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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1592 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1592 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 270, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 250, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
  [SJR: 1.047]   [H-I: 57]   [36 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1052-7613 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0755
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Validation of environmental DNA (eDNA) as a detection tool for at-risk
           freshwater pearly mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionidae)
    • Authors: Charise A. Currier; Todd J. Morris, Chris C. Wilson, Joanna R. Freeland
      Abstract: Documenting the occurrence and habitat occupancy of rare aquatic species is an ongoing challenge for conservation. Characterization of environmental DNA (eDNA) from bulk water samples has emerged as a powerful tool to infer species presence or absence without the need to observe or handle organisms.Previous eDNA studies have yet to develop species-specific markers that target taxa with many potentially sympatric confamilials. Forty-one freshwater pearly mussel species (Unionidae) are found in southern Ontario, Canada, with many of these listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern; however, locating populations for protection can be challenging owing to morphological crypsis and species scarcity.Species-specific eDNA markers were developed to target four unionid species. Following in silico and in vitro validation, markers were validated in the field by comparing eDNA results from water samples to detections based on quadrat sampling.Target species were detected by eDNA sampling at all sites where they had previously been located by quadrat sampling.The paired sampling design showed that species-specific markers can be designed even within speciose families, and that eDNA detection of mussels is at least as sensitive as quadrat sampling. Furthermore, detection probabilities were not affected by sampling depth, and eDNA concentrations were positively correlated with mussel densities.These findings confirm that eDNA assays are a valuable complement to traditional methods for locating and managing imperilled unionid populations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09T01:50:37.738226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2869
       
  • Seasonal acoustic occurrence of blue, fin, and North Atlantic right whales
           in the New York Bight
    • Authors: Charles A. Muirhead; Ann M. Warde, Ingrid S. Biedron, A. Nicole Mihnovets, Christopher W. Clark, Aaron N. Rice
      Abstract: The New York Bight is an extremely busy maritime region, with extensive shipping traffic and commercial fishing activity. It is part of the migratory ranges of a number of cetacean species, and includes threats from ship strikes, noise exposure, and line entanglements. Previous cetacean surveys of the Bight offer limited information on cetacean occurrence and distribution in the region, having been restricted to visual sightings with limited temporal coverage.A passive acoustic monitoring survey was conducted over a 258-day period to broaden understanding of the seasonal occurrences of blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), and North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis) whales during late summer, autumn, winter, and early spring. Stationary acoustic recorders were positioned near the entrance to New York Harbour and as a linear transect extending from Long Island to the continental shelf edge.Blue, fin, and right whales were detected on 11%, 100%, and 16% of the survey days, respectively. Blue whales were detected offshore during January, February, and March. Fin whales were detected offshore every day, and less often near-shore. Right whales occurred sporadically during every month, but were most often detected at near-shore recorders between late February and mid-May.Based on the acoustic data alone, it is unclear exactly how these species are using this habitat, although it is clear that they occur in the area longer than was previously thought. Thus, management practices should incorporate this extended seasonal presence to mitigate any effects on the whales from shipping and fishing activities.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T05:31:42.400746-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2874
       
  • Settlement of Ostrea edulis is determined by the availability of hard
           substrata rather than by its nature: Implications for stock recovery and
           restoration of the European oyster
    • Authors: David Smyth; Anne Marie Mahon, Dai Roberts, Louise Kregting
      Abstract: Since the collapse of the Ostrea edulis stock in the mid-1800s the oyster has struggled to re-establish itself in self-sustaining assemblages in Europe.It is now widely recognized that O. edulis is an integral component of a healthy biologically functional benthic environment and, as such, the restoration of wild stocks has become a matter of urgency.A major limiting factor in O. edulis stock recovery is the availability of suitable substrate material for oyster larvae settlement.This research re-examined the larval settlement potential of several naturally occurring in-situ shell materials (e.g. Mytilus edulis, Modiolus modiolus, O. edulis), with the aim of determining which shell material is the most appropriate for large-scale restoration projects.A positive correlation between available shell material and settlement was determined, and analysis using permanova did not identify an attachment preference by O. edulis to any particular shell type.The findings suggest that if restoration efforts were coordinated with applied hydrodynamic and habitat suitability modelling, in conjunction with naturally occurring shell substrate concentrations, a cost-effective recovery for O. edulis assemblages in the wild could be achieved.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T05:31:17.318324-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2876
       
  • The commercialization and use of exotic baits in recreational fisheries in
           the north-western Mediterranean: Environmental and management implications
           
    • Authors: Toni Font; João Gil, Josep Lloret
      Abstract: Although the use of exotic baits in recreational fisheries represents an increasing environmental threat for Mediterranean marine ecosystems, there is still little information about the commercialization and use of these baits, which makes it difficult to assess their potential impacts and establish specific management measures to tackle the threat that they pose.This study analyses for the first time the commercialization and use of exotic species in recreational fishing in the Mediterranean, and the associated environmental and management implications. A multiple-approach design has been used, including: a participatory survey to collect data and perceptions from local retailers and a national bait wholesaler on the environmental impacts of exotic baits; a biological study to identify taxonomically the commercialized bait species; and a bibliographic survey to gather information about the potential environmental impacts of the commercialization and use of exotic baits.Results showed that, among the 13 different baits sold, only the polychaete group included three exotic species: Perinereis linea, Glycera dibranchiata, and Namalycastis rhodochorde. Furthermore, specimens of the sipunculid Sipunculus nudus, imported from South-east Asia, should also be considered exotic.The exotic species P. linea and G. dibranchiata were the two polychaete species most often used by sea anglers. These species were also the most sold by local retailers in the area and by Spain's leading wholesaler.Overall, anglers and local retailers were not fully aware of the potential negative impacts derived from the use of exotic species, and therefore appropriate management actions, including awareness activities, are discussed to better understand and manage the environmental impacts derived from exotic baits.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T05:31:03.537341-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2873
       
  • Editorial: One climate-change career
    • Authors: Tim R. McClanahan
      PubDate: 2018-01-31T05:15:23.937278-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2881
       
  • Using landing statistics and fishers’ traditional ecological knowledge
           to assess conservation threats to Pacific goliath grouper in Colombia
    • Authors: Gustavo A. Castellanos-Galindo; Carolina Chong-Montenegro, Rodrigo A. Baos E, Luis A. Zapata, Paul Tompkins, Rachel T. Graham, Matthew Craig
      Abstract: Groupers are vulnerable to fishing pressure largely because of their life-history traits. The Pacific goliath grouper (PGG; Epinephelus quinquefasciatus), the largest reef fish inhabiting the tropical Eastern Pacific region, is suspected to be subject to high levels of exploitation, but scarce information exists on their population status and the species remains classed as Data Deficient according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.This study documents for the first time the threats to the PGG along the Colombian Pacific coast, where one of the few active fisheries for this species persists. Reconstructed landings of groupers and traditional ecological knowledge, gathered throughout several coastal villages, were used to obtain a historical and contemporary overview of the PGG status in Colombia.Over the past 20 years grouper landings in the Colombian Pacific have been around 200 tons per year. Landings of PGG have averaged ~35 tons per year and are now close to matching those of the historically most landed grouper on this coast, the rooster hind (Hyporthodus acanthistius). The current small-scale fishery for PGG focuses on immature small individuals, with most taken from the extensive southern mangroves. Until recently fishers have captured PGG exclusively with handlines, but new fishing practices (spearfishing) and markets commanding higher prices for small individuals are increasing the extinction risk for the PGG.The exploitation of PGG in the Colombian Pacific may not be as severe as in other countries where severe population declines are suspected (e.g. Mexico). Low coastal human population density and the presence of relatively intact mangroves, essential habitat for juvenile fishes, contribute to the persistence of PGG populations throughout the Colombian Pacific.National and regional conservation and management measures should identify and protect mangrove nurseries and offshore spawning aggregation sites. Well-enforced protected nurseries and spawning aggregation sites will then protect juvenile and adult PGG, improving the sustainability of this fishery.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24T07:26:12.202315-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2871
       
  • Genetic connectivity of the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus
           australis) across Atlantic and Pacific oceans revealed by mitochondrial
           genes
    • Authors: Pedro Rodrigues; Mauricio Seguel, Josefina Gutiérrez, Héctor Pavés, Claudio Verdugo
      Abstract: South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, were intensively hunted for centuries, leaving the species at the edge of extinction. After the cessation of commercial hunting in the 20th century the overall population has increased to an estimated population of 250 000–300 000 individuals, with Guafo Island being the largest breeding colony in Southern Chile with Guafo Island in Southern Chile being the largest breeding colony.The genetic diversity of the South American fur seal population on Guafo Island and the possible genetic connectivity among populations from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans were studied in order to assess the importance of the Southern Chile Pacific population for the management of the species. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from the Guafo Island population were compared with those from various Atlantic (Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina) and Pacific (Peru) populations previously studied.The results indicate the occurrence of historical and/or current gene flow among the populations of Guafo Island in the Pacific Ocean and the populations of the Atlantic Ocean, displaying a lack of genetic structure within these areas. In contrast, the Peruvian population is highly divergent compared with the Chilean and Atlantic populations.The lack of genetic structure of Guafo Island fur seals suggests that this group is connected to populations in the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, the significant genetic diversity pool harboured by the Guafo Island population represents the northernmost point of expansion of this species from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, which could be important for the eventual dispersal of the species to more northern areas of the Pacific and to the future adaptation of the species to changing environmental conditions on the Pacific coasts.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T05:55:52.277905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2870
       
