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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1579 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1579 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 407, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 231, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Research
  [SJR: 0.807]   [H-I: 60]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-557X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2109
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Osmoregulation of pre- and prometamorphic Chinese edible frogs
           (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) raised in brackish water relies on body Na+ and
           Cl− concentrations, but not urea production
    • Authors: La-iad Nakkrasae; Varin Jaisin, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T03:51:29.727485-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13534
  • Effects of dietary macroalgae meal and lipid source on growth performance
           and body wall fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus
    • Authors: Bin Wen; Yong-Jun Sun, Qin-Feng Gao, Shuang-Lin Dong, Zai-Zhong Chen, Jian-Zhong Gao
      Abstract: A 70-day experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different macroalgal meals and lipid sources on growth, body wall composition and fatty acid (FA) profile of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Two macroalgal meals including Sargassum muticum (SM) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis (GL) and two lipid sources including fish oil (FO) and vegetable oil (VO) were formulated into four diets, i.e., S. muticum and fish oil (SF), S. muticum and vegetable oil (SV), G. lemaneiformis and fish oil (GF) and G. lemaneiformis and vegetable oil (GV). The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of A. japonicus fed diets containing SM were significantly higher than those fed diets containing GL. No significant differences in SGR between the FO-based and VO-based groups were observed. Similar results were observed in the body wall lipid content. Most body wall FAs changed to resemble the dietary FA proportions because of the dietary effect. Concentrations of 20:4n-6 of the SF and GF groups were significantly lower than the SV and GV groups, while levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significantly higher than the SV and GV groups. The n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratios of the SF and GF groups were significantly higher than the SV and GV groups. Moreover, the SF group had significantly higher 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents and n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio than the GF group. These findings reveal that the SF diet can show beneficial effects on both growth performance and body wall n-3 PUFAs content of A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T03:50:50.542385-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13508
  • Molecular cloning of heat shock protein 60 from Marsupenaeus japonicus and
           its expression profiles at early developmental stages and response to heat
    • Authors: Jinbin Zheng; Lijun Li, Hongbiao Dong, Yong Mao, Yongquan Su, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Water temperature is an essential environmental factor in aquaculture that affects many aspects of organism, and a rise in water temperature stresses aquatic animals. HSP60 is a major component of the chaperone system and plays an important role in stress response. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of HSP60 from Marsupenaeus japonicus was cloned for the first time, and the tissue distributions and expression profiles of MjHSP60 at the early developmental stages of M. japonicus and under heat stress were verified by qRT-PCR. The full-length cDNA sequence of MjHSP60 was 2,303 bp with the deduced amino acid (AA) sequence of 579 AA. MjHSP60 was expressed in all eight tested tissues of M. japonicus and was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas under normal condition. MjHSP60 was expressed in all of the early developmental stages examined from the fertilized egg to the post-larval stage, and the expression level of MjHSP60 peaked at zoea II and reached a trough at the transition periods between each two stages (N and M1) and showed a relatively stable expression level at the post-larval stage. The expression level of MjHSP60 was significantly up-regulated in the gills, muscle, heart, hepatopancreas and stomach at 3 hr post-heat-stress and showed varied sensitivity to heat stress. The expression profile of MjHSP60 in the hepatopancreas and gill showed a time-dependent manner post-heat-stress and peaked at 3 hr post-heat-stress. The present study provided a basis for further studies for elucidating the function of MjHSP60 in the heat stress response and the early developmental stages of M. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T05:46:55.85247-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13461
  • Effects of thyroxine, cod liver oil and potassium iodide on growth and
           survival of juvenile seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri
    • Authors: Fatihah Abd Halid Nur; Annie Christianus, Abd Rahim Abdullah, Muta Harah Zakaria, Che Roos Saad
      Abstract: Low survival at early stage is the bottleneck in seahorse aquaculture, particularly in the feeding aspect since newborn seahorses must feed immediately upon birth to sustain themselves. Seahorses are visual predator, therefore preferred live feed such as zooplankton. In aquaculture, the most common live feed used is Artemia. In this study, two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different Artemia enrichment on the growth and survival of newborn Hippocampus barbouri. In the first experiment, six treatments using Artemia enriched with Culture Selco Plus™ (SELCO), thyroxine (T4), potassium iodide (KI), cod liver oil (CLO), cod liver oil in combination with thyroxine (CLO + T4) and potassium iodide (CLO+KI) were fed to newborn H. barbouri. Newly hatched Artemia were used as control. At the end of first experiment, treatments using CLO + T4 produced juvenile H. barbouri with the best (p  .05) in survival and growth performance (except for final standard length) when compared with treatment CLO + T4 at daily frequency.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:29:35.92797-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13531
  • Effect of L-tryptophan supplemented diets on serotonergic system and
           plasma cortisol in Totoaba macdonaldi (Gilbert, 1890) juvenile exposed to
           acute stress by handling and hypoxia
    • Authors: Miguel Cabanillas-Gámez; Lus M López, Mario A Galaviz, Conal D True, Ulises Bardullas
