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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1597 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1597 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Research
  [SJR: 0.807]   [H-I: 60]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-557X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2109
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Donor effect on cultured pearl nacre development and shell matrix gene
           expression in Pinctada margaritifera reared in different field sites
    • Authors: Chin-Long Ky; Floriane Broustal, Manaarii Sham Koua, Virgile Quillien, Benoît Beliaeff
      Abstract: Understanding the respective roles played by donor and recipient pearl oysters in pearl quality determination in relation to the environment is a challenge for the pearl industry. In most Pinctada species, pearl size is mainly related to recipient oyster growth performance but also relies to some extent on the biomineralisation activity of the pearl sac, a tissue that originates from the donor oyster mantle. We examined donor effect on pearl size in response to culture in the lagoons on Arutua and Apataki atolls. Overall, nacre weight and thickness were greater in Arutua than in Apataki, but sensitivity to the environment differed between donors. Some donors were associated with significantly heavier and thicker nacre in Arutua (I group), while others had similar results at the two sites (NI group). On average, up to 20% of the pearl size could be attributed to the donor but, in group I, donor effect was responsible for up to 36% of nacre weight determination. Additionally, a real-time PCR expression study of eight matrix protein genes related to biomineralisation in the pearl sac showed that MSI60, pearlin and pif177 were significantly and positively correlated with nacre weight and thickness, with the latter two genes explaining the larger pearl size observed in Arutua. Donor oysters in P. margaritifera therefore play a key role in pearl size improvement, related to the role of the shell matrix protein genes. Understanding such contributions could help in the design of genetic selection plans for specific and adapted donor oyster lines.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14T08:58:58.784659-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13649
  • Natural food intake by juvenile Arapaima gigas during the grow-out phase
           in earthen ponds
    • Authors: Adriana Ferrreira Lima; Amilton Tavares-Filho, Giovanni Vitti Moro
      Abstract: In carnivorous fish species, zooplankton is one of the main food items in the early life stages and some fish species continue feeding on such food items further along the life stages even in the farming environment. In this study, the intake of natural food items was assessed in juvenile pirarucu Arapaima gigas reared in earthen ponds. Juvenile pirarucu (12.2 ± 4.32 g and 12.1 ± 1.13 cm) were stocked in fertilized earthen ponds (240 m²). For the analysis of the fish stomach content and plankton in the pond water, the fish and pond water were sampled weekly for 75 days and biweekly until the fish reached a mean weight of 750 g. Although artificial feed was used, pirarucu also ingested the natural food available in the pond water. Among the zooplankton, pirarucu demonstrated feeding preference for cladocerans despite the abundance of rotifers and copepods. Cladocerans were present in more than 80% of the stomach contents of fish up to 300 g and in 65%, 45% and 17% of fish of 301–500 g, 501–700 g and 701–900 g respectively. Copepods were present only in fish up to 500 g at low abundance. High ingestion of insects and plant material was observed in the stomach content of fish of all size classes. The results demonstrate that juvenile pirarucu ingest natural food available in the farming pond and suggests that the adoption of pond fertilization practices may have positive effects on fish growth performance.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14T08:58:41.67918-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13662
  • Differences in feeding, intestinal mass and metabolites between a
           thermotolerant strain and common Apostichopus japonicus under high summer
    • Authors: Shilin Liu; Jingchun Sun, Xiaoshang Ru, Xuebin Cao, Jialiang Liu, Tao Zhang, Yi Zhou, Hongsheng Yang
      Abstract: Two groups of Apostichopus japonicus, a thermotolerant strain (group G3: wet weight, 64.22 ± 13.16 g/ind.), which was selected focusing on the performance of thermo-tolerance through three generations for 10 years, and a control group (group C: wet weight, 62.08 ± 12.01 g/ind.) were collected from July to October in a seawater pond in northern China. Differences in relative faecal mass (RFM), relative intestinal mass (RIM), percentage of individuals with faeces (PIWF) and intestinal metabolites were investigated and compared between the two groups. The temperatures of terminating aestivation of the two groups were assessed according to the values of RFM and RIM. A regression analysis showed that the corresponding group G3 temperatures were 0.56–1.34°C and 0.70–1.49°C higher than those of group C when RFM and RIM were 0.01–0.05 and 0.005–0.025 respectively. The PIWF values in group G3 were 11.5%–21.2% higher than that in group C from 20 July to 22 September. Significant differences at the concentrations of 52 metabolites were detected between the two groups, 36 were higher in group G3 and 16 were higher in group C. The concentrations of threitol, 2-methylglutaric acid, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-L-leucine, lactose, oxoproline, 2,3-dimethylsuccinic acid and d-glucoheptose were significantly different between groups G3 and C and were considered metabolic markers distinguishing group G3 from group C. Metabolism of A. japonicus in group G3 was more active than that in group C. These results provide new insight for understanding ingestion and intestinal metabolism in the thermotolerant strain of A. japonicus under high summer temperature.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12T01:00:46.658714-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13651
  • Opportunistic pathogens are abundant in the gut of cultured giant spiny
           frog (Paa spinosa)
    • Authors: Jianguo Xiang; Tuoyu He, Pengpeng Wang, Min Xie, Jing Xiang, Jiajia Ni
      Abstract: Pathogen infection poses a serious threat to the survival and commercial quality of cultured Paa spinosa, which provide protection as a substitute for wild P. spinosa. The gut microbiota plays vital roles in host health and immunity. To provide guidance for preventing intestinal diseases of artificial P. spinosa culture, we compared gut microbiota compositions of wild and cultured P. spinosa using high-throughput sequencing. A total of 11,526 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from 14,043 sequences from each sample. Cetobacterium, PW3 Bacteroides and some unidentified species from Bacteroidales, Rikenellaceae and Clostridiales were significantly increased in the gut microbiota from cultured P. spinosa, whereas Faecalibacterium and unidentified bacteria from Ruminococcaceae were significantly decreased in the gut microbiota from cultured P. spinosa. According to the gut microbiota composition, we hypothesized that the cultured P. spinosa in Jing'an would exhibit a higher risk of pathogenic infection than those in Cili. These results provided a method to forecast the pathogenic infection risk of cultured P. spinosa, which could guide the artificial culture of and prevent diseases in P. spinosa through gut microbiota.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12T01:00:09.248541-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13660
  • Stable isotope analysis to quantify contributions of supplementary feed in
           Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT strain) aquaculture
    • Authors: Justin Narimbi; Debashish Mazumder, Jesmond Sammut
      Abstract: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is currently one of the most farmed freshwater fish and contributes significantly to total global aquaculture production. The genetically improved strain of O. niloticus (GIFT) was introduced to Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 1999 to improve food and income security. The high cost and low availability of commercial fish feed hinder the growth of GIFT farming in PNG. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to determine the role of supplementary and natural food sources in the diet of GIFT in pond-based aquaculture. Two treatments were used: treatment 1 was daily feeding, and treatment 2 was weekly feeding, each with three replicates. Isotopic analysis of muscle tissue and all potential food sources showed that pellet feed contributed 7% to the growth of GIFT in daily-fed ponds and 33% in the weekly-fed ponds. Highly enriched δ15N values for chicken manure, compared to depleted values for GIFT and other natural food sources in both treatments, clearly indicate insignificant contributions of this input to production. After 90 days of cultivation, the average final body weight of GIFT receiving daily feed inputs was 134 g (average 19 cm), while for weekly-fed it was 92 g (17 cm). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was poor (6.4:1) in the daily-fed GIFT ponds compared to a better, and preferable, FCR (1:1) in the weekly-fed ponds. The findings of this study show that pelleted feed was not the major contributor to the growth of GIFT. Genetically improved farmed tilapia aquaculture should focus on enhancing natural food availability for fish production.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12T00:33:44.813394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13642
  • DNA barcoding reveals blend of silver catfish Rhamdia species from fish
           farms in Southern Brazil
    • Authors: Bianca Maria Soares Scaranto; Josiane Ribolli, Evoy Zaniboni-Filho
      Abstract: Rhamdia quelen is the most produced native freshwater fish in fish farms in South Brazil. Until recently, Rhamdia branneri and Rhamdia voulezi were synonyms of R. quelen, and all the species are commercialized as silver catfish (locally called jundiá or bagre sapo) by the aquaculture industry. In fact, because these species are morphologically very similar, interspecific crosses easily might occur in fish farming. We employed standard DNA barcoding to identify jundiá molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) in fish cultivated and commercialized in the industry and in possible escapees in the natural environment in southern Brazil. We analysed 48 individuals from six fish farms and 48 individuals from three rivers (Uruguay, Benedito Novo and Itapocu Rivers) using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Four MOTUs were identified based on the estimated optimum threshold (OT = 0.77), and these MOTUs were concordant with Bayesian Inferece (BI) and Neighbour-Joining (NJ) trees. Our results support the existence of at least three species in our dataset: R. branneri, R. voulezi, and R. quelen 1 and R. quelen 2. The interspecific genetic divergence ranged from 1.1% to 5.1% (mean = 3.5%), and the intraspecific distance ranged from 0% to 1.4% (mean = 0.24%). The presence of cultivated fish in the Uruguay and Benedito Novo Rivers provides evidence of genetic contamination in native populations. These results show the need to regulate aquaculture activities and to characterize the species and commercial lineages of silver catfish that are cultivated in South Brazil.
