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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1589 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1589 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 243, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
  [SJR: 1.047]   [H-I: 57]   [36 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1052-7613 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0755
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Upstream recolonization by freshwater mussels (Unionoida: Hyriidae)
           following installation of a fishway
    • Authors: Justin Aaron Benson; Paul Graeme Close, Barbara Ann Stewart, Alan Lymbery
      Abstract: Freshwater mussels provide important benefits to aquatic ecosystems by filtering water, bioturbating sediments, and cycling and transforming nutrients. The global decline in mussel diversity, distribution and abundance has led to concerns that ecological functioning in freshwater systems will be diminished.Mussels from the order Unionoida have an obligate larval stage that parasitizes a fish host, developing into a juvenile while being dispersed throughout the ecosystem. Barriers that obstruct fish movement can lead to localized extinctions of fish and mussels. In many cases, fishways have successfully restored habitat connectivity for fish; however, mussel recolonization is rarely assessed.This paper provides evidence for recolonization by Carter's freshwater mussel (Westralunio carteri, Iredale 1934) in habitats upstream of a weir following fishway installation. Mussels were present at all sites both above and below the weir, although they were far more abundant downstream. A lack of larger size classes upstream highlights the historical lack of recruitment in that area. Recent recruitment post-fishway installation suggests that the population will eventually recover above the weir.The return of mussels above the weir is likely to benefit the ecosystem owing to the key role mussels play in aquatic habitats. Fishways may therefore be an important tool for the restoration of mussels, and broader ecological functioning.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T04:25:15.184454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2861
  • Stocking impact, population structure and conservation of wild brown trout
           populations in inner Galicia (NW Spain), an unstable hydrologic region
    • Authors: Manuel Vera; Paulino Martinez, Carmen Bouza
      Abstract: 1. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) is an important conservation resource in the Iberian Peninsula. The Atlantic is considered the most hydrologically stable region for the species, although inner Galicia (NW Spain) shows Mediterranean (unstable) climatic conditions. The Galician region, threatened by past releases of brown trout individuals from central European origin, harbours two native lineages, one of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These populations are thus highly valuable for conservation, as well as being important for recreational fisheries.2. In total, 546 individuals from 16 sampling sites (15 natural locations from inner Galicia and one from a central European hatchery stock) were genotyped for 11 nuclear markers (10 microsatellite loci and the LDH-C* locus) to analyse genetic variability, population structure and introgression impact from stocking in order to assess the conservation status of brown trout in the region. Moreover, correlation among hatchery introgression and environmental variables relevant for species population dynamics was also investigated.3. Genetic variability was within the range of Iberian brown trout (He = 0.500–0.600). Stocking impact was higher than previously reported values for the Atlantic region and was related to environmental instability. Highly significant native population differentiation was observed in the whole region (FST = 0.283), at least four main genetic groups being detected across the geographic distribution studied.4. Conservation strategies at local level (including the creation of genetic refuges and temporal monitoring of genetic composition) are suggested to agencies and administrations for the sustainable management of brown trout.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T01:00:55.775917-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2856
  • Complexity of river ciliate communities at a national park highlights the
           need for microbial conservation
    • Authors: Pablo Quintela-Alonso; Blanca Pérez-Uz, Abel Sanchez-Jimenez, Antonio Murciano, Juan D. Centeno, Manuel García-Rodríguez, Esperanza Montero, Benito Muñoz, Cristina Olmedo, Pablo Refoyo, Ismael Velasco-González, Mercedes Martín-Cereceda
      Abstract: Microorganisms play pivotal roles in aquatic ecosystems. Free-living protists are the main components of the eukaryotic microbial communities at the base of freshwater ecosystems. Ciliate grazing channels a large proportion of organic matter into multicellular organisms. Surprisingly, ciliates and other microorganisms are neglected in global conservation schemes.Interstitial ciliates were sampled in three sites of varying human pressure on the River Manzanares (La Pedriza National Park, Spain). Abundances of trophic groups and species were adjusted to a generalized linear model (GLM Poisson regression).Ciliate communities were rich in species (74 morphotypes) and although traditional microscopy retrieved a high number of species that appeared only once or in low numbers, rarefaction analyses estimated much larger species richness. These results illustrate that rarefaction assays are a useful first step for exploring the extent of the ciliate cryptic diversity in freshwater ecosystems.Benthic ciliate communities changed significantly, both spatially and at a short temporal scale. The fluctuating nature of the community was manifested by the presence of many ephemeral species at the same river site, revealing a complex and transient community structure. No significant short-term changes were observed in the physical–chemical properties. Therefore, even slight differences in the abiotic variables may cause rapid shifts of ciliate species.Overall, human pressure had an effect on the interstitial (or benthic) ciliates that resulted in a reduction of species richness and their abundance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T00:56:28.564875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2852
  • Vulnerability of Cape Fold Ecoregion freshwater fishes to climate change
           and other human impacts
    • Authors: Jeremy M. Shelton; Olaf L.F. Weyl, Albert Chakona, Bruce R. Ellender, Karen J. Esler, N. Dean Impson, Martine S. Jordaan, Sean M. Marr, Tumisho Ngobela, Bruce R. Paxton, Johannes A. Van Der Walt, Helen F. Dallas
      Abstract: Native freshwater fish populations throughout South Africa's Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) are in decline as a result of human impacts on aquatic habitats, including the introduction of non-native freshwater fishes. Climate change may be further accelerating declines of many species, although this has not yet been studied in the CFE. This situation presents a major conservation challenge that requires assigning management priorities through assessing species in terms of their vulnerability to climate change.One factor hindering reliable vulnerability assessments and the concurrent development of effective conservation strategies is limited knowledge of the biology and population status of many species. This paper reports on a study employing a rapid assessment method used in the USA, designed to capitalize on available expert knowledge to supplement existing empirical data, to determine the relative vulnerabilities of different species to climate change and other human impacts. Eight local freshwater fish experts conducted vulnerability assessments on 20 native and 17 non-native freshwater fish species present in the CFE.Results show (1) that native species were generally classified as being more vulnerable to extinction than were non-native species, (2) that the climate change impacts are expected to increase the vulnerability of most native, and some non-native, species, (3) that vulnerability hotspots requiring urgent conservation attention occur in the Olifants-Doring, upper Berg and upper Breede River catchments in the south west of the region, (4) that in addition to providing guidance for prioritizing management interventions, this study highlights the need for reliable data on the biology and distribution of many CFE freshwater fishes, and (5) that identification of priority areas for protection should be based on multiple sources of data.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T05:50:46.638372-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2849
  • Genetic diversity and population history of Tanichthys albonubes
           (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Implications for conservation
    • Authors: Jun Zhao; Kui-Ching Hsu, Jin-Zhen Luo, Chun-Hui Wang, Bosco-Puilok Chan, Jie Li, Po-Hsun Kuo, Hung-Du Lin
      Abstract: Tanichthys albonubes is a cyprinid fish of South China and North Vietnam. Although this species has been sold worldwide in the aquarium trade for more than a century, it is listed as a second-class state-protected animal in China and classified as ‘extinct in nature’ in the China Red Data Book.To investigate the population history of T. albonubes and evaluate the genetic conditions among the wild and hatchery populations, mitochondrial genes (mtDNA, 2032 bp from the d-loop and cyt b), nuclear genes (nuDNA, 2241 bp from RAG1 and ENC1) and 13 microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic structure throughout the range of this species.In total, 358 specimens were collected from three hatcheries and all known wild populations. This study found that the discordant population structure among these genetic markers was accounted for by differences in the effective population sizes. The results indicated that (1) the three hatchery stocks originated from a single source in China and that the hatchery stock in China maintained almost all the T. albonubes genetic diversity in the downstream reaches of the Pearl River; (2) the wild population near Baiyun Mountain originated from hatchery releases; (3) the population history reflects the complex geological history of South China; and (4) the habitat destruction and fragmentation that have resulted in small and isolated populations may have shaped the genetic structure of T. albonubes.The low-level genetic diversity of T. albonubes supports the need for conservation interventions. The geographically distinct genotypes indicate a need for the development of management strategies directed towards the conservation of localized populations. The genetic status of all populations, including the hatchery stocks, should be evaluated and monitored continuously.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T03:56:27.355987-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2840
  • Conservation genetics of the Mary River turtle (Elusor macrurus) in
           natural and captive populations
    • Authors: Daniel J. Schmidt; Thomas Espinoza, Marilyn Connell, Jane M. Hughes
      Abstract: Many thousands of Mary River turtle eggs were harvested for the pet trade in the 1960s and 1970s before it was recognized as a new species in a unique genus. Pet turtles and their descendants still survive in captive collections. Elusor macrurus is now an endangered species after suffering dramatic population declines along the single Australian river that constitutes its entire range.A conservation genetic assessment was conducted to evaluate population subdivision within the remaining wild population of the Mary River turtle; to compare diversity of the wild population with a captive sample derived from the pet trade; and to establish a baseline estimate of effective population size (Ne) to assist with future monitoring and recovery.Microsatellite analysis indicated panmixia throughout most of the Mary River catchment with the exception of one downstream tributary –Tinana Creek (pop. Specific FST = 0.154). Subdivision between Tinana Creek and Mary River is a feature common to multiple co-distributed freshwater taxa including the threatened Australian lungfish and Mary River cod. Microsatellite diversity of the wild adult population was low (average HS = 0.554) and not significantly different from that of a sample of captive turtles from the pet trade – indicating genetic diversity may be well represented in captive stocks. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was extremely limited, with only two haplotypes found in the wild and a single shared haplotype in captive turtles.Estimates of Ne applicable to the entire species in the wild were ~136 and ~158 using two independent methods. A reasonable management objective should be retention of Ne levels>100 during recovery of the species. Additional recommendations include that Mary River turtles be listed as Critically Endangered, and that a recovery plan be developed that considers ‘headstarting’ – using captive bred stocks to supplement the wild population.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:00:34.270294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2851
  • Editorial: Aquatic conservation and the World Water Forum
    • Authors: Timothy P. Moulton
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T03:05:21.1275-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2853
  • The status and distribution of a newly identified endemic galaxiid in the
           eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion, of South Africa
    • Authors: Gamuchirai Chakona; Ernst R. Swartz, Albert Chakona
      Abstract: DNA-based studies have uncovered cryptic species and lineages within almost all freshwater fishes studied thus far from the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) of South Africa. These studies have changed the way the CFE is viewed, as almost all stream fishes that were previously considered to be of low conservation priority, because they were perceived to have broad geographical ranges, contain multiple historically isolated lineages, many of which are narrow-range endemics.As stream fishes of the CFE are of conservation concern owing to threats mainly posed by habitat degradation, invasion by alien species and hydrological modification, re-evaluation of the distribution and conservation status of newly identified unique lineages is required to inform the development and implementation of effective conservation and management strategies.The present study conducted an IUCN Red List conservation assessment of a newly identified lineage of the Galaxias zebratus species complex (hereafter referred to as Galaxias sp. ‘Joubertina’) to identify key threats and provide recommendations to conservation authorities on appropriate measures to reduce extinction risk.The lineage met the qualifying threshold for the Endangered category because of its very restricted geographic range, few remaining secure populations, small known population sizes and the intensity of threats to most of the populations. Only six populations remain, one of which could be an ‘extralimital’ population potentially established through an inter-basin water transfer scheme.Galaxias sp. ‘Joubertina’ is threatened by invasive piscivores, habitat degradation and excessive water abstraction. These impacts have fragmented remnant populations, raising concerns about potential long-term adverse impacts on genetic diversity and evolutionary potential of this lineage.Immediate conservation measures should protect remnant populations from further impacts, while long-term measures should aim to restore historical connectivity to reduce the potential deleterious effects of inbreeding in the small isolated populations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T03:01:25.167475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2850
  • A gleam of hope for the critically endangered Isoëtes malinverniana: Use
           of small-scale translocations to guide conservation planning
    • Authors: Thomas Abeli; Paolo Cauzzi, Graziano Rossi, Fausto Pistoja, Marco Mucciarelli
      Abstract: Results of the first documented reintroduction of the endangered endemic quillwort Isoëtes malinverniana are presented 1 year after transplanting. This represents the most complete report of a quillwort translocation globally.A new population of I. malinverniana was established in a protected area in Lombardy (northern Italy) after several years of investigation of the ecology, biology and genetics of this species. The selected site was restored before the trial release in March 2016 of 20 individuals of the target species.Although modelling for the selection of suitable release sites for the target species indicated that the selected site was not suitable for the species, I. malinverniana exhibited a survival of 60% 1 year after reintroduction. This trial indicates that with very rare species, experimental trialling of a few individuals can test the feasibility of translocation at a larger scale. Although the model was constructed using a wide variety of ecological and phenological parameters, it was unreliable because of intrinsically low statistical power, which is a limitation of modelling associated with very rare species.Although mature spores were dispersed in autumn 2016, sporelings have not yet been observed. Ultimately, reintroduction of I. malinverniana will rely on the evidence of self-recruitment; however, this translocation effort promoted understanding of ecological tolerance and facilitated focused conservation management. For instance, a protocol for in vitro reproduction of the species was successfully developed, resulting in long-term survival of ex situ collections that exist in two botanical gardens in Pavia and Turin.Considering that many isoëtid species are threatened worldwide, the techniques applied here may have broad applicability to other endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T02:27:27.396054-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2848
  • Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (Sousa plumbea) movement patterns along the
           South African coast
    • Authors: Els Vermeulen; Thibaut Bouveroux, Stephanie Plön, Shanan Atkins, Wilfred Chivell, Vic Cockcroft, Danielle Conry, Enrico Gennari, Sandra Hörbst, Bridget S. James, Stephen Kirkman, Gwenith Penry, Pierre Pistorius, Meredith Thornton, O. Alejandra Vargas-Fonseca, Simon H. Elwen