      Abstract: Brain serotonin and cortisol play a central role in integrating the neuroendocrine response to stress. Previous studies in aquatic species show that dietary supplementation with the 5-HT precursor L-tryptophan amino acid is able to modulate this response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on the serotonergic system and acute stress response in Totoaba macdonaldi. Four groups of fish were fed with one of four isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets formulated with different Trp content: 0.5% (1X TRP, control diet), 1.1% (2X TRP), 1.7% (3X TRP) and 2.3% (4X TRP). After a feeding period of 21 days, groups were exposed to acute stress by handling with a net or hypoxia. Feeding with Trp-enriched diets resulted in increased 5-HT content in telencephalon of undisturbed fish. Handling increased the 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in telencephalon of fish fed with 1X TRP and 2X TRP but was not significant for the fish fed 3X TRP and 4X TRP, and no significant increase was observed by hypoxia in both telencephalon and hypothalamus in any of the diets. An inverted U-shaped response was observed in plasma cortisol increasing with 2X TRP after both handling and hypoxia and decreasing with diets rich in Trp, 3X TRP and 4X TRP. A higher increase was observed in haematocrit, plasma glucose and lactate in hypoxia than the handling groups. Our results indicate that Trp supplementation modulated cortisol response and mediated negative feedback of 5-HT system in telencephalon after acute stress.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:05:25.096759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13529
  • Evaluating the spatial range of the effect of synchronized antiparasitic
           treatments on the abundance of sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall &
           Bravo, 2000) in Chile
    • Authors: Gabriel A Arriagada; Sandra L Marín
      Abstract: Sea lice are the most important ectoparasites affecting farmed salmonids in marine water worldwide and pharmacological treatments are widely used to control their abundance. Synchronization of antiparasitic treatments among closely located salmon farms has been recently evaluated as a promising strategy for improving treatment performance. However, the optimum distance at which farms should synchronize their treatments is not clear. We used a repeated measures linear mixed effects model to evaluate the impact of two nationwide treatment synchronization procedures conducted in Chile in 2014 and 2015 on subsequent adult lice counts up to 13 weeks after the procedure. Each treatment synchronization procedure consisted of two 2-week synchronization windows, in which farms were required to treat their fish. A period of 3 weeks elapsed between the two windows. Treatment synchronization was measured as the number of neighbouring farms that treated their fish within a certain geographical threshold, each of them weighted by its distance from the farm of interest. We tested four different thresholds: 5, 10, 20 and 30 km. The results indicate that the abundance of adult lice on farms that synchronized treatments with their neighbours within a distance of 5 km was lower than the abundance on non-synchronized farms from weeks 4 to 11 after the procedure. Our findings suggest the treatment synchronization effect was distance dependent and greater when neighbouring farms up to 5 km joined the procedure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:00:37.059411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13513
  • Determination of methionine requirement of juvenile silver catfish
           (Rhamdia quelen) and its effects on growth performance, plasma and hepatic
           metabolites at a constant cystine level
    • Authors: Daniel Antonio Rotili; Suzete Rossato, Isadora Liberalesso Freitas, Suziane Ghedini Martinelli, João Radünz Neto, Rafael Lazzari
      Abstract: This study was performed to determine the dietary methionine requirements and its effects on growth performance, plasma and hepatic metabolites for juvenile silver catfish. The fish (initial weight = 3.26 ± 0.3 g) were distributed in 24 experimental units (35 fish each). Six diets were formulated with increasing levels of methionine (09, 16, 23, 30, 37 and 44 g/kg protein diet). Each diet was distributed randomly to the groups, with four replicates fed twice daily to apparent satiation for 15 weeks. Methionine levels influenced in body composition (moisture and ash), and submit effect on liver metabolism and plasma. The relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with highest levels of methionine to 30 g/kg protein in the diet, thereafter maintaining a nearly constant level of 1.9 g/kg cystine in the protein diet. The protein retention coefficient (PRC) also increased with increasing levels of up to 23 g/kg protein diet, thereafter maintaining a constant level of 1.9 g/kg cystine protein diet until beginning to decrease at a level of 44 g/kg protein diet. In conclusion, methionine is an essential amino acid for the growth of juvenile silver catfish and exhibits an efficient capacity when provided as a synthetic amino acid. Based on the RWG and SGR data, the methionine requirement of juvenile silver catfish was estimated at 34.42 and 35.85 g/kg of the CP or 12.74 g/kg and 13.26 g/kg of the diet respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-10-08T23:55:21.636245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13530
  • A simple technique for accurate estimation of fertilization rate with
           specific application to Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)
    • Authors: Victor T Okomoda; Ivan Chong Chu Koh, Sherif Md Shahreza
      PubDate: 2017-10-07T01:00:36.149384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13528
  • Effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance, body
           composition and lipid metabolism-related enzymes and genes of juvenile
           golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus
    • Authors: Kang Liu; Hongyu Liu, Shuyan Chi, Xiaohui Dong, Qihui Yang, Beiping Tan
      Abstract: Three groups of juvenile golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus (54.75 ± 0.25 g), were each fed one of three diets containing different lipid sources: fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO) and lard oil (LO). Fish were reared in sea cages for 8 weeks, and the fish fed the FO diet had significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) but lower condition factor (CF) than the other treatments. The fatty acid (FA) composition of whole-body lipids was closely correlated with those in the diets. Although no differences can be found in hepatic fatty acid synthase (fasn) activity, the carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (cpt1) activity in fish fed the FO diet was significantly higher compared with other treatments. In addition, the relative gene expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes, such as cpt1, fas, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase (fadsd6) and fatty acid-binding protein 1 (fabp1), was also influenced by the different dietary lipid sources. Serum triglyceride (TG) and glucose content in fish fed the LO and FO diets were significantly higher than those in the SO group. Accordingly, it can be concluded that FO could not be completely replaced by SO or LO in golden pompano diets. The lipid sources of a diet could impose significant influence on body condition factor and hepatic lipid metabolism of golden pompano.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T00:55:35.060826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13502
