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Journal Cover   Archaeological Prospection
  [SJR: 0.765]   [H-I: 15]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-2196 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0763
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • A Comparison of Accuracy and Precision in Remote Sensing
           Stone‐walled Structures with Google Earth, High Resolution Aerial
           Photography and LiDAR; a Case Study from the South African Iron Age
    • Authors: Karim Sadr
      Abstract: In the southern Gauteng Province of South Africa we have used Google Earth satellite imagery to survey some 8000 km2 of landscape to record stone‐walled structures. Around 7000 such structures have been located but we wonder how many, and which types of structures we have missed because of the relatively low resolution of Google Earth imagery, and how this might affect our interpretation of the archaeological sequence in the study area. Here we objectively compare three high resolution remote sensing views (low altitude aerial photography, LiDAR greyscale visualization and LiDAR hillshade visualization) of a 49 ha focus zone. We can confirm significant differences in the results from the different platforms, but each has its advantages. We then compare these results with our Google Earth survey within the same 49 ha focus area. Even though Google Earth imagery cannot match the high resolution views and fails to reveal significant detail which can negatively affect archaeological interpretations of the regional sequence of occupation, we conclude that for our large‐scale regional remote sensing survey in the southern Gauteng it remains the only viable option for now. LiDAR and high resolution aerial photographs should be deployed on smaller areas of high interest to obtain maximum information, but they are impractical for regional coverage. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T11:29:37.089692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1532
  • Imaging the Waters of Angkor: A Method for Semi‐Automated Pond
           Extraction from LiDAR Data
    • Authors: Kasper Hanus; Damian Evans
      Abstract: This article presents new archaeological data concerning the Greater Angkor region, home to successive capitals of the medieval Khmer Empire from the ninth to fifteenth centuries ad. Angkor is recognized as one of the most extensive low‐density urban complexes of the pre‐industrial world. One of the most striking features in the landscape of Angkor is the enormous assemblage of hydraulic infrastructure, including two artificial reservoirs each covering around 15 km2. However, in parallel to this massive, state‐level system of water management, we also see evidence at Angkor of a smaller‐scale system of household or community ponds in the urban core. These were described by the Chinese envoy Zhou Daguan, who visited Angkor in the late thirteenth century ad. His account includes the important information that each cistern was used by one to three families. The validity of this historical account can now be assessed using a precise map of the archaeological landscape that was created in 2012 using airborne laser scanning (‘ALS’ or ‘LiDAR’, light detection and ranging). The LiDAR data allow us to arrive at new insights into the demography of medieval Angkor. Using an algorithm for semi‐automatic pond detection in the ALS‐derived data it was possible to map over three thousand cisterns and from this to make inferences about population density in central Angkor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T11:25:32.911026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1530
  • Geophysical and Archaeological Characterization of a Modest Roman Villa:
           Methodological Considerations about Progressive Feedback Analyses in Sites
           with Low Geophysical Contrast
    • Abstract: The low contrast in physical properties of archaeological elements compared to the host soil is a common drawback in geophysical surveys applied to subtle archaeological sites because those contrasts are usually what are being measured by most instruments. Furthermore, when archaeological elements and construction remains are placed within the same package of materials, differentiation of each can make the interpretation of geophysical data sometimes difficult. In this work we propose a dynamic, integrated approach for the characterization of an archaeological site with simple Roman construction materials in order to evaluate methodological considerations in the evaluation of this kind of sites. This approach includes: (i) a preliminary evaluation of construction material characteristics, according to the background provided by the historical and geographical context and from previous excavations, (ii) measurements of magnetic susceptibility of archaeological and natural materials in the site for direct modelling of the expected anomalies; (iii) a geophysical survey including magnetometry, multifrequency electromagnetic (EM) method and ground penetrating radar (GPR) (100, 250 and 500 MHz centre frequency antennas); (iv) geophysical