      Abstract: The Indian Ocean humpback dolphin was recently uplisted to ‘Endangered’ in the recent South African National Red List assessment. Abundance estimates are available from a number of localized study sites, but knowledge of movement patterns and population linkage between these sites is poor. A national research collaboration, the SouSA project, was established in 2016 to address this key knowledge gap. Twenty identification catalogues collected between 2000 and 2016 in 13 different locations were collated and compared.Photographs of 526 humpback dolphins (all catalogues and photos) were reduced to 337 individuals from 12 locations after data selection. Of these, 90 matches were found for 61 individuals over multiple sites, resulting in 247 uniquely, well-marked humpback dolphins identified in South Africa.Movements were observed along most of the coastline studied. Ranging distances had a median value of 120 km and varied from 30 km up to 500 km. Long-term site fidelity was also evident in the data. Dolphins ranging along the south coast of South Africa seem to form one single population at the western end of the species' global range.Current available photo-identification data suggested national abundance may be well below previous estimates of 1000 individuals, with numbers possibly closer to 500. Bearing in mind the poor conservation status of the species in the country, the development of a national Biodiversity Management Plan aimed at ensuring the long-term survival of the species in South Africa is strongly recommended. At the same time, increased research efforts are essential, particularly to allow for an in-depth assessment of population numbers and drivers of changes therein.The present study clearly indicates the importance of scientific collaboration when investigating highly mobile and endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T02:15:47.306139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2836
  • The use of Chara spp. (Charales: Characeae) as a bioindicator of
           physico-chemical habitat suitability for an endangered crayfish
           Austropotamobius pallipes in lentic waters
    • Authors: David Beaune; Yann Sellier, Élisabeth Lambert, Frédéric Grandjean
      Abstract: Austropotamobius pallipes is an endangered decapod attracting much attention in freshwater conservation programmes. In some cases population transfers or reintroductions are carried out in lentic ecosystems such as ponds or quarries. Such conservation actions require rapid, low cost and powerful tools to census suitable habitat.Some species of the Characeae family (Chara spp.), share ecological needs with A. pallipes and are proposed as bioindicators of suitable habitat. Chara species were tested, among other plants, as bioindicators, and to see whether Chara species are a stronger indicator than water chemistry.The Pinail Nature Reserve, with 3000 permanent ponds, is inhabited by white-clawed crayfish probably introduced historically into ponds used for fish production. This allows a replicated study of suitable habitats where plant communities are bioindicators of crayfish presence.Crayfish presence is associated with Chara species (such as Chara aspera, Chara virgata, Chara fragifera, Chara polyacantha and Chara vulgaris). Austropotamobius pallipes is present in ponds with Chara spp. (N = 10/10) while other ponds without crayfish are lacking charophytes (N = 1/23). Algae of the genus Chara are thus a simple and low-cost additional tool for determining suitable habitat for crayfish introductions within enclosed waters protected from exotic invasive species and disease. Cladium mariscus also appears to be another useful bioindicator for crayfish habitat.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03T06:16:28.238979-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2847
  • The value of small, natural and man-made wetlands for bird diversity in
           the east Colombian Piedmont
    • Authors: Johanna Murillo-Pacheco; Germán M. López-Iborra, Federico Escobar, Wilian Fernando Bonilla-Rojas, José R. Verdú
      Abstract: Small wetlands are considered a refuge for biodiversity, but the importance of natural and man-made lentic wetlands for the maintenance of bird diversity in human-dominated landscapes is not well-known in the Neotropics.This study evaluated the influence of the types and origins (natural or man-made) of lentic wetlands on bird diversity of three guilds (aquatic, semi-aquatic and landbirds) in the Meta Piedmont, Colombia.The species richness and the structure and composition of each bird guild were estimated and compared between and within wetland types (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and origins (natural, mixed and artificial).In total, 275 bird species were recorded (196 landbirds, 60 aquatic birds and 19 semi-aquatic birds). Local species richness had a wide variation (39 to 144 species), and total and mean richness were significantly different between among wetland types and origins. Semi-natural lakes were the most diverse wetland type, and heronries were the least diverse. Mixed-origin wetlands had the highest species richness. The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) was the most abundant species, while heronries and rice fields showed the greatest total bird abundance.Bird diversity is strongly related to type and origin of wetlands, with significant variations in species composition among different types, which show high local and landscape heterogeneity.It is suggested that small lentic wetlands, whether natural, mixed or artificial, are important for the maintenance of local and regional bird diversity. Conservation and management actions are required to preserve wetland heterogeneity and the birds associated with it.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T03:30:47.145956-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2835
  • Basin-scale distribution and haplotype partitioning in different genetic
           lineages of the Neotropical migratory fish Salminus brasiliensis
    • Authors: Juan José Rosso; Eva C. Rueda, Sebastián Sanchez, María Cecilia Bruno, Jorge Casciotta, Gastón Aguilera, Adriana E. Almirón, Federico J. Ruiz Díaz, Delia Fabiana Cancino, Baltazar Bugeau, Ezequiel Mabragaña, Mariano González-Castro, Matías Delpiani, Juan Martín Díaz de Astarloa
      Abstract: Four valid species are currently recognized in the Neotropical migratory genus Salminus: Salminus brasiliensis, Salminus franciscanus, Salminus hilarii and Salminus affinis. However, molecular evidence strongly suggested that two different species might be contained under the taxonomic denomination Salminus brasiliensis. Therefore, the geographical distribution of each entity was evaluated in order to understand their contribution to the different stocks of major river networks in South America.Major river networks of the La Plata River basin were explored to characterize the geographical distribution of the two genetic lineages. To characterize further the genetic partitioning within each lineage of S. brasiliensis, a haplotype analysis was conducted. The 5′ region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used as the molecular marker. In total, 45 fish samples of S. brasiliensis from 19 sites in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay were sequenced. Additional COI sequences of S. brasiliensis, S. franciscanus and S. hilarii were gathered from public databases.All samples of S. brasiliensis comprised two different mitochondrial lineages. Accordingly, phylogenetic tree topologies segregated the complete set of sequences into two disparate clusters. One of these clusters was far closer phylogenetically to S. hilarii than to other S. brasiliensis.While one of the genetic lineages of S. brasiliensis seemed mostly restricted to the upper Paraná River, the other showed a widespread distribution along major river networks of the basin.Fifteen unique haplotypes were identified and collapsed. Salminus hilarii and S. franciscanus have private haplotypes. In S. brasiliensis, each mitochondrial lineage also hosts a set of unshared haplotypes.The sympatry of two different putative species within S. brasiliensis together with their unshared haplotypes present a difficult situation for management and conservation that calls for timely solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T02:50:52.008236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2830
  • The worth of giants: The consumptive and non-consumptive use value of the
           giant sea bass (Stereolepis gigas)
    • Authors: Ana Sofía Guerra; Daniel J. Madigan, Milton S. Love, Douglas J. McCauley
      Abstract: Although the economic value of wildlife historically has been attributed to its consumptive use, the global growth of ecotourism has expanded wildlife valuation to include non-consumptive uses. In California, the critically endangered giant sea bass (Stereolepis gigas) is paradoxically both a flagship species in the recreational dive industry and regularly sold in California's commercial fisheries when incidentally caught. The differences in the economic value of S. gigas to these two key stakeholders – commercial fishers and recreational scuba divers – were explored.The average annual landing value of S. gigas was US$12 600, this value was determined using California commercial fishery landing receipt data. In contrast the estimated average value of S. gigas to recreational divers was US$2.3 million per year. The non-consumptive use value was calculated by approximating the annual number of recreational charter boat divers and determining divers' willingness-to-pay for a S. gigas sighting.Stated landings volumes of S. gigas appear to represent a minimum annual extraction of 2% to 19% of the S. gigas population. Using self-reported fishery catch location data, S. gigas bycatch hotspots were identified and used to inform suggestions for strategic spatial and temporal closures.Overall, these results highlight the value of giant sea bass beyond fisheries and underscore the importance of incorporating non-consumptive values when developing harvest policies and marine management plans.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T22:20:38.006535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2837
  • Structural microhabitat use by endemic cyprinids in a Mediterranean-type
           river: Implications for restoration practices
    • Authors: José Maria Santos; Rui Rivaes, Isabel Boavida, Paulo Branco
      Abstract: Endemic freshwater fish from the Mediterranean region are among the most threatened species in the world owing to increasing river degradation. Because of such threats, the number of river restoration projects has greatly increased. However, they are seldom planned with consideration of the species' life history, often resulting in erroneous practices that compromise their success.This study assessed the seasonal and size-related microhabitat use by three endemic cyprinids (Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei; Iberian straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma polylepis; and calandino, Squalius alburnoides) using a modified point electrofishing procedure in a Mediterranean river. A multivariate approach was then employed to analyse both structural resource use and availability data.All species showed non-random microhabitat use. The barbel and nase shifted to faster-flowing positions (>25 cm s−1) with a coarser substratum (>150 mm particle size) during spring and to sheltered positions (50–100% instream cover) during autumn. Calandino selected more covered areas in autumn (>60% cover) and shifted to shallower positions from this season (>40 cm) to summer (
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T22:15:32.496672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2839
  • Impacts of fishing, river flow and connectivity loss on the conservation
           of a migratory fish population
    • Authors: Hsien-Yung Lin; Christopher J. Brown, Ross G. Dwyer, Doug J. Harding, David T. Roberts, Richard A. Fuller, Simon Linke, Hugh P. Possingham
      Abstract: Migratory species depend on connected habitats and appropriate migratory cues to complete their life cycles. Diadromous fish exemplify species with migratory life cycles by moving between connected freshwater and saltwater habitats to reproduce. However, migration increases the exposure of fish to multiple threats and it is critical that managers integrate habitat connectivity into resource management and conservation.The benefit of alternative management actions was assessed for a diadromous fish, the Australian bass Percalates novemaculeata, using a spatio-temporal population model informed by individual-based movement data. The management actions comprise seasonal closures during the spawning season, and controlling fishing pressure by limiting catch or effort.The benefits of implementing seasonal closures depend upon interactions among how fishing pressure is controlled, the response of anglers to fishery regulations and river flow regimes. The results indicated that seasonal closures are ineffective if fishing pressure is merely displaced to another location or time of year. In addition, shifting seasonal closures from spawning grounds to feeding grounds increased population abundances under low flow events when fishing effort was also controlled. However, when total annual catch is limited by a fishery closure, changing the location of seasonal closure schemes had little effect.The findings in this study highlight the need for flexible management strategies that account for migratory movements and respond both to variations in connectivity (e.g. river flow regime) and direct pressures on survivorship (e.g. exploitation). As the implementation of one management action (e.g. fishing or water regulation) could affect the influence of another management action, this study emphasizes the importance of cooperation between resource managers in conserving migratory species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T22:05:34.315688-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2831
  • Diving back in time: Extending historical baselines for yelloweye rockfish
           with Indigenous knowledge
    • Authors: Lauren E. Eckert; Natalie C. Ban, Alejandro Frid, Madeleine McGreer
      Abstract: Ocean systems, and the culturally and commercially important fishes that inhabit them, face growing threats. Increasingly, unconventional data sources are being used to inform fisheries research and management for data-poor species.Listed as a species of special concern in Canada, yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) are vulnerable to exploitation, and have historical and cultural value to Indigenous people. In this study, Indigenous fishers of British Columbia, Canada, were interviewed and asked about observed changes to the body sizes (length) and abundance of this species over the last ~60 years, and the factors driving these changes. Their current and historical estimates of size and abundance were compared with current biological survey data.Forty-two semi-directed interviews were carried out and 89% of respondents observed a decrease in yelloweye rockfish body sizes since the 1980s. The median historical (1950s–1980s) length was 84 cm, compared with the median modern (2010–2015) length of 46 cm. All but one respondent reported substantial decrease in yelloweye rockfish abundance since their earliest fishing experiences (1950s to1980s, depending on participant's age), with a third suggesting the change was most evident in the early 2000s, followed by the 1980s (21%) and 1990s (17%).Sizes of modern yelloweye rockfish estimated by participants resembled estimates derived from ecological data recorded concurrently at the study region.This study illustrates a repeatable method for using traditional and local knowledge to extend baselines for data-poor species, and highlights the value of integrating Indigenous knowledge into fisheries research and management.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:05:34.818517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2834
  • Morpho-demographic traits of two maërl-forming algae in beds with
           different depths and fishing histories
    • Authors: Miguel Cabanellas-Reboredo; Sandra Mallol, Carmen Barberá, Alba Vergés, David Díaz, Raquel Goñi
      Abstract: Maërl is a benthic community composed of accumulations of coralline red algae with an essential eco-biological role in marine ecosystems.This low-resilience community has acquired a high conservation status as many anthropogenic impacts threaten this globally distributed ecosystem. Some of the potentially more important but less studied impacts are those caused by fishing activities due to the lack of proper controls.This study investigates the potential fishing impacts and depth-related differences on the rhodolith morpho-demographic traits of two maërl-forming algae, Lithothamnion corallioides and Spongites fruticulosus, with distinct morphologies (ramified vs nucleated).Rhodolith size and shape (roundness and solidity) indicators were assessed in maërl beds protected from fishing inside a large 25-year old no-take MPA, in a contiguous 6-year no-take zone, and in adjacent fished beds.Rhodoliths of both species were bigger, rounder (spherical) and more solid (structurally less complex) in shallow than in deep beds of the long-term protected area, which was probably a result of a more active hydrodynamic regime and higher irradiance in shallow beds.Fishing effects manifested differently depending on the morphological properties of rhodoliths, which resulted in a decrease in size and complexity in L. corallioides and roundness in S. fruticulosus.Such fishing impacts were significant only inside the short-term 6-year protected area. The most plausible cause of this unexpected observation is the highly localized trammel-net fishing effort with long soak-times along the boundary of the contiguous 25-year MPA, where before closure, fishing effort was concentrated in expectation of greater catches from spillover (i.e. fishing the line).This is the first study to document the impacts of fishing the line on structural species and indicates that boundaries of successful MPAs could be zones of maximum disturbance, a fact that should be taken into account in management conservation decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T05:56:17.280463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2827
  • Cetacean rapid assessment: An approach to fill knowledge gaps and target
           conservation across large data deficient areas
    • Authors: Gill T. Braulik; Magreth Kasuga, Anja Wittich, Jeremy J. Kiszka, Jamie MacCaulay, Doug Gillespie, Jonathan Gordon, Said Shaib Said, Philip S. Hammond
