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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1582 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
  [SJR: 1.047]   [H-I: 57]   [34 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1052-7613 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0755
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1582 journals]
  • What's in an index' Comparing the ecological information provided by
           two indices to assess the status of coralligenous reefs in the NW
           Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: Luigi Piazzi; Carlo Nike Bianchi, Enrico Cecchi, Giulia Gatti, Ivan Guala, Carla Morri, Stéphane Sartoretto, Fabrizio Serena, Monica Montefalcone
      Abstract: This study compared the results obtained through the concurrent use of the two indices ESCA (Ecological Status of Coralligenous Assemblages) and COARSE (COralligenous Assessment by ReefScape Estimate) to define the ecological status of coralligenous reefs.The study evaluated: i) the effectiveness of the two indices at a regional spatial scale (100 s of km); ii) the descriptors that mostly influence the indices; and iii) the ecological information provided by the two indices.Both ESCA and COARSE were applied to coralligenous reefs selected at sites affected by different human-induced pressures.The two indices provided different but complementary information to determine the intrinsic quality of coralligenous reefs and to detect the effects of human pressures on the associated assemblages.The simultaneous use of ESCA and COARSE can be effective in providing information about the alteration of ecological quality of coralligenous reefs, in order to achieve the requirements of European directives.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T06:20:48.631551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2773
       
  • Analysis of the plant composition of manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus)
           faeces in a lake in south-eastern Mexico
    • Authors: Gloria Ponce-García; León D. Olivera-Gómez, Eloy Solano
      Abstract: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is a species at risk of extinction. Its diet in freshwater environments has been scarcely studied in Mexico, despite its significance for managing populations and habitat.The diet of Antillean manatees inhabiting the Natural Protected Area of Laguna de las Ilusiones, in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, was studied during the rainy season.A microhistological analysis was conducted on 51 manatee faecal samples. The cuticle and epidermis of 35 plant species present in vegetation patches used as foraging grounds by the Antillean manatee were described.In total, 223 plant fragments belonging to 11 families and 25 vascular plant taxa were identified. Echinochloa polystachya had the highest frequency (70.6%). Plant richness per faecal sample varied between one and eight plant species.This manatee population feeds mainly on grass. The plant species found coincide with those reported in other studies on sirenian diets. However, 11 new plant species consumed by manatees were recorded. This is the most comprehensive study to date in river systems in Mexico on the botanical richness of manatee faeces. The information provided here can be applied to decision-making on the conservation of the Antillean manatee and its critical habitat.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T05:32:06.324347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2774
       
  • Demography of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins living in a
           protected inverse estuary
    • Authors: Cecilia Passadore; Luciana Möller, Fernando Diaz-Aguirre, Guido J. Parra
      Abstract: Assessments of demographic parameters are essential to understand the dynamics of wild populations, and for their efficient conservation and management. Here, sex-specific abundance, apparent survival and temporary emigration of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops cf. australis) in Coffin Bay (CB), South Australia, is investigated.Results are based on capture–recapture modelling of photo-identification data and molecular analyses of biopsy samples collected during boat-based surveys between September 2013 and October 2015 in the inner and outer areas of CB.The total super-population of dolphins (including calves) using the entire study area (263 km2) was estimated with POPAN models at 306 (95% CI: 291–323), which included 71 (68–73) marked females and 57 (55–60) marked males.Seasonal estimates of abundance for the inner area of CB (123 km2) obtained with Pollock's Closed Robust Design models remained relatively constant over the two years (marked females: 52–60, marked males: 46–52, and total: 193–209).The high density of dolphins inhabiting the inner area (seasonal range: 1.57–1.70 individuals km−2), high apparent survival rates estimated for both sexes (females: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.96–1.0; males: 0.95; 0.82–0.99), and low temporary emigration rates (0.02; 95% CI: 0.01–0.11) indicate that the inner area of CB offers highly favourable habitat for these dolphins.6-High biological productivity and low predation risk may promote these demographic patterns in the inner area of CB.7-This study provides a robust baseline of sex-specific population demographics of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins with important implications for future research and their management and conservation in South Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T05:16:11.605719-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2772
       
  • Population structure, distribution and habitat use of the Critically
           Endangered Angelshark, Squatina squatina, in the Canary Islands
    • Authors: Eva K. M. Meyers; Fernando Tuya, Joanna Barker, David Jiménez Alvarado, José Juan Castro-Hernández, Ricardo Haroun, Dennis Rödder
      Abstract: Angel sharks are among the most threatened fish worldwide, facing regional and global extinction. In Europe, populations of the three Critically Endangered angel sharks (Squatina aculeata, Squatina oculata and Squatina squatina) have been severely depleted.Taking advantage of the last global ‘hotspot’ of the angelshark, Squatina squatina, this study gathered data through a citizen science programme to describe the occurrence of this shark in the coastal waters of the Canary Islands. Specifically, this study described (1) the population structure, and (2) habitat use of this species, which was used in a Species Distribution Model to (3) examine realized and potential distribution patterns, and to (4) determine the relative importance of environmental predictors on the occurrence of S. squatina.Over the 12 months sampling period (April 2014 – March 2015), 678 sightings were reported. Individuals ranged from 20 to 200 cm (total length). Larger sightings of both females and neonates occurred mostly in April to July, i.e. during the pupping season. Males were significantly more frequent in November to January, i.e. during the mating season. Angelsharks were encountered at depths from
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T04:15:52.492508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2769
       
  • Influence of seasonality on cetacean diversity, abundance, distribution
           and habitat use in the western Mediterranean Sea: Implications for
           conservation
    • Authors: Antonella Arcangeli; Ilaria Campana, Marco A. Bologna
      Abstract: Cetaceans are key biological indicators of the status of marine waters and are protected under an extensive legislative framework. Research about these highly dynamic species is challenging, so seasonal cycles and patterns of distribution, especially in high sea areas, are still poorly understood.This study contributes to improving knowledge about cetacean occurrence in largely unexplored areas of medium-latitudes in the western Mediterranean Sea. Systematic surveys were conducted along a trans-regional transect over 3 years (October 2012 to September 2015) allowing consistent data collection over almost 60 000 km of effort through all seasons.Seasonal cetacean diversity was investigated using a 25 km2 grid cell as a statistical unit to explore patterns of abundance, distribution, and habitat use in three marine sectors (Sardinian–Balearic, Bonifacio Strait, Tyrrhenian). All cetacean species regularly present in the Mediterranean basin were detected, with highest occurrence in fin whale and striped dolphin, followed by bottlenose dolphin and sperm whale.The Sardinian–Balearic sector generally showed higher species richness and diversity than the Tyrrhenian, where seasonal variations were more pronounced. The study suggested seasonal movements, especially for fin whale and striped dolphin, in the Sardinian–Balearic sector with peaks of occurrence during spring/summer and lower numbers during winter/autumn, and also delivered interesting insights to rarer pelagic species.The study identified areas/seasons in which the combined effect of high species diversity, abundance, significance of hot spots and presence of juveniles require increasing conservation effort. Results underline the important contribution of continuous monitoring in high sea areas to the implementation of adaptive protection measures.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T02:55:44.275752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2758
       
  • Exploring uncertainty in population viability analysis and its
           implications for the conservation of a freshwater fish
    • Authors: Megan R. McCusker; Janelle M.R. Curtis, Nathan R. Lovejoy, Nicholas E. Mandrak
      Abstract: A spatially explicit metapopulation viability model was created within RAMAS-GIS to address questions related to the conservation and management of a freshwater species at risk (Notropis anogenus). Population viability analysis was conducted to evaluate extinction risk and sensitivity analyses were undertaken to identify the most important spatial and non-spatial parameters influencing extinction and decline.As biodiversity offsets are increasingly used to compensate for habitat loss, the population model was also used to explore the effectiveness of four potential offsetting mechanisms. In particular, this study addressed whether the impact of habitat loss on a species at risk could be compensated by: (i) increasing habitat elsewhere; (ii) increasing vital rates; (iii) increasing abundance; and (iv) increasing connectivity.Results suggest that extinction risk is low for this metapopulation and that the risk of extinction was most sensitive to vital rates.Compensating habitat loss with habitat gain, the most straightforward approach explored, was by far the most effective type of compensation. Increasing vital rates was the second most promising approach. Although increasing abundance and increasing connectivity could not be categorically ruled out, their effectiveness was much more limited.Overall, this study provided insight into the influence of spatial and non-spatial parameters on abundance, patch occupancy, and extinction risk of an aquatic species. This approach can be applied to a wide variety of species to evaluate the effect of ecosystem perturbations and inform management options.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T05:01:32.155537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2761
       
  • Predation by invasive signal crayfish on early life stages of European
           barbel may be limited
    • Authors: Gordon H. Copp; Michael J. Godard, Lorenzo Vilizzi, Adam Ellis, William D. Riley
      Abstract: To determine whether or not signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and native white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes prey on European barbel Barbus barbus eggs, interstitial free-embryos and emergent larvae, experiments were undertaken in salmonid (substratum) incubators (six treatments, four controls) fitted with video recorders.No corpses or remains of emergent barbel larvae or eggs, or parts thereof, were observed in any of the incubators containing buried eggs, and no emergent larvae showed any sign of attack. However, video evidence of a signal crayfish catching and consuming a barbel larva was obtained.There were no statistically significant differences between white-clawed and signal crayfish either in carapace length or weight at the beginning and end of the experiments. The conservation implications of these results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T07:16:48.574012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2768
       
  • Non-native marine species in north-west Europe: Developing an approach to
           assess future spread using regional downscaled climate projections
    • Authors: Bryony Townhill; John Pinnegar, Jonathan Tinker, Miranda Jones, Stephen Simpson, Paul Stebbing, Stephen Dye
      Abstract: 1. Climate change can affect the survival, colonization and establishment of non-native species. Many non-native species common in Europe are spreading northwards as seawater temperatures increase. The similarity of climatic conditions between source and recipient areas is assumed to influence the establishment of such species, however, in a changing climate those conditions are difficult to predict.2. A risk assessment methodology has been applied to identify non-native species with proven invasive qualities that have not yet arrived in north-west Europe, but which could become problematic in the future. Those species with the highest potential to become established or be problematic have been taken forward, as well as some that may be economically beneficial, for species distribution modelling to determine future potential habitat distributions under projected climate change.3. In the past, species distribution models have usually made use of low resolution global environmental datasets. Here, to increase the local resolution of the distribution models, downscaled shelf seas climate change model outputs for north-west Europe were nested within global outputs. In this way the distribution model could be trained using the global species presence data including the species' native locations, and then projected using more comprehensive shelf seas data to understand habitat suitability in a potential recipient area.4. Distribution modelling found that habitat suitability will generally increase further north for those species with the highest potential to become established or problematic. Most of these are known to be species with potentially serious consequences for conservation. With caution, a small number of species may present an opportunity for the fishing industry or aquaculture. The ability to provide potential future distributions could be valuable in prioritizing species for monitoring or eradication programmes, increasing the chances of identifying problem species early. This is particularly important for vulnerable infrastructure or protected or threatened ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T07:02:53.197852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2764
       
  • Genetic population structure of harbour seals in the United Kingdom and
           neighbouring waters
    • Authors: Morten Tange Olsen; Valentina Islas, Jeff A. Graves, Aubrie Onoufriou, Cecile Vincent, Sophie Brasseur, Anne Kirstine Frie, Ailsa J. Hall
      Abstract: In the United Kingdom (UK), several harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations have been declining over the past decade. In order to understand the effect of these changes in abundance, this study seeks to determine the population structure of harbour seals in the UK, and in Scotland in particular, on a wider and finer spatial scale than has previously been reported.Harbour seals were genotyped from 18 different localities throughout the UK and neighbouring localities in mainland Europe, at 12 microsatellite loci. Results from Bayesian and frequency based tests of population structure suggested an initial structural division into two main groups consisting of localities in northern UK and southern UK–mainland Europe, respectively.These two clusters were further divided into four geographically distinct genetic clusters.An overall agreement between the genetic results and the existing management areas for UK harbour seals was observed, but it is also clear that an adaptive management approach should be adopted, in which the delineation of the current management areas is maintained until further genetic and ecological information has been accumulated and analysed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:56:57.979199-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2760
       