  • Is current floodplain management a cause for concern for fish and bird
           conservation in Bangladesh's largest wetland'
    • Authors: Shams M. Galib; Martyn C. Lucas, Nipa Chaki, Foyzul H. Fahad, A.B.M. Mohsin
      Abstract: Worldwide, water regulatory structures have impacts on aquatic ecological connectivity. This study determined the effects of current sluice management on the fish community in the Baral River, a major connection to the largest wetland (Chalan Beel) in Bangladesh. It also examines wider problems for biodiversity conservation (particularly waterbirds) in that wetland, which has shrunk to 30% of its former dry-season size in 50 years.During the flood period, the peak breeding time for native floodplain fishes, sluices were in undershot operation (open by 16–60% of water depth). During this time, fish abundance and species richness were 229% and 155% higher respectively at sites upstream of the sluices, despite similar habitat upstream and downstream. Outside this period, when sluices were fully open, abundance and species richness were similar upstream and downstream.Fish samples were dominated by fry, which are susceptible to damage by sluices. Twenty (41.7%) of 48 fish species captured in this study are classed as threatened in Bangladesh and their abundance was significantly lower downstream of the sluices. Two alien species, Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, were recorded, probably escapees from local aquaculture activities.Twenty-five species of wetland birds were recorded in the Chalan Beel. From interviews, 64% of these species appear to have decreased in the last 20 years, together with 11 more species that may have become locally extinct over this period. This suggests that widespread ecological disruption is occurring.Improved water management (e.g. gate opening height and duration) or modification (e.g. fish pass) of the Baral sluices is needed, to meet biodiversity and fisheries needs, rather than just for flood control and crop production. Improved hydrological and ecological connectivity and habitat protection are needed, as are a cessation of destructive fishing and seasonal fish ranching practices that currently provide synergistic pressures.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T05:26:07.570311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2865
       
  • Linking pipefishes and seahorses to seagrass meadows in the Venice lagoon:
           Implications for conservation
    • Authors: Luca Scapin; Francesco Cavraro, Stefano Malavasi, Federico Riccato, Matteo Zucchetta, Piero Franzoi
      Abstract: Seagrass meadow degradation and loss is one of the major threats to fish biodiversity in coastal marine and lagoon ecosystems in the Mediterranean. Pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae) are particularly affected by loss of seagrass meadows and other structured habitats, on which they rely for survival and reproduction. Despite their charismatic appearance and peculiar behaviour, their habitat ecology is still poorly understood in Mediterranean coastal waters.This study focuses on syngnathid assemblage composition and diversity in the shallow waters of the Venice lagoon (Italy), aiming at highlighting habitat preferences and providing insights into the conservation of biodiversity in these ecosystems. Generalized Additive Models were used in order to disentangle the potential effect of habitat typologies and different architectures of seagrass meadows from that of other environmental parameters.Most abundant taxa and whole syngnathid assemblage indicators were positively associated with seagrass meadows. Only few species, however, were seagrass specialists in shallow waters, and preferred meadows with taller canopies.Despite that, other structured habitats including short-leaved seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds were important for some species and overall assemblage diversity.Managers in Mediterranean coastal lagoons should thus limit human pressures that lead to the depletion of seagrass meadows, with particular attention to long- and broad-leaved species in less confined areas. Nevertheless, syngnathid assemblages would benefit from the preservation and restoration of the overall habitat diversity characterizing shallow waters in coastal lagoon.Future studies should aim at investigating the potential role of habitats at greater depths in supporting syngnathids.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05T07:06:13.183057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2860
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15T01:36:01.322859-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2841
       
  • Salty stories, fresh spaces: Lessons for aquatic protected areas from
           marine and freshwater experiences
    • Authors: Erin K. Loury; Shaara M. Ainsley, Shannon D. Bower, Ratana Chuenpagdee, Tracy Farrell, Amanda G. Guthrie, Sokrith Heng, Zau Lunn, Abdullah Al Mamun, Rodrigo Oyanedel, Steve Rocliffe, Suvaluck Satumanatpan, Steven J. Cooke
      Abstract: Marine protected areas (MPAs) and freshwater protected areas (FPAs), collectively aquatic protected areas (APAs), share many commonalities in their design, establishment, and management, suggesting great potential for sharing lessons learned. However, surprisingly little has been exchanged to date, and both realms of inquiry and practice have progressed mostly independent of each other.This paper builds on a session held at the 7th World Fisheries Congress in Busan, South Korea, in May 2016, which explored crossover lessons between marine and freshwater realms, and included case studies of four MPAs and five FPAs (or clusters of FPAs) from nine countries.This review uses the case studies to explore similarities, differences, and transferrable lessons between MPAs and FPAs under five themes: (1) ecological system; (2) establishment approaches; (3) effectiveness monitoring; (4) sustaining APAs; and (5) challenges and external threats.Ecological differences between marine and freshwater environments may necessitate different approaches for collecting species and habitat data to inform APA design, establishment and monitoring, but once collected, similar spatial ecological tools can be applied in both realms. In contrast, many similarities exist in the human dimension of both MPA and FPA establishment and management, highlighting clear opportunities for exchanging lessons related to stakeholder engagement and support, and for using similar socio-economic and governance assessment methods to address data gaps in both realms.Regions that implement MPAs and FPAs could work together to address shared challenges, such as developing mechanisms for diversified and sustained funding, and employing integrated coastal/watershed management to address system-level threats. Collaboration across realms could facilitate conservation of diadromous species in both marine and freshwater habitats.Continued exchange and increased collaboration would benefit both realms, and may be facilitated by defining shared terminology, holding cross-disciplinary conferences or sessions, publishing inclusive papers, and proposing joint projects.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T05:05:32.429669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2868
       
  • Abundance, activity and critical habitat of the striped dolphin Stenella
           coeruleoalba in the Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central
           Mediterranean Sea)
    • Authors: Roberto Carlucci; Pasquale Ricci, Giulia Cipriano, Carmelo Fanizza
      Abstract: Abundance, density, daily variation in group size, activity and habitat use of the striped dolphin in the Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea) were investigated using data from sightings collected between April 2009 and December 2016 during standardized vessel-based surveys. Density and abundance were estimated in the survey area by means of conventional distance sampling, resulting in 0.97 specimens/km2 (CV = 5.77%; 95% CI = 0.86–1.08 specimens/km2) and 615 specimens (CV = 5.77%; 95% CI = 549–689 specimens), respectively.Group size data were analysed using multivariate methods. The changes in group size, depth and percentage occurrence of activity between daily periods were investigated with non-parametric tests. The spatio-temporal distribution of the striped dolphin in each predominant activity was investigated by means of the ordinary Kriging method.Fifteen year-maps of spatial prediction were produced, allowing the identification of persistent areas. The results delineate a critical habitat of about 150 km2 in the northernmost ‘Taranto Valley’ canyon system ranging between 140 and 910 m in depth. This critical habitat was persistently and regularly used by an important estimated population of striped dolphins for their day-to-day survival and maintenance in a healthy condition.The intense human use occurring in the area highlights the need for local, national and EU management to set a comprehensive strategy.The establishment of a SPAMI (Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance) as an effective tool for the conservation of the species is suggested. The consequence of establishing a closed area could be reasonably accepted by local concurrent stakeholders. Indeed, limiting access through the establishment of this small closed area would result in the protection of a habitat acting as an ecological refuge for many other pelagic and demersal species of commercial interest, thus favouring their spill over.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T05:01:09.467637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2867
       
  • Morphological divergence of the threatened Rocky Mountain sculpin (Cottus
           sp.) is driven by biogeography and flow regime: Implications for
           mitigating altered flow regime to freshwater fishes
    • Authors: Tyana Rudolfsen; Douglas A. Watkinson, Mark Poesch
      Abstract: Stream hydrology is considered the primary factor in structuring freshwater fish communities, influencing stream habitats, food resources, and life-history characteristics. Changes in stream hydrology, from climate change and anthropogenic sources (e.g. dams, irrigation channels), are thought to have adverse impacts on many freshwater species.The Rocky Mountain sculpin (Cottus sp.) is a threatened species in Canada. Phenotypes of Rocky Mountain sculpin were compared across a gradient of four streams differing in stream hydrology. It was hypothesized that Rocky Mountain sculpin would show body forms minimizing drag in higher flow environments.Using geometric morphometrics and meristic counts, body shape, fin rays, and sensory pores were compared. As hypothesized, high-flow river systems were correlated with sculpin with more dorso-ventrally compressed, slender body shapes that minimized resistance to flow (P
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T04:55:44.834391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2866
       
  • Lagoons and saltwater wetlands getting more diversity: A molecular
           approach reveals cryptic lineages of a euryhaline submerged macrophyte
           (Ruppia)
    • Authors: Ludwig Triest; Lise Beirinckx, Tim Sierens
      Abstract: Ruppia species are distantly related to seagrasses and occur in saltwater coastal and inland lagoons, mostly as monospecific beds. The diversity of euryhaline Ruppia populations from different continents recently became better understood from a suite of chloroplast sequences but limited nuclear markers. These revealed a high complexity from hybridization, introgression, polyploidy and haplotypic divergence.Because of this complexity within the genus and multiple allelic states in polyploids, three multiplexed sets of 24 nuclear microsatellites were developed from four Ruppia provenances and cross-amplified on 130 individuals from a wide range of taxa in various aquatic habitats on different continents.Secondly, pure R. cirrhosa and R. maritima individuals could be unambiguously identified from their introgressed hybrids and from other known or yet unidentified taxa, using diagnostic markers that referred to autotetraploid individuals in R. cirrhosa and allotetraploidy in an ancient hybrid complex ‘haplogroup E’.Thirdly, a phenetic barcoding approach of trnH-psbA chloroplast haplotypes taking into account insertion–deletion variations, revealed lineages of recently described taxa from lagoons in different continents (i.e. R. sinensis, R. brevipedunculata, R. mexicana) in addition to separate lineages of hybrid origin. Congruence between pollination mode and diversification of lineages, allows one to hypothesize whether selfing underwater leads to clearly separated lineages whereas outcrossing at the water surface allows hybridization and extensive introgression with potential chloroplast capture.This study raises a renewed interest in cryptic lineages, hybrid taxa and shallow phylogenies of Ruppia lineages, thereby critically questioning worldwide distributions of least concern species. Recognition and monitoring of unique Ruppia lineages will support further studies on connectivity, survival strategies and movement ecology to aid in determining the conservation status of a wide variety of lagoon and coastal wetland habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T04:41:14.125462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2863
       
