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Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.153, h-index: 72)
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Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.755, h-index: 113)
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African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 11)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 31)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 49)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.643, h-index: 68)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 7)
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Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 38)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 11)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 1.814, h-index: 30)
American Heart Hospital J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 11)
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American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.026, h-index: 42)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.406, h-index: 90)
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American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.866, h-index: 52)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.221, h-index: 67)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 5.975, h-index: 76)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 48)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.06, h-index: 63)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.575, h-index: 108)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 44)
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Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 13)
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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 22)
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Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.359, h-index: 47)
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Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 28)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 14)
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Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
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Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.1, h-index: 48)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 46)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 59)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.841, h-index: 48)
Applied Numerical Analysis & Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 49)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 1.108, h-index: 44)

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Journal Cover Archaeological Prospection
   [14 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1075-2196 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0763
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.873]   [H-I: 12]
  • Geophysical Investigations on the Viking Period Platform Mound at Aska in
           Hagebyhöga Parish, Sweden
    • Authors: Martin Rundkvist; Andreas Viberg
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Aska hamlet in Hagebyhöga parish, Östergötland (Sweden), is famous among Viking scholars for a rich female burial under a low cairn that was excavated in 1920. The main visible archaeological feature of the site is an enormous barrow, but its contents have not been excavated. As the barrow is oval and has an extensive flat top, it has been hypothesized previously that rather than a grave superstructure, this might be an uncommonly large raised foundation for a long house. We occasionally see this type of feature at elite manorial sites from the period ad 400–1100. We have tested this idea at Aska with ground‐penetrating radar, securing the clear and detailed floor plan of a post‐supported hall building almost 50 m long. Its closest known architectural parallel, also sitting on a similar platform, has been excavated at Old Uppsala, the late first millennium ad political and ceremonial centre of the ancient Swedes. At Aska, it appears that we have found another such real‐world correlate of the Beowulf poem's royal mead‐hall Heorot, but in this case located in a smaller and less powerful polity. This all suggests a petty royal status for the owners of the Aska hall, who enjoyed connections with Scandinavia's top political elite. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T01:02:32.966445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1500
  • CORONA Photographs in Monsoonal Semi‐arid Environments: Addressing
           Archaeological Surveys and Historic Landscape Dynamics over North Gujarat,
    • Authors: Francesc C. Conesa; Marco Madella, Nikolaos Galiatsatos, Andrea L. Balbo, S. V. Rajesh, P. Ajithprasad
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Here we illustrate a ground map approach that uses orthorectified CORONA KH4B images and declassified topographical maps to study historical land‐use dynamics and to help planning archaeological survey in the monsoonal semi‐arid alluvial plains of North Gujarat, India. In spite of its generalized use in archaeological applications, CORONA photographs have rarely been used in Indian archaeological contexts. The methods discuss a cost‐effective and integrated protocol for: (i) obtaining ground control points (GCPs) and orthorectify CORONA photographs when very high‐resolution imagery or detailed topographic maps are not available; and (ii) evaluating the integration of declassified datasets into Google Earth Pro for addressing archaeological surveys in remote areas. The merging of CORONA imagery with declassified USA and the former USSR historical military maps provided a picture of the human–environment interaction in North Gujarat of the past 40 years, prior to the intense development of mechanical agriculture and regional irrigation channels. We conclude by identifying the human and climate‐induced taphonomical processes that are obliterating a fragile landscape characterized by archaeological scatters located in fossilized sand dunes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T06:28:18.7725-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1498