      Abstract: Many species and populations of marine megafauna are undergoing substantial declines, while many are also very poorly understood. Even basic information on species presence is unknown for tens of thousands of kilometres of coastline, particularly in the developing world, which is a major hurdle to their conservation.Rapid ecological assessment is a valuable tool used to identify and prioritize areas for conservation; however, this approach has never been clearly applied to marine cetaceans. Here a rapid assessment protocol is outlined that will generate broad-scale, quantitative, baseline data on cetacean communities and potential threats, that can be conducted rapidly and cost-effectively across whole countries, or regions.The rapid assessment was conducted in Tanzania, East Africa, and integrated collection of data on cetaceans from visual, acoustic, and interview surveys with existing information from multiple sources, to provide low resolution data on cetacean community relative abundance, diversity, and threats. Four principal threats were evaluated and compared spatially using a qualitative scale: cetacean mortality in fishing gear (particularly gillnets); cetacean hunting, consumption or use by humans; shipping related collision risk and noise disturbance; and dynamite fishing.Ninety-one groups of 11 species of marine mammal were detected during field surveys. Potentially the most important area for cetaceans was the Pemba Channel, a deep, high-current waterway between Pemba Island and mainland Africa, where by far the highest relative cetacean diversity and high relative abundance were recorded, but which is also subject to threats from fishing.A rapid assessment approach can be applied in data deficient areas to quickly provide information on cetaceans that can be used by governments and managers for marine spatial planning, management of developments, and to target research activities into the most important locations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:05:47.755471-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2833
  • Freshwater conservation in a fragmented world: Dealing with barriers in a
           systematic planning framework
    • Authors: Virgilio Hermoso; Ana Filipa Filipe, Pedro Segurado, Pedro Beja
      Abstract: Disruption of longitudinal connectivity poses one of the most important threats to the persistence of freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Longitudinal connectivity plays a key role by facilitating ecological processes, such as migrations or energy transfer along river networks. For this reason, effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity is highly dependent on a capacity to maintain all processes associated with connectivity. Freshwater protected areas are commonly affected by disruptions of connectivity due to human activities and recent approaches to addressing connectivity when identifying priority areas have overlooked the limitations that human perturbations pose to connectivity.Here, a novel approach is presented to address this issue by accounting for the spatial distribution of barriers using Marxan, a tool commonly applied in conservation planning. This approach was first tested on a simulated example and then applied to the identification of priority areas for the conservation of freshwater vertebrates in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).When using this new approach, the number of disrupted connections within priority areas can be significantly reduced at no additional cost in terms of area needed, which would help maintain connectivity among populations of species with low–medium migratory needs.Given the widespread occurrence of barriers in the study region, the improvement in connectivity within priority areas also resulted in the selection of river reaches closer to the headwaters and the river mouth. Focusing on both extremes of the longitudinal gradient might compromise the effectiveness of conservation efforts for long-distance migratory species, such as the European eel. This inevitably means that additional management measures, such as barrier removal or construction of fish passages, would be necessary to ensure that these species are able to complete their life cycles.The method demonstrated here could be applied to other regions where connectivity is compromised.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T10:43:58.29706-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2826
  • Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure of the
           Chinese freshwater mussel Solenaia carinata (Bivalvia: Unionidae)
    • Authors: Tingting Sun; Xiongjun Liu, Chunhua Zhou, Hongxiu Ding, Wenjing Yang, David T. Zanatta, Shan Ouyang, Xiaoping Wu
      Abstract: The freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Yangtze River basin of China are among the most diverse assemblages on Earth. Freshwater mussels provide valuable ecosystem services (e.g. natural water filtration) and economic value (shell, pearls, and food), but are experiencing global declines as a result of pollution, habitat alteration, and overharvest.Despite the diversity and value of freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin, relatively little is known about the biology of the many species endemic to the region. Solenaia carinata is an endemic and potentially imperilled freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in China that is distributed in a single major tributary of the middle Yangtze; the Poyang Lake basin in Jiangxi Province.This study represents the first analyses of the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of S. carinata. Solenaia carinata specimens (n=64) were collected from three sites in large tributary rivers of Poyang Lake.Using 19 polymorphic microsatellite markers, the results showed that S. carinata had a moderate level of genetic diversity (PIC ranged from 0.464 to 0.484), limited evidence of a recent genetic bottleneck, little genetic differentiation (FST ranged from 0.021 to 0.045), high levels of gene flow (Nm ranged from 3.675 to 33.227) and limited genetic structure among the three sampling locations.Given that S. carinata inhabits a highly interconnected system of large rivers and lakes, the results of low differentiation and high gene flow among geographically proximate sampling locations (sites separated by between 8 and 20 km of water) are not surprising. The results indicate that specimens can be used and moved from anywhere across the distribution of S. carinata for the purposes of captive propogation and translocation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T08:41:01.496236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2829
  • First microsatellite data on Proteus anguinus reveal weak genetic
           structure between the caves of Postojna and Planina
    • Authors: Valerija Zakšek; Marjeta Konec, Peter Trontelj
      Abstract: The European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus, or proteus, is the largest obligate cave animal in the world. It is an endangered and charismatic species of high conservation importance for subterranean waters. Conservation genetic studies are hampered by the extreme size and repetitiveness of its nuclear genome.The aim of the study was to develop and characterize the first microsatellite markers for proteus, and test their informativeness at the level of individuals, populations and between populations in the Postojna and Planina caves in Slovenia.Twenty-three novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were amplified in 201 individuals from both caves using three multiplex reactions. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to nine. The loci are largely unlinked and conform to Hardy–Weinberg genotype frequencies. Genetic equilibrium and an FST value of 0.0024 suggest a nearly panmictic population in both caves separated by some 10 km of subterranean river course, while Bayesian clustering detected weak genetic structure.The microsatellites described fill the gap of urgently needed nuclear markers in Proteus that can be applied in genetic mark–recapture studies, population monitoring and identification of management units to assist conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:55:38.404698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2822
  • Human-induced gradients of reef fish declines in the Hawaiian Archipelago
           viewed through the lens of traditional management boundaries
    • Authors: Alan M. Friedlander; Mary K. Donovan, Kostantinos A. Stamoulis, Ivor D. Williams, Eric K. Brown, Eric J. Conklin, Edward E. DeMartini, Kuulei S. Rodgers, Russell T. Sparks, William J. Walsh
      Abstract: Large declines in reef fish populations in Hawai‘i have raised concerns about the sustainability of these resources, and the ecosystem as a whole. To help elucidate the reasons behind these declines, a comprehensive examination of reef fish assemblages was conducted across the entire 2500 km Hawaiian Archipelago.Twenty-five datasets were compiled, representing>25 000 individual surveys conducted throughout Hawai‘i since 2000. To account for overall differences in survey methods, conversion factors were created to standardize among methods.Comparisons of major targeted resource species (N = 35) between the densely populated main (MHI) and remote north-western Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) revealed that 40% of these species had biomass in the MHI below 25% of NWHI levels. In total, 54% of the species examined had biomass
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:35:46.823773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2832
  • Impacts of Indian waterfern (Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn.)
           infestation and removal on macroinvertebrate biodiversity and conservation
           in spring-fed streams in the Australian arid zone
    • Authors: Nicole Carey; Scott R. Strachan, Belinda J. Robson
      Abstract: Removal of invasive macrophytes is a priority for river managers. However, the ecological effects of macrophyte removal on macroinvertebrate diversity are rarely examined but may be of particular significance in conservation reserves and when threatened species are present.This study investigated the macroinvertebrate fauna inhabiting invasive and native macrophytes in spring-fed channels in the Millstream-Chichester National Park, Australia. The effects of waterfern management (periodic hand-weeding) were examined by comparing assemblages at weeded and unweeded reaches on three occasions.Ceratopteris thalictroides harboured a diverse, insect-dominated macroinvertebrate assemblage, including the endangered damselfly Nososticta pilbara. Total taxon richness was similar between waterfern and native macrophytes, but macroinvertebrate assemblages differed in the dry season. Damselflies (including N. pilbara) were associated with waterfern-dominated reaches, whereas dragonfly nymphs were more common among native macrophytes.Weeding altered macroinvertebrate assemblage composition. Some weeded reaches developed assemblages indistinguishable from those in native-dominated reaches, but others did not. Weeded reaches often supported taxa that were rare or absent from waterfern-dominated reaches, including suspension feeders, found also in native-dominated reaches.Odonata are particularly diverse at Millstream, with 18 species recorded. Odonate species richness was significantly lower at weeded reaches than unweeded reaches. Nososticta pilbara and other short-range endemic species were absent from weeded reaches. As most odonates are univoltine, these adverse effects on local population size may affect species persistence.Invasive macrophyte species may support a high diversity of native invertebrates, including endangered and short-range endemic species. Furthermore, although hand-weeding appeared to enable a greater diversity of species to co-exist, the removal of a large biomass of macrophytes appeared to remove whole cohorts of insect populations from stream reaches, including endangered species. Removal of invasive macrophytes should not be implemented without understanding their effects on invertebrate assemblage composition and life-cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:26:08.658618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2828
  • Local adaptation studies and conservation: Parasite–host interactions
           between the endangered freshwater mussel Unio crassus and its host fish
    • Authors: Lea D. Schneider; P. Anders Nilsson, Johan Höjesjö, E. Martin Österling
      Abstract: Parasite–host interactions can involve strong reciprocal selection pressure, and may lead to locally adapted specializations. The highly threatened unionoid mussels are temporary parasites on fish, but local adaptation has not yet been investigated for many species.Patterns of local adaptation of one of Europe's most threatened unionoids, the thick-shelled river mussel (Unio crassus) were investigated. Eurasian minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) from two rivers (separate drainage areas) were cross-infested in the laboratory with sympatric and allopatric mussel larvae, while bullheads (Cottus gobio), inhabiting only one of the rivers, were infested with sympatric or allopatric mussel larvae. Larval encystment, juvenile mussel excystment and survival were measured.For one river, but not the other, juvenile excystment from P. phoxinus was highest when infested with sympatric mussels. The opposite pattern was found for C. gobio in this river, where juvenile excystment and post-parasitic juvenile survival from allopatric C. gobio were highest. The results thus cannot confirm local adaptation of U. crassus to P. phoxinus in the study rivers, as excystment was not consistently higher in all sympatric mussel–host combinations, whereas there were potential maladaptive signs of U. crassus in relation to C. gobio. There was no loss of encysted larvae 3 days after infestation until juvenile excystment. Most juveniles were excysted between 17 and 29 days after infestation, and the numbers of excysted juveniles increased with fish size.The results have implications for parasite–host ecology and conservation management with regard to unionoid propagation and re-introduction. This includes the need to (1) test suitability and adaptation patterns between U. crassus and multiple host fish species, (2) evaluate the suitability of certain unionoids and host fish strains after more than 3 days, and (3) determine whether large fish produce more juvenile mussels than smaller fish.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:15:26.88635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2816
  • Oued Bouhlou: A new hope for the Moroccan pearl mussel
    • Authors: Ronaldo Sousa; Amílcar Teixeira, André Santos, Hassan Benaissa, Simone Varandas, Mohamed Ghamizi, Vincent Prié, Elsa Froufe, Manuel Lopes-Lima
      Abstract: The freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera marocana (Pallary, ) is an endemic species of Morocco being listed as critically endangered and it stands among the world's 100 most threatened species. An extensive survey was performed in the Sebou basin (total area of approximately 40,000 km2), covering 26 different sites. Margaritifera marocana was found only in four sites limited to a small tributary (Oued (=River) Bouhlou).This population has a very restricted distribution (no more than 4 km of river length) but appears stable with recent recruitment, since small specimens were found.Genetic analyses were performed, showing that this population has a similar diversity to that found in the River Laabid (Oum Er Rbia basin), but represents a distinct conservation unit that should be managed independently.Although this study adds a new population to the current known distribution of M. marocana, urgent conservation measures (e.g. extension of the Tazzekka National Park; better management of river flow; increase of the riparian vegetation in some stretches; establishment of national and international legislation, and engagement of local citizens) are needed given the species' restricted distribution, its rarity, and the numerous threats that impair its future survival.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T07:05:35.607741-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2825
  • Re-introduction of structurally complex wood jams promotes channel and
           habitat recovery from overwidening: Implications for river conservation
    • Authors: Gemma L. Harvey; Alexander J. Henshaw, Chris Parker, Carl D. Sayer
      Abstract: Large wood is a powerful geomorphic agent in rivers, providing important habitat functions for a range of aquatic organisms, but has been subject to a long history of removal.Internationally, approaches to river restoration are increasingly incorporating large wood features, but generally favour simple flow deflectors (e.g. single logs, stripped of branches and anchored in place) over more complex structures that more accurately mimic natural wood jams.This paper explores channel response to wood-based restoration of an overwidened lowland chalk stream that incorporated whole felled trees. Hydraulics, sediment, topography and vegetation data were assessed for a 3 year period for two restored reaches: an upstream reach where pre-restoration baseline data were obtained, and a downstream reach restored before data collection.Where pre-restoration data were available, the introduction of wood jams generated sediment deposition within jams leading to the development of vegetated marginal ‘benches’ and bed scour in adjacent areas of flow convergence. Patterns were less clear in the downstream reach, where restoration design was less ambitious and outcomes may have been affected by subsequent restoration work upstream.The results indicate that reintroduction of large wood (whole trees), can promote channel and habitat recovery from overwidening in lowland rivers, creating important ecological benefits through the provision of structurally complex marginal habitat and associated food resources. Longer-term assessments are required to establish whether the trajectories of change are persistent.The work emphasizes the effectiveness of restoration approaches that aim to ‘work with nature’. The ambitious design, incorporating structurally complex wood jams, was also low-cost, using materials available from the river corridor (existing riparian trees). Furthermore, ecosystem engineering effects were amplified by the colonization of wood jams by aquatic vegetation. The approach should, therefore, be transferable to other lowland rivers, subject to wider catchment constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:56:11.724826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2824
  • Assessing the importance of net colour as a seabird bycatch mitigation
           measure in gillnet fishing
    • Authors: Roshan Hanamseth; G. Barry Baker, Sally Sherwen, Mark Hindell, Mary-Anne Lea