  • Spatial and temporal differences in gonad development, sex ratios and
           reproductive output, influence the sustainability of exploited populations
           of the European oyster, Ostrea edulis
    • Authors: Lawrence E. Eagling; Elizabeth C. Ashton, Antony C. Jensen, Julia D. Sigwart, Darren Murray, Dai Roberts
      Abstract: The European native oyster, Ostrea edulis, has been in severe decline since the early 1900s across Europe with many fisheries now declared commercially extinct. In light of this broad scale population decline, the UK has listed O. edulis as a threatened species, requiring conservation action under the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP). In addition to this designation, in Scotland O. edulis beds is a search feature (SF) and a priority marine feature (PMF) for MPA site selection. These sites are also listed as a feature of conservation importance and included on the OSPAR list of threatened/declining species and habitats.Recent studies have identified O. edulis populations with heavily male-skewed sex ratios, which may have contributed to fisheries decline due to reduced levels of fertilization. This species is a protandrous alternating hermaphrodite and individuals may change sex in response to local conditions. This study aimed to assess how sex ratios vary temporally and if this is correlated with temperature, by studying two exploited populations in Loch Ryan, Scotland and Chichester Harbour, England.This study suggests that the proportion of male phase oysters is positively correlated with water temperature and that the study population in cooler waters had a more balanced sex ratio overall (the Loch Ryan population was significantly similar to 1:1 for 10 of 13 months, whereas in Chichester only 1 of the 7 months was significantly similar).This study provides evidence to suggest that a critical temperature threshold for sex determination exists in O. edulis and for the Loch Ryan population we suggest that this is 16.5°C. However, further work is required to assess how this threshold may change between sites and how future climate change scenarios might affect the sex ratio of native oyster populations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T06:00:45.332433-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2855
       
  • Can satellite ponds buffer the impact of introduced fish on newts in a
           mountain pond network'
    • Authors: Rocco Tiberti
      Abstract: Fish introductions into originally fishless mountain lentic habitats can affect native amphibians at different spatial scales. Introductions are often associated with local extinctions, but they can also affect amphibian metapopulations at a landscape level, intercepting amphibians when they move into reproductive and overwintering sites, preventing these movements, or reducing the overall metapopulation abundance and diversity.Freshwater habitat networks are considered more resistant to biological invasions than isolated habitats, because they usually provide safe alternative sites that can buffer the impact of introduced fish. However, few studies have attempted to understand whether fish stocking also affects amphibians in surrounding fishless habitats.This general hypothesis was tested using distribution data of Italian crested newt (Triturus carnifex Laurenti 1768) in a mountain pond network collected over a 13-year-long study (2005–2017), encompassing the periods before (pre-2011) and after (post-2012) fish (Salmo trutta L. 1758) were introduced in the pond where most of the newts were initially observed.After fish introduction, visual counts dropped down close to zero in the invaded pond, but they increased in satellite ponds. This was a progressive increase not related to population size and should be regarded as a short-term consequence of the slow colonization of satellite ponds.These results confirm the dramatic impact of fish introductions on native amphibians at a local scale, but suggest that some amphibians can counteract their impact by moving to alternative sites, when available.Halting fish stocking, lake and pond recovery, and the construction of alternative sites are proposed as management and conservation actions to preserve amphibian diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T06:38:54.131242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2858
       
  • Global ocean conservation under the magnifying glass
    • Authors: Paolo Guidetti; Roberto Danovaro
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T08:05:29.97619-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2854
       
  • Riparian restoration offsets predicted population consequences of climate
           warming in a threatened headwater fish
    • Authors: Mischa P. Turschwell; Ben Stewart-Koster, Catherine Leigh, Erin E. Peterson, Fran Sheldon, Stephen R. Balcombe
      Abstract: Freshwater ecosystems and their associated biota are under increasing threats from multiple stressors including climate and land-use change. The conservation of these ecosystems must be based on an integration of data including species physiological tolerances, the biotic and abiotic drivers of the distribution of populations, and demographic processes, to provide the comprehensive ecological information necessary for management.This study used a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to synthesize research on northern river blackfish, a threatened species in the upper Condamine River, Australia, into a probabilistic framework capable of predicting the complex relationships that exist between environmental conditions and population success. This study tested how predicted air temperature scenarios for the years 2050 and 2080, and catchment restoration scenarios, would be expected to affect three indices of population success: adult abundance, juvenile abundance, and juvenile recruitment.Compared with current climatic conditions, climate warming scenarios reduced the probability of future population success by between 0.4% and 1.6%. These shifts were almost completely offset, and even improved, when riparian zones were restored at the catchment scale, where changes ranged from an overall decrease of 0.2% to an increase of 1%. To achieve the highest probability of population success, the impacts of warming stream temperatures and the degradation of riparian zones must be mitigated. However, the model showed that there is still a possibility of complete population failure under a wide range of conditions, even when conditions appear to be suitable.To maximize the future population success of river blackfish we recommend targeting the restoration of hydrologically active catchment areas where grazing strongly influences stream biota. The use of a BBN allowed the combination of multiple sources of information to solve complex ecological problems, including how multiple stressors may affect threatened freshwater species.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T02:06:33.985913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2864
       
  • Alien turf: Overfishing, overgrazing and invader domination in
           south-eastern Levant reef ecosystems
    • Authors: Gil Rilov; Ohad Peleg, Erez Yeruham, Tal Garval, Ania Vichik, Ofrat Raveh
      Abstract: Coastal reefs are highly diverse marine ecosystems that in many regions suffer today from growing pressures by human activities. Among the most highly-stressed are those found in the Levantine basin (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea). The Levant represents the trailing-edge of distribution of native species where they are exposed to the most extreme temperature and salinity conditions, and the region is also fast-warming and exposed to a great many alien species and strong fishing pressure. In this study, the ecological state of reefs in the south-eastern Levant was assessed quantitatively (including inside a small marine reserve) using current, extensive, survey data with reference to anecdotal historical information on their more pristine past.The results of very extensive subtidal community surveys that were conducted in north Israel indicate that reefs in this area are currently dominated by turf-forming algae and aliens, and sustain low numbers of top predators. Specifically, it was found that on these Levant reefs: (1) commercial species represent a very small part of the fish assemblage (except inside the reserve); (2) alien species constitute a considerable portion (23–44%) of the fish assemblage (including in the reserve) and 95–99% of epi-benthic molluscs, including inside the marine reserve; and (3) turf barrens are the dominant substrate cover, while cover of native brown algae canopy is limited to small patches occurring only during winter and spring.These findings suggest that the Levant reefs have been highly transformed by overfishing and alien invasions, and probably also climate change, and that even well managed marine reserves had little effect on alien species presence. From a biogeographic-conservation perspective, as both warming and bioinvasions continue in the Mediterranean, it is expected that this degraded reef state will gradually advance westward. Alleviating fishing pressure with marine reserves might make the reefs more resilient to these regional pressures, but alien invaders will remain a dominant feature in the system. Therefore, a more realistic conservation target might be the preservation or restoration of ecosystem functions rather than the original native biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T01:25:48.216354-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2862
       
  • A comprehensive status, phylogenetic, and anatomical review of Stagnicola
           caperata (Say, ) in the south-west United States
    • Authors: Cayla R. Morningstar; Kentaro Inoue, Brian K. Lang, David J. Berg
      Abstract: Freshwater gastropods are a major component of aquatic communities in arid regions. The isolation of aquatic habitats and poor dispersal abilities of organisms has resulted in the evolution of endemic species with small ranges. Human demands for water threaten the integrity of desert spring systems and as a result many freshwater snails from these regions are of conservation concern.One widespread lymnaeid species in North America, Stagnicola caperata (Say, ), exhibits distinct shell morphologies among populations in the south-west United States. Because S. caperata is listed as endangered by the State of New Mexico owing to degradation of wetland habitats, accurate taxonomic assessment among populations is required in order to understand threats to the survival of this taxon. A holistic approach (morphometrics, phylogenetics, and reproductive anatomy) was used to investigate the taxonomic affinities of S. caperata in the south-west United States by comparing these populations with topotypes.Morphometric analyses revealed similar levels of variation among populations, with large overlaps in shell morphologies. Both phylogenetic analysis and reproductive anatomy revealed the presence of two Stagnicola species in these populations: all populations except the Big Costilla Peak (BCP) population were referable to the nomen S. caperata, while BCP was Stagnicola cf. elodes.A total-evidence approach that combines genetic and morphological data facilitates assessment of taxonomic affinities. The results provide conservation agencies with information necessary to detect species boundaries and then develop effective conservation and recovery plans for imperilled species.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T01:10:43.903514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2859
       
  • Planning for dynamic process: An assemblage-level surrogate strategy for
           species seasonal movement pathways
    • Authors: Heather Welch; Jennifer McHenry
      Abstract: Seasonally mobile species are globally prevalent and often provide vital ecosystem functions and services along their seasonal movement pathways. However, owing to the challenges of planning for features that are spatially and temporally variable, mobile species are rarely accounted for in conservation planning. To protect this dynamic process, planners need a temporally explicit surrogate for species seasonal movement pathways. Because reserve networks typically aim to represent the full spectrum of biodiversity, these surrogates also need to capture the assemblage-level organization of species in order to preserve the full range of seasonal movement pathways that occur within a given planning region.To this end, this study introduces a new assemblage-level surrogate strategy for species seasonal movements that preserves variation in biodiversity across the 12 months. Two monthly, assemblage-level attributes were integrated: discrete species assemblages and continuous assemblage suitability, thereby allowing planners to select complementary combinations of sites that achieve comprehensive assemblage coverage in each month.As a marine case-study, this strategy was applied to the US Mid-Atlantic, and a gap analysis was used to evaluate the ability of the Mid-Atlantic's current spatial management scheme to accommodate species' seasonal movements.The results indicate that current protected areas in the Mid-Atlantic will be unable to meet even modest quantitative objectives for protecting seasonal movements, and priority conservation areas are identified for designing a reserve network that offers year-round protection.Planning for processes remains a significant gap in conservation planning, and this study seeks to address this gap by proposing a surrogate strategy that will aid the incorporation of a widespread dynamic process into reserve design. This strategy uses public, predominantly global datasets that have terrestrial and marine counterparts, making it applicable to planning for species seasonal movements both on land and at sea.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T23:01:21.534881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2857
       
  • Upstream recolonization by freshwater mussels (Unionoida: Hyriidae)
           following installation of a fishway
    • Authors: Justin Aaron Benson; Paul Graeme Close, Barbara Ann Stewart, Alan Lymbery
      Abstract: Freshwater mussels provide important benefits to aquatic ecosystems by filtering water, bioturbating sediments, and cycling and transforming nutrients. The global decline in mussel diversity, distribution and abundance has led to concerns that ecological functioning in freshwater systems will be diminished.Mussels from the order Unionoida have an obligate larval stage that parasitizes a fish host, developing into a juvenile while being dispersed throughout the ecosystem. Barriers that obstruct fish movement can lead to localized extinctions of fish and mussels. In many cases, fishways have successfully restored habitat connectivity for fish; however, mussel recolonization is rarely assessed.This paper provides evidence for recolonization by Carter's freshwater mussel (Westralunio carteri, Iredale 1934) in habitats upstream of a weir following fishway installation. Mussels were present at all sites both above and below the weir, although they were far more abundant downstream. A lack of larger size classes upstream highlights the historical lack of recruitment in that area. Recent recruitment post-fishway installation suggests that the population will eventually recover above the weir.The return of mussels above the weir is likely to benefit the ecosystem owing to the key role mussels play in aquatic habitats. Fishways may therefore be an important tool for the restoration of mussels, and broader ecological functioning.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T04:25:15.184454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2861
       