  • A Template‐matching Approach Combining Morphometric Variables for
           Automated Mapping of Charcoal Kiln Sites
    • Authors: Anna Schneider; Melanie Takla, Alexander Nicolay, Alexandra Raab, Thomas Raab
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Analysing the spatial distribution of anthropogenic relief structures can contribute to the understanding of past land‐use systems. With automated mapping routines, small relief forms can be detected efficiently from high‐resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). In this study, we describe an approach for the automated mapping of charcoal kiln sites from an airborne laser‐scanning DTM. The study site is located north of Cottbus, Germany, where an exceptionally large historic charcoal production field has been documented in previous archaeological surveys. The goal of this study was to implement, evaluate and improve an automated GIS‐based routine for mapping these features based on the template‐matching principle. In addition to the DTM, different morphometric variables were evaluated for their suitability to detect kiln sites. The mapping results were validated against a comprehensive database of kiln sites recorded from archaeological excavations and via manual digitization. The effects of irregular kiln‐site geometry and DTM noise were evaluated using synthetic DTMs. The results of the synthetic DTM mapping show that the template‐matching results differed depending on the morphometric variable used for the mapping process. In accordance with this observation, a validation of the mapping procedure for the field site suggests that feature mapping can be improved. In particular, the number of false detections can be reduced using a combination of morphometric variables. For the validation area, the kiln sites with diameters of at least 10 m were mapped using the automated routine, with detection rates that were close to those of manual digitization. Therefore, the described method can considerably facilitate the mapping and distribution analysis of kiln sites or similar small relief forms that are prominent in a specific landscape. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T06:17:26.773047-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1497
  • Structure of an Ancient Egyptian Tomb Inferred from
           Ground‐Penetrating Radar Imaging of Deflected Overburden Horizons
    • Authors: Adam D. Booth; Kasia Szpakowska, Elena Pischikova, Kenneth Griffin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Geophysical data acquisitions in most archaeological campaigns aim to image the target structure directly. The presence of a target, however, may be inferred from its interaction with surrounding layers, if its relationship with those layers can be characterized sufficiently. In this paper, we show the use of ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) to detect the subsurface continuation of the Ancient Egyptian tomb of the high‐official Karakhamun (Theban Tomb 223) at the South Asasif tomb complex (Luxor, Egypt). Data were acquired using a Sensors & Software pulseEKKO PRO system, equipped with antennas of 500 MHz centre‐frequency, on a silty–sandy sediment surface directly over the target structure. A test vertical radar profile (VRP) suggested that the tomb superstructure was buried too deeply beneath sedimentary overburden to be imaged directly: 500 MHz energy would propagate for only ~2 m before becoming undetectable. Attenuative layers within that overburden were strongly reflective, however, and could be used to provide indirect evidence of any underlying structure. When observed in the GPR grid, these layers showed a discrete zone of deflection, ~0.9 m in amplitude and ~4 m wide, aligned with the long‐axis of the tomb. This deflection was attributed either to a collapsed vestibule beneath the survey site, or sediment settling within an unroofed staircase descending from ground‐ to tomb‐floor‐level; supporting evidence of this was obtained towards the end of the excavation campaign and in the following year. We highlight the value of such indirect imaging methods as a potential means of improving the capabilities of a given geophysical survey system, in this case allowing the GPR to characterize a target at greater depth than would typically be considered practical. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:23:11.909297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1496
  • A Comprehensive Magnetic Survey of a Neolithic Causewayed Enclosure in
           West‐central France for the Interpretation of Archaeological
    • Authors: Vincent Ard; Vivien Mathé, François Lévêque, Adrien Camus