  • Cytogenetic analysis of hybrids and hybrid triploids between the river
           puffer, Takifugu obscurus, and the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes
    • Authors: Gwang Yeol Yoo; Tae Ho Lee, Hyun Woo Gil, Sang Gu Lim, In-Seok Park
      Abstract: Cytogenetic analyses of the river puffer, Takifugu obscurus, the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes and hybrids produced between female T. obscurus and male T. rubripes and their hybrid triploids (produced by cold shock treatment at 4°C) were performed. T. obscurus had 2n = 44 chromosomes and 1.84 ± 0.019 pg DNA/cell, T. rubripes had 2n = 44 and 2.64 ± 0.015, the hybrids had 2n = 44 and 2.15 ± 0.010 and the hybrid triploids had 3n = 66 and 3.22 ± 0.010. The erythrocyte values of the hybrids were more similar to those for T. obscurus, whereas the hepatocyte, midgut and proximal tubule kidney cell values of the hybrids fell down between those for the parental species (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T05:12:48.218936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13493
  • Improved solution for vitrification of Prochilodus lineatus embryos based
           on the reduction in risk factors: Toxicity, osmotic responses and
    • Authors: Raphael da Silva Costa; Fabrício Marçal Silva Souza, José Augusto Senhorini, Douglas de Castro Ribeiro, Cristiane Bashiyo-Silva, Geovanna Carla Zacheo Coelho, Rosicleire Verissimo-Silveira, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira
      Abstract: The objective of our work was to describe a low toxicity cryoprotectant solution that allowed vitreous solid formation. Embryos of Prochilodus lineatus were submitted to sensitivity evaluations of six internal cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulphoxide – Me2SO, dimethyl acetamide – DMA, dimethyl formamide – DMF, methanol – MET, glycerol – GLY and 1,2-propanediol – PROP) at concentrations of 1–6 M; and two external cryoprotectants (sucrose – SUC and glucose – GLU) at concentrations of 0.1–1 M for 20 min. The capacity of the cryoprotectant solutions to exchange heat with the medium and to form glassy solids was evaluated by immersing 10 μl of cryoprotectant in liquid nitrogen. The PROP had a high survival rate at all concentrations evaluated, and was the only substance that allowed a vitreous solid formation. Thus, it is concluded that the PROP-6 M was the most adequate solution for embryonic vitrification processes, because heat exchange between the system (PROP 6 M/embryos/liquid nitrogen) was faster than for other cryoprotectants and combinations thereof; has low toxicity, promote high rates of dehydration in short periods, and reach the vitreous state, being a good candidate to be used in the tests of embryonic vitrification.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T05:10:33.765555-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13510
  • Growth and survival of the winged pearl oyster Pteria sterna (Gould, 1851)
           in suspended culture in the tropical Eastern Pacific: Influence of
           environmental factors
    • Authors: César Lodeiros; Daniel Rodríguez-Pesantes, Adrian Márquez, Jormil Revilla, Luis Freites, Carla Lodeiros-Chacón, Stanislaus Sonnenholzner
      Abstract: The growth, survival and influence of environmental factors were analysed in two cohorts of cultured Pteria sterna in Ayangue Bay, Province of Santa Elena, Ecuador (tropical Eastern Pacific). Juveniles representing cohorts I and II (8.4 ± 0.54 and 5.0 ± 0.17 mm in dorso-ventral axis) were deployed in November 2015 and February 2016, and grown in pearl nets suspended in a long line for 12 and 10 months respectively. The stocking density was monthly and bi-monthly reduced during sampling of individuals to determine growth in dorso-ventral shell axis, dry mass of shell, soft tissues and dry mass of fouling on shell. Water temperature, salinity, total seston and phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) were determined at the culture site. Results showed that P. sterna reached ~100 mm in length during the first year of culture. Although little negative influence of environmental factors was detected, high temperatures during the reproduction period can be the most negative influential trait. The highest tissue mass (6 g), which occurred at the 10th month of cultivation, as well as a high availability of spat by artificial collectors in the coastal waters, showed that the species can be considered a good candidate for aquaculture in the tropical eastern Pacific.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:25:32.103192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13514
  • Effects of dietary herbal formulae combined by Astragalus polysaccharides,
           chlorogenic acid and allicin in different combinations and proportions on
           growth performance, non-specific immunity, antioxidant status, vibriosis
           resistance and damage indexes of Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Hui Huang; Luqing Pan, Shanshan Pan, Mengsi Song
      Abstract: In this study, a feeding trial followed by a challenge test was performed to evaluate effects of six herbal formulae which were different combinations of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and allicin on growth performance, non-specific immune response, antioxidant capacity, disease resistance and biomolecule damage of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were fed seven diets, control diet (basal diet with no herbal formulae) and six herbal formula diets (G1–G6, basal diet supplemented with 0.1% APS + 0.05% allicin, 0.1% APS + 0.1% allicin, 0.1% CGA + 0.05% allicin, 0.1% CGA + 0. 1% allicin, 0.1% APS + 0.1% CGA and 0.1% APS + 0.1% CGA + 0.05% allicin respectively), for 21 days. After that, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi and then the cumulative mortality of shrimp was recorded for 7 days post challenge. The results showed that there were no significant differences in growth performance among all groups, while the non-specific immune responses and antioxidant indexes were significantly improved (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:20:44.589774-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13500
  • The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth
           performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing
           Atlantic salmon Salmo salar
    • Authors: Thomas Waldrop; Steven Summerfelt, Patricia Mazik, Christopher Good
      Abstract: Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in modern aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon. In our study, Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:20:24.432331-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13511