      PubDate: 2018-03-10T02:46:10.622797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13646
  • Issue Information - Author Guidelines
    • PubDate: 2018-03-09T00:14:15.009846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13518
  • Feeding behaviour and growth of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) fed with
           feed blocks
    • Authors: Albert K Imsland; Patrick Reynolds, Thor A Hangstad, Ólöf D B Jónsdóttir, Tom Noble, Mark Wilson, James A Mackie, Tor A Elvegård, Tonje C Urskog, Bjørn Mikalsen
      Abstract: The aim of this project was to investigate if lumpfish can be fed using specially designed feed blocks instead of regular fish feed pellets. Two studies were performed. In Part I different designs of feed blocks were introduced and fish observed with underwater cameras to record feeding behaviour. Results indicate that lumpfish require feed blocks with grooves in order to graze from them and that the acclimation period is relatively short (2–4 hr) before the fish will use them as a feed source. In the second part of the project two duplicate groups of lumpfish with an initial mean (±SD) weight of 125.4 ± 45.7 g were individually weighed and randomly distributed into six 3.5 m3 circular flow-through tanks with 45 fish in each tank. Fish in three tanks were fed using feed blocks with grooves and fish in three tanks were fed using a regular commercially available lumpfish extruded feed. Both groups received a daily feeding rate of 2% body/weight. From day 14 onwards, fish fed with marine pelleted feed had a significantly higher mean weight compared to fish fed with feed blocks. Although not significant, the condition factor was higher in the feed block group during the study period. Results from this study show that lumpfish will readily graze from feed blocks if they are presented in a way that allows them to do. In addition, the acclimation period required before the fish will utilize them appears to be short thus potentially allowing for their use in commercial salmon cages.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07T06:40:39.835056-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13657
  • Effects of dietary betaine in allogynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius
           auratus gibelio): Enhanced growth, reduced lipid deposition and depressed
           lipogenic gene expression
    • Authors: Xiaojing Dong; Wen Xue, Jie Hua, Yu Hang, Longsheng Sun, Shuyan Miao, Wenzhi Wei, Xinsheng Wu, Xuedi Du
      Abstract: A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental betaine on growth performance, body composition and lipid deposition in allogynogenetic gibel carp. Four isoproteic (37% crude protein) and isolipidic (5% crude lipid) artificial diets with 0%, 0.08%, 0.4% and 2% betaine supplementation were formulated, and named VB0, VB0.08, VB0.4 and VB2, respectively. Each diet was fed in triplicate to fish about 10 g in weight. The results showed that 0.4% betaine supplementation significantly improved growth performance and reduced lipid content in the hepatopancreas, muscle and the whole body compared with the control group. Moreover, both fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, two important lipogenic genes, showed significantly lower expression in the VB0.4 group than in the control group, and a strong correlation was detected between lipid content and mRNA expression levels for FAS and ACC in the hepatopancreas. Taken together, appropriate (0.4%) betaine supplementation in the diet not only improved growth, but also reduced lipid deposition in allogynogenetic gibel carp, probably by diminishing lipogenic gene expression.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06T04:10:23.277715-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13652
  • The effects of dietary probiotic Bacilli (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus
           licheniformis) on growth performance, feed efficiency, body composition
           and immune parameters of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae
    • Authors: Nasim Sadat Hoseini Madani; Taida Juliana Adorian, Hamed Ghafari Farsani, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar
      Abstract: The present study investigates the effects of dietary commercial Bacilli probiotic (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis) on the growth performance, feed efficiency, body composition and immune parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei. The L. vannamei postlarvae were supplied and acclimated (in 500-L tanks) to laboratory conditions for 14 days. The shrimps were fed with diets containing 1 × 104 and 1 × 108 CFU/g probiotic Bacilli for 60 days. At the end of the feeding trial, growth performance parameters, body composition, serum biochemical parameters and the hemocytes count were evaluated. Shrimps fed diets supplemented with 1 × 104 and 1 × 108 CFU/g probiotic Bacilli showed improved weight gain, total length, specific growth rate, FCR and survival compared with the control group. The body composition studies revealed higher dry matter, crude protein and ash in shrimps fed with 1 × 104 and 1 × 108 CFU/g probiotic Bacilli. Also, dietary administration of 1 × 104 and 1 × 108 CFU/g probiotic Bacilli decreased serum glucose and cortisol levels. However, significantly increased total protein, lysozyme and hemocyte cell count were noticed in shrimps fed 1 × 104 and 1 × 108 CFU/g probiotic Bacilli. In general, the findings of this study proved that oral administration of 1 × 104 and 1 × 108 CFU/g commercial probiotic Bacilli improved growth performance, feed utilization and immune parameters in whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).
      PubDate: 2018-03-06T04:06:11.303703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13648
  • Low body fat content prior to declining day length in the autumn
           significantly increased growth and reduced weight dispersion in farmed
           Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.
    • Authors: Kjell-Arne Rørvik; Jens-Erik Dessen, Magnus Åsli, Magny S Thomassen, Kjellrun G Hoås, Turid Mørkøre
      Abstract: Based on the regulatory effects of body fat on appetite and seasonal variations in fat deposition and growth of Atlantic salmon, the present study tested the hypothesis that body fat content prior to declining day length in the autumn can significantly modulate growth rate. The growth rate of salmon (mean initial body weight, BW = 2.3 kg) with different muscle fat content prior to autumn, subjected to natural photoperiod and temperature, during a 7-month period (mean final BW = 6.6 kg) was studied. In August, three fish groups (HF, LF and 0.5LF group) with significantly different muscle fat content (HF = 16.4%, LF = 13.2% and 0.5LF = 11.3%), individually marked with PIT-tag, were mixed into the four net-pens and fed a standard high-energy diet until March the following year. The muscle fat content prior to the autumn had a highly significant (p 
      PubDate: 2018-03-05T01:06:16.859055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13650
  • Effect of dietary lipid source and vitamin E on growth, non-specific
           immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge of
           Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis
    • Authors: Yanliang Chen; Wenshu Liu, Xiaodan Wang, Erchao Li, Fang Qiao, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen
      Abstract: Six purified diets were formulated to contain three lipid sources, fish oil (FO), linseed oil (LO) and soybean oil (SO), at 6% diet lipid crossing two levels of vitamin E (100 and 300 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for each lipid source (FO100, FO300, LO100, LO300, SO100, SO300). The juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, respectively, fed on these diets with four replicates for 6 weeks. The crab weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly affected by dietary lipid sources. No difference was found between the crabs fed two levels of vitamin E, but the WG and SGR were numerically higher in crab fed 300 mg/kg vitamin E than those fed the other level of vitamin E. The lipid source and vitamin E level could affect fatty acid composition in the hepatopancreas. The contents of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and n-3HUFA were significantly higher in the crab-fed fish oil. The highest contents of n-6PUFA and n-3PUFA were found in the crab-fed soybean oil and linseed oil respectively. The contents of SAFA, n-3HUFA and n-3PUFA were higher in the 300 mg/kg vitamin E treatment. A lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher phenoloxidase (PO) activity were observed in the crab fed 300 mg/kg vitamin E. The results of this study indicate that the Chinese mitten crab fed the diet with 6% fish oil and 300 mg/kg vitamin E showed better growth, antioxidant capacity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05T01:06:00.946284-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13659
  • Genomic structure and molecular characterization of growth hormone and its
           expression response to different feed types in golden pompano Trachinotus
           ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: Yin-Yin Liang; Hua-Yang Guo, Ke-Cheng Zhu, Nan Zhang, Jing-Wen Yang, Xiao-Xiao Sun, Shi-Gui Jiang, Dian-Chang Zhang
      Abstract: Growth hormone and feed types all play important roles in the growth of vertebrates. In this study, to investigate molecular characterization of the Trachinotus ovatus growth hormone (ToGH) and its expression in response to the different feed types, we characterized the genomic structure of GH and analysed expression patterns using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). ToGH spans approximately 4.0 kb and consists of six exons and five introns, with 606 bp open reading frame (ORF). The 5′-flanking region contains consensus sequences for three TATA boxes, one pit-1a, three GRE, two TRE, two HNF-3 and two ERE. A phylogenetic analysis of Percoidei confirmed that the phylogenetic trees based on the GH gene are reliable at the genera level. The expression of ToGH mRNA was highest in intestine, brain and muscle and lowest in liver, spleen and kidney (p 
      PubDate: 2018-03-05T01:05:56.008533-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13653
  • Dietary taurine supplementation in plant protein based diets do not affect
           growth and reproductive performance of zebrafish
    • Authors: Igo G Guimarães; Kaja Skjærven, Mari Moren, Marit Espe, Kristin Hamre
      Abstract: Taurine (Tau) has been regarded as a conditional essential nutrient for some fish species. Although its role has been extensively studied in higher vertebrates, limited results are reported with fish especially its role on reproductive performance and the ontogenic changes on Tau levels throughout the life cycle. Therefore, we designed a feeding trial using zebrafish as a model species to test whether Tau supplementation to plant protein diets would have a positive effect on growth and reproductive performance. Zebrafish were fed plant protein diets containing graded levels of Tau (0.2, 4.6, 5.9 and 13.7 g/kg diet) from 10 days post fertilization (dpf) to sexual maturity. An additional commercial diet was used as a positive control for performance. The trial followed a completely randomized design with five treatments (diets) and three replications. After 60 days of feeding, growth, Tau concentration in the body, redox status, lipid body composition, reproductive and offspring performances were analysed. Tau supplementation did not affect growth and/or reproductive performance; however, zebrafish seems to differently modulate Tau concentration according to the growth stage. Tau seemed to induce a hypolipidemic effect in zebrafish by reducing lipid accumulation in their bodies (p 
      PubDate: 2018-03-05T01:05:40.83908-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13658
  • Optimum dietary protein-to-energy ratio for juvenile whiteleg shrimp,
           Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in a biofloc system
    • Authors: Ali Hamidoghli; Hyeonho Yun, Erfan Shahkar, Seonghun Won, Jeongwhui Hong, Sungchul C Bai
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the optimum dietary protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio in juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets were formulated with two protein levels (30% and 35%) and three digestible energy levels (16, 17.5 and 19 kJ/g diet) at each protein level (30P16, 30P17.5, 30P19, 35P16, 35P17.5 and 35P19). Fifty shrimp averaging 0.97 ± 0.03g (Mean ± SD) were randomly distributed in biofloc tanks and fed one of the experimental diets. Weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of shrimp fed the 35P17.5 diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed 30P16, 30P17.5 and 30P19 diets (p 
      PubDate: 2018-03-02T04:15:59.013609-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13643
  • Soy protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal in diets for
           juvenile Acanthopagrus schlegelii: effects on growth, phosphorus discharge
           and digestive enzyme activity
    • Authors: Hameeda Kalhoro; Jing Zhou, Ying Hua, Wing-Keong Ng, Lian Ye, Jinzhi Zhang, Qingjun Shao
      Abstract: The current high demand and cost of fish meal (FM) necessities the evaluation of alternative plant protein ingredients in diets of farmed marine fish. A 56-day feeding trial was performed to study the effects of replacement of FM with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in diets of Acanthopagrus schlegelii. Diets were prepared at levels of 0%, 30%, 47.5%, 65%, 82.5% and 100% SPC, respectively, replacing FM. The results indicated no significant differences (p > .05) in % weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate of fish fed S30% to S82.5% diets compared with the control diet while, further inclusion at 100% significantly depressed growth performance. SPC inclusion and phytase supplementation significantly affected the phosphorous discharge (P-load) showing lowest value (3.83 ± 0.53 g/kg WG) in S100% compared to control (14.79 ± 0.37 g/kg WG) and in fish fed S30% diet (13.24 ± 0.89 g/kg WG) (p 
      PubDate: 2018-03-02T04:15:40.841886-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13645
  • Association of Pseudomonas anguilliseptica with mortalities in cultured
           spotted halibut Verasper variegatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) in China
    • Authors: Jie Li; Siqing Chen, Changlin Liu, Guiyang Li, Zhaolan Mo, Jie Huang
      PubDate: 2018-03-02T04:15:35.765255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13636
  • Ontogenic development of digestive enzymes in bigfin reef squid
           (Sepioteuthis lessoniana)
    • Authors: Suktianchai Saekhow; Harit Sae-khoo, Karun Thongprajukaew, Anida Songnui, Wutiporn Phromkunthong
      Abstract: Bigfin reef squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) is an economically important exported aquatic animal in Thailand, but little is known about its husbandry, which needs to be clarified. In this study, the ontogenic development of the main digestive enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase and amylase) was investigated within 30 days after hatching (DAH). Fertilized eggs of the wild cuttlefish were hatched and then distributed into four replicate aquaria assigned to varying collection times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 DAH). The development of pepsin suggests acidic digestion functionality at 5 DAH, and its specific activity was maintained over the studied period. Specific activities of the serine proteases, trypsin and chymotrypsin, fluctuated significantly with similar pattern, and appear to be the key enzymes contributing ontogenic changes in protein catabolism. The specific activity of lipase was relatively high at 0 DAH, dramatically increased by 5 DAH, and then appeared constant until the end of observations, suggesting important role in utilizing the lipid from yolk at hatching, as well as probably in sparing protein utilization. Dramatic increase in amylase specific activity occurred by 10 DAH after which the activity was constant until 30 DAH, suggesting the utilization of carbohydrate as energy evolves comparatively late. Findings from the current study could be used to manage nutritional protocols according to the digestive enzyme patterns, as well as to develop artificial diets for rearing S. lessoniana.