data evaluation for planning subsequent systematic surveys; (v) dynamic interpretation of geophysical results through careful data evaluation of all previous steps. The final archaeological model from geophysical data has been successful due to the manner of data interpretation looking for orthogonal patterns of geophysical anomalies that were hypothesized to be subsurface walls. Modelling was then followed by archaeological excavations consisting of three trenches where the walls were exposed. The integration of geophysical data with excavations has permitted to evaluate significance of the different geophysical analysis and to identify their archaeological meaning. The proposed sequential methodology represents an innovative manner of analysis (i) in subtle sites where construction remains are scarce and the absence of well‐defined geophysical contrasts can limit the results of usual surveys and (ii) to increase the efficiency in the evaluation of more extensive survey areas. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T06:49:45.518405-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1529
  • The Roman City of Altinum, Venice Lagoon, from Remote Sensing and
           Geophysical Prospection
    • Authors: Paolo Mozzi; Alessandro Fontana, Francesco Ferrarese, Andrea Ninfo, Stefano Campana, Roberto Francese
      Abstract: Geophysical prospection on 14 ha integrates the processing and interpretation of vertical multispectral and oblique aerial images for uncovering the archaeology of the Roman city of Altinum. This Iron Age and Roman harbour city was completely abandoned in the early Middle Ages, when people moved to nearby lagoon islands, and so the site is particularly fit for the application of non‐invasive techniques. Primary aims of the research were to test the interpretation of archaeological structures in the city centre, estimate their degree of preservation in the subsoil, and update previous knowledge on the urban landscape. Target areas were identified first through remote sensing with later magnetic gradiometer mapping of the consular road (via Annia) and its adjoining streets, foundations of large buildings, theatres, temple and forum, a main canal with possible boatyard/storing place and workshops. Multi‐electrode automatic resistivity profile produced a very detailed survey of the little theatre (odeon) and basilica. The ground‐penetrating radar traced the city walls, while frequency‐domain electromagnetics mapped the street pattern. Buried archaeological structures were located with an estimated error < 0.5 m. Floors and foundations of Roman buildings and infrastructures appear to be preserved between 0.5 and 2 m depth. They probably relate to a re‐organization of the city, which occurred between the second half of the second century and the end of the first century BC, having via Annia and the forum as the main city axis, and incorporating few elements of the Iron Age settlement, such as the canal and city boundary. Eight city districts could be recognized, each one showing prevalent public, residential and other productive functions. In the ancient past the monumental buildings of the city were potentially visible from ships in the Adriatic Sea, and could act as nautical signals of the entrance to the lagoon along this low and otherwise monotonous coast. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-03T04:41:42.069059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1520
  • The Investigation of the Ardales Cave, Spain – 3D Documentation,
           Topographic Analyses, and Lighting Simulations based on Terrestrial Laser
    • Abstract: This contribution shows the application of terrestrial laser scanning in an integrative approach for the documentation and analyses of the Ardales Cave, southern Spain, which is in many respects an important geoarchaeological site. For the survey of the cave, a combination of the Riegl LMS Z420i laser scanner with a real‐time kinematic global positioning system (RTK‐GPS) from Topcon and further tachymetric measurements were used. The achieved three‐dimensional (3D) model of the cave and the surrounding hill documents the current topography and dimensions of the cave. Additional geoarchaeological data were successfully integrated in a 3D geographical information system (GIS) database and high‐resolution records of a structured‐light scanner were combined with the 3D model of the cave. The 3D model is further used for the estimation of the ceiling thickness that reveals areas for additional entrances. Lighting simulations based on path tracing were conducted for the determination of areas that are reached by natural direct or indirect light. In this case, the weight and size of the instrument was a logistic constraint to reach certain areas and to achieve a complete model of the cave. Overall, the method is feasible for the documentation of this cave and the investigations based on the derived 3D models. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T11:47:29.955962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1519
  • Ground‐Penetrating Radar for Archaeology (3rd Edn) Lawrence B.