  • Effect of cannabis oil on growth performance, haematology and metabolism
           of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: I Patrick Saoud; Jessica Babikian, Nivin Nasser, Samer Monzer
      Abstract: Cannabis sativa is a plant that produces an oil with psychoactive and stress reduction effects and thus illegal in many nations. Lately, the beneficial properties of the plant extract are becoming better understood and perceptions are changing. As the aquaculture industry matures from a primitive extensive pond system to an industrialized intensive system, fish stress and disease incidence are increasing, with negative economic results. A nutritional ingredient that could reduce stress and disease incidence in aquacultured fish would thus be opportune. In the present work we investigated whether ether extracted cannabis oil would relieve stress, improve growth and feed conversion, and/or improve haematological indicators of disease resistance. Three diets were made to contain either soy oil, industrial hemp oil or cannabis oil and offered to tilapia for 8 weeks. At termination, survival, growth, feed conversion and blood parameters were assessed. Fish were returned to their tanks, offered the same feeds as during the experiment and respiration assessed. Cannabis extract was found to increase metabolism and thus increase feed conversion. On the other hand, cannabis had no effect on blood cell counts, total plasma protein, haematocrit or lysozyme activity. Results thus suggest that cannabis does not improve immune response of tilapia or body composition but does reduce growth rate by increasing metabolic rate.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:20:21.625594-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13512
  • Biochemical parameters in the blood of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata
           Linnaeus, 1758) supplemented with commercially available β-glucan-based
           product (IMUNO-2865®)
    • Authors: Ivan Župan; Suzana Tkalčić, Rozelindra Čož-Rakovac, Ivančica Strunjak-Perović, Natalija Topić-Popović, Sanja Babić, Maro Bujak, Tomislav Šarić
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a promising new immune stimulant in aquaculture (IMUNO-2865®) on biochemical parameters in sea bream during the winter stress period. A total of 640 sea bream were fed throughout 90 days with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 g (Group 4) of IMUNO-2865® kg−1 of feed. Samples were taken each month and 90 days after supplementation. No statistical differences among treatment groups were noticed for the following biochemical parameters: glucose (GLU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), plasma cholesterol (CHOL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea (URE) and creatinine (CREA). At the final sampling, total ammonia (NH3) was higher in Groups 3 and 4 compared to the control and the low supplementation group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T01:51:05.905455-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13509
  • Labeo rohita and Argulus siamensis infection: Host size, local
           inflammatory reaction and immunity modulate ectoparasite load on fish
    • Authors: Sonali Parida; Amruta Mohapatra, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Pramoda K Sahoo
      Abstract: Parasite species often show a heterogeneous, highly dispersed pattern of infestation within hosts. Varieties of factors including morphological, physiological, immunological and nutritional characteristics affect the infestation level of a specific parasite in homogenous pray. Limited attempts, however, have been made to explore such underlying drivers of infestation pattern. Here, three stages of Labeo rohita (fingerling, juvenile and pre-adult) were challenged with ectoparasite, Argulus siamensis in same aquaria. The parasite load on individuals was determined at 5-day interval for 1 month. The load was found to be highest in pre-adult stage followed by juveniles and fingerlings. On day 20 post infection, the load of parasite on pre-adult fish was high along with detectable skin damages. Skin tissues were collected for immune gene expression analysis and histopathology. Histological studies showed increased melanization in the dermis and mild inflammatory cellular reactions in pre-adult fish whereas, massive subcutaneous myositis with engorged blood vessels were observed in fingerlings. The expression levels of various inflammation and innate immune-related genes viz., interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-11, IL-15, natural killer enhancing factor, toll-like receptor 4, apolipoprotein A–I and immunoglobulin Z were significantly high in skin samples of infected fingerlings as compared to other two growth stages or controls of each stage. On the other hand, the expression of immunoglobulin M was down-regulated in all infected samples as compared to their respective controls. The results thus depict that local immuno-inflammatory response plays a significant role in determining susceptibility of host in intra-specific group, and has important implications for ecology and aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T01:31:09.262226-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13506
  • Effects of l-tryptophan on the performance, energy partitioning and
           endocrine response of Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus
           Selenka) exposed to crowding stress
    • Authors: Endong Zhang; Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao
      Abstract: The effects of dietary tryptophan on growth performance, energy budget and endocrine response of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were studied, to test whether the tryptophan could mitigate the crowding stress response of the sea cucumber. Four density treatments of the sea cucumber (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 1%, 3% and 5% l-tryptophan, respectively, for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCE) of A. japonicus decreased with increasing in the stocking densities but increased after supplementation of 1% and 3% tryptophan. The energy allocation of the A. japonicus was affected significantly by stocking density and dietary tryptophan treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:26:59.113499-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13478
  • Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in all-plant protein diets
           on growth, antioxidant capacity and muscle energy metabolism of bullfrog
           Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana
    • Authors: Qiu-Hui Zeng; Samad Rahimnejad, Ling Wang, Kai Song, Kangle Lu, Chun-Xiao Zhang