      PubDate: 2018-03-02T04:15:29.395004-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13644
  • Effects of dietary leaves extracts of bitter (Vernonia amygdalina) and
           pawpaw (Carica papaya) on the growth, feed conversion efficiency and
           disease resistance on juveniles Clarias gariepinus
    • Authors: Sunday Emmanuel Olusola; Christian Chukwuneneye Nwokike
      Abstract: The study assessed the effects of Pawpaw Leaves (PL) and Bitter Leaves (BL) extracts and Chloramphenicol (CHRL) on the growth, feed conversion efficiency and disease resistance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles against infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Clarias gariepinus juveniles were fed with diets composed of control (0%), BL2 (1%), BL3 (2%), PL4 (1%), PL5 (2%), CHRL6 (15 mg/kg diet), BL + PL7 (2%), BL + CHRL8 (2%), PL + CHRL9 (2%), BL + PL + CHRL10 (3%) at 3% body weight, with 15 fish per replicate were carried out for 4 weeks. Mean Weight Gain (MWG) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were measured. Also, packed cell volume, white blood cell, red blood cell, total protein, globulin and Albumin were determined using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus juveniles were inoculated with A. hydrophila at 6.33 log10 CFU/ml intraperitoneally and fed with different diets to assess the percentage mortality and their relative percent survival (RPS). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at p = .05. Fish from treated groups had higher growth rate than the control. The results indicated that fish fed with treated diets showed increase in haematological indices and plasma biochemical (p 
      PubDate: 2018-03-01T05:42:38.12626-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13640
  • On the deep origin of the depressed rings on pearl surface illustrated
           from Polynesian Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758)
    • Authors: Jean-Pierre Cuif; Alberto Perez-Huerta, Cédric Lo, Oulfa Belhadj, Yannicke Dauphin
      Abstract: Among the various defects that contribute to depreciate the commercial value of pearls, the occurrence of depressed rings is the most spectacular. Through a series of structural, physical and chemical characterizations of the pearl layer, this paper reveals that the origin and initial stages of these essentially superficial defects are to be found in the earliest stages of pearl formation. The disturbance in growth of the nacreous envelopes is the physical cause of the occurrence of these depressed areas. Attention is also drawn on the unexpected relationship between these large morphological alterations of the pearl surfaces and more punctual defects primarily well visible in the strongly coloured Polynesian pearls. An understanding of the actual origin of these very negative patterns opens the way to reduce their statistical occurrence by paying attention to the grafting practice.
      PubDate: 2018-02-28T05:34:20.485472-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13638
  • Effect of combined water temperature, stocking density and fish meal:
           Soybean meal ratio in diet on precocity of the crayfish
           Procambarus clarkii (Girard)
    • Authors: Guang-Ming Shao; Hong-Yue Tan, Yu-Feng Wang
      PubDate: 2018-02-27T04:45:24.316755-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13641
  • The in vitro efficacy of oxytetracycline against re-isolated pathogenic
           Aeromonas hydrophila carrying the cytolytic enterotoxin gene through
           hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864) × Clarias
           gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in Thailand
    • Authors: Pongsaton Juntarut; Sanae Kaewnopparat, Damrongsak Faroongsarng, Sommai Chiayvareesajja
      Abstract: Aeromonas hydrophila is a pathogen infecting farmed hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864) × Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) which incurs substantial economic losses in Thailand. The study aimed at a genetic tracking of A. hydrophila infection and the in vitro assessment of the efficacy of antibiotics against its virulent strains. Five clinical strains from catfishes and Nile tilapia were employed. They were 3-passage re-isolated through healthy hybrid catfish and the cytolytic enterotoxin gene (AHCYTOEN) of individuals was traced. Each of the re-isolates at a dose of ~6.67 × 105 CFU/g was intraperitoneally injected into ~15 g-healthy hybrid catfish and their pathogenicity were observed for 7 days. It was found that AHCYTOEN was carried over whereas typical signs of motile aeromonas septicaemia were found in the specimens. The bacterial strains of Nile tilapia origin did not induce mortality but those of catfish origins (80%–100% rate of mortality). The strains were susceptible to the tetracycline antibiotics, and oxytetracycline produced MIC50 and MBC as low as 0.007–0.031 μg/ml and 1–8 μg/ml respectively. As oxytetracycline specifically inhibited pathogenic A. hydrophila in vitro, it is recommended that an appropriate dosage regimen of the drug should be established.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21T01:35:51.31232-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13639
  • Effect of hydrogen peroxide as treatment for amoebic gill disease in
           Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in different temperatures
    • Authors: Kristine Hov Martinsen; Audur Thorisdottir, Marie Lillehammer
      Abstract: Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is a pathogenic disease in salmonids caused by Neoparamoeba perurans. Treatment of AGD infection has been through freshwater bathing of the fish. However, as the availability of fresh water is often limited, hydrogen peroxide has been introduced as an alternative treatment. This study investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide as treatment for AGD-infected salmon (Salmo salar L.,) at different seawater temperatures and hydrogen peroxide dosages. In total, 600 fish were challenged with N. perurans and the severity of the AGD infection was measured using a gill score scale. After challenge and disease development, the fish were distributed into 12 tanks. The treatment was performed at different seawater temperatures (8°C, 12°C, 17°C) using different hydrogen peroxide doses. Each temperature included an untreated control group. Linear models were used to analyse gill score. A significant effect of treatment was found (−0.68 ± 0.05) regardless of dose and temperature, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide was effective in treating AGD. When the model included dose, a negative linear relationship between dose and gill score was found. The study proved that treatment of AGD with hydrogen peroxide was successful, as gills partially recovered following treatment and further disease development was delayed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21T01:35:34.241476-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13627
  • Colonization of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida strains in
           Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during infection
    • Authors: Yishuai Du; Pengfei Liu, Lingjie Meng, Zaki Sharawy, Ying Liu
      Abstract: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida (ASM) is classified as atypical A. salmonicida and brought huge economic damages to the local salmonid aquaculture in China. An ASM strain named AS-C4 was used to investigate the colonization of ASM in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by an immersion challenge with the control group (T0, no AS-C4), group T1 (2.67 × 104 CFU/ml AS-C4) and group T2 (2.67 × 107 CFU/ml AS-C4). The numbers of AS-C4 copies in different fish tissues (gill, intestine, skin, blood, muscle, spleen, liver and kidney) were determined at different time points post challenge using the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). AS-C4 were detected in the gill and intestine as early as 0 hr after the challenge both in T1 and T2 groups, suggesting that the gill and intestine were probably the portals of entry of AS-C4 into salmon. Although AS-C4 could not be detected in the skin until 24 hr after the challenge in T1 group, it could be detected in the skin as early as 0 hr after the challenge in T2 group, indicating that the skin may also be a portal of entry of AS-C4 into salmon. AS-C4 was immediately detected in the blood within 3 hr after it entered the host, suggesting that AS-C4 successfully invaded the bloodstream of fish. After AS-C4 colonized the host, it colonized the internal tissues, such as the spleen, liver, kidney and muscle. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of the ASM strains and give a broader understanding of the infection route of ASM in it's host, providing more information for the development of new therapeutic strategies to protect against this pathogen in aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:46:34.19614-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13637
  • Intestinal histology and stereology in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
           administrated with nanochitosan/zeolite and chitosan/zeolite composites
    • Authors: Gholamreza Hamidian; Khadijeh Zirak, Najmeh Sheikhzadeh, Ali Khani Oushani, Sadigheh Shabanzadeh, Baharak Divband
      Abstract: In previous study, the effects of synthesized chitosan/zeolite and nanochitosan/zeolite composites on rainbow trout growth, digestive enzyme activities and some biochemical parameters were shown. In this study, the effects of experimental diets based on the previous study on the rainbow trout intestinal histology and stereology were assessed: control diet (no zeolite and composite), T1 diet (14.28 g/kg zeolite), T2 diet (0.05 g/kg chitosan included in zeolite), T3 diet (0.5 g/kg chitosan included in zeolite), T4 diet (5 g/kg chitosan included in zeolite), T5 diet (0.05 g/kg nanochitosan included in zeolite), T6 diet (0.5 g/kg nanochitosan included in zeolite), T7 diet (5 g/kg nanochitosan included in zeolite). The experiment was conducted for 60 days. Results showed that supplemental diets did not have side effect on the normal structure of intestinal segments but administration of T1 and T4 diets had slight negative effects on structural maintenance in the middle part of intestine. Acidic mucin producing goblet cell percentage was also higher in nanocomposites-administrated groups in comparison with the control group. Enhanced villus height, density and finally absorption surface area in different parts of rainbow trout intestine were mainly shown in T7 group. Meanwhile, higher thickness of tunica mascularis in different regions were noted in treatment groups especially in T7 group. The number of intraepithelial mononuclear leukocytes in fish intestine received treatment diets was also higher than control group. In conclusion, nanochitosan/zeolite composites in comparison with zeolite and chitosan/zeolite composites were more effective to improve histological structure of rainbow trout intestine.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:46:26.532059-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13634
  • Ontogenetic development of attack behaviour by turbot larvae when exposed
           to copepod prey
    • Authors: Jacob K Højgaard; Eleonora Bruno, Josianne G Støttrup, Benni W Hansen
      Abstract: Identification of fish larval behavioural traits permitting capture of specific live prey sizes is an important part of optimizing production of marine larvae. We investigated the capture success of turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus) at two development stages, 8 and 10 days post-hatch (DPH), when offered small nauplii (129–202 μm), large nauplii (222–278 μm) and copepodites (342–542 μm), of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. At 8 DPH, turbot larvae had the highest capture success (67%) when offered small nauplii, with a lower capture success of large nauplii (27%) but totally lacked the capabilities to capture copepodites. At DPH 10, the larvae increased the capture success of large nauplii (47%) and achieved a few successful attacks on copepodites. Energetically, large nauplii were the most beneficial at both larval development stages. The swimming kinematics of the period prior to a strike by the larva on the copepod was examined, and the approach pattern of the larva was identified as a controlling mechanism for their strike distance, with the initial approach speed of larva at DPH 10 being significantly less than at DPH 8. In all successful attacks, the strike distance was less than 1.17 mm and was significantly lower than unsuccessful attacks. Since the approach pattern of the larva is linked to its capture success, it could be used as the basis for a feeding scheme based on the swimming performance of individual batches of turbot larvae.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:46:04.299662-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13635
  • Identifying the causal agent of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in shrimp:
           Multilocus sequence analysis approach
    • Authors: Juan Manuel Leyva; Marcel Martínez-Porchas, Jorge Hernández-López, Francisco Vargas-Albores, Teresa Gollas-Galván