  • Stocking impact, population structure and conservation of wild brown trout
           populations in inner Galicia (NW Spain), an unstable hydrologic region
    • Authors: Manuel Vera; Paulino Martinez, Carmen Bouza
      Abstract: 1. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) is an important conservation resource in the Iberian Peninsula. The Atlantic is considered the most hydrologically stable region for the species, although inner Galicia (NW Spain) shows Mediterranean (unstable) climatic conditions. The Galician region, threatened by past releases of brown trout individuals from central European origin, harbours two native lineages, one of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These populations are thus highly valuable for conservation, as well as being important for recreational fisheries.2. In total, 546 individuals from 16 sampling sites (15 natural locations from inner Galicia and one from a central European hatchery stock) were genotyped for 11 nuclear markers (10 microsatellite loci and the LDH-C* locus) to analyse genetic variability, population structure and introgression impact from stocking in order to assess the conservation status of brown trout in the region. Moreover, correlation among hatchery introgression and environmental variables relevant for species population dynamics was also investigated.3. Genetic variability was within the range of Iberian brown trout (He = 0.500–0.600). Stocking impact was higher than previously reported values for the Atlantic region and was related to environmental instability. Highly significant native population differentiation was observed in the whole region (FST = 0.283), at least four main genetic groups being detected across the geographic distribution studied.4. Conservation strategies at local level (including the creation of genetic refuges and temporal monitoring of genetic composition) are suggested to agencies and administrations for the sustainable management of brown trout.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T01:00:55.775917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2856
       
  • Complexity of river ciliate communities at a national park highlights the
           need for microbial conservation
    • Authors: Pablo Quintela-Alonso; Blanca Pérez-Uz, Abel Sanchez-Jimenez, Antonio Murciano, Juan D. Centeno, Manuel García-Rodríguez, Esperanza Montero, Benito Muñoz, Cristina Olmedo, Pablo Refoyo, Ismael Velasco-González, Mercedes Martín-Cereceda
      Abstract: Microorganisms play pivotal roles in aquatic ecosystems. Free-living protists are the main components of the eukaryotic microbial communities at the base of freshwater ecosystems. Ciliate grazing channels a large proportion of organic matter into multicellular organisms. Surprisingly, ciliates and other microorganisms are neglected in global conservation schemes.Interstitial ciliates were sampled in three sites of varying human pressure on the River Manzanares (La Pedriza National Park, Spain). Abundances of trophic groups and species were adjusted to a generalized linear model (GLM Poisson regression).Ciliate communities were rich in species (74 morphotypes) and although traditional microscopy retrieved a high number of species that appeared only once or in low numbers, rarefaction analyses estimated much larger species richness. These results illustrate that rarefaction assays are a useful first step for exploring the extent of the ciliate cryptic diversity in freshwater ecosystems.Benthic ciliate communities changed significantly, both spatially and at a short temporal scale. The fluctuating nature of the community was manifested by the presence of many ephemeral species at the same river site, revealing a complex and transient community structure. No significant short-term changes were observed in the physical–chemical properties. Therefore, even slight differences in the abiotic variables may cause rapid shifts of ciliate species.Overall, human pressure had an effect on the interstitial (or benthic) ciliates that resulted in a reduction of species richness and their abundance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T00:56:28.564875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2852
       
  • Vulnerability of Cape Fold Ecoregion freshwater fishes to climate change
           and other human impacts
    • Authors: Jeremy M. Shelton; Olaf L.F. Weyl, Albert Chakona, Bruce R. Ellender, Karen J. Esler, N. Dean Impson, Martine S. Jordaan, Sean M. Marr, Tumisho Ngobela, Bruce R. Paxton, Johannes A. Van Der Walt, Helen F. Dallas
      Abstract: Native freshwater fish populations throughout South Africa's Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) are in decline as a result of human impacts on aquatic habitats, including the introduction of non-native freshwater fishes. Climate change may be further accelerating declines of many species, although this has not yet been studied in the CFE. This situation presents a major conservation challenge that requires assigning management priorities through assessing species in terms of their vulnerability to climate change.One factor hindering reliable vulnerability assessments and the concurrent development of effective conservation strategies is limited knowledge of the biology and population status of many species. This paper reports on a study employing a rapid assessment method used in the USA, designed to capitalize on available expert knowledge to supplement existing empirical data, to determine the relative vulnerabilities of different species to climate change and other human impacts. Eight local freshwater fish experts conducted vulnerability assessments on 20 native and 17 non-native freshwater fish species present in the CFE.Results show (1) that native species were generally classified as being more vulnerable to extinction than were non-native species, (2) that the climate change impacts are expected to increase the vulnerability of most native, and some non-native, species, (3) that vulnerability hotspots requiring urgent conservation attention occur in the Olifants-Doring, upper Berg and upper Breede River catchments in the south west of the region, (4) that in addition to providing guidance for prioritizing management interventions, this study highlights the need for reliable data on the biology and distribution of many CFE freshwater fishes, and (5) that identification of priority areas for protection should be based on multiple sources of data.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T05:50:46.638372-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2849
       
  • Genetic diversity and population history of Tanichthys albonubes
           (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Implications for conservation
    • Authors: Jun Zhao; Kui-Ching Hsu, Jin-Zhen Luo, Chun-Hui Wang, Bosco-Puilok Chan, Jie Li, Po-Hsun Kuo, Hung-Du Lin
      Abstract: Tanichthys albonubes is a cyprinid fish of South China and North Vietnam. Although this species has been sold worldwide in the aquarium trade for more than a century, it is listed as a second-class state-protected animal in China and classified as ‘extinct in nature’ in the China Red Data Book.To investigate the population history of T. albonubes and evaluate the genetic conditions among the wild and hatchery populations, mitochondrial genes (mtDNA, 2032 bp from the d-loop and cyt b), nuclear genes (nuDNA, 2241 bp from RAG1 and ENC1) and 13 microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic structure throughout the range of this species.In total, 358 specimens were collected from three hatcheries and all known wild populations. This study found that the discordant population structure among these genetic markers was accounted for by differences in the effective population sizes. The results indicated that (1) the three hatchery stocks originated from a single source in China and that the hatchery stock in China maintained almost all the T. albonubes genetic diversity in the downstream reaches of the Pearl River; (2) the wild population near Baiyun Mountain originated from hatchery releases; (3) the population history reflects the complex geological history of South China; and (4) the habitat destruction and fragmentation that have resulted in small and isolated populations may have shaped the genetic structure of T. albonubes.The low-level genetic diversity of T. albonubes supports the need for conservation interventions. The geographically distinct genotypes indicate a need for the development of management strategies directed towards the conservation of localized populations. The genetic status of all populations, including the hatchery stocks, should be evaluated and monitored continuously.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T03:56:27.355987-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2840
       
  • Conservation genetics of the Mary River turtle (Elusor macrurus) in
           natural and captive populations
    • Authors: Daniel J. Schmidt; Thomas Espinoza, Marilyn Connell, Jane M. Hughes
      Abstract: Many thousands of Mary River turtle eggs were harvested for the pet trade in the 1960s and 1970s before it was recognized as a new species in a unique genus. Pet turtles and their descendants still survive in captive collections. Elusor macrurus is now an endangered species after suffering dramatic population declines along the single Australian river that constitutes its entire range.A conservation genetic assessment was conducted to evaluate population subdivision within the remaining wild population of the Mary River turtle; to compare diversity of the wild population with a captive sample derived from the pet trade; and to establish a baseline estimate of effective population size (Ne) to assist with future monitoring and recovery.Microsatellite analysis indicated panmixia throughout most of the Mary River catchment with the exception of one downstream tributary –Tinana Creek (pop. Specific FST = 0.154). Subdivision between Tinana Creek and Mary River is a feature common to multiple co-distributed freshwater taxa including the threatened Australian lungfish and Mary River cod. Microsatellite diversity of the wild adult population was low (average HS = 0.554) and not significantly different from that of a sample of captive turtles from the pet trade – indicating genetic diversity may be well represented in captive stocks. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was extremely limited, with only two haplotypes found in the wild and a single shared haplotype in captive turtles.Estimates of Ne applicable to the entire species in the wild were ~136 and ~158 using two independent methods. A reasonable management objective should be retention of Ne levels>100 during recovery of the species. Additional recommendations include that Mary River turtles be listed as Critically Endangered, and that a recovery plan be developed that considers ‘headstarting’ – using captive bred stocks to supplement the wild population.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:00:34.270294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2851
       
  • The status and distribution of a newly identified endemic galaxiid in the
           eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion, of South Africa
    • Authors: Gamuchirai Chakona; Ernst R. Swartz, Albert Chakona
      Abstract: DNA-based studies have uncovered cryptic species and lineages within almost all freshwater fishes studied thus far from the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) of South Africa. These studies have changed the way the CFE is viewed, as almost all stream fishes that were previously considered to be of low conservation priority, because they were perceived to have broad geographical ranges, contain multiple historically isolated lineages, many of which are narrow-range endemics.As stream fishes of the CFE are of conservation concern owing to threats mainly posed by habitat degradation, invasion by alien species and hydrological modification, re-evaluation of the distribution and conservation status of newly identified unique lineages is required to inform the development and implementation of effective conservation and management strategies.The present study conducted an IUCN Red List conservation assessment of a newly identified lineage of the Galaxias zebratus species complex (hereafter referred to as Galaxias sp. ‘Joubertina’) to identify key threats and provide recommendations to conservation authorities on appropriate measures to reduce extinction risk.The lineage met the qualifying threshold for the Endangered category because of its very restricted geographic range, few remaining secure populations, small known population sizes and the intensity of threats to most of the populations. Only six populations remain, one of which could be an ‘extralimital’ population potentially established through an inter-basin water transfer scheme.Galaxias sp. ‘Joubertina’ is threatened by invasive piscivores, habitat degradation and excessive water abstraction. These impacts have fragmented remnant populations, raising concerns about potential long-term adverse impacts on genetic diversity and evolutionary potential of this lineage.Immediate conservation measures should protect remnant populations from further impacts, while long-term measures should aim to restore historical connectivity to reduce the potential deleterious effects of inbreeding in the small isolated populations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T03:01:25.167475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2850
       