           Conyers, Series Editors: Lawrence B. Conyers and Kenneth L. Kvamme,
           Geophysical Methods for Archaeology No. 4, AltaMira Press, Lanham, MD,
           2013, xv + 241 pp., £22.95, ISBN
           978‐0‐7591‐2349‐6 (paperback)
    • Authors: Lieven Verdonck
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T11:46:21.957459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1518
  • A Multidimensional Research Strategy for the Evaluation of Settlement
           Pits: 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Magnetic Prospection and Soil
    • Abstract: Irrespective of the region and time period, settlement pits are common features at archaeological sites. Variations in shape, size and fill reflect great diversity in terms of primary and secondary functions. Careful analysis of these aspects and a pit's refilling history yield key information for the reconstruction of economic, social and chronological aspects of settlement history. At present, it is unusual for a settlement site to undergo complete excavation; in most cases, only small areas within a larger settlement are opened to archaeological inquiry and, accordingly, only a scarce few pits can be excavated. Therefore, the application of a combination of new prospection methods can help to classify and preselect representative pits for subsequent excavation in order to guarantee the highest information output. The interdisciplinary investigations at the Early Bronze Age of Fidvár in Slovakia enabled the development of just such a multidimensional research strategy for the evaluation of settlement pits. Used in concert, magnetic survey and electromagnetic prospection delivered 2D data which revealed the locations of pits at the site. This was the basis for the 3D electrical resistivity tomography measurements which followed, enabling the three‐dimensional reconstruction of prehistoric pits' geometries. Supplementary sedimentological and geochemical investigations of the pits' contents revealed important information about the pits' former functions as well as the mechanisms of the processes through which they were filled in. Thus, the integrated approach provides us with a new means of obtaining an overview of pit assemblages at archaeological sites in general and demonstrates its potential for the acquisition of valuable information about the food acquisition and storage processes at Fidvár in specific. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26T20:57:55.856309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1510
  • The Discovery of an Ancient Greek Vineyard
    • Authors: Tatiana N. Smekalova; Bruce W. Bevan, Andrei V. Chudin, Alexander S. Garipov
      Abstract: Relatively few geophysical surveys have shown how buried traces of agricultural fields can be revealed. An ancient Greek vineyard on the Crimean peninsula was first suggested in a satellite photograph; however, it was discovered only with a magnetic survey. This survey found a 5.7‐ha field that is crossed by about 80 buried stone walls that are parallel and spaced by 2.6 m; this pattern is found only in the vineyard. Later excavations revealed underground walls in this vineyard. The magnetic survey also detected simple magnetic anomalies at three of the four corners of the vineyard. Excavations found that these anomalies are caused by pits that were dug by the ancient Greeks into bedrock to a depth of 2.5 m; the purpose of these pits is not known. The magnetic properties of soil and stone were measured in the excavations, and the magnetic anomalies of the features were calculated. These calculations agree with the measurements, and this means that the entire source of the anomalies was discovered. The interpretation of the magnetic map was adaptive, and it improved as excavations added more information. The archaeological importance of the Ortli vineyard is described along with the efficient procedures that allowed its discovery and mapping. Using the same techniques that were applied at Ortli, another ancient Greek vineyard and farmhouse was later found 1.5 km away. This vineyard has dimensions that are 25% larger than those of the first vineyard. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16T11:23:10.409866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1517
  • 3D Reconstruction of Buried Structures from Magnetic, Electromagnetic and
           ERT Data: Example from the Archaeological Site of Phaistos (Crete, Greece)
    • Authors: Rosa Di Maio; Mauro La Manna, Ester Piegari
      Abstract: A multi‐methodological geophysical prospecting was performed in a survey area of the archaeological Phaistos site on the Greek island of Crete, as part of an international research project aimed at investigating the less excavated hills of Phaistos and the underlying plateau. The article provides an assessment of the resolution of the chosen techniques for non‐destructive testing of buried ancient structures in the geological landscape of Phaistos. The magnetic and electromagnetic surveys clearly detected anomalies related to human activity, some of which were subsequently defined in detail by resistivity tomography imaging. In particular, variations of the observed electrical and magnetic parameters perfectly correlate to a wall structure made of calcareous material, which has been brought to light by subsequent excavations that unearthed large sectors of a fortification in a double curtain wall, chronologically consistent with the historical sources about the destruction of Phaistos in 150 bc. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16T11:02:21.660435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1516
  • Rayleigh‐wave Resonance Analysis: a Methodological Test on a Viking
           Age Pit House
    • Authors: Dennis Wilken; Tina Wunderlich, Bente Majchczack, Jasmin Andersen, Wolfgang Rabbel