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper describes an interdisciplinary study of the Neolithic causewayed enclosure of Bellevue (Chenommet, France). Geophysical investigations and archaeological excavations were used alternately in order to optimize the acquisition of accurate data at different spatial scales: mapping of major structures was obtained by magnetic prospection of the whole site, while excavation identified small features weakly expressed in the prospecting results. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility and total magnetic field anomalies were also recorded during the excavation in order to identify the source of the magnetic signal of the ditches. This mutual transdisciplinary contribution is also methodological: the geophysics reveals archaeological information invisible to the eye of the archaeologist and, in turn, the excavation allows refinement of the interpretation of the geophysical data by identifying the sources of signal variations. This article presents the results of the first comprehensive magnetic mapping of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure in the west of France. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:21:54.489663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1495
  • A Multidisciplinary Approach to Reveal and Interpret ‘Missing’
           Archaeological Features at the Masseria Pantano Site in Apulia (Southern
    • Authors: Massimo Caldara; Marcello Ciminale, Vincenzo De Santis, Mariangela Noviello
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A non‐invasive investigation, integrating aerial photography and high‐resolution magnetic survey, was carried out at the Masseria Pantano site (Apulia, Southern Italy) to obtain a more detailed reconstruction of an extensive ancient settlement, which revealed different phases of human frequentation. The results of the ground‐based survey were also used to guide some archaeological excavations, which brought to light, mainly, parts of Medieval wall and column foundations. The correlation between the magnetic anomalies and archaeological remains was very satisfying, except for the lack of a source body that could explain the origin of a positive anomaly, the intensity and extent of which is very significant. A supplementary magnetic survey combined with stratigraphic interpretation from two boreholes, followed by susceptibility measurements, were able to solve this interesting partial misunderstanding between archaeological and magnetic data. This approach revealed clear evidence for a canal, probably Roman in date, which lies beneath the presumed ancient surface identified during the excavation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:21:38.140135-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1494
  • Discovery of a Byzantine Church in Iznik/Nicaea, Turkey: an Educational
           Case History of Geophysical Prospecting with Combined Methods in Urban
    • Authors: W. Rabbel; E. Erkul, H. Stümpel, T. Wunderlich, R. Pašteka, J. Papco, P. Niewöhner, Ş. Bariş, O. Çakin, E. Pekşen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The city of Iznik, called Nikaia or Nicaea in ancient times, is located in northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Nicaea is renowned especially for the first Council of Nicaea convened by the Roman emperor Constantine in ad 325 in an attempt to unify the Church. During an international field course on the geophysical exploration of archaeological targets we detected the remains of a small previously unknown Byzantine church on a fallow lot of land inside the city. The church is oriented parallel to the ancient Hippodamian street grid that deviates from the modern street system of the quarter by ~45°. We found the contours of the nave, two aisles and three apses as well as evidence of a partly refilled grave. The geophysical measurements indicate that the foundations of the church consist of low‐porosity hard rock with a low magnetic susceptibility, probably limestone or sandstone embedded in fluvial sediments. The field study is based on ground‐penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and microgravimetry. It highlights the strength and necessity of combining different geophysical methods in exploring and characterizing archaeological sites. In fact, the foundation walls of the church do not show any magnetic anomaly but could be delineated clearly only by GPR. The wall remains appear as highly resistive spots in ERT. By converting the three‐dimensional GPR image into an electric resistivity model we could verify that the ERT results fully correspond to the ruins found by GPR. The structure interpreted as a loosely refilled grave is indicated mainly by a weak gravity anomaly (~9 μGal) and a diffuse reflection pattern in GPR. Electric forward modelling shows that this structure leads to an additional increase of a high resistivity anomaly, which is primarily caused by foundation rocks, but it cannot be resolved within the ERT pattern a priori. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T21:57:45.268939-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1491
  • Use of Integrated Geophysical Methods to Investigate a Coastal
           Archaeological Site: the Sant'Imbenia Roman Villa (Northern Sardinia,
    • Authors: Valeria Testone; Vittorio Longo, Marta C. Bottacchi, Paola Mameli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We report here a multimethod geophysical investigation of the Sant'Imbenia Roman villa archaeological site in northern Sardinia (Italy). The main objective of this study is optimizing a non‐invasive approach to reconstruct rapidly the geometry of coastal sites. A hitherto unexplored area of approximately 700 m2, adjacent to excavations, was investigated using ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. The Sant'Imbenia villa is close to the present‐day shoreline and subject to very high erosion rates and burial. A comparison of the high‐resolution GPR and ERT models was made, and their integrated results are discussed in terms of providing a more complete picture that would not be attainable using a single method. Geophysical analysis combined with archeological prospecting has revealed buried buildings north of the excavated part of the archaeological site. The results show that in this coastal environment ERT survey provided the most accurate reconstruction at the deeper wet levels of investigation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-09-17T23:50:33.320534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1493