      Abstract: Gillnets are used widely in fisheries throughout the world and known to cause the death of thousands of seabirds each year. Currently few practical or technical options are available to fishers for preventing seabird mortalities.The ability of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to differentiate between different coloured netting materials was tested under controlled conditions to ascertain if changes in gillnet colour could facilitate a potential mitigation measure by improving visibility of nets.The study involved a repeated-measures design with penguins exposed to variously coloured mono-filament threads creating a gillnet mimic. The gillnet mimic was made up of gillnet material configured as a series of vertical lines 25 mm apart stretched tightly across a stainless steel frame that measured 1160 mm × 1540 mm and divided into two equal panel areas. The panels were placed in a large tank within an enclosure that housed 25 penguins. Penguins were able to readily access the tank and swim freely. The frame was always introduced into the tank with one panel containing a gillnet mimic, and the other panel left empty as a control.Gillnet filament colours tested were clear, green and orange. Orange coloured monofilament lines resulted in lower collision rates (5.5%), while clear and green monofilament lines resulted in higher rates of collision (35.9% and 30.8%, respectively).These results suggest that orange-coloured lines were more apparent to the birds. Constructing nets of orange-coloured material may be effective in reducing bycatch in gillnets set in shallow waters and high light levels where seabirds are able to identify fine colour differences.Further testing under experimental conditions, accompanied with at-sea trials to verify effectiveness in varied light conditions is warranted, together with an assessment of the effect of gillnet colour on catch efficiency of target species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:51:35.541207-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2805
  • Forgotten fishes: What is the future for small threatened freshwater
           fish' Population risk assessment for southern pygmy perch, Nannoperca
    • Authors: Charles R. Todd; John D. Koehn, Luke Pearce, Lauren Dodd, Paul Humphries, John R. Morrongiello
      Abstract: Fish species that have no commercial or recreational value are often overlooked in conservation management, despite serious threats to their long-term future. This can be termed the ‘small threatened freshwater fishes’ paradigm.Population viability analysis (PVA) is a useful technique to assess threatened species and conservation management options. While the development and use of population models and population viability analysis is common in conservation, and often used for larger fishes, this has not been so for small threatened freshwater species.This study uses the PVA process to develop a stochastic population model for Nannoperca australis (southern pygmy perch) in temperate south-eastern Australia.The model was most sensitive to early life-history survival rates, for which there were no estimates from field data, compared with other model uncertainty. This study also found that the oldest age class had the highest reproductive value, providing unique support to the value of big, old, fat and fecund fish (BOFFFs) in sustaining natural populations.Modelling indicated that a population in stable habitat supporting about 2000 female adults would likely to be viable, able to withstand some disturbance and possibly be used as a source population for reintroductions. In reality, however, there are few populations in the wild of sufficient size to withstand such take for translocations and hence the production of fish through hatchery means may be required.This type of approach should prove useful for the conservation management of many similar species globally.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T08:05:23.994819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2808
  • Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in
           Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit
    • Authors: Carol Sparling; Mike Lonergan, Bernie McConnell
      Abstract: Data were obtained from 32 electronic tags that were glued to the fur of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in and around Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, during the environmental monitoring of the SeaGen tidal turbine.This study provides the first detailed information on the behaviour of marine mammals close to a commercial-scale tidal energy device. The turbine did not prevent transit of the animals through the channel and therefore did not result in a ‘barrier’ effect.However, the animals' behaviour did change when the turbine was operating, demonstrating the importance of allowing for behavioural responses when estimating collision risks associated with tidal turbines.Tagged animals passed the location of the device more frequently during slack water than when the current was running. In 2010 the frequency of transits by tagged seals reduced by 20% (95% CI: 10–50%) when the turbine was on, relative to when it was off. This effect was stronger when considering daylight hours only with a reduction of transit rate of 57% (95% CI: 25–64%). Seals tagged during the operational period transited approximately 250 m either side of the turbine suggesting some degree of local avoidance compared with the pre-installation results.The results presented here have implications for monitoring and managing the potential interactions between tidal turbines and marine wildlife. Principally that the design of telemetry studies for measuring change in response to developments should seek to understand and take into account variability in seal behaviour.This study only looked at the effects of a single turbine rather than an array, and mitigation limited the ability to determine close range interactions. However, the study indicates that the effect of the turbine on Strangford Lough harbour seals was minor and that collision risk was reduced by the behaviour of the seals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T05:50:57.329915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2790
  • Comprehensive estimates of seabird–fishery interactions for the US
           Northeast and mid-Atlantic
    • Authors: Joshua M. Hatch
      Abstract: Relatively little is known about seabird–fishery interactions (i.e. bycatch) for the U.S. North-east and mid-Atlantic, despite concerted efforts to document observed interactions since 1989.Fisheries observer data were used to estimate seabird–fishery interactions for 10 species and six gear types that operated within the US Northeast and mid-Atlantic from 1996 to 2014.Hierarchical Bayes estimation was used and accounted for temporal, spatial, and operational considerations inherent in the data through post-stratification.Over the 19-year study period, 48 821 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.03) seabirds were estimated to have interacted with commercial fishing gear, resulting in an average of 2570 interactions per year.Trends in estimated interactions were explored using the marginal posterior distributions, with the majority of interactions pertaining to gillnets and shearwaters/fulmars.Comparison with previous work highlighted the need for consistency in data preparation, making it easier to compare relative trends in seabird bycatch estimates for the region.Future assessments should focus on providing context for the interaction estimates, so that population-level impacts can be inferred and the necessary conservation measures enacted.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T05:30:41.377503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2812
  • Geographic variation in host fish use and larval metamorphosis for the
           endangered dwarf wedgemussel
    • Authors: Barbara St. John White; C. Paola Ferreri, William A. Lellis, Barry J. Wicklow, Jeffrey C. Cole
      Abstract: Host fishes play a crucial role in survival and dispersal of freshwater mussels (Unionoida), particularly rare unionids at conservation risk. Intraspecific variation in host use is not well understood for many mussels, including the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the USA.Host suitability of 33 fish species for dwarf wedgemussel glochidia (larvae) from the Delaware and Connecticut river basins was tested in laboratory experiments over 9 years. Relative suitability of three different populations of a single host fish, the tessellated darter (Etheostoma olmstedi), from locations in the Connecticut, Delaware, and Susquehanna river basins, was also tested.Connecticut River basin A. heterodon metamorphosed into juvenile mussels on tessellated darter, slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Delaware River basin mussels metamorphosed using these three species, as well as brown trout (Salmo trutta), banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and shield darter (Percina peltata). Atlantic salmon, striped bass, and sculpins were highly effective hosts, frequently generating 5+ juveniles per fish (JPF) and metamorphosis success (MS; proportion of attaching larvae that successfully metamorphose) ≥ 0.4, and producing juveniles in repeated trials.In experiments on tessellated darters, mean JPF and MS values decreased as isolation between the mussel source (Connecticut River) and each fish source increased; mean JPF = 10.45, 6.85, 4.14, and mean MS = 0.50, 0.41, and 0.34 in Connecticut, Delaware, and Susquehanna river darters, respectively. Host suitability of individual darters was highly variable (JPF = 2–11; MS = 0.20–1.0).The results show that mussel–host fish compatibility in A. heterodon differs among Atlantic coastal rivers, and suggest that hosts including anadromous Atlantic salmon and striped bass may help sustain A. heterodon in parts of its range. Continued examination of host use variation, migratory host roles, and mussel–fish interactions in the wild is critical in conservation of A. heterodon and other vulnerable mussel species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T05:30:28.739952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2782
  • Baltic Sea genetic biodiversity: Current knowledge relating to
           conservation management
    • Authors: Lovisa Wennerström; Eeva Jansson, Linda Laikre
      Abstract: The Baltic Sea has a rare type of brackish water environment which harbours unique genetic lineages of many species. The area is highly influenced by anthropogenic activities and is affected by eutrophication, climate change, habitat modifications, fishing and stocking. Effective genetic management of species in the Baltic Sea is highly warranted in order to maximize their potential for survival, but shortcomings in this respect have been documented. Lack of knowledge is one reason managers give for why they do not regard genetic diversity in management.Here, the current knowledge of population genetic patterns of species in the Baltic Sea is reviewed and summarized with special focus on how the information can be used in management. The extent to which marine protected areas (MPAs) protect genetic diversity is also investigated in a case study of four key species.Sixty-one species have been studied genetically in the Baltic Sea, but comprehensive genetic information exists for only seven of them. Genetic monitoring shows genetic stability in some species but fluctuations and genetic changes in others. About half of the scientific studies published during the last 6 years provide conservation advice, indicating a high interest in the scientific community for relating results to practical management.Populations in MPAs do not differ genetically from populations outside MPAs, indicating that MPAs in the Baltic Sea do not protect genetic diversity specifically, but that populations in MPAs are a representative subset of populations in the Baltic Sea.Recommendations are provided for cases where genetic information is available but not used in management, particularly for non-commercial species with important ecosystem function.Improved channels for effective communication between academia and practical management on Baltic Sea genetic biodiversity are needed. A web page that can be used for knowledge transfer is highlighted here.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:35:53.107747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2771
  • Towards the identification of ecological management units: A
           multidisciplinary approach for the effective management of bottlenose
           dolphins in the southern Iberian Peninsula
    • Authors: Joan Giménez; Marie Louis, Enrique Barón, Francisco Ramírez, Philippe Verborgh, Pauline Gauffier, Ruth Esteban, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, Manuela G. Forero, Renaud Stephanis
      Abstract: Determining discrete and demographically independent management units within wildlife populations is critical for their effective management and conservation. However, there is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate criteria to delimit such management units.A multi-disciplinary, multi-scale approach that combines tools informing in the short-term (i.e. photo-identification), with mid-term ecological tracers (stable isotopes –δ13C, δ15N and δ34S– and persistent organic pollutants –POPs–), and mid- to long-term genetic markers (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA), was used to define management units within bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the southern Iberian Peninsula.Although genetically indistinguishable, individuals inhabiting the Strait of Gibraltar and the Gulf of Cadiz showed differences in their isotopic composition and the concentrations of certain POPs. Accordingly, the lack of photographic recaptures between the two sites pointed to the existence of at least two different ecological management units that segregate spatially and may require different conservation strategies.Different time-scale approaches can reveal different management units. The results highlighted the use of medium- and short-term approaches for properly identifying ecologically different units for effective management and conservation.Furthermore, these results have important management implications as European legislation promotes specific management plans for this species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:26:01.138848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2814
  • Differential response to disturbance factors for the population of
           sympatric crocodilians (Gavialis gangeticus and Crocodylus palustris) in
           Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, India
    • Authors: Shikha Choudhary; B.C. Choudhury, G.V. Gopi
      Abstract: Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary along the Indo-Nepal border in India harbours a well-known breeding gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) population in its global distribution range together with a substantial population of breeding muggers (Crocodylus palustris). However, no systematic information on size and structure is available for either of the species' populations in the protected area.This study was undertaken in winter and the ensuing summer of 2010–2011 to estimate the relative population density and structure of the two crocodilian species and to examine the effect of various disturbance factors, with the main focus on the effects of tourism and illegal fishing on the behavioural attributes of the two species.Five daytime surveys were conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Relative density based on encounter rate (number per 20 km) was highest for gharial juveniles followed by gharial adults and gharial sub-adults in all the five surveys. Muggers, on the other hand, showed the opposite trend, with the lowest encounter rate being for juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. The encounter rate of both species declined with increase in the mean ambient temperature from December to April.The river habitat was divided into 2 km segments and disturbance factors were recorded at intervals of 100 m on both river banks. Wariness was taken as an indicator of response to disturbance caused by human beings and was measured from mechanized boats used for tourism and non-mechanized boats used for illegal fishing.Segments with sandbars, in spite of moderate to high disturbance rate, were preferred for basking by both species. In conclusion, with suitable habitat for basking, gharials and muggers were observed to tolerate moderate levels of disturbance. Wariness resulting from disturbances from the non-mechanized boats was higher than that from the mechanized boats. Gharials tend to avoid humans, possibly with age/size acquired experience and knowledge, whereas muggers become more tolerant to human presence with increased age/size.Despite many disturbance factors, the crocodilian population in Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary is doing relatively well compared with populations in other habitats in India. With the involvement of local stakeholders and strict implementation of forest laws, the habitat can be further improved and a healthy gharial population can be ensured.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:15:47.326488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2815
  • Effects of translocation on survival and growth of freshwater mussels
           within a West Gulf Coastal Plain river system
    • Authors: Eric T. Tsakiris; Charles R. Randklev, Andrew Blair, Mark Fisher, Kevin W. Conway
      Abstract: Human-mediated threats have led to the rapid decline of species inhabiting freshwater ecosystems, and among the groups most affected are freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae. As a result, species translocation is increasingly used in conservation programmes, yet experimental evidence documenting the success of this strategy is limited.The goal of this study was to examine the effects of translocation on survival probability, shell growth and body condition of a state-threatened (Quadrula houstonensis) and common (Amblema plicata) species of freshwater mussel in the San Saba River, located in a West Gulf Coastal Plain river system, USA.Survival probability estimated from a joint live and dead encounter model was high (> 0.85) and varied by treatment for both species. However, differences in survival probability between resident and transplant treatments were relatively small for A. plicata (0.01) and Q. houstonensis (0.12). Generalized additive mixed models of yearly proportional growth and linear mixed models of Fulton's K index for A. plicata varied by treatment and were lower in transplant treatments. Shell growth of Q. houstonensis was unaffected by translocation; whereas, Fulton's K was higher in the transplant treatment.Methods used to translocate mussels were important factors leading to high survival and limited impacts to shell growth and body condition in this study. Differences in shell growth rate between treatments are attributed to possible differences in habitat quality between sites.Our results demonstrate that A. plicata and Q. houstonensis are tolerant of translocation, despite the broad assumption that translocation is detrimental to mussels. Thus, there is a continuing need to study species' responses to translocation to test and improve the ecological soundness of this strategy, particularly because climate change and other human stressors will exacerbate the need to implement conservation measures such as translocation in future decades.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:11:16.41317-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2817