  • A gleam of hope for the critically endangered Isoëtes malinverniana: Use
           of small-scale translocations to guide conservation planning
    • Authors: Thomas Abeli; Paolo Cauzzi, Graziano Rossi, Fausto Pistoja, Marco Mucciarelli
      Abstract: Results of the first documented reintroduction of the endangered endemic quillwort Isoëtes malinverniana are presented 1 year after transplanting. This represents the most complete report of a quillwort translocation globally.A new population of I. malinverniana was established in a protected area in Lombardy (northern Italy) after several years of investigation of the ecology, biology and genetics of this species. The selected site was restored before the trial release in March 2016 of 20 individuals of the target species.Although modelling for the selection of suitable release sites for the target species indicated that the selected site was not suitable for the species, I. malinverniana exhibited a survival of 60% 1 year after reintroduction. This trial indicates that with very rare species, experimental trialling of a few individuals can test the feasibility of translocation at a larger scale. Although the model was constructed using a wide variety of ecological and phenological parameters, it was unreliable because of intrinsically low statistical power, which is a limitation of modelling associated with very rare species.Although mature spores were dispersed in autumn 2016, sporelings have not yet been observed. Ultimately, reintroduction of I. malinverniana will rely on the evidence of self-recruitment; however, this translocation effort promoted understanding of ecological tolerance and facilitated focused conservation management. For instance, a protocol for in vitro reproduction of the species was successfully developed, resulting in long-term survival of ex situ collections that exist in two botanical gardens in Pavia and Turin.Considering that many isoëtid species are threatened worldwide, the techniques applied here may have broad applicability to other endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T02:27:27.396054-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2848
       
  • Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (Sousa plumbea) movement patterns along the
           South African coast
    • Authors: Els Vermeulen; Thibaut Bouveroux, Stephanie Plön, Shanan Atkins, Wilfred Chivell, Vic Cockcroft, Danielle Conry, Enrico Gennari, Sandra Hörbst, Bridget S. James, Stephen Kirkman, Gwenith Penry, Pierre Pistorius, Meredith Thornton, O. Alejandra Vargas-Fonseca, Simon H. Elwen
      Abstract: The Indian Ocean humpback dolphin was recently uplisted to ‘Endangered’ in the recent South African National Red List assessment. Abundance estimates are available from a number of localized study sites, but knowledge of movement patterns and population linkage between these sites is poor. A national research collaboration, the SouSA project, was established in 2016 to address this key knowledge gap. Twenty identification catalogues collected between 2000 and 2016 in 13 different locations were collated and compared.Photographs of 526 humpback dolphins (all catalogues and photos) were reduced to 337 individuals from 12 locations after data selection. Of these, 90 matches were found for 61 individuals over multiple sites, resulting in 247 uniquely, well-marked humpback dolphins identified in South Africa.Movements were observed along most of the coastline studied. Ranging distances had a median value of 120 km and varied from 30 km up to 500 km. Long-term site fidelity was also evident in the data. Dolphins ranging along the south coast of South Africa seem to form one single population at the western end of the species' global range.Current available photo-identification data suggested national abundance may be well below previous estimates of 1000 individuals, with numbers possibly closer to 500. Bearing in mind the poor conservation status of the species in the country, the development of a national Biodiversity Management Plan aimed at ensuring the long-term survival of the species in South Africa is strongly recommended. At the same time, increased research efforts are essential, particularly to allow for an in-depth assessment of population numbers and drivers of changes therein.The present study clearly indicates the importance of scientific collaboration when investigating highly mobile and endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T02:15:47.306139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2836
       
  • The use of Chara spp. (Charales: Characeae) as a bioindicator of
           physico-chemical habitat suitability for an endangered crayfish
           Austropotamobius pallipes in lentic waters
    • Authors: David Beaune; Yann Sellier, Élisabeth Lambert, Frédéric Grandjean
      Abstract: Austropotamobius pallipes is an endangered decapod attracting much attention in freshwater conservation programmes. In some cases population transfers or reintroductions are carried out in lentic ecosystems such as ponds or quarries. Such conservation actions require rapid, low cost and powerful tools to census suitable habitat.Some species of the Characeae family (Chara spp.), share ecological needs with A. pallipes and are proposed as bioindicators of suitable habitat. Chara species were tested, among other plants, as bioindicators, and to see whether Chara species are a stronger indicator than water chemistry.The Pinail Nature Reserve, with 3000 permanent ponds, is inhabited by white-clawed crayfish probably introduced historically into ponds used for fish production. This allows a replicated study of suitable habitats where plant communities are bioindicators of crayfish presence.Crayfish presence is associated with Chara species (such as Chara aspera, Chara virgata, Chara fragifera, Chara polyacantha and Chara vulgaris). Austropotamobius pallipes is present in ponds with Chara spp. (N = 10/10) while other ponds without crayfish are lacking charophytes (N = 1/23). Algae of the genus Chara are thus a simple and low-cost additional tool for determining suitable habitat for crayfish introductions within enclosed waters protected from exotic invasive species and disease. Cladium mariscus also appears to be another useful bioindicator for crayfish habitat.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03T06:16:28.238979-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2847
       
  • The value of small, natural and man-made wetlands for bird diversity in
           the east Colombian Piedmont
    • Authors: Johanna Murillo-Pacheco; Germán M. López-Iborra, Federico Escobar, Wilian Fernando Bonilla-Rojas, José R. Verdú
      Abstract: Small wetlands are considered a refuge for biodiversity, but the importance of natural and man-made lentic wetlands for the maintenance of bird diversity in human-dominated landscapes is not well-known in the Neotropics.This study evaluated the influence of the types and origins (natural or man-made) of lentic wetlands on bird diversity of three guilds (aquatic, semi-aquatic and landbirds) in the Meta Piedmont, Colombia.The species richness and the structure and composition of each bird guild were estimated and compared between and within wetland types (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and origins (natural, mixed and artificial).In total, 275 bird species were recorded (196 landbirds, 60 aquatic birds and 19 semi-aquatic birds). Local species richness had a wide variation (39 to 144 species), and total and mean richness were significantly different between among wetland types and origins. Semi-natural lakes were the most diverse wetland type, and heronries were the least diverse. Mixed-origin wetlands had the highest species richness. The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) was the most abundant species, while heronries and rice fields showed the greatest total bird abundance.Bird diversity is strongly related to type and origin of wetlands, with significant variations in species composition among different types, which show high local and landscape heterogeneity.It is suggested that small lentic wetlands, whether natural, mixed or artificial, are important for the maintenance of local and regional bird diversity. Conservation and management actions are required to preserve wetland heterogeneity and the birds associated with it.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T03:30:47.145956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2835
       
  • Basin-scale distribution and haplotype partitioning in different genetic
           lineages of the Neotropical migratory fish Salminus brasiliensis
    • Authors: Juan José Rosso; Eva C. Rueda, Sebastián Sanchez, María Cecilia Bruno, Jorge Casciotta, Gastón Aguilera, Adriana E. Almirón, Federico J. Ruiz Díaz, Delia Fabiana Cancino, Baltazar Bugeau, Ezequiel Mabragaña, Mariano González-Castro, Matías Delpiani, Juan Martín Díaz de Astarloa
      Abstract: Four valid species are currently recognized in the Neotropical migratory genus Salminus: Salminus brasiliensis, Salminus franciscanus, Salminus hilarii and Salminus affinis. However, molecular evidence strongly suggested that two different species might be contained under the taxonomic denomination Salminus brasiliensis. Therefore, the geographical distribution of each entity was evaluated in order to understand their contribution to the different stocks of major river networks in South America.Major river networks of the La Plata River basin were explored to characterize the geographical distribution of the two genetic lineages. To characterize further the genetic partitioning within each lineage of S. brasiliensis, a haplotype analysis was conducted. The 5′ region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used as the molecular marker. In total, 45 fish samples of S. brasiliensis from 19 sites in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay were sequenced. Additional COI sequences of S. brasiliensis, S. franciscanus and S. hilarii were gathered from public databases.All samples of S. brasiliensis comprised two different mitochondrial lineages. Accordingly, phylogenetic tree topologies segregated the complete set of sequences into two disparate clusters. One of these clusters was far closer phylogenetically to S. hilarii than to other S. brasiliensis.While one of the genetic lineages of S. brasiliensis seemed mostly restricted to the upper Paraná River, the other showed a widespread distribution along major river networks of the basin.Fifteen unique haplotypes were identified and collapsed. Salminus hilarii and S. franciscanus have private haplotypes. In S. brasiliensis, each mitochondrial lineage also hosts a set of unshared haplotypes.The sympatry of two different putative species within S. brasiliensis together with their unshared haplotypes present a difficult situation for management and conservation that calls for timely solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T02:50:52.008236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2830
       
  • The worth of giants: The consumptive and non-consumptive use value of the
           giant sea bass (Stereolepis gigas)
    • Authors: Ana Sofía Guerra; Daniel J. Madigan, Milton S. Love, Douglas J. McCauley
      Abstract: Although the economic value of wildlife historically has been attributed to its consumptive use, the global growth of ecotourism has expanded wildlife valuation to include non-consumptive uses. In California, the critically endangered giant sea bass (Stereolepis gigas) is paradoxically both a flagship species in the recreational dive industry and regularly sold in California's commercial fisheries when incidentally caught. The differences in the economic value of S. gigas to these two key stakeholders – commercial fishers and recreational scuba divers – were explored.The average annual landing value of S. gigas was US$12 600, this value was determined using California commercial fishery landing receipt data. In contrast the estimated average value of S. gigas to recreational divers was US$2.3 million per year. The non-consumptive use value was calculated by approximating the annual number of recreational charter boat divers and determining divers' willingness-to-pay for a S. gigas sighting.Stated landings volumes of S. gigas appear to represent a minimum annual extraction of 2% to 19% of the S. gigas population. Using self-reported fishery catch location data, S. gigas bycatch hotspots were identified and used to inform suggestions for strategic spatial and temporal closures.Overall, these results highlight the value of giant sea bass beyond fisheries and underscore the importance of incorporating non-consumptive values when developing harvest policies and marine management plans.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T22:20:38.006535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2837
       