  • Artificial reefs as a reef restoration strategy in sediment-affected
           environments: Insights from long-term monitoring
    • Authors: Chin Soon Lionel Ng; Tai Chong Toh, Loke Ming Chou
      Abstract: Artificial reefs provide substrates that facilitate the rapid recruitment of marine biota such as corals and fish, and are commonly employed as coral restoration tools to assist recovery in degraded areas. While this strategy is successful in the immediate years post-deployment, its contribution to restoration over longer time scales is less well understood.The biological communities on Reef Enhancement Units (REUs), which had been deployed for more than a decade on Singapore's sediment-affected coral reefs, were surveyed.The diversity of sessile lifeforms on the REUs was significantly higher in 2014 (H′ = 1.03) than 2004 (H′ = 0.60). Hard corals and coralline algae contributed most to the temporal dissimilarity and turf algae remained the dominant lifeform category in both years.In 2014, hard corals and abiotic components contributed most to the spatial dissimilarity among the six REU plots that were surveyed. Shannon diversity values of these plots ranged from 0.74–1.3. Scleractinian cover ranged from 0.4–31.5% and differed significantly among the plots.The REUs also augmented ecosystem functioning at their respective plots. Colonies from 10 of the 30 scleractinian genera recorded were sexually mature, and a total of 119 sessile and mobile reef taxa utilized the REUs for food and habitat.The results demonstrate that artificial reefs can contribute to the development of biological communities and ecosystem functioning in degraded coral habitats over the long run, and underscore the need for long-term monitoring to validate the effectiveness of reef restoration efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:42:38.442937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2755
       
  • Ensemble forecasting of Corbicula fluminea worldwide distribution:
           Projections of the impact of climate change
    • Authors: Mafalda Gama; Daniel Crespo, Marina Dolbeth, Pedro Manuel Anastácio
      Abstract: Global biodiversity is at risk owing to climate change, and freshwater ecosystems are expected to suffer the most. In recent years niche-based models (NBMs) have been used to predict species distribution and are an important tool for conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems. In this work, the current and future climatic suitability areas of the invasive species Corbicula fluminea, which has known adverse ecological and economic impacts, were investigated.The species distribution modelling was based on nine algorithms in BIOMOD2, summarized in an ensemble forecasting approach. To model the species distribution, eight climatic parameters related to temperature and precipitation variables were considered. Three time frames (current, 2050 and 2070) were modelled using four increasing CO2 emission scenarios.The performance of individual models was excellent according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and good to excellent according to true skill statistics (TSS). Annual mean temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month and mean temperature of the coldest quarter were the most important variables predicting C. fluminea occurrence. Of the total continental area, 6.6% was predicted to be suitable for C. fluminea in current conditions.In the future, suitable area will increase from the current value of 6.6% to values from 9.4% to 12.6%, according to the 2050 projections and up to 12.7% in 2070 in high emission scenarios.Overall, the results indicate that climate change will favour the expansion of C. fluminea into new river basins, especially at higher latitudes, and that future climatic scenarios may double the suitable area for Corbicula fluminea.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T05:40:56.326613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2767
       
  • Demography of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) ammocoete populations in
           relation to potential spawning-migration obstructions
    • Authors: A. D. Nunn; R. J. Taylor, I. G. Cowx, R. A. A. Noble, J. D. Bolland, J. P. Harvey
      Abstract: Recent advances in the understanding of lamprey migrations have led to concerns over the impacts of obstructions on the demography of many species. This study investigated sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvae (ammocoetes) in two adjacent but contrasting rivers, both designated Special Areas of Conservation under the EC Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), one (the River Wye) with a small number of potential migration obstructions in its upper reaches and one (the River Usk) with obstacles along its course. The geographical distributions, densities and age structures of the ammocoete populations were examined in relation to the locations of potential obstructions to the spawning migrations of anadromous adults.A minimum of three age classes was recorded as far as 200 km upstream of the mouth of the River Wye (93% of the length of the mainstem), demonstrating that adults regularly migrate to the upper reaches of the catchment (downstream of a natural waterfall). By contrast, sea lamprey ammocoetes appeared to be absent (in suitable habitat) from 20 km (17%) of the River Usk, and there was a reduction in density, prevalence and the number of age classes upstream of two putative spawning-migration obstructions.This study highlights some of the potential impacts of habitat fragmentation by obstructions on the spawning migrations of anadromous species, as inferred from ammocoete demography. When used in combination to compare contiguous reaches, ammocoete densities, prevalence and age structure may be a useful indicator of which structures are likely to be important migration obstructions, and where further studies or mitigation efforts should be focused. It is likely that passage past some obstructions is enhanced if high river levels occur during the spawning migration, but there is a need to facilitate passage during all conditions, to improve access to under-exploited spawning and nursery areas.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T05:20:53.161167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2748
       
  • Factors driving spatial variation in egg survival of an ecologically and
           culturally important forage fish
    • Authors: Britt Keeling; Margot Hessing-Lewis, Clark Housty, Daniel K. Okamoto, Edward J. Gregr, Anne K. Salomon
      Abstract: Low trophic-level forage fish are experiencing global declines, influencing coupled human–ocean systems worldwide. Along the northwest coast of North America, declining trajectories of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have prompted interest in improving the understanding of its population and community dynamics to better guide future conservation and management strategies.To improve future population estimates and understanding of the ecological factors governing herring egg survival, the magnitude, spatial variation and mechanisms driving herring egg loss rates were quantified. This was achieved by way of repeated observational field surveys and a predator exclusion experiment.Observational surveys revealed that regional egg loss rates (Z) were substantial and ranged from 0.101 ± 0.019 to 0.134 ± 0.028, the equivalent of 88–94% egg loss over a 21 day incubation period, or 50–60% egg loss over 6.8 days, the average time lag between spawn deposition and annual egg surveys. Furthermore, spatial variation was high, with egg loss rates varying 5-fold among study sites. Depth, time since spawn, and spawn area were primary spatial drivers of egg loss, but predator abundance and exposure were secondarily important.Experimental evidence showed that benthic predation and habitat type were strong drivers of egg loss, suggesting that a high proportion of eggs, particularly those spawned on benthic substrates, are consumed by predators.These results have important conservation implications for managers and ecologists seeking to estimate herring biomass and to understand the environmental influences on predator–prey interactions that affect herring dynamics.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T01:50:44.243104-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2757
       
  • Invasive Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana threatens native mussel
           reproduction by inducing cross-resistance of host fish
    • Authors: Seth W. Donrovich; Karel Douda, Věra Plechingerová, Kateřina Rylková, Pavel Horký, Ondřej Slavík, Huan-Zhang Liu, Martin Reichard, Manuel Lopes-Lima, Ronaldo Sousa
      Abstract: The effects of invasive alien species (IAS) on host–affiliate relationships are often subtle and remain unnoticed or insufficiently quantified. The global decline of freshwater unionid mussel species has been attributed to many causes, but little is known about the interactions of IAS, with their complex life cycle, which includes an obligatory parasitic stage (the glochidium) that develops on fishes.The capacity of a European freshwater mussel, Anodonta anatina, to develop on its widespread fish host, Squalius cephalus was tested experimentally, after previous infestations by the IAS, Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana. The initial attachment of glochidia, the length of the parasitic period, and the metamorphosis success rate of A. anatina glochidia were compared among treatments of different priming infestation intensities.The metamorphosis success rate of the native A. anatina glochidia was strongly reduced (Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T01:40:25.960636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2759
       
  • Assessing the impacts of tourism on the world's largest fish Rhincodon
           typus at Panaon Island, Southern Leyte, Philippines
    • Authors: Gonzalo Araujo; Fabien Vivier, Jessica June Labaja, Daniel Hartley, Alessandro Ponzo
      Abstract: Shark-based tourism is a rapidly growing industry, particularly with whale sharks, as new hotspots are identified worldwide. Understanding any impacts of tourism is essential to minimize any potential detrimental effects on the target species and habitat.In-water behavioural observations of whale sharks were used to understand any impacts of tourism at a small site in Panaon Island, Southern Leyte, Philippines. A generalized linear mixed model was fitted to test anthropogenic and environmental variables, with interaction duration as the response variable, to assess any disturbance to the animals by the tourism activities.Whale sharks were observed between the months of November and June between 2013 and 2016, with highly variable seasons. In total, 527 tourist-whale shark interactions were recorded during 359 trips identifying 104 individual whale sharks, most of which were juvenile males (85%, measuring c. 5.5 m total length). Proximity of motorized vessels and interactions in deeper waters were found to significantly shorten interactions. Short-term behavioural changes were observed in response to human events (e.g. touching). Interactions when whale sharks were feeding were significantly longer than when they were not. Individual behavioural variability was observed.Impacts could be mitigated with small managerial changes and increased enforcement, such as limiting the number of motorized vessels and the number of people around the whale sharks. Although no long-term impacts were recorded during this study, it is difficult to ascertain this in a long-lived, wide-ranging species.This knowledge gap highlights the need to build long-term monitoring programmes, and to apply the precautionary principle for the sustainable use of this endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T01:37:57.398131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2762
       
  • Interactions of baseflow habitat constraints: Macroinvertebrate drift,
           stream temperature, and physical habitat for anadromous salmon in the
           Calapooia River, Oregon
    • Authors: Robert J. Danehy; Robert E. Bilby, Sara Owen, Steven D. Duke, Alex Farrand
      Abstract: The Calapooia River in western Oregon supports a small winter steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population and historically supported spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Early timber harvesting removed the riparian forest, and log transportation practices simplified the channel. Those disturbance legacies continue to affect fish habitat by limiting shade and channel complexity, complicating conservation efforts.To evaluate juvenile salmonid rearing potential, macroinvertebrate drift, thermal regime and physical habitat were measured at eight sites in 24 km of the upper river during late summer baseflow.Overall physical habitat was simple, with few functioning instream structures or pools. During the 22-day drift study, flows declined and maximum site stream temperatures ranged from 23.1°C at the lower end to 16.4°C 24 km upstream.Macroinvertebrate drift concentrations ranged from 0.7–13.7 ind. m−3 with biomasses from 0.02–1.23 mg m−3. Drift concentration biomass was higher upstream (P = 0.006) than downstream and declined overall (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T05:00:47.5963-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2756
       
  • Conservation implications of establishment success of the Critically
           Endangered Twee River redfin ‘Pseudobarbus’ erubescens (Skelton, ) in
           an artificial impoundment in South Africa
    • Authors: Martine S. Jordaan; Johannes A. Walt, Zanné Brink, Sonja Erasmus, Olaf L. F. Weyl
      Abstract: This study reports the first known record of breeding of the Critically Endangered Twee River redfin ‘Pseudobarbus’ erubescens in an artificial impoundment. This followed an introduction of 48 individuals into a 10 ha impoundment within the species' native range more than a decade ago.Sampling the impoundment using three fyke nets set overnight yielded 2838 P. erubescens, which included both juveniles and adults capable of spawning. Fork length measurements of a subsample of 250 individuals ranged from 29 to 125 mm with length cohorts indicating multiple spawning events.This demonstrates that this species can successfully reproduce in lentic environments and suggests that artificial impoundments could be stocked to provide refugia for P. erubescens and other highly threatened small cyprinids while conservation strategies are developed to mitigate against habitat loss resulting from alien fish invasions, increased human use of water, and from climate change in rivers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:41:20.626498-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2747
       
  • Evaluation of physicochemical and physical habitat associations for
           Cambarus callainus (Big Sandy crayfish), an imperilled crayfish endemic to
           the Central Appalachians
    • Authors: Zachary J. Loughman; Stuart A. Welsh, Nicole M. Sadecky, Zachary W. Dillard, R. Katie Scott
      Abstract: 1. Crayfish represent one of the most imperilled animal groups on the planet. Habitat degradation, destruction and fragmentation, introduction of invasive crayfishes, and a lack of applied biological information have all been identified as agents thwarting crayfish conservation.2. Cambarus callainus was warranted federal protection by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in April, 2016. As part of the USFWS listing procedure, a survey for C. callainus in the Big Sandy River catchment was conducted to determine points of occurrence with a secondary objective of determining reach level physical habitat and physicochemical correlates of C. callainus presence and absence.3. At each site, physicochemical and physical habitat data were collected to determine the influence of abiotic covariates on the presence of C. callainus. Cambarus callainus presence or absence and associated site covariates were modelled using logistic regression.4. Survey results recorded C. callainus at 39 sites in the Upper Levisa Fork (ULF) and Tug Fork (TF) drainages of the Big Sandy River; no C. callainus were collected in the Lower Levisa Fork (LLF). An additive effects model of physical habitat quality (Basin + Boulder presence/embeddedness) was the only model selected, supporting an association of C. callainus with slab boulders, open interstitial spaces, and moderate to no sedimentation. All sites lacking C. callainus were experiencing some degree of sedimentation. Physicochemical covariates were not supported by the data.5. Results indicated that good quality habitat was lacking in the LLF, but was present in the ULF and TF catchments, with ULF supporting the most robust populations and most suitable habitat. Effective conservation for C. callainus should focus on efforts that limit sedimentation as well as restore good quality instream habitat in the greater Big Sandy catchment.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T06:41:31.743201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2746
       