      Abstract: Effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation in all-plant protein diets were evaluated on growth, antioxidant capacity and muscle energy metabolism of Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana. Six diets were prepared: a basal fish meal diet (FM), an all soybean meal diet (SM) and four GAA-supplemented diets by adding 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g GAA/kg to the SM diet (GAA2, GAA4, GAA6 and GAA8 diets). Triplicate groups of bullfrog (45 ± 0.2 g) were fed the diets to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Total substitution of FM with SM led to significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T00:55:19.641216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13505
  • Effects of low salinity stress on immune response and evaluating
           indicators of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: Lin Wang; Luqing Pan, Yuangang Ding, Xianyun Ren
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of salinity stress on immune responses and evaluating indicators in swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The crabs (150 ± 8.5 g in body weight) were exposed to different salinities as 21, 26 and 31‰ (control) for 6 days. The results showed the total haemocyte counts (THC) and prophenoloxidase (proPO) activity in the haemocytes decreased significantly in the treatment groups after 6 hr, and reached the lowest levels at 12 hr. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the plasma increased significantly and peaked at 12 hr, then recovered to control level after 24 hr. The phagocytic per cent of haemocyte, antibacterial and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma decreased significantly in the treatment groups, and reached the lowest level at 12 hr, then recovered to control level after 72 hr. The dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) contents in the plasma increased significantly and peaked at 12 hr, then recovered to control level, while the noradrenaline (NE) content in the plasma had no significant change throughout the duration of the experiment. The DA and 5-HT receptors were significantly up-regulated in the treatment groups. The highest value of mRNA expression of DA and 5-HT receptors occurred at 12 hr and recovered to control level after 24 hr. In addition, the cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) contents in the haemocytes increased significantly and peaked at 12 hr, then recovered to control level after 72 hr. The phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) contents in the haemocytes increased significantly and peaked at 12 hr, then resumed to control level after 24 hr. These results speculated that biogenic amine (DA and 5-HT) is likely to play an important role in immune modulation via cAMP/PKA signalling pathway or PLC/PKC signalling pathway when P. trituberculatus is exposed to low salinity and these results will provide scientific data for immune evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T00:50:23.439731-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13495
  • Monitoring of oxygen fluctuations in seabass cages (Dicentrarchus labrax
           L.) in a commercial fish farm in Greece
    • Authors: Pavlos Makridis; Elena Mente, Henrik Grundvig, Martin Gausen, Constantin Koutsikopoulos, Asbjørn Bergheim
      Abstract: Dissolved oxygen and temperature were monitored in cages stocked seabass at a commercial fish farm in Greece during summer and autumn. During the first part of the study, October–November 2012, current velocity monitoring outside the cages supported the sampling program. The latter sampling took place during May–July 2014. Including both periods, temperature fluctuated within the range 18–26°C while the current velocity, dominated by the tidal flow, varied from 0 to 28 cm/s in autumn. During sampling, seabass of 400–550 g individual weight was stocked at a density of 10–15 kg/m3. Within the cages, dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation decreased by 10% to 50% compared with outside levels. In-cage oxygen concentrations seemed to be affected by current speed, temperature and diurnal fluctuations due to the fish stock's activity and the day-night rhythm of algae. Hypoxia within the range 40%–70% of oxygen saturation was shown in several cases, despite the fact that the feeding intensity was quite low in the farm. The diurnal pattern of DO saturation showed that minimum levels coincided with feeding of the fish, while photosynthesis played a minor role in this case. This level of DO saturation although does not result in any mortalities may have other severe implications, especially at high temperature, such as lower feed utilization, increased metabolic expenses due to osmo-respiratory compromise, increased stress level, lower disease resistance and diminished fish welfare.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T04:05:46.567563-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13498
  • Pearl grafting: Tracking the biological origin of nuclei by
           straightforward immunological methods
    • Authors: Nelly Schmitt; Frédéric Marin, Jérôme Thomas, Laurent Plasseraud, Marina Demoy-Schneider
      Abstract: French Polynesia is renowned for the production of Tahitian black pearl. These gems are obtained by grafting a nucleus into the gonad of a receiving oyster together with a graft, i.e. a small section of mantle tissue of a donor oyster. This procedure initiates the formation of a pearl sack around the nucleus, and subsequently, the deposition of concentric layers of nacre. The nucleus plays a key-role in pearl formation and its characteristics influence markedly the quality of the final product. As it is manufactured from mollusc shells, it contains a small percentage of organics. In the present paper, we used a set of biochemical techniques to characterize and compare the organic matrices from two types of nuclei that are currently used in French Polynesia: that from the freshwater mussel Amblema sp., and that from the pearl oyster Pinctada sp. To this end, we extracted the matrices from nuclei and performed FT-IR, monodimensional electrophoresis, and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Our data show that the matrix associated with Amblema nuclei has a very different biochemical signature from that of Pinctada nuclei, a fact that may explain the improved tolerance of grafted oysters to nuclei of Pinctada origin. In the absence of complex physical methods of investigation, simple immunological techniques and FT-IR performed on the extracted organic matrix are extremely reliable and effective for discriminating nuclei from these two sources. We assert that such techniques can be used as a diagnostic test to track unambiguously the biological origin of nuclei to avoid fraud.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T04:05:34.448959-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13499
  • Oxytetracycline depletion and withdrawal time estimation following
           intraperitoneal administration in three species from Chilean salmon
    • Authors: Luis Norambuena-Subiabre; Margarita P González, Sergio Contreras-Lynch
