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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1582 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1582 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Research
  [SJR: 0.807]   [H-I: 60]   [31 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-557X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2109
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1582 journals]
  • Genetic and morphological divergences between wild and captive-bred
           populations of Salmo trutta abanticus
    • Authors: Murat Telli; Büşra Gürleyen
      Abstract: Salmo trutta abanticus is a non-anadromous trout species native to Lake Abant and Seven Lakes in Turkey. A restocking programme by captive breeding was initiated in 1999 to support S. trutta abanticus population. Reared 2-year-old juveniles from randomly caught wild parental individuals in Maçka breeding farm were introduced into Lake Abant. We aimed to compare genetic and morphological divergences between wild- and captive-bred populations using seven microsatellite loci and geometric morphometric measurements. A significant genetic and morphological divergences were detected between all population in Fst and canonical variate analysis based on geometric morphometric with 10 homolog landmark. Eighty-six microsatellites alleles were recorded across loci. Number of private alleles, observed alleles and observed heterozygosity are statistically significant higher in Maçka captive-bred population than Lake Abant and Seven Lakes populations. Of 42 tests, three departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were detected in all populations after Bonferroni correction. Two pairs of loci (Ssa85 – Str73 and Str73-Str543) in Maçka, one pairs of loci (Ssa85-Str73) in Abant and two pairs of loci (Ssa85-Str60 and Str73-Str543) in Seven Lakes populations show linkage disequilibrium. Population structure analysed with Structure software showed three genetic groups (∆K = 3) in our studied populations. Relatedness estimates show higher mean relatedness values (r = 0.220 ± 0.230) for Maçka captive-breed population than wild populations of Abant Lake and Seven Lakes (r = 0.140 ± 0.210 and r = 0.170 ± 0.200 respectively).
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T01:15:50.664161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13384
       
  • Induction of meiotic gynogenesis in bagrid catfish (Pseudobagrus
           ussuriensis) with homologous sperm and its confirmation for female
           homogamety
    • Authors: Zheng-Jun Pan; Chuan-Kun Zhu, Hui Wang, Guo-Liang Chang, Huai-Yu Ding, Xiao-Gang Qiang, Xiang-Sheng Yu
      Abstract: The bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus ussuriensis, exhibits significant sexual dimorphism in growth rate and body size with males growing faster than females. Therefore, an all-male culture can dramatically increase the output and profitability of fishery products. According to the monosex breeding route, super-male individuals’ acquirement by XY male sex reversal and artificial gynogenesis is the key step. An effective protocol to induce meiotic gynogenesis using homologous sperms has been developed in this study. The most effective UV irradiation for sperm genetic inactivation was found to be at a distance of 20 cm with 66 μW/cm2 light intensity for 25 min. Optimal treatment for cold shock was 5 min post-fertilization at 0-4°C for 30 min, which gave the best survival rate of 13.65 ± 2.87%. The sex ratio in the meiotic gynogens showed a significant female-biased deviation (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T07:00:29.68586-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13388
       
  • Mate selection in aquaculture breeding using differential evolution
           algorithm
    • Authors: Grazyella Massako Yoshida; José Manuel Yáñez, Carlos Antonio Lopes Oliveira, Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro, Jean Paul Lhorente, Sandra Aidar Queiroz, Roberto Carvalheiro
      Abstract: An algorithm to perform mate selection in aquaculture breeding using a computational optimization procedure called “differential evolution” (DE) was applied under optimum contribution selection and mate selection scenarios, to assess its efficiency in maximizing the genetic merit while controlling inbreeding. Real aquaculture data sets with 8,782 Nile tilapias from five generations and 79,144 coho salmon from eight generations were used to optimize objective functions accounting for coancestry of parents and expected genetic merit and inbreeding of the future progeny. The mate selection results were compared with those from the realized scenario (real mates), truncation selection and optimum contribution selection method. Mate selection allowed reducing inbreeding up to 73% for Nile tilapia, compared with truncation selection, and up to 20% for coho salmon, compared with realized scenario. There was evidence that mate selection outperformed optimum contribution selection followed by minimum inbreeding mating in controlling inbreeding under the same expected genetic gain. The developed algorithm was computationally efficient in maximizing the objective functions and flexible for practical application in aquaculture breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T04:21:39.748754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13365
       
  • Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance, fatty
           acid composition and antioxidant-related gene expressions in juvenile
           loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus
    • Authors: Jie Yan; Yang Li, Xiao Liang, Yin Zhang, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Daniel Matuli'c, Jian Gao
      Abstract: Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is one of the most important cultured freshwater fish in several East Asian countries. However, a little information is available in its nutritional requirements. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding varying levels of dietary protein and lipid on growth, fatty acid composition and antioxidant-related gene expressions in juvenile loach. Six practical diets at three levels of protein (30%, 40% and 50%) and two levels of lipid (6% and 12%) were fed to loach juveniles (initial weight 0.40 g) in triplicated groups (20 fish per replicated) for a period of 8 weeks. Results showed that regardless of lipid level, body weight gain of fish was significantly increased with incremental dietary protein level. Meanwhile, feed conversion ratio was significantly decreased by dietary protein levels, and the lowest value was observed in fish fed dietary protein levels of 50%, regardless of dietary lipid level. Moreover, the percentage of 22:6n-3 in viscera was significantly increased by different protein levels. The expression level of catalase was significantly increased with incremental dietary protein level with both lipid levels. Meanwhile, the expression level of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was downregulated with incremental dietary protein level with 6% of lipid level, but the expression was upregulated with incremental dietary protein level with 12% of lipid level. In conclusion, these data suggested that 6% lipid and 50% protein in diet was optimal for loach during early development stage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T01:46:01.043473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13352
       
  • Partial and total replacement of fish meal by marine microalga Spirulina
           platensis in the diet of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei:
           Growth, digestive enzyme activities, fatty acid composition and responses
           to ammonia and hypoxia stress
    • Authors: Somayeh Pakravan; Arash Akbarzadeh, Mir Masoud Sajjadi, Abdolmajid Hajimoradloo, Farzaneh Noori
      Abstract: In the this study, we evaluated the effect of replacement of fish meal by a marine microalgae Spirulina platensis on growth, digestive enzyme activities, fatty acid composition and responses to ammonia and hypoxia stress in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2.6 ± 0.2 g). Experimental diets contained S. platensis at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% replacement levels. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, growth parameters and proximate body composition were not significantly different among treatments (p > .05). Amylase and lipase activities did not show any significant differences between control group and other experimental diets (p > .05), while activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin were significantly higher in shrimp fed diet with 50% substitution of microalgae compared to control group. Fatty acid contents, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were significantly higher in control diet compared to other experimental diets. On the contrary, the majority of fatty acids including the contents of PUFAs in the whole body of L. vannamei fed with different levels of S. platensis were significantly higher compared to those of control group. After 48-h exposure to ammonia, survival per cent was not statistically different between all groups (p > .05), but in hypoxia challenge, the survival per cent of control group was significantly less than that of treatments fed diets contained S. platensis (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:41:30.326303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13379
       
  • Evaluating spawning performance among captive Florida pompano Trachinotus
           carolinus broodstock using microsatellite-based parentage assignment
    • Authors: Qian Ma; Seifu Seyoum, Michael D. Tringali, Matthew J. Resley, Nicole R. Rhody, Kevan L. Main, Kenneth M. Leber
      Abstract: Florida pompano has been identified as a promising candidate for commercial-scale aquaculture production, but to date, little information is available regarding captive broodstock spawning characteristics. Genetic markers were tested for their power in monitoring mating outcomes and potential in analysing heritability of rapid growth trait in Trachinotus carolinus. A total of 20 unrelated adults (10 females and 10 males) were chosen for a hormone-induced mass spawning event. The 515 fastest growing and 485 slowest growing fish of the total 4852 offspring were considered a selected progeny stock, and fish were collected at 45 days post hatch based on their growth traits. Parentage analyses based on the 20 breeders and 1,000 selected progeny were performed using a total of nine microsatellite markers, a 100% assignment rate was achieved, and a four-marker set was the minimum number for the parentage assignment. The effective breeding number for the selected progeny was 11 (six females and five males), among which three females and two males were predominant contributors with the total contribution of 95.8% and 94.7% respectively. The proportion of fast-growing offspring from broodfish and each mating cross (sire/dam) was used for detecting whether variation in growth of the offspring was related to parental stocks. Results showed that three adults and their mated combination exhibited the greatest fast-growing offspring proportion (69.73% and 55.95%). This research provided new information regarding spawning performance and parental contribution during mass spawning events; both important first steps towards developing improved management strategies for captive Florida pompano broodstock.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:28:51.16905-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13369
       
  • Genotyping, pedigree reconstruction and endocrinological characterization
           of Acipenser naccarii (Bonaparte, 1836) using microsatellite markers and
           plasma steroid levels
    • Authors: Ilaria Guarniero; Michaela Mandelli, Laura Stancampiano, Alessia Cariani, Nadia Govoni, Albamaria Parmeggiani, Damiano Barboni, Oliviero Mordenti
      Abstract: This study aimed to set up a method for the long-term management of Adriatic sturgeon, through the analysis of sex steroids and the genetic profiling of individuals in order to maximize the already reduced genetic variability of this species. Ten A. naccarii adults (nine of captive origin, one captured in the Ticino river and then moved into captivity) and eight subadults located in a semi-natural land-locked pond in Abbiategrasso (Milan, Italy) were analysed. Plasma testosterone differed significantly in the eight analysed subadults allowing their differentiation into two groups: the first group with an average testosterone concentration of 5.42 ± 1.31 ng/ml (probably female) and the second group with an average of 423.14 ± 75.97 ng/ml (probably male), as subsequently confirmed by artificial stripping. The plasma testosterone level was also significantly different between adult males and females (371.37 ± 43.58 vs. 95.34 ± 51.10 ng/ml), while the E2 levels showed no significant differences. Animals were genotyped on the basis of 10 microsatellite loci and their parental relationships were defined: four adults, two females and two males, generated the eight subadults. On the basis of pedigree analyses and genetic distances, 15 unrelated couples were identified for the future breeding seasons. Finally, the adult female captured in the Ticino River showed an interesting genetic profile, widely different from all of the other 17 specimens analysed, and represents a valuable source of genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:55:26.818153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13376
       
  • Microbiota of common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae exhibiting high
           mortality
    • Authors: Andrea M Tarnecki; Nicole R Rhody
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:45:26.959805-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13377
       
  • Mass culture of fairy shrimp Branchinecta orientalis (G. O. Sars 1901)
           (Crustacea: Anostraca) using effluent of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss
           (Walbaum 1792) ponds
    • Authors: Navid Pormehr Yabandeh; Lynda Beladjal, Naser Agh, Behrooz Atashbar, Gilbert Van Stappen
      Abstract: The variable quality and high price of Artemia (Leach 1819) cyst products, used worldwide as live food, motivate aquaculturists to find an appropriate alternative, especially for fresh/brackish water organisms. In this study, Branchinecta orientalis (G. O. Sars 1901), a common fairy shrimp in north-western Iran, was reared for 15 days using effluent from trout ponds enriched with effluent filtrate as sole feed, or co-fed with microalgae (Scenedesmus sp.). The effluent filtrate was replaced by algae at different ratios (25% and 50%), and feeding experiments were designed at densities of 100, 200 and 400 individuals/L in 3-L containers and at 100 individuals/L in 20-L containers. The results indicated that, at a certain density, the final length and survival were not significantly affected by different feeding regimes (p > .05). In 3-L containers, the highest length and survival were observed at the lowest density. B. orientalis contained the highest amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, though, when co-fed algae, although the differences with the treatment fed solely effluent filtrate were often limited. Inclusion of algae in the diet also resulted in higher levels of a number of PUFAs. Our study proves that B. orientalis can be mass-cultured successfully using trout effluent as culture medium without additional microalgae. Fish pond effluent is massively available as a cheap food source. Recycling aquaculture effluent for this type of live food production contributes to lowering the use of natural resources and to less discharge of nutrient loads into natural water bodies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:30:29.633185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13360
       
  • Activities of digestive enzymes and histology of digestive system during
           larval development of devil stinger (Inimicus japonicus)
    • Authors: Songlin Li; Wen Wen, Xuxiong Huang, Xu Gong, Longfeng Feng, Naisong Chen
      Abstract: Devil stinger is a valuable demersal scorpaenid fish while the rearing of stinger larvae still relies on live prey. This study was conducted to illustrate the development of the main digestive enzymes and digestive system during larval development of this species to provide evidence for the application of artificial feeds. Enzymatic and histological assays were conducted from 1 day post hatching (dph) to 36 dph in larvae. The result showed that the selected digestive enzyme activities increased significantly after 15 dph. Specifically, the total trypsin activities increased significantly from 18 dph to 33 dph. The total pepsin and amylase activities increased significantly first and thereafter decreased significantly. The lipase activities followed the similar pattern with trypsin. With regard to the histological study, the stinger larvae open their mouth to first feeding at 3 dph and turned into totally exogenous nutritional stage at 6 dph. In addition, mucous membrane, rich in goblet cells, was widely distributed in oesophagus epithelium at 18 dph. The height and amounts of gastric gland in cardia and main body of the stomach increased gradually with the development of stinger larvae after 15 dph. The intestine length of stinger larvae was short, and goblet cell was abundant in anterior intestine after 12 dph, not the posterior intestine. The ontogeny of liver and pancreas started from newly hatched stage, and the differentiation of liver was prior to pancreas. The above findings would provide evidence for the use of artificial feeds from the larval stage of stinger larvae (at least from 21 dph).
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T01:15:43.874264-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13353
       
  • Geosmin depuration from European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not affected
           by the water renewal rate of depuration tanks
    • Authors: Edward Schram; Tobias Kooten, Jan W Heul, Johan W Schrama, Johan A J Verreth, Albertinka J Murk
      Abstract: This study established that geosmin depuration from European eel is not affected by the water renewal rate of depuration tanks. A general fish bioaccumulation model extended with terms that account for effects of tank water renewal rate and system losses of chemicals, predicted strong effects of the water renewal rate of depuration tanks on geosmin depuration from European eel. Model predictions were validated in a depuration experiment with geosmin-loaded European eel (n = 95) with a mean (SD) individual weight of 134.4 (5.0) g and a mean (SD) lipid content of 33.7 (2.8) % (w/w). Fish were depurated for 24, 48 or 72 h at three different tank water renewal rates (0.3, 3.3 and 33 day−1). Treatments were installed by three different mean (SD) water flow rates (13.8 (1.3), 143.5 (9.2) and 1511 (80) L kg fish−1 day−1) over 30-L tanks. Eels eliminated geosmin from their bodies, but unlike the model predicted, this was independent of the water renewal rate of the depuration tanks. Although being eliminated from the fish, geosmin hardly appeared and certainly did not accumulate in the water of the depuration tanks as the model predicted. This observation may be explained by geosmin being eliminated from eel as metabolite rather than the parent compound. Geosmin elimination from eel seems not to occur according to the generally accepted passive diffusion mechanism for excretion of lipophilic chemicals, and geosmin biotransformation by the eel seems indicated. Clearly geosmin depuration from European eel cannot be enhanced by increasing water renewal rates of depuration tanks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T01:06:10.064843-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13287
       
  • Modulation of nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in
           aquatic animals: The functional feed additives scenario
    • Authors: Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Maryam Dadar, Einar Ringø
      Abstract: Considering the costs of feed costs (nearly 60% of production cost), nutrition, feeding and feed utilization are among the most important factors in commercial aquaculture. During the last decade, administration of functional feed additives has been practiced for enhancing nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities of cultured fish and shellfish. Traditionally, antibiotics were used for boosting growth performance and nutrient digestibility in commercial aquaculture. However, emergence of resistance pathogens and possible risk to human health resulted in limitation or prohibition of prophylactic administration of antibiotics. Recently, there was increasing attentions towards dietary administration of functional feed additives that include probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics for elevation of digestive enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility. The results of those studies revealed contradictory effects of different pro-, pre- or synbiotics on various fish species. It seems that the effects are species specific and related to modulation of the intestinal microbiota. In view of this issue, the present review provides a comprehensive sight on the effects of different pro-, pre- and synbiotics on digestive enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility in different species with special focus on the mode of action. In addition, the present review highlighted the gaps of existing knowledge as well as suggesting the subjects which needs additional studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:40:43.123464-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13368
       
  • Motility of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus spermatozoa in the
           post-activation phase
    • Authors: Adele Fabbrocini; Raffaele D'Adamo
      Abstract: The characterization of sperm motility patterns, particularly post-activation changes, is the first step in setting up species-specific protocols involving gamete management and embryo production, for both aquaculture and laboratory research purposes. This study is aimed at the characterization of the sperm motility pattern of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Semen samples were individually diluted in artificial sea water for sperm motility activation. They were then incubated at 18°C for up to 24 hr. Motility was evaluated on dilution, and 1 hr, 3 hr and 24 hr after activation, by computerized analyser. The semen fertilization capacity was also evaluated. Under our experimental conditions (dilution 1:1,000 in artificial sea water plus 0.05% BSA, 18°C, in the dark), P. lividus semen remained viable for up to 24 hr, as the total motile sperm and the fertilization percentages did not change significantly during the incubation time. In contrast, the mean curvilinear velocity and the subpopulation of rapid sperm (those having a curvilinear velocity> 100 µm/s) slightly but significantly decreased after 3 hr, thereafter remaining unchanged for up to 24 hr after activation. In conclusion, our results show that diluted P. lividus semen can be used for a longer period than that of most fish species, with no need for motility inhibition procedures, supporting its wider use in laboratory research. In addition, the development of artificial fertilization protocols for aquaculture production is simplified by long-lasting sperm motility.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:35:43.8965-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13373
       
  • A review of intestinal microbes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus
           (Valenciennes)
    • Authors: Ngoc Tuan Tran; Gui-Tang Wang, Shan-Gong Wu
      Abstract: Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, harbours complex intestinal bacterial communities, which are important in several physiological processes of their host. Intestinal microbiota of grass carp have been previously described in numerous studies. However, an overview on the bacterial community diversity, including their establishment, their functions in host's nutritional processes and immune-related responses, and use as probiotics, is absent. This study aimed to summarize the current understanding of the grass carp intestinal microbiota. In this review, we provide general information on the establishment and composition of intestinal microbial communities and factors influencing the diversity of gut microbiota. Also, this review covers the dietary effects of probiotics, prebiotics and/or synbiotics on the grass carp intestinal microbial communities and physiological characteristics. Although our knowledge of the grass carp intestinal microbiota is expanding rapidly, further studies on the factors affecting the diversity of intestinal microbes, interactions between intestinal microbiota and their hosts and application of probiotics/prebiotics/synbiotics in aquaculture industry, are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:30:33.487584-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13367
       