      Abstract: Seismic surface‐waves may show amplitude resonances at certain frequencies depending on the thickness and elastic parameters of near‐surface layers. We investigate if resonance frequencies of Rayleigh‐waves, (seismic surface‐waves polarized in the vertical plane) can be used to prospect archaeological remains of small‐scale buildings such as pit houses. Our test site is a newly detected Viking age village on the island of Föhr (north Germany) where we concentrated on one typical pit house. The results from resonance analysis are compared with magnetic data, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and classical seismic refraction measurements. The method of Rayleigh‐wave resonance mapping used in this paper is based on the idea that Rayleigh‐wave oscillations on top of anthropogenic structures will show different resonances than on undisturbed soil. We perform spectral analysis of these oscillations to provide information related to the seismic site response. We process single vertical component recordings and map the change in resonance frequency that can be related to the archaeological objects. The test showed that the pit house can be mapped by Rayleigh‐wave resonance analysis with a horizontal resolution of ~0.6 m. Corresponding computations of the depth of the pit house agree with the results from GPR, magnetic modelling and refraction seismics. A modelling study helped to understand the connection between subsoil shear‐wave velocity model and the signal generated by the pit house. The progress of seismic field measurement is slow compared to GPR and magnetometry. However, since seismic methods are based on elastic subsoil parameters, it can be applied in cases where magnetic contrasts are low or GPR fails because of high electromagnetic wave absorption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T15:41:53.562984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1508
  • Western Section of the ‘Dry Moat’ Channel Surrounding Step
           Pyramid Complex in Saqqara in the Light of Ground‐penetrating Radar
    • Abstract: The Dry Moat is one of the most impressive and at the same time puzzling architectonic structure preserved within the famous royal necropolis at Saqqara, Egypt. It is a rock‐hewn ditch about 40 m wide and of variable depth, which surrounds the Step Pyramid complex built by Pharaoh Djoser from the Third Dynasty which was was the first monumental structure totally built of stone blocks in human history. The function and intention of the Dry Moat remained unknown prior to this study and was unique in the Old Kingdom (ca. 4600–4200 BP). The main focus of the ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) survey conducted in 2012 was recognizing the course of the western section of the Dry Moat and determining the geometry of this structure. The GPR survey confirmed the effectiveness of the GPR method and determined that this vast architectural structure is a ditch surrounding the Step Pyramid. The western section of the Dry Moat was found to have a different geometry than previously thought. The stratigraphy of the infilling beds suggests that it is deeper in the western part than in the eastern one. In the light of conducted GPR prospection it seems likely that the Dry Moat served originally as the huge quarry for material used for construction of the Step Pyramid. It may have also had a secondary function that was purely religious in nature, as has been suggested by some scholars. The Dry Moat seems to be a unique stone work without any known analogies from ancient Egypt. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-29T10:42:49.475567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1514
  • The Impact of Coder Reliability on Reconstructing Archaeological
           Settlement Patterns from Satellite Imagery: a Case Study from South Africa
    • Authors: Karim Sadr
      Abstract: A large archaeological remote sensing project is underway to digitize and classify the pre‐colonial stone walled structures (SWS) on Google Earth satellite imagery in the southern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. Over 7000 such SWS have been digitized in a study area of some 8000 km2. Several research assistants have been involved in classifying the structures. The problem is that different analysts may assign the same SWS to different types and even digitize their outline differently no matter how well they have been trained. Such inter‐analyst variability is a common problem in many fields. In order to minimize its impact, a thorough study of coder reliability in classification of remotely sensed Iron Age SWS has been initiated. The results show unacceptably high variability in the classification of individual SWS. Several contributing factors have been identified. Surprisingly, at the regional level, relatively high levels of inter‐analyst agreement are seen in the same data. The reason probably has to do with strong agreement on the classification of the most diagnostic structures. This may suffice to produce the replicable results at the regional level. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22T17:47:19.555223-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1515
  • Quantitative Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies from Thick Bed,
           Horizontal Plate and Intermediate Models Under Complex
           Physical‐Geological Environments in Archaeological Prospection
    • Authors: Lev V. Eppelbaum