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the half-time (T½) and withdrawal time (WT) of oxytetracycline (OTC) following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of OTC (24.8–34.7 mg/kg) in three farmed salmonid species, Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A detection technique in fish skin muscle through a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated. The depletion studies were carried out in controlled conditions (nine studies) and under field conditions (one study). The T½ and WT estimations from the skin muscle after the i.p. administration of OTC in salmonids appear to be longer than studies where the OTC was orally administrated. Furthermore, the OTC maximum concentration in muscle seems to be also higher in the i.p. treatment. Due to the prolonged WT following the i.p. OTC administration, cautions related to the salmon harvest time should be consider in order to prevent OTC traces in the final product.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T04:00:34.763632-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13501
  • Effects of stocking density, ration and temperature on growth, survival
           and metamorphosis of auricularia larvae of the California sea cucumber,
           Parastichopus californicus
    • Authors: Yichao Ren; Wenshan Liu, Christopher M Pearce
      Abstract: The combined effects of stocking density (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 inds/ml) and dietary microalgal ration (20,000 and 40,000 cells/ml) and the sole effect of temperature (10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 22°C) on the specific growth rate (SGR), per cent survival and per cent metamorphosis of auricularia larvae of the California sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, were evaluated in two separate experiments. The SGR was not significantly affected by stocking densities in the range of 0.2 to 4 inds/ml, but was significantly reduced at 8 inds/ml. The SGR of larvae fed 20,000 cells/ml was significantly reduced in comparison to those fed 40,000 cells/ml. Larvae had significantly higher per cent survival and per cent metamorphosis when reared at densities of 0.2 and 0.5 inds/ml compared with those reared at 2–8 inds/ml. Microalgal ration level did not significantly impact survival or metamorphosis. Larvae reared at 16 and 18°C had significantly higher SGRs and per cent metamorphosis than those held at all other temperatures, while per cent survival was highest at 16°C. Based on these results, we recommend rearing auricularia larvae of P. californicus at a stocking density at or below 0.5 inds/ml, a dietary ration of 40,000 cells/ml, and a temperature of 16°C.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T04:00:26.060519-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13482
  • Genetic identification of a newly synthetic allopolyploid strain with 206
           chromosomes in polyploid gibel carp
    • Authors: Meng Lu; Zhong-Wei Wang, Chong-Jiang Hu, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
      Abstract: A newly synthetic allopolyploid strain (SAS) was selected and established from gynogenetic offspring of gibel carp clone A+ with 156 chromosomes induced by common carp sperm with 50 chromosomes. In this study, the allopolyploid strain was detected to contain 206 chromosomes, and the growth trait was evaluated to have 25.15% growth faster than that of clone A+. Genetic marker analyses of transferrin (Tf) alleles, ITS1 sequences and mtDNA D-loop sequences indicated that the allopolyploid strain was synthetized from maternal gibel carp clone A+ and paternal common carp, and the synthetic chromosome sets were further confirmed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and chromosome localization of 45S rDNA. Significantly, the synthetic allopolyploid strain has tended to be stable by five successive generations of gynogenesis, because it still keeps unisexual reproduction mode of gynogenesis. Therefore, it will become a novel variety for gibel carp aquaculture in future.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T03:56:05.971854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13485
  • Effects of short-term starvation on the rhythmic expression of microRNAs
           in skeletal muscle of goldfish (Carassius auratus)
    • Authors: Ping Wu; Jun Shi, Chengyong Yang, Fangliang Zhang, Yulong Li, Lin Chen, Jia Cheng, Jianshe Zhang, Wuying Chu
      Abstract: Molecular oscillators exist in peripheral tissues such as in skeletal muscles and diet is a dominant factor to affect Zeitgeber for peripheral clocks. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the knowledge of starvation effects on miRNA rhythmic expression remains limited in teleost. In this study, the circadian expression pattern of miRNAs was investigated in goldfish muscle upon restricting feeding treatment. The data showed that 15 miRNAs exhibited a daily rhythmicity among the 70 miRNAs assayed in muscles of normally fed goldfish. While after 7-day and 15-day fasting treatment, 23 and 18 miRNAs showed circadian rhythmicity in goldfish muscles respectively. Only 4 miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-29, miR-199a-3p and miR-455) exhibited a daily rhythmicity in all three groups of different nutrient treatments. Correlation analysis of the circadian-miRNAs indicates different feeding stimulation could alter the circadian-miRNA components and their expression profile in skeletal muscle upon short-term feed deprivation. These miRNAs may play important roles in regulating circadian expression of genes involved in muscle cell differentiation and growth by nutritional alteration, thus having a potential application in fish aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:41:27.030995-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13503
  • Experimental rearing of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus fed with
           discards of the lettuce Lactuca sativa in a sea-based system
    • Authors: Salvatrice Vizzini; Giulia Visconti, Antonino Vaccaro, Antonio Mazzola
      Abstract: Small-sized specimens (test diameter: 16.64 ± 0.93 mm, mean ± SE) of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were fed with fresh discards of the lettuce Lactuca sativa during a 24-week experiment in a sea-based system. At the end of the experiment, stock survival was high (88.8 ± 6.6%). Sea urchin test diameter and total weight grew by 35% and 56%, respectively, while gonad somatic index, after an initial decrease, increased by 3.2%. Moreover, more than 90% of specimens achieved the gonad colour that the market demands. These results support the exploitation of L. sativa as the main ingredient in a manufactured diet for echinoculture of P. lividus. Employing diets formulated with discard ingredients, combined with a low-cost sea-based rearing system, could be a suitable approach for sustainable management of echinoculture.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:41:01.994258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13492