  • Habitat use of globally threatened juvenile Chinese horseshoe crab,
           Tachypleus tridentatus under the influence of simulated intertidal oyster
           culture structures in Hong Kong
    • Authors: Billy K.Y. Kwan; Hoi Kin Chan, Siu Gin Cheung
      Abstract: Little is known about the ecological impacts of oyster culture structures on intertidal communities. In the present study, distribution and movement patterns of juvenile Chinese horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus were assessed on a mudflat at Ha Pak Nai in Deep Bay, Hong Kong.As the traditional bottom-laying method of using concrete posts as cultch for collecting oyster spat is a common practice in Hong Kong, structurally similar bricks were used to simulate the potential effects of cultch on intertidal flats.Over the two-month experimental period, all the tested sediment physico-chemical characteristics, including median particle size and total organic content, remained unchanged among the treatment areas. However, juvenile densities and foraging trails at low- and high-density brick areas were significantly lower/shorter compared with the adjacent bare areas. Such effects were more evident for larger individuals since significant correlations were found between foraging distance and juvenile prosomal width in no-brick areas, but not the low- and high-density brick areas. In addition, most juveniles (> 95%) were observed feeding along the outer boundaries of brick areas.Such findings imply that the extensive artificial structures in oyster cultivation sites could induce physical disturbance and alter the habitat use of juvenile horseshoe crabs in the intertidal zone. Considering the high conservation value of Chinese horseshoe crabs, appropriate mitigation measures should be implemented to buffer the detrimental effects on horseshoe crabs and other marine organisms of conservation concern that utilize intertidal habitats as nursery and hatchery grounds.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T05:30:58.99097-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2811
  • Tourism impact on stream fish measured with an ecological and a
           behavioural indicator
    • Authors: Eduardo Bessa; Benjamin Geffroy, Eliane Gonçalves-De-Freitas
      Abstract: As nature-based tourism grows, its impacts on aquatic ecosystems follow, requiring effective management techniques to conserve river integrity. Nevertheless, strong indicators of tourism impacts are scarce and have seldom been studied for many species.This study evaluated whether microhabitat use and activity period of a variety of fish species are effective for assessing tourism impacts in a headwater stream in which recreation (snorkelling) occurs. Microhabitat use and activity period of the most representative fish were observed in river stretches used for recreation and compared with reference stretches.Fish neither altered microhabitat use nor became more cryptic owing to tourism, maybe because they have evolved to occupy a certain microhabitat and cannot inhabit others, thus making habitat use a poor indicator of tourism impact.Fish respond to the presence of tourists by changing the promptness to begin and end activity, making the time of activity a good indicator of tourism impact, which can be easily assessed by tourism managers or government agencies and used to control the environmental impact of recreation involving fish.It is suggested that aquatic conservation protocols should include local indicators, and that behavioural indicators (activity period) might be more relevant than ecological indicators (microhabitat use) for early recognition of tourism impacts. These findings can be extended to the conservation of other fish communities subject to intensive tourism and with a strong circadian rhythm, such as coral reef fishes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T05:23:23.869296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2804
  • Testing the exclusion capabilities and durability of the Sharksafe Barrier
           to determine its viability as an eco-friendly alternative to current shark
           culling methodologies
    • Authors: C.P. O'Connell; S. Andreotti, M. Rutzen, M. Meӱer, C.A. Matthee
      Abstract: Following a shark attack, local governments often rapidly respond by implementing indiscriminate shark culls. These culls have been demonstrated to have substantial localized and adverse effects on a variety of marine organisms, and therefore there is an increasing need for an eco-friendly alternative that maximizes both beachgoer and marine organismal safety.In response to such culls, the novel magnetic barrier technology, the Sharksafe Barrier was developed and rigorously tested on a variety of sharks implicated in shark attacks (e.g. bull sharks – Carcharhinus leucas and white sharks – Carcharodon carcharias). Although these studies exhibited promise in shark swim pattern manipulation and C. leucas exclusion, research was lacking in assessing if the technology could serve as an alternative to shark nets, or more specifically, if it could exclude motivated C. carcharias from bait.Using a 13 m × 13 m square exclusion zone, this study aimed to test the C. carcharias exclusion capabilities of the Sharksafe Barrier while additionally assessing the long-term structural integrity of the system.After 34 trials and approximately 255 hours of total video collected over two years, data illustrate that all interacting C. carcharias were successfully excluded from the baited Sharksafe Barrier region, whereas teleosts and other small elasmobranch species were not. In addition, the long-term deployment potential of this barrier system held promise owing to its ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.Therefore, with the successful exclusion of a second large shark species, C. carcharias, from a baited region, continued long-term research and implementation of this system at other locations should be considered to assess its viability and overall success as a bather and shark protection system.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T05:10:27.889204-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2803
  • Crayfish in central and southern Ukraine with special focus on populations
           of indigenous crayfish Astacus pachypus (Rathke, 1837) and their
           conservation needs
    • Authors: Tomas Policar; Volodymyr Bondarenko, Oles Bezusyj, Vlastimil Stejskal, Jiri Kristan, Oleksandr Malinovskyi, Aiman Imentai, Miroslav Blecha, Yuriy Pylypenko
      Abstract: The thick-clawed crayfish (Astacus pachypus Rathke, 1837) is the least studied indigenous crayfish species in Europe. Information about its distribution and biology is out of date by more than 15 years.This study identified 94 localities with potential occurrence of thick-clawed crayfish in eight southern and central regions of Ukraine, using questionnaire and literature analysis. Based on the information obtained, a field survey was conducted to examine and confirm the current distribution and abundance of crayfish species and evaluate basic water quality and habitat characteristics in each locality.Details of density, sex ratio in the catches, health and moulting condition, threat level and water quality were identified for each population of A. pachypus.Only four populations of this species were found, in lower parts of the Dnieper River, co-occurring with Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, in Kakhovka reservoir near Vesele village, two sites on the Dnieper River near Nova Kakhovka town and near Prydniprovske village, and one locality on the Dnieper's tributary – the Ingulec River near Sadove village.Populations of thick-clawed crayfish at three sites had low crayfish densities of 0.3–0.4 crayfish m−2 or catch efficiency 0.2 crayfish per trap night. Only one locality on the Dnieper River, close to Nova Khakovka, had a stronger population with higher density (1.7 crayfish m−2).Healthy thick-clawed crayfish inhabit larger water bodies with stable environments and good water quality. Female catch per unit effort was lower, and they had a higher percentage of chelae injuries compared with males.All of the identified thick-clawed crayfish populations are exploited by uncontrolled fishing for consumption and there is an urgent need for conservation of both the crayfish and their habitat.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T05:05:29.218218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2798
  • Behaviour of recreational spearfishers and its impacts on corals
    • Authors: Vinicius J. Giglio; Osmar J. Luiz, Moysés C. Barbosa, Carlos E.L. Ferreira
      Abstract: Recreational diving is a concern regarding its effects on benthic assemblages, especially on heavily dived coral reefs. However, spearfisher behaviour and the scale of damage they cause to corals remains unknown.The behaviour of recreational spearfishers was observed to determine their rate of physical contacts with corals. The experience level and fishes captured by spearfishers were assessed to establish their relationship with the number of contacts with corals.All spearfishers made contact with corals, at an average rate of 1.25 ± 0.1 SE touches per minute and caused physical damage at a rate 0.51 ± 0.04 per minute. Massive corals were most frequently touched and branching corals were most frequently damaged. Touches and damage occurred mainly through fin kicks, spearfisher bodies and spearguns. Contact rates varied according to spearfisher experience level and the fish they were targeting. Novice spearfishers showed no preference for specific targets while experienced spearfishers target mesopredator fishes.Spearfishing caused the highest known rates of touches and damage to corals among all the activities involving recreational diving. The activity may add to local stressors on corals, especially at sites with high visitation rates. Understanding how the factors that affect spearfisher behaviour and their effects on corals may help managers to develop strategies to mitigate the incidence of damaging behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T04:56:51.209402-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2797
  • High-resolution ecological niche modelling of threatened freshwater
           mussels in east Texas, USA
    • Authors: Ashley D. Walters; David Ford, En Tze Chong, Marsha G. Williams, Neil B. Ford, Lance R. Williams, Joshua A. Banta
      Abstract: Unionid freshwater mussels are one of the most imperilled groups in North America. They play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, both as a food source and as filter feeders. Their priority conservation status has generated interest in unionid research.Here, data from the US Geological Survey was used to produce predictive models of mussel habitat affinities at a resolution of 100 m2 across an area of thousands of square kilometres.This approach correctly identifies areas that are more suitable for threatened mussel species beds as compared with less suitable areas (>97% of the time) Stream segments were identified that are forecast to have high suitability for threatened mussels.Potamilus amphichaenus differed from other threatened mussel species by being associated with a wider range of volumetric flow rates and by not being restricted by the clay content of the soils. Of the species examined, it was the most large-river oriented in habitat use and distribution.These methods can help conservation planners and land-use managers make rational decisions about where to focus their efforts in lotic habitats without the need for intensive environmental measurements while still providing high-resolution information.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T01:10:45.789438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2784
  • Genetic differentiation and historical demography of wood stork
           populations in Brazilian wetlands: Implications for the conservation of
           the species and associated ecosystems
    • Authors: Carolina I. Miño; Luiza H. da Silva Avelar, Fagner M. Silva, Manolo F. Perez, Luiza F. Menezes, Silvia N. Del Lama
      Abstract: Wetlands are increasingly threatened by human activities worldwide. Genetic monitoring of associated wildlife provides valuable data to support their conservation. Waterbirds such as the wood stork (Mycteria americana) are good bioindicators of wetland disturbance and destruction.This study investigated past and contemporary levels of genetic diversity, differentiation and demographic processes in 236 wood storks from two major wetlands in Brazil in which breeding colonies are concentrated, using nine microsatellite loci and a 237-bp untranslated fragment of the mitochondrial Control Region.Amapá populations (northern region) showed slightly higher levels of genetic diversity than Pantanal populations (central western region) and both populations had a low number of effective breeders.Results from assignment tests, F-statistics, AMOVA, spatial and non-spatial Bayesian clustering analyses support the hypothesis of gene flow among colonies within regions, but significant differentiation between regions.The better supported Bayesian coalescent models based on both markers indicated that the northern population exchanged migrants with unsampled populations, and that the central western population was founded by individuals from the north. Mitochondrial estimates revealed that the timing of population divergence broadly overlapped the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and that the central western population expanded more recently than the northern population.The results support the hypothesis that the coastal wetlands in northern Brazil remained stable enough to shelter large wood stork populations during the LGM and storks colonized freshwater wetlands in the central western region following deglacial warming.Conservation policies and protective measures should consider Amapá and Pantanal wood stork populations as genetically differentiated units and priority should be given to Amapá populations that represent the source gene pool. Continuous genetic monitoring of wood storks would help detect genetic signs of changes in demographic trends that may reflect alterations or degradation in wetlands.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T00:35:30.788189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2791
  • Modelling functional fish habitat connectivity in rivers: A case study for
           prioritizing restoration actions targeting brown trout
    • Authors: Mathieu L. Roy; Céline Le Pichon
      Abstract: Throughout the world, decreased connectivity of fluvial habitats caused by artificial river channel alterations such as culverts, weirs and dykes is seen as an important threat to the long-term survival of many aquatic species. In addition to assessing habitat quality and abundance, wildlife managers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of taking into account habitat connectivity when setting priorities for restoration. In this paper, a new approach of spatial analysis adapted to rivers and streams is proposed for modelling 2D functional habitat connectivity, integrating distance, costs and risk of travelling between habitat patches (e.g. daily use, spawning, refuge) for particular fish species, size classes and life stages.This approach was applied to a case study in which brown trout (Salmo trutta) habitat accessibility was examined and compared under various scenarios of stream restoration in a highly fragmented stream in Ile-de-France. Probabilities of reaching spawning habitats were estimated from a trout-populated area located downstream of the barriers and from potential daily-use habitat patches across the stream segment.The approach successfully helped prioritize restoration actions by identifying options that yield the greatest increase in accessible spawning habitat areas and connectivity between spawning habitat and daily-use habitat patches. This case study illustrates the practical use of the approach and the software in the context of river habitat management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T23:00:51.786928-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2786
  • Shining a light on the loss of rheophilic fish habitat in lowland rivers
           as a forgotten consequence of barriers, and its implications for
    • Authors: Kim Birnie-Gauvin; Kim Aarestrup, Thorsten M.O. Riis, Niels Jepsen, Anders Koed
      Abstract: The majority of rivers around Europe have been modified in one way or another, and no longer have an original, continuous flow from source to outlet. The presence of weirs and dams has altered habitats, thus affecting the wildlife that lives within them. This is especially true for migrating rheophilic fish species, which, in addition to safe passage, depend on gradient and fast-flowing waters for reproductive success and early development.Thus far, research has focused on investigating the impacts of weirs and dams on fish passage, with less attention paid to the loss of habitat entrained by such infrastructure. The loss of rheophilic habitat is particularly important in lowland streams, where gradient is limited, and dams and weirs can be constructed with less effort.Denmark is considered a typical lowland country, where the landscape around streams and rivers has been modified by agriculture and other human activities for centuries, leaving management practitioners wondering how much change is acceptable to maintain sustainable fish populations and fisheries practices.With examples from Denmark, this paper attempts to conceptualize the loss in habitat as a result of barriers in lowland streams and rivers, and the repercussions that such alterations may have on rheophilic fish populations. Furthermore, the need for management to address habitat loss and its related consequences concurrently with the improvement of fish passage is emphasized.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T06:20:52.043667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2795
  • A qPCR MGB probe based eDNA assay for European freshwater pearl mussel
           (Margaritifera margaritifera L.)