  • Transcriptional profile of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase encoding
           mRNAs of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei during PstDV-1
           infection
    • Authors: Patricia Olguín-León; Tania Enríquez-Espinoza, Fernando Mendoza-Cano, Trinidad Encinas-García, Arturo Sánchez-Paz
      Abstract: Beyond their ability to infect and spread, viruses lack the ability to replicate by their own. To counter this, viruses have evolved strategies to exploit the host's machinery for the production of new virions. However, viruses are by no means merely passive consumers of host metabolic products. Viruses induce remarkable changes in their host's cellular metabolism, yielding a metabolic state, to meet its specific requirements. The decapod penstyldensovirus (PstDV-1) is probably the most prevalent virus affecting shrimp farming and has been associated with massive mortality outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of Penaeus stylirostris, and results in developmental deformities in symptomatic specimens of P. vannamei. Previous studies have suggested that PstDV-1 induces metabolic reprogramming of P. vannamei to achieve a successful replication. In this study, the effects of PstDV-1 infection over the gene expression of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase of the shrimp P. vannamei were evaluated. The expression of both genes was significantly altered by PstDV-1 infection, which may lead to the accumulation of specific metabolites, as lactate and fatty acids, providing a suitable platform for viral assembly and replication. The transcriptional profile of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase-encoding mRNAs offers initial clues on the potential metabolic alteration that contribute to PstDV-1 pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:25:27.119772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13380
       
  • Measuring density effects on growth and survival of two size classes of
           juvenile sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) held in sea-based
           holding systems and impacts on holding system design and management
    • Authors: Philip James; Sten Ivar Siikavuopio, Tomas Wyatt Reguera
      Abstract: Assessing density in intensive sea urchin culture systems by measuring the percentage coverage of available surface area is an effective means of calculating the available space within a holding system, the proximity of the animals in the system to each other and the probable effects of the stocking density. The results of this study show that density plays a critical role in regard to both somatic growth (increase in test diameter measured in millimetres) as well as mortality of juvenile sea urchins ranging in size from 5 mm to 26 mm test diameter (the size range tested in the current experiments). These effects appear to be greater for smaller urchins. The critical percentage coverage densities are in the order of 50%-60% coverage for juvenile sea urchins, and the authors advise farmers growing Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis to maintain stocking densities below this point and to reduce the stocking densities as and when stocks reach these critical density points. Percentage cover must be constantly monitored as the results from this study indicate that the growth rates of juvenile urchins can alter percentage coverage rapidly and reductions in density may be required as frequently as every 3-4 months at the early juvenile stage. Holding system design should take these factors into account and incorporate a method of rapidly reducing stocking densities with minimal stress and handling of sea urchin stocks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:15:38.23425-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13375
       
  • Fishmeal can be totally replaced by a mixture of rapeseed meal and
           Chlorella meal in diets for crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)
    • Authors: Xi Shi; Feng Chen, Guang-Hui Chen, Ya-Xiong Pan, Xiao-Ming Zhu, Xu Liu, Zhi Luo
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fishmeal (FM) replacement by a mixture of rapeseed meal and Chlorella meal (RCM) on growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs), digestive enzymatic activities and intestinal histology of crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelioi. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to replace 0% (RCM0), 25% (RCM25), 50% (RCM50), 75% (RCM75), and 100% (RCM100) of protein from fishmeal with RCM respectively. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups with 25 juvenile fish (initial body weight: 1.77 ± 0.04 g) per fibreglass tank for 6 weeks. With increasing substitution levels, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, feed intake and protein efficiency ratio increased, but feed conversion rate decreased. Dietary RCM substitution improved lipid content of muscle, but had no significant effect on other proximate composition of muscle and liver. ADCs of dry matter, protein, lipid, energy and the majority of amino acids increased with increasing substitution level, and digestive enzyme activities (amylase, trypsin and lipase) in intestine showed the similar trend with ADCs. Dietary RCM substitution had no significant adverse effect on intestinal histology. This study indicated that FM protein could be completely replaced by mixed protein sources (RCM) in crucian carp diets.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:25:50.047471-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13364
       
  • Hemolymph haemagglutination activity of pearl oysters Pinctada fucata in
           post-operative care
    • Authors: Natsumi Sano; Takashi Atsumi, Shinji Tanaka, Akira Komaru
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:25:41.822545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13370
       
  • Optimal temperature and photoperiod for the spawning of blue crab,
           Callinectes sapidus, in captivity
    • Authors: S. Bembe; Dong Liang, J. Sook Chung
      Abstract: Like all poikilotherms, the growth and reproduction of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus depends on temperature and season. Warmer water temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay allow for ovarian development and spawning, while colder water temperatures slow their metabolism and reproduction. The current study aimed to identify optimal environmental conditions for inducing reproduction in animals held in long-term captivity for year round production in aquaculture through environmental manipulations. Temperature and photoperiod were the main environmental factors tested for 25 weeks: 11°C and 21°C, with the following photoperiods: 0L:24D, 8L:16D, 16L:8D and 24L:0D. At 21°C, the females increased spawning frequency, which was arrested at 11°C. Shorter light exposure at 21°C increased spawning frequency, while constant light inhibited and did not produce spawning. Constant dark (0L:24D) at 21°C produced the most (86%) spawns, but yielded poor larval quality. At 21°C with all photoperiod conditions except constant light, the first spawning took 94.8 ± 32.4 days to occur (n = 17). With females producing multiple spawns, the intervals between the first and second spawns and the second and third spawns were 37.7 ± 8.7 days (n = 6) and 31.0 ± 7.1 days (n = 2) respectively. Analysis of our data using response surface methodology (RSM) predicts the following conditions: at 15–19°C and 0–10 hr darkness for maximal survival and at 19–22°C and 0–8 hr darkness for spawning. The number of larvae produced was positively correlated with size (weight) of the female C. sapidus, suggesting the importance of female size in reproduction.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:24:47.584854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13366
       
  • Use of Nannochloropsis sp. isolated from the East China Sea in larval
           rearing of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus)
    • Authors: Jie Tan; Liang Wang, Changlin Liu, Fenghui Li, Xiaojun Wang, Huiling Sun, Jingping Yan, Xiaojie Sun
      Abstract: The supply of microalgae to hatcheries is a limiting factor for the mass larval production of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Fujian Province, China. In this study, Nannochloropsis sp. isolated from the East China Sea was tested as food for A. japonicus larvae. The first trial compared the effect of mono-, bi- and trialgal diets comprising three microalgae (Chaetoceros muelleri, Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nannochloropsis sp.) on A. japonicus larval growth, survival, settlement and juvenile growth. The results showed that there were no significant differences in survival and settlement between larvae fed with Nannochloropsis sp. and other diets. All diet treatments yielded similar juvenile sea cucumber output. In the second trial, A. japonicus larvae were fed equally four times daily at three different rations (5000, 20 000 and 40 000 cells mL−1 day−1). Larvae fed 20 000 cells mL−1 day−1 were significantly larger than larvae in other groups and experienced the highest survival rate. In the third trial, A. japonicus larvae were fed 20 000 cells mL−1 day−1 in three different frequency (2, 3 and 4 meals day−1). The greatest body length was observed in larvae that received 3 meals day−1. Survival and settlement of larvae fed 2 meals day−1 were significantly lower than other two groups. These results suggest that Nannochloropsis sp. can be used as a diet for the large-scale production of A. japonicus seed, and larvae fed three times daily at a ration of 20 000 cell mL−1 day−1 are recommended for hatchery production of A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29T01:26:10.802126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13268
       
  • Effects of hydrodynamic factors on Pecten maximus larval development
    • Authors: Marine Holbach; René Robert, Philippe Miner, Christian Mingant, Pierre Boudry, Réjean Tremblay
      Abstract: Hatchery production of great scallop, Pecten maximus, remains unpredictable, notably due to poor larval survival. Large-scale flow-through systems up to 3500 L have been developed to avoid the use of antibiotics in static systems. Alternatively, small-scale flow-through systems have been successfully applied for oysters but they proved to be unsuitable to rear scallop larvae. By focusing on physical factors presumed to limit P. maximus larval development, this study aimed to optimize great scallop larvae rearing parameters under controlled conditions. First, the influence of aeration on larval performances, energetic metabolism and antioxidant defences were studied both in static and flow-through systems. Aeration depressed larval food intake, regardless of the intensities of flow tested (100 ml/min, 155 ml/min and 270 ml/min). On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activities remained constant or decreased, suggesting that antioxidant defences were inactivated. The increase in citrate synthase activity suggested an increase in metabolic rate possibly due to a turbulent stressful environment. All larvae exposed to such turbulence died before reaching metamorphosis, whereas those reared without aeration survived well (≈ 95%). The effects of water renewal were thereafter studied in 50-L flow-through flat-bottomed tanks. No differences in survival (20.4 ± 0.5%), growth (3.8 ± 0.2 μm/d), competence (5.6 ± 0.2%), energetic metabolism level and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed when comparing 12.5 and 25 L/hr water renewal. Whereas air bubbling leads to detrimental effects, flow-through in small flat-bottomed tanks appears to be a suitable technique for scallop larvae rearing.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T11:31:12.746044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13361
       
  • Growth and economic analysis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii (de Man), produced with feeds substituting sunflower cake for
           fish meal, soya bean meal and mustard oil cake
    • Authors: Mohammad Mokarrom Hossain; Subhash Chandra Chakraborty
      Abstract: A feeding trial with Macrobrachium rosenbergii was carried out to test the effectiveness of sunflower cake (SFC) as a replacement for conventional protein sources. Four isonitrogenous (~30% crude protein) and isocaloric (388–402 kcal) diets were formulated. Diet-1 was a control made with conventional ingredients including fish meal, soya bean meal and mustard oil cake. Diet-2, Diet-3 and Diet-4 were made with 30%, 40% and 50% SFC, respectively, replacing the usual protein sources used in Diet-1. After 100 days, diets with SFC inclusion showed favourable growth and economic performance trends compared to control diet-1, but without significant differences (p > .05). Better production (572.89 ± 62.99 kg/ha) was observed with Diet-4 followed by Diet-2, Diet-3 and Diet-1. Diet-4 revealed the best feed conversion ratio (2.56 ± 0.24), specific growth rate (1.18 ± 0.05) and protein efficiency ratio (1.14 ± 0.10) among these diets. Whole carcass composition analysis revealed highest crude protein (18.19%) and lipid (4.43%) content in prawns fed Diet-3 followed by Diet-4. Highest total income, gross margin and benefit cost ratio (BCR) per hectare from prawns were US$5,759, US$2,623 and 1.84, respectively, found in Diet-4. This study demonstrates that 30%–50% inclusion of SFC has favourable impacts on productivity and profitability compared with controls, with 50% SFC inclusion as the most cost-effective diet for prawns without apparent compromise in growth, flesh quality or economics. The performances of the diets suggest that SFC may be a suitable substitute for fishmeal, soya bean meal and mustard oil cake in prawn feed. The effectiveness of higher SFC concentrations should also be investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T03:45:29.106177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13357
       
  • Is it possible to successfully rear meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso 1801)
           larvae without using rotifers?
    • Authors: Said Sedki; Jawad Kassila, Hassan Nhhala, Kamal Chebbaki, Houda Akharbach, Mohamed Id Halla, Hassan Er-Raioui
      Abstract: In hatcheries, meagre Argyrosomus regius larvae still depend on an adequate supply of rotifers and Artemia, as no artificial diet can totally fulfil their nutritional requirements. However, production of live feed is highly expensive and demands intensive labour and specific facilities. This study investigated the effect of a dietary regime without the use of rotifers, to simplify the meagre larval rearing protocol. Two feeding treatments (T1 & T2) are compared to investigate their effects on survival and growth of meagre larvae. In T1, larvae were fed rotifers from 2 to 5 days post hatch (dph), and Artemia from 4 to 15 dph. In T2, larvae were kept under dark conditions and fed Artemia from 6 to 15 dph. Standard larval length (SL) was significantly higher in T1 (p < .01) until 8 dph in comparison with larvae reared initially without rotifers. No significant difference in SL was found among treatments (p = .187) at 15 dph. Significant difference was found among treatments in survival rate at 15 dph (p < .003). The survival rate observed at 15 dph in T2 (30 ± 4.2%) represents an important finding, although the highest survival rate was observed in T1 (45.0 ± 3.4%). This study showed that it is possible to conduct larval rearing of meagre without using rotifers. Nevertheless, further research efforts are still needed to improve these results in comparison with the common larval rearing protocol.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T00:00:42.255107-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13345
       
  • Anaesthetic efficacy of eugenol on various size classes of angelfish
           (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823)
    • Authors: Reza Tarkhani; Ahmad Imani, Hadi Jamali, Hamed Ghafari Farsani
      Abstract: Anaesthetic efficacy of eugenol was investigated on Pterophyllum scalare. A total of 130 fish with average weights of 1.0 ± 0.5, 5.0 ± 1.0 and 10.0 ± 1.0 g were subjected to 1.25, 2.5, 4.0, 5.5 and 7.0 mg/L eugenol, and behavioural responses were observed. Induction and recovery times were significantly affected by the interactive effect of eugenol concentration and fish weight (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T00:00:31.575938-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13339
       
  • Optimal period for the effective promotion of initial swim bladder
           inflation in yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Temminck and Schlegel),
           larvae
    • Authors: Tomoki Honryo; Michio Kurata, Angel Guillen, Yoshiki Tamura, Amado Cano, Maria S Stein, Daniel Margulies, Vernon P Scholey, Yoshifumi Sawada
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:56:11.446106-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13355
       
  • Feed management for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under
           semi-intensive conditions in tanks and ponds
    • Authors: To Pham Thi Ha Van; Melanie A Rhodes, Yangen Zhou, D Allen Davis
      Abstract: To improve feed management strategies for the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei, outdoor tank and pond trials were conducted. In the tank trial, shrimp (35 shrimp/m2, n = 4) were offered feed for 6 weeks based on a standard feeding protocol (SFP, designed as T100) with five variations (T80:90:100, T90, T90:100, T100:110, T110) of this protocol produced by varying the feed inputs and expressing the treatments as a percentage. Results demonstrated no significant differences in survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among treatments. The mean final weight and final biomass in the treatments T100:110 and T110 were significantly higher than those in treatment T90 but were not different from the other treatments. In the pond trial, juvenile shrimp (28 shrimp/m2, n = 4) were stocked into twelve 0.1-ha ponds over a 16-week period. Three feeding protocols were evaluated including a SFP, a 10% reduction in the SFP (SFP:90), and a variable feed input (SFP:80:90:100), which included 80% SFP at week 4th–8th, 90% SFP from week 9th–12th and 100% SFP for week 12th–16th. There were no significant differences in growth performance and economic return among treatments. Based on previous studies, in which higher feed inputs were evaluated, and results of this study, it does not appear to be economically beneficial to use high feed inputs. Instead, feed input could be either applied at a standard ration to optimize growth and economic return or at restricted rations to reduce FCR (feed cost) albeit at the expense of some growth.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:50:32.673669-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13348
       
  • The effects of five dietary lipid sources on growth, body composition and
           antioxidant parameters of the clamworm, Perinereis aibuhitensis
    • Authors: Fu Lv; Qing Nie, Tian Wang, Aimin Wang, Wenping Yang, Fei Liu, Yebing Yu, Linlan Lv
      Abstract: The clamworm Perinereis aibuhitensis is a commercially important polychaete in China, but knowledge about the nutritional demands of this species is limited. In this study, the effects of five lipid sources in the diet, namely fish oil (FO), soyabean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), cottonseed oil (CO) and mixed vegetable oil (MO), on growth, whole-body composition and antioxidant parameters of juvenile P. aibuhitensis were evaluated. The results showed that clamworms fed the CO diet had higher specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than the other treatments. The accumulation of longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was observed in P. aibuhitensis, suggesting that P. aibuhitensis had the ability to elongate and desaturate PUFAs with 18C to form longer-chain PUFAs. The values of n-3/n-6 in clamworms fed vegetable oil diets (ranged from 0.20 to 0.31) were much closer to the recommended values for human food compared with FO diet (2.47). Analysis of the antioxidant parameters revealed that clamworms fed the CO diet suffered lower peroxidation burden than those fed FO diet. These results suggested that cottonseed oil is a suitable lipid source for P. aibuhitensis feeds.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:47:42.960868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13362
       
  • Dietary supplementation of red alga Pyropia spheroplasts on growth, feed
           utilization and body composition of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
           (Selenka)
    • Authors: A M Shahabuddin; Mohammad Nakib Dad Khan, Koji Mikami, Toshiyoshi Araki, Takao Yoshimatsu
      Abstract: A feeding experiment was conducted in a closed recirculating system to evaluate the effects of freeze-dried spheroplasts prepared from Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) on feed intake, growth and biochemical composition of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Pyropea spheroplasts (PS) were prepared through enzymatic treatment to break down the complex mixture of polysaccharides cell walls that might be easier for growth energy partitioning. Sea cucumbers were fed-formulated diets with 10 (Diet 1), 30 (Diet 2) and 50 g/kg (Diet 3) inclusion level of PS. A diet without PS was used as a control (Diet 4). The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks maintaining water temperature 15 ± 1°C, photoperiod 18:06 hours (D:L). Feed was supplied ad-libitum at 16.00 h once in a day, and the remaining feed and faeces were removed in the next day. Results showed that the highest growth was observed in the 50 g/kg PS diet compared to other treatments. Total weight gain, mean weight gain, net yield, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein gain (%) were significantly higher in the 50 g/kg PS diet (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:41:44.244628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13350
       
  • The effects of dietary inulin and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus
           tuberosus) tuber on the growth performance, haematological, blood chemical
           
    • Authors: Nattanan Tiengtam; Pramote Paengkoum, Suthida Sirivoharn, Khanakorn Phonsiri, Surintorn Boonanuntanasarn
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of dietary inulin or Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on the growth performance, haematological, blood chemical and immune parameters of Nile tilapia fingerlings. Five treatment diets were designed to incorporate inulin at 0 (basal diet), 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg and JA at 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg. Two basal diets including fish meal and formulated experimental feed were used for fry and fingerling growing periods, respectively. During the fry growing period, larvae were fed treatment diets for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in growth performance or survival rate. Fingerlings were then nursed with the formulated experimental diets from weeks 5 to 12. Fingerlings fed on inulin at 5.0 g/kg or JA at either level had better growth performance and survival rate than that fed on the basal diets. There were no significant differences in body composition. Dietary prebiotic inulin and JA increased red blood cell number (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:35:26.545033-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13341
       
  • The study of antioxidant enzymes and immune-related genes expression in
           common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings fed different prebiotics
    • Authors: Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Alireza Ahmadi, Mohsen Khalili, Mojtaba Raeisi, Hien Van Doan, Christopher Marlowe Caipang
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to study the effects of different prebiotics (galacto-, fructooligosaccharide and inulin) on immune response and oxidative stress of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings at the molecular level. A total number of 240 fish (13.85 ± 0.85 g) were supplied and randomly stocked in twelve fiberglass tanks (20 specimens per tank). Fish were fed a basal formulated diet (Control) or basal diet supplemented with equal level (2%) of different prebiotics (four treatments repeated in triplicated) for 8 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the expression of immune-related genes (interleukin 1 beta [IL-1β], IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme [LYZ], tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]) were determined in head kidney and intestine tissues and the expression of antioxidant-related genes (glutathione S-transferase [GST-α], glutathione reductase [GR] and glutathione peroxidase genes [GPX]) were studied in intestine. The results revealed that dietary administration of prebiotics modulated the expression of immune-related genes and the degree of expression was affected by the type of prebiotics and the organ that was used for analyses. Also, evaluation of antioxidant genes expression showed that GSTα and GR expression levels increased as a result of feeding common carp with the prebiotics. According to these findings, it can be concluded that feeding on different prebiotics had altered effects on the expression of immune and antioxidant-related genes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:31:11.750441-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13359
       
  • Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation decreases tissue lead
           accumulation and alleviates lead toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: Qixiao Zhai; Hancheng Wang, Fengwei Tian, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
      Abstract: Pollution by the heavy metal lead (Pb) has become a threat to both aquaculture and food safety. In this study, the protective effects of a selected probiotic with good Pb binding capacity (Lactobacillus plantarumCCFM8661) against waterborne Pb exposure were evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). One hundred and eighty fish were divided into four groups as control, Pb-only, Pb-plus-CCFM8661 and CCFM8661-only. Fish were exposed to a dose of waterborne Pb level at 1 mg L−1 for 4 weeks, and the probiotic was administered at 108 CFU g−1 in fish diet twice daily. The results showed that dietary supplementation of CCFM8661 ameliorated the growth performance and prevented the death of Pb-exposed fish. Cotreatment with Pb and CCFM8661 also effectively decreased Pb accumulation in kidney, liver, gonad, brain, gills and muscle. Moreover, the administration of this probiotic alleviated Pb-induced oxidative stress, recovered digestive enzyme activities and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, reversed alterations in innate immune status and decreased the frequencies of the nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish. These results suggested that CCFM8661 may be a novel dietary supplement against Pb toxicity at least in tilapia.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:26:03.973127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13326
       
  • Growth parameters of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and red seaweed
           Gracilaria corticata in integrated culturing method under zero water
           exchange system
    • Authors: Hojjatollah Fourooghifard; Abbas Matinfar, Mohammad Seddiq Mortazavi, Kiuomars Roohani Ghadikolaee, Maryam Mirbakhsh
      Abstract: Growth parameters of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and red seaweed Gracilaria corticata were measured using integrated culturing method under zero-water exchange system in a 45-day period. A 2 × 3 factorial design was used with two levels of shrimp stocking densities and three levels of seaweed weight densities. G. corticata was cultured on a net tied to a round polyethylene frame. Culture tanks were filled with 750-L filtered seawater. A 40-W compact fluorescent lamp was hung over each tank to provide adequate and sufficient light for seaweed growth. Growth parameters of shrimp and seaweed such as specific growth rate (SGR), weight gained (WG) and average daily growth (ADG) were computed based on the initial and final weight of shrimp and seaweed. The maximum and minimum SGR of L. vannamei (1.97 and 1.69%/day) were observed in treatment S1A3 (25 shrimp/m2 and 400 g seaweed/m2) and S2A1 (50 shrimp/m2 without seaweed) respectively. The best survival rate (94.67 ± 1.33%), WG (129.9 ± 2.9%) and feed conversion ratio (1.67 ± 0.04) were also observed in treatment S1A3. The SGR of G.corticata in the treatment S1A3 (1.97 ± 0.00%/day) was significantly higher, compared to others. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the density of G. corticata and the growth parameters of L. vannamei. The red seaweed G. corticata could boost the growth parameters, survival rate and total production of L. vannamei under zero-water exchange system.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:40:28.514167-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13335
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of Haematococcus pluvialis powder on
           gonadal development, coloration and antioxidant capacity of adult male
           Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)
    • Authors: Xugan Wu; Lei Zhao, Xiaowen Long, Jianguo Liu, Fang Su, Yongxu Cheng
      Abstract: The green algae Haematococcus pluvialis is an important source of natural astaxanthin as feed additive. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of H. pluvialis powder on gonadal development, coloration and antioxidant capacity of adult male Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, and four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% of H. pluvialis powder. There were four treatments (defined as D1~D4) in this study and each treatment had three replicates. Dietary H. pluvialis contents had no significant effects on survival, body weight gain rate and gonadal development of male E. sinensis. For colour parameters, the total carotenoids content in carapace and hepatopancreas as well as hepatopancreatic lightness (L*) and carapace redness (a*) increased significantly with increasing dietary H. pluvialis (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:30:31.001295-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13333
       
  • Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile hybrid sturgeon (Acipenser
           schrenckii♀ × Acipenser baerii♂)
    • Authors: Liansheng Wang; Junguang Wu, Chang'an Wang, Jinnan Li, Zhigang Zhao, Liang Luo, Xue Du, Qiyou Xu
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the dietary arginine requirement of juvenile hybrid sturgeon. Seven isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded levels of dietary arginine ranging from 1.74% to 3.54% (dry weight). The results indicated that the fish fed with 1.76% arginine diet had lower specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) than the fish fed the 2.64% to 3.24% arginine diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T07:11:33.47613-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13331
       
  • Nutrition of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L.: An additional evaluation of
           the effects of soya-based diets and supplemental prebiotic
    • Authors: Waldemar Rossi; Min Ju, Michael E. Hume, Joseph R. Tomasso, Delbert M. Gatlin
      Abstract: We assessed the effects of a fishmeal (FM)- and two soya-based diets [without or with prebiotic (GroBiotic® -A; GBA) supplementation] on the production performance, non-specific immunity, blood parameters and gut microbiota diversity of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. All diets were formulated to contain 450 g/kg crude protein (CP) and 120 g/kg lipid. A combination of soya bean meal and soya protein concentrate (SP) was used to replace 88% of the FM in the FM-based diet (REF) originating the first soya-based diet (SOY). The second soya-based diet (SOY + GBA) was designed identically to SOY except for the supplementation of GBA (20 g/kg) substituting for wheat flour. After feeding the experimental diets to triplicate groups of 25 (~3.4 g/fish) and 90 (~4.1 g/fish) red drum juveniles for 9 (Trial I) and 16 weeks (Trial II), our results showed that (i) red drum was highly sensitive to the soya-based diets in the first week of feeding; (ii) replacing 88% of FM with SP reduced the production performance of red drum without affecting intestinal micromorphology; (iii) whole-blood leucocyte oxidative radical production was unaffected while lower haematocrit and higher plasma lysozyme activity were found in fish fed REF; (iv) plasma osmolality was unaffected while lower glucose and higher lactate levels were observed in fish fed SOY and SOY + GBA; (v) 16S rRNA gene-based diversity of fish gut microbiota was affected both by SP and by GBA. This study expands the information on red drum responses to soya-based diets and prebiotic supplementation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T07:06:18.466203-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13334
       
  • Transport of juvenile dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus under different
           packing densities: Metabolic and haematological responses
    • Authors: Paola Milena Pereira-Cardona; Viviana Lisboa, Luis André Luz Barbas, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate a suitable packing density for the transport of juvenile dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, based on the evaluation of stress responses in blood. After acclimation, fish were placed in plastic bags and transported for 8 hr on paved road at densities of 28, 45 and 64 g/L. Water quality was monitored before and after transport. Blood was collected before, upon arrival (0 hr), after 2 and 24 hr of transport. Plasma cortisol, blood glucose, partial pressures of O2 (pO2) and CO2 (pCO2), blood pH and HCO3− were evaluated. Blood smears were prepared for the verification of leucocyte profile and neutrophils:lymphocyte ratio (N:L). Blood pCO2, pH and HCO3− increased significantly after transport for all treatments compared with pre-transport. Glucose levels increased at the higher density whereas no effects were observed on plasma cortisol and pO2 levels. Upon arrival, all treatments showed lymphopenia and neutrophilia which increased N:L ratio. Although lymphopenia was observed in higher densities until 2 hr after transport, haematological parameters were fully restored within 24 hr post transport. Furthermore, no mortalities were observed throughout the experimental period. Based on the transient physiological changes observed in this study, juvenile dusky grouper can be safely transported in plastic bags for 8 hr at a density of up to 64 g/L.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T07:02:07.234211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13349
       
  • Development of a spectrophotometric technique for sperm quantification in
           the spermcasting Australian flat oyster Ostrea angasi Sowerby
    • Authors: Md Mahbubul Hassan; Jian G Qin, Xiaoxu Li
      Abstract: Sperm quantification is vitally important when sperm concentration is required for standardization of different fertilization treatments in a hatchery. Although the haemocytometer method is generally used to determine sperm concentration, the procedure is tedious and the attributes are not suitable for handling a large number of sperm samples within a short period. In this study, the efficiency of sperm concentration determination was improved in the spermcasting oyster Ostrea angasi Sowerby by optimizing the regression model and parameters critical to spectrophotometric reading. Although sperm concentration can be estimated in a wide range of wavelengths, the 350-nm wavelength produced the best fit to the regression model (y = 1 × 10−8 x + 0.163; r2 = 0.996). In addition, the sperm counts estimated with this model were similar to the haemocytometer counts. The reading repeatability of this technique was further validated with samples from different individuals. Comparisons with literature suggest that when the spectrophotometric technique is applied to a new species for estimating sperm concentration, the regression relationship between sperm concentration and wavelength reading should be reassessed due to species-specific discrepancy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T06:40:31.204297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13304
       
  • Simplified processing method of banana (Musa acuminata) peels possess the
           improvement in immunological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii
    • Authors: Wutti Rattanavichai; Winton Cheng, Chin-Chyuan Chang
      Abstract: Musa acuminate peel extract as an immunostimulant, administrated in the diets of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and an assessment of a simplified process to develop low-cost feed additives are conducted in this study. The products obtained serially, during the processes of hot-water banana peel extraction, were administrated in the diets of M. rosenbergii, including dried banana peel powder (DBP) at 8 g/kg, hot-water-treated banana peel (HBP) at 8 g/kg and hot-water extract of banana peel (BPE) at 2 g/kg during the 32 days of the feeding trial. Total haemocyte count, different haemocyte count, respiratory bursts; and activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, phenoloxidase and transglutaminase, as well as an accelerated haemolymph clotting time, significantly increased in M. rosenbergii fed with diets containing HBP and BPE, 32 days post-feeding. Furthermore, the phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection increased significantly. The respective relative survival percentages of prawns fed with HBP, and BPE containing diets after 32 days of feeding trial were 29.2% and 41.7% against L. garvieae infection for 144 hours, and 50%, and 50% against hypothermal stress for 96 hours of exposure. We may therefore conclude that HBP, obtained from a simplified procedure, without centrifugation and lyophilization, may strategically promote tolerance to hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance to L. garvieae infection.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T06:36:56.254537-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13332
       
  • The role of polychaete Nereis diversicolor in bioremediation of wastewater
           and its growth performance and fatty acid composition in an integrated
           culture system with Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: Zabih O Pajand; Mehdi Soltani, Mahmoud Bahmani, Abolghasem Kamali
      Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of polychaete Nereis diversicolor in bioremediation of waste water and its growth performance and fatty acid composition in an integrated culture system with great sturgeon, Huso huso. Three treatments consisting of N. diversicolor fed with H. huso waste (FNW), N. diversicolor fed with fish feed waste (NW), and fish waste without the worm (FW) were considered at water temperature of 23°C for 8 weeks. The obtained results demonstrated that N. diversicolor in the flow-through system could grow via feeding with the fish waste water. The pure production and survival rate of harvested Nereis in NW treatment were significantly higher than those of FNW treatment (p  .05). The highest removal efficiency of waste water including total nitrogen (56%), total phosphorus (53%), NO2-N (91%), NH3-N (35%), PO4-P (47%), BOD5 (60%) were seen in FNW treatment. Also, the highest additional efficiency of NO3-N occurred in FW (37%) treatment. Certain fatty acids specifically 20:5 ω3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) and 22:6 ω6 (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were also abundant in Nereis, and analysis revealed some differences due to the diet. These results demonstrated that the promotion of growth by cultured Nereis can enhance the decomposition rate of organic matter in enriched sediment and minimize negative effects in fish farms. These results also suggest that the use of N. diversicolor is an excellent potential candidate for an integrated aquaculture and nutrient recycling including the removal of organic wastes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T01:20:28.30408-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13340
       
  • Larval development, growth and impact of first feed on the aquaculture of
           French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum, Desmarest, 1823)
    • Authors: Marion R Hauville; Eric J Cassiano, Kevin P Barden, Matthew L Wittenrich, Craig A Watson
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T01:15:50.828016-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13336
       
  • Comparative survival and growth performance of European lobster larvae,
           Homarus gammarus, reared on dry feed and conspecifics
    • Authors: Adam Powell; James Hinchcliffe, Kristina Sundell, Nils-Gunnar Carlsson, Susanne P. Eriksson
      Abstract: A bottleneck of crustacean larval culture concerns nutrition and associated cannibalism in communal rearing systems, which impact on larval survival, development and growth. For early-stage European lobster, Homarus gammarus larvae, feeding ecology and body composition are largely unknown. We initiated four progressive feeding experiments (novel feed types, feeding regime and feed size and cannibalism effects) on growth and survival, to inform and update husbandry protocols. Performance of larvae offered a dry commercial feed was not significantly different compared with a conventional wet plankton feed of the same ration and size grade (both within 600–1,000 μm). Further experiments found that the same ration of dry feed offered six times daily improved development and growth, over the conventional regime of three times daily. Small-grade dry feed (particles: 250–360 μm) improved larval performance compared with a larger feed (360–650 μm). Larvae were also fed different proportions of dry feed and/or conspecifics in both communal and individual rearing systems (the latter preventing cannibalism via segregation). Individually reared larvae, fed only dead conspecifics, displayed the greatest survival (80%) to postlarvae. This underlines the impact of cannibalism on survival and nutrition in H. gammarus larviculture. A final experiment analysed H. gammarus zoea 1 composition, identifying deficiencies in ash and carbohydrate in lobster feeds. This suggests a need for a species-specific, formulated dry feed for H. gammarus larviculture. Our research represents the first investigation of H. gammarus larval composition and dietary requirements and highlights decreased growth potential associated with providing nutrition solely from generic commercial feed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:12:26.109009-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13343
       
  • Fish meal replacement by Cirina butyrospermi caterpillar's meal in
           practical diets for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings
    • Authors: Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo; Benié Rose Danielle Aboua, Inoussa Compaoré, Rokyatou Sissao, Chantal Yvette Zoungrana-Kaboré, Essetchi Paul Kouamelan, Aboubacar Toguyéni
      Abstract: Fifty-six days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cirina butyrospermi caterpillar meal (CBM) as protein source in replacement of fish meal (FM) for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Six hundred African catfish (initial mean weight = 2.42 ± 0.01 g) were fed with four approximate isonitrogenous (48.97% crude protein), isolipidic (15.85% crude lipid) and isocaloric (21.10 kJg−1) formulated diets, in which CBM progressively replaced FM at 0 (D1), 50 (D2), 75 (D3), 100% (D4) levels. At the end of the trial period, the best growth performance and nutritional utilization were observed in the group of fish fed with D2 and was not significantly different from those fed with D1 (the control diet). The survival rates, which ranged from 85.33% to 90.33%, were not significantly different among fish from the four diet treatments. The proximate whole-body composition of C. gariepinus fingerlings fed the different diets showed similar moisture and protein contents. However, in contrary to ash which decreased, whole-body lipid increased significantly when fish fed with diet containing CBM inclusion superior or equal to 75% (D3 and D4). The higher gross profit was obtained with D2 (16.73$), while the lowest was observed with D4 (10.16$). This study demonstrates that 50% of fish meal can successfully be replaced with CBM in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without a negative impact on growth or feed utilization. This will yield a cheaper feeding for profitable production of African catfish fingerlings.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:12:13.644769-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13337
       
  • Concurrent rice-shrimp-crab farming systems in the Mekong Delta: Are
           conditions (sub) optimal for crop production and survival?
    • Authors: Catherine Leigh; Le Huu Hiep, Ben Stewart-Koster, Duong Minh Vien, Jason Condon, Nguyen Van Sang, Jesmond Sammut, Michele Astrid Burford
      Abstract: The Mekong Delta is the most important rice- and shrimp-producing region for food and economic security in Vietnam. Rice-shrimp farming is practised where salinity fluctuates substantially between wet and dry seasons. Research points to several potential risk factors for rotational systems, but how these link directly to both rice and shrimp production remains poorly quantified for systems that stock and harvest animals year-round. We examined water and soil quality of 18 rice-shrimp-crab ponds, in which shrimp and crab are grown in both wet and dry seasons, in the Cà Mau Province of Vietnam. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that environmental conditions experienced by both rice and shrimp were suboptimal and contributed to low yields and survival. Year-round cropping of shrimp and crab was associated with sustained suboptimal salinity, intensified by drought, for the wet-season cultivation of rice. Although rice seedlings were sown in all 18 ponds, only three had a harvestable crop. Low shrimp production and survival was associated with sustained suboptimal water temperatures (too high), salinity (too high in the dry season and too low in the wet season) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (too low). Food availability and quality may also have affected shrimp production. Improving productivity of rice-shrimp-crab ponds in the study region may require (1) separation of rice and shrimp crops and improving efficiency of soil washing practices such that salinity conditions are more suitable for each when grown, and (2) management intervention to increase oxygenation of water, and the availability and quality of food for shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T00:50:37.332842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13338
       
  • Effect of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratios on growth, digestive enzyme
           and blood metabolites of juvenile Brazilian sardines, Sardinella
           brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879)
    • Authors: Fabio Carneiro Sterzelecki; Juliet Kiyoko Sugai, Manecas Baloi, Gabriel Passini, Cristina Vaz Avelar Carvalho, Débora Machado Fracalossi, Vinícius Ronzani Cerqueira
      Abstract: The limited availability of live bait for capturing skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a bottleneck to increasing tuna production in many parts of the world. Therefore, a nutrition trial was performed to contribute to the production of the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis, for use as live bait. This study determined the best dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO:L) for juvenile Brazilian sardines based on growth performance, feed utilisation, body composition, blood metabolites and digestive enzyme activity. Six isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with increased CHO:L ratios (2.05, 3.41, 4.15, 5.11, 5.80 and 6.72). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 100 fish with mean initial body weight of 2.97 ± 0.51 g, which were fed four times a day to apparent satiation. Survival was not affected by differences in diet, however, a low CHO:L ratio stimulated growth. Juveniles fed with a rich-carbohydrate diet inhibit feed intake and protein intake. Body lipid increased as dietary lipid increased and was inversely correlated to body moisture. The diets did not affect the juvenile's blood metabolites. Alkaline and acid protease activities were not significantly different, but lipase and amylase responded positively to the dietary lipids and carbohydrates. Using segmented regression, the optimum CHO:L ratio for maximum weight gain of juvenile Brazilian sardines was estimated to be 3.41, which contain approximately 300 g kg−1 carbohydrate and 88 g kg−1 lipid.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T05:26:44.225809-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13330
       