  • Role of sex steroids in gonadal differentiation of the mussel Choromytilus
           chorus (Bivalvia Mytilidae) (Molina 1782)
    • Authors: Maryori Ruiz-Velásquez; Manuel Zapata, María Teresa Gonzalez, Mauricio Escalona, Maritza Fajardo, Eduardo Tarifeño, Juan Morales
      Abstract: In Chile, the species Choromytilus chorus stands out for its ecological and economic importance. This mussel has a very particular condition in the colour of the gonad, being cream-yellow colour the male gonad and dark brown the female which is hardly desired by the consumers. In this context, the aim of this research is to determine the role that sex steroids have in gonadal differentiation of the mussel C. chorus. For this, juveniles with sizes 15–22 mm were selected, which were subjected to acute exposure in the form of bath for 60 days to four treatments: T1: dihydrotestosterone (DHT); T2: 17β-estradiol (E2), T3: fadrozole (F) and T4: DHT-F (DF), plus a control without chemicals. Each treatment as well as control included three replicates with 90 individuals each. The mussels undergoing treatment with E2 had a sex ratio (male:female) of 0.47 compared to 1:1 in the control group. In contrast, in the groups treated with DHT, F and DF the sex ratio changed to 2.0, 1.60 and 1.70 respectively. In the fertilization trials, all the mussels produced functional gametes, as they were able to generate gametes that were developed to morula, and veliger larva. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the size of oocytes from the group exposed to estradiol (61.12 ± 2.40 μm) was significantly higher than in other groups. These results support the hypothesis that sex steroids would be involved in sexual differentiation of marine bivalves.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:36:38.964391-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13470
  • Effectiveness of dietary vitamin supplementation to the performance of
           common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae in intensive rearing condition
    • Authors: Zsuzsanna Jakab Sándor; Zsuzsanna Bor Papp, László Ardó, Janka Nagy Biro, Galina Jeney
      Abstract: Study of enrichment of different vitamins (C, B1, B6 and E) in common carp larvae through 4 weeks feeding in recirculation system was carried out. For this purpose, procedure for enrichment of Artemia nauplii with different vitamins was developed and investigated the effectiveness in larvae nutrition. The habituation of larvae to dry feeds was done using supplemented dry diets with the same vitamins. To study the effect of vitamins in young fish, the most common stress situation was planned for carp nursed fries, which occurs during transportation. Levels of vitamins and parameters of immune response in mucus were monitored before and after stress situation. At the end of the feeding trials using enriched Artemia nauplii, level of vitamin B1, B6 and C were increased in the body of fish, but remained on similar level or decreased after dry feeding period. Therefore, we concluded that Artemia is a good delivery vector of these vitamins. While handling stress, vitamin C and E concentration was decreased and sparing effect of antioxidant vitamins was confirmed in groups supplemented with both vitamins. Vitamin B1 was consumed intensively during the stress, vigorously in groups without supplementation. Contrary to this, vitamin B6 level increased in stress condition in group without supplementations. The levels of immunoglobulins in mucus were increased in all treated groups independently of treatment. Our results confirm that carp larvae reared in tank condition needs sufficient amount of vitamins C, B1 and B6 supplements to protect them from the mild handling stress.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T23:10:53.098088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13504
  • Role of salinity in the dissolution rates of CaCO3 and its implications
           for aquaculture liming
    • Authors: Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá; Claude E Boyd
      Abstract: This work aimed at assessing the role of salinity in the dissolution rates of CaCO3, discussing its implications for aquaculture liming. A simplified formula of artificial seawater without HCO3− was initially prepared. Four batches of 10 L of diluted artificial seawater (salinity = 3.3 g/L) without HCO3− were prepared. Sixteen Erlenmeyer flasks were filled up with 2 L each of the diluted artificial seawater without HCO3−. Besides, 16 other 2,000-ml Erlenmeyer flasks were filled up with 2 L of distilled water (freshwater). The experimental treatments were formed by applying increasing amounts of analytical-grade sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) upon brackish water and freshwater. Accordingly, four initial levels of total alkalinity (TA) have been set up as follows: 4–6, 33–35, 62–63 and 120–122 mg/L. Next, approximately one gram of analytical-grade calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was applied onto each flask. Water's pH, TA and calcium concentration were determined weekly over a 7-week period, by appropriate methods. For a same initial TA, TA increase over time after CaCO3 application was lower in the brackish water flasks than in the freshwater ones. This was especially clear for moderate (63 mg/L) and high (120 mg/L) alkalinities. It was concluded that brackish and saline waters used for aquaculture would only benefit from CaCO3 liming if their alkalinities were lower than 60–80 mg/L.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:31:52.044127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13489
  • Ontogenic changes in the digestive enzyme activities and the effect of
           different starvation duration on the digestive enzyme activities of larval
           red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)
    • Authors: Jiaojiao Chen; Chen Chen, Qingsong Tan
      Abstract: This study was performed to determine the effect of starvation and delayed feeding on activities of digestive enzymes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of larval red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), so as to reveal the tolerance to prolonged starvation and the recovery of digestive enzymes after delayed feeding in larval and juvenile P. clarkii. In the control group, activities of trypsin and ALP increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:30:50.494456-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13497
  • Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth, body composition,
           antioxidant status, lipid metabolism and immunity parameters of juvenile
           Chu's croaker, Nibea coibor
    • Authors: Yi-Sheng Huang; Zhi-Deng Lin, Hua Rong, Mei-Ling Hao, Da-Shi Zhu, Sheng-Kang Li, Xiao-Bo Wen