    • Authors: Jeanette E.L. Carlsson; Damian Egan, Patrick C. Collins, Edward D. Farrell, Fran Igoe, Jens Carlsson
      Abstract: 1. Environmental (e)DNA assays are becoming increasingly used to detect rare or invasive aquatic species.2. The Critically Endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera is undergoing range-wide reduction in population numbers and distribution.3. An eDNA assay to detect the presence of M. margaritifera was developed, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene, utilizing species-specific primers, a minor groove binding (MGB) probe and quantitative (q)PCR approaches.4. The results from this pilot study demonstrated high sensitivity both in laboratory and field trials, and provide a valuable non-invasive tool for detecting M. margaritifera.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T06:00:19.327244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2788
  • Sea turtles bycatch in the Adriatic Sea set net fisheries and possible
           hot-spot identification
    • Authors: Alessandro Lucchetti; Claudio Vasapollo, Massimo Virgili
      Abstract: Bycatch resulting from fishing activities is the main threat for the conservation of sea turtles in the Mediterranean Sea. Fixed nets are a matter of concern for sea turtles mainly in coastal areas during the neritic stage when both juvenile and adult life stages are affected. Mortality caused by entanglement in set nets is related to forced apnoea due to the high soak time of the nets and consequent drowning.This study investigated the loggerhead turtle bycatch in set net coastal fisheries in the northern Adriatic Sea (General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean Geographical Sub-Area 17, [GSA 17]) through an interview-based approach, to understand the potential contribution of these fisheries to the general decline of the sea turtle population. A second goal was to identify a possible hot-spot turtle bycatch area through on-board observations.The study estimates that more than 5400 turtles are caught in the west GSA 17 each year with the largest number in the summer. A hot-spot for entanglement was also identified in an area located south of the River Po delta (41.5–69 m depth) during the summer. Sixty-four turtles were caught over a period of 30 fishing days by either trammel nets and gillnets (0.7 and 0.5 turtle per km of net respectively) and was the greatest number that has been observed anywhere in the Mediterranean.Possible management strategies to reduce bycatch include technical modification to gear setting (such as reducing netting slack and using small meshes), bycatch reducer devices (such as LED UV), and area and seasonal gear restrictions to small-scale fisheries in areas of greatest concern in the northern Adriatic Sea.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T04:50:33.503855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2787
  • Distribution, habitat associations and conservation implications of Sri
           Lankan freshwater terrapins outside the protected area network
    • Authors: Suranjan Karunarathna; A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe, Sujan Henkanaththegedara, Thilina Surasinghe, Majintha Madawala, Dinesh Gabadage, Madhava Botejue
      Abstract: Terrapins are integral to many freshwater ecosystems, yet are imperilled at a global scale. In Sri Lanka, terrapins are understudied; thus, much of their natural history and distribution status remain unknown. Such paucity of studies impedes conservation.In this study, 79 freshwater habitats located outside the protected area network of south-western Sri Lanka were surveyed to document current population densities and habitat use of two terrapin species: Indian black terrapin (Melanochelys trijuga thermalis) and flap-shelled terrapin (Lissemys ceylonensis). Local inhabitants were interviewed to assess human threats towards terrapins.Both species were recorded in low densities: 1–2 individuals ha−1. Indian black terrapin was found in half of the surveyed sites while flap-shelled terrapin occurred in one-third of the surveyed sites. Highly urbanized river basins had the lowest densities for both species while rural basins supported higher numbers. Basking was the predominant behaviour of both species and large woody debris and boulders were preferred as basking substrates, together with sparse-canopy aquatic habitats with intact marshlands.Overharvesting for meat was a major threat for terrapins. Most local inhabitants were unaware of legislation on terrapin conservation and the ecological importance of terrapins. Human threats such as pollution, modification of aquatic and wetland habitats, and loss of riparian forests were frequently observed in surveyed sites. Terrapin populations outside the protected area are at risk as evidenced by lower population densities and a multitude of human threats.A landscape-scale ecosystem-based conservation approach is recommended for Sri Lanka's terrapins with incorporation of lands with different management regimes (privately owned, municipality managed) into the protected area network. Current environmental legislation should be revised to support buffer zone delineation for aquatic habitats, wetland restoration, and landscape-scale connectivity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T05:50:36.77063-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2792
  • A century of fishery data documenting the collapse of smooth-hounds
           (Mustelus spp.) in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: Francesco Colloca; Marco Enea, Sergio Ragonese, Manfredi Di Lorenzo
      Abstract: Conservation and management of shark populations is increasingly becoming important in many marine regions, since there is a growing body of evidence showing that several species are threatened and continuing to decline because of unregulated fishing. Quantifying the extent of sharks' decline, the risk of species extinction, and the consequences for marine ecosystems have been challenging and controversial, mostly due to data limitations.In this study, more than one century of multiple-sources of bibliographic records on presence and frequency of occurrence of three species of commercial sharks, the smooth-hounds Mustelus spp., in the Mediterranean Sea were compiled and analysed. Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) were used to estimate the rate of change of two of these species, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus, in four Mediterranean regions.Model results showed that smooth-hounds have declined by 80–90% since the beginning of last century to almost disappear in a large part of their original distributional range during the 1980s and 1990s.Based on modelling results, a revision of the current International Union for Conservation of Nature classification of Mediterranean smooth-hounds would be advisable along with the application of urgent conservation measures.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T05:00:33.922061-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2789
  • Catching invasive Chinese mitten crabs while releasing the endangered
    • Authors: Paul F. Clark; Paris V. Stefanoudis, Oliver A. Crimmen, Dave Pearce, Darryl Clifton-Dey, David Morritt
      Abstract: Modifications of a traditional fyke net design were trialled in 42 hauls over 5 months at 42 locations in the Thames estuary, London. These trials were to determine whether the modified nets could be used to catch invasive mitten crabs while at the same time releasing endangered eels, back into the river.The modifications included rings of different diameters fixed into the netting to provide escape apertures and also a variation in mesh size. A standard, unmodified net was included as a control.Captured mitten crabs, eels and other fish by-catch were measured and recorded for all deployed nets. Mitten crabs and eels were caught in all nets except those of the largest mesh size (70 mm) which caught no eels. This may have been the combined effect of the mesh size and it being set on the square, versus the normal diagonal netting which may become increasingly constricted in one axis, under tension. Such a square mesh net could be used to trap crabs of carapace width> 65 mm, while releasing all eels.The smallest rings, 22 mm internal diameter, inserted into the mesh may have allowed the escape of eels < 35 cm length, but retained larger, market legal, individuals. This suggests that a slightly smaller escape ring could potentially be used to release eels of ≤ 30 cm in length, in line with current regulations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:56:27.177591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2779
  • Developing a landscape-scale, multi-species, and cost-efficient
           conservation strategy for imperilled aquatic species in the Upper
           Tennessee River Basin, USA
    • Authors: David R. Smith; Robert S. Butler, Jess W. Jones, Catherine M. Gatenby, Roberta E. Hylton, Mary J. Parkin, Cindy A. Schulz
      Abstract: Strategic conservation of imperilled species faces several major challenges including uncertainty in species response to management actions, budgetary constraints that limit options, and the need to scale expected conservation benefits from local to landscape levels and from single to multiple species.A structured decision-making process was applied to address these challenges and identify a cost-effective conservation strategy for the Federally listed endangered and threatened aquatic species in the Upper Tennessee River Basin (UTRB). The UTRB, which encompasses a landscape of ~58 000 km2, primarily in western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and south-western Virginia, harbours one of the most globally diverse assemblages of freshwater fishes and mussels at temperate latitudes. To develop a strategy for conservation of 12 fish species and 24 mussel species over a 20-year period, a management strategy that would best recover these species was identified given costs and uncertainty in management effectiveness.The main insights came from a trade-off analysis that compared alternative allocations of effort among management actions. A strategy emphasizing population management, which included propagation and translocation, performed best across a wide range of objective weightings and was robust to uncertainty in management effectiveness. Species prioritization was based on the expected conservation benefit from the best performing strategy, degree of imperilment, and species-specific management costs. Sub-basin prioritization was based on expected conservation benefit from the best performing strategy and feasibility of habitat management and threat abatement.Although the strategy was developed for imperilled aquatic species in the UTRB, the structured process is applicable for developing cost-efficient strategies to conserve multiple species across a landscape under uncertain management effectiveness. The process can assist a manager with limited resources to understand which species to work on, where to conduct that work, and what work would be most beneficial for those species in those catchments.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:51:00.515306-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2785
  • Invasive Asian clam distribution pattern reveals minimal constraints to
           downstream dispersal and imperceptible ecological impacts
    • Authors: Joana Luísa Pereira; Tânia Vidal, Cristiana Mendes, Ana Ré, Joana Isabel Santos, Fernando Gonçalves, Bruno Branco Castro
      Abstract: The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea is an invasive freshwater species that can cause adverse ecological and economic impacts. Information on its dispersal abilities, ecological preferences and impacts may contribute towards the improvement of management strategies, including those relating to regulatory demands such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD).Both the above perspectives were addressed through inspection of environmental constraints to C. fluminea dispersal and impacts in a semi-natural drainage catchment (interconnected system of ditches). Forty sites were surveyed in 2014 to describe the species distribution and to characterize benthic macroinvertebrate communities, water column and sediment physico-chemistry, as well as the hydromorphological conditions.Clams were unevenly distributed in the study area and artificial barriers (dikes) did not prevent downstream dispersal of juveniles. Large variation in clam density (0–3077 clams m−2) could not be explained by physico-chemical or hydromorphological gradients. Although typical clam preference ranges reported in the literature were often exceeded, dense populations were nevertheless observed.Macroinvertebrate community structure suggested associations between the Asian clam and some functional feeding groups. However, the impacts of clams on macroinvertebrate assemblages and ecological quality were negligible, suggesting that contemporary methods designed to comply with the WFD bioassessment scheme may fail to detect important drivers of ecological change in freshwater ecosystems.This study demonstrated the reduced ecological impacts and broad ecological competence of the Asian clam, but also that its spread depends on human vectors. These findings highlight the need to rethink prediction tools supporting preventive measures against the introduction and spread of this invasive bivalve.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T01:51:22.175768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2777
  • Living on the edge: Traits of freshwater fish species at risk in Canada
    • Authors: William R. Glass; Lynda D. Corkum, Nicholas E. Mandrak
      Abstract: The native ranges of many species in North America reach their northern extent in southern Canada, which results in several aquatic species with core populations found farther south being assessed as at risk by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and receiving protection under the Species at Risk Act (SARA).To determine traits that predict at-risk status for freshwater fishes in Canada a classification and regression tree analysis was performed using a suite of ecological and life-history traits, and the species’ distributions in Canada.Range-edge distribution in Canada was a significant predictor of a species assessed as at risk by COSEWIC and to be listed as at risk under SARA. Other predictive traits included Balon reproductive guild, reproductive age/maximum age ratio, and lifespan. Species with economic value were also not likely to be assessed as at risk by COSEWIC. Analyses showed greater inconsistency in listing status under SARA than COSEWIC assessment, and a bias toward not listing species, despite predicted at-risk status, was evident.The predictive models may prove useful in making future conservation decisions and highlight species that should have their status (re)assessed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T00:20:23.211265-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2781
  • Examining horizontal and vertical social ties to achieve
           social–ecological fit in an emerging marine reserve network
    • Authors: Steven M. Alexander; Derek Armitage, Peter J. Carrington, Örjan Bodin
      Abstract: Most MPA networks are designed only with ecological processes in mind to increase their conservation utility. However, since MPA networks often involve large geographic areas, they also affect and involve multiple actors, institutions, and policy sectors.A key challenge when establishing an effective MPA network is to align the ‘social system’ with the biophysical MPA network (the ‘ecological system’). This challenge is often denoted as ‘social–ecological fit’.Facilitating collaborative social interactions among various actors and stakeholders (social connectivity) is equally as important as accomplishing ecological connectivity. New analytical approaches are required to effectively examine this ‘social’ dimension of fit.An emerging marine reserve network in Jamaica and the recent invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish are used as a case study to: (1) examine the extent to which horizontal and vertical social ties bring local and national actors together to collaborate, coordinate, and share knowledge; and (2) assess the extent to which different attributes and features of such multilevel social networks may enhance or inhibit particular aspects of social–ecological fit.Findings suggest that multilevel linkages have played the greatest role in relation to enhancing fit in the marine reserve network in the context of the recent lionfish invasion. However, the long-term propensity of the multi-actor and multilevel networks to enhance social–ecological fit is uncertain given the prevalence of weak social ties, lack of a culture of information sharing and collaboration, and limited financial resources.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T15:20:27.798387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2775
  • Long-term habitat loss in a lightly-disturbed population of the
           Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis
    • Authors: Haiping Wu; Yuhou Xu, Chongwei Peng, Yongyan Liao, Xianyan Wang, Thomas A. Jefferson, Hu Huang, Shiang-Lin Huang
      Abstract: Coastal and estuarine waters are important ecosystems with high primary and secondary productivity, but they are prone to the impacts of habitat loss caused by anthropogenic activities. For species exclusively inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters, such as the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis, irreversible habitat loss can have dramatic implications for population viability.A Landsat image database was used to determine the extent of coastal changes along the northern Beibu Gulf, where a large humpback dolphin population is found. The results were compared with the standardized sighting gradient (SPUF) determined from a questionnaire survey of fishermen and likely core habitats identified by application of a global digital elevation model.Both SPUF and likely core habitat results indicated a continuous distribution of the humpback dolphin along the northern Beibu Gulf. Landsat images revealed that 129.6 km2 of coastal waters were permanently lost in the past 40 years, 60 km2 within the likely core habitats. Although this may be considered small, the impact of such habitat loss could be substantial in some local habitats.The humpback dolphin population in the northern Beibu Gulf should be regarded as one management unit, with two or more social subunits. Immediate systematic surveys are needed to fill information gaps on true distribution range and habitat-use patterns.Habitat protection actions for dolphins in the northern Beibu Gulf should include both core and linking habitats, including enacting protected areas in core habitats, mitigating anthropogenic impacts in likely habitats, restoring both coastal waters and surrounding landscape quality, effective treatment of industrial sewage discharge, and comprehensive environmental impact assessments for the planning of coastal development projects.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T06:40:48.709765-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2778