      Abstract: The causal agent of the necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) disease in penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans was studied by sequencing its genome and locating particular biomarker genes that could contribute to a better taxonomic classification. Hepatopancreas of shrimp with clear signs of NHP was used as infective inoculum. The disease was reproduced and the causal agent was isolated by Percoll gradient. Genomic DNA was extracted, purified, submitted to high throughput sequencing and de novo assembled. Thereafter, strategies aimed to improve the taxonomic classification of the pathogen were used. A phylogenetic classification by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed using the complete gene sequences of 16S rRNA, gyrase subunit alpha (gyrA), gyrase subunit beta (gyrB), RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB), ATP synthase subunit beta (atpD) and recombinase subunit alpha (recA). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed with a greater degree of confidence that the causal agent of NHP in shrimp belongs to the Holosporaceae family, with similarity to some species considered as pathogens of other arthropods.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:40:38.45616-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13633
  • The effect of C/N ratio on bacterial community and water quality in a
           mussel-fish integrated system
    • Authors: Xiafei Zheng; Dongdong Zhang, Jianguang Qin, Yan Wang
      Abstract: A 30-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of C/N ratio on water quality and bacterial community in an integrated system comprising one molluscan species (pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii) and two fish species (gibel carp Carassius gibelio and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) at five C/N ratios (6, 8, 10, 12 and 14). The mussel and fishes were reared in the experimental tanks (400 L), but gibel carp received formulated feed. Water quality in the experimental tanks was analysed on day 0, 10, 20 and 30, and bacterial community in the water column and sediment was analysed on day 30. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total organic carbon accumulated in the tanks over time. Ammonia and nitrite decreased with the increase in C/N ratio. Bacterial community in the water column and sediment changed at the phylum and genus levels with the increase in C/N ratio, and the critical C/N ratio causing a functional shift of bacterial community occurred at 10 in water column and 12 in sediment. The increase in C/N ratio benefited the growth of both potential probiotics and pathogenic bacteria. The high C/N ratio enhanced the bacterial functions of chemoheterotrophy and hydrocarbon degradation, but depressed the functions of nitrification and denitrification in the water column and sediment respectively. This study reveals that the C/N ratio can be used as a tool to manipulate the bacterial community and water quality in the mussel-fish integrated system.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12T04:57:13.322043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13626
  • Larval development and fatty acid composition of Ostrea edulis (L.) fed
           four different single diets from conditioning to pre-settlement
    • Authors: Ricardo González-Araya; René Robert
      Abstract: Survival, growth and fatty acid composition of Ostrea edulis larvae (L.) fed four different single species, microalgal diets, Tisochrysis lutea (T), Chaetoceros neogracile (Cg), Skeletonema marinoi (Sm) or Tetraselmis suecica (Ts) from broodstock to pre-settlement, were studied. Lower larval growth (5.5 μm to 6.5 μm/d) was recorded in progeny continuously fed single S. marinoi or T. suecica, whereas good growth was achieved with single T. lutea (7.8 μm/d). Larvae, originated from broodstock receiving Sm or Ts, exhibited growth compensation when fed a bispecific balanced diet (TCg). This did not occur when broodstock and larvae were fed Cg or T, for which single or mixed diets led to similar larval growth. Furthermore, survival was high (>90%) regardless of microalgal diet, except for larvae fed from broodstock to pre-settlement T (53%) or Ts (2%). There were significant differences in 20:5 (n-3) and 22: 6 (n-3) contents in polar and neutral fractions of O. edulis expelled larvae dependent on broodstock diet, as well as throughout larval development, but no clear trend was apparent when comparing fatty acid (FA) relative composition of both fractions of O. edulis larvae fed different diets at release or prior to settlement. In contrast, such correlation occurred when FA was expressed in absolute content but exclusively for larvae-fed single diets and was particularly noticeable between 22: 6 (n-3) and growth and survival. In the present work, broodstock nutritional deficiencies have been revealed in O. edulis progeny, compensated thereafter by feeding the larvae a mixed diet, and in this balanced condition, no obvious relation with larval development indicators was found with main fatty acid contents.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T04:30:27.797183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13631
  • Influence of temperature and Artemia enriched with ω-3 PUFAs on the early
           ontogenesis of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815
    • Authors: Ryszard Kolman; Oleksii Khudyi, Olga Kushniryk, Lidiia Khuda, Maja Prusinska, Grzegorz Wiszniewski
      Abstract: Successful breeding of fish species in aquaculture depends on several factors, among which the temperature and feed are the most significant ones. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of temperature in the range of 14–18°C on the rate of embryogenesis and duration of larva period and to estimate the efficiency of Artemia nauplii enriched with PUFAs in growing sturgeon larvae. The temperature of 16°C is the most suitable for both egg incubation and Atlantic sturgeon prelarvae maintenance under aquaculture conditions. Even minor temperature fluctuations of 1 degree up or down leads to increased loss both of eggs and prelarvae. Increased temperature shortens the incubation period but has a lesser impact on the duration of prelarvae onset of external feeding. The technology of Artemia nauplii bioencapsulation with a PUFA-containing supplement in A. oxyrinchus rearing increases sturgeon larvae weight by 1.5 times at a constant survival dynamic.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T02:06:32.641583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13629
  • De novo transcriptome assembly for the rose spotted snapper Lutjanus
           guttatus and expression analysis of growth/atrophy-related genes
    • Authors: Mauricio Escalante-Rojas; Emyr Peña, Crisantema Hernández, Raúl Llera-Herrera, Alejandra Garcia-Gasca
      Abstract: The rose spotted snapper is an important fishery resource with potential for farming in several Latin American countries. Since transcriptomic information was not available for this species, we generated a reference transcriptome from eleven tissues (brain, heart, gonad, liver, gut, muscle, white skin, dark skin, and visceral fat) using Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Transcriptome assembly and annotation were performed with Trinity and Trinotate respectively; 267,601 contigs were assembled, average contig length was 845 bp; 85,677 putative protein sequences were identified. Sixty-six per cent of them showed a significant match to the SwissProt Database. From this assembly, we selected growth/atrophy-related genes to investigate the effect of dietary protein source on gene expression. Pacap expression was measured in the brain; igf1, igf2 and ghr were measured in liver; and mtor, igf1, igf2, myod1, myod2, myogenin, foxo3a, foxo3b, murf1, mafbx, mstn1 and mstn2 were measured in muscle. A feeding trial with juveniles was performed, in which three diets were formulated, a fishmeal-based diet (FM), a terrestrial animal protein diet (PPM) with porcine meat meal and poultry by-products meal, and a vegetable diet (VEG) with a blend of soybean protein concentrate and corn gluten. A reduced expression of somatotropic and myogenic genes in fish fed the VEG diet was observed; however, expression of atrophy genes did not increase with this diet suggesting that atrophy mechanisms were not involved. These results indicate that protein from a vegetable source does not provide proper amino acid requirements to juvenile fish, decreasing expression of myogenic and other growth-related genes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:01:54.931211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13628
  • Genetic analysis of the main growth traits using random regression models
           in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
    • Authors: Jingli Zhao; Yunfeng Zhao, Zongcheng Song, Haoming Liu, Yongxin Liu, Runqing Yang
      Abstract: For body weight (BW) and morphological traits measured repeatedly during growth in Japanese flounder, random regression models (RRMs) were constructed to genetically analyse growth curves and relative growth of morphological traits to BW or body length (BL). In the RRM of growth curves, genetic effects were optimally modelled using Legendre polynomials of two orders for six growth traits. Family and permanent environmental effects remained constant for morphological traits, whereas family effects changed linearly for BWs. During the measuring periods, the heritabilities of the traits increased with age and ranged from 0.256 to 0.843 for BW, 0.379 to 0.806 for body height, 0.338 to 0.773 for BL, 0.286 to 0.665 for head length, 0.159 to 0.708 for length of caudal fin and 0.335 to 0.774 for width of caudal peduncle. Genetic correlations for each trait decreased with increased lag in days of age. In the RRM of relative growth, all morphological traits analysed were significantly associated with BW and BL. The heritabilities for the allometries of morphological traits to BWs ranged from 0.251 to 0.755, whereas those to BLs ranged from 0.412 to 0.871. The majority of genetic correlations among these allometry scalings were negative. These estimated parameters can be utilized to not only guide the efficient selection of traits, but also to genetically regulate synchronous growth of body shape with BW in Japanese flounder.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05T04:58:02.786974-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13605
  • Impact of short-term climate effects and sea ice coverage variation on
           Japanese scallop aquaculture in Saroma Lake, Japan
    • Authors: Yang Liu; Sei–Ichi Saitoh, Kimihiko Maekawa, Kan-Ichiro Mochizuki, Yongjun Tian
      Abstract: Saroma Lake is the southernmost lagoon exhibiting seasonal sea ice coverage in the Northern hemisphere and one of the most important aquaculture areas for Japanese scallops (Mizuhopecten yessoensis). Under conditions of adequate food and appropriate temperature, scallops grow well from the time of ice melting in April to harvesting starting in July. However, over the past decade, Saroma Lake frequently has not been completely covered by ice in winter, and the production of Japanese scallops has shown significant changes. Therefore, this study integrated data from satellite remote sensing, buoys, and in situ observations with climatic events [the winter East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and El Niño/La Niña–Southern Oscillation events] to investigate the impact of ice coverage variations on scallop growth in Saroma Lake between 2007 and 2015. Daily ice conditions were detected using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer false colour images and an unsupervised classification method. The results indicated that EAM strongly influenced the ice coverage variation in Saroma Lake through their effects on temperature during winter. Ice coverage variations show a strong correlation with water temperature and spring phytoplankton blooms, which are the two most important environmental factors for scallop growth. In addition, extreme climate events could cause water temperature anomalies (as in 2015) which are unfavourable for scallop growth. Monitoring ice conditions should be considered when developing plans and management strategies for scallop aquaculture in Saroma Lake.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05T04:56:39.964378-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13630
  • Biofloc and food contribution to grow-out and broodstock of
           Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817) determined by stable
           isotopes and fatty acids
    • Authors: Eden Magaña-Gallegos; Rodrigo González-Zúñiga, Miguel Arevalo, Gerard Cuzon, Elisa Chan-Vivas, Korinthia López-Aguiar, Elsa Noreña-Barroso, Eduardo Pacheco, Manuel Valenzuela, Carlos Maldonado, Gabriela Gaxiola
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to use the natural dietary markers (stable isotopes and fatty acids) during grow-out in a biofloc system and for the egg production of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis shrimp. Egg production was compared for two broodstock origins: biofloc and a wild origin. To delineate the relative contribution to shrimp muscle and eggs, IsoSource software was used. The most important source that contributed to grow-out shrimp was biofloc ≥250 μm. According to the principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the fatty acid profile of food sources, the first component explains 84.4% of the variability, and the most important source of fatty acids for this component was biofloc ≥250 μm. The most important fresh food sources that contributed to egg production were Artemia biomass, polychaetes and semi-moist feed for both broodstock origins. According to a PCA analysis of the fatty acid profiles, the most important fresh foods were polychaetes and semi-moist feed. In conclusion, both isotopic signature and fatty acid profile of the food sources can be used successfully to determine the integration of carbon in the diets of shrimp.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05T04:56:10.890305-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13632
  • The effects of seasonal, sex and size on the digestive enzyme activities