  • Whale-watching trips in Peru lead to increases in tourist knowledge,
           pro-conservation intentions and tourist concern for the impacts of
           whale-watching on humpback whales
    • Authors: Ana M. García-Cegarra; Aldo S. Pacheco
      Abstract: Since the implementation of the commercial whaling ban in the 1980s, whale-watching has become the most important economic activity involving whales worldwide.Whale-watching is promoted as a platform for education and conservation awareness of marine biodiversity. In Peru, where cetacean species are still in jeopardy, whale-watching may play an important part in promoting the protection of these species.This study aimed to determine the degree of whale-watching tourists' knowledge regarding cetacean ecology and conservation status and to evaluate if whale-watching tours could serve as platforms for educating the public and raising conservation awareness.The results of 196 closed-ended questionnaires and 20 open-ended interviews conducted before and after whale-watching tours, during the humpback whale season (winter–spring 2014) in northern Peru, revealed an overall lack of knowledge concerning the presence of species of cetaceans in Peruvian waters and threats to marine biodiversity. However, after the whale-watching excursion, participants said they would be more willing to change their behaviour with respect to cetacean conservation and marine environment protection.This study suggests that whale-watching platforms, when implemented with adequate interpreters, can serve as a source of environmental education and can raise conservation awareness. This is an important conservation strategy to consider in countries, such as Peru, where by-catch and direct hunting are decimating local cetacean populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T06:20:34.230578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2754
       
  • Genetic population structure of black-browed and Campbell albatrosses, and
           implications for assigning provenance of birds killed in fisheries
    • Authors: Theresa M. Burg; Paulo Catry, Peter G. Ryan, Richard A. Phillips
      Abstract: Previous genetic studies found evidence of at least three distinct groups of black-browed Thalassarche melanophris and Campbell Thalassarche impavida albatrosses in the Southern Ocean. Almost 350 individuals including samples from additional breeding sites on the Falkland Islands and South Georgia Island were screened using mitochondrial DNA.The new sequence data using lineage specific PCR primers provided further support for the taxonomic split of T. melanophris and T. impavida and separate management of the two distinct T. melanophris groups.In total, 207 black-browed albatrosses killed in longline fisheries were screened. Approximately 93% of the bycaught birds from the Falkland Islands belonged to the Falkland mtDNA group and the remaining birds had mtDNA from the Widespread T. melanophris group; these proportions were similar to those in the local Falklands breeding population. The South African and South Georgia bycatch samples predominantly comprised the Widespread T. melanophris group, with only one bird from each area containing Falkland mtDNA. Lastly, 81% of the albatrosses bycaught off New Zealand had T. impavida mtDNA and the remaining four birds were Widespread T. melanophris. These differences in bycatch composition matched what is known from tracking and banding data about the at-sea distribution of black-browed albatrosses.Based on the mtDNA results and current population trends, consideration should be given to assigning regional IUCN status for the different breeding populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:16:28.683575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2765
       
  • Cold-water coral Madrepora oculata in the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW
           Mediterranean): Historical and recent findings
    • Authors: Emanuela Fanelli; Ivana Delbono, Roberta Ivaldi, Marta Pratellesi, Silvia Cocito, Andrea Peirano
      Abstract: Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems are long-lived, slow-growing and fragile, which makes them especially vulnerable to physical damage. In recent decades, CWCs have been severely threatened by fisheries, hydrocarbon extraction, pollution and other human activities.In the Mediterranean Sea, some investigations have been carried out on CWC ecosystems, mostly focused on their distributions within the central and eastern basins.Historical reports and fishermen's maps for the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from the 1960s document the occurrence of extensive banks of living CWC, mostly Madrepora oculata, between depths of 200 and 500 m.In 2013/2014, multibeam, side scan sonar (SSS) and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys were carried out in that area, specifically in the Levante Canyon, to assess the occurrence, distribution and conservation status of CWC.The SSS and ROV showed numerous trawl tracks and small (10 cm high), dead, buried colonies at 300–500 m. Deeper, between 525 and 575 m, dense populations of living, 1 m high colonies of Madrepora oculata were found on the flanks of Levante Canyon. The deep sites showed colonies overturned or entangled by long-line fishing activities.The discovery of new CWC banks not yet heavily damaged by fishing activities, suggests that urgent measures for conservation should be taken in the Mediterranean and worldwide. The present limitation of trawl-fishing to above 1000 m depth, established by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) in 2005, seems to be ineffective, since CWCs are mostly located at less than 1000 m depth in the Ligurian Sea. A network of high-seas/deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) would favour a better strategy for protecting substantial areas of CWCs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:11:46.738148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2751
       
  • Contrasting influences of inundation and land use on the rate of
           floodplain restoration
    • Authors: Samantha K. Dawson; Richard T. Kingsford, Peter Berney, Jane A. Catford, David A. Keith, Jakub Stoklosa, Frank A. Hemmings
      Abstract: This study examined the assisted natural restoration of native vegetation in an Australian floodplain wetland where flows were reinstated and the river was reconnected to the floodplain, following cessation of agricultural cultivation.Extant vegetation was surveyed three times during an inundation event at plots with different land-use histories.Restoration rate was more influenced by past land use than long-term inundation frequency and success decreased with antecedent land-use intensity. Prolonged land-use history (>3 years cultivation) restricted restoration success. Sites with longer cultivation histories tended to have fewer aquatic species, more terrestrial species and exotic species. For example, amphibious responders with floating leaves were found only in reference plots and less frequently in farmed treatment plots. In this scenario, increased persistence of exotics and dryland species suggested alternative trajectories. Fields with a short land-use history (1–3 years of clearing and cultivation) resembled undisturbed floodplain communities, consistent with a ‘field of dreams’ hypothesis.Although river–floodplain reconnections can restore wetlands, legacy effects of past land use may limit the pace and outcomes of restoration.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:51:00.514624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2749
       
  • Recommendations for monitoring freshwater fishes in river restoration
           plans: A wasted opportunity for assessing impact
    • Authors: Amaia A. Rodeles; David Galicia, Rafael Miranda
      Abstract: Many human activities in and on rivers cause the loss of freshwater biodiversity, especially fish, which now are one of the most endangered vertebrate groups. River fragmentation caused by the construction of dams is one of the main threats to fish species. In Spain, which has the highest number of dams per square kilometre in the world, more than half of all fish species are threatened by these constructions. The government has initiated the National Strategy for River Restoration, a plan to restore rivers and preserve their inhabitants, which includes the removal of dams.An information search and query was conducted to determine if fish monitoring was performed before and after dam removal, and the result was negative. Therefore, an assessment of the effects of dam removal on fish communities at a large spatial scale was not possible. Instead, an analysis was carried out to measure the effects of dam removal on river connectivity using a geometric network.The analysis of river connectivity improvement showed that 66% of removed dams had one or more dams less than 5 km away. The removal of dams increased the connected river length by an average of 6.4 km per dam removed, with the range varying between 1.04 km and 9.48 km, depending on the river basin.These results show that, although monitoring programmes are strongly recommended after restoration actions, they are not usually performed. This is a wasted opportunity to gather large datasets to understand better the effects of human actions on fish communities and on rivers.River connectivity results may reflect a demolition strategy based more on economic and social opportunism rather than on ecological considerations. It is strongly recommended that dam removal plans should be based on ecological selection methods to achieve greater river improvements with less investment.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:40:47.677475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2753
       
  • Small dams need consideration in riverscape conservation assessments
    • Authors: Sukhmani Kaur Mantel; Nick Rivers-Moore, Pfananani Ramulifho
      Abstract: Small, off-channel dams are generally ignored in impact assessments owing to limited information and spatial resolution issues. Previous research on South African rivers showed correlative links between high density of small dams and associated reductions in low flows, poorer water quality, and impoverished aquatic macroinvertebrate communities that were dominated by opportunistic taxa instead of specialist groups.Since small dams are usually associated with catchment transformation (for example, vineyards, stock farming and exotic timber plantations), they are convenient surrogates of the impacts of catchment transformation on river functionality. Here, an index of cumulative small dams for South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland is presented and evaluated.Fifty-two per cent of the water management catchments in the study region exceeded the threshold for the cumulative small dams density (SDD) index above which river functionality is compromised. This estimate of potentially affected catchments is considered to be conservative for reasons discussed.The index results are compared with a recent systematic biodiversity planning exercise for setting biodiversity targets for freshwater areas of South Africa. Although the systematic planning included in-stream small dams within 50 m of a river, analysis showed that 36% of all quaternaries that have high SDD score overlap with river reaches classified as ‘natural’ or ‘largely natural’.Disregarding dams outside the 50 m buffer area equates to ignoring the majority of small dams (94%) in South Africa, and it is recommended that aquatic conservation assessments include the SDD index as a cost layer for prioritizing rivers for rehabilitation and conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T03:26:05.257616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2739
       
  • Effect of an intensive mechanical removal effort on a population of
           non-native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a South African headwater
           stream
    • Authors: Jeremy Shelton; Olaf Weyl, Johannes Van Der Walt, Sean Marr, Dean Impson, Kristine Maciejewski, Donovan Tye, Helen Dallas, Karen Esler
      Abstract: Invasions by non-native species can compromise the conservation value of otherwise pristine headwater streams. While both developed and developing countries recognize this threat, few of the latter have suitable budgets to implement control programmes.This study assessed the effectiveness of a mechanical project to remove non-native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from a 6 km section of the upper Krom River, a small headwater stream in the Cederberg Mountains in South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR).From October 2013 to February 2014, 354 O. mykiss were removed by angling (58%), fyke netting (28%) and gill netting (14%). This resulted in a marked reduction, but not eradication, of the O. mykiss population (fish relative abundance decreased from 0.53 ± 0.09 fish per net per night in October 2013 to 0.21 ± 0.09 fish per net per night in February 2014). Following the cessation of manual removals, the relative abundance of O. mykiss had increased to 0.56 ± 0.18 fish per net per night by March 2016, suggesting that without sustained removal effort, the population will rapidly return to its pre-removal abundance level.Further work is needed to refine the methodology and test the effectiveness of mechanical removal of non-native freshwater fish in a variety of ecological settings in the CFR. This approach holds potential for meeting the dual goals of reducing the ecological impacts of non-native fishes and generating employment opportunities in line with the policy objectives of developing nations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T03:26:00.713365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2752
       
  • Effectiveness of shore-based remote camera monitoring for quantifying
           recreational fisher compliance in marine conservation areas
    • Authors: Darienne Lancaster; Philip Dearden, Dana R. Haggarty, John P. Volpe, Natalie C. Ban
      Abstract: Marine conservation areas require high levels of compliance to meet conservation objectives, yet little research has assessed compliance quantitatively, especially for recreational fishers. Recreational fishers take 12% of global annual fish catches. With millions of people fishing from small boats, this fishing sector is hard to monitor, making accurate quantification of non-compliance an urgent research priority.Shore-based remote camera monitoring was tested for quantifying recreational non-compliance in near-shore, coastal rockfish conservation areas (RCAs) in the Salish Sea, Canada.Six high definition trail cameras were used to monitor 42 locations between July and August 2014.Seventy-nine percent of monitored conservation area sites showed confirmed or probable fishing activity, with no significant difference in fishing effort inside and outside RCAs.Mixed effects generalized linear models were used to test environmental and geographic factors influencing compliance. Sites with greater depth had significantly higher fishing effort, which may imply high, barotrauma-induced, rockfish mortality in RCA sites.Non-compliance estimates were similar to aerial fly-over compliance data from 2011, suggesting that trail camera monitoring may be an accurate and affordable alternative method of assessing non-compliance in coastal conservation areas, especially for community-based organizations wishing to monitor local waters.Widespread non-compliance could compromise the ability of RCAs to protect and rebuild rockfish populations. Increased education, signage, and enforcement is likely to improve compliance.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T02:43:57.009587-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2736
       