  • Archipelago Los Roques: A potential baseline for reef fish assemblages in
           the southern Caribbean
    • Authors: Simon Elise; Isabel Urbina-Barreto, Hazael Boadas-Gil, Miguel Galindo-Vivas, Jesús Ernesto Arias-González, Sergio Ricardo Floeter, Alan Marc Friedlander, Michael Nemeth, Michel Kulbicki
      Abstract: 1. Despite increasing policies of protection, few localities in the Caribbean remain spared from human impacts. These lightly affected areas can better reflect the past composition of reef fish assemblages and provide baseline information about the natural factors driving fish distributions in the region.2. Reef fish assemblage structures were analysed in 21 Caribbean fished areas and marine protected areas (MPAs) along a gradient of distance to the nearest major market place. Assemblage structures by size and by trophic group were significantly related to the distance to market.3. Relationships of reef fish life-history traits, families, and vulnerability indicators were examined with the seascape and the benthic composition at Los Roques Archipelago, the most isolated MPA in the analysis. Factors linked to seascape features were more important than benthic composition or human activities in explaining fish assemblage structure.4. Wave exposure was the most influential seascape metric. Exposed habitats were dominated by octocorals and sponges. More sheltered habitats were characterized by high coral cover, while leeward sites were characterized by steep slopes with close proximity to deeper water.5. Exposed habitats were mostly occupied by unspecialized fish species. Piscivore densities were high at south and south-west sites, and were likely related to the large concentrations of planktivorous fishes found there. South and south-west sites experience full oceanic conditions, and supported the highest species richness and densities within the archipelago.6. Los Roques National Park is one of the oldest and most remote Caribbean MPAs. Its fish assemblage structure is healthier than other fished or protected areas, with higher species richness, higher density of piscivores, and an abundance of large species. Predator–prey relationships provided additional evidence that Los Roques reef fish assemblage presented specific characteristics.7. The main patterns observed in this study represent a baseline for assessing reef fish assemblages elsewhere in the southern Caribbean.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T06:25:41.510786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2770
  • Kittiwake breeding success in the southern North Sea correlates with prior
           sandeel fishing mortality
    • Authors: Matthew J. Carroll; Mark Bolton, Ellie Owen, Guy Q.A. Anderson, Elizabeth K. Mackley, Euan K. Dunn, Robert W. Furness
      Abstract: In the North Sea, sandeels provide a vital food source for breeding seabirds, but are also the target of an industrial fishery. GPS tracking suggests that the most productive fishing grounds overlap with foraging areas of black-legged kittiwakes from eastern England, raising the prospect that the fishery could affect the birds. Rising sea temperatures also threaten sandeels, so kittiwake food supplies could be affected by local and larger-scale processes.Drivers of kittiwake breeding success at Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs Special Protection Area, the UK's largest colony, and one of the closest to the sandeel fishing grounds, were examined. Relationships between sandeel stocks, sea surface temperature and kittiwake breeding success were analysed with generalized linear mixed models and generalized linear models, with model performance assessed using the Akaike Information Criterion and R2.Higher kittiwake breeding success was associated with higher sandeel spawning stock biomass (SSB; biomass of sexually mature fish) the preceding winter (R2 = 21.5%) and lower sandeel fishing mortality two years previously (R2 = 22.3%). After temporal trends were removed, only the fishing mortality effect remained. Models with multiple predictors supported the importance of fishing mortality. Higher sandeel SSB was associated with lower temperatures (R2 = 15.2–38.6%) and lower sandeel fishing mortality (R2 = 24.2–26.1%).Hence, lower temperatures and fishing mortality were positively associated with sandeel biomass, and higher sandeel biomass and lower fishing mortality were positively associated with kittiwake productivity. In light of worsening environmental conditions and declining sandeel and kittiwake populations, careful consideration should be given to the requirements of sandeel-dependent predators when making fishery management decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T04:29:52.142116-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2780
  • Effects of relocation on metabolic profiles of freshwater mussels:
           Metabolomics as a tool for improving conservation techniques
    • Authors: Ieva Roznere; G. Thomas Watters, Barbara A. Wolfe, Marymegan Daly
      Abstract: Freshwater mussels are among the most endangered animals in North America. Although there are numerous state and federal programmes aimed at conserving them, knowledge of the effects of captivity and relocation remains limited.Metabolomic techniques were used to assess the physiological state of freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) relocated from the Muskingum River in Ohio to a conservation facility and to another stream in Ohio. Haemolymph samples were taken from mussels in the Muskingum River (MUS group), the facility (CAP group), and Big Darby Creek (DAR group) in September 2012 (month 3 post-relocation), November 2012 (month 5), May 2013 (month 11), and August 2013 (month 14). Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.In total, 95 biochemicals were identified during the 2012 sampling period and 104 biochemicals during the 2013 sampling period. Glucose and lipid metabolism remained similar among all groups. Differences between the MUS group and the CAP and DAR groups were observed in altered amino acid and nucleotide metabolism.The results are indicative of a general stress response, which is evident for a year post-relocation. Decreased levels of these metabolites are likely to be responsible for decreased growth rates and higher mortality often observed in relocated mussels.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:27:20.258904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2776
  • What's in an index' Comparing the ecological information provided by
           two indices to assess the status of coralligenous reefs in the NW
           Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: Luigi Piazzi; Carlo Nike Bianchi, Enrico Cecchi, Giulia Gatti, Ivan Guala, Carla Morri, Stéphane Sartoretto, Fabrizio Serena, Monica Montefalcone
      Abstract: This study compared the results obtained through the concurrent use of the two indices ESCA (Ecological Status of Coralligenous Assemblages) and COARSE (COralligenous Assessment by ReefScape Estimate) to define the ecological status of coralligenous reefs.The study evaluated: i) the effectiveness of the two indices at a regional spatial scale (100 s of km); ii) the descriptors that mostly influence the indices; and iii) the ecological information provided by the two indices.Both ESCA and COARSE were applied to coralligenous reefs selected at sites affected by different human-induced pressures.The two indices provided different but complementary information to determine the intrinsic quality of coralligenous reefs and to detect the effects of human pressures on the associated assemblages.The simultaneous use of ESCA and COARSE can be effective in providing information about the alteration of ecological quality of coralligenous reefs, in order to achieve the requirements of European directives.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T06:20:48.631551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2773
  • Demography of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins living in a
           protected inverse estuary
    • Authors: Cecilia Passadore; Luciana Möller, Fernando Diaz-Aguirre, Guido J. Parra
      Abstract: Assessments of demographic parameters are essential to understand the dynamics of wild populations, and for their efficient conservation and management. Here, sex-specific abundance, apparent survival and temporary emigration of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops cf. australis) in Coffin Bay (CB), South Australia, is investigated.Results are based on capture–recapture modelling of photo-identification data and molecular analyses of biopsy samples collected during boat-based surveys between September 2013 and October 2015 in the inner and outer areas of CB.The total super-population of dolphins (including calves) using the entire study area (263 km2) was estimated with POPAN models at 306 (95% CI: 291–323), which included 71 (68–73) marked females and 57 (55–60) marked males.Seasonal estimates of abundance for the inner area of CB (123 km2) obtained with Pollock's Closed Robust Design models remained relatively constant over the two years (marked females: 52–60, marked males: 46–52, and total: 193–209).The high density of dolphins inhabiting the inner area (seasonal range: 1.57–1.70 individuals km−2), high apparent survival rates estimated for both sexes (females: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.96–1.0; males: 0.95; 0.82–0.99), and low temporary emigration rates (0.02; 95% CI: 0.01–0.11) indicate that the inner area of CB offers highly favourable habitat for these dolphins.6-High biological productivity and low predation risk may promote these demographic patterns in the inner area of CB.7-This study provides a robust baseline of sex-specific population demographics of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins with important implications for future research and their management and conservation in South Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T05:16:11.605719-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2772
  • Population structure, distribution and habitat use of the Critically
           Endangered Angelshark, Squatina squatina, in the Canary Islands
    • Authors: Eva K. M. Meyers; Fernando Tuya, Joanna Barker, David Jiménez Alvarado, José Juan Castro-Hernández, Ricardo Haroun, Dennis Rödder
      Abstract: Angel sharks are among the most threatened fish worldwide, facing regional and global extinction. In Europe, populations of the three Critically Endangered angel sharks (Squatina aculeata, Squatina oculata and Squatina squatina) have been severely depleted.Taking advantage of the last global ‘hotspot’ of the angelshark, Squatina squatina, this study gathered data through a citizen science programme to describe the occurrence of this shark in the coastal waters of the Canary Islands. Specifically, this study described (1) the population structure, and (2) habitat use of this species, which was used in a Species Distribution Model to (3) examine realized and potential distribution patterns, and to (4) determine the relative importance of environmental predictors on the occurrence of S. squatina.Over the 12 months sampling period (April 2014 – March 2015), 678 sightings were reported. Individuals ranged from 20 to 200 cm (total length). Larger sightings of both females and neonates occurred mostly in April to July, i.e. during the pupping season. Males were significantly more frequent in November to January, i.e. during the mating season. Angelsharks were encountered at depths from
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T04:15:52.492508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2769
  • Influence of seasonality on cetacean diversity, abundance, distribution
           and habitat use in the western Mediterranean Sea: Implications for
    • Authors: Antonella Arcangeli; Ilaria Campana, Marco A. Bologna
      Abstract: Cetaceans are key biological indicators of the status of marine waters and are protected under an extensive legislative framework. Research about these highly dynamic species is challenging, so seasonal cycles and patterns of distribution, especially in high sea areas, are still poorly understood.This study contributes to improving knowledge about cetacean occurrence in largely unexplored areas of medium-latitudes in the western Mediterranean Sea. Systematic surveys were conducted along a trans-regional transect over 3 years (October 2012 to September 2015) allowing consistent data collection over almost 60 000 km of effort through all seasons.Seasonal cetacean diversity was investigated using a 25 km2 grid cell as a statistical unit to explore patterns of abundance, distribution, and habitat use in three marine sectors (Sardinian–Balearic, Bonifacio Strait, Tyrrhenian). All cetacean species regularly present in the Mediterranean basin were detected, with highest occurrence in fin whale and striped dolphin, followed by bottlenose dolphin and sperm whale.The Sardinian–Balearic sector generally showed higher species richness and diversity than the Tyrrhenian, where seasonal variations were more pronounced. The study suggested seasonal movements, especially for fin whale and striped dolphin, in the Sardinian–Balearic sector with peaks of occurrence during spring/summer and lower numbers during winter/autumn, and also delivered interesting insights to rarer pelagic species.The study identified areas/seasons in which the combined effect of high species diversity, abundance, significance of hot spots and presence of juveniles require increasing conservation effort. Results underline the important contribution of continuous monitoring in high sea areas to the implementation of adaptive protection measures.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T02:55:44.275752-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2758
  • Predation by invasive signal crayfish on early life stages of European
           barbel may be limited
    • Authors: Gordon H. Copp; Michael J. Godard, Lorenzo Vilizzi, Adam Ellis, William D. Riley
      Abstract: To determine whether or not signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and native white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes prey on European barbel Barbus barbus eggs, interstitial free-embryos and emergent larvae, experiments were undertaken in salmonid (substratum) incubators (six treatments, four controls) fitted with video recorders.No corpses or remains of emergent barbel larvae or eggs, or parts thereof, were observed in any of the incubators containing buried eggs, and no emergent larvae showed any sign of attack. However, video evidence of a signal crayfish catching and consuming a barbel larva was obtained.There were no statistically significant differences between white-clawed and signal crayfish either in carapace length or weight at the beginning and end of the experiments. The conservation implications of these results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T07:16:48.574012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2768
  • Non-native marine species in north-west Europe: Developing an approach to
           assess future spread using regional downscaled climate projections
    • Authors: Bryony Townhill; John Pinnegar, Jonathan Tinker, Miranda Jones, Stephen Simpson, Paul Stebbing, Stephen Dye
      Abstract: 1. Climate change can affect the survival, colonization and establishment of non-native species. Many non-native species common in Europe are spreading northwards as seawater temperatures increase. The similarity of climatic conditions between source and recipient areas is assumed to influence the establishment of such species, however, in a changing climate those conditions are difficult to predict.2. A risk assessment methodology has been applied to identify non-native species with proven invasive qualities that have not yet arrived in north-west Europe, but which could become problematic in the future. Those species with the highest potential to become established or be problematic have been taken forward, as well as some that may be economically beneficial, for species distribution modelling to determine future potential habitat distributions under projected climate change.3. In the past, species distribution models have usually made use of low resolution global environmental datasets. Here, to increase the local resolution of the distribution models, downscaled shelf seas climate change model outputs for north-west Europe were nested within global outputs. In this way the distribution model could be trained using the global species presence data including the species' native locations, and then projected using more comprehensive shelf seas data to understand habitat suitability in a potential recipient area.4. Distribution modelling found that habitat suitability will generally increase further north for those species with the highest potential to become established or problematic. Most of these are known to be species with potentially serious consequences for conservation. With caution, a small number of species may present an opportunity for the fishing industry or aquaculture. The ability to provide potential future distributions could be valuable in prioritizing species for monitoring or eradication programmes, increasing the chances of identifying problem species early. This is particularly important for vulnerable infrastructure or protected or threatened ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T07:02:53.197852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2764
  • Artificial reefs as a reef restoration strategy in sediment-affected
           environments: Insights from long-term monitoring
    • Authors: Chin Soon Lionel Ng; Tai Chong Toh, Loke Ming Chou
      Abstract: Artificial reefs provide substrates that facilitate the rapid recruitment of marine biota such as corals and fish, and are commonly employed as coral restoration tools to assist recovery in degraded areas. While this strategy is successful in the immediate years post-deployment, its contribution to restoration over longer time scales is less well understood.The biological communities on Reef Enhancement Units (REUs), which had been deployed for more than a decade on Singapore's sediment-affected coral reefs, were surveyed.The diversity of sessile lifeforms on the REUs was significantly higher in 2014 (H′ = 1.03) than 2004 (H′ = 0.60). Hard corals and coralline algae contributed most to the temporal dissimilarity and turf algae remained the dominant lifeform category in both years.In 2014, hard corals and abiotic components contributed most to the spatial dissimilarity among the six REU plots that were surveyed. Shannon diversity values of these plots ranged from 0.74–1.3. Scleractinian cover ranged from 0.4–31.5% and differed significantly among the plots.The REUs also augmented ecosystem functioning at their respective plots. Colonies from 10 of the 30 scleractinian genera recorded were sexually mature, and a total of 119 sessile and mobile reef taxa utilized the REUs for food and habitat.The results demonstrate that artificial reefs can contribute to the development of biological communities and ecosystem functioning in degraded coral habitats over the long run, and underscore the need for long-term monitoring to validate the effectiveness of reef restoration efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:42:38.442937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2755