           in freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823)
    • Authors: Seval Bahadir Koca; Esra Acar, Mehmet Naz
      Abstract: The effects of seasonal, sex and size on digestive enzyme activities of Astacus leptodactylus in natural habitat were investigated in the present study. The freshwater crayfish were sampled 584 individual as seasonally from Egirdir Lake. Ten male and 10 female individuals were sampled randomly from caught crayfish in each two different size ranges (4.5–7.0, 7.1–9.9 cm) and each season. The gastrointestinal tract, gastric, intestine and midgut gland were individually dissected on ice for enzyme analysis and stomach contents. At the end of the study, amylase activities were affected by interaction of season × sex × size in intestinal, season × sex in midgut gland. However, any interaction was not determined in amylase activities of the gastric. Lipase activities were affected by interaction of season × sex × size in intestinal and gastric, season × sex in midgut gland. The protease activities in each organ were affected by interaction of season, sex and size (p ˂ .05). In all organs, amylase and lipase activities were similar. However, the highest protease activity was in stomach while the lowest protease activity was the intestine. The protease activities were higher than amylase and lipase activities. There is a positive correlation between protease enzyme activities in gastric with gonad maturation and active feeding period. It can be said based on data of digestive system and high protease activity that A. leptodactylus is an omnivore species in need high protein. In addition, the reason for the low levels of lipase activity may be A. leptodactylus not prefer high fat foods or not fed high fat foods.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03T01:20:26.741691-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13615
  • Effect of three triploidy induction methods on the growth and survival of
           larvae and post-larvae of the Caribbean scallop Argopecten nucleus
    • Authors: A Barreto-Hernández; L A Velasco, F M Winkler
      Abstract: Argopecten nucleus is a small scallop from the Caribbean Sea and a relatively new species for aquaculture. One of the key challenges to develop the farming operations for this species from the current pilot scale to commercial level is to improve its harvest size. In this study, we tested three different methods for triploidy induction. Additionally, the effect of these protocols on survival, developmental rate and size of larvae and post-larvae were assessed. Three different mechanisms to stimulate the inhibition of the release of the second polar body were tested; (1) cold shock (18°C); (2) 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP); (3) cytochalasin B (CB) and (4) dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). The treatment with 6-DMAP yielded the highest percentage of triploid larvae (39%). The survival and development rate, however, were higher in non-treated larvae (control) than in the treatment groups. Interestingly, larvae from CB and the DMSO control groups exhibited lower growth rates in length than those from control and the other two treatments. No influence of the triploidy induction treatments was observed on post-larvae survival, but the size of post-larvae was larger for the cold shock treatment and DMSO control group. Our results indicate that the use of 6-DMAP has the greatest potential to produce triploid larvae of A. nucleus without affecting negatively growth and survival of post-larvae.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T03:45:41.948551-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13612
  • Experimental culture of larvae, post-larvae and juveniles of the West
           Indian top shell, Cittarium pica (Linnaeus 1758)
    • Authors: Luz A Velasco; Judith Barros
      Abstract: The West Indian top shell, Cittarium pica, is an endangered vetigastropod of ecological and commercial value from the Caribbean. In order to assess the use of aquaculture as a tool for its sustainable production and conservation, embryos were produced in hatchery and experimentally cultured until juveniles under different conditions. Embryos were incubated under two temperatures (25 and 29°C) and six densities (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 4.0, 9.0 and 37.0% of bottom-coverage). Larvae were reared under different temperatures (25 and 27°C), densities (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 10 larvae/ml) and culture systems (static and down-welling). Post-larvae were obtained in three different settling conditions, and the early juveniles were cultured supplying fresh seaweed (Laurencia obtusa and Padina gymnospora), natural multi-specific biofilm and Cylindroteca sp. biofilm. The growth and survival of embryos and larvae were not affected by temperature, but they were affected by density. Higher values were obtained at low densities (
      PubDate: 2018-02-01T04:15:24.86594-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13618
  • Influence of replacing fish meal with enzymatic hydrolysates of defatted
           silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori L.) on growth performance, body composition and
           non-specific immunity of juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var.
    • Authors: Xinxin Xu; Hong Ji, Haibo Yu, Jishu Zhou
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of enzymatic hydrolysates of defatted silkworm pupa (EHDSP) on growth performance, body composition and non-specific immunity of juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis). The control diet (EHDSP0) was produced using fish meal (FM) as the main protein source and the other four diets were formulated by substitution of 25% (EHDSP25), 50% (EHDSP50), 75% (EHDSP75) and 100% (EHDSP100) FM with EHDSP. Five groups containing 270 juvenile mirror carp (14.51 ± 0.03 g) were fed to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the special growth rate, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion rate of experimental fish in EHDSP25 and EHDSP50 groups were not significantly different from EHDSP0 group (p > .05). The spleen index of experimental fish in EHDSP25 group was significantly higher than that of EHDSP0 group (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-30T01:45:56.089495-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13603
  • Temperature challenge on larvae and juveniles of the Manila clam Ruditapes
    • Authors: Zhongming Huo; Ying Li, Md Golam Rbbani, Qidi Wu, Xiwu Yan
      PubDate: 2018-01-30T01:45:25.311467-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13600
  • Nutritional evaluation of an improved soybean meal as a fishmeal replacer
           in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Richard Hulefeld; Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion, Ramanathan S. Lalgudi, Barry McGraw, Rob Cain, Kristy Allen, Kenneth R. Thompson, James H. Tidwell, Vikas Kumar
      Abstract: A 12-week growth trial was conducted to assess an improved soybean meal (ISBM) in the diet of Pacific white shrimp (PWS). Four isonitrogenous and isolipidic experimental diets were formulated: the control diet (ISBM-0) contained 30% fishmeal (FM) and three test diets (ISBM-33, ISBM-66 and ISBM-100) were formulated by gradually replacing FM on an isonitrogenous basis. Groups of PWS (3.2 g mean initial weight) were fed their respective experimental diets three times per day. Production performance of PWS was unaffected by diet, except the final weight of shrimp-fed ISBM-66 diet was significantly lower than those fed ISBM-0. Whole-body moisture was significantly higher and protein was significantly lower in PWS-fed ISBM-100 versus shrimp-fed ISBM-0. PWS-fed ISBM-66 had significantly higher oleic acid than shrimp-fed ISBM-0 and linolenic acid versus shrimp-fed ISBM-0 and ISBM-100. The lowest linoleic acid and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were found in shrimp-fed ISBM-100. Based on second-degree polynomial regression analysis of final weight and weight gain, the estimated optimum levels of ISBM to replace FM in PWS diets are 89.13% and 95.56% respectively. Overall, results indicate alternative, sustainable, plant-based protein sources such as ISBM may potentially replace FM in PWS diets.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T04:10:31.36913-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13593
  • Improving production efficiency of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
           by isoenergetic diets with increased dietary protein-to-lipid ratio
    • Authors: Rúni Weihe; Jens-Erik Dessen, Regin Arge, Magny Sissel Thomassen, Bjarne Hatlen, Kjell-Arne Rørvik
      Abstract: The effects of isoenergetic diets with high (HP) and low (LP) protein-to-lipid ratios on feeding rate (SFR), feed conversion (FCR), growth (TGC) and relative- and absolute nutrient retention were investigated using both whole-body weight (BW) and carcass weight (CW) to assess the production efficiency. Three different feeding trials in seawater were conducted: two large-scale trials with yearling smolt (S1) and under-yearling smolt (S0) and one small-scale with S1 smolt. The initial body weights in the trials were 105, 319 and 978 g, respectively, and the fish were fed and monitored until they reached harvest weights. In all three trials, the dietary HP group attained significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T02:07:24.369324-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13598
  • Significant association of SNP polymorphism in the tilapia enhancer of
           polycomb homolog 1 gene with salt tolerance
    • Authors: Xiao Hui Gu; Hao Ran Lin, Jun Hong Xia
      Abstract: Identifying candidate genes involved into osmoregulation provides a basis for developing molecular markers for breeding of saline tilapia. In this study, we characterized and conducted a functional analysis of the Enhancer of Polycomb Homolog 1 (EPC1) gene in Nile tilapia. The length of the EPC1CDS sequence was 1161 bp, including 14 exons encoding 386 amino acid residues. The expression for EPC1 was investigated in the gill, brain and intestine tissues of Nile tilapia that challenged by 0 ppt, 10 ppt, 15 ppt and 20 ppt of salinity content by qRT-PCR. We found that the gene was significantly down-regulated at 20 ppt of high salinity stress. We also detected significant evidence of 5 SNP association in the EPC1 gene with salt tolerance trait by genotyping 192 extreme individuals from a full-sib tilapia family (N = ~500). The individuals with heterozygous SNP genotypes in the population (with an average survival time of 3,064 s) were significantly less tolerant than the other individuals with the homozygote genotypes (with an average survival time of 5,986 s). Further functional analysis on the EPC1 protein sequences from 31 fish species inhabiting different salinity environments identified seven amino acid sites as significantly associated sites (α 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T02:05:50.828743-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13625
  • Minimum water exchange spares the requirement for dietary methionine for
           juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared under intensive outdoor conditions
    • Authors: Felipe Nobre Façanha; Hassan Sabry-Neto, Claudia Figueiredo-Silva, Adhemar Rodrigues Oliveira-Neto, Alberto Jorge Pinto Nunes
      Abstract: We examined if minimum water exchange could spare dietary methionine (Met) required for maximum growth performance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in an intensive outdoor system. Shrimp of 1.98 ± 0.13 g were stocked at 70 animals/m2 and reared for 72 days in 50 tanks of 1 m3 under flow-through (14.4% a day) and static (1.4%–2.9% a day) green-water conditions at 32.0 ± 3.7 g/L salinity. Five diets with a minimum inclusion of fishmeal supplemented with a dipeptide, dl-methionyl-dl-methionine, were formulated to contain increasing levels of Met, 4.8, 6.2, 7.2, 8.1 or 9.4 g/kg (on a dry matter basis). Each of the five diets were fed four times daily to five replicate groups. Dietary Met and water exchange significantly influenced shrimp survival, gained yield, apparent feed intake, food conversion ratio and final body weight (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T02:05:22.858367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13624
  • Toxic effects of indoxacarb on gill and kidney histopathology and
           biochemical indicators in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
    • Authors: Ali Taheri Mirghaed; Melika Ghelichpour, Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Hamidreza Joshaghani, Hoseinali Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and histopathological effects of indoxacarb on an economic fish species Cyprinus carpio. The fish were divided into four triplicated groups exposed to either of 0% (control), 5% (0.75 mg/L), 10% (1.5 mg/L) or 20% (3 mg/L) of the pesticide LC50. Blood sampling was performed after 7, 14 and 21 days exposure. There were no changes in blood calcium levels at any times. In the indoxacarb-treated fish, chloride levels decreased at the first and increased at the second sampling compared to the control. In 3 mg/L treatment, phosphorus increased significantly after 7 days compared to the control. Plasma glucose levels decreased significantly at the 7th and 14th days sampling; however, it increased at the 21st day. After 7 days, creatinine level in 3 mg/L treatment was significantly lower than the control; however, the creatinine levels of indoxacarb treatments were higher than the control at the 21st day. The indoxacarb-treated fish had higher plasma urea levels compared to the control at the 7th day. At the 21st day, plasma urea level at 3 mg/L was significantly lower than the control treatment. Edema, Lamellar curling, hyperplasia, lamellar fusion and hyperaemia were observed in the indoxacarb-treated fish gill. Tubular necrosis, hematopoietic necrosis, melanomacrophage aggregates, Bowman's capsule edema, glomerulus degeneration and hyperaemia were observed in the indoxacarb-treated fish kidney. Generally, sublethal concentrations of indoxacarb cause stress, hydromineral imbalance, metabolism alteration and gill and kidney damages in common carp.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T02:03:04.525089-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13617