  • Early weaning in meagre Argyrosomus regius: Effects on growth, survival,
           digestion and skeletal deformities
    • Authors: Cindy Campoverde; Covadonga Rodriguez, José Perez, Enric Gisbert, Alicia Estévez
      Abstract: Meagre Argyrosomus regius is considered a new species for the diversification of finfish aquaculture in the Mediterranean. Several bottlenecks have been identified by producers, and among them, the necessity to establish early weaning protocols to reduce production costs. In this study, two experiments were carried out with meagre larvae from 2 to 35 days post hatch (dph) using different weaning strategies, including the early introduction of artificial diets and the reduction of Artemia metanauplii to half of the normal amounts. A high frequency of cannibalism and high variability in growth rate and survival were obtained in one of the trials and several changes were introduced (reduction of light intensity, higher frequency of food distribution) in the second trial to increase the survival rate. In both trials, weaning started before the complete morphological and functional development of the stomach; thus, pancreatic enzymes, mainly trypsin and lipase tended to be more active in early weaned larvae compared to the control groups. Early weaning delayed the development of the stomach formation and secretion of acid proteases, which may explain the lower growth rates observed in our study. The effect of weaning on skeletal development was also studied and in this sense the results obtained showed no major influence of the early weaning on the incidence of skeletal deformities. Weaning of meagre larvae can be performed as early as 12 dph, but important aspects such as avoiding cannibalism and co-feeding live prey and artificial diets for at least 5 days were recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T06:06:05.729143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13342
       
  • Characterization of β-catenin 1 during the gonad development in the
           common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
    • Authors: Lan-mei Wang; Fei-biao Song, Juan-juan Dong, Wen-bin Zhu, Jian-jun Fu, Zai-jie Dong
      Abstract: β-catenin gene is a pivotal gene for gonad development and maintenance of ovarian function in mammals. However, little is known about its expression and function in gonad development of fish. In this study, a complete cDNA (3342 bp) sequence of β-catenin 1 was cloned from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, by RACE PCR, which encodes a 780-amino-acid protein. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that β-catenin 1 mRNA expressions were high in the testis and ovary tissue and the expression increased as the testes developed and the early stage ovaries developed. Western blot results revealed a single immunoreactive band with an estimated molecular weight of 90 kDa in testes. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the β-catenin 1 protein was concentrated mainly in the cytoplasm of early development stage of oocyte cells and in the cytomembrane of developing and mature sperm cells. 17β-Ethinylestradiol injecting intraperitoneally into the fish decreased the relative β-catenin 1 mRNA expression level except 1 μg/g 72 hr and 5 μg/g 48 hr of treatments in the ovary by real-time PCR. These results suggest, for the first time, that β-catenin 1 is an essential protein in gonad development and might be involved in ovarian early development of C. carpio.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T05:39:28.148143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13354
       
  • Effects of dietary essential amino acid deficiencies on the growth
           performance and humoral immune response in silvery-black porgy
           (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles
    • Authors: Morteza Yaghoubi; Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh, Jasem G. Marammazi, Omid Safari, Enric Gisbert
      Abstract: A 6-week feeding trial was conducted for determining the effects of dietary essential amino acids (EAA) deficiencies on growth performance and non-specific immune responses in silvery-black porgy juveniles (4.7 ± 0.1 g initial weight). Eleven isoproteic (ca. 47%) diets were formulated including a control diet containing the optimum quantity of EAA, and ten EAA-deficient diets. All diets contained 36% fish meal and 18.5% crystalline EAA and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) as the main source of dietary proteins. All the EAA and NEAA incorporated in the crystalline amino acids mixture of the control diet simulated the amino acids profile of the fish meal. The other 10 EAA-deficient diets were formulated by the deletion of each of the 10 EAA (crystalline form) from the control diet and replaced by a mixture of NEAA for the adjustment of dietary nitrogen contents. At the end of the experiment, fish fed with threonine-deficient diet showed the lowest survival rate (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T05:39:14.065797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13344
       
  • Effect of feeding various levels of poultry by-product meal on the blood
           parameters, filet composition and structure of female tenches (Tinca
           tinca)
    • Authors: Remigiusz Panicz; Joanna Żochowska-Kujawska, Jacek Sadowski, Małgorzata Sobczak
      Abstract: Homogeneous background (age, sex, genetic lineage, culture conditions) was created to clearly demonstrate the impact of the tested dietary treatments. No feeds optimized for the rearing of the tench (Tinca tinca L. 1758) are available. Feeds are formulated to increase the growth rate or eliminate skeletal deformations. With the increasing prices of the basic components, fish meal (FM) and fish oil, poultry by-product meal (PBM) can be used. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of substitution of FM with PBM on the tench blood parameters, body composition and structure of skeletal muscles. Cage-reared female tenches (325 ± 18 g) were fed for 86 days with five types of feeds with 0% (control), 25.7%, 48.6%, 71.4% and 100% substitution of FM with PBM. No significant differences between the formulations were reported for weight, total length, fillet weight, visceral, liver, gonado-somatic, proximate composition and biochemical blood parameters. However, significant differences were found in the fillet profiles of fatty acids—an increase in the PBM content correlated with an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in n-3 PUFA and, generally, n-6 PUFA. Significant differences were also observed in, for example, the content of intramuscular fatty tissue and the level of organ lipidosis between the control variant (0% PBM) and that with 100% substitution. A sensory assessment indicated a higher gustatory value of the fillets in the case of feeds with 48.6% and 71.4% substitution.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T05:20:57.84803-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13351
       
  • The effects of temperature on respiration of Amur sturgeon, Acipenser
           schrenckii, at two acclimation temperatures
    • Authors: Zhigang Zhao; Liang Luo, Chang'an Wang, Jinnan Li, Liansheng Wang, Xue Du, Qiyou Xu
      Abstract: In order to clarify the respiratory responses strategy of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii exposed to water temperature changes, respiratory parameters of the fish were studied under two temperature regimes: fish acclimated at 13°C for Group I, temperature was increased to 16°C, 19°C, 22°C and 25°C and then returned stepwise to 22°C, 19°C, 16°C and 13°C; and fish acclimated at 25°C for Group II, the water temperature was reduced in steps to 22°C, 19°C, 16°C and 13°C, subsequently, returned to 16°C, 19°C, 22°C and 25°C. The results showed that the respiratory frequency (fR), oxygen consumption rate (VO2) and gill ventilation (VG) of the fish were directly dependent on the acute temperature in both acclimation groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T05:11:56.356521-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13347
       
  • Effects of replacing microalgae with an artificial diet on pearl
           production traits and mineralization-related gene expression in pearl
           oyster Pinctada fucata martensii
    • Authors: Chuang-ye Yang; Qing-heng Wang, Rui-juan Hao, Yong-shan Liao, Xiao-dong Du, Yue-wen Deng
      Abstract: The effects of replacing dietary microalgae with artificial diet on pearl production traits and biomineralization-related gene expression were investigated in pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata martensii). Three experiment groups (EG1, EG2 and EG3) were set. EG1 and EG3 were separately fed Platymonas subcordiformis and artificial diet (D4), respectively, and EG2 was fed with mixed P. subcordiformis and D4. A control group (CG) was cultured in natural sea. All groups were continuously fed for 150 days. The results showed that the survival rates of EG1, EG2 and EG3 were significantly higher than that of CG. No significant differences in retention rate and pearl thickness were observed among the four groups, but CG had the lowest values of both parameters. The relative expression levels of EGFR and FGF18 mRNA did not significantly differ among EG1, EG2 and EG3. Moreover, the relative expression levels of GHITM and TβR I mRNA significantly varied among the groups and EG3, and EG1 had the highest and lowest relative expression levels of GHITM and TβR I mRNA respectively. The relative expression levels of nacrein and chitin-binding mRNA significantly differed among the groups, and EG1 had the lowest expression levels of nacrein and chitin-binding mRNA. No significant differences in the relative expression levels of MSI60 and TIMP mRNA were observed among the groups. The results suggested that D4 can replace part of microalgae, which is helpful for further studies on developing artificial diet of pearl oyster.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T05:06:03.125239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13346
       
  • Freshwater nucleated pearl quality is influenced by host mussel growth
           traits in Hyriopsis cumingii
    • Authors: Qingqing Li; Zhiyi Bai, Xuekai Han, Jiale Li
      Abstract: Hyriopsis cumingii is one of the most important freshwater pearl mussels in China. Recently, this species can produce freshwater nucleated pearls of high quality. Here, we investigated whether nucleated pearl quality is influenced by the growth traits of the host mussel or other factors like cultivation period. We implanted host mussels with a spherical nucleus consisting of a small piece of mantle tissue from donor mussels. After 24 and 36 months of culture, host mussel growth traits including body weight and shell length, height, width and weight were recorded. These factors were then correlated with the quality traits of the pearls they produced, such as nacre thickness, size, weight, lustre and colour. Results indicated pearls obtained at 36 months after seeding were significantly larger in terms of nacre thickness, size and weight compared to those harvested at 24 months. In particular, nacre thickness (r = 0.33–0.48, P = 0.00), pearl size (r = 0.39–0.43, P = 0.00) and pearl weight (r = 0.35–0.47, P = 0.00) were showed to be significantly correlated with host mussels shell length, body weight and shell weight at 24 or 36 months. Larger and heavier host mussels tended to produce bigger pearls. In contrast, host mussels did not affect pearl colour. Cumulatively, our results suggest that longer culturing times and a larger host mussel may help produce better quality nucleated pearl. This information can help guide selective breeding programs designed to improve pearl quality produced by H. cumingii.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T05:04:18.622532-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13288
       
  • The effects of dietary vitamin C on growth performance, serum enzymes
           activities and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus challenge of yellow drum
           Nibea albiflora
    • Authors: Ligai Wang; Dongxing Chen, Bao Lou, Wei Zhan, Ruiyi Chen, Feng Liu, Guomin Mao
      Abstract: A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal dietary vitamin C requirement and its effects on serum enzymes activities and bacterial resistance in the juvenile yellow drum Nibea albiflora (initial weight 33.2 ± 0.10 g). Six practical diets were formulated containing vitamin C 2.1, 45.3, 89.6, 132.4, 178.6 and 547.1 mg kg−1 diet supplied as l-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate. The fish fed 547.1 mg kg−1 diet showed a significantly higher survival than that fed 2.1 mg kg−1 diet. The weight gains and specific growth rate of the fish fed 2.1 mg kg−1 diet were significantly lower than those of the fish fed 89.6–547.1 mg kg−1 diets. The liver vitamin C concentration firstly increased with increasing dietary vitamin C supply from 2.1 to 178.6 mg kg−1 diet and then stabilized. The serum superoxide dismutase activities of the fish fed 547.1 mg kg−1 diet were significantly lower than those of the fish fed 2.1–89.6 mg kg−1 diet. The fish fed 2.1 mg kg−1 diet had a significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity than those in the other groups except the 45.3 mg kg−1 group. Fish that received diets containing vitamin C at 547.1 mg kg−1 had significantly higher nitro blue tetrazolium and lysozyme activity, and fish that received diets containing vitamin C at 45.3–547.1 mg kg−1 exhibited resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The dietary vitamin C requirement of the juvenile yellow drum was established based on broken-line model of weight gain to be 142.2 mg l-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate kg−1 diet.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:51:48.418359-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13290
       
  • Effects of microalgae-added diets on growth performance and meat
           composition of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)
    • Authors: Zhi Yong Ju; Spencer Davis, Kathleen Ramm, Mireille Steck, Fabio Soller, Bradley K. Fox
      Abstract: Two floating diets and one sinking diet were prepared for tilapia with local ingredients by extrusion or steam-pelleting methods. Indoor and outdoor feeding trials were conducted to evaluate their effects on growth performance and quality of tilapia products. Local ingredients included defatted Haematococcus and Spirulina by-products from Hawaii. The three diets, plus a commercial feed, were each assigned to three replicate tanks, and each tank (120 L) was stocked with 12 juvenile tilapia in an 8-week indoor trial. The results showed that (1) the floating diet had significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:40:26.611484-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13322
       
  • Antioxidative effects of mulberry foliage extract in African catfish diet
    • Authors: Atefeh Sheikhlar; Yong Meng Goh, Razak Alimon, Mahdi Ebrahimi
      Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidative potential and quality of the meat of African catfish fed mulberry foliage extract (MFE). A total of 360 juvenile African catfish (8.4 ± 0.2 g) were fed four diets namely, basal diet (control), MFE-2 (2 g MFE kg−1), MFE-5 (5 g MFE kg−1) and MFE-7 (7 g MFE kg−1) for 60 days. At the end of the experiment, muscles were excised, vacuum-packaged and conditioned for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller (4°C). The meat from fish fed MFE-5 and MFE-7 had significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:30:24.275084-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13266
       
  • The effect of four microbial products on production performance and water
           quality in integrated culture of freshwater pearl mussel and fishes
    • Authors: Xiafei Zheng; Jinyu Tang, Gang Ren, Yan Wang
      Abstract: An 80-day mesocosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of four commercial microbial products on production performance and water quality in integrated culture of freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp. Five treatments were tested. One treatment with non-supplementation of microbial products served as control (C). In the other four treatments, Novozymes Pond Protect (NO), Bio-Form BZT-Water Reform (WR), Bacillus natto (BN) and Effective Microbes (EM) were added at the intervals of two weeks, respectively. Mussel yield declined in the tanks with supplementation of the microbial products. No significant differences were found in fish yield and chemical water quality among the treatments except total nitrogen (TN) was higher in tanks EM than in tanks C. Biomass of phytoplankton and Cyanophyta was higher in tanks NO, WR, BN and EM than in tanks C. Supplementation of the microbial products resulted in change in bacterial community in which Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria dominated. Bacterial community in the tanks was significantly affected by TN, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand and Cyanophyta biomass. This study reveals that the function of these microbial products as probiotics is limited in H. cumingii farming.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:26:39.248143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13309
       
  • Semisynthetic ferulic acid derivative: an efficient feed additive for
           Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: Lijuan Yu; Fan Wu, Wei Liu, Juan Tian, Xing Lu, Hua Wen
      Abstract: Ferulic acid (FA) derivative was synthesized by modifying the functional groups of FA as dietary additive in the feeding of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) juveniles. Structural confirmation of this compound was based on IR, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary FA derivative supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status and serum biochemical parameters of GIFT juveniles compared with that of FA. A total of 675 fish with an average initial weight of 10.73 ± 0.40 g were fed nine diets supplemented with 0, 0.26, 0.52, 1.04 and 2.08 mmol kg−1 FA, or 0.26, 0.52, 1.04 and 2.08 mmol kg−1 FA derivative. Each diet was assigned to three replicate groups of 25 experimental tilapia for 56 days. Weight gain (WG) in groups of fish fed FA derivative was much higher than that of fish fed FA diet (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:27:33.206846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13319
       
  • Influence of vibration caused by sound on migration of sea cucumber
           Apostichopus japonicus
    • Authors: Chenggang Lin; Libin Zhang, Yang Pan, Hongsheng Yang
      Abstract: Vibrations exist widely in the ocean, and the one caused by sound and biological movement plays an important role in the sensory system of marine organisms. The vibration caused by sound has many characteristics that make it a good candidate for modifying the movements of marine organisms. However, few studies have tested whether hydraulic vibration caused by sound has effects on the migration of sea cucumbers, and this has never been systematically studied previously in Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). In order to understand whether hydraulic vibration caused by sound at different frequencies could affect the migration of sea cucumbers, in the present study, hydraulic vibration caused by sound at various frequencies was tested in the laboratory to determine their effects on the migration of A. japonicus at different sizes. The mean probability distribution was used as a statistical index to demonstrate the moving tendencies of the species. The experimental results showed that medium and small A. japonicus (
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:17:54.61441-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13324
       
  • The concentrating method of benthic diatom affects the growth of juvenile
           sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and water quality
    • Authors: Ce Shi; Shuanglin Dong, Junwei Li, Fang Wang, Qinfeng Gao, Xiangli Tian
      Abstract: Concentrating methods generally affect the vitality of the microalgae and may alter its feeding and environmental effect. This article studied the concentrating methods (centrifugation and settlement) on primary productivity of the microalgae Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The effects of free settled C. fusiformis, centrifuged C. fusiformis and macroalgae Sargassum polycystum on growth of the sea cucumber, farming water and sediment quality under two light intensities (1500 lx and 500 lx) were studied by a six-week rearing experiment. The results showed that the primary productivity of free settled C. fusiformis was 3–4 times higher than that of those centrifuged, indicating centrifugation inhibited the photosynthesis process. In the rearing experiment, feed, light intensities and their interactions significantly affected the specific growth rate (SGR) of the animals (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:17:51.410395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13275
       
  • Rotifer community structure in fish-farming systems associated with a
           Neotropical semiarid reservoir in north-eastern Brazil
    • Authors: Gilmar de Aguiar Arruda; Leidiane Pereira Diniz, Viviane Lúcia dos Santos Almeida, Sigrid Neumann-Leitão, Mauro Melo Júnior
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the community structure of planktonic rotifers and their relation to the environmental impact of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linaeus, 1758), aquaculture activities (ponds and net-tanks), associated with a Neotropical semiarid reservoir in Brazil. Our hypothesis was that the ecological attributes of the rotifer community were different when considering the influence of fish aquaculture activities. We identified 28 species, with 10 species from the Brachionidae family. The average density and diversity index of rotifers were higher in reservoir stations, with mean values in the ponds approximately 50% lower than those of the reservoir. The microphagous species dominated during all the time, while the raptorial species were accidental in all studied environments. The ponds were represented by four significant indicator species: Brachionus caudatus, B. leydigi, Dicranophoroides caudatus and Testudinella patina and the reservoir by three: B. falcatus, B. havanaensis and Conochilus dossuarius. In general, nine species were significantly associated with some categories of environmental conditions, such as high or low turbidity and low values of conductivity and TDS. Four of the five best bioindicator species belonged to the microphagous genus Brachionus. B. havanaensis indicated five environmental conditions (IndVal > 93.1%), and it appeared to be a key species in this Neotropical semiarid reservoir influenced by aquaculture activities. The dominance of microphagous rotifers suggests a functional redundancy of species in the studied environments. We found that these systems and their management affected the planktonic rotifer community in this region of Brazil by increasing the species richness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:17:47.207548-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13310
       
  • Semen characteristics of Colossoma macropomum from three successive sample
           collections in the same reproductive cycle
    • Authors: Luana Barbosa Pires; Eduardo Antonio Sanches, Elizabeth Romagosa, Ruy Alberto Caetano Corrêa Filho, Danilo Pedro Streit Junior, Rosiane Araujo Rodrigues Nass, Jayme Aparecido Povh
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the semen characteristics of C. macropomum fish from three successive semen sample collections taken during the same reproductive cycle. Six breeders (6.4 ± 1.5 kg) induced with crude carp pituitary extract (2.5 mg kg−1) were used. Samples of semen were collected in graduated syringes after a period of 260 degree-hours. The semen was collected from the same males in September 2014 (sample 1), December 2014 (64 days after the first collection – sample 2) and February 2015 (86 days after the second collection – sample 3). The semen volume was higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:11:53.614844-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13329
       