  • Does full protection count for the maintenance of β-diversity patterns in
           marine communities' Evidence from Mediterranean fish assemblages
    • Authors: Luca Appolloni; Stanislao Bevilacqua, Luisa Sbrescia, Roberto Sandulli, Antonio Terlizzi, Giovanni Fulvio Russo
      Abstract: Although it is widely recognized that protection may enhance size, abundance, and diversity of fish, its effect on spatial heterogeneity of fish assemblages and species turnover is still poorly understood.Here the effect of full protection within a Mediterranean marine protected area on β-diversity patterns of fish assemblages along a depth gradient comparing a no-take zone with multiple unprotected areas is explored. The no-take zone showed significantly higher synecological parameters, higher β-diversity among depths, and lower small-scale heterogeneity of fish assemblages relative to unprotected areas.Such patterns might likely depend on the high level of fishing pressure outside the no-take zone, as also abundance-biomass curves seemed to indicate. Results suggested that full protection could play a role in maintaining high β-diversity, thus reducing the fragility of marine communities and ecosystems, and spatial heterogeneity may represent a reliable predictor of how management actions could provide insurance against undesirable phase shifts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T07:50:41.543856-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2750
       
  • The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (West
           and Central Africa)
    • Authors: Beth A. Polidoro; Gina M. Ralph, Kyle Strongin, Michael Harvey, Kent E. Carpenter, Rachel Arnold, Jack R. Buchanan, Khairdine Mohamed Abdallahi Camara, Bruce B. Collette, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Godefroy De Bruyne, Ofer Gon, Antony S. Harold, Heather Harwell, Percival A. Hulley, Tomio Iwamoto, Steen W. Knudsen, Jean de Dieu Lewembe, Christi Linardich, Kenyon C. Lindeman, Vanda Monteiro, Thomas Munroe, Francis K.E. Nunoo, Caroline M. Pollock, Stuart Poss, Barry Russell, Catherine Sayer, Aboubacar Sidibe, William Smith-Vaniz, Emilie Stump, Mor Sylla, Luis Tito De Morais, Jean-Christophe Vié, Akanbi Williams
      Abstract: The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (ECA), especially of coastal and pelagic fishes, is of concern owing to a number of threats including overharvesting, habitat loss, pollution, and climate change combined with inadequate policy responses, legislation, and enforcement.This study provides the first comprehensive documentation of the presence, status, and level of extinction risk, based on IUCN Red List assessment methodology, for more than 1800 marine species, including all taxonomically described marine vertebrates (marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds, fishes); complete clades of selected marine invertebrates (sea cucumbers, cone snails, cephalopods, lobsters, reef-building corals); and marine plants (mangroves, seagrasses).Approximately 8% of all marine species assessed in the ECA are in threatened categories, while 4% are listed as Near Threatened, 73% are Least Concern, and 15% are Data Deficient. Fisheries and overharvesting are the biggest threats to living marine resources in the ECA, with 87% of threatened species across all taxonomic groups affected by both large- and small-scale targeted fisheries, excessive capture as by-catch, or unsustainable harvest.The results of this study will transform the current state of knowledge and increase capacity for regional stakeholders to identify and enact marine conservation and research priorities, as a number of species are identified as having high conservation and/or research priorities in the region.Through the process of marine species data collection and risk assessments conducted over the past 5 years, several key conservation actions and research needs are identified to enable more effective conservation of marine biodiversity in the ECA, including increased governance, multilateral collaboration, taxonomic training, and improved reporting of fisheries catch and effort.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T03:35:38.21947-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2744
       
  • Otter occupancy in the Cape Peninsula: Estimating the probability of river
           habitat use by Cape clawless otters, Aonyx capensis, across a gradient of
           human influence
    • Authors: Nicola C. Okes; M. Justin O'Riain
      Abstract: The distribution of Cape clawless otters, Aonyx capensis, in South Africa and their habitat requirements in freshwater and marine systems has been well established. There is, however, a lack of information on how otters are adapting to urban development and the transformation of critical freshwater habitat.Within the Western Cape, the Cape Peninsula exhibits substantial variation in levels of human impact over a small geographic range, offering an excellent opportunity to explore the hypothesis that otters are adversely affected by habitat transformation.A single season occupancy model was used based on otter sign to determine the probability of otter occupancy across a gradient of habitat transformation at both landscape and local scales.The probability of otters occupying river habitat in the Cape Peninsula was low (P = 0.29) but increased with proximity to marine protected areas (MPAs) that included estuaries and wetland habitat. Otter presence was not influenced by proximity to urban areas at the landscape scale, but declined in canalized sections of river that were heavily degraded by human activity.Despite being heavily transformed, lowland aquatic ecosystems may still provide critical resources in the form of fresh water and breeding sites, and together with food within the marine habitat may be sustaining the peninsula's otter population.In order for otters to persist on the peninsula, conservation authorities must maintain wetland, estuarine and river habitat in close proximity to MPAs. Further research is needed to determine the long-term impacts on otters persisting in degraded ecosystems.Annual single season occupancy surveys provide a rapid, cost-effective method for monitoring changes in otter occupancy which should be incorporated into current monitoring efforts to provide much needed long-term monitoring of a top predator in freshwater ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T03:31:05.86707-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2738
       
  • Incidental capture of leatherback sea turtles in fixed fishing gear off
           Atlantic Canada
    • Authors: Kayla M. Hamelin; Michael C. James, Wayne Ledwell, Julie Huntington, Kathleen Martin
      Abstract: Incidental capture in commercial fishing gear is a threat to many populations of marine megafauna, including sea turtles. While research has largely focused on pelagic longline impacts on sea turtles, fixed-gear fisheries are a significant, historically understudied source of injury and mortality.The present study assesses the interaction of endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) with fixed-gear fisheries in high-latitude seasonal foraging habitat where sub-adult and adult turtles aggregate.Records of leatherback-fishery interactions (n = 205) were compiled from databases of publicly-reported sea turtle sightings in Atlantic Canada (1998–2014) to identify the spatio-temporal distribution of these events; to identify corresponding fisheries and gear types; and to describe the mechanics and outcomes of entanglements in fixed gear.Most reports came from coastal Nova Scotia (n = 136) and Newfoundland (n = 40), with reporting rates peaking in the mid-to-late 2000s. The majority of entanglements were reported during the summer months of July and August when leatherbacks are seasonally resident and several fisheries are active in continental shelf waters.Entanglements were most commonly reported in pot gear (e.g. snow crab, lobster, whelk) and trap nets (e.g. mackerel), reflecting extensive use of polypropylene lines distributed in the upper water column where leatherback foraging activity is concentrated.Given reporting biases and uncertainty regarding post-release survivorship, entanglement mortalities should be considered a gross underestimate of true mortality rates.This study highlights both the importance of looking beyond pelagic longlines to evaluate leatherback interactions with fixed-gear fisheries in high-use continental shelf foraging habitat, and of involving the fishing industry in developing mitigation measures to reduce entanglement rates and associated turtle mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T02:45:34.929761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2733
       
  • Evidence of clandestine harvest and failure of conservation policies for
           Argopecten purpuratus in the Rinconada Marine Reserve (Chile)
    • Authors: Miguel Avendaño; Marcela Cantillánez, Gérard Thouzeau
      Abstract: The study of Argopecten purpuratus reproduction, post-larval settlement, stock size, and population size structure and shell growth was undertaken in the 2000s in the Rinconada marine reserve (Chile) to evaluate the effectiveness of scallop recruitment and self-sustainability.The results highlight strong seasonal and inter-annual variations of environmental conditions and scallop gonadosomatic index, spat collection, benthic distribution, total abundance and population size structure.The Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞ = 120.12 mm and K = 0.9681; commercial size would be reached in about 17.2 months in the bay. Substrate availability, meteorological conditions, hydrodynamics and illegal harvesting explain spatial and temporal variations in scallop distribution and abundance.Recruitment strength depends on one main cohort from year to year. While recruitment made up 81% and 94% of total abundances in May 2002 and May 2003, respectively, there were no overall density-dependent relationships between stock size and recruitment. Spawning asynchrony in the bay supports the hypothesis that multiple gamete releases form part of a reproductive strategy in response to environmental variability.The massive disappearance of large-sized scallops during the study periods was direct evidence of overfishing owing to clandestine harvesting within the marine reserve. The failure of current legislation, strategies and policies for scallop conservation requires new regulations to restore scallop stock size, maintain its reproductive performance and limit illegal harvesting in the Rinconada.A scenario allowing harvesting regulated by stock-dependent fishing quotas would more efficiently ensure stock recovery and self-sustainability. The modalities of this new policy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T02:01:15.878203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2721
       
  • Conservation needs for the endangered New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos
           hookeri
    • Authors: B. Louise Chilvers; Stefan Meyer
      Abstract: Understanding population size and trend is critical information in species management and conservation. To enable accurate population trend estimates, consistent robust monitoring of a species is essential, particularly for a species such as the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri, which has experienced an almost continuous decline in pup production since the late 1990s.This research examines the pup production estimates for all known breeding sites for this species, and using a stage-structured matrix population model, estimates population size and trend between 1995 and 2015.Overall, it is estimated that 2,316 pups were born in 2015, a decrease of 13% since 1995 and a 27% decline since the highest pup production estimate in 1998. This decline has been driven by the significant decline of 48% at the main breeding area, the Auckland Islands since 1998.Using the stage-structured matrix population model a total species population size of 11,767 sea lions (95% CrI: 10,790–12,923) was estimated. This is the lowest population size of any sea lion species. Trend data for the Auckland Islands indicated that pup and population numbers have decreased at 1.9% yr−1 in the last 20 yr, while total species population decline is 0.6% yr−1.Estimates of population trends for this species have been hindered by inconsistent monitoring at most breeding sites. This study strengthens the growing field of research highlighting the need for consistent long-term monitoring for the conservation management of endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T06:40:34.375091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2742
       
  • A review of the biology and status of Cape Fold Ecoregion freshwater
           fishes
    • Authors: Bruce R. Ellender; Ryan J. Wasserman, Albert Chakona, Paul H. Skelton, Olaf L.F. Weyl
      Abstract: Mediterranean climate regions are globally recognized as hotspots of endemism in fishes; however, these unique assemblages are increasingly threatened by human mediated impacts including water abstraction, damming and non-native species introductions.The Cape Fold aquatic ecoregion (CFR) of South Africa supports an assemblage of range-restricted endemic freshwater fishes, the majority of which are conservation priorities because they are under severe threat of extinction. Effective conservation and management are constrained by the lack of readily available information on this imperilled group of fishes because research efforts over the last century have been temporally disjointed and relatively uncoordinated.This review provides an exhaustive appraisal of published literature on the taxonomy, biogeography, life history, ecology and physiology of freshwater fishes in the CFR, and the human impacts that affect them. Its aim is to direct future research needs for effective management and conservation of this imperilled group.Only 103 peer-reviewed articles on CFR fishes were recorded and the majority of available research is on taxonomy and biogeography (40.8%), followed by ecological investigations (22.3%), conservation (19.4%) and human impacts (17.5%).Despite a plethora of studies on taxonomy and biogeography, recent genetic evidence suggests that fish diversity in the CFR has been severely underestimated and requires urgent attention. Human impacts severely threaten the existence of many native CFR fishes and require further study. Information on the biology and ecology of CFR fishes is limited to studies on selected species; of particular note is the lack of physiological information which is particularly pertinent given projected climate change scenarios.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T06:30:43.751663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2730
       
  • Long-term changes in the distribution and core habitat use of a coastal
           delphinid in response to anthropogenic coastal alterations
    • Authors: Xianyan Wang; Fuxing Wu, Qian Zhu, Shiang-Lin Huang
      Abstract: The influence of anthropogenic habitat loss on animal distribution and core habitat use can be particularly strong in animals with narrow habitat selectivity, such as the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), a delphinid species that specifically inhabits coastal and estuarine waters.This study measured the extent of habitat loss in the waters around Xiamen City, China, where intense environmental changes and coast utilization have occurred in the past 40 years. The extent of occurrence and the core habitat of the humpback dolphin were measured based on sighting records from censuses conducted in different years.A Landsat image series revealed a permanent 119.95 km2 loss of coastal waters to land reclamation, coastal modification and harbour construction from 1973 to 2013. The distribution of the humpback dolphin showed a significant shift from inshore to offshore waters and away from artificial shorelines. Though the extent of occurrence appears to change minimally, a significant shift in the core habitat from the original coastal habitats into mid-channel waters was observed in the eastern Xiamen Bay.These results imply multiple consequences of anthropogenic coastal alterations for the humpback dolphin: the elimination of vital habitats, changes in habitat use preferences, and the partitioning of the social structure of the population.The need to adjust current protected area designations along with adequate measures to restore habitat quality and population connectivity, both locally and regionally, are considered.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T06:25:41.994855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2720
       