  • Effect of sand grain size on substrate preference and burial behaviour in
           cultured Japanese flounder juvenile, Paralichthys olivaceus
    • Authors: Hongjian Lü; Andrew Chapelsky, Mei Fu, Dan Xi, Zhixin Zhang, Xiumei Zhang
      Abstract: To improve release techniques of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, for the purpose of stock enhancement, the substrate preference and burial behaviour over a range of sand grain sizes were investigated under laboratory conditions. Ten 12-hr trials (i.e. 10 experimental groups), which, respectively, contained two different levels of substrates, demonstrated that juvenile flounder (55–78 mm total length) selected substrate of grain size (GS)  Level 4 (0.25–0.50 mm) > Level 5 (0.05–0.25 mm) > Level 2 (2.00–4.00 mm) > Level 1 (4.00–6.00 mm). The average burying of fish in substrates of GS 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T02:01:25.3919-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13622
  • Effect of different water biofloc contents on the growth and immune
           response of gibel carp cultured in zero water exchange and no feed
           addition system
    • Authors: Mingming Zhang; Ye Li, De-Hai Xu, Guo Qiao, Jialin Zhang, Zhitao Qi, Qiang Li
      Abstract: This study evaluated the growth and immune response of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) cultured under no feed addition biofloc technology (BFT) system at different total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations (10, 300, 600, 800 and 1,000 mg/L for group BF0-NF, BF300-NF, BF600-NF, BF800-NF and BF1000-NF) for 30 days. The results demonstrated that bioflocs contained rich nutrients, and gibel carp eaten bioflocs showed higher weight gain, specific growth and survival. Digestive enzyme activities such as pepsin and amylase increased significantly in BF300/600/800/1000-NF groups than those in BF0-NF group. Antioxidant response including superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum and skin mucus was also enhanced significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T02:00:24.787373-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13620
  • Energy budget adjustment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during
           breeding period
    • Authors: Xiaoshang Ru; Libin Zhang, Shilin Liu, Jingchun Sun, Hongsheng Yang
      Abstract: Reproductive success is unpredictable for many cultured echinoderms. And cost of reproduction plays an important role in animal life-history. Therefore, understanding cost of reproduction contributes to improving breeding techniques during broodstock rearing in aquaculture. In this study, energetic costs during breeding were explored in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an important aquaculture species in China, Japan and South Korea. The food intake, digestive functions and energy budget patterns were estimated at different breeding stages. Unexpectedly, in the growing gonad phase of the sea cucumber lifecycle, animals showed a decline in feed consumption (from 4.49 to 2.6 g ind−1 day−1), ingestion rate (from 0.4 to 0.13 g g−1 day−1) and apparent digestive rate (from 14.73% to 10.92%), resulting in a reduced energy input. In addition, the increased energy investment in reproduction (from 1.76% to 15.61%) resulted in a decrease in energy allocated to soma growth (from 17.1% to 5.64%) and self-maintenance (from 47.82% to 34.67%). These results suggest that reproduction impairs energy acquisition ability in breeding A. japonicus. And broodstock can adapt energy shortage by internal adjustment of energy allocation strategy.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29T01:55:26.280312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13621
  • Can genetic diversity be maintained during mass selection of the Chinese
           mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis'
    • Authors: Qingqing Li; Xugan Wu, Jie He, Qing Liu, Yongxu Cheng
      Abstract: The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is an important aquaculture species and food source in Eastern Asia. This study assesses the changes in genetic diversity in successive generations of early- and late-maturing strains of E. sinensis using 30 microsatellite markers with high polymorphism. The mean average number of alleles (N) in the founder population (G0), first generation (G1), second generation (G2) and third generation (G3) of the early-maturing strain were 18.367, 14.800, 16.400 and 16.533, respectively; while in late-maturing strain the values were 18.500, 16.267, 14.367 and 16.533 respectively. Likewise, there was a slight decline in average allelic richness (Rs) in the three successive generations. In both strains, the mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) remained relatively constant for the early-maturing strain and the values were 0.655, 0.667, 0.685 and 0.705, respectively; and for the late-maturing strain these were 0.665, 0.672, 0.688 and 0.702 respectively. Similarly, the expected heterozygosity (He) remained constant, ranging from 0.823 to 0.854. There was a decrease in effective population sizes (Ne) of the early-maturing strain with successive generations: values were 492.2, 35.0, 134.7 and 193.2, respectively; while the values in the late-maturing strain were 1268.5, 75.6, 111.5 and 97.2 respectively. All pairwise population distances were very close in both strains. In conclusion, these results suggest that mass selection of E. sinensis did not significantly diminish genetic diversity although there was a decline for the Ne. Therefore, it is important to maintain sufficient broodstock numbers and a large effective population when following a selective breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2018-01-27T03:05:25.865627-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13616
  • Effects of estradiol-17β on survival, growth performance, gonadal
           structure and sex ratio of the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes (Temminck &
           Schlegel, 1850), fingerlings
    • Authors: Yuqin Ren; Qin Zhou, Yongxin Liu, Yufen Wang, Qinglin Wang, Xiufeng Jiang, Qinghai Yu, Hongtao Zhang
      Abstract: Systematic research was performed to assess the survival, growth performance, gonadal structure and sex ratio during and after sex reversal induced by estradiol-17β in tiger puffers. The fish of 20 days after hatching (dah) were immersed in different doses (0.2, 2, 20, 100 ppb) for 60 days. There were significant differences in survival rates among groups (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-25T04:01:58.57309-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13619
  • Dietary arginine supplementation mitigates the soybean meal induced
           enteropathy in juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L.
    • Authors: Zhichu Chen; Yang Liu, Yanxian Li, Pei Yang, Haibin Hu, Guijuan Yu, Qinghui Ai, Wei Xu, Wenbing Zhang, Yongan Zhang, Yanjiao Zhang, Kangsen Mai
      Abstract: A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the protective effects of arginine on the intestinal health of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed high doses of dietary soybean meal. Sextuple replicates of 30 fish were fed each of four isonitrogenous and isolipidic experimental diets: fish-meal-based diet (FM); FM with 40% fish meal protein replaced by soybean meal protein (SBM); SBM+1% arginine (ARG1) and SBM+2% arginine (ARG2). Turbot-fed SBM showed typical soybean meal-induced enteropathy, characterized by an increase in the thickness of lamina propria, as well as significant decreases in the absorptive surface and activities of intestinal brush border membrane enzymes and Na+, K+-ATPase. On the contrary, fish-fed ARG1 showed enhanced intestinal mucosal barrier function in terms of the enhanced gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine and barrier-forming tight junction proteins, as well as depressed gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pore-forming tight junction proteins. Fish-fed AGR2 showed intermediate intestinal performances between SBM and AGR1. Dietary arginine (1%) also significantly regulated the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65), and these regulations correlated well with its regulations on intestinal mucosal barrier related genes at all sampling time-points. In conclusion, arginine supplementation (1%) in diet for turbot mitigated the soybean meal-induced enteropathy by enhancing the intestinal mucosal barrier function. The activation of AMPKα1 signalling molecule as well as the suppression of NF-κB p65 and MLCK signalling molecules may mediate the beneficial effects of arginine.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25T03:56:43.876528-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13608
  • Growth and fillet quality attributes of five genetic strains of rainbow
           trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in a partial water reuse system and
           harvested at different sizes
    • Authors: Curtis C Crouse; John W Davidson, Christopher M Good, Travis C May, Steven T Summerfelt, P Brett Kenney, Timothy D Leeds, Beth M Cleveland
      Abstract: Genetics and harvest size influence fish growth performance and product quality attributes, making selection of fish strain and harvest size critical for optimizing quality. Definition of performance and quality outcomes in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) environment may guide selection of fish stocks best suited for RAS farmers to meet production and product quality goals. Accordingly, five genetic lines of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss were reared to 3 kg in a partial water reuse system and sampled at common harvest sizes (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kg) to compare growth performance and product quality attributes. Fish weight affected fish processing yields and cook yields. Genetic line affected fish weight. When correcting for fish size, differences in fillet yields due to genetic line were present. Both fish weight and genetic line affected different organ indices, fillet colour scores and mortality. Muscle composition and texture were similar at each harvest, but changed with increasing fish size over time. Differences in growth performance and product quality traits due to genetic line identify variation in available fish stocks, and balancing change to these traits due to fish size can guide producer selection of fish stocks and optimal harvest size to meet individual production goals.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25T03:55:56.439449-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13623
  • Probiotic characteristics and aflatoxin B1 binding ability of Debaryomyces
           hansenii and Kazaschtania exigua from rainbow trout environment
    • Authors: María P Martínez; María L González Pereyra, María G Fernandez Juri, Valeria Poloni, Lilia Cavaglieri
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate probiotic properties and the aflatoxin B1 adsorption ability of yeasts isolated from rainbow trout intestine and fish feed to assess their use in the formulation of feed additives. Growth at pH 2, bacterial pathogens inhibition, bacterial pathogens co-aggregation, autoaggregation, homologous and heterologous inhibition against lactic acid bacteria were evaluated. Moreover, aflatoxin B1 adsorption was tested. All strains were able to maintain viable (107 cells/ml) at pH 2. All strains isolated from intestine were identified as Kazaschtania exigua, while strains isolated from feed were all identified as Debaryomyces hansenii. Kazaschtania exigua RC035 and RC037 showed the strongest antimicrobial activity while K. exigua RC037 and RC038 were the most efficient co-aggregating bacterial pathogens. All strains exhibited strong autoaggregation. None of the tested yeast strains showed homologous inhibition towards other yeasts and heterologous inhibition towards lactic acid bacteria strains. Debaryomyces hansenii RC031 demonstrated aflatoxin B1 adsorption capacity (21%). The results of the present study indicate that select strains of Kazaschtania exigua and D. hansenii showed potential to improve the health of rainbow trout by inhibiting pathogens and binding AFB1 and their use as probiotics may improve the production of rainbow trout in aquaculture systems.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25T03:55:49.415915-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13614
  • Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on estrogenic activity, cortisol level,
           health and growth in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
    • Authors: Maria Rita Pastore; Elena Negrato, Carlo Poltronieri, Giuseppe Barion, Maria Messina, Francesca Tulli, Cristina Ballarin, Lisa Maccatrozzo, Giuseppe Radaelli, Daniela Bertotto