  • Edge Detection of Archaeomagnetic Data: a Study from the City of Pisidia
           Antiocheia, Turkey
    • Authors: Muzaffer Özgü Ar𝚤soy
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Magnetic survey is one of a number of methods used in archaeological geophysics for detecting and mapping archaeological artefacts and features. Recent magnetic instruments have become both faster and more sensitive as a result of technological and industrial developments. Hence, magnetic methods are becoming an accepted part of archaeological projects. Mapping the edges of magnetic sources is a problem of fundamental importance in magnetic interpretation. Commonly used edge‐detection filters are considerably affected by the presence of noise because this requires the computation of horizontal and vertical derivatives of the magnetic data. Archaeomagnetic data are often dominated by large‐amplitude anomalies that mostly originate from the presence of noise and other environmental effects. Prior to application of the edge‐detection filters, an upward continuation of the archaeomagnetic anomaly or low‐pass filtering may be used to reduce environmental effects. Another useful approach is to apply edge‐detection filters to the pseudogravity‐transformed data. This paper compares the results of common edge‐detection filters applied to the original and pseudogravity‐transformed archaeomagnetic data. In the concept of edge detection, the feasibility and capability of the pseudogravity transformation is demonstrated using a real archaeomagnetic dataset from the ancient city of Pisidia Antiocheia in the province of Isparta (central part of Turkey). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-09-09T04:31:50.226005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1492
           Conyers and K.L. Kvamme), AltaMira Press, 2013. 195 pages. £41.95
           ISBN: 978‐0‐7591‐1204‐9
    • Authors: Hannah Brown
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T22:11:13.901572-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1490
  • Assessing the Condition of the Rock Mass over the Tunnel of Eupalinus in
           Samos (Greece) using both Conventional Geophysical Methods and Surface to
           Tunnel Electrical Resistivity Tomography
    • Authors: Gregory N. Tsokas; Panagiotis I. Tsourlos, Jung‐Ho Kim, Constantinos B. Papazachos, George Vargemezis, Petros Bogiatzis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The surviving Tunnel of Eupalinus comprises one of the greatest engineering achievements of ancient Greeks. The tunnel itself (1036 m long) was carved in the sixth century bc through solid rock by digging from both ends and advancing to the central meeting position. The method for achieving the meeting of the two simultaneously advancing branches is still unclear. The ancient lining shows damage, indicating instability of the rock mass, presumably due to tectonic action. At certain points, the damage becomes more severe and partial collapses are observed. Therefore, the monument is threatened and measures have to be undertaken to restore its stability and secure the safety of future visitors. The geophysical investigations reported here comprise part of a geotechnical study. The aim of the geophysical survey was to image the subsurface from the ground surface to the ceiling of the tunnel and, if possible, thereby provide information on the quality of the rock mass. A variety of well‐established methods (VLF, self‐potential, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity tomography) were used for this purpose, and also the relatively novel measuring approach of laying out electrodes in a ‘tunnel to surface’ mode. The latter method was an attempt for achieving tomographic imaging of the rock mass over the tunnel. Finally, the results of all the methods applied were combined and integrated in order to assess the tectonic regime above the Eupalinean Tunnel. Fractures and shear zones were detected and imaged. Further, the elastic moduli were determined at specific spots. In general, the geophysical interpretation matches well with the visible manifestations of the instabilities of the rock and provides clues for explaining their origin. The ‘surface to tunnel’ imaging provided increased resolution, which was a great advantage. Additionally, it is concluded that the construction of the tunnel was chiefly a product of survey method rather than consideration of geological factors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:32:30.707082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1489
  • Lidar Investigation of Knockdhu Promontory and its Environs, County
           Antrim, Northern Ireland
    • Authors: Rory W. A. McNeary
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A high-resolution aerial lidar survey (up to 40 points m-2) has been carried out in the environs of Knockdhu Promontory in the Antrim Uplands, which is recognized as one of Northern Ireland's most important relict multiperiod archaeological landscapes. This lidar survey was amongst the first such surveys commissioned specifically for archaeological purposes in Northern Ireland and has helped to re-evaluate the archaeological landscape character of a 9 km2 study area and inform future conservation studies. Sampled ground observation was undertaken in an attempt to provide a higher degree of interpretive integrity. These field observation exercises also highlighted the importance of the high vertical resolution of the data (0.05 m at 2σ (95% confidence level)) in delineating extremely subtle upstanding earthwork