      Abstract: Magnetic prospecting is one of the most widely used methods for archaeological prospection in the world. Noise both of natural [main factors are inclined magnetization, complex geological (archaeological) structure of investigated sites, and uneven terrain relief] and artificial origin (different iron‐containing targets, electric power lines, etc.) strongly obscure interpretation of observed magnetic anomalies. For quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies produced by archaeological targets under aforementioned conditions a non‐conventional interpreting system has been developed. Methodology of magnetic anomalies interpretation from models of thin bed and horizontal circular cylinder (sphere) in conditions of oblique magnetization, rugged relief and unknown level of the total magnetic field by the use of improved versions of characteristic point and tangents has been earlier suggested. However, many archaeological targets have geometrical form of thick bed, thin horizontal plate and intermediate between these two models. In this paper methodology of magnetic anomalies produced by thick bed models in complex environments is explicitly described. It is shown that quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies due to intermediate (between the thick bed and thin horizontal plate) targets could be successfully carried out by the use of methodology developed for the thick bed model. In the case of thin horizontal plate with a large horizontal extent, the two measured anomalies may be interpreted as anomalies from thin beds. The interpretation methodology was successfully tested both on typical models and on real archaeological targets with some success. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T09:24:28.615264-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1511
  • A Geophysical Tool for the Conservation of a Decorated Cave – a Case
           Study for the Lascaux Cave
    • Abstract: The Lascaux Cave, located in the south‐eastern part of the department of the Dordogne (24, France), is considered to be one of the most important prehistoric caves in the world. The scope of this study is the protection and conservation of the Lascaux paintings from a hydrogeological and climatic environmental standpoint. Geophysical methods enable us to monitor the environment of the decorated cave in a non‐invasive way. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) using a pole–dipole array, together with analysis of the local effective rainfall (groundwater recharge) and the flow in the cave, helps us to identify an area where upstream underground water is probably stored e.g. a recharge zone. There is a relationship between resistivity change in this zone and the underground flow measured in the cave, but with a time lag. Thus systematic electrical surveys following rainy periods could be used to predict the beginning of the underground flow and in so doing provide valuable advice for the preservation of the Lascaux Cave. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T09:17:01.953399-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1513
  • Use of Soil Apparent Electrical Resistivity Contact Sensors for the
           Extensive Study of Archaeological Sites
    • Abstract: Geoelectrical soil mapping using contact sensors with mobile arrays is a widespread method implemented within Precision Agriculture practices since the 1990s, but only in recent times has it begun to be used extensively in the field of archeology. Vehicle towed equipment for the automatic recording of apparent electrical resistivity (ERa) are highly adaptable to land plot structure and are able to cover large areas quickly. In this article we will give an overview of a specific experience of ERa mapping at two archaeological sites with the VERIS 3150 system. This is a contact‐sensor that provides georeferenced measurements at two different depths (0–30/0–90 cm). The process of capture, refinement and normalization of raw data is explained. The work also deals with interpolation procedures used for the creation of continuous surfaces. Finally some examples are offered regarding the identification of buried archaeological and geomorphological features. ERa maps are integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment, in order to provide a more reliable basis for interpretation. The advantage of the VERIS 3150 sensor is stressed, in terms of cost over traditional electrical resistivity/conductivity mapping techniques for the acquisition of high‐quality archaeological information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-04T23:56:15.723049-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1512
  • Characterization of a Pre‐Trajan Wall by Integrated Geophysical
    • Authors: Luciana Orlando; Ettore Cardarelli, Michele Cercato, Giorgio De Donno
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to characterize a pre‐Trajan mosaic‐decorated wall structure located beneath the Cryptoporticus of the ‘Baths of Trajan’ complex in Rome. The surveyed wall is 15 m long, 0.9 m wide and 3 to 5 m high. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and P‐wave seismic refraction tomography profiles were used to reconstruct the wall's inner structure, generate a map of the fractures and to evaluate the seismic velocities of the building materials. The wall was surveyed with horizontally and vertically dense GPR profiles and two seismic lines. The seismic lines and GPR profiles were capable of detecting a discontinuity between brick and travertine materials that compose the wall. The combined interpretation of the two non‐invasive techniques allowed us to locate weak zones and fractures. This rapid, non‐destructive and multi‐parametric approach has proved to be effective for characterizing the current status of the wall and the results will be used by archaeologists to evaluate the wall's integrity and to preserve the structure in the future archaeological excavations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28T02:40:39.15221-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1509
  • Combined Geophysical Approach in a Complex Arctic Archaeological
           Environment: A Case Study from the LdFa‐1 Site, Southern Baffin
           Island, Nunavut
    • Authors: David B. Landry; Ian J. Ferguson, S. Brooke Milne, Robert W. Park
      Abstract: In 2014, we mapped the complex landscape of component Area 5 at LdFa‐1, a 3000‐year‐old Palaeoeskimo site located in the deep interior of southern Baffin Island, using a combined magnetic and electromagnetic approach to define the physical characteristics of any large‐ or small‐scale anthropogenic anomalies. Measurements were made using a GEM Systems Overhauser magnetometer‐gradiometer and Geonics EM31 instrument, and a survey configuration designed to map in high resolution the total magnetic field, magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity responses of the underlying soils. Data‐reduction methods were used for each survey, including, for example, removal of temporal drift, to produce final responses related closely to the subsurface physical properties. Six geophysical responses are presented in the results: total magnetic field, vertical magnetic gradient, horizontal‐ and vertical‐dipole‐mode apparent susceptibility, and horizontal‐ and vertical‐dipole‐mode apparent conductivity. Spatial assemblages of small‐scale (