      Abstract: Soy isoflavones (the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein and glycitein) may act as estrogen receptor agonists or antagonists. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary isoflavones on growth, reproduction and health in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout fed three experimental diets containing different concentrations of isoflavones (0, 500 and 1,500 ppm). Growth, estrogenic activity, plasma estradiol levels, gonadal development, state of stress and histological changes in selected tissues were evaluated at the end of 70 days. Neither growth performance nor the relative mRNA levels of Insulin Growth Factor I (igf-I) in the liver were influenced by different levels of dietary isoflavones. Plasma and liver vitellogenin (VTG) protein levels and plasma 17-β-estradiol (E2) were unaffected by treatments, although the correlation between plasma levels of E2 and VTG densitometry values was significant (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-24T04:20:46.753323-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13602
  • The potential for combining living wall and vertical farming systems with
           aquaponics with special emphasis on substrates
    • Authors: Mohammed Khandaker; Benz Kotzen
      Abstract: Aquaponics is a method of food production, growing fish and vegetables in a recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaponics uses the water from the fish to feed the plants in a totally natural way and like hydroponics, aquaponics is considered to be more sustainable as more plants can be grown per square metre compared to normal agriculture. However, as is the case with normal agriculture, in aquaponics plants are grown within horizontally. In aquaponics, using the UVI system, the ratio between fish tanks:filters:plant tanks is 2:1:5 which means that the plant tanks are occupying close to half of the production space. In order to reduce the spatial requirement for plants, which would make production even more sustainable, this research investigates aspects of combining living wall and vertical farming technologies in aquaponics. It is considered that by growing the plants vertically less space would be required. In this research living wall system is investigated but the main focus is on the potentials of using various inert substrates in the living wall systems for vertical aquaponics. The results showed that a pot system performs better in terms of management of the systems. With regard to substrates, horticultural grade coconut fibre and horticultural grade mineral wool outperformed other substrates.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:19:55.916518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13601
  • Kluyveromyces fragilis RNA extract supplementation promotes growth,
           modulates stress and inflammatory response in zebrafish
    • Authors: Silvia Falcinelli; Basilio Randazzo, Jorge A Vargas Abúndez, Gaia Cangiotti, Ike Olivotto, Oliana Carnevali
      Abstract: Due to the undesirable consequences associated with antibiotics use, researchers and food producers have studied alternative feeding, for the control of fish diseases and animal welfare improvement. However, the beneficial properties of RNA yeasts extract in aquaculture have been barely considered. The present study investigated the beneficial properties of RNA yeast extract from Kluyveromyces fragilis on survival rate, weight and length as well as on molecular pathways involved in growth, immuno-system and oxidative stress using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an experimental model. The yeast extract has been administrated to zebrafish at three different concentrations (60–180–300 ppm) via zooplankton (Artemia salina) for 21 days. Results highlighted yeast extract RNA capability to enhance growth and to improve larvae survival rate in a dose-dependent manner. In fact, gene expression data showed the ability of the RNA yeast extract to up-regulate genes involved in growth and to restore stress-related condition due to the early larval development coupled with the RNA yeast extract administration. In addition, gene expression showed that RNA yeast extract acts as inflammatory-reducer, but did not enhance the immune response. Histological analysis showed that all three treated groups displayed a thicker gut epithelium, higher intestinal crypts coupled with higher enterocytes lengths compared to control group. In conclusion, these findings provide a large gene network through which yeast RNA extract acts and, by inducing transcriptional changes, modulate the physiological control of growth and inflammatory response coupled with the increase in length and dry weight, together with a higher survival ratio and an intestinal architecture amelioration.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:15:54.692252-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13607
  • Genetic assessment of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) stocks based on
           novel short tandem repeats for marker-aided broodstock management
    • Authors: Maria Rowena R Romana-Eguia; Brian S Santos, Minoru Ikeda, Zubaida U Basiao, Akihiro Kijima
      Abstract: Milkfish hatchery broodstock are either from on-grown wild-caught or hatchery-produced fry/juveniles. To determine if a marker-assisted management scheme can be formulated for improved milkfish hatchery production, milkfish stocks were genetically characterized using nine novel short tandem repeats or microsatellites. Eight wild-bred Philippine stocks (CLA, CUR, CAM, SIH, SBH-I1, HH, PAL and ZH-P0), four hatchery-bred stocks (SBH-I2, SBH-D, BoH and ZH-F1), two farm stocks of known mixed lineages (SPH and BDH) and one Indonesian hatchery-bred stock (WJH) were assessed. WJH was included since milkfish fingerlings from Indonesia reared in Philippine farms could be developed into future broodstock. Mean allelic richness (Ar) was highest in wild-bred stocks (9.5) and lowest in hatchery-bred spawners (9.1). Mean expected heterozygosities (He) were relatively similar in all stocks with wild-bred stocks slightly higher (0.67) than the others. An analysis of molecular variance indicated significant yet low genetic differentiation among stocks (FST = 0.013; p = .000) where variation (98.6%) was explained by intra-stock differences. In some of the domesticated stocks, reductions in mean allelic richness were observed in first generation hatchery broodstock (e.g. ZH-F1; Ar = 8.3), compared with their founder stock (e.g. ZH-P0; Ar = 9.4). The Indonesian stock was similar to local wild-bred stocks based on genetic variability indices; thus, it might be likely that the local stocks’ fitness traits could be comparable with the imported milkfish stock which has been perceived to be better. The quality of locally available farmed milkfish and prospects of formulating a broodstock management scheme for the production of good quality milkfish seedstock are herewith discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:15:25.680469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13610
  • Alpinia galanga oil—A new natural source of fish anaesthetic
    • Authors: Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang; Surachai Pikulkaew, Songyot Anuchapreeda, Siriporn Okonogi
      Abstract: This study explores the anaesthetic activity of Alpinia galanga oil (AGO) in fish. Cyprinus carpio (koi carp) was used as a fish model. It was found that the induction time to stage 3 anaesthesia and the recovery time of the fish after exposure to AGO were exponentially and polynomially correlated to AGO concentrations. The viability of normal blood cells of koi carp anaesthetized with 500 mg/L AGO was found to be higher than 90% for normal red blood cells and white blood cells and 89% for peripheral blood nuclear cells indicating nontoxicity of AGO to the fish. A concentration of 300 mg/L of AGO was the most suitable for anaesthetizing koi carp due to the safety and effectiveness aspects as being ideally fitted to anaesthetic criteria. This concentration gave the induction time of 205.55 ± 5.07 s and the recovery time of 202.50 ± 9.30 s. Determination of stress biomarker such as blood cortisol and glucose as well as gene expression showed that the blood cortisol level of the fish anaesthetized with AGO was similar to normal levels. Moreover, blood glucose level was significantly less increased than those anaesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate. Gene expressions of the fish cortisol receptor, cytochrome oxidase subunit1, heat shock protein 70 and Na+/K+-ATPaseα3 were significantly reduced after exposure to AGO indicating the advantages of AGO on fish stress reduction. Thus, AGO is a promising natural source for an alternative fish anaesthetics.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:10:28.787083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13609
  • Review of the principal diseases affecting cultured meagre (Argyrosomus
    • Authors: Florbela Soares; Ana Roque, Paulo J Gavaia
      Abstract: Argyrosomus regius was recently introduced in European aquaculture as a promising species for diversification and with high potential for expansion in the coming years. The reports on pathologies affecting this species are still scarce in the bibliography, however, they can severely affect production and result in major economic losses. Some few reports were made on outbreaks and mortalities associated with the presence of bacteria such as Vibrio anguillarum and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Although no viral diseases have been recognized as affecting meagre, it is known that meagre can be an asymptomatic carrier of two genotypes of nodavirus, the striped jack nervous necrosis virus and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus. Up-to-date, parasites affecting meagre are included in the genera Monogenea, Nematoda and Dinoflagelate, but without major mortality outbreaks associated to this type of infections. Osteological deformities have been observed in all life stages particularly affecting the axial system in larval and early juvenile specimens, with a higher incidence in the vertebral column, being affected by vertebral fusions, lordosis and kyphosis. With this review the authors provide an overview of all the pathological and non-pathological diseases affecting aquaculture produced meagre and provide a comprehensive overview of possible problems for the industry.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:06:19.649465-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13613
  • Fertilizing ability of gametes at different post-activation times and the
           sperm–oocyte ratio in the artificial reproduction of pikeperch Sander
    • Authors: Jiri Kristan; Daniel Zarski, Miroslav Blecha, Tomas Policar, Oleksandr Malinovskyi, Azin Mohagheghi Samarin, Katarzyna Palinska-Zarska, Joanna Nowosad, Slawomir Krejszeff, Dariusz Kucharczyk
      Abstract: The time period during which oocyte and spermatozoa retain their fertilizing ability after contacting with water was evaluated in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). In addition, success of in vitro fertilization was examined regarding to the sperm-to-oocyte ratio (SOR). In the first trial, oocytes were placed in Petri dishes containing 5 ml of the hatchery water, to which freshly collected and pooled sperm were added to each sample at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 s post oocyte activation. The oocytes retained their fertility for at least 30 s after contacting with water. The second trial tested the maximum time period during which spermatozoa retained fertilizability after contacting with water. Milt (50 μl) was collected from each male and added to 5 ml of water in Petri dishes. Thereafter, oocytes were added at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 75 s post-sperm activation. Delays exceeding 10 s affected negatively the fertilization success. The third trial examined the optimum SOR; in which was found that 100 × 103 spermatozoa per oocyte were the minimum ratio to ensure fertilization rates above 70%. Overall, the data clarified some biological interactions of gametes in the artificial propagation of pikeperch.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:05:25.823075-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13570
  • Effect of fasting and feeding on growth, intestinal morphology and
           enteroendocrine cell density in Rhamdia quelen juveniles
    • Authors: David Roque Hernández; Carlos Eduardo Barrios, Juan José Santinón, Sebastián Sánchez, Bernardo Baldisserotto
      Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the effect of fasting and feeding on growth, intestinal morphology and density of cholecystokinin (CCK-) and neuropeptide Y (NPY-) immunoreactive cells in Rhamdia quelen. Fish were fed during 30 days with three commercial feeds containing different protein levels (T1 = 25%, T2 = 30% and T3 = 45%) while one group remained food deprived (T0). Our results show that the T3 group presented higher final mean weight and specific growth rate, while food-deprived group showed a significant weight loss. Histological analyses showed that the epithelial area of the intestine was significantly affected by fasting. Also, immunohistochemical analyses showed changes in enteroendocrine cells density, according to nutritional status. Cholecystokinin cell density was higher in T2 and T3 groups, while no differences in NPY cell density were observed between fed groups. Neuropeptide Y and CCK cell densities decreased in fasted group. Nevertheless, this group presented a higher NPY:CCK cell ratio (5:1) compared to fed groups (1–1.5:1), suggesting NPY acts as a peripheral orexigenic factor. These results show that the structure and endocrine functions of R. quelen intestine respond with a downregulation mechanism to endure long-term starvation.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T07:12:21.995374-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13606
  • Effects of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal protein as a
           fishmeal replacement on the growth and immune index of yellow catfish
           (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)
    • Authors: Xiaopeng Xiao; Peng Jin, Longyu Zheng, Minmin Cai, Ziniu Yu, Jeffrey Yu, Jibin Zhang
      Abstract: A 65 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) as a fish meal (FM) protein alternative in the diet of yellow catfish. Fish meal protein was replaced with BSFL meal protein at 0% (control), 13%, 25%, 37%, 48%, 68%, 85% and 100%. Compared with the control group, increased growth performances (e.g. weight gain rate increased by 21.7%) and immune indexes (e.g. serum lysozyme activity increased by 6.8%) of yellow catfish fed with diets in which a maximum of 48% FM protein was replaced by BSFL meal protein was determined. The diet in which 25% FM protein was replaced by BSFL meal protein resulted in the greatest growth performances (e.g. weight gain rate increased by 29.1%) and immune indexes (e.g. serum lysozyme activity increased by 31.9%) as well as the lowest feed conversion ratio (0.9) among all diets tested. No significant differences in survival rate, body indexes or composition were determined among all treatments. Therefore, BSFL meal protein has the potential to partially replace FM protein in the diet of yellow catfish, and it may also enhance the immunocompetence of the fish.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T07:11:46.087691-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13611
  • Water quality, ecological processes and management procedures in a
           periphyton biofiltration system in mariculture: A statistical analysis
    • Authors: Ana Milstein; Alon Levy, Amir Neori, Sheenan Harpaz, Muki Shpigel, Lior Guttman
      Abstract: A periphyton biofiltration system of mariculture effluents was studied to identify ecological processes and management procedures that strongly affect the biofilter functioning, in order to attain optimal biomass production and nutrient removal. The multivariate statistical technique of factor analysis allowed reducing the large amount of data available into three main factors. The first factor, which accounted for 49% of the overall data variability, was herein called “biological activity” as it represents the joint effects on the variables measured of photosynthesis, N and P uptake, respiration and decomposition of organic matter. The second and third factors were “autotrophic biomass density” and “nitrite and phosphate uptake/release balance”, which, respectively, accounted for further 20% and 14% of the data variability. A conceptual model, describing the functioning of the periphyton biofilters, revealed a delicate equilibrium among the different processes, whose understanding help to manage the biofilters towards optimal production of periphytic biomass and nutrient removal. Raising flow rate raised the overall nutrient uptake rate but reduced uptake efficiency and diluted nitrifying particles. A reduced flow rate led to sedimentation of organic particles, decomposition and nutrients re-mineralization. Apparently, control of water flow and nutrient content, periphyton substrate area and the cleaning of the effluent supply system are key management elements for the operation of a periphyton-based biofilter system that maximizes both periphyton biomass production and nutrient removal.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T06:10:55.63349-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13604
  • Recombinant LysVPMS1 as an endolysin with broad lytic activity against
           Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains associated to acute hepatopancreatic
           necrosis disease
    • Authors: Lina Angélica Zermeño-Cervantes; Román Makarov, Carlos Omar Lomelí-Ortega, Sergio Francisco Martínez-Díaz, César Salvador Cardona-Félix
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T01:05:24.950933-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13577
  • Influence of temperature and size on menthol anaesthesia in Chinese grass
           shrimp Palaemonetes sinensis (Sollaud, 1911)
    • Authors: Yingdong Li; Shudong Liang, Qiuxin She, Zhibin Han, Yi Li, Xiaodong Li
      Abstract: Chinese grass shrimp, Palaemonetes sinensis (Sollaud, 1911), is an economically important freshwater shrimp in China and adjacent areas. It is advisable to use anaesthesia in this species for certain handling and shipping operations; however, there have been no investigations into the recommended dosages. Here, the influence of five menthol concentrations (varying from 100 to 500 mg/L) on three different size classes of P. sinensis were examined at 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28°C. Induction and recovery times for each shrimp were recorded, and effects of temperature, size and menthol dose on induction and recovery times were observed. Results showed that menthol dose, water temperature and shrimp size significantly influence anaesthesia in P. sinensis. Induction time decreased linearly with increasing water temperature and concentration of menthol, and increased with body weight. However, recovery times lengthened with concentration and temperature, and became shorter with body weight. Average body weight of the shrimps generally decreased after anaesthesia. Mortality of shrimps was correlated with temperature, dose and size. These results suggest that menthol is an effective rapid anaesthetic for P. sinensis, but there may be some disadvantages, including slow recovery and possible mortality for small shrimps and at higher temperatures and dosages.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T08:35:57.621291-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13568
  • Breeding and larval development of Holothuria mammata, a new target
           species for aquaculture
    • Authors: Jorge A Domínguez-Godino; Mercedes González-Wangüemert
      Abstract: Sea cucumber commercial fisheries in the North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea started in Turkey in the 1990s. Due to ineffective management practices, the sea cucumber resource was overexploited. Holothuria mammata is one of the sea cucumber species exploited from this geographical area, showing high potential for its aquaculture. This research was undertaken to develop the breeding, larval and juveniles rearing techniques for development of H. mammata aquaculture. Broodstocks collected from Ria Formosa (Faro, S Portugal) were successfully induced to spawn by thermal stimulation from July to October, yielding up to 6.95 million eggs/female. The eggs and larvae were reared and their development described. H. mammata showed the five typical larval stages of most aspidochirote holoturians. Juveniles stage was reached after 21 days post-fertilization. This is the first work focused on the aquaculture biotechnology of H. mammata, however, further research is need to improve the survival of juveniles to ensure the future production of this species.
      PubDate: 2018-01-14T23:21:12.045503-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13597
  • Carp (Cyprinus carpio) lipovitellin is a highly stable
           phospholipoglycoprotein with the same immunogenicity as vitellogenin
    • Authors: Jun Wang; Zhenzhong Zhang, Yanyan Wei, Mingyi Zheng, Shaoguo Ru
      Abstract: Vitellogenin (Vtg) induction in carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a commonly used biomarker for oestrogenic contamination. However, the accurate quantification of Vtg was challenged because the easy degradation of Vtg standard would change the standard curves of the immunoassays. In this study, three yolk proteins were purified from carp ovarian extracts by a two-step chromatographic method. The purified proteins were characterized as phospholipoglycoproteins with molecular weights of approximately 416, 398 and 383 kDa. In SDS-PAGE, the purified proteins appeared as a major band of approximately 110 kDa and several faint bands. Based on these characteristics, purified proteins were identified as carp lipovitellin (Lv). Immunological analysis showed that anti-Vtg antiserum reacted with the purified Lv. The results of stability analysis revealed that even heated at 60°C for 60 min, the electrophoretic patterns of carp Lv in native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE did not have a significant difference compared with the Lv solution stored at 4°C. Therefore, the purified carp Lv was confirmed to have similar immunogenicity with Vtg and possess exceptionally high stability, which would be helpful for the development of robust immunoassays for accurate quantification of carp Vtg.
      PubDate: 2018-01-14T23:20:57.614548-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13587
  • Embryonic and larval development of a hybrid between kelp grouper
           Epinephelus moara ♀ × giant grouper E. lanceolatus ♂ using
           cryopreserved sperm
    • Authors: Zhang-Fan Chen; Yong-Sheng Tian, Peng-Fei Wang, Jiang Tang, Jiang-Chun Liu, Wen-Hui Ma, Wen-Sheng Li, Xiao-Mei Wang, Jie-Ming Zhai
      Abstract: Hybridization was used to take advantage of desirable traits in offspring. In the present study, we applied the cryopreserved Epinephelus lanceolatus sperm into interspecific hybridization with E. moara. Successful hybridization between these two species was achieved and cultured in 23–24°C seawater (34‰). There was no difference in survival rate between hybrid (E. moara ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂) and non-hybrid (E. moara ♀ × E. moara ♂) at 24 hrs post hatch (HPH), but less hybrid (14.35 ± 8.02%) hatched than non-hybrid (93.60 ± 1.65%), which might be due to irregularity cell cleavage and skeletal deformities from the formation of embryonic body to the later embryonic development. Similar phenomenon was found in hybrid embryos from fertilization with fresh sperm, indicating that species variations between parents, rather than cryopreserved sperm, resulted in deformities in embryos. Mean hatch time of the hybrid was 1 hr faster than that of E. moara. The hybrid was 1.95 ± 0.06 mm in total length when newly hatched and reached 38.00 mm at 58 days post hatch (DPH), which showed faster growth than E. moara (recorded in the previous study). Considering its faster growth, E. moara × E. lanceolatus hybrid was a potential breeding production in aquaculture. Over 212,000,000 larvae have been produced and launched in the market since 2015. The results of this study also shed some lights on further comparative studies in grouper hybrid performance.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13T02:21:10.460084-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13591
  • Evaluation of different procedures for fertilization and larvae production
           in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Nereididae, Polychaeta)
    • Authors: Nicoletta Nesto; Roberto Simonini, Daniela Prevedelli, Luisa Da Ros
      Pages: 1396 - 1406
      Abstract: Different experimental trials were performed to clarify some aspects of the biology of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) as a further step towards the development of appropriate breeding protocols for indoor farming systems. In particular, the trials were addressed to evaluate the effectiveness of two fertilization conditions (in vitro and “natural-like”); induce gamete spawning by exposing mature individuals to thermal shock or to tissue homogenates; estimate the density effects on larval growth and survival; and evaluate the most suitable parameters to be used as proxy for biomass assessment. The highest percentages of fertilized eggs and larvae were obtained by the in vitro fertilization condition. Mature organisms were induced to spawn by exposure to thermal shock although the spawned eggs revealed low rates of fertilization and hatching. The treatment with male tissue homogenates induced females to successful spawning, and the resulting eggs showed high fertilization and hatching rates. The density of larvae in the rearing phase had no effect on growth or on survival rates of juveniles. Finally, allometric evaluations showed that fresh weight and L3 length are the most reliable parameters to be used as proxy for biomass assessment of this species.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13T02:20:27.359728-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13589
  • Effects of graded levels of dietary vitamin E on striped surubim
           Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum
    • Authors: Ricardo Basso Zanon; Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva, Brunno da Silva Cerozi, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino
      Pages: 1423 - 1429
      Abstract: Vitamin E is important to animal health, growth, productive performance, fillet quality and immune systems. This study evaluated the effects of dietary vitamin E on flesh composition, growth, biochemical and immunological parameters of striped surubim, Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum. Prior to beginning of the feeding trial, fish were fed a vitamin E-free control diet for 45 days to reduce body deposits. The trial was set up in a completely randomized design; diets containing 3.4; 28.4; 53.4; 103.4; 153.4 and 303.4 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate per kg of ration (n = 3) were fed twice a day to apparent satiation, for 90 days. Juvenile striped surubim (38.1 ± 4.9 g and 17.5 ± 1.5 cm) randomly stocked in 18 plastic tanks (300 L; 10 fish per tank). Based on serum globulin content and liver and fillet deposition of vitamin E, inclusion of 166.6 mg/kg of DL-alpha tocopherol acetate in the diet is recommended to improve the immunological status and, probably, flesh quality of striped surubim.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T06:50:24.100272-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13594
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