features that had hitherto gone unnoticed. Much of the archaeological evidence identified can be broadly ascribed to the early post-medieval period (ad 1599–1750); this includes field boundaries, cultivation furrows, enclosures, transhumance huts, abandoned settlements and associated pathways, but the higher ground of the Antrim Plateau in this locality is also characterized by evidence of prehistoric activities and substantial earthworks survive such as the ‘Linford Barrows’ and ‘Knockdhu Promontory Fort’. The lidar study has identified as many as 285 previously unrecorded potential archaeological sites and amended existing records within the Northern Ireland Sites and Monuments Record (NISMR) and has proved transformational as a technique to ‘open up’ the Ulster uplands for archaeological study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-06-19T23:53:17.207593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1488
  • A Multidisciplinary Approach to Medieval and Early Modern Land Use: a Case
           Study from Southeastern Austria
    • Authors: K. Patrick Fazioli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper presents an integrated multimethod approach to the prospection and reconstruction of medieval and early modern rural landscapes in southeastern Austria (ca. 1100–1700 ce). Pedestrian surface collection, soil phosphorus analysis, and targeted test excavation, along with place‐name and field‐shape data, were used to investigate patterns of settlement, land use and landscape organization. The results from fieldwork revealed an inverse relationship between surface ceramic densities and soil phosphate levels, suggesting different areas of rubbish disposal, habitation and agricultural practices. This case study illustrates both the benefits and challenges of synthesizing archaeological, geochemical and historical lines of evidence in the exploration of past human landscapes in central Europe. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-24T22:13:04.977586-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1485
  • Ground‐penetrating Radar and Geological Study of the Kudruküla
           Stone Age Archaeological Site, Northeast Estonia
    • Authors: Alina Tšugai; Jüri Plado, Argo Jõeleht, Aivar Kriiska, Mario Mustasaar, Hanna Raig, Jan Risberg, Alar Rosentau
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A combined ground‐penetrating radar (GPR), drilling and diatom survey was carried out in order to characterize formation of the Kudruküla Stone Age Comb Ware archaeological site, northeast Estonia. A few decades ago a cultural layer was discovered, located within fine‐grained sands of the right bank of the Kudruküla Stream an altitude of 1.25–1.60 m above sea level. The layer is 15–35 cm thick and composed of poorly sorted sand of intensive reddish colour with abundant arte‐ and ecofacts, human bones, burned hearthstones and charcoal pieces. Artefacts, in particular pottery, are well preserved and frequently present as large pieces. The Kudruküla site holds an exceptional position among other Stone Age coastal settlements in that it is not located directly on top of beach ridges, but is buried under ~3 m of sand. When the Kudruküla settlement existed the level of the Litorina Sea was ~6 m above present sea level, which is ~4.5 m above the present location of the cultural layer. The current research is used to describe the geological structure of the area to provide a perspective on the history of the cultural material, and reveals that the cultural material is not restricted to one layer/lens only because it is irregularly and widely distributed within the sands of Kudruküla. The GPR and diatom analyses show that the Kudruküla cultural material is redeposited, because it occurs within an ancient point‐bar succession of a (Narva) river meander. Originally, the dwelling site had been located on top of the Narva‐Jõesuu sandy coastal ridges, which subsequently suffered erosion and the sand resedimented at the Kudruküla location. Good preservation of the cultural items shows that, after redeposition, they were buried fast, probably within a year. The present Kudruküla stream has cut into the floodplain of the ancient (Narva) river to expose the redeposited layer/lens. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-03-14T01:11:50.040322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1484
  • Investigating Construction History, Labour Investment and Social Change at
           Ocmulgee National Monument's Mound A, Georgia, USA, Using
           Ground‐penetrating Radar
    • Authors: Daniel P. Bigman; Peter M. Lanzarone
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Prehistoric societies from around the world constructed monumental mounded architecture (earthen pyramids) for a variety of functions, including the foundation for temples or a leader's residence, community stages and cemeteries. Flat‐topped earthen mounds often have complicated histories where the function, size, orientation and summit architecture varied throughout time. This paper presents the results from a ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) survey conducted on the summit of Mound A, the largest prehistoric Native American mound at Ocmulgee National Monument located in central Georgia, USA. Our study indicates that performing depth‐slice analyses of flat‐topped mounds can effectively map successive construction stages over distinct periods of archaeological prehistory. The GPR data show distinctive low‐amplitude, discontinuous stratigraphic variations that we interpret to be related to mound fill, which are interrupted by high‐amplitude coherent summit reflections. We also maintain sufficient vertical and horizontal resolution to identify summit architecture on earlier mound‐use