      PubDate: 2015-03-20T01:10:45.544017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1505
  • On the Ability of Geophysical Methods to Image Medieval Turf Buildings in
    • Authors: Tina Wunderlich; Dennis Wilken, Jasmin Andersen, Wolfgang Rabbel, Davide Zori, Sven Kalmring, Jesse Byock
      Abstract: Structures in Iceland were traditionally built of turf, earth and, to a lesser extent, stone. As turf was the primary construction material, the contrast in geophysical parameters between building ruins and surrounding soil is expected to be low. To investigate the extent to which the remains of turf buildings can be detected by geophysical measurements, we applied several geophysical techniques to a known turf ruin in southwestern Iceland. The methods used were magnetics, ground‐penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic induction (EMI), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic Rayleigh‐wave resonance mapping (RRM). Magnetics identified an accumulation of stones inside and beside the ruin. The in‐phase component of the EMI measurements, which can be related to magnetic susceptibility, showed the same pattern. A very precise image of the stones lining the inside of the former turf walls was generated by GPR. In contrast, EMI conductivity and ERT imaged the actual turf in the walls. Turf walls have lower electrical conductivity compared with the surrounding soil, probably as a result of different porosities. The mapping of Rayleigh wave resonance clearly revealed the outline of the ruin, as indicated by weaker amplitudes compared with the surrounding soil. Overall the results indicate that geophysical methods can be used for subsurface mapping of Icelandic turf structures and that the combined application of the methods maximizes this potential. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15T22:53:09.989541-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1506
  • Interdisciplinary archaeological prospection, excavation and 3D
           documentation exemplified through the investigation of a burial at the
           Iron Age settlement site of Uppåkra in Sweden
    • Abstract: This paper presents the archaeological prospection, excavation and digital three‐dimensional documentation of a previously unknown neolithic grave, presumably late neolithic, at the outstanding Iron Age site of Uppåkra in southern Sweden, and exemplifies a multidisciplinary approach to modern archaeological fieldwork. In the framework of a large‐scale archaeological prospection pilot study conducted at the archaeological site of Uppåkra using remote sensing and large‐scale near‐surface geophysical prospection methods a peculiar circular structure was discovered and mapped using both manual and motorized high‐resolution ground‐penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. The structure, consisting of a ring ditch of ca. 10 m diameter, encloses an east–west oriented strongly reflecting rectangular body in the centre, which therefore was interpreted as being caused by the buried remains of a prehistoric barrow. Subsequent archaeological excavation was conducted across this structure in order to determine the exact cause of the GPR anomaly. This excavation resulted in detailed confirmation of the archaeological prospection results as well as in the discovery of dateable finds. The excavation was documented using the latest image‐based three‐dimensional modelling techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15T22:38:53.620999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1504
  • Characterizing Elements of Urban Planning in Magna Graecia Using
           Geophysical Techniques: the Case of Tirena (Southern Italy)
    • Authors: F. Cella; V. Paoletti, G. Florio, M. Fedi
      Abstract: We present the results of a geophysical study at the site of Pian della Tirena, near the town of Nocera Terinese (Calabria, Italy). Geophysical imaging is a recent technique providing a reliable mapping of the three‐dimensional magnetization distribution below the ground and, thus, effectively estimating the depth of buried structures. The site studied gained archaeological interest following the hypothesis of the presence of two adjacent, but distinct, settlements. The first one of Hellenic/Hellenistic age (the Temesa of Brettian age), the second (called Tempsa) of Roman age. Even though the site was recently excavated, extensive investigation was not possible due to the broadness of the area and the scarceness of traces at the surface, making it difficult to plan a targeted survey. Two detailed geophysical (magnetic and electromagnetic) surveys were performed in 2006 and 2013 to provide the archaeologists with precise information about the type and position of the buried structures, and increase the efficiency of the investigation. The survey aimed to: (i) confirm and outline the existence of a true urban settlement instead of isolated dwellings; (ii) locate centres of manufacturing activities (local pottery and metal handicrafts); (iii) verify the existence of a boundary wall or road around the settlement. Our three‐dimensional analysis and interpretation detected several anomaly trends, most of which show a rather regular shape and orientation. This allowed us to infer the possible existence of a well‐developed urban network. The final results provided an archaeological interpretation, building upon the urban network and different use‐zones within the town. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T00:22:14.896179-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arp.1507
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