  • Structural microhabitat use by endemic cyprinids in a Mediterranean-type
           river: Implications for restoration practices
    • Authors: José Maria Santos; Rui Rivaes, Isabel Boavida, Paulo Branco
      Abstract: Endemic freshwater fish from the Mediterranean region are among the most threatened species in the world owing to increasing river degradation. Because of such threats, the number of river restoration projects has greatly increased. However, they are seldom planned with consideration of the species' life history, often resulting in erroneous practices that compromise their success.This study assessed the seasonal and size-related microhabitat use by three endemic cyprinids (Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei; Iberian straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma polylepis; and calandino, Squalius alburnoides) using a modified point electrofishing procedure in a Mediterranean river. A multivariate approach was then employed to analyse both structural resource use and availability data.All species showed non-random microhabitat use. The barbel and nase shifted to faster-flowing positions (>25 cm s−1) with a coarser substratum (>150 mm particle size) during spring and to sheltered positions (50–100% instream cover) during autumn. Calandino selected more covered areas in autumn (>60% cover) and shifted to shallower positions from this season (>40 cm) to summer (
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T22:15:32.496672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2839
       
  • Impacts of fishing, river flow and connectivity loss on the conservation
           of a migratory fish population
    • Authors: Hsien-Yung Lin; Christopher J. Brown, Ross G. Dwyer, Doug J. Harding, David T. Roberts, Richard A. Fuller, Simon Linke, Hugh P. Possingham
      Abstract: Migratory species depend on connected habitats and appropriate migratory cues to complete their life cycles. Diadromous fish exemplify species with migratory life cycles by moving between connected freshwater and saltwater habitats to reproduce. However, migration increases the exposure of fish to multiple threats and it is critical that managers integrate habitat connectivity into resource management and conservation.The benefit of alternative management actions was assessed for a diadromous fish, the Australian bass Percalates novemaculeata, using a spatio-temporal population model informed by individual-based movement data. The management actions comprise seasonal closures during the spawning season, and controlling fishing pressure by limiting catch or effort.The benefits of implementing seasonal closures depend upon interactions among how fishing pressure is controlled, the response of anglers to fishery regulations and river flow regimes. The results indicated that seasonal closures are ineffective if fishing pressure is merely displaced to another location or time of year. In addition, shifting seasonal closures from spawning grounds to feeding grounds increased population abundances under low flow events when fishing effort was also controlled. However, when total annual catch is limited by a fishery closure, changing the location of seasonal closure schemes had little effect.The findings in this study highlight the need for flexible management strategies that account for migratory movements and respond both to variations in connectivity (e.g. river flow regime) and direct pressures on survivorship (e.g. exploitation). As the implementation of one management action (e.g. fishing or water regulation) could affect the influence of another management action, this study emphasizes the importance of cooperation between resource managers in conserving migratory species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T22:05:34.315688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2831
       
  • Diving back in time: Extending historical baselines for yelloweye rockfish
           with Indigenous knowledge
    • Authors: Lauren E. Eckert; Natalie C. Ban, Alejandro Frid, Madeleine McGreer
      Abstract: Ocean systems, and the culturally and commercially important fishes that inhabit them, face growing threats. Increasingly, unconventional data sources are being used to inform fisheries research and management for data-poor species.Listed as a species of special concern in Canada, yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) are vulnerable to exploitation, and have historical and cultural value to Indigenous people. In this study, Indigenous fishers of British Columbia, Canada, were interviewed and asked about observed changes to the body sizes (length) and abundance of this species over the last ~60 years, and the factors driving these changes. Their current and historical estimates of size and abundance were compared with current biological survey data.Forty-two semi-directed interviews were carried out and 89% of respondents observed a decrease in yelloweye rockfish body sizes since the 1980s. The median historical (1950s–1980s) length was 84 cm, compared with the median modern (2010–2015) length of 46 cm. All but one respondent reported substantial decrease in yelloweye rockfish abundance since their earliest fishing experiences (1950s to1980s, depending on participant's age), with a third suggesting the change was most evident in the early 2000s, followed by the 1980s (21%) and 1990s (17%).Sizes of modern yelloweye rockfish estimated by participants resembled estimates derived from ecological data recorded concurrently at the study region.This study illustrates a repeatable method for using traditional and local knowledge to extend baselines for data-poor species, and highlights the value of integrating Indigenous knowledge into fisheries research and management.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:05:34.818517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2834
       
  • Morpho-demographic traits of two maërl-forming algae in beds with
           different depths and fishing histories
    • Authors: Miguel Cabanellas-Reboredo; Sandra Mallol, Carmen Barberá, Alba Vergés, David Díaz, Raquel Goñi
      Abstract: Maërl is a benthic community composed of accumulations of coralline red algae with an essential eco-biological role in marine ecosystems.This low-resilience community has acquired a high conservation status as many anthropogenic impacts threaten this globally distributed ecosystem. Some of the potentially more important but less studied impacts are those caused by fishing activities due to the lack of proper controls.This study investigates the potential fishing impacts and depth-related differences on the rhodolith morpho-demographic traits of two maërl-forming algae, Lithothamnion corallioides and Spongites fruticulosus, with distinct morphologies (ramified vs nucleated).Rhodolith size and shape (roundness and solidity) indicators were assessed in maërl beds protected from fishing inside a large 25-year old no-take MPA, in a contiguous 6-year no-take zone, and in adjacent fished beds.Rhodoliths of both species were bigger, rounder (spherical) and more solid (structurally less complex) in shallow than in deep beds of the long-term protected area, which was probably a result of a more active hydrodynamic regime and higher irradiance in shallow beds.Fishing effects manifested differently depending on the morphological properties of rhodoliths, which resulted in a decrease in size and complexity in L. corallioides and roundness in S. fruticulosus.Such fishing impacts were significant only inside the short-term 6-year protected area. The most plausible cause of this unexpected observation is the highly localized trammel-net fishing effort with long soak-times along the boundary of the contiguous 25-year MPA, where before closure, fishing effort was concentrated in expectation of greater catches from spillover (i.e. fishing the line).This is the first study to document the impacts of fishing the line on structural species and indicates that boundaries of successful MPAs could be zones of maximum disturbance, a fact that should be taken into account in management conservation decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T05:56:17.280463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2827
       
  • Cetacean rapid assessment: An approach to fill knowledge gaps and target
           conservation across large data deficient areas
    • Authors: Gill T. Braulik; Magreth Kasuga, Anja Wittich, Jeremy J. Kiszka, Jamie MacCaulay, Doug Gillespie, Jonathan Gordon, Said Shaib Said, Philip S. Hammond
      Abstract: Many species and populations of marine megafauna are undergoing substantial declines, while many are also very poorly understood. Even basic information on species presence is unknown for tens of thousands of kilometres of coastline, particularly in the developing world, which is a major hurdle to their conservation.Rapid ecological assessment is a valuable tool used to identify and prioritize areas for conservation; however, this approach has never been clearly applied to marine cetaceans. Here a rapid assessment protocol is outlined that will generate broad-scale, quantitative, baseline data on cetacean communities and potential threats, that can be conducted rapidly and cost-effectively across whole countries, or regions.The rapid assessment was conducted in Tanzania, East Africa, and integrated collection of data on cetaceans from visual, acoustic, and interview surveys with existing information from multiple sources, to provide low resolution data on cetacean community relative abundance, diversity, and threats. Four principal threats were evaluated and compared spatially using a qualitative scale: cetacean mortality in fishing gear (particularly gillnets); cetacean hunting, consumption or use by humans; shipping related collision risk and noise disturbance; and dynamite fishing.Ninety-one groups of 11 species of marine mammal were detected during field surveys. Potentially the most important area for cetaceans was the Pemba Channel, a deep, high-current waterway between Pemba Island and mainland Africa, where by far the highest relative cetacean diversity and high relative abundance were recorded, but which is also subject to threats from fishing.A rapid assessment approach can be applied in data deficient areas to quickly provide information on cetaceans that can be used by governments and managers for marine spatial planning, management of developments, and to target research activities into the most important locations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:05:47.755471-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2833
       
  • Freshwater conservation in a fragmented world: Dealing with barriers in a
           systematic planning framework
    • Authors: Virgilio Hermoso; Ana Filipa Filipe, Pedro Segurado, Pedro Beja
      Abstract: Disruption of longitudinal connectivity poses one of the most important threats to the persistence of freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Longitudinal connectivity plays a key role by facilitating ecological processes, such as migrations or energy transfer along river networks. For this reason, effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity is highly dependent on a capacity to maintain all processes associated with connectivity. Freshwater protected areas are commonly affected by disruptions of connectivity due to human activities and recent approaches to addressing connectivity when identifying priority areas have overlooked the limitations that human perturbations pose to connectivity.Here, a novel approach is presented to address this issue by accounting for the spatial distribution of barriers using Marxan, a tool commonly applied in conservation planning. This approach was first tested on a simulated example and then applied to the identification of priority areas for the conservation of freshwater vertebrates in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).When using this new approach, the number of disrupted connections within priority areas can be significantly reduced at no additional cost in terms of area needed, which would help maintain connectivity among populations of species with low–medium migratory needs.Given the widespread occurrence of barriers in the study region, the improvement in connectivity within priority areas also resulted in the selection of river reaches closer to the headwaters and the river mouth. Focusing on both extremes of the longitudinal gradient might compromise the effectiveness of conservation efforts for long-distance migratory species, such as the European eel. This inevitably means that additional management measures, such as barrier removal or construction of fish passages, would be necessary to ensure that these species are able to complete their life cycles.The method demonstrated here could be applied to other regions where connectivity is compromised.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T10:43:58.29706-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2826
       
  • Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure of the
           Chinese freshwater mussel Solenaia carinata (Bivalvia: Unionidae)
    • Authors: Tingting Sun; Xiongjun Liu, Chunhua Zhou, Hongxiu Ding, Wenjing Yang, David T. Zanatta, Shan Ouyang, Xiaoping Wu
      Abstract: The freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Yangtze River basin of China are among the most diverse assemblages on Earth. Freshwater mussels provide valuable ecosystem services (e.g. natural water filtration) and economic value (shell, pearls, and food), but are experiencing global declines as a result of pollution, habitat alteration, and overharvest.Despite the diversity and value of freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin, relatively little is known about the biology of the many species endemic to the region. Solenaia carinata is an endemic and potentially imperilled freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in China that is distributed in a single major tributary of the middle Yangtze; the Poyang Lake basin in Jiangxi Province.This study represents the first analyses of the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of S. carinata. Solenaia carinata specimens (n=64) were collected from three sites in large tributary rivers of Poyang Lake.Using 19 polymorphic microsatellite markers, the results showed that S. carinata had a moderate level of genetic diversity (PIC ranged from 0.464 to 0.484), limited evidence of a recent genetic bottleneck, little genetic differentiation (FST ranged from 0.021 to 0.045), high levels of gene flow (Nm ranged from 3.675 to 33.227) and limited genetic structure among the three sampling locations.Given that S. carinata inhabits a highly interconnected system of large rivers and lakes, the results of low differentiation and high gene flow among geographically proximate sampling locations (sites separated by between 8 and 20 km of water) are not surprising. The results indicate that specimens can be used and moved from anywhere across the distribution of S. carinata for the purposes of captive propogation and translocation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T08:41:01.496236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2829
       
  • First microsatellite data on Proteus anguinus reveal weak genetic
           structure between the caves of Postojna and Planina
    • Authors: Valerija Zakšek; Marjeta Konec, Peter Trontelj
      Abstract: The European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus, or proteus, is the largest obligate cave animal in the world. It is an endangered and charismatic species of high conservation importance for subterranean waters. Conservation genetic studies are hampered by the extreme size and repetitiveness of its nuclear genome.The aim of the study was to develop and characterize the first microsatellite markers for proteus, and test their informativeness at the level of individuals, populations and between populations in the Postojna and Planina caves in Slovenia.Twenty-three novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were amplified in 201 individuals from both caves using three multiplex reactions. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to nine. The loci are largely unlinked and conform to Hardy–Weinberg genotype frequencies. Genetic equilibrium and an FST value of 0.0024 suggest a nearly panmictic population in both caves separated by some 10 km of subterranean river course, while Bayesian clustering detected weak genetic structure.The microsatellites described fill the gap of urgently needed nuclear markers in Proteus that can be applied in genetic mark–recapture studies, population monitoring and identification of management units to assist conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:55:38.404698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2822
       
  • Human-induced gradients of reef fish declines in the Hawaiian Archipelago
           viewed through the lens of traditional management boundaries
    • Authors: Alan M. Friedlander; Mary K. Donovan, Kostantinos A. Stamoulis, Ivor D. Williams, Eric K. Brown, Eric J. Conklin, Edward E. DeMartini, Kuulei S. Rodgers, Russell T. Sparks, William J. Walsh
      Abstract: Large declines in reef fish populations in Hawai‘i have raised concerns about the sustainability of these resources, and the ecosystem as a whole. To help elucidate the reasons behind these declines, a comprehensive examination of reef fish assemblages was conducted across the entire 2500 km Hawaiian Archipelago.Twenty-five datasets were compiled, representing>25 000 individual surveys conducted throughout Hawai‘i since 2000. To account for overall differences in survey methods, conversion factors were created to standardize among methods.Comparisons of major targeted resource species (N = 35) between the densely populated main (MHI) and remote north-western Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) revealed that 40% of these species had biomass in the MHI below 25% of NWHI levels. In total, 54% of the species examined had biomass
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:35:46.823773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2832
       
  • Impacts of Indian waterfern (Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn.)
           infestation and removal on macroinvertebrate biodiversity and conservation
           in spring-fed streams in the Australian arid zone
    • Authors: Nicole Carey; Scott R. Strachan, Belinda J. Robson
      Abstract: Removal of invasive macrophytes is a priority for river managers. However, the ecological effects of macrophyte removal on macroinvertebrate diversity are rarely examined but may be of particular significance in conservation reserves and when threatened species are present.This study investigated the macroinvertebrate fauna inhabiting invasive and native macrophytes in spring-fed channels in the Millstream-Chichester National Park, Australia. The effects of waterfern management (periodic hand-weeding) were examined by comparing assemblages at weeded and unweeded reaches on three occasions.Ceratopteris thalictroides harboured a diverse, insect-dominated macroinvertebrate assemblage, including the endangered damselfly Nososticta pilbara. Total taxon richness was similar between waterfern and native macrophytes, but macroinvertebrate assemblages differed in the dry season. Damselflies (including N. pilbara) were associated with waterfern-dominated reaches, whereas dragonfly nymphs were more common among native macrophytes.Weeding altered macroinvertebrate assemblage composition. Some weeded reaches developed assemblages indistinguishable from those in native-dominated reaches, but others did not. Weeded reaches often supported taxa that were rare or absent from waterfern-dominated reaches, including suspension feeders, found also in native-dominated reaches.Odonata are particularly diverse at Millstream, with 18 species recorded. Odonate species richness was significantly lower at weeded reaches than unweeded reaches. Nososticta pilbara and other short-range endemic species were absent from weeded reaches. As most odonates are univoltine, these adverse effects on local population size may affect species persistence.Invasive macrophyte species may support a high diversity of native invertebrates, including endangered and short-range endemic species. Furthermore, although hand-weeding appeared to enable a greater diversity of species to co-exist, the removal of a large biomass of macrophytes appeared to remove whole cohorts of insect populations from stream reaches, including endangered species. Removal of invasive macrophytes should not be implemented without understanding their effects on invertebrate assemblage composition and life-cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:26:08.658618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2828
       
  • Oued Bouhlou: A new hope for the Moroccan pearl mussel
    • Authors: Ronaldo Sousa; Amílcar Teixeira, André Santos, Hassan Benaissa, Simone Varandas, Mohamed Ghamizi, Vincent Prié, Elsa Froufe, Manuel Lopes-Lima
      Abstract: The freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera marocana (Pallary, ) is an endemic species of Morocco being listed as critically endangered and it stands among the world's 100 most threatened species. An extensive survey was performed in the Sebou basin (total area of approximately 40,000 km2), covering 26 different sites. Margaritifera marocana was found only in four sites limited to a small tributary (Oued (=River) Bouhlou).This population has a very restricted distribution (no more than 4 km of river length) but appears stable with recent recruitment, since small specimens were found.Genetic analyses were performed, showing that this population has a similar diversity to that found in the River Laabid (Oum Er Rbia basin), but represents a distinct conservation unit that should be managed independently.Although this study adds a new population to the current known distribution of M. marocana, urgent conservation measures (e.g. extension of the Tazzekka National Park; better management of river flow; increase of the riparian vegetation in some stretches; establishment of national and international legislation, and engagement of local citizens) are needed given the species' restricted distribution, its rarity, and the numerous threats that impair its future survival.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T07:05:35.607741-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2825
       
  • Re-introduction of structurally complex wood jams promotes channel and
           habitat recovery from overwidening: Implications for river conservation
    • Authors: Gemma L. Harvey; Alexander J. Henshaw, Chris Parker, Carl D. Sayer
      Abstract: Large wood is a powerful geomorphic agent in rivers, providing important habitat functions for a range of aquatic organisms, but has been subject to a long history of removal.Internationally, approaches to river restoration are increasingly incorporating large wood features, but generally favour simple flow deflectors (e.g. single logs, stripped of branches and anchored in place) over more complex structures that more accurately mimic natural wood jams.This paper explores channel response to wood-based restoration of an overwidened lowland chalk stream that incorporated whole felled trees. Hydraulics, sediment, topography and vegetation data were assessed for a 3 year period for two restored reaches: an upstream reach where pre-restoration baseline data were obtained, and a downstream reach restored before data collection.Where pre-restoration data were available, the introduction of wood jams generated sediment deposition within jams leading to the development of vegetated marginal ‘benches’ and bed scour in adjacent areas of flow convergence. Patterns were less clear in the downstream reach, where restoration design was less ambitious and outcomes may have been affected by subsequent restoration work upstream.The results indicate that reintroduction of large wood (whole trees), can promote channel and habitat recovery from overwidening in lowland rivers, creating important ecological benefits through the provision of structurally complex marginal habitat and associated food resources. Longer-term assessments are required to establish whether the trajectories of change are persistent.The work emphasizes the effectiveness of restoration approaches that aim to ‘work with nature’. The ambitious design, incorporating structurally complex wood jams, was also low-cost, using materials available from the river corridor (existing riparian trees). Furthermore, ecosystem engineering effects were amplified by the colonization of wood jams by aquatic vegetation. The approach should, therefore, be transferable to other lowland rivers, subject to wider catchment constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:56:11.724826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2824
       
  • Assessing the importance of net colour as a seabird bycatch mitigation
           measure in gillnet fishing
    • Authors: Roshan Hanamseth; G. Barry Baker, Sally Sherwen, Mark Hindell, Mary-Anne Lea
      Abstract: Gillnets are used widely in fisheries throughout the world and known to cause the death of thousands of seabirds each year. Currently few practical or technical options are available to fishers for preventing seabird mortalities.The ability of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to differentiate between different coloured netting materials was tested under controlled conditions to ascertain if changes in gillnet colour could facilitate a potential mitigation measure by improving visibility of nets.The study involved a repeated-measures design with penguins exposed to variously coloured mono-filament threads creating a gillnet mimic. The gillnet mimic was made up of gillnet material configured as a series of vertical lines 25 mm apart stretched tightly across a stainless steel frame that measured 1160 mm × 1540 mm and divided into two equal panel areas. The panels were placed in a large tank within an enclosure that housed 25 penguins. Penguins were able to readily access the tank and swim freely. The frame was always introduced into the tank with one panel containing a gillnet mimic, and the other panel left empty as a control.Gillnet filament colours tested were clear, green and orange. Orange coloured monofilament lines resulted in lower collision rates (5.5%), while clear and green monofilament lines resulted in higher rates of collision (35.9% and 30.8%, respectively).These results suggest that orange-coloured lines were more apparent to the birds. Constructing nets of orange-coloured material may be effective in reducing bycatch in gillnets set in shallow waters and high light levels where seabirds are able to identify fine colour differences.Further testing under experimental conditions, accompanied with at-sea trials to verify effectiveness in varied light conditions is warranted, together with an assessment of the effect of gillnet colour on catch efficiency of target species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:51:35.541207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2805
       
  • Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in
           Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit
           behaviour
    • Authors: Carol Sparling; Mike Lonergan, Bernie McConnell
      Abstract: Data were obtained from 32 electronic tags that were glued to the fur of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in and around Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, during the environmental monitoring of the SeaGen tidal turbine.This study provides the first detailed information on the behaviour of marine mammals close to a commercial-scale tidal energy device. The turbine did not prevent transit of the animals through the channel and therefore did not result in a ‘barrier’ effect.However, the animals' behaviour did change when the turbine was operating, demonstrating the importance of allowing for behavioural responses when estimating collision risks associated with tidal turbines.Tagged animals passed the location of the device more frequently during slack water than when the current was running. In 2010 the frequency of transits by tagged seals reduced by 20% (95% CI: 10–50%) when the turbine was on, relative to when it was off. This effect was stronger when considering daylight hours only with a reduction of transit rate of 57% (95% CI: 25–64%). Seals tagged during the operational period transited approximately 250 m either side of the turbine suggesting some degree of local avoidance compared with the pre-installation results.The results presented here have implications for monitoring and managing the potential interactions between tidal turbines and marine wildlife. Principally that the design of telemetry studies for measuring change in response to developments should seek to understand and take into account variability in seal behaviour.This study only looked at the effects of a single turbine rather than an array, and mitigation limited the ability to determine close range interactions. However, the study indicates that the effect of the turbine on Strangford Lough harbour seals was minor and that collision risk was reduced by the behaviour of the seals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T05:50:57.329915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2790
       
  • Comprehensive estimates of seabird–fishery interactions for the US
           Northeast and mid-Atlantic
    • Authors: Joshua M. Hatch
      Abstract: Relatively little is known about seabird–fishery interactions (i.e. bycatch) for the U.S. North-east and mid-Atlantic, despite concerted efforts to document observed interactions since 1989.Fisheries observer data were used to estimate seabird–fishery interactions for 10 species and six gear types that operated within the US Northeast and mid-Atlantic from 1996 to 2014.Hierarchical Bayes estimation was used and accounted for temporal, spatial, and operational considerations inherent in the data through post-stratification.Over the 19-year study period, 48 821 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.03) seabirds were estimated to have interacted with commercial fishing gear, resulting in an average of 2570 interactions per year.Trends in estimated interactions were explored using the marginal posterior distributions, with the majority of interactions pertaining to gillnets and shearwaters/fulmars.Comparison with previous work highlighted the need for consistency in data preparation, making it easier to compare relative trends in seabird bycatch estimates for the region.Future assessments should focus on providing context for the interaction estimates, so that population-level impacts can be inferred and the necessary conservation measures enacted.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T05:30:41.377503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2812
       
  • Towards the identification of ecological management units: A
           multidisciplinary approach for the effective management of bottlenose
           dolphins in the southern Iberian Peninsula
    • Authors: Joan Giménez; Marie Louis, Enrique Barón, Francisco Ramírez, Philippe Verborgh, Pauline Gauffier, Ruth Esteban, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, Manuela G. Forero, Renaud Stephanis
      Abstract: Determining discrete and demographically independent management units within wildlife populations is critical for their effective management and conservation. However, there is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate criteria to delimit such management units.A multi-disciplinary, multi-scale approach that combines tools informing in the short-term (i.e. photo-identification), with mid-term ecological tracers (stable isotopes –δ13C, δ15N and δ34S– and persistent organic pollutants –POPs–), and mid- to long-term genetic markers (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA), was used to define management units within bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the southern Iberian Peninsula.Although genetically indistinguishable, individuals inhabiting the Strait of Gibraltar and the Gulf of Cadiz showed differences in their isotopic composition and the concentrations of certain POPs. Accordingly, the lack of photographic recaptures between the two sites pointed to the existence of at least two different ecological management units that segregate spatially and may require different conservation strategies.Different time-scale approaches can reveal different management units. The results highlighted the use of medium- and short-term approaches for properly identifying ecologically different units for effective management and conservation.Furthermore, these results have important management implications as European legislation promotes specific management plans for this species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:26:01.138848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2814
       
  • Habitat use of globally threatened juvenile Chinese horseshoe crab,
           Tachypleus tridentatus under the influence of simulated intertidal oyster
           culture structures in Hong Kong
    • Authors: Billy K.Y. Kwan; Hoi Kin Chan, Siu Gin Cheung
      Abstract: Little is known about the ecological impacts of oyster culture structures on intertidal communities. In the present study, distribution and movement patterns of juvenile Chinese horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus were assessed on a mudflat at Ha Pak Nai in Deep Bay, Hong Kong.As the traditional bottom-laying method of using concrete posts as cultch for collecting oyster spat is a common practice in Hong Kong, structurally similar bricks were used to simulate the potential effects of cultch on intertidal flats.Over the two-month experimental period, all the tested sediment physico-chemical characteristics, including median particle size and total organic content, remained unchanged among the treatment areas. However, juvenile densities and foraging trails at low- and high-density brick areas were significantly lower/shorter compared with the adjacent bare areas. Such effects were more evident for larger individuals since significant correlations were found between foraging distance and juvenile prosomal width in no-brick areas, but not the low- and high-density brick areas. In addition, most juveniles (> 95%) were observed feeding along the outer boundaries of brick areas.Such findings imply that the extensive artificial structures in oyster cultivation sites could induce physical disturbance and alter the habitat use of juvenile horseshoe crabs in the intertidal zone. Considering the high conservation value of Chinese horseshoe crabs, appropriate mitigation measures should be implemented to buffer the detrimental effects on horseshoe crabs and other marine organisms of conservation concern that utilize intertidal habitats as nursery and hatchery grounds.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T05:30:58.99097-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2811
       
  • Testing the exclusion capabilities and durability of the Sharksafe Barrier
           to determine its viability as an eco-friendly alternative to current shark
           culling methodologies
    • Authors: C.P. O'Connell; S. Andreotti, M. Rutzen, M. Meӱer, C.A. Matthee
      Abstract: Following a shark attack, local governments often rapidly respond by implementing indiscriminate shark culls. These culls have been demonstrated to have substantial localized and adverse effects on a variety of marine organisms, and therefore there is an increasing need for an eco-friendly alternative that maximizes both beachgoer and marine organismal safety.In response to such culls, the novel magnetic barrier technology, the Sharksafe Barrier was developed and rigorously tested on a variety of sharks implicated in shark attacks (e.g. bull sharks – Carcharhinus leucas and white sharks – Carcharodon carcharias). Although these studies exhibited promise in shark swim pattern manipulation and C. leucas exclusion, research was lacking in assessing if the technology could serve as an alternative to shark nets, or more specifically, if it could exclude motivated C. carcharias from bait.Using a 13 m × 13 m square exclusion zone, this study aimed to test the C. carcharias exclusion capabilities of the Sharksafe Barrier while additionally assessing the long-term structural integrity of the system.After 34 trials and approximately 255 hours of total video collected over two years, data illustrate that all interacting C. carcharias were successfully excluded from the baited Sharksafe Barrier region, whereas teleosts and other small elasmobranch species were not. In addition, the long-term deployment potential of this barrier system held promise owing to its ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.Therefore, with the successful exclusion of a second large shark species, C. carcharias, from a baited region, continued long-term research and implementation of this system at other locations should be considered to assess its viability and overall success as a bather and shark protection system.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T05:10:27.889204-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2803
       
  • Crayfish in central and southern Ukraine with special focus on populations
           of indigenous crayfish Astacus pachypus (Rathke, 1837) and their
           conservation needs
    • Authors: Tomas Policar; Volodymyr Bondarenko, Oles Bezusyj, Vlastimil Stejskal, Jiri Kristan, Oleksandr Malinovskyi, Aiman Imentai, Miroslav Blecha, Yuriy Pylypenko
      Abstract: The thick-clawed crayfish (Astacus pachypus Rathke, 1837) is the least studied indigenous crayfish species in Europe. Information about its distribution and biology is out of date by more than 15 years.This study identified 94 localities with potential occurrence of thick-clawed crayfish in eight southern and central regions of Ukraine, using questionnaire and literature analysis. Based on the information obtained, a field survey was conducted to examine and confirm the current distribution and abundance of crayfish species and evaluate basic water quality and habitat characteristics in each locality.Details of density, sex ratio in the catches, health and moulting condition, threat level and water quality were identified for each population of A. pachypus.Only four populations of this species were found, in lower parts of the Dnieper River, co-occurring with Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, in Kakhovka reservoir near Vesele village, two sites on the Dnieper River near Nova Kakhovka town and near Prydniprovske village, and one locality on the Dnieper's tributary – the Ingulec River near Sadove village.Populations of thick-clawed crayfish at three sites had low crayfish densities of 0.3–0.4 crayfish m−2 or catch efficiency 0.2 crayfish per trap night. Only one locality on the Dnieper River, close to Nova Khakovka, had a stronger population with higher density (1.7 crayfish m−2).Healthy thick-clawed crayfish inhabit larger water bodies with stable environments and good water quality. Female catch per unit effort was lower, and they had a higher percentage of chelae injuries compared with males.All of the identified thick-clawed crayfish populations are exploited by uncontrolled fishing for consumption and there is an urgent need for conservation of both the crayfish and their habitat.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T05:05:29.218218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2798
       
  • Behaviour of recreational spearfishers and its impacts on corals
    • Authors: Vinicius J. Giglio; Osmar J. Luiz, Moysés C. Barbosa, Carlos E.L. Ferreira
      Abstract: Recreational diving is a concern regarding its effects on benthic assemblages, especially on heavily dived coral reefs. However, spearfisher behaviour and the scale of damage they cause to corals remains unknown.The behaviour of recreational spearfishers was observed to determine their rate of physical contacts with corals. The experience level and fishes captured by spearfishers were assessed to establish their relationship with the number of contacts with corals.All spearfishers made contact with corals, at an average rate of 1.25 ± 0.1 SE touches per minute and caused physical damage at a rate 0.51 ± 0.04 per minute. Massive corals were most frequently touched and branching corals were most frequently damaged. Touches and damage occurred mainly through fin kicks, spearfisher bodies and spearguns. Contact rates varied according to spearfisher experience level and the fish they were targeting. Novice spearfishers showed no preference for specific targets while experienced spearfishers target mesopredator fishes.Spearfishing caused the highest known rates of touches and damage to corals among all the activities involving recreational diving. The activity may add to local stressors on corals, especially at sites with high visitation rates. Understanding how the factors that affect spearfisher behaviour and their effects on corals may help managers to develop strategies to mitigate the incidence of damaging behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T04:56:51.209402-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2797
       
 
 
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