episodes, which is imaged by distinct reflection geometry as patterned linear, square and circular high‐amplitude events in GPR depth‐slices. The authors recorded four possible mound summits, the western expansion of the mound, and the shifting location and shape of summit architecture; in addition to resolving a discrepancy regarding the location of early excavation units from the 1930s. Shallow geophysical data indicate a decline in the volume of material used over the course of mound construction, and by inference, a decline in the size of the labour force used to construct each stage. We conclude that the power and influence of Ocmulgee's early leadership subsided over the course of Mound A's use, and may have been contested by an emerging faction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-03-12T19:41:12.913469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1483
  • First High‐resolution GPR and Magnetic Archaeological Prospection at
           the Viking Age Settlement of Birka in Sweden
    • Authors: Immo Trinks; Wolfgang Neubauer, Alois Hinterleitner
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In May 2006 high‐resolution measurements using ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) and magnetic gradiometer systems conducted over selected areas at the site of the Viking Age settlement and trading place Birka in central Sweden demonstrated the suitability of these methods for archaeological prospection of Scandinavian proto‐urban settlements. The non‐invasive geophysical surveys revealed numerous structural details of the settlement: houses, property boundaries, track‐ways, buried remains of the town ramparts dating from different building periods, including a gate, were mapped with a manually operated single‐channel GPR system and a four‐channel magnetometer array. The combination of these two prospection methods, state‐of‐the‐art data processing and visualization and archaeological interpretation within a geographical information system resulted in valuable new information about the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site Birka‐Hovgården. We present methodology and results of this first archaeological prospection case study conducted in 2006. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-03-04T23:59:46.921723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1481
  • Magnetic Prospection of the Pre‐Columbian Archaeological Site of El
           Caño in the cultural region of Gran Coclé, Panama
    • Authors: Alexis Mojica; Louis Pastor, Christian Camerlynck, Nicolas Florsch, Alain Tabbagh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The archaeological site of El Caño is located in the cultural region of Gran Coclé and is one of the most important pre‐Columbian ceremonial complexes of the Isthmus of Panama. El Caño is 3.57 ha in area presents a set of mounds and alignment of columns of carved basalt and tuff. The first organized occupation is dated between 100 and 400 bc, and this occupation lasted until the arrival of the Spanish conquerors. In order to determine the spatiotemporal organization of the site, the first magnetic and electrical surveys of this archaeological site were performed in 2005 and 2006. Although the resistivity mapping survey did not offer any information about buried stone structures, the magnetic survey in gradiometer mode produced well‐characterized magnetic anomalies. A circular magnetic anomaly in the central area of the site allowed the discovery of one of the largest Panamanian pre‐Columbian funerary complexes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T19:56:45.602439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1482
  • Electrical Resistivity Tomography for the Modelling of Cultural Deposits
           and Geomophological Landscapes at Neolithic Sites: a Case Study from
           Southeastern Hungary
    • Authors: Nikos G. Papadopoulos; Apostolos Sarris, William A. Parkinson, Attila Gyucha, Richard W. Yerkes, Paul R. Duffy, Panagiotis Tsourlos
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A large‐scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey was undertaken around the Neolithic tell of Szeghalom‐Kovácshalom in southeast Hungary, covering an area of almost 6 ha. High‐resolution ERT data were collected along 28 uniformly distributed transects of variable length using the roll‐along technique. A recently presented two‐dimensional fast non‐linear resistivity inversion algorithm was used to invert the ERT data and recover the true subsurface resistivity distribution along the specific cross‐sections. The algorithm calculates and stores in an efficient manner the part of the Jacobian matrix that is actually important within the inversion procedure, thus rendering it almost 4.8 times faster than the algorithm that calculates the complete Jacobian matrix, without losing quality. The algorithm was further modified to account for any non‐standard electrode configuration. A recently established iterative algorithm for sparse least squares problems (LSMR) was incorporated for the first time into the algorithm to solve the inverse resistivity problem. The effectiveness and robustness of the LSMR solver was highlighted through the processing of all the ERT lines. The processing and evaluation of the ERT data made it possible to map the thickness of the anthropogenic layer below the surface of the tell, to outline the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the palaeochannel adjacent to the tell, and to determine the general stratigraphy of geological layers up to 10 m below the ground surface. The ERT results also were used to update an older topographic map of the site showing the course of the palaeochannel around the tell. A synthetic model verified and enhanced the conclusions based on the field data. This study illustrates the added value that a systematic ERT survey can provide in reconstructing the ancient fluvial geomorphology of a microregion as well as the depth and horizontal extent of deposits associated with human habitation at archaeological sites. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T00:26:35.703683-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1480