  • Red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, found in South Africa 22 years
           after attempted eradication
    • Authors: Ana L. Nunes; Andries C. Hoffman, Tsungai A. Zengeya, G. John Measey, Olaf LF Weyl
      Abstract: 1. No freshwater crayfish are indigenous to continental Africa, but four species have been introduced to the continent. One of these is the North American red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, which has been introduced into several African countries, mainly for aquaculture, and has had demonstrable impacts where it has escaped captivity. In South Africa, the documentation of this species in farm dams near Dullstroom and the adjacent Crocodile River in 1988 resulted in an eradication attempt in 1994, with unknown results.2. In order to evaluate the status of P. clarkii in South Africa, dams on the previously invaded farm and the Crocodile River were sampled four times between December 2015 and June 2016 using visual surveys, trapping, dipnetting and electrofishing. This yielded a single reproductively active male P. clarkii from one of the farm ponds, while many other native aquatic species were found in high numbers.3. It is clear from this study that P. clarkii was not eradicated in South Africa and that individuals have been surviving in the wild (i.e. outside captivity or cultivation) for at least 28 years in the location where it was introduced. Containment and eradication of the species are proposed as management actions, which have major importance in preventing undesirable further spread or translocation of this species into new aquatic environments in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T04:29:53.671152-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2741
       
  • Heads you win, tails you lose: Life-history traits predict invasion and
           extinction risk of the world's freshwater fishes
    • Authors: Chunlong Liu; Lise Comte, Julian D. Olden
      Abstract: Freshwater fishes have the distinction of being both a highly imperilled taxonomic group as well as one that has produced many invasive species with widespread ecological impacts. Faced with the difficult task of identifying those species with the greatest need for management action, ecologists have turned to using predictive suites of ecological and life-history traits to provide reasonable estimates of fish invasion and extinction risk. Whether traits associated with invasiveness are the inverse of those associated with imperillment, known as the ‘two-sides-of-the-same-coin’ hypothesis, remains unclear.A global trait analysis (including maximum total body size, longevity, size at maturation, age at maturation, fecundity and egg size) for 6293 freshwater fishes was conducted to examine the trait correlates of species proneness to invasion or extinction. A meta-analytical procedure was deployed using univariate and multivariate trait analyses that accounted for the effects of shared phylogeny.Mean trait differences (measured as Hedges' d effect size) were found between invasive and threatened species when compared with native species, thus supporting the two-sides-of-the-same-coin hypothesis for freshwater fish. Invasive species were characterized by larger body size, greater longevity, delayed maturation and higher fecundity than threatened species. Furthermore, invasive species were found to display greater trait variability compared with threatened species, suggesting that different traits may be selected at different stages of the invasion process (from pathway entrainment to establishment) whereas more specific trait combinations may predispose species to higher extinction risk.The present study demonstrated a strong trait basis to global-scale invasion risk and extinction vulnerability for freshwater fishes. Given that both time and resources are too limited for detailed species-by-species assessments, the results suggest that trait correlates provide a reasonable estimate of invasion and extinction risk that can inform more targeted and proactive conservation strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T04:10:57.850193-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2740
       
  • Defining critical habitat conditions for the conservation of three endemic
           and endangered cyprinids in a Mediterranean intermittent river before the
           onset of drought
    • Authors: Leonidas Vardakas; Eleni Kalogianni, Christina Papadaki, Theocharis Vavalidis, Angeliki Mentzafou, Drosos Koutsoubas, Nikolaos Skoulikidis Th.
      Abstract: Identifying key factors in species' habitat requirements can be of use in defining critical habitats for their conservation, as well as in assisting the prioritization of habitat restoration actions. So far, most studies on habitat use by freshwater fishes have been focused on widespread and economically important species (e.g. salmonids).This study aimed to identify the early summer habitat use (i.e. before the start of the drought period) of three endemic and endangered Greek cyprinids – the Evrotas chub Squalius keadicus, the Spartian minnowroach Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus and the Evrotas minnow Pelasgus laconicus, with regard to depth, water velocity, substrate and macrophyte cover. In the case of the chub, habitat use by juvenile and adult fish was assessed separately. Data were collected for each fish group from four habitat types (riffles, runs, glides, pools) by using a modified point-abundance sampling with an electrofishing device. In total, 120 sampling points were sampled, in two near-reference perennial reaches of the Evrotas River (southern Greece) in early summer 2014, when there was continuous flow and full connectivity between habitats.All three target species had their highest densities in deeper habitats with low water velocities and depositional substrates such as pools and runs. A high overlap in habitat use was evident for the three species. Habitat use curves based on microhabitat data were created for all species. Μinnowroaches, minnows and large chubs actively selected deep habitats. Minnowroaches and minnows favoured slow-flowing, vegetated habitats with fine substrate located close to the river bank, while chubs had no clear affinity for particular velocities or substrate types. However, size class comparisons in chub indicated differences in both water depth and velocity.Overall, the results of this study provide the first detailed report of the habitat use of these endangered fish species. These patterns of habitat use highlight the importance of deep habitats that must be preserved as refugia while the drought events progress.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T07:05:44.19605-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2735
       
  • Do protected areas mitigate the effects of fisheries-induced evolution on
           parental care behaviour of a teleost fish'
    • Authors: William M. Twardek; Chris K. Elvidge, Alexander D.M. Wilson, Dirk A. Algera, Aaron J. Zolderdo, Stephen C. Lougheed, Steven J. Cooke
      Abstract: While the use of aquatic protected areas that exclude angling might be considered an evolutionarily enlightened management approach to dealing with fisheries-induced evolution (FIE), there is little empirical data on the effectiveness of this approach at maintaining the diversity of phenotypic traits within protected areas.In species with paternal care, including largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), active nest-guarding and aggression towards potential brood predators by males may render these individuals particularly vulnerable to capture by angling because of increased propensity to attack fishing lures/bait near their nests. Relative levels of aggression by these males during the parental care period correlates with their vulnerability to angling year round. Selective removal of more aggressive individuals by anglers should drive population-average phenotypes towards lower levels of aggression.To assess the effectiveness of protected areas at mitigating FIE, the parental care behaviours of wild, free-swimming male bass were compared during the early nesting period for bass within and outside protected areas in a lake in eastern Ontario. Nesting males within long-standing aquatic protected areas closed to fishing for>70 years were more aggressive towards bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), a potential nest predator, and patrolled larger areas around their nests compared with bass outside of sanctuaries. Males within protected areas were also more likely to strike at artificial fishing lures and were more prone to capture during angling events.Collectively, the findings suggest that the establishment of protected areas may promote phenotypic diversity such as more attentive and vigorous parental care, relative to areas open to angling. The extent to which this phenomenon occurs in other species and systems is likely to depend on the reproductive strategies of fish and their spatial ecology compared with protected area boundaries, and habitat quality within protected areas.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T06:35:26.281319-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2718
       
  • Seasonal encounter rate, life stages and main threats to the loggerhead
           sea turtle (Caretta caretta) in the Aeolian Archipelago (southern
           Thyrrenian Sea)
    • Authors: Monica Francesca Blasi; Daniela Mattei
      Abstract: Annual and seasonal encounter rates, life stages and the main threats to loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy) were studied.Dedicated boat surveys resulted in 258 surface observations and 138 captures of healthy (n = 309), ailing (n = 66) and dead (n = 21) turtles from 2009 to 2013.Loggerheads were encountered at the sea water surface while resting (87%) or feeding on pelagic prey (13%).The loggerhead encounter rate (observations per km surveyed) was higher during the autumn, suggesting the presence of potential foraging/overwintering habitats in the area.The mean (± SD) curved carapace length (CCL) was 48.8 ± 10.7 cm, with 65% of the individuals ranging from 40–70 cm in size. Smaller turtles were encountered more frequently during the spring months, probably as a result of the abundant pelagic prey within the coastal area. During the colder season, larger turtles were more common in the afternoon than in the morning, suggesting that the time needed for rewarming might increase with turtle size.Ingestion of anthropogenic debris was reported in 48.5% of the rescued turtles. Individual mortality was mainly related to longline fishing (70.6%), with debris entanglements/ingestion frequently associated with these records. Longline bycatch and boat collisions were higher in summer, whereas debris ingestion was highest in spring. Different threats might affect particular life stages because the longline bycatch was more frequent for larger turtles, whereas boat collisions were more frequent with smaller individuals.Migratory patterns, habitat characteristics and seasonal changes in sea temperature and currents might influence the seasonal occurrence of loggerhead turtles in this area.These results increase the current ecological knowledge of the factors driving loggerhead turtle life and are important for implementing management plans for its conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T06:15:27.341205-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2723
       
  • Niche-based species distribution models and conservation planning for
           endangered freshwater crayfish in south-western Germany
    • Authors: Christoph Chucholl
      Abstract: Niche-based species distribution models (SDMs) can help conservation planning by forecasting environmental suitability for an endangered species. Here, SDMs were constructed for stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) and white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes s. str.) to identify catchments in south-western Germany where environmental conditions are favourable for reintroduction.Maximum-entropy modelling (Maxent) was used with presence-only data to forecast environmental suitability for the two crayfish species based on five climate variables, slope, land cover, and a human impact index.SDMs showed good to excellent performance and were able to capture the range of both Austropotamobius species. Presence probabilities were mostly determined by climate variables, and climate niches partly overlap, with white-clawed crayfish occurring at conditions with less extreme winter temperatures and lower temperature seasonality than stone crayfish. Human impact contributed between 10 and 27% to the models and was negatively related to presence probabilities. Contribution of land cover was low (5%) but showed a positive relationship with deciduous broadleaf forest in both species.Both SDMs indicated several catchments with high predicted environmental suitability but no present occurrence records. Subsequent crayfish and habitat surveys in these catchments revealed four streams considered suitable for reintroduction and led to discovery of five previously unknown white-clawed crayfish populations. Overall, SDMs proved to be a powerful tool for conservation planning of freshwater crayfish species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T06:10:32.219293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2734
       
  • Knock-on effects of national risk assessments on the conservation of
           global biodiversity
    • Authors: Antonios D. Mazaris; Despoina Vokou, Vasiliki Almpanidou, Gail Schofield
      Abstract: Global biodiversity conservation relies on the efficient operation of protected areas, with revenue often originating from visitors. However, visitors generally select destinations where personal security and safety are guaranteed.Information about potential threats (natural hazards or terrorism) for global destinations is mainly released to the public via national safety travel advice and via global reports on disaster and terrorism risk indices.This study aimed to evaluate the extent to which different types of national security risks occur in countries that contain marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, towards highlighting the importance of incorporating these security issues into conservation management plans.Countries hosting most global marine protected areas (MPAs) have a low to medium risk of natural disasters. However, the analyses demonstrated that about one-third of MPAs are hosted by countries with lower income economies, which are also shown to have a lower capacity to cope with natural disasters.Of interest, countries with high terrorism risk host only a small fraction of global MPAs, with lower income countries being subjected to significantly higher terrorism risk than higher income countries.Overall, the results show that the chance of a country with an MPA being subject to a national security risk is generally low. However, countries with a higher risk of violence and natural disaster have lower coping capacities and weaker economies. Thus, MPAs in such countries should incorporate the risk of national security issues into their management schemes, particularly when visitor revenue is incorporated into wildlife protection and the employment of locals.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12T03:26:10.762314-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2732
       
  • Illegal ingegno fishery and conservation of deep red coral banks in the
           Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea)
    • Authors: Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti; Giorgio Bavestrello, Marzia Bo, Simonepietro Canese, Alberto Vigo, Franco Andaloro
      Abstract: Recent ROV surveys conducted on the Ragusa bank in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea) documented illegal and continuous use of the ‘ingegno’ gear for red coral fishing.Three lost gears were recorded showing different levels of epibiosis thus supporting multi-annual exploitation of the bank.The red coral population of the Ragusa bank showed a typical ‘forest-like’ configuration with upright, medium-sized colonies similar to those of other commercially exploited deep Mediterranean banks.The direct negative effect of this trawling gear was evident from numerous rocky boulders completely enveloped by lost nets and occasionally turned over. Red coral fragments as well as fragments of ‘ingegno’ nets were observed in high abundance on the sea floor. This evidence suggests that this gear is highly destructive even on rough sea floors, contrary to the traditional view, which is that it has a more random impact on rough rocky bottoms.The estimated coral uptake of ‘ingegno’ is 45% of the total coral biomass, while the estimated coral loss, in terms of fragments, is 9%, demonstrating the high impact of this gear.The study highlighted the infringement of the red coral fishing ban by trawling gears as well as a lack of effective policing. The strengthening of controls on landings at nearby harbours, and education programmes for the local maritime communities are among the management actions proposed to protect these surviving red coral populations from the ongoing illegal fishing activity.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T22:55:44.937644-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2731
       