  • The importance of live-feed traps – farming marine fish species
    • Authors: Rasmus Nielsen; Max Nielsen, Tenaw Gedefaw Abate, Benni Winding Hansen, Per Meyer Jepsen, Søren Laurentius Nielsen, Josianne Gatt Støttrup, Kurt Buchmann
      Pages: 2623 - 2641
      Abstract: This article analyses the challenges of different live-feed regimes for the rearing of marine finfish larvae and discusses the potential alternative live feeds to avert a future live-feed trap. Live feeds are indispensable for the successful rearing of larvae of most marine fish species. Brine shrimps (Artemia) and rotifers comprise the live feeds of choice in marine aquaculture today. However, their nutritional composition is deficient in especially essential fatty acids, and enrichment with fish oil is needed. Fish oil is considered a limited resource owing to its origin in fully exploited wild fish stocks. Moreover, fluctuations of the natural population of Artemia will, most likely, influence future availability and prices. This emphasizes the need for optimal exploitation of available live-feed resources and development of new sustainable alternatives, such as copepods. An array of solutions to these problems are presented to avoid a future live-feed trap and to reduce dependence on limited resources that influence future production possibilities, species diversification, price volatility and productivity in the aquaculture sector.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T01:30:33.237332-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13281
       
  • Corrigendum
    • Pages: 3284 - 3284
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T01:06:47.614313-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13363
       
  • Growth response, body composition, plasma metabolites, digestive and
           antioxidant enzymes activities of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii,
           
    • Authors: Sedigheh Babaei; Abdolmohammad Abedian-Kenari, Mehdi Hedayati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani-Sadati
      Pages: 2642 - 2654
      Abstract: Knowing the effect of dietary nutrients on physiological parameters, especially oxidative stress, during fish rearing can be useful to improve fish health and optimize production in aquaculture. In this study, four iso-energetic (2 × 2 factorial design) diets differing in nutrient composition were submitted to the Siberian sturgeon juveniles, to analyse biochemical and physiological responses. The juveniles were fed for as long as 10 weeks with the following diets: low protein–high carbohydrate (CHO): lipid ratio (LP-St), high protein–high CHO: Lipid ratio (HP-St), low protein-low CHO: Lipid ratio (LP-L) and high protein-low CHO: Lipid ratio (HP-L). It was shown that HP-L diet significantly induced higher growth performance in the juveniles than LP-L; however, there was not a significant difference between them with other treatments. HSI was increased by higher dietary CHO: L ratio. The result obviously showed the higher dietary fat led to an increase in sturgeon body fat content. In addition, dietary protein and CHO: lipid ratio significantly affected plasma metabolites (glucose, cortisol, cholesterol and triglyceride) but did not affect IGF-1 and insulin levels. Based on enzyme activities results, incorporation of high protein (44%) in the diet induced lower amylase activity and carbohydrate digestion in the sturgeon juveniles. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities in this species were more influenced by lipid than other nutrients. In conclusion, using appropriate carbohydrates (~30%) in the sturgeon diet helps to spare protein. Furthermore, it is suggested to decrease the amount of lipid in high protein diet, to improve higher sturgeon fillet quality and less oxidative damage in liver.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T06:40:54.406558-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13096
       
  • Efficacy of koi herpesvirus DNA vaccine administration by immersion method
           on Cyprinus carpio field scale culture
    • Authors: Asep Akmal Aonullah; Sri Nuryati, Alimuddin, Sri Murtini
      Pages: 2655 - 2662
      Abstract: Koi herpesvirus specifically infects and causes mass mortality on koi and carp, resulting in severe economic losses. In this study, we presented the efficacy of KHV DNA vaccine administration by immersion method on Cyprinus carpio. Two different immersion densities of fish were applied, namely 800 fish L−1 and 1200 fish L−1. Thirty-day-old common carp juveniles were immersed for 30 min in the water containing 1.3 × 108 CFU mL−1 of heat-killed Escherichia coli carrying DNA vaccine encoding glycoprotein-25, and without vaccination treatment as controls. The challenge test was performed at 30 days post vaccination by injecting 0.1 mL KHV filtrate (10−3 of dilution rate). The result showed that higher relative per cent survival of KHV-challenged fish was obtained in 800 fish L−1 (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T00:40:23.988159-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13097
       
  • Relationship of RNA/DNA ratio to somatic growth of Nile tilapia juveniles
           (Oreochromis niloticus) under joint effects of temperature and salinity
    • Authors: Hui Wang; Guoliang Chang, Jun Qiang, Pao Xu
      Pages: 2663 - 2671
      Abstract: Tilapia juveniles are a very important life stage, and reliably assessing their growth performance is of prime importance in aquaculture production. The suitability of the RNA/DNA as a bioindicator for growth evaluation in tilapia has not yet been reported. In this study, we examined suitability of RNA/DNA ratio for assessing growth of tilapia juveniles and variation in the ratio under the concurrent influences of temperature and salinity using the central composite design and response surface methodology. Results showed that under our experimental conditions, the synergistic effects of temperature and salinity on the RNA/DNA ratio were highly significant (P 
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T23:30:27.812671-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13098
       
  • Use of probiotics to enhance growth, stimulate immunity and confer disease
           resistance to Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
           
    • Authors: Youngjin Park; Seunghan Lee, Jeongwhui Hong, Doyoung Kim, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Sungchul C Bai
      Pages: 2672 - 2682
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotics on growth, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish averaging 5.8 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the five experimental diets; one control (Cont), and four other diets were prepared by supplementing single probiotics 1 (Bacillus subtilis; SP1, 0.5%), single probiotics 2 (Bacillus licheniformis; SP2, 0.5%), multi-probiotics (B. subtilis + B. licheniformis; MP, 0.5%) and oxytetracycline (OTC) at 5 g OTC kg−1 diet. After 8 weeks of the feeding trial, weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed SP1, SP2 and OTC diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed Cont diet (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T04:30:58.381276-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13099
       
  • Effects of CO2 levels and light intensities on growth and amino acid
           contents in red seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis
    • Authors: Binbin Chen; Dinghui Zou, Mingjun Zhu, Yufeng Yang
      Pages: 2683 - 2690
      Abstract: The seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis is largely maricultivated in China, for use as food and as a material in the agar industry. This alga experiences ocean acidification caused by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, and experiences changing light levels caused by self-shading during the later period of mariculture. In this study, growth and amino acid (AA) content responses of G. lemaneiformis to different CO2 levels (the present and the predicted increased levels) and varying light levels at 28 (±1)°C temperature conditions were investigated. The results showed that a higher light level enhanced algal growth and decreased water loss, but reduced AA accumulation. Decreased pH levels (as a result of CO2 elevation) also enhanced algal growth and reduced AA contents, but the decreases in the AA score at the lower pH levels were not significant under the two light level treatments. In this study, the light treatments had greater influences on growth and AA contents than CO2 levels. The results suggest that G. lemaneiformis quality will be negatively affected during the later mariculture production period as levels of CO2 rise and global temperatures increase.
      PubDate: 2016-05-23T01:30:28.047263-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13100
       
  • Effect of combined use of Bacillus and molasses on microbial communities
           in shrimp cultural enclosure systems
    • Authors: Xiaojuan Hu; Yucheng Cao, Guoliang Wen, Xiaoyang Zhang, Yu Xu, Wujie Xu, Yunna Xu, Zhuojia Li
      Pages: 2691 - 2705
      Abstract: To assess the effect of addition of probiotics and carbon source on the microbial community structure within the shrimp culture, an enclosure system simulating a high density, intensive aquaculture of Litopenaeus vannamei was set up in Dianbai, Maoming, Guangdong province, China. The phylogenetic profiles of microbial communities in the enclosure system after addition of Bacillus and molasses were studied in the middle and final culture season (on the 45th, 75th and 95th day) using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. A total of four groups, each containing a triplicate were set up: Group A (control), Group B (64% of daily feed was provided as molasses with Bacillus sp.), Group C (50% of daily feed amount provided as molasses with Bacillus sp.) and Group D (64% of daily feed amount as molasses alone). The results showed that α-Proteobacteria, δ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacteria. Moreover, the relative proportion of α-Proteobacteria increased and that of Bacteroidetes decreased gradually with time. Pathogenic Flexibacter was the dominant genus in Group A on the 45th day, while the functional strains (Sphingomonas sp., Erythrobacter sp., Roseobacter sp., and Rhodobacter sp.) were detected multiple times in Groups B and C. Bacillus sp. was the cultivable, dominant bacterium in Groups B and C on the 95th day. Therefore, the combined use of Bacillus and molasses helped increase diversity of the microbial community, effectively inhibit pathogens, and promote the formation and development of a beneficial microbial community structure in the high density, intensive aquaculture of L. vannamei.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T04:25:55.394323-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13101
       
  • Vertical transmission and concurrent infection of multiple bacterial
           pathogens in naturally infected red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)
    • Authors: Padmaja Jayaprasad Pradeep; Rungkarn Suebsing, Sarawut Sirithammajak, Jantana Kampeera, Warren Turner, Andrew Jeffs, Wansika Kiatpathomchai, Boonsirm Withyachumanarnkul
      Pages: 2706 - 2717
      Abstract: Horizontal transmission of various bacterial pathogens in tilapia is well described, but there is scant information regarding their vertical transmission. This study aimed to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of two commonly reported bacterial pathogens (Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis and Shewanella putrefaciens) in natural stocks of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Vertical transmission of these pathogens via gametes was evaluated using in vitro fertilization from 10 different families and analysing for the presence of bacteria in milt, unfertilized eggs, fertilized eggs and offspring at various ages (1-day-old larvae, 10-day-old fry and 30-day-old fingerlings), as well as water samples using colorimetric LAMP assay. The study revealed that both F. n. orientalis (6/10) and S. putrefaciens (4/10) was transmitted vertically to the fertilized eggs. Analysis of the water samples from different water sources (brood stock tanks, hatching chamber and larval rearing tanks) showed that both the pathogens were present in water samples with highest prevalence for F. n. orientalis followed by S. putrefaciens. Analyses for the presence of two pathogens in various organs (gonads, gill, liver, spleen, kidney and brain) of the healthy tilapia broodstock without any clinical symptoms of disease demonstrated they were carriers of S. putrefaciens and F. n. orientalis. This is the first documented evidence that vertical transmission via the broodstock of tilapia may also play an important role in transmitting these problematic pathogens to their progeny and underlines the necessity to modify the current disease management strategies in tilapia aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T04:31:11.969153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13102
       
  • Assessment and comparison of proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition
           of six edible portions of South African cultured yellowtail (Seriola
           lalandi)
    • Authors: Bernadette O'Neill; Andrew B Burke, Louwrens C Hoffman
      Pages: 2718 - 2728
      Abstract: A whole fillet (A) and five distinct anatomical portions within a fillet (B–F) of South African farmed yellowtail were assessed for proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition. Within the whole fillet, moisture, protein, fat and ash accounted for 71%, 21%, 5% and 1% of the proximate composition respectively. Considerable inter-muscular variation in nutritional composition was observed, however, the dorsal section (portions B and D) was most representative of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the whole yellowtail fillet and may be used in future studies. High variability in mineral and essential fatty acid content was observed and no one portion could be considered to contain a superior nutrient complex. South African farmed yellowtail can be considered a semi-oily fish (5.3% fat) with relatively high levels of PUFA detected (PUFA > SFA > MUFA) primarily located in the dorsal and caudal sections. This study provided important information regarding the nutritional composition of South African reared yellowtail as well as recommendations regarding the sub-sampling of specific portions for future nutrient composition studies.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T06:53:07.14679-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13104
       
  • Synbiotic effect of Bacillus mycoides and organic selenium on immunity and
           growth of marron, Cherax cainii (Austin, 2002)
    • Authors: Irfan Ambas; Ravi Fotedar, Nicky Buller
      Pages: 2729 - 2740
      Abstract: The present feeding trial examined the effect of synbiotic use of Bacillus mycoides and organic selenium (OS) as Sel-Plex on marron immunity, growth and survival. The marron were cultured in recirculated tanks and fed test diets consisting of a basal diet; basal diet supplemented with B. mycoides (108 CFU g−1 of feed); basal diet supplemented with OS (Sel-Plex) (0.2 g kg−1 of feed) and basal diet supplemented with synbiotic (B. mycoides at 108 CFU g−1 and OS 0.2 g kg−1 feed) diet, in triplicate. The effect of the prebiotic OS (Sel-Plex) on the growth rate of B. mycoides was also studied in vitro. The results suggested that synbiotic use of B. mycoides and OS significantly improved some immune parameters of marron, particularly the glutathione peroxidase, and to some extent total haemocyte counts. However, the synbiotic feed did not synergistically improve marron growth, in fact the use of B. mycoides-supplemented diet alone demonstrated significantly higher growth in marron compared with the growth of marron fed on other test diets. Supplementation of the basal diet with host origin B. mycoides significantly increased the intestinal bacterial population (3.399 ± 825 CFU g−1 of gut) in marron compared with other diets. Organic selenium as Sel-Plex in Trypticase Soya Broth also confirmed that OS did not increase the amount of growth of B. mycoides and resulted in a lower intestinal bacterial population in the synbiotic diet-fed marron. In conclusion, synbiotic of OS and B. mycoides may improve a particular immune parameters of marron and to a lesser extent their growth.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:28:40.512265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13105
       
  • The effects of sediment redox potential and stocking density on Pacific
           white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei production performance and white spot
           syndrome virus resistance
    • Authors: Wiyoto Wiyoto; Sukenda Sukenda, Enang Harris, Kukuh Nirmala, Daniel Djokosetiyanto, Julie Ekasari
      Pages: 2741 - 2751
      Abstract: Redox potential represents the intensity of anaerobic condition in the pond sediment, which may affect the dominant microbial transformations of substances, the toxins production, mineral solubility, as well as the water quality in the sediment–water interface inhabited by the shrimp. This study evaluates the effect of sediment redox potential in conjunction with stocking density on shrimp production performance, immune response and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. A completely randomized two factors experimental design was applied with three different sediment redox potential, i.e. −65, −108 and −06 mV, and two shrimp densities, i.e. low (60 shrimp m−2) and high (120 shrimp m−2). Shrimp juveniles with an initial mean body weight of 5.32 ± 0.22 g were maintained in semi-outdoor fibre tanks (270 L in capacity) for 35 days of experimental periods. At the bottom of each tank, 5-cm deep soil substrate with different redox potential was added according to the treatments. The survival and biomass production were significantly reduced at −206 mV sediment redox potential, regardless of stocking density. Highly negative sediment redox potential (−206 mV) and higher stocking density significantly reduced total haemocyte counts and phenoloxydase activity, and shrimp resistance to WSSV infection. We recommend to maintain the redox potential of pond sediment at a level of more than −206 mV.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:39:37.208478-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13107
       
  • Factors affecting the feeding response of larval southern bluefin tuna,
           Thunnus maccoyii (Castelnau, 1872)
    • Authors: Pollyanna E Hilder; Jennifer M Cobcroft, Stephen C Battaglene
      Pages: 2752 - 2766
      Abstract: Southern bluefin tuna, Thunnus maccoyii, are cultured in Australia following collection of wild juveniles. Hatchery culture from egg is in the experimental stage. High early mortality has hindered the production of quality juveniles in the hatchery. This study investigated the visual capacity of T. maccoyii during early larval ontogeny in order to describe the best larval rearing conditions to produce high-quality seed stock. Functional visual ability, determined through behavioural experimentation, identified the effect of light intensity, prey density, turbidity, tank colour and turbulence on the feeding response. Larvae were visually challenged to feed under a range of conditions in short-duration (4 h) feeding experiments. Feeding performance was measured as the proportion of larvae feeding and the intensity of feeding. First-feeding performance was positively affected by increasing prey density and lower turbidities and unaffected by light intensity, tank colour, turbulence, prey size and larval density. The key findings from feeding experiments on 6 and 9 dph larvae was that as T. maccoyii aged, lower light intensities and higher prey densities significantly increased feeding performance. In addition, the study has identified that high light intensity and high air-driven turbulence induced significant mortality. The proficient first-feeding response indicated that early mortality common in culture is unlikely to be associated with a failure to initiate feeding. Our findings show the use of low light intensity has the potential to significantly improve survival and feeding response during the first two critical weeks of culture, when the major bottleneck in hatchery production is currently experienced.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:30:57.2965-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13108
       
  • Effects of Lactobacillus pentosus on the growth performance, digestive
           enzyme and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
           (Boone, 1931)
    • Authors: Chen Na Zheng; Wei Wang
      Pages: 2767 - 2777
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from digestive tract of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Eighteen LAB colonies were isolated and one bacterium was found capable of producing three extracellular enzymes (protease, cellulose and lipase) simultaneously and exhibited antagonistic activity against shrimp pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, V. rotiferianus and V. campbellii). The putative probiotic strain AS13 was identified as Lactobacillus pentosus based on 16S rRNA sequencing. The L. vannamei were fed diet containing 0 (control), 106, 107 and 108 CFU g−1 bacterial cells of AS13 for 28 days. The results showed that supplementation of L. pentosus significantly improved the growth performance and feed utilization in the treated groups over the control. Similarly, digestive enzyme activities were elevated in the intestines of treated groups. Moreover, feeding of supplemented diets containing AS13 significantly reduced the mortality rate caused by pathogenic Vibrio species (V. vulnificus, V. rotiferianus and V. campbellii). Our results indicated L. pentosus AS13 addition at 107 CFU g−1 can effectively enhance the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes and disease resistance of L. vannamei in the laboratory condition.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:33:58.812253-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13110
       
  • Effects of temperature and salinity on oxygen consumption and ammonia
           excretion in different colour strains of the Manila clam, Ruditapes
           philippinarum
    • Authors: Hongtao Nie; Peng Chen, Zhongming Huo, Yun Chen, Xiaolin Hou, Feng Yang, Xiwu Yan
      Pages: 2778 - 2786
      Abstract: The metabolic responses of different colour strains of Ruditapes philippinarum in terms of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion to changes in temperature (15–35°C) and salinity (20–40) were investigated. In our range of temperatures (15–35°C), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increases in cultivated strains (White and Zebra) in opposition to the effect in the wild strain which reach a maximum at 25°C. The highest Q10 coefficients were 2.741 for zebra strain, 4.326 for white strain, and 1.944 for wild at temperatures of 25–30, 30–35 and 20–25°C respectively. In our range of salinity (20–40°C), OCRs of white strain and zebra strain firstly decreased to lowest level at 25 and 30, and then increased to highest level at 35 and 40 respectively. When the salinity is beyond 35, the OCR decreased and the turning point was found in the white strain and wild, but the zebra strain OCR still increased to a highest level (1.906 mg g−1 h−1) at 40 (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T23:41:23.823489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13111
       