  • The Ancient Roman Aqueduct of Karales (Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy):
           Applicability of Geophysics Methods to Finding the Underground Remains
    • Authors: Antonio Trogu; Gaetano Ranieri, Sergio Calcina, Luca Piroddi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Detection of the buried antique Roman aqueduct, which supplied fresh water to the ancient town of Karales (Cagliari, Italy), is not a trivial problem because of the small size of its cross section, its depth (about 10 m), and of the presence of shallow conductive layers. In order to determine the best geophysical method to use in the research of the conduit, a test was carried out over a well‐known section of the underground aqueduct in its extra‐urban part. Taking into account the geological features of the site, time‐domain electromagnetic (TEM), very low‐frequency (VLF) and electrical tomography methods were chosen. The test was conducted over several profiles. The results showed that among the electrical resistivity arrays, the Wenner–Schlumberger is the most suitable for the detection of the conduit some metres in depth, whereas the other electrical methods did not have enough resolution to distinguish between the aqueduct and other non‐related anomalies at the requested depth. The TEM method also showed good capability to detect the presence of the aqueduct in spite of very conductive superficial layers. With the exception of one profile, all VLF profiles showed anomalies that could be correlated to the aqueduct. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-01-06T21:42:29.378163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1471
  • Magnetic Susceptibility Detection of Small Protohistoric Sites in the
           Raganello Basin, Calabria (Italy)
    • Authors: P. M. Van leusen; A. Kattenberg, K. Armstrong
      First page: 245
      Abstract: This paper presents pilot geophysical investigations carried out in 2005–2006 by the Groningen Institute of Archaeology in northern Calabria, Italy. The aim of this work was to find out if and how surface magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements might be of use to correct significant visibility biases in the results of earlier large‐scale systematic and intensive field‐walking, in particular for unobtrusive rural protohistoric sites. It was found that MS yields encouraging results under specific geopedological conditions, but that a better understanding of post‐depositional site histories and large‐scale geomorphology‐driven MS variations is needed before an effective MS‐based detection protocol in support of large‐scale field‐walking can be developed; follow‐on studies are now being conducted by the authors to this end. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-19T07:11:58.835392-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1486
  • Geophysical Survey in Sub‐Saharan Africa: magnetic and
           Electromagnetic Investigation of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Songo
           Mnara, Tanzania
    • Authors: K. Welham; J. Fleisher, P. Cheetham, H. Manley, C. Steele, S. Wynne-Jones
      First page: 255
      Abstract: Magnetometry and Slingram electromagnetic surveys were conducted at the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Songo Mnara, Tanzania, as part of a multinational programme of investigation to examine the uses of space within and outside of this stonetown. The town was a major Islamic trading port during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The surveys detected significant evidence for the containment of activities within the town walls, and previously unknown anthropogenic activity was revealed between the existing coral rag buildings, as well as within the open areas inside the town. Over 40 areas of magnetic disturbance were identified that corresponded directly with areas of high magnetic susceptibility in the Slingram electromagnetic in‐phase responses. On excavation many of these anomalies were found to correlate with wattle and daub structures, indicating a hitherto unidentified population, and the location of the anomalies also suggests a potentially deliberate delineation of space within the open areas of the stonetown. The combined results of the three geophysical data sets indicate that there are clear delineations in the use of space within Songo Mnara. This, coupled with the presence of industrial activities and evidence of more ephemeral occupation, neither of which had previously been recorded at the site, indicates that the pre‐existing town plan is in need of significant reappraisal. The current plan, based upon the remains of extant and collapsed coral buildings, can now be updated to incorporate the more ephemeral aspects of Swahili sites, including activity areas, and notably, the homes of the ‘hidden majority’ of the population. The results establish the benefit of a combined approach at these sites, and demonstrate that further invasive and non‐invasive exploration is required in order to fully exploit the significance of the role of geophysical techniques in understanding Swahili towns. © 2014 The
      Authors . Archaeological Prospection published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T23:26:07.203323-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1487
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