  • Habitats for the Atlantic sturgeons in Russia
    • Authors: Igor Popov
      Abstract: The critically endangered Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, inhabited the Russian section of the Baltic Sea basin until recent times. Eight rivers were indicated as their habitats in local literature.The Atlantic surgeon disappeared in Russia because of overfishing, not because of habitat loss.Nowadays, potential spawning grounds for sturgeons occur in six rivers of the Russian section of the Baltic Sea basin. The largest river (Neva) is not blocked by dams and the whole river provides the ecological requirements of sturgeons on a stretch 75 km long.Restocking of other sturgeon species in Russia demonstrated that the release of reared fishes into the sea is ineffective, whereas the release into rivers could result in successful acclimatization.Recent climatic changes are rather favourable for sturgeon restocking in the Baltic Sea area. The main problem for the restoration of sturgeon populations is the intensive fishery.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T04:40:46.224888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2716
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 293 - 295
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T05:29:36.472247-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2725
       
  • Molecular tools provide a range of powerful options for the
           conservationist's toolbox
    • Authors: Leland J. Jackson
      Pages: 296 - 302
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T05:29:35.810331-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2766
       
  • The misguided comparison of vulnerability and conservation status
    • Authors: Rafael Miranda
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T05:05:22.695543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2743
       
  • Leiopathes glaberrima millennial forest from SW Sardinia as nursery ground
           for the small spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula
    • Authors: Alessandro Cau; Maria Cristina Follesa, Davide Moccia, Andrea Bellodi, Antonello Mulas, Marzia Bo, Simonepietro Canese, Michela Angiolillo, Rita Cannas
      Abstract: Association between habitat structuring organisms and other species has great relevance for ecosystem-based conservation measures.Those occurring in temperate areas, particularly in the upper portion of the continental margin, are mostly unknown or not properly understood because of the difficulty to discriminate co-occurrence and real functional linkages among species.Deep water coral assemblages over the Carloforte Shoal (south-west Sardinia; 180–210 m depth) were investigated using ROV surveys.During the surveys, more than 740 egg-capsules of the spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, identified after hatching experiments in captivity, were found attached exclusively to colonies of the long-living black coral Leiopathes glaberrima.Although based on a spot finding, the results show that coral forests are not only hotspots of biodiversity, but can also serve as nursery grounds for S. canicula. The protection of these millennial coral forests is therefore to be considered a priority.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T05:01:04.079396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2717
       
  • Experimental test of oyster restoration within eelgrass
    • Authors: Stephanie R. Valdez; Betsy Peabody, Brian Allen, Brady Blake, Jennifer L. Ruesink
      Abstract: Both seagrasses and oysters are foundation species valued for their wide range of ecosystem services, but their space competition sets a constraint on joint benefits. A reserve for native Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida) was established in lower Hood Canal (Washington State, USA) more than a century ago but is now devoid of that species and dominated by native eelgrass (Zostera marina). This situation sets up a conservation conflict because management activities for one species are at odds with the protection of another.In experimental enhancement plots, Olympia oysters were outplanted at low density, which successfully maintained eelgrass density and production. One method was used in 2013 (seeded cultch, 8% cover) and two additional methods in 2015 (anchored cultch and single oysters, the latter at 4% cover).For all outplant methods, oysters experienced 99% annual mortality, associated with the attraction of non-native and native predators. Shell cover remained steady for a year and then declined rapidly, as shell accumulation did not exceed sedimentation rates.Eelgrass per se does not preclude Olympia oysters, given that the two species were observed to co-occur at a coastal estuarine site (Willapa Bay, Washington). However, even when socio-political constraints on restoration activities were overcome, ecological constraints remained from predation. Competition between these two protected species was avoided, but it may be the case that top-down control on oysters was particularly acute owing to low oyster density and/or the environmental conditions of eelgrass beds.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T05:00:34.521415-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2722
       
  • Irresponsible vendors: Non-native, invasive and threatened animals offered
           for garden pond stocking
    • Authors: Jiří Patoka; Martin Bláha, Lukáš Kalous, Antonín Kouba
      Abstract: The pet trade has been responsible for many introductions of non-native species. Freshwater ornamental plants and animals originating from the pet trade are stocked to garden ponds. The present survey focused on awareness and responsible behaviour related to biological invasion risks of companies that designed, built, and stocked garden ponds.A representative number (n = 124) of companies (commercial garden pond architects and builders) in the Czech Republic were surveyed regarding the offer of non-native, invasive and threatened native species. The survey was conducted over the entire warm period (from 1 May 2015 to 31 September 2015) while using personal visits, correspondence and interviews to list the species on offer.‘Traditional’ ornamental species were offered by 39.1% of surveyed vendors, non-traditional ‘marginal’ species by 5.6%, common native species by 6.5% and threatened native species by 2.4%.The findings of this study support the hypothesis that ‘garden pond’ vendors offer non-native species with a risk of biological invasion; moreover, threatened native animals were also on sale. It is probable that a similar situation exists in other countries. It is important for the conservation of native aquatic biota to raise awareness of the need to reduce risk through responsible behaviour of those involved in the pet trade. It is also essential to prohibit stocking of potential invaders and to enforce the illegal capture and sale of native species.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T05:00:22.904501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2719
       
  • Buying environmental problems: The invasive potential of imported
           freshwater turtles in Argentina
    • Authors: Javier Nori; Geiziane Tessarolo, Gentile F. Ficetola, Rafael Loyola, Valeria Di Cola, Gerardo Leynaud
      Abstract: In recent years, decision-makers in Argentina have allowed the legal import of thousands of specimens of freshwater turtles. Given their invasive potential, many of the imported species have become established and have spread to other countries.The three most commonly imported species recently have been Graptemys pseudogeographica, Trachemys scripta, and Pseudemys nelsoni, all of them native to North America.This study assessed the invasive potential of these species in Argentina based on (i) bioclimatic envelope models, (ii) distribution of water bodies, (iii) location of the most populated cities, (iv) comparisons between their alien and native climatic niches, and (v) the main ecological traits of those species.The results showed that these species are able to establish viable populations in Argentina, especially T. scripta and G. pseudogeographica. This is because the country offers a large amount of suitable climatic space for these species, in which there are large areas with rivers and other water bodies. The situation is especially problematic in freshwater ecosystems of the north east, as well as in the most populated portion of the country.A range of regulatory policies are suggested, which could help to reduce biodiversity loss and economic impacts in the future.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T01:45:33.608375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2715
       
  • Development of release methods for captive-bred freshwater pearl mussels
           (Margaritifera margaritifera)
    • Authors: Rebecca Kyle; Neil Reid, Nessa O'Connor, Dai Roberts
      Abstract: Biodiversity loss is a global problem with freshwater bivalves considered among the most endangered biota. The freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera, is declining throughout its range owing to habitat degradation and overexploitation. In most of its range, populations are regarded as reproductively non-functional, which has led to the development of captive breeding programmes.A novel method of releasing M. margaritifera was tested, with captive-bred juveniles being released into the rivers caged in ‘mussel silos’ (protective concrete domes with ventilation creating upwelling to ensure water through-flow).In total, 240 juvenile mussels were released and survival and growth rates were monitored for 18 months after release for three size classes: A (13.01–20.00 mm); B (10.01–13.00 mm); and C (4.01–10.00 mm).Two experimental treatments were tested: one in which sediment was added to each silo (allowing mussels to orientate and burrow) and one without sediment. Survival by the end of the experiment at month 18 was significantly higher for the largest size class at 97% (although growth was lowest in this cohort), and lowest for the smallest size class, at 61% (although growth was highest in this cohort). Survival and growth were unaffected by the experimental treatment suggesting that adding sediment offered no advantage. Growth was positively correlated both with water temperature and with particle size of suspended solids (both of which were collinear, peaking in summer).There are many ex situ breeding programmes for freshwater pearl mussels throughout Europe and the results of this study suggest that the use of mussel silos may be a useful tool to protect juvenile mussels, allowing them to be released at a relatively early stage of development and minimizing the risk of domestication. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-16T00:17:10.919461-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2704
       
  • Long-term records (1781–2013) of European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.)
           production in the Comacchio Lagoon (Italy): evaluation of local and global
           factors as causes of the population collapse
    • Authors: Vassilis Aschonitis; Giuseppe Castaldelli, Mattia Lanzoni, Remigio Rossi, Clive Kennedy, Elisa Anna Fano
      Abstract: Several eel species have undergone extensive declines at both local and global level. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for the collapse of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock in an important area for biodiversity conservation (Comacchio Lagoon, Italy), in order to support the development of eel conservation plans.The records of silver eel catches from Comacchio describe the total migratory population and cover the period 1781–2013. The data are accompanied by information related to habitat loss and other local factors. The role of local factors on the decline of the local stock was investigated, while additional information from the literature was also used to discuss the effects of global factors (including glass eel harvest for aquaculture, climate–oceanographic changes, habitat loss, pollution and parasitism) on the three eel species A. anguilla, Anguilla japonica and Anguilla rostrata.The records from Comacchio provided significant information about the effects of local factors on the local eel populations in the past. However, the current population collapse, which started in the 1970s, could not be explained by local factors.The literature on global factors suggests that the three eel species are under combined threat from various factors. The correlations between European aquaculture production data compared with the Comacchio yields and published data from other European eel and glass eel fisheries were found to be highly significant. Aquaculture, which depends entirely on wild-caught glass eels, seems to play a key role in the decline of natural stocks.Conservative estimates using FAO data showed that the current numbers of glass eels needed to support aquaculture production in Europe and Asia exceeds 2 × 109 specimens. This requirement, largely supplied by A. anguilla glass eels, can explain the decline of eel populations since the glass eel trade has been expanded at an international level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T06:30:34.148148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2701
       
  • Assessing vulnerability of New Zealand lakes to loss of conservation value
           from invasive fish impacts
    • Authors: Kevin J. Collier; John R. Leathwick, David K. Rowe
      Abstract: Predictions of invasion risk for seven non-indigenous fish species, ecological impact scores for individual species, and lake conservation rankings were linked to develop Invasion Risk Impact (IRI) and Lake Vulnerability (LV) indices that help identify New Zealand lakes most at risk of loss of conservation value from potential multi-species invasions.Species-specific IRI scores (the product of predicted invasion risk and species impact) highlighted Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), as the species most likely to spread and cause ecological harm in lakes. For 3431 lakes>1 ha throughout New Zealand, total IRI tended to be highest for lowland riverine and dune lakes most of which are already colonized by multiple invasive fish species.The LV index indicated that lakes most at risk of loss of conservation value from invasive fish impacts were predominantly (i) in the northern half of the North Island where several uncommon lake types occur, and (ii) along the west coast of the South Island where conservation value is often greater, largely because of low catchment modification.The IRI and LV indices can be used to assist with setting priorities for surveillance monitoring, advocacy, and response planning targeted at preventing the establishment of invasive fish in moderate-to-high value lakes most susceptible to ecological impacts. Both indices can be adapted to accommodate alternative impact and conservation scoring systems, providing a flexible tool for local- and national-scale assessments of lake vulnerability to fish invasion impacts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T05:50:27.576327-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2705
       
