or detailed topographic maps are not available; and (ii) evaluating the integration of declassified datasets into Google Earth Pro for addressing archaeological surveys in remote areas. The merging of CORONA imagery with declassified USA and the former USSR historical military maps provided a picture of the human–environment interaction in North Gujarat of the past 40 years, prior to the intense development of mechanical agriculture and regional irrigation channels. We conclude by identifying the human and climate‐induced taphonomical processes that are obliterating a fragile landscape characterized by archaeological scatters located in fossilized sand dunes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T06:28:18.7725-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1498
  • A Template‐matching Approach Combining Morphometric Variables for
           Automated Mapping of Charcoal Kiln Sites
    • Authors: Anna Schneider; Melanie Takla, Alexander Nicolay, Alexandra Raab, Thomas Raab
      Abstract: Analysing the spatial distribution of anthropogenic relief structures can contribute to the understanding of past land‐use systems. With automated mapping routines, small relief forms can be detected efficiently from high‐resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). In this study, we describe an approach for the automated mapping of charcoal kiln sites from an airborne laser‐scanning DTM. The study site is located north of Cottbus, Germany, where an exceptionally large historic charcoal production field has been documented in previous archaeological surveys. The goal of this study was to implement, evaluate and improve an automated GIS‐based routine for mapping these features based on the template‐matching principle. In addition to the DTM, different morphometric variables were evaluated for their suitability to detect kiln sites. The mapping results were validated against a comprehensive database of kiln sites recorded from archaeological excavations and via manual digitization. The effects of irregular kiln‐site geometry and DTM noise were evaluated using synthetic DTMs. The results of the synthetic DTM mapping show that the template‐matching results differed depending on the morphometric variable used for the mapping process. In accordance with this observation, a validation of the mapping procedure for the field site suggests that feature mapping can be improved. In particular, the number of false detections can be reduced using a combination of morphometric variables. For the validation area, the kiln sites with diameters of at least 10 m were mapped using the automated routine, with detection rates that were close to those of manual digitization. Therefore, the described method can considerably facilitate the mapping and distribution analysis of kiln sites or similar small relief forms that are prominent in a specific landscape. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T06:17:26.773047-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1497
  • Structure of an Ancient Egyptian Tomb Inferred from
           Ground‐Penetrating Radar Imaging of Deflected Overburden Horizons
    • Authors: Adam D. Booth; Kasia Szpakowska, Elena Pischikova, Kenneth Griffin
      Abstract: Geophysical data acquisitions in most archaeological campaigns aim to image the target structure directly. The presence of a target, however, may be inferred from its interaction with surrounding layers, if its relationship with those layers can be characterized sufficiently. In this paper, we show the use of ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) to detect the subsurface continuation of the Ancient Egyptian tomb of the high‐official Karakhamun (Theban Tomb 223) at the South Asasif tomb complex (Luxor, Egypt). Data were acquired using a Sensors & Software pulseEKKO PRO system, equipped with antennas of 500 MHz centre‐frequency, on a silty–sandy sediment surface directly over the target structure. A test vertical radar profile (VRP) suggested that the tomb superstructure was buried too deeply beneath sedimentary overburden to be imaged directly: 500 MHz energy would propagate for only ~2 m before becoming undetectable. Attenuative layers within that overburden were strongly reflective, however, and could be used to provide indirect evidence of any underlying structure. When observed in the GPR grid, these layers showed a discrete zone of deflection, ~0.9 m in amplitude and ~4 m wide, aligned with the long‐axis of the tomb. This deflection was attributed either to a collapsed vestibule beneath the survey site, or sediment settling within an unroofed staircase descending from ground‐ to tomb‐floor‐level; supporting evidence of this was obtained towards the end of the excavation campaign and in the following year. We highlight the value of such indirect imaging methods as a potential means of improving the capabilities of a given geophysical survey system, in this case allowing the GPR to characterize a target at greater depth than would typically be considered practical. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:23:11.909297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1496