  • Dietary copper requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch) based on
           growth, feed conversion, blood parameters and whole body copper
           concentration
    • Authors: Nassr-Allah H Abdel-Hameid; Seemab Zehra, Mukhtar A Khan
      Pages: 2787 - 2797
      Abstract: A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the dietary copper requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus. Six casein−gelatin-based test diets (450 g kg−1 crude protein; 18.81 kJ g−1 gross energy) with graded levels of copper as copper sulphate (3.7, 4.7, 5.7, 6.7, 7.7 and 8.7 mg copper equivalent kg−1 diet) were formulated and fed to triplicate groups of fish (7.25 ± 0.81 cm; 5.21 ± 0.27 g) near to satiation. Fish fed diet with 6.7 mg kg−1 copper had highest absolute weight gain (AWG; 51.63 g fish−1), protein efficiency ratio (PER; 1.42 g fish−1), protein gain (PG; 8.34 g fish−1), haemoglobin (Hb; 9.68 g dL−1), haematocrit (Hct; 31.18%) and RBCs (3.24 × 106 × mm−3). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was found to be best (1.57) at above level of dietary copper. Whole body copper concentration was found to increase with the increasing levels of dietary copper. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentration was found to decrease with increasing dietary concentrations of copper up to 6.7 mg kg−1 beyond which a reverse trend in this parameter was noted. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, FCR and PG concentrations against varying levels of dietary copper yielded the requirement in the range of 6.66–6.78 mg kg−1. Data generated during this study would be useful in formulating copper-balanced commercial feeds for the intensive culture of this fish.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:34:03.48112-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13112
       
  • Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and amino acid contents of
           Porphyra yezoensis
    • Authors: Xinshu Li; Peiming He, Juntian Xu, Guanghui Fu, Yaobai Chen
      Pages: 2798 - 2802
      Abstract: The effects of nitrogen fertilizer (NF) and phosphorus fertilizer (PF) on the growth as well as protein amino acid (PAA) and free amino acid (FAA) contents of Porphyra yezoensis in sea water were investigated. Single NF application did not improve P. yezoensis growth, but significantly increased its amino acid content. Single PF application significantly increased P. yezoensis growth, but decreased its amino acid content. Combined application of NF and PF could significantly promote the P. yezoensis growth, increase its amino acid content (including flavour amino acid) and thus improve its edible quality. Results indicate that combined application of NF and PF contributed to the growth and quality of P. yezoensis.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:39:04.079567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13113
       
  • Effects of stocking density on the performance of brown shrimp
           Farfantepenaeus californiensis co-cultured with the green seaweed Ulva
           clathrata
    • Authors: Alberto Peña-Rodríguez; Francisco Javier Magallón-Barajas, Lucía Elizabeth Cruz-Suárez, Regina Elizondo-González, Benjamin Moll
      Pages: 2803 - 2811
      Abstract: The brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the seaweed Ulva clathrata, both native to north-west Mexico, were co-cultured in lined ponds during 18 weeks. The aim of this study was to evaluate different stocking densities (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per m2) in terms of shrimp yield to see if the co-culture method results in shrimp yields suitable for commercial production. The presence of Ulva results in good water quality and allows culture of brown shrimp with low water exchange (10% weekly) and with low nitrogen and phosphorus content in discharged water. The final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) in shrimp between 10 and 30 per m2 were significantly higher (12.5–12.0 g and 4.56–4.53% day−1 respectively) than 40 and 50 per m2 (9.1 and 8.6 g, and 4.31% and 4.26% day−1 respectively). Total shrimp biomass generated in 30 or more shrimp per m2 was significantly higher (2.7–3.1 t ha−1) compared with 10 and 20 shrimp per m2 (1.0 and 2.0 t ha−1 respectively). The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (0.97) was shown in the 10 shrimp per m2 case, and the highest FCR was seen with 50 shrimp per m2 (1.37). Shrimp survival ranged between 71% and 81%, where the highest mortality was shown in 50 shrimp per m2. The results show that the co-culture method can result in commercially interesting yields, suggesting that 30 shrimp per m2 is the best stocking density for co-culturing F. californiensis with U. clathrata, based on the shrimp performance.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:30:47.247762-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13114
       
  • Larval rearing of the giant Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus
           (Pilsbry, 1916): feeding trials, larval development and settlement on
           artificial substrata
    • Authors: Carla Nunes; João Rodeia, Bárbara Paulino, Eduardo Isidro, Mirko De Girolamo
      Pages: 2812 - 2826
      Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted to obtain an efficient larval rearing protocol for Megabalanus azoricus. The first part of this study investigates the effect of microalgae-based diets on survival and larval development. Mono and mixed-diets were tested at 20 ± 1°C, in a sequence of 11-day feeding experiments. The second part presents a preliminary study on the influence of a biofilm on recruitment and use of oyster spat collectors in a mass rearing system. A photographic record of larval development and a brief reference to the diagnostic features that enable quick larval staging are also presented, along with morphometric measurements. Of the microalgae tested (Chaetoceros sp., Chloromonas sp., Dunaliella sp., T-Isochrysis sp. and Skeletonema sp.) the mixed-diet Skeletonema sp. with T-Isocrysis sp. showed the highest survival percentages: total survival ranged from 79.7 to 85.7% and 69.7–80.0% of nauplii were in stage VI after 11 days of rearing. Cypris were also present, but only represented 5.3% of the survivors at most. In the mass rearing system juveniles were found settled in the collectors after 25 days, at 20 ± 1°C. However recruitment was less than 1%. Preliminary results showed no settlement preference towards collectors with biofilm. Nevertheless, this study provides the first record of M. azoricus settlement under laboratorial conditions and represent a starting point for future larval rearing studies.
      PubDate: 2016-09-23T23:20:28.631411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13115
       
  • Dietary lipid requirements of larval genetically improved farmed tilapia,
           Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and effects on growth performance, expression
           of digestive enzyme genes, and immune response
    • Authors: Jun Qiang; Jie He, Hong Yang, Yi-Lan Sun, Yi-Fan Tao, Pao Xu, Zhi-Xiang Zhu
      Pages: 2827 - 2840
      Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the effects of dietary lipid level on growth performance, antioxidant defense, and mRNA levels of digestive enzymes and immune genes in larval genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The results show that larvae fed lipid levels of 4–11.5% had greater weight gain (WG), feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and survival than larvae fed the other dietary lipid levels (P  0.05) but lipid contents increased as dietary lipid level was increased. The 8% and 11.5% dietary lipid levels had stimulatory effects on trypsin mRNA level compared with those of larvae fed the 15% and 18.5% lipid diets. Intestinal and liver amylase mRNA levels decreased in larvae fed the 18.5% lipid diet, following the decrease in dietary starch. Analysis of the secondary curve equation for WG indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in larval tilapia was 8.56%. In addition, the 4–11.5% lipid levels improved superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increased mRNA levels of heat shock protein70, hepcidin antimicrobial peptide-1, and C-type lysozyme in the liver of larvae (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T05:56:08.481942-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13117
       
  • Dietary selenium requirement for on-growing gibel carp (Carassius auratus
           gibelio var. CAS III)
    • Authors: Ling Zhu; Dong Han, Xiaoming Zhu, Yunxia Yang, Junyan Jin, Haokun Liu, Shouqi Xie
      Pages: 2841 - 2851
      Abstract: A 12-week growth trial was conducted in a flow-through system to determine dietary selenium (Se) requirement for on-growing gibel carp (initial body weight: 76.2 ± 0.05 g, mean ± SEM). Selenomethionine was supplemented to the basal diet to formulate seven semi-purified diets containing 0.26, 0.58, 0.72, 1.14, 1.34, 1.73 and 2.09 mg Se kg−1 diet. The results showed that plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased when fish were fed with 0.58 mg Se kg−1 diet (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:34:09.900501-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13118
       
  • Organic, inorganic and nanoparticles of Se, Zn and Mn in early weaning
           diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata; Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: Marisol S Izquierdo; Wafa Ghrab, Javier Roo, Kristin Hamre, Carmen M Hernández-Cruz, Giovanni Bernardini, Genciana Terova, Reda Saleh
      Pages: 2852 - 2867
      Abstract: Levels of the oxidative stress-related minerals selenium (Se), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) that should be supplied in microdiets for marine fish larvae depend on the availability of the molecular form of these minerals. The objective of this study was to determine how effectively Se, Zn and Mn in organic, inorganic and nanoparticle forms promote larval performance and bone development. Microdiets supplemented with Se, Zn and Mn were fed for 24 days to 20 dah seabream larvae. Microdiets without Se, Zn and Mn supplementation were associated with poor growth, low bone mineralization and a high incidence of anomalies in the branchial arches. Including Zn, Mn and Se in an amino acid chelate organic form promoted maximum larval growth, increased body lipid reserves, enhanced early mineralization and prevented branchial arches anomalies. In contrast, feeding with inorganic forms of these minerals was less effective than organic minerals in improving larval weight or bone mineralization in comparison to the non-supplemented diet. Moreover, the larvae were less resistant to stress, and fish showed higher bone anomalies in the pre-hemal region. Adding Zn, Mn and Se in the form of nanometals did not enhance growth, but improved stress resistance and bone mineralization. The study showed the need to supplement seabream with early weaning diets based on squid meal and krill oil with one or more of the antioxidant minerals, to promote larval growth, bone mineralization and prevention of skeleton anomalies, organic minerals being more effective than inorganic forms and nanometals in promoting mineralization and stress resistance.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18T01:56:03.000954-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13119
       
  • Study on an integrated eco-aquaculture system for rearing the yellow
           seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeker
    • Authors: Yongjian Xu; Jinting Mu
      Pages: 2868 - 2875
      Abstract: Seahorse aquaculture is challenged by insufficient feeding supply and lack of biological and nutritional knowledge, resulting in low survival rate and poor economical profitability. We report here an integrated eco-aquaculture system in which the yellow seahorse and its natural prey were co-cultured with fertilized water and seaweed in cement ponds. In the first stage, urea (10 g m−3) and chicken manure (50 g m−3) were used to fertilize the cultured water, 5–7 days later, rotifer and micro-crustaceans were flourishing. Then, seahorse juveniles were stocked at 200 ind m−3. After 2 weeks, seaweed Gracilaria lichevoides was transplanted into the ponds to regulate water quality, light and to provide holdfast attachment for seahorses. The optimal density of G. lichevoides was controlled between 0.5 and 2 kg m−3. The introduction of seaweed provides the habitat for natural food of seahorse. Within the cluster of the seaweed, small crustacean density was over 450 individuals per 100 g of fresh weight. Initial size of seahorse juvenile was 1.03 ± 0.091 cm, After the 146-day rearing period, seahorse survival rates were 70.8%, 57.7% and 42.5%, and body standard lengths were 11.33 cm, 10.84 cm and 10.04 cm in the integrated eco-aquaculture system (GFA) and in monoculture systems of FA (fertilized + feeding) and BA (only feeding) respectively. This system incorporated traditional Chinese aquaculture technique in which feedings nature food organisms were cultivated by fertilization and ecological regulation. Results from these preliminary experiments suggest that the integrated system could be technically feasible, suitable and exemplary.
      PubDate: 2016-06-11T00:05:38.237227-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13120
       
  • Tank size and fish management history matters in experimental design
    • Authors: Åsa Maria Espmark; Jelena Kolarevic, Torbjørn Åsgård, Bendik Fyhn Terjesen
      Pages: 2876 - 2894
      Abstract: To investigate the questions: (1) does tank size affect fish performance; (2) does tank size prior to an experiment affect later fish performance and (3) how does performance in experimental tanks compare with rearing in industry-scale cages, Atlantic salmon smolts were acclimatized to 190, 3 or 0.9 m3 tanks (Phase 1; 1.5 months) before redistributed to Phase 2 for 5 months. Question 1: fish in 190 m3 tank were redistributed to 0.9 m3 (190 m3  0.9 m3), 3 m3 (190 m3  3 m3), or 103 m3 (190 m3 103 m3) tanks. Question 2: fish in 0.9 m3 tanks were redistributed to 3 m3 tanks (0.9 m3  3 m3), and compared to fish from 190 m3 tank (190 m3 3 m3). Question 3: fish were placed directly in 3 m3 tanks, not moved (3 m3  3 m3), and compared to reference sea cages. Phase 2 mortality: 190 m3 0.9 m3 (46%), 190 m3  3 m3 (29%), 190 m3  103 m3 (19%), 3 m3  3 m3 and 0.9 m3  3 m3 (
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T06:20:37.562077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13121
       
  • Metabolic and digestive enzyme activity of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus
           (Sauvage, 1878) fingerlings in response to alternate feeding of different
           protein levels in the diet
    • Authors: Nagung Camder Tok; Kamal Kant Jain, Dhanasekaran L Prabu, Narottam P Sahu, Sukham Munilkumar, Asim K Pal, Gunnur M Siddiah, Pankaj Kumar
      Pages: 2895 - 2911
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted for 90 days to assess the metabolic and digestive enzyme activity in response to alternate or mixed feeding of different protein levels in the diet of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fingerlings. One hundred and forty four fingerlings with an average weight of 5.0–5.5 g were distributed into four experimental groups each with triplicate. Four iso-caloric diets with varying level of crude protein viz., 35%, 30%, 25% and 20% were made and designated as diet 35P, 30P, 25P and 20P respectively. Four treatments were maintained based on four different feeding schedules such as continuous feeding of diet 35P (35P/35P), alternate feeding of 1 day diet 35P next day diet 30P (35P/30P), alternate feeding of 1 day diet 35P next day diet 25P (35P/25P) and alternate feeding of 1 day diet 35P next day diet 20P (35P/20P). As a result, specific growth rate (SGR) and weight gain percentage were relatively higher in treatment (35P/25P) followed by (35P/35P) and (35P/30P). The metabolic enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were expressed better in (35P/35P) group followed by (35P/25P) and (35P/30P) groups. The digestive enzymes, protease and lipase activities were higher in (35P/35P) and (35P/25P) groups. The present study revealed that the better nutrient utilization and growth of 35P/25P group is because of their balanced digestive and metabolic enzyme activities through alternate level of higher and lower protein diet.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T06:10:59.031073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13122
       
  • Spawning of female Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is not impacted by
           muscle injection of dsRNA targeted to gill-associated virus
    • Authors: Melony J Sellars; Min Rao, Jeff A Cowley
      Pages: 2912 - 2919
      Abstract: The ability of domesticated Penaeus monodon, Black Tiger shrimp, to spawn following tail-muscle injection of dsRNA was examined. Ablated domesticated female broodstock infected subclinically with gill-associated virus (GAV) were injected with saline or a cocktail of five-dsRNAs targeting different regions in the GAV ORF1a/1b gene. To track changes in GAV infection loads, TaqMan real-time PCR was used to quantify mean viral RNA amounts in each of three pleopod clips collected at the time of injection (Day 0) and either immediately after a female spawned or on Day 11 when the trial was terminated. Over the trial, 4 of 19 (21%) saline-injected shrimp spawned and 12 of 25 (48%) dsRNA-injected shrimp spawned, with one spawning twice. Egg numbers varied from 25 600 to 459 800 for the saline-injected shrimp and from 4900 to 213 900 for the dsRNA-injected shrimp. Of these, one of the four egg batches hatched from saline-injected shrimp and 9 of the 13 egg batches hatched from dsRNA-injected shrimp. While variable, egg numbers and hatch rates recorded were typical of those obtained from domesticated broodstock at the commercial hatchery and particularly among females previously spawned. Mean GAV RNA amounts detected in pleopod samples increased in five of the eight saline-injected shrimp tested by 1.6–227.4-fold and decreased in 12 of the 15 ds-RNA-injected shrimp tested by −1.1 to −45.1-fold. The study demonstrated that tail-muscle injection of GAV-specific dsRNA does not adversely impact the ability of P. monodon to spawn.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18T01:45:37.17546-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13123
       
  • Effects of culture conditions on larval growth and survival of stalked
           barnacles (Pollicipes pollicipes)
    • Authors: Sofia C Franco; Nick Aldred, Teresa Cruz, Anthony S Clare
      Pages: 2920 - 2933
      Abstract: Pollicipes pollicipes (Crustacea: Scalpelliformes) is a highly prized food in Portugal and Spain and consequently a species of considerable interest to aquaculture. Surprisingly, however, larval culture conditions for this barnacle have not been optimized. This study investigated the effects of temperature, diet, photoperiod and salinity on the growth and survival of P. pollicipes larvae. Temperature had a significant effect on specific growth rate (2.6–5.9% total width per day, from 11 to 24°C), reducing mean development time to the cyprid from 25 days at 11 °C to 10 days at 24°C, although this was accompanied by a significant increase in mortality to over 90% above 22°C. Mid-range temperatures (15–20°C) maximized total survival (19–31% respectively). Algal diets of Tetraselmis suecica, T. suecica/Skeletonema marinoi and S. marinoi/Isochrysis galbana did not affect specific growth rate significantly, but survival (on average 39% in 15 days) and the proportion of high-quality healthy cyprids was significantly higher on the latter two diets (11–15% of initial number of larvae). Photoperiod did not significantly affect the survival, although specific growth rate was significantly higher at 24:0 and 16:8 L:D. Salinity (20–40 g L−1 range) did not affect growth and survival significantly. The best growth and survival were accomplished using rearing temperatures of 15–20°C, daily feeding with T. suecica/S. marinoi or I. galbana/S. marinoi and a photoperiod of 24:0 L:D.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T07:05:24.296391-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13125
       
  • Quantitative quality evaluation of Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)
           cultured by two different methods
    • Authors: Jinglin Zhang; William C Walton, Yifen Wang
      Pages: 2934 - 2944
      Abstract: In order to evaluate the quality of oysters and whether a production method affects quality or not, a set of objective quantitative quality measures was developed. Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were cultured using two different treatments (never desiccated or desiccated daily with tidal exposure) and the meats were tested by textural, physico-chemical and chemical analyses over a 25-day cold storage period. Texture analyses parameters (cutting force and chewiness on oyster adductor muscles) were strongly correlated with storage time before the death of oysters and could be used as a quality indicator for oyster. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) could be used as freshness indicator for raw Eastern oysters, with the acceptability of 11 mg/100 g. Models for evaluating the quality of oysters were established that reflect the impact of a biofouling treatment on oyster's shelf life and texture attributes. The methods and quality indicators developed in this study were effective in evaluating the quality and freshness of Eastern oysters objectively, and could serve as routine quality check of oyster meat for the industry.
      PubDate: 2016-07-02T02:45:58.457553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13126
       
  • Application of different types of protein hydrolysate in high plant
           protein diets for juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)
    • Authors: Houguo Xu; Yuchao Mu, Mengqing Liang, Keke Zheng, Yuliang Wei
      Pages: 2945 - 2953
      Abstract: A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different types of dietary protein hydrolysate (PH) on growth performance, body composition, trypsin activity and serum transaminase of juvenile turbot. Four high plant protein diets contained different types of PH, fish PH (FPH), yeast PH (YPH), pig blood PH (PBPH) and soy PH (SPH), replacing 10% fishmeal of the basal diet. The basal diet with 30% fishmeal and no PH was used as the control diet (C). Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fish. The specific growth rate (SGR) was not significantly different between groups C and FPH, but groups C and FPH showed significantly higher SGR than other groups. The feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were not significantly different among groups C, FPH and YPH, but groups PBPH and SPH showed significantly lower FER and PER than groups C and FPH. Group PBPH showed significantly higher hepatosomatic index than other groups except YPH. Fish fed YPH showed significantly lower whole-body protein content, but significantly higher whole-body lipid content than fish fed diets C, FPH and PBPH. The activities of serum GOT and GPT in group PBPH were higher than those in groups C, FPH and YPH. These results suggested that when used at a low level in high plant protein diets for juvenile turbot, FPH is a good alternative protein source and YPH also has the application potential, but PBPH and SPH can cause negative impacts on fish growth and health.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T06:55:32.289324-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13127
       