  • Using maximum entropy to predict suitable habitat for the endangered dwarf
           wedgemussel in the Maryland Coastal Plain
    • Authors: Cara A. Campbell; Robert H. Hilderbrand
      Abstract: Species distribution modelling can be useful for the conservation of rare and endangered species. Freshwater mussel declines have thinned species ranges producing spatially fragmented distributions across large areas. Spatial fragmentation in combination with a complex life history and heterogeneous environment makes predictive modelling difficult.A machine learning approach (maximum entropy) was used to model occurrences and suitable habitat for the federally endangered dwarf wedgemussel, Alasmidonta heterodon, in Maryland's Coastal Plain catchments. Landscape-scale predictors (e.g. land cover, land use, soil characteristics, geology, flow characteristics, and climate) were used to predict the suitability of individual stream segments for A. heterodon.The best model contained variables at three scales: minimum elevation (segment scale), percentage Tertiary deposits, low intensity development, and woody wetlands (sub-catchment), and percentage low intensity development, pasture/hay agriculture, and average depth to the water table (catchment). Despite a very small sample size owing to the rarity of A. heterodon, cross-validated prediction accuracy was 91%.Most predicted suitable segments occur in catchments not known to contain A. heterodon, which provides opportunities for new discoveries or population restoration. These model predictions can guide surveys toward the streams with the best chance of containing the species or, alternatively, away from those streams with little chance of containing A. heterodon.Developed reaches had low predicted suitability for A. heterodon in the Coastal Plain. Urban and exurban sprawl continues to modify stream ecosystems in the region, underscoring the need to preserve existing populations and to discover and protect new populations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T05:45:44.984283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2699
       
  • Effectiveness of community and volunteer based coral reef monitoring in
           Cambodia
    • Authors: Jessica M. Savage; Patrick E. Osborne, Malcolm D. Hudson
      Abstract: Globally, coral reef monitoring programmes conducted by volunteer-based organizations or local communities have the potential to collect large quantities of marine data at low cost. However, many scientists remain sceptical about the ability of these programmes to detect changes in marine systems when compared with professional techniques.A limited number of studies have assessed the efficacy and validity of volunteer-based monitoring, and even fewer have assessed community-based methods.This study in Cambodia investigated the ability of surveyors of different levels of experience to conduct underwater surveys using a simple coral reef methodology. Surveyors were assigned to four experience categories and conducted a series of six 20 × 5 m belt transects using five benthic indicator species.Results show decreased variation in marine community assessments with increasing experience, indicating that experience, rather than cultural background, influences survey ability. This suggests that locally based programmes can fill gaps in knowledge with suitable ongoing training and assessment.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T05:30:30.077549-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2690
       
  • Combining ex situ and in situ methods to improve water quality testing for
           the conservation of aquatic species
    • Authors: Carla J. Pollard; Michelle P. Stockwell, Deborah S. Bower, John Clulow, Michael J. Mahony
      Abstract: Determining whether water quality is suitable is an important part of managing aquatic species for conservation, although it is often challenging to achieve. Past approaches have largely consisted of tests exposing individuals to artificial solutions, or field studies that examine the effect of a subset of water quality parameters on the distribution or abundance of a species.Owing to the complex nature of water chemistry in natural systems, which is difficult to replicate using laboratory studies or to capture entirely with correlational field studies, these types of study may not be suitable for determining accurately whether or not water quality at a particular site is suitable for a target species. In situations where conservation outcomes rely heavily on achieving this, an alternative approach is therefore needed.Embryos of the threatened green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea were placed in water collected from ponds that were used by this species for breeding and ponds where breeding was not detected at Sydney Olympic Park, Australia. After 19 days, the tadpoles were placed in enclosures in the same breeding and non-breeding ponds, and monitored until they metamorphosed.There was no difference in tadpole survival, time to metamorphosis or body condition between the two treatments, indicating that poor water quality was not a cause of low pond occupancy by tadpoles at the site and resources should be directed towards investigating other potential causes.We suggest that this method of an ex situ followed by an in situ exposure study is an effective approach to eliminating or confirming poor water quality as a cause of population declines and reduced occupancy, for species that are aquatic for at least part of their life cycle. Other applications include establishing that artificially created habitat provides suitable water chemistry, or identifying a potential location for a reintroduction project. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-09-23T06:05:26.598011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2700
       
  • Do boating and basking mix' The effect of basking disturbances by
           motorboats on the body temperature and energy budget of the northern map
           turtle
    • Authors: Sofia M. R. Jain-Schlaepfer; Gabriel Blouin-Demers, Steven J. Cooke, Grégory Bulté
      Abstract: Basking is the primary mechanism used by many freshwater turtles to maintain their body temperature (Tb) in a range that maximizes physiological performance. Basking turtles are easily disturbed by motorboats, but the consequences of the increasingly popular use of motorboats on turtles is largely unknown.In this work, predictive models built from field and laboratory data were used to assess the effects of the frequency of basking disturbance by motorboats on Tb and metabolic rate (MR) of female northern map turtles (Graptemys geographica), a species of conservation concern.Simulations revealed that the effects of boat disturbance vary seasonally. In early May, a conservative estimate of the disturbance rate (0.15 per hour) resulted in a 0.34°C decrease in mean daily Tb, which translated to a 7.8% reduction in mean MR. In June, July and August, owing to warmer lake temperatures, the effect of disturbance was less marked and the observed disturbance rates (0.32, 0.96 and 1.23 per hour, respectively) reduced the mean MR of an adult female by 2.1%, 0.5%, and 0.4 %, respectively.Reduction in MR decreases the rate of energy assimilation, which could translate into sublethal effects on turtles, such as reduced growth and reproductive output.Motorboat usage is increasing in many areas and is probably affecting other species of freshwater turtles that use aerial basking. This study offers important insights on the implications of disturbances for species that bask.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19T07:00:35.665364-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2693
       
  • Growth characteristics of the endangered thick-shelled river mussel (Unio
           crassus) near the northern limit of its natural range
    • Authors: Samuli Helama; Ilmari Valovirta, Jan Kresten Nielsen
      Abstract: The thick-shelled river mussel, Unio crassus (Bivalvia: Unionoida), is one of Europe's most-threatened mussels. Finnish populations of U. crassus lie close to the northern limit of its natural distribution. Extirpation of these populations will reduce the range of this endangered species.Growth characteristics of U. crassus were measured in a river running through the Helsinki metropolitan area. Shell dimensions (size-at-age data) and annual shell growth increments were used to reconstruct growth rate and its variation during the lifespan of individual mussels and to investigate the relationship between growth rate and longevity (age-at-death).Reconstructed growth rates compared well with size-at-age data conventionally used to study individual growth in natural populations, and fitted von Bertalanffy growth functions very well. Based on the same function, reconstruction and size-at-age methods resulted in similar estimates of growth rate.Shell weight explained the body size more reliably than age, suggesting that growth rate varied significantly among individuals. Comparison of individual growth histories revealed a negative correlation between age-at-death and growth rate, i.e. slow-growing mussels lived longer, and vice versa.In comparison with populations from central and southern Europe, U. crassus populations in the north of its range grew more slowly but lived longer, a phenomenon most likely explained by latitudinal changes in ambient temperature.Although northern populations are expected to benefit from a relatively high number of reproductive periods and lower juvenile mortality, the individuals studied here died earlier and suffered higher mortality than expected and an elevated conservative status is identified. Any management programme should take into account the life-history traits essential to the recognition of management units of U. crassus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08T05:50:27.475479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2698
       
  • A low cost field-survey method for mapping seagrasses and their potential
           threats: an example from the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea
    • Authors: Gidon Winters; Dor Edelist, Rachamim Shem-Tov, Sven Beer, Gil Rilov
      Abstract: 1. In the Gulf of Aqaba (GoA), coral reefs are considered the dominating ecosystem, while seagrass meadows, recognized worldwide as important ecosystems, have received little attention. Absence of comprehensive seagrass maps limits awareness, evaluations of associated ecosystem services, and implementation of conservation and management tools.2. Presented here are the first detailed maps of seagrass meadows along the Israeli coast of the northern GoA. Mapping was performed by snorkelling along transects perpendicular to the shore above meadows growing at 15–25 m. Measurements along these transects included position, meadow depth and visual estimations of seagrass cover. Shallow boundaries of meadows, parallel to shore, were recorded by GPS tracking. Supplementary work included drop-camera boat surveys to determine the position of the deeper edge of meadows. In addition, GIS layers were created that indicated shoreline infrastructures, near-shore human activities and potential pollution threats. Ecosystem services of seagrass meadows mapped were valuated using a benefit transfer approach.3. In total, 9.7 km of the 11 km shoreline were surveyed and 2830 data points collected. Seagrasses were growing along 7.5 km of the shoreline, with shallow (15–25 m) meadows found to cover an area of 707 000 m2 and valued at more than US$ 2 000 000 yr-1 in associated ecosystem services. Pilot drop-camera surveys (additional 283 data points) indicated that meadows can extend down to 50 m in some places. Coastal uses and threats varied in character and location. A municipality runoff point and drainage canal located close to the largest meadow were identified as the main threats to local seagrasses.4. These low-cost methods enhance our understanding of seagrass distribution in the northern GoA. They demonstrate a GIS-based tool for assessing how environmental changes might affect the cover and state of seagrasses, improving efforts to conserve seagrass, and have particular relevance to seagrass mapping in developing countries and/or island nations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19T03:21:17.125132-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2688
       
  • Effects of a hook ring on catch and bycatch in a Mediterranean swordfish
           longline fishery: small addition with potentially large consequences
    • Authors: Susanna Piovano; Yonat Swimmer
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a circle hook ring on catch rates of target fish species and bycatch rates of sea turtles, elasmobranchs, and non-commercial fish in a shallow-set Italian swordfish longline fishery.Results were compared from 65 sets from six commercial fishing vessels totalling 50 800 hooks in which ringed and non-ringed 16/0 circle hooks with a 10° offset were alternated along the length of the longline. In total, 464 individuals were caught in the 4 years of experiment, with swordfish (Xiphias gladius) comprising 83% of the total number of animals captured. Catch rates of targeted swordfish were significantly higher on ringed hooks (CPUEringed hooks = 8.465, CPUEnon-ringed hooks = 6.654).Results indicate that ringed circle hooks captured significantly more small-sized swordfish than non-ringed circle hooks (27.7% vs. 19.5%, respectively).For species with sufficient sample sizes, the odds ratio (OR) of a capture was in favour of ringed hooks; significantly for swordfish (OR = 1.27 95%CI 1.04–1.57), and not significantly for bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) (OR = 1.50, 95%CI 0.68–3.42) nor for pelagic stingray (Pteroplatytrigon violacea) (OR = 1.13, 95%CI 0.54–2.36). All six loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) and three of the four blue sharks (Prionace glauca) were captured on ringed hooks, however, the small sample sizes prevented meaningful statistical analysis.In summary, results from this study suggest that the addition of a ring to 16/0 circle hooks confers higher catchability for small-sized commercial swordfish, and does not significantly reduce catch rate of bycatch species and protected species in a Mediterranean shallow pelagic longline fishery.These findings should motivate fisheries managers to consider factors in addition to hook shape when aiming to promote sustainable fishing practices. The presence of a ring has the potential to negate some conservation benefits. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19T03:10:28.978722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2689
       
  • Enhancing capacity for freshwater conservation at the genetic level: a
           demonstration using three stream macroinvertebrates
    • Authors: Hannah C. Macdonald; Steve J. Ormerod, Michael W. Bruford
      Abstract: Species diversity is declining more rapidly in freshwater ecosystems than in any other, but the consequences for genetic diversity, and hence evolutionary potential, are poorly understood. In part this reflects limited use and development of modern molecular tools and genetic approaches to address conservation questions in rivers, lakes and wetlands. As widespread, diverse and functionally important organisms, freshwater macroinvertebrates are ideal candidates for genetic approaches to reveal, for example, the conservation consequences of demographic histories and past disturbances. However, the availability of microsatellite markers for this group is very limited.Using next generation sequencing, microsatellite markers were developed for Isoperla grammatica (Poda, 1761), Amphinemura sulcicollis (Stephens, 1836) and Baetis rhodani (Pictet, 1843) to enable conservation genetic investigations of these widespread invertebrate species. Fifty-two robust microsatellite loci were developed (18, 21 and 13 per species), all with high levels of allelic diversity (7–27, 3–16, 5–13 alleles per loci, respectively).These tools will allow assessment of genetic structure, dispersal and demographic resilience in these model species as a function of environmental change and variation, thereby aiding freshwater monitoring and conservation. The authors urge further capacity building to support genetic applications to the conservation biology of other aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T06:26:14.870137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2691
       