  • Invasive Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana threatens native mussel
           reproduction by inducing cross-resistance of host fish
    • Authors: Seth W. Donrovich; Karel Douda, Věra Plechingerová, Kateřina Rylková, Pavel Horký, Ondřej Slavík, Huan-Zhang Liu, Martin Reichard, Manuel Lopes-Lima, Ronaldo Sousa
      Abstract: The effects of invasive alien species (IAS) on host–affiliate relationships are often subtle and remain unnoticed or insufficiently quantified. The global decline of freshwater unionid mussel species has been attributed to many causes, but little is known about the interactions of IAS, with their complex life cycle, which includes an obligatory parasitic stage (the glochidium) that develops on fishes.The capacity of a European freshwater mussel, Anodonta anatina, to develop on its widespread fish host, Squalius cephalus was tested experimentally, after previous infestations by the IAS, Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana. The initial attachment of glochidia, the length of the parasitic period, and the metamorphosis success rate of A. anatina glochidia were compared among treatments of different priming infestation intensities.The metamorphosis success rate of the native A. anatina glochidia was strongly reduced (Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T01:40:25.960636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2759
  • Assessing the impacts of tourism on the world's largest fish Rhincodon
           typus at Panaon Island, Southern Leyte, Philippines
    • Authors: Gonzalo Araujo; Fabien Vivier, Jessica June Labaja, Daniel Hartley, Alessandro Ponzo
      Abstract: Shark-based tourism is a rapidly growing industry, particularly with whale sharks, as new hotspots are identified worldwide. Understanding any impacts of tourism is essential to minimize any potential detrimental effects on the target species and habitat.In-water behavioural observations of whale sharks were used to understand any impacts of tourism at a small site in Panaon Island, Southern Leyte, Philippines. A generalized linear mixed model was fitted to test anthropogenic and environmental variables, with interaction duration as the response variable, to assess any disturbance to the animals by the tourism activities.Whale sharks were observed between the months of November and June between 2013 and 2016, with highly variable seasons. In total, 527 tourist-whale shark interactions were recorded during 359 trips identifying 104 individual whale sharks, most of which were juvenile males (85%, measuring c. 5.5 m total length). Proximity of motorized vessels and interactions in deeper waters were found to significantly shorten interactions. Short-term behavioural changes were observed in response to human events (e.g. touching). Interactions when whale sharks were feeding were significantly longer than when they were not. Individual behavioural variability was observed.Impacts could be mitigated with small managerial changes and increased enforcement, such as limiting the number of motorized vessels and the number of people around the whale sharks. Although no long-term impacts were recorded during this study, it is difficult to ascertain this in a long-lived, wide-ranging species.This knowledge gap highlights the need to build long-term monitoring programmes, and to apply the precautionary principle for the sustainable use of this endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T01:37:57.398131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2762
  • Whale-watching trips in Peru lead to increases in tourist knowledge,
           pro-conservation intentions and tourist concern for the impacts of
           whale-watching on humpback whales
    • Authors: Ana M. García-Cegarra; Aldo S. Pacheco
      Abstract: Since the implementation of the commercial whaling ban in the 1980s, whale-watching has become the most important economic activity involving whales worldwide.Whale-watching is promoted as a platform for education and conservation awareness of marine biodiversity. In Peru, where cetacean species are still in jeopardy, whale-watching may play an important part in promoting the protection of these species.This study aimed to determine the degree of whale-watching tourists' knowledge regarding cetacean ecology and conservation status and to evaluate if whale-watching tours could serve as platforms for educating the public and raising conservation awareness.The results of 196 closed-ended questionnaires and 20 open-ended interviews conducted before and after whale-watching tours, during the humpback whale season (winter–spring 2014) in northern Peru, revealed an overall lack of knowledge concerning the presence of species of cetaceans in Peruvian waters and threats to marine biodiversity. However, after the whale-watching excursion, participants said they would be more willing to change their behaviour with respect to cetacean conservation and marine environment protection.This study suggests that whale-watching platforms, when implemented with adequate interpreters, can serve as a source of environmental education and can raise conservation awareness. This is an important conservation strategy to consider in countries, such as Peru, where by-catch and direct hunting are decimating local cetacean populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T06:20:34.230578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2754
  • Genetic population structure of black-browed and Campbell albatrosses, and
           implications for assigning provenance of birds killed in fisheries
    • Authors: Theresa M. Burg; Paulo Catry, Peter G. Ryan, Richard A. Phillips
      Abstract: Previous genetic studies found evidence of at least three distinct groups of black-browed Thalassarche melanophris and Campbell Thalassarche impavida albatrosses in the Southern Ocean. Almost 350 individuals including samples from additional breeding sites on the Falkland Islands and South Georgia Island were screened using mitochondrial DNA.The new sequence data using lineage specific PCR primers provided further support for the taxonomic split of T. melanophris and T. impavida and separate management of the two distinct T. melanophris groups.In total, 207 black-browed albatrosses killed in longline fisheries were screened. Approximately 93% of the bycaught birds from the Falkland Islands belonged to the Falkland mtDNA group and the remaining birds had mtDNA from the Widespread T. melanophris group; these proportions were similar to those in the local Falklands breeding population. The South African and South Georgia bycatch samples predominantly comprised the Widespread T. melanophris group, with only one bird from each area containing Falkland mtDNA. Lastly, 81% of the albatrosses bycaught off New Zealand had T. impavida mtDNA and the remaining four birds were Widespread T. melanophris. These differences in bycatch composition matched what is known from tracking and banding data about the at-sea distribution of black-browed albatrosses.Based on the mtDNA results and current population trends, consideration should be given to assigning regional IUCN status for the different breeding populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:16:28.683575-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2765
  • Cold-water coral Madrepora oculata in the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW
           Mediterranean): Historical and recent findings
    • Authors: Emanuela Fanelli; Ivana Delbono, Roberta Ivaldi, Marta Pratellesi, Silvia Cocito, Andrea Peirano
      Abstract: Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems are long-lived, slow-growing and fragile, which makes them especially vulnerable to physical damage. In recent decades, CWCs have been severely threatened by fisheries, hydrocarbon extraction, pollution and other human activities.In the Mediterranean Sea, some investigations have been carried out on CWC ecosystems, mostly focused on their distributions within the central and eastern basins.Historical reports and fishermen's maps for the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from the 1960s document the occurrence of extensive banks of living CWC, mostly Madrepora oculata, between depths of 200 and 500 m.In 2013/2014, multibeam, side scan sonar (SSS) and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys were carried out in that area, specifically in the Levante Canyon, to assess the occurrence, distribution and conservation status of CWC.The SSS and ROV showed numerous trawl tracks and small (10 cm high), dead, buried colonies at 300–500 m. Deeper, between 525 and 575 m, dense populations of living, 1 m high colonies of Madrepora oculata were found on the flanks of Levante Canyon. The deep sites showed colonies overturned or entangled by long-line fishing activities.The discovery of new CWC banks not yet heavily damaged by fishing activities, suggests that urgent measures for conservation should be taken in the Mediterranean and worldwide. The present limitation of trawl-fishing to above 1000 m depth, established by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) in 2005, seems to be ineffective, since CWCs are mostly located at less than 1000 m depth in the Ligurian Sea. A network of high-seas/deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) would favour a better strategy for protecting substantial areas of CWCs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:11:46.738148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2751
  • Effect of an intensive mechanical removal effort on a population of
           non-native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a South African headwater
    • Authors: Jeremy Shelton; Olaf Weyl, Johannes Van Der Walt, Sean Marr, Dean Impson, Kristine Maciejewski, Donovan Tye, Helen Dallas, Karen Esler
      Abstract: Invasions by non-native species can compromise the conservation value of otherwise pristine headwater streams. While both developed and developing countries recognize this threat, few of the latter have suitable budgets to implement control programmes.This study assessed the effectiveness of a mechanical project to remove non-native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from a 6 km section of the upper Krom River, a small headwater stream in the Cederberg Mountains in South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR).From October 2013 to February 2014, 354 O. mykiss were removed by angling (58%), fyke netting (28%) and gill netting (14%). This resulted in a marked reduction, but not eradication, of the O. mykiss population (fish relative abundance decreased from 0.53 ± 0.09 fish per net per night in October 2013 to 0.21 ± 0.09 fish per net per night in February 2014). Following the cessation of manual removals, the relative abundance of O. mykiss had increased to 0.56 ± 0.18 fish per net per night by March 2016, suggesting that without sustained removal effort, the population will rapidly return to its pre-removal abundance level.Further work is needed to refine the methodology and test the effectiveness of mechanical removal of non-native freshwater fish in a variety of ecological settings in the CFR. This approach holds potential for meeting the dual goals of reducing the ecological impacts of non-native fishes and generating employment opportunities in line with the policy objectives of developing nations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T03:26:00.713365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2752
  • The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (West
           and Central Africa)
    • Authors: Beth A. Polidoro; Gina M. Ralph, Kyle Strongin, Michael Harvey, Kent E. Carpenter, Rachel Arnold, Jack R. Buchanan, Khairdine Mohamed Abdallahi Camara, Bruce B. Collette, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Godefroy De Bruyne, Ofer Gon, Antony S. Harold, Heather Harwell, Percival A. Hulley, Tomio Iwamoto, Steen W. Knudsen, Jean de Dieu Lewembe, Christi Linardich, Kenyon C. Lindeman, Vanda Monteiro, Thomas Munroe, Francis K.E. Nunoo, Caroline M. Pollock, Stuart Poss, Barry Russell, Catherine Sayer, Aboubacar Sidibe, William Smith-Vaniz, Emilie Stump, Mor Sylla, Luis Tito De Morais, Jean-Christophe Vié, Akanbi Williams
      Abstract: The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (ECA), especially of coastal and pelagic fishes, is of concern owing to a number of threats including overharvesting, habitat loss, pollution, and climate change combined with inadequate policy responses, legislation, and enforcement.This study provides the first comprehensive documentation of the presence, status, and level of extinction risk, based on IUCN Red List assessment methodology, for more than 1800 marine species, including all taxonomically described marine vertebrates (marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds, fishes); complete clades of selected marine invertebrates (sea cucumbers, cone snails, cephalopods, lobsters, reef-building corals); and marine plants (mangroves, seagrasses).Approximately 8% of all marine species assessed in the ECA are in threatened categories, while 4% are listed as Near Threatened, 73% are Least Concern, and 15% are Data Deficient. Fisheries and overharvesting are the biggest threats to living marine resources in the ECA, with 87% of threatened species across all taxonomic groups affected by both large- and small-scale targeted fisheries, excessive capture as by-catch, or unsustainable harvest.The results of this study will transform the current state of knowledge and increase capacity for regional stakeholders to identify and enact marine conservation and research priorities, as a number of species are identified as having high conservation and/or research priorities in the region.Through the process of marine species data collection and risk assessments conducted over the past 5 years, several key conservation actions and research needs are identified to enable more effective conservation of marine biodiversity in the ECA, including increased governance, multilateral collaboration, taxonomic training, and improved reporting of fisheries catch and effort.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T03:35:38.21947-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2744
  • Red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, found in South Africa 22 years
           after attempted eradication
    • Authors: Ana L. Nunes; Andries C. Hoffman, Tsungai A. Zengeya, G. John Measey, Olaf LF Weyl
      Abstract: 1. No freshwater crayfish are indigenous to continental Africa, but four species have been introduced to the continent. One of these is the North American red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, which has been introduced into several African countries, mainly for aquaculture, and has had demonstrable impacts where it has escaped captivity. In South Africa, the documentation of this species in farm dams near Dullstroom and the adjacent Crocodile River in 1988 resulted in an eradication attempt in 1994, with unknown results.2. In order to evaluate the status of P. clarkii in South Africa, dams on the previously invaded farm and the Crocodile River were sampled four times between December 2015 and June 2016 using visual surveys, trapping, dipnetting and electrofishing. This yielded a single reproductively active male P. clarkii from one of the farm ponds, while many other native aquatic species were found in high numbers.3. It is clear from this study that P. clarkii was not eradicated in South Africa and that individuals have been surviving in the wild (i.e. outside captivity or cultivation) for at least 28 years in the location where it was introduced. Containment and eradication of the species are proposed as management actions, which have major importance in preventing undesirable further spread or translocation of this species into new aquatic environments in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T04:29:53.671152-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2741
  • Defining critical habitat conditions for the conservation of three endemic
           and endangered cyprinids in a Mediterranean intermittent river before the
           onset of drought
    • Authors: Leonidas Vardakas; Eleni Kalogianni, Christina Papadaki, Theocharis Vavalidis, Angeliki Mentzafou, Drosos Koutsoubas, Nikolaos Skoulikidis Th.
      Abstract: Identifying key factors in species' habitat requirements can be of use in defining critical habitats for their conservation, as well as in assisting the prioritization of habitat restoration actions. So far, most studies on habitat use by freshwater fishes have been focused on widespread and economically important species (e.g. salmonids).This study aimed to identify the early summer habitat use (i.e. before the start of the drought period) of three endemic and endangered Greek cyprinids – the Evrotas chub Squalius keadicus, the Spartian minnowroach Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus and the Evrotas minnow Pelasgus laconicus, with regard to depth, water velocity, substrate and macrophyte cover. In the case of the chub, habitat use by juvenile and adult fish was assessed separately. Data were collected for each fish group from four habitat types (riffles, runs, glides, pools) by using a modified point-abundance sampling with an electrofishing device. In total, 120 sampling points were sampled, in two near-reference perennial reaches of the Evrotas River (southern Greece) in early summer 2014, when there was continuous flow and full connectivity between habitats.All three target species had their highest densities in deeper habitats with low water velocities and depositional substrates such as pools and runs. A high overlap in habitat use was evident for the three species. Habitat use curves based on microhabitat data were created for all species. Μinnowroaches, minnows and large chubs actively selected deep habitats. Minnowroaches and minnows favoured slow-flowing, vegetated habitats with fine substrate located close to the river bank, while chubs had no clear affinity for particular velocities or substrate types. However, size class comparisons in chub indicated differences in both water depth and velocity.Overall, the results of this study provide the first detailed report of the habitat use of these endangered fish species. These patterns of habitat use highlight the importance of deep habitats that must be preserved as refugia while the drought events progress.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T07:05:44.19605-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2735
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 901 - 903
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T05:39:21.268637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2728
  • Editorial: Ecological processes are not bound by borders: Implications for
           marine conservation in a post-Brexit world
    • Authors: Stephen J. Hawkins
      Pages: 904 - 908
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T05:39:25.143514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2838
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