      Abstract: A-56 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, feed utilization, biochemical composition, antioxidant status, lipid metabolism and immunity parameters of Chu's croaker Nibea coibor fed diets supplemented with different levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): 0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish (initial body weight: 12.8 ± 0.1 g) in 15 floating cage. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were not significantly affected. 2% of dietary CLA led to significant lower lipid content in both whole body and liver (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:30:34.559589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13486
  • Morphological and free amino acid profile variability, as a tool for stock
           identification among farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss of different
    • Authors: Petros V Martsikalis; Menelaos Kavouras, Georgios A Gkafas, Apostolos P Apostolidis, Ioannis S Boziaris, Athanasios Exadactylos
      Abstract: As a tool for stock identification the body morphology and the free amino acid (FAA) profile variability were determined among farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792) from different geographical areas throughout Greece, using geometric morphometrics and Reversed Phase-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Significant intraspecific body shape variation was detected among the fish stocks of different origin. Canonical Variate Analysis distinguished populations into two groups being consistent to a great extent with a previous population genetics study. General linear models did not support an association of haplotypes and diet with shape. However, shape was significantly correlated with origin, water temperature, geological-chemical-climatic zones, histidine and arginine. Therefore, morphological variation was primarily driven by environmentally induced differences among these zones being the result of phenotypic plasticity. Environmental cues and rearing conditions played the pivotal role in comparison to broodstock origin. Specimens presented different FAA profiles depending on their geographical origin. Principal Component Analysis showed a division between eastern and western Greece which might be owed to the existence of climatic fluctuations affecting the abiotic factors. This combined approach offers an important tool for stock identification thus assisting environmental risk assessments in evaluation of potential ecological effects and fostering research excellence in sustainable aquaculture management.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:28:44.084939-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13491
  • Improved vitellogenesis, gonad development and egg diameter in catfish
           (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) supplemented with turmeric (Curcuma longa)
    • Authors: Cut Dara Dewi; Damiana Rita Ekastuti, Agus Oman Sudrajat, Wasmen Manalu
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementing catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) with turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the vitellogenic capacity of the liver as a new method to improve reproductive performance in oviparous animals. The experimental catfish were assigned to a completely randomized design consisting of four doses of supplemental turmeric (0, 1.2, 2.4 and 4.8 g/kg feed) with 10 catfish with body weights ranging from 2 to 4 kg in each group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 of turmeric supplementation to measure the concentrations of plasma oestradiol-17ß and vitellogenin. The weights of the body, gonads and liver were measured on days 0, 28 and 56. The fecundities of the catfish were measured on days 28 and 56 of turmeric supplementation, and egg diameters were measured on days 28 and 42. The results showed that catfish supplemented with turmeric at a dose of 2.4 or 4.8 g/kg feed had higher growth rates, higher plasma oestradiol-17β and vitellogenin concentrations, and higher gonad somatic index values and egg diameters. This is the first report demonstrating that the hepatoprotective activity of the curcumin in turmeric could be used to improve both vitellogenin synthesis, which improves nutrient deposition in the ovulating eggs, and the reproductive performance of teleost fish and oviparous animals.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:28:11.602078-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13494
  • Gut histology, immunology and the intestinal microbiota of rainbow trout,
           Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), fed process variants of soybean meal
    • Authors: Timothy J Bruce; Regg D Neiger, Michael L Brown
      Abstract: Processed soybean meal ingredients have become an emerging plant-based protein used in aquafeed formulations and have been shown to influence gastrointestinal health and microbiota in cultured species. Two 60-day feeding trials with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were conducted to compare the effects of fishmeal (FMC), defatted soybean meal (SBM), bioprocessed soybean meal (BSBM) and commercial soy protein concentrate (CSPC) ingredients on intestinal histology, innate immunity and microbiota profiles. Results indicated no significant differences in intestinal immunoglobulin concentrations (p = .41) or gut leukocyte phagocytosis at day 15 samplings (p = .41). Intestinal lysozyme content was found to be highest at day 60 in the BSBM treatment group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:25:25.585118-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13480
  • Spawning and rearing of Holothuria tubulosa: A new candidate for
           aquaculture in the Mediterranean region
    • Authors: Arnold Rakaj; Alessandra Fianchini, Paola Boncagni, Alessandro Lovatelli, Michele Scardi, Stefano Cataudella
      Abstract: Holothuria tubulosa (Gmelin, 1788) has recently shown an increased demand in Asian markets, becoming one of the intensively exploited holothurian species in the Mediterranean Sea. A risk is that over-harvesting is likely affecting both the species' natural stocks and the benthic communities. In this scenario, sea ranching and restocking through aquaculture could assist in mitigating its overexploitation. This study is the first to demonstrate the successful artificial breeding and rearing of H. tubulosa, and its consequent potential as a new species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry. Here we describe the spawning induction, larval development and early juvenile growth in hatchery cultures, aimed at developing a spawning and rearing protocol for this species. The trials were conducted from July to October in both 2014 and 2015. Holothuria tubulosa was induced to spawn by testing four different methods. Thermal stimulation plus thermal shock emerged as the most efficient method to obtain active and healthy gametes. Larval development in H. tubulosa progressed through five stages, reaching the juvenile stage in 27 days. Two different microalgal feeding regimens were tested for larval breeding. Under the best feeding conditions, 7% of the larvae metamorphosed into settled juveniles, adhering to artificial substrates previously conditioned with benthic biofilm. Our results