  • Assessment of efficiency and impacts of gillnets on fish conservation in a
           tropical freshwater fishery
    • Authors: Renato A.M. Silvano; Gustavo Hallwass, Anastácio A. Juras, Priscila F.M. Lopes
      Abstract: Gillnets are commonly used in tropical multi-species fisheries and there is a need to investigate the comparative efficiency and impacts of this gear on fish populations and diversity. The efficiency and the impact of gillnets of distinct mesh sizes were compared in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon).Fish sampling was conducted in 12 floodplain lakes using gillnets of distinct mesh sizes and 345 fish landings were recorded. Indicators of gillnet efficiency were: (1) catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of total fish sampled; (2) CPUE of fish caught by fishers; (3) CPUE of commercial fish sampled; and (4) proportion of biomass of commercial fish sampled. Indicators of impact were: (1) the number of non-commercial fish (by-catch); (2) the proportion of fish above the length at first maturity; (3) mean fish size (length); (4) total number of fish species and of rare fish species caught.Gillnets of 8 cm mesh size showed a higher CPUE in fish samples and fish landings. This mesh size also showed reduced impacts (lower numbers of non-commercial fish caught and higher proportion of adult fish).Gillnets of 6 cm mesh size caught a smaller proportion of adult fish, smaller fish, more species and more rare species. Therefore, intensive use of these gillnets could increase the risk of regional species extinctions and impair the provision of ecosystem services by target fish.Gillnets of 8 cm mesh size could improve fish catches while minimizing adverse effects of gillnet fishing. The practical management recommendation would be to replace the more damaging small mesh gillnets by gillnets with intermediate mesh size. This recommendation could simultaneously protect small-sized rare species and larger fish, being broadly applicable to other small-scale and multi-species fisheries that use gillnets intensively in tropical countries with high fish diversity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-07-31T23:20:36.62377-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2687
       
  • Responses of Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea, to anthropogenic
           activities in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia
    • Authors: Sylvia K. Osterrieder; Chandra Salgado Kent, Randall W. Robinson
      Abstract: Tourist-based activities, partly due to their rapid increase, have raised concerns regarding the impacts of anthropogenic activity on marine fauna. Documented effects on pinnipeds in proximity to humans include changes in behaviour, site use and potentially higher aggression levels towards people. Effects vary considerably between populations and sites, thus requiring separate assessment of human impacts on activity and energy budgets.Responses of the endangered Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea, to human visitation were recorded from November 2013 through April 2014. Exposure levels and response types to anthropogenic activities were assessed at two easily accessible locations with different management schemes, Seal (landing prohibited) and Carnac (landing permitted) islands, Western Australia. Exposure levels were measured as both stimulus type (i.e. ‘People’, ‘Paddlers’, ‘Small’, ‘Medium’, and ‘Large vessels’, ‘Tour vessels’, and ‘Jet skies’), and people (‘Direct’, ‘Attract’, ‘Interact’, ‘View’, ‘Incidental’, ‘Water’, ‘Low-level’), and vessel activities (‘Interact’, ‘Approach/Follow’, ‘Anchor noise’, ‘Engine noise’, ‘Close to beach’, ‘Moderate/Fast travel’, ‘Slow travel’, ‘Transit’, ‘Drift/At anchor’, ‘Aircraft noise’).Exposure levels varied significantly between the islands in numbers, stimuli type, duration and minimum approach distances. The instantaneous behaviours of ‘Lift head’, ‘Interact’ and ‘Sit’ were the most frequent responses. ‘Aggressive’ and ‘Retreat’ responses, the highest disturbance levels measured, occurred on Carnac approximately once per day, but rarely on Seal Island. ‘Aggressive’ behaviour towards ‘People’ was observed only on Carnac Island and elicited only by ‘People’. ‘People’, ‘Tour vessels’, and scenic ‘Aircrafts’ on both islands as well as ‘Jet skis’ on Carnac Island had the highest probability of triggering responses. Owing to their relatively high visitation at Seal Island, ‘Paddle powered vessels’, followed by ‘Tour vessels’ elicited the highest number of responses, compared with ‘People’, ‘Small’, and ‘Medium vessels’ at Carnac Island. The majority of responses occurred when any stimulus type was at short-range (≤10 m), and ‘People’ ‘Viewing’ N. cinerea elicited most. Vessels triggered more responses at larger ranges than ‘People’.To limit close-range access to N. cinerea, one possibility is to close the beach at Carnac Island to human visitation and increase the minimum approach distance by vessels and ‘People’ by installing marker buoys at least 15 m from the shore. © 2016 The
      Authors . Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T18:10:41.595562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2668
       
  • Characterization of the trade in manta and devil ray gill plates in China
           and South-east Asia through trader surveys
    • Authors: Mary p. O'Malley; Kathy A. Townsend, Paul Hilton, Shawn Heinrichs, Joshua D. Stewart
      Abstract: Dried gill plates from manta and devil rays, some of the world's most biologically vulnerable fishes, have become a valued commodity in Asian dried-seafood and traditional Chinese medicine markets. This trade is a primary driver of fisheries, which have led to declines in many mobulid populations.With no reliable trade statistics and scarce data on mobulid fisheries, this study estimates the number and species of mobulids required to supply this trade, and investigates the consumers and suppliers involved and drivers of demand. Following preliminary market research, 525 trader surveys were conducted in Hong Kong, Singapore, Macau, Taiwan, and southern China.Guangzhou, China was identified as the centre of the trade accounting for 99% of total estimated market volume of 60.5 tons of dried gill plates in 2011, increasing to 120.5 tons by 2013. The estimated number of mobulids converted from tons of gill plates more than doubled over the period to 130 000, comprising 96% devil rays, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni, and Mobula tarapacana, and 4% Manta spp. By 2015 the Guangzhou market had declined sharply, reportedly due to conservation campaigns and government policies. However Hong Kong's gill plate sales increased dramatically between 2011 and 2015.China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and India were reported most frequently as gill plate sources.Vendors recommend gill plates (trade name pengyusai) for ailments ranging from acne to cancer and as a general health tonic. While pengyusai is a new addition to traditional Chinese medicine literature and is rarely prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners, it is readily available over the counter and aggressively marketed by vendors.Working in concert with consumer demand reduction efforts, increased measures to restrict mobulid fisheries and trade are recommended to prevent further population declines of these highly vulnerable species. Copyright © 2016 The
      Authors . Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T19:46:08.745431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2670
       
  • Linking small pelagic fish and cetacean distribution to model suitable
           habitat for coastal dolphin species, Delphinus delphis and Tursiops
           truncatus, in the Greek Seas (Eastern Mediterranean)
    • Authors: Marianna Giannoulaki; Evangelia Markoglou, Vasilis D. Valavanis, Paraskevi Alexiadou, Anna Cucknell, Alexandros Frantzis
      Abstract: A large-scale assessment of the summertime suitable habitat for Delphinus delphis (short-beaked common dolphin) and Tursiops truncatus (common bottlenose dolphin) in Greek Seas (Eastern Mediterranean) was conducted using data from dedicated and opportunistic cetacean surveys and published data records.Using a presence/absence approach, generalized additive models were applied to define a suite of environmental, bathymetric and biotic factors that best describe common and bottlenose dolphin spatial distribution, during early (May, June, July) and late (August, September) summer.A geographic information system (GIS) was used to integrate sightings data with environmental characteristics, distance from the coast and sardine probability of presence. These variables were considered as good proxies for defining species-suitable habitat within the study area's coastal environment.The final selected models were used to produce annual probability maps of the presence of the species in the entire Greek Seas, as a measure of habitat suitability. Based on the mean probability and standard deviation maps for the study period GIS techniques were subsequently used to determine the persistent (areas with high mean and low variation) and occasional (high mean and high variation) habitat of each species.Results showed that there was a high probability of common dolphin presence in areas with a high probability of sardine presence. For bottlenose dolphin, higher probability of the presence of species occurred in areas closer to the shore, with a high probability of sardine presence and with high concentrations of chlorophyll-a.In both seasons, the North Aegean Sea and the Inner Ionian Sea Archipelago were indicated as the most suitable areas for common dolphin distribution. Persistent habitat areas of the bottlenose dolphin included enclosed seas, continental shelf waters, and waters surrounding islands. The indicated suitable areas are discussed along with deficiencies of the models and future implications for conservation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T23:10:36.445201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2669
       
  • Diving for science - science for diving: volunteer scuba divers support
           science and conservation in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: Carlo Cerrano; Martina Milanese, Massimo Ponti
      Abstract: Recreational diving engages 20 million people worldwide. Most of the literature refers to tropical destinations but at least 1 million dives per year take place in Mediterranean marine protected areas (MPAs).Divers may negatively affect underwater habitats. However, if effectively engaged, they can contribute to science, territorial management and more sustainable local economies.During 2006–2014, volunteers trained by the not-for-profit organization Reef Check Italia (RCI) completed 24 714 observations and 2417 dives in six Mediterranean countries, contributing to a dataset that supports scientific papers about climate change, rare and non-indigenous species (NIS), and informs MPA management decision-making.The wide range of opportunities offered by this dataset is illustrated with two examples relevant to marine conservation in the context of MPA management. They concern: (i) the spread of the NIS Caulerpa cylindracea along the Ligurian coasts, with a focus on Portofino MPA, and (ii) the distribution and abundance of protected species in the Portofino MPA.A diver-focused survey showed that RCI volunteers are highly committed, and that participation in RCI activities has led to a better understanding of, and a sense of stewardship towards, favoured dive sites and the marine world. Knowing who volunteers are, and why they volunteer in their favourite sector, is crucial to designing citizen-science based projects able to achieve their multiple goals. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18T21:45:48.480317-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2663
       
  • Towards local governance of marine resources and ecosystems on Easter
           Island
    • Authors: Jaime A. Aburto; Carlos F. Gaymer, Georgina Cundill
      Abstract: Social-ecological system sustainability depends in part upon the fit between ecosystems and institutions.In 2014, the local community on Easter Island started a bottom-up process to improve marine resources conservation and management.Local stakeholders formed a working group that has regular meetings and goals, such as creating a sea council and some basic action plans, thus initiating a local governance transformation process.A participatory process was conducted together with a local organization that led the marine conservation issues on the island to define the factors that could favour and/or undermine the formation of the sea council. Also, the stakeholders that must be present in such a sea council were identified.Twelve factors that could facilitate or hinder the implementation of a sea council were identified. The lack of representativeness of public institutions is a major challenge.Public institutions are designed to ensure compliance with central government strategies, but the decisions do not represent the worldview of islanders.The results showed the potential value of conducting a participatory process to identify the key issues that could hinder or favour a desired governance transformation process. The participatory process also highlighted governance mismatches that are important to consider in attempts to pursue more effective fishery governance on Easter Island, and other Island communities.Centralized governance systems do not respond rapidly to locally observed social and ecological dynamics. By contrast, a local decision-making system based on traditional laws and local governance can more rapidly respond to observed changes.The participatory process presented here holds the potential to support local people in their planning and coordination for marine conservation and management in order to optimize bottom-up change processes involving multiple stakeholders with different interests, values and levels of power. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-05-14T01:10:35.342569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2665
       
  • Elasmobranch captures in the Fijian pelagic longline fishery
    • Authors: Susanna Piovano; Eric Gilman
      Abstract: Pelagic longline fisheries for relatively fecund tuna and tuna-like species can have large adverse effects on incidentally caught species with low-fecundity, including elasmobranchs.Analyses of observer programme data from the Fiji longline fishery from 2011 to 2014 were conducted to characterize the shark and ray catch composition and identify factors that significantly explained standardized catch rates. Catch data were fitted to generalized linear models to identify potentially significant explanatory variables.With a nominal catch rate of 0.610 elasmobranchs per 1000 hooks, a total of 27 species of elasmobranchs were captured, 48% of which are categorized as Threatened under the IUCN Red List. Sharks and rays made up 2.4% and 1.4%, respectively, of total fish catch. Blue sharks and pelagic stingrays accounted for 51% and 99% of caught sharks and rays, respectively.There was near elimination of ‘shark lines’, branchlines set at or near the sea surface via attachment directly to floats, after 2011.Of caught elasmobranchs, 35% were finned, 11% had the entire carcass retained, and the remainder was released alive or discarded dead. Finning of elasmobranchs listed in CITES Appendix II was not observed in 2014.There were significantly higher standardized shark and ray catch rates on narrower J-shaped hooks than on wider circle hooks. Based on findings from previous studies on single factor effects of hook width and shape, the smaller minimum width of the J-shaped hooks may have caused the higher shark and ray catch rates. For sharks, the effect of hook width may have exceeded the effect of hook shape, where small increases in shark catch rates have been observed on circle vs J-shaped hooks.Shark and ray standardized catch rates were lowest in the latter half of the year. Focusing effort during the second half of the year could reduce elasmobranch catch rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T01:13:05.985977-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2666
       
 
 
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