  • Sustainable water treatment in aquaculture – photolysis and photodynamic
           therapy for the inactivation of Vibrio species
    • Authors: Danilo Malara; Christina Mielke, Michael Oelgemöller, Mathias O Senge, Kirsten Heimann
      Pages: 2954 - 2962
      Abstract: Species of the genus Vibrio have been recognized as one of the most significant pathogens in aquaculture farming, causing mass mortality of farmed stocks. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) with singlet oxygen (1O2) has been identified as a powerful and sustainable water treatment method for pathogen eradication. In this study, the efficiencies of photolytic and photodynamic disinfection protocols were studied with two Vibrio species, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio owensii. The selected microorganisms were successfully cultivated in marine broth and irradiations were performed with ~108 bacteria mL−1. Treated samples were monitored for bacterial regrowth for up to 7 days. Photolysis experiments were initially conducted with UV-A, UV-B for up to 2 h and visible (VIS) light for up to 24 h. Of these, only irradiation with UV-B light for at least 45 min was efficient in controlling Vibrio. Irradiations with VIS light were subsequently repeated under PACT conditions in dose−response experiments with two water-soluble porphyrins, [T4(MePy)P] and [TPPS4]. Disinfections of samples were successful for both porphyrin types at minimum concentrations of 10 μM and 24 h of irradiation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T10:08:21.524644-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13128
       
  • Assessment of the relative contribution of dietary nitrogen from fish meal
           and biofloc meal to the growth of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus
           vannamei)
    • Authors: Julián Gamboa-Delgado; Gustavo Alejandro Rodríguez Montes de Oca, José Cristóbal Román Reyes, David Alonso Villarreal-Cavazos, Martha Nieto-López, Lucía Elizabeth Cruz-Suárez
      Pages: 2963 - 2972
      Abstract: The relative contribution of the dietary nitrogen supplied by fish meal and a biofloc meal to the growth of Pacific white shrimp was evaluated using stable isotope analysis. Biofloculated material was obtained from an experimental tilapia culture system. Five formulated diets were supplied. Two of them consisted in isotopic controls having only fish meal or biofloc meal as protein source. Three mixed diets were formulated with varying proportions of these ingredients on a dietary nitrogen basis (75:25, 50:50 and 25:75). At the end of the trial, survival rates were similar (92–100%) but significant differences in mean final weight were observed and a negative correlation between the inclusion of biofloc meal and weight gain was evidenced. Mean final weight in shrimp fed on diet containing only fish meal was 2.8 g, while mean final weight of animals fed on diet containing 50% biofloc was 1.9 g. Isotopic mixing models indicated that all diets contributed higher proportions of dietary nitrogen from fish meal than from biofloc meal. Dietary nitrogen available in diets containing 25%, 50% and 75% of biofloc meal was incorporated in muscle tissue as 5%, 41% and 64% respectively. Diet supplying 25% of nitrogen from biofloc was the only mixed diet eliciting growth comparable to diet containing only fish meal. Lower growth and nitrogen deposition in shrimp fed on diets containing high proportions of biofloc meal were possibly associated to the use of only two protein sources and a restriction of essential amino acids.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T06:45:25.071329-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13129
       
  • DNA fragmentation in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) sperm: aquaculture and
           fisheries implications
    • Authors: Michael E Kjelland; Carmen López-Fernández, Cuca Perez-García, Jaime Gosálvez
      Pages: 2973 - 2980
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess sperm DNA longevity in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) using a dynamic assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) after sperm activation. Mature blue mussels (n = 57) in Vigo (Galicia, Spain) were obtained, specifically rope farmed blue mussels (n = 38) and wild blue mussels (n = 19). After the sperm collection, a subsample was assessed for SDF (0 h), while the rest of the sample was incubated for 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h at 15°C, assessing each time point using the Sperm-Halomax kit (Halotech DNA, Madrid, Spain). The Kaplan–Meier estimator, log-rank (Mantel–Cox) test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used for statistical analyses (spss v. 16.0), α = 0.05. The rate of SDF (r-SDF) between rope farmed and wild blue mussels over 0–6 h incubation was not significantly different (P = 0.278), but was for 6–24 h (P = 0.004). Differences in r-SDF were observed when comparing the means between the two groups (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T01:10:24.031265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13130
       
  • Ploidy and growth performance of hybrid progeny between tetraploid
           Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Paramisgurnus dabryanus
    • Authors: Songqian Huang; Xiaojuan Cao, Xianchang Tian, Weimin Wang
      Pages: 2981 - 2988
      Abstract: Experimental crossings were made between tetraploid loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, T for short) and diploid large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus, P for short), resulting in T×T, T×P and P×P crosses (female before male). Meanwhile, a part of T×P cross was cold shocked to inhibit second meiosis (T×P-0 for short). Fertility rate, hatching rate and survival rate of T×T, T×P, P×P and T×P-0 were measured. Flow cytometry and chromosome count were taken to identify ploidy statuses of the four crosses. Results showed that T×T, T×P and P×P were, respectively, tetraploidy (4n = 100), triploidy (3n = 74) and diplody (2n = 48), while 89.19 per cent of T×P-0 of 12 months old were pentaploidy (5n = 124, T×P-0-5n for short) and the others were triploidy. Morphological data of the four crosses of 12 months old showed that morphological characteristics of T×P and T×P-0-5n loach were between those of their parents, while T×P-0-5n loach presented a smallest head length/body length. Total lengths of T×P and T×P-0-5n were significantly larger than those of T×T and P×P, showing hybrid vigour. This study will provide valuable information for production of polyploidy loach and breeding programmes of the two loaches and other closely related species.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T06:42:03.476178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13131
       
  • Determination of growth, colour and other traits in F1 hybrid of
           Amphiprion percula (male) × A. ocellaris (female)
    • Authors: Jeyagoby Balamurugan; Thipramalai Thangappan Ajith Kumar, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Bharathiamma Meenakumari
      Pages: 2989 - 3003
      Abstract: This study reported the traits values such as colour, feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and fluorescence capacity of F1 hybrids of Amphiprion percula (male) and A. ocellaris (female). The hybrids exhibited significant variation in FCR (3.63 ± 0.56) and SGR (3.63% ± 0.44) compared with the pure breeds, A. percula (3.12 ± 0.42; 2.80% ± 0.42) and A. ocellaris (3.17 ± 0.43; 3.02% ± 0.19). An exponential relationship was found between FCR and SGR in both the breeds. Image analysis displayed a better colour performance of hybrid than the pure breeds. Individual body parts of the hybrid and pure breeds showed significant colour variation between each other. However, colour contrast of whole body of hybrid was found closer to A. ocellaris in hue cone and towards A. percula in saturation and brightness values. Hence, hybrid displays combination colour reflexion of both the parents. The total pigment content of hybrid (65.71 μg g−1 ± 2.81) was found higher than A. ocellaris (62.01 μg g−1 ± 2.29) and A. percula (56.71 μg g−1 ± 2.56). Further, the spectroflurometric analysis revealed that the both hybrid and pure breeds having poor fluorescence on skin pigmentation. A direct positive heterosis was observed on the SGR, FCR, total pigment and spawning frequency, while negative effect was noted on total length of newly hatched larvae (TL), fertilization rate (FrR), hatching rate (HR), deformation rate (DFR) and survival rate (SR). Hence, multiple cross-breeding programmes will help in developing high-quality traits in successive generations.
      PubDate: 2016-07-04T01:00:44.665781-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13132
       
  • A study of the growth and burrowing ability for the environmentally
           friendly cultured freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea
    • Authors: Ping-Hung Chang; Wei-Tse Chang, Chun-Han Shih, Dine-Fue Liu, Ying-Chou Lee
      Pages: 3004 - 3012
      Abstract: Issues concerning ecology, food safety and environmental protection are currently the focus of global attention, as are studies related to region-specific agriculture that emphasize regional quality. Hualien County, located in eastern Taiwan, proposed the so-called innocuous agriculture is that the industries can product non-toxic products, including agriculture, fisheries, animal husbandry and processed industries. Innocuous agriculture and organic agriculture share the same objective, producing non-toxic and pollutant-free agricultural products. The biodiversity associated with organic farming is greater than that associated with conventional farming, and these results have been confirmed by several studies, triggering the present research on the benefits of innocuous aquaculture over those of conventional aquaculture farming. The purpose of this study was to compare the growth, aquaculture outlet wastewater and burrowing ability of clams (Corbicula fluminea) cultured by an innocuous aquaculture method and two conventional aquaculture methods. The results indicated that the clams cultured by the innocuous aquaculture method grew faster and were healthier than those cultured by the two conventional methods. The innocuous method, which approaches the organic method, is environmentally friendly and produces more vigorous individuals than those of conventional methods.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T00:55:25.360643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13133
       
  • Effect of taurine enrichment in rotifer (Brachionus sp.) on growth of
           larvae of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel)
           and yellowfin tuna T. albacares (Temminck & Schlegel)
    • Authors: Ryo Katagiri; Tsukasa Sasaki, Alvaro Diaz, Masashi Ando, Daniel Margulies, Vernon P Scholey, Yoshifumi Sawada
      Pages: 3013 - 3031
      Abstract: To investigate the dietary effect of taurine on the larval stage of tuna species, Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) and yellowfin tuna (YFT), larvae were reared until 16 days after hatching (dAH) and 14 dAH, respectively, and replicate samples were fed either non-taurine-enriched rotifers (T-0) or rotifers enriched with 800 mg taurine L−1 (T-800). Most PBF and YFT larvae were at the preflexion stage until 7 and 8 dAH, and there were no differences in the growth performance and total protein content of larvae between the T-0 and T-800 groups (t-test; P > 0.05). Thereafter, however, for larvae of both species, these parameters in the T-800 group significantly increased with enhanced notochord development compared to those in T-0 group (t-test; P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-02T02:46:04.88355-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13134
       
  • Optimization of fishmeal, fish oil and wheat in diets for juvenile
           sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria
    • Authors: Ian Paul Forster; Briony Campbell, Bruce Morton, Brad Hicks, Mahmoud Rowshandeli
      Pages: 3032 - 3040
      Abstract: Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a piscivorous fish that is highly desirable as food. To ascertain the relationship of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate, eleven diets containing fishmeal, fish oil and wheat flour as test ingredients at different levels were formulated. The levels were chosen according to mixture experiment methodology, which varies the proportion of each test ingredient, while keeping their sum constant across all diets. The range of levels used in the test diets were as follows: fishmeal 430–600 g kg−1, fish oil 100–270 g kg−1 and wheat flour 30–200 g kg−1. The sum of the test ingredients accounted for 900 g kg−1 of all diets, with the remaining 100 g kg−1 accounting for mineral and vitamin premix, binders, attractant, etc. Each diet, plus a commercial feed, was fed to three tanks of juvenile sablefish by hand twice daily for 11 weeks, using a completely random design. It was found that growth and feed efficiency were maximized by the highest dietary inclusion level of fish oil and fishmeal, corresponding to the lowest wheat flour level, that is 600 g kg−1 fishmeal, 270 g kg−1 fish oil and 30 g kg−1 wheat flour.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T06:50:31.912605-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13135
       
  • Menthol and 1,8-cineole as new anaesthetics in common carp, Cyprinus
           carpio (Linnaeus, 1758)
    • Authors: Mohammad Mazandarani; Seyyed Morteza Hoseini
      Pages: 3041 - 3051
      Abstract: This study describes anaesthetic efficacy of menthol and 1,8-cineole in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in comparison with eugenol. Common carp fingerlings were exposed to eugenol: 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 ppm; menthol: 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm; 1,8-cineole: 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 ppm. Induction time and recovery time were recorded. Results showed that menthol and 1,8-cineole anesthetized the fish at higher concentrations compared to eugenol. The fish exposed to menthol showed common fish behavioural responses to anaesthesia, similar to eugenol. But, 1,8-cineole-exposed fish showed tail-up swimming, which was not observed before. Also, 1,8-cineole failed to completely cease muscle tone. Exposure to 200 ppm eugenol and 600 ppm menthol resulted in 40% and 20% mortality, respectively. Induction time was exponentially dependent on anesthetic concentrations. Recovery time was linearly correlated to eugenol and menthol, but not 1,8-cineole concentrations. Recovery time was exponentially dependent on induction time in the fish anesthetized with eugenol and menthol, but not 1,8-cineole. Menthol and 1,8-cineole are recommended for carp anaesthesia. Menthol is capable to anesthetize common carp within 1–3 min at 118–512 ppm. Common carp anesthetized with 108–133 ppm menthol recovers within 5 min. 1,8-cineole failed to anesthetize common carp within less than 150 s at 300–800 ppm concentrations. However, it anesthetizes carp within 3 min at 595 ppm concentration. Also, 1,8-cineole is not recommended for fish surgery. Both menthol and 1,8-cineole were less efficacious than eugenol.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T05:55:54.73955-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13136
       
  • Multiscalar land suitability assessment for aquaculture production in
           Uruguay
    • Authors: Ismael Díaz; Ana Laura Mello, María Salhi, Mónica Spinetti, Martin Bessonart, Marcel Achkar
      Pages: 3052 - 3065
      Abstract: This article presents a highly detailed territorial assessment for aquaculture production in Uruguay and a methodology to identify the most suitable areas in order to develop the activity. Furthermore, it proposes the basis to generate a dynamic modelling tool of high spatial resolution to support the decision-making process regarding national aquaculture activities. The modelling structure of aquaculture suitability was developed by the construction of a hierarchical model, combining a multicriteria assessment and a geographic information system. Forty-one attributes were integrated in six aptitude models: one model for each one of the five common production systems intended to be the most viable in Uruguay and a sixth aptitude indicator that summarizes those five systems, representing the maximum suitability for aquaculture activities. In addition, the hierarchical model allows measurement and identification of relative weights of each model, according to the planning scale, ranging from basin to cell.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T07:05:40.072102-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13137
       
  • Effects of dietary phosphorus on growth, body composition and immunity of
           young taimen Hucho taimen (Pallas, 1773)
    • Authors: Chang'an Wang; Jinnan Li, Liansheng Wang, Zhigang Zhao, Liang Luo, Xue Du, Jiasheng Yin, Qiyou Xu
      Pages: 3066 - 3079
      Abstract: The effects of dietary phosphorus (P) on growth, body composition and immunity of young taimen (Hucho taimen) were studied. Six purified diets contained graded levels (2.3-control, 4.0, 5.6, 7.5, 9.1 and 10.8 g kg−1 diet) of available P. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 30 fish with an initial average weight (55.31 ± 0.38) g for 84 days. The weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were improved by dietary available P up to 4.35 g kg−1 (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T10:08:52.362239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13138
       
  • Effect of neuroactive compounds on larval metamorphosis of New Zealand
           geoduck (Panopea zelandica)
    • Authors: Dung V Le; Tim Young, Andrea C Alfaro, Ellie Watts, Nick King
      Pages: 3080 - 3090
      Abstract: We present here the first laboratory study on the effects of pharmacologically active compounds on the larval metamorphosis of the New Zealand geoduck, Panopea zelandica (Quoy and Gaimard, 1835). Two batches of competent hatchery-reared larvae were exposed to acetylcholine chloride, epinephrine hydrochloride and excess potassium ions in the form of KCl and K2SO4. None of the tested chemicals increased the proportion of metamorphosed geoducks, and in some cases, the chemical caused significant mortality, despite having been used extensively with other species, such as mussels and oysters. This might indicate that geoduck larval physiology and development differs from other bivalves. Geoducks may have evolved distinct chemoreceptor patterns that facilitate metamorphosis under environmentally favourable conditions for subtidal soft sediment habitats suitable for burrowing. Thus, further research is needed to identify alternative cues (e.g. conspecific adults, sediment characteristics and surface biofilm) and understand their role in settlement and metamorphosis. This information will aid the design of reseeding methods and contribute to the development of reliable hatchery production of geoduck spat.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T00:50:28.106913-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13139
       
  • Physiological differences between gametophytes and sporophytes of five
           cultivar strains of Saccharina japonica
    • Authors: Dong Xu; Xiao Fan, Xiaowen Zhang, Naihao Ye, Zhimeng Zhuang
      Pages: 3091 - 3101
      Abstract: The demand for high-yield cultivars of Saccharina japonica in farming areas calls for a practical and simple method to select desired parental plants for seed breeding. In this study, we evaluated PSII photosynthetic performance by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence and the nutrient uptake rate in both the micro-gametophyte and macro-young-sporophyte in five native strains (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) of S. japonica with different morphological characteristics. We found significant differences in PSII photosynthetic parameters and nitrate uptake rates between the strains studied in both gametophytes and young sporophytes. Female gametophytes of all strains presented larger cell sizes than males (P  0.747), the PSII photosynthetic parameters of female gametophytes (R2> 0.689) and the nitrate uptake rate of young sporophytes (R2 = 0.640). These findings are considered promising for the future seed breeding of renewable, high-yield strains.
      PubDate: 2016-07-02T02:50:31.261158-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13140
       
  • Effects of algae particle size on the breathing and feeding of
           filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.)
    • Authors: Zhigang Zhao; Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao, Qiyou Xu, Jianhua Yu
      Pages: 3102 - 3110
      Abstract: A variety of parameters associated with breathing and feeding of silver carp were measured in response to declines in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels when the fish were fed microalgae Padorina morum (PM group) and Chlorella ellipsoidea (CE group), respectively, to explore the relationship between breathing and feeding while filtering microalgae particles at different DO levels. The results indicated that (i) respiratory frequency (fR) of the fish in CE group were higher significantly than those in PM group at DO levels of 0.98–7.49 mg/L (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T23:51:12.426497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13141
       
  • Change in Sox9 protein localization through gonad development in Russian
           sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii)
    • Authors: Maciej Kamaszewski; Aleksandra Gosk, Marek Skrobisz, Teresa Ostaszewska
      Pages: 3111 - 3120
      Abstract: The Russian sturgeon is a highly prized species reared in aquaculture. The process of gonad development in this critically endangered species is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe the localization of Sox9 protein during gonad development of the Russian sturgeon from the day of hatching to the 1440 day post hatching (dph). The larvae at age 1, 10, 25 dph and prepared gonads of 300, 720, 1440 dph individuals were immunohistochemistry-stained for Sox9 detection. Sox9-positive regions were detected in larvae in primordial germ cells cytoplasm. Analysis of 300 dph sturgeon gonads revealed the presence of the Sox9 protein in cytoplasm of some oocytes in the chromatin nucleus stage. In testes at 720 dph, Sox9 was observed in the cytoplasm of type A and early B spermatogonias. In the ovaries, Sox9 was observed in the cytoplasm of diplotene oocytes and prefollicular cells. In testes of 1440 dph sturgeon, Sox9 was present in the nucleus of the spermatocytes and in types A and B spermatogonias cytoplasm. Analysis of ovaries at 1440 dph reveals multiple diplotene oocytes with a Sox9-positive cytoplasm. Furthermore, in 720 and 1440 dph, sturgeon presence of intersexual gonads was detected. In intersex gonads, Sox9 was observed in the cytoplasm of diplotene oocytes and type A spermatogonias. This study may be the first attempt to determine Sox9 protein localization during ontogenesis of the Russian sturgeon. Localization of Sox9 protein may become a useful marker of the maturation level in testis of the Russian sturgeon.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T06:35:49.756776-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13142
       