  • A Comprehensive Magnetic Survey of a Neolithic Causewayed Enclosure in
           West‐central France for the Interpretation of Archaeological
    • Authors: Vincent Ard; Vivien Mathé, François Lévêque, Adrien Camus
      Abstract: This paper describes an interdisciplinary study of the Neolithic causewayed enclosure of Bellevue (Chenommet, France). Geophysical investigations and archaeological excavations were used alternately in order to optimize the acquisition of accurate data at different spatial scales: mapping of major structures was obtained by magnetic prospection of the whole site, while excavation identified small features weakly expressed in the prospecting results. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility and total magnetic field anomalies were also recorded during the excavation in order to identify the source of the magnetic signal of the ditches. This mutual transdisciplinary contribution is also methodological: the geophysics reveals archaeological information invisible to the eye of the archaeologist and, in turn, the excavation allows refinement of the interpretation of the geophysical data by identifying the sources of signal variations. This article presents the results of the first comprehensive magnetic mapping of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure in the west of France. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:21:54.489663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1495
  • Discovery of a Byzantine Church in Iznik/Nicaea, Turkey: an Educational
           Case History of Geophysical Prospecting with Combined Methods in Urban
    • Authors: W. Rabbel; E. Erkul, H. Stümpel, T. Wunderlich, R. Pašteka, J. Papco, P. Niewöhner, Ş. Bariş, O. Çakin, E. Pekşen
      Abstract: The city of Iznik, called Nikaia or Nicaea in ancient times, is located in northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Nicaea is renowned especially for the first Council of Nicaea convened by the Roman emperor Constantine in ad 325 in an attempt to unify the Church. During an international field course on the geophysical exploration of archaeological targets we detected the remains of a small previously unknown Byzantine church on a fallow lot of land inside the city. The church is oriented parallel to the ancient Hippodamian street grid that deviates from the modern street system of the quarter by ~45°. We found the contours of the nave, two aisles and three apses as well as evidence of a partly refilled grave. The geophysical measurements indicate that the foundations of the church consist of low‐porosity hard rock with a low magnetic susceptibility, probably limestone or sandstone embedded in fluvial sediments. The field study is based on ground‐penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and microgravimetry. It highlights the strength and necessity of combining different geophysical methods in exploring and characterizing archaeological sites. In fact, the foundation walls of the church do not show any magnetic anomaly but could be delineated clearly only by GPR. The wall remains appear as highly resistive spots in ERT. By converting the three‐dimensional GPR image into an electric resistivity model we could verify that the ERT results fully correspond to the ruins found by GPR. The structure interpreted as a loosely refilled grave is indicated mainly by a weak gravity anomaly (~9 μGal) and a diffuse reflection pattern in GPR. Electric forward modelling shows that this structure leads to an additional increase of a high resistivity anomaly, which is primarily caused by foundation rocks, but it cannot be resolved within the ERT pattern a priori. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T21:57:45.268939-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1491
  • Use of Integrated Geophysical Methods to Investigate a Coastal
           Archaeological Site: the Sant'Imbenia Roman Villa (Northern Sardinia,
    • Authors: Valeria Testone; Vittorio Longo, Marta C. Bottacchi, Paola Mameli
      Abstract: We report here a multimethod geophysical investigation of the Sant'Imbenia Roman villa archaeological site in northern Sardinia (Italy). The main objective of this study is optimizing a non‐invasive approach to reconstruct rapidly the geometry of coastal sites. A hitherto unexplored area of approximately 700 m2, adjacent to excavations, was investigated using ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. The Sant'Imbenia villa is close to the present‐day shoreline and subject to very high erosion rates and burial. A comparison of the high‐resolution GPR and ERT models was made, and their integrated results are discussed in terms of providing a more complete picture that would not be attainable using a single method. Geophysical analysis combined with archeological prospecting has revealed buried buildings north of the excavated part of the archaeological site. The results show that in this coastal environment ERT survey provided the most accurate reconstruction at the deeper wet levels of investigation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-09-17T23:50:33.320534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1493
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