  • Dependence of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fatty acid profile on
           diet composition in a semi-intensive farming system: tissue and time
           variability
    • Authors: Trbović Dejana; Živić Ivana, Stanković Marko, Živić Miroslav, Dulić Zorka, Petronijević Radivoj, Marković Zoran
      Pages: 3121 - 3133
      Abstract: Increasing the amount of n-3 PUFA in carp meat is one of the most important tasks in enhancing its overall quality. However, the relative influence of supplemental feed and natural feed on the FA profile of cultivated carp flesh is not well documented, making it difficult to choose the most efficient strategy. Carp diet composition and diet and flesh fatty acid profiles were simultaneously followed in order to determine the influence of pelleted feed compared to natural feed on fatty acid profiles of carp tissues. Pelleted feed clearly dominated over zooplankton and Chironomidae in the carp diet, producing carp tissue fatty acid profiles closely resembling those of pelleted feed. However, increase in the abundance of zooplankton over the course of the investigation resulting in concomitant increase of its proportion in feed bulk was in strong positive correlation with increase in n-3 HUFA in the dorsal muscle. n-3 PUFA enrichment of supplemental feed could be the dominant mechanism in production of carp meat rich in n-3 PUFA. However, even a small increase in natural feed availability could significantly change the diet of common carp and result in considerable improvement of meat quality with regard to n-3 HUFA content.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T01:36:19.215042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13143
       
  • Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming – Profitability,
           productivity and energy efficiency of German, Danish and Turkish rainbow
           trout grow-out systems
    • Authors: Tobias Lasner; Alexander Brinker, Rasmus Nielsen, Ferit Rad
      Pages: 3134 - 3148
      Abstract: The promotion of Blue Growth in aquaculture requires an understanding of the economic drivers influencing the sector at farm level, but the collection of reliable and comparable data at this level is time-consuming and expensive. This study suggests an alternative strategy for qualitative sampling of freshwater trout farms in Germany, Denmark and Turkey, using a combination of existing data, group discussions and interviews with trout farmers, consultants and researchers. Nine ‘typical’ trout farming models are described, focusing on profitability, productivity and energy efficiency and allowing in-depth comparative economic analyses of different production systems at farm level, across regions. Our results show that the majority of the farms investigated have been profitable. Turkish farms benefit from competitive advantages due to low wages, low capital investment and favourable climate conditions. Large German farms profit from local market prices and advanced farm management. Danish farms using recirculating techniques remain competitive thanks to enhanced productivity and economy of scale. However, small traditional farms in Germany and Denmark may struggle to stay competitive in the long term. Organic farms in both countries face challenges of high feed costs and comparatively low productivity with mixed success. Using edible protein energy return on investment (epEROI) as an indicator of ecological sustainability, all surveyed farms compared very favourably with the terrestrial systems of animal meat production were investigated so far.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T02:16:04.986568-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13144
       
  • Effects of ammonia exposure on stress and immune response in juvenile
           turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)
    • Authors: Rui Jia; Bao-Liang Liu, Cen Han, Bin Huang, Ji-Lin Lei
      Pages: 3149 - 3162
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ammonia exposure on stress and immune response in turbot. The species was exposed to five total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations: 0 (control), 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg L−1 for 96 h. After 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure, blood samples were collected to measure the levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH), lysozyme (LZM), complement 3 (C3), complement 4 (C4) and immunoglobulinM (IgM); liver samples were taken to analyse oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione, GSH; malondialdehyde, MDA), and gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 70 and HSP 90) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The results showed that exposure to higher concentrations of TAN (20 and/or 40 mg L−1) enhanced the levels of CRH, ACTH and cortisol and attenuated the levels of GH, LZM, C3, C4 and IgM in plasma of turbot after 48 and 96 h. In liver, TAN (20 and/or 40 mg L−1) apparently increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD and CAT), mRNA levels of HSP (HSP 70 and 90) and formation of MDA, decreased the content of GSH and mRNA levels of IGF-1 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Overall, our results suggested that high ammonia exposure caused activation of hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal axis, inhibition of GH/IGF axis and immunity, and occurrence of oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2016-07-02T02:50:26.945202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13145
       
  • Effect of Bacillus cereus as a water or feed additive on the gut
           microbiota and immunological parameters of Nile tilapia
    • Authors: Miao Wang; Guanbin Liu, Maixin Lu, Xiaoli Ke, Zhigang Liu, Fengying Gao, Jianmeng Cao, Huaping Zhu, Mengmeng Yi, Deguang Yu
      Pages: 3163 - 3173
      Abstract: We evaluated the effects of Bacillus cereus, as an additive in water and feed, on the gut microbiota and immunological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Experiments were performed in tanks and net cages respectively. Experiment 1: Tilapia were housed in tanks for 42 days, and B. cereus was added to the water at 1.0 × 104 cfu mL−1 (Treatment 1) and 1.0 ×105 cfu mL−1 (Treatment 2) weekly. For the control, no probiotic was added. Experiment 2: Tilapia were housed in cages for 42 days, and the feed was supplemented with B. cereus at 1.0 × 107 cfu g−1 (Treatment 1) and 1.0 × 108 cfu g−1 (Treatment 2) weekly. For the control, no probiotic was added. Each treatment contained three replicates, with 50 male tilapias per replicate. The fish from the probiotic treatments in both tank and cage experiments had significantly higher serum lysozyme and peroxidase activities than the control. In the cage experiment, alkaline phosphatase and total superoxide dismutase activities in tilapia were significantly higher in probiotic treatments compared with the control. The results of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that B. cereus supplementation in the feed and water affected the autochthonous gut bacteria community of tilapia and stimulated various potentially beneficial bacteria. Therefore, B. cereus, as a water or feed additive, could enhance the immune status and affect the gut microbiota of tilapia. Bacillus cereus was more effective as a feed supplement rather than a water additive for enhancing the immune status of tilapia.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T00:15:31.925821-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13146
       
  • Effects of replacing fish meal with soya protein concentrate on growth,
           feed efficiency and digestibility in diets for snakehead, Channa striata
    • Authors: Tran Thi Thanh Hien; Tran Minh Phu, Tran Le Cam Tu, Nguyen Vinh Tien, Pham Minh Duc, David A Bengtson
      Pages: 3174 - 3181
      Abstract: Soya bean meal-based formulated feeds have recently become available for snakehead culture in Vietnam. This study was conducted to determine the appropriate replacement of fish meal (FM) protein by another soya product, soya protein concentrate (SPC), in snakehead (Channa striata) diets. Five iso-nitrogenous (45% crude protein) and iso-caloric (19 KJ g−1) practical diets were formulated to replace 0% (control), 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of protein FM by protein SPC (100% FM, 40% SPC, 60% SPC, 80% SPC and 100% SPC respectively). A digestibility experiment was also conducted with the same formulated diets with addition of 1% chromic oxide. Fish fed 100% FM and 40% SPC diets had significantly better growth and survival compared with other treatments. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and net protein utilization, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities of experimental fish fed 100% FM and 40% SPC diets were significantly higher than those fed other diets. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of the diet and diet components, ADCdiet, ADCprotein and ADClipid, of fish fed diet 40% SPC and 100% FM treatment were significantly higher than those of other treatments. The cost/kg fish produced in diets 100% FM and 40% SPC was much lower compared with other treatments. Dietary inclusion levels of SPC in diet above 40% significantly affected fish survival, growth, digestibility and trypsin and chymotrypsin activities, although fish chemical composition was not greatly affected.
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T00:31:14.538192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13147
       
  • In vitro and in vivo selection of probiotic purple nonsulphur bacteria
           with an ability to inhibit shrimp pathogens: acute hepatopancreatic
           necrosis disease-causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and other vibrios
    • Authors: Supaporn Chumpol; Duangporn Kantachote, Pattamarat Rattanachuay, Varaporn Vuddhakul, Teruhiko Nitoda, Hiroshi Kanzaki
      Pages: 3182 - 3197
      Abstract: Shrimp cultivation has been faced with huge losses in productivity caused by infectious shrimp pathogenic vibrios, especially Vibrio parahaemolyticus that causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Hence, purple nonsulphur bacteria (PNSB) were isolated from shrimp ponds for investigating their abilities to control shrimp pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their use as probiotics for sustainable shrimp cultivation. Based on their probiotic properties, strains S3W10 and SS15 were selected because of their strong abilities to produce amylase, gelatinase and vitamin B12. However, only three PNSB strains (SS15, TKW17 and STW181) strongly inhibited V. harveyi_KSAAHRC and V. vulnificus_KSAAHRC including V. parahaemolyticusAHPND strains by secreting antivibrio compounds. Four selected PNSB also grew in the presence of pancreatic enzymes, and they were identified as Rhodobacter sphaeroides for strains S3W10, SS15 and TKW17 and Afifella marina for strain STW181. The effects of a mixed culture were also investigated as follows: T1 (S3W10 + SS15), T2 (S3W10 + TKW17) and T3 (S3W10 + STW181) on postlarval white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for 60 days by comparison with a control. All three probiotic PNSB sets significantly improved the digestive enzyme activities and shrimp growth with their proliferation in shrimp gastrointestinal tract although the shrimp survival was not significantly different. They also significantly reduced the cumulative mortality of shrimp exposed to a virulent AHPND strain (V. parahaemolyticusSR2). This is the first to conclude that selected probiotic PNSB strains have great potential to be used for shrimp cultivation to control vibrios including AHPND strains.
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T00:35:27.219618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13149
       
  • Prediction of cannibalism in juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii
           (Hilgendorf, 1880), based on morphometric characteristics and paired
           trials
    • Authors: Dan Xi; Xiumei Zhang, Hongjian Lü, Zhixin Zhang
      Pages: 3198 - 3206
      Abstract: To predict the occurrence of cannibalism in the culture of larval black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, we developed a regression model based on morphometric measurements. First, 156 black rockfish were measured to obtain a theoretical model, that is LT prey = 0.624 LT cannibal + 0.835. Then, 202 trials of paired fish, together with 31 pairs of cannibalistic fish, were used to revise this model, and the practical model was constructed: LT prey = 0.522 LT cannibal + 4.908 (R² = 0.99). According to this equation, the threshold of size ratio was deduced, that is 1.30–1.69, which could be used to grade black rockfish by size and remove potential cannibals.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07T01:00:34.518053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13150
       
  • Anaesthetic efficacy of eugenol on Flowerhorn (Amphilophus
           labiatus × Amphilophus trimaculatus)
    • Authors: Reza Tarkhani; Ahmad Imani, Hadi Jamali, Kourosh Sarvi Moghanlou
      Pages: 3207 - 3215
      Abstract: Anaesthetic efficacy of eugenol was investigated on Flowerhorn (Amphilophus labiatus × Amphilophus trimaculatus). A total of 104 fish with average weights of 12 ± 2.5, 28 ± 5 and 53 ±5.1 g were subjected to 25–200 mg L−1 eugenol and behavioural responses as well as induction and recovery times were recorded. Induction and recovery times were significantly affected by eugenol concentration as well as fish weight (P 
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T05:05:38.301163-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13151
       
  • Growth performance, lipid requirement and antioxidant capacity of juvenile
           Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedti fed various levels of linoleic
           and linolenic acids
    • Authors: Qi Li; Haoyong Zhu, Erchao Li, Jianguang Qin, Liqiao Chen
      Pages: 3216 - 3229
      Abstract: To evaluate the effects of dietary linoleic (LA) and linolenic acids (LN) on growth, enzyme activities to lipid addition and antioxidant capacity of the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedti, 10 diets with different sources of lipid were formulated. Coconut oil in the basal diet was replaced by sunflower oil to make three diets (LA0.5 + LN0, LA1.0 + LN0 and LA2.0 + LN0) with dietary LA at 0.5%, 1.0% and 2%, by perilla oil to obtain three diets (LA0 + LN0.5, LA0 + LN1.0 and LA0 + LN2.0) with dietary LN at 0.5%, 1.0% and 2%, and by the combination of sunflower oil and perilla oil to provide three diets (LA0.25 +LN0.25, LA0.5 + LN0.5 and LA1.0 + LN1.0) containing LA and LN at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00%. Coconut oil was used as the control diet at 10%, but without LA and LN (LA0 + LN0). After feeding for 56 days, the fish whole body, the serum and the liver of sturgeon were sampled. Fish fed LA0 +  LN0 and LA0 + LN2.0 gained lowest weight but was not significantly different from the fish fed LA0 +  LN1.0. Fish fed LA1.0 + LN1.0 gained highest weight among all groups. Feed conversion ratio was the best in fish fed LA1.0 +  LN1.0. Survival, condition factor and viscerosomatic index did not differ among treatments. Total body n-6 fatty acids increased with the levels of n-6. Total body n-3 fatty acids also increased with dietary n-3, and fish fed 2.0% LN had the highest content of total body n-3 fatty acids among all groups. Triglyceride and cholesterol in the serum of fish fed LA1.0 +  LN1.0 were lowest. Fish fed LA1.0 +  LN1.0 showed the highest lipoprotein lipase and lipase activities, but the lowest malate dehydrogenase activity. Fish fed LA1.0 +  LN1.0 showed higher catalase, superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity than fish fed other diets. This study indicates that diets containing both LA and LN are best for the growth of Russian sturgeon. The level of LA1.0 + LN1.0 in the diet is most beneficial for growth performance and antioxidant capacity in juvenile Russian sturgeon.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05T05:10:35.488562-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13152
       
  • Ontogenetic profile of Antiviral Mx gene and its role in innate immunity
           in Mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton 1822)
    • Authors: Pragyan Roy; Soumya P Panda, Arttatrana Pal, Pallipuram Jayasankar, Basanta K Das
      Pages: 3230 - 3243
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the ontogeny of antiviral Mx gene expression in different stages of development of Cirrhinus mrigala (mrigal). For this purpose, three experiments were designed; in the first experiment, Mx expression was observed in eggs, milt, poly I:C treated twitching stage and control twitching stage, and the Mx expression was maximum in eggs. In the second experiment, upregulation of Mx transcript was studied in hatchling stages of mrigal after poly I:C induction by bath treatment, while control hatchlings were studied as such. Hatchlings (both control and treated) were collected at 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-h interval after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of poly I:C induction. The Mx gene expression showed an increasing trend up to 72 h, where it was highest 3.3-fold higher than the control and then decreased at 96 h where it was threefold higher when compared to the control. In the third experiment, expression of Mx transcript was studied in mrigal fry after intramuscular stimulation with poly I:C for a duration of 28 days. A gradual upregulation of Mx transcript was seen for the experimental period of 28 days. From the study, it is concluded that Mx gene is transmitted from egg and twitching stages and reduced in larvae and fry. Hence, ontogenically, without poly I:C induction, Mx gene is constitutively expressed at early stages indicating the antiviral defences transmitted from parents to offspring in the process of embryonic development. This indicates there is an antiviral Mx defence mechanism playing at early stages of the development for a period of 45 days.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T06:47:10.028806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13153
       
  • Effect of fish meal replacement by Chlorella meal with dietary cellulase
           addition on growth performance, digestive enzymatic activities, histology
           and myogenic genes’ expression for crucian carp Carassius auratus
    • Authors: Xi Shi; Zhi Luo, Feng Chen, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Xiao-Ming Zhu, Xu Liu
      Pages: 3244 - 3256
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish meal (FM) replacement by Chlorella meal (CM) with dietary cellulase supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymatic activities, histology and myogenic genes’ expression in crucian carp Carassius auratus (initial body weight: 2.90 ± 0.02 g, mean ± SEM). Six isonitrogenous diets were formulated at two cellulase levels (0 and 2 g kg−1). At each cellulase level, CM was added at three levels of 0, 533.1 and 710.8 g kg−1 to substitute 0, 75 and 100% of dietary FM respectively. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups with 25 juvenile fish per fibreglass tank for 8 weeks. Dietary CM substitution significantly increased growth, feed utilization, amylase activity and the expression of Myod, Mrf4 and Myf5, but reduced the Myog expression. Dietary cellulase addition increased hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic index, lipase activity and the expression of Mrf4, but reduced trypsin activity and the expression of Myog and Myf5. Dietary CM substitution enlarged the cell size and also caused some karyopyknosis in liver. Our results showed that CM could totally replace FM in diets; dietary cellulase supplementation at the level of 2 g kg−1 played a subtle role in improving growth and feed utilization for crucian carp.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T10:08:03.693331-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13154
       
  • iTRAQ-based identification of differentially expressed proteins related to
           growth in the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: Xianyun Ren; Xuan Yu, Baoquan Gao, Jian Li, Ping Liu
      Pages: 3257 - 3267
      Abstract: The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, is an important farmed species in China, and it has been studied extensively, which requires more information on its genetic background. To date, information on the proteomics of P. trituberculatus is scarce. In this study, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics to investigate growth regulation in P. trituberculatus. Total proteins were isolated from five tissues (eyestalk, gill, heart, hepatopancreas and muscle). Equal quantities of protein from each tissue were pooled at the proteome level using the iTRAQ method. A total of 961 proteins were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing data. Using a 1.2-fold change in expression as a physiologically significant benchmark, 30 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found to undergo differential expression related to the growth of P. trituberculatus, and most of the growth-related proteins, including those involved in metabolism, immune responses, DNA duplication and protein synthesis, were upregulated, indicating that conservation of energy is an important strategy to cope with growth. There was a high consistency between the expression levels determined using iTRAQ and mRNA, highlighting the high reproducibility of our proteomic approach and its great value in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of P. trituberculatus.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14T22:55:30.715661-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13155
       
  • Physiological responses of lambari Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti &
           Britski 2000) to air exposure
    • Authors: Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva; Ricardo Henrique Franco Oliveira
      Pages: 3268 - 3271
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T00:33:51.222184-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13018
       
  • Parentage and mating patterns in a Florida Largemouth Bass (Micropterus
           salmoides floridanus) hatchery
    • Authors: John S Hargrove; James D Austin
      Pages: 3272 - 3277
      PubDate: 2016-04-16T01:10:26.911892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13051
       
  • One cryptic species of ‘Grey Mullet’ from Taiwan with the specific
           mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid profiles is worth extra cultivation
           time
    • Authors: Angela Chien; Ralph Kirby, Shyn-Shin Sheen
      Pages: 3278 - 3283
      PubDate: 2016-04-16T01:25:34.211975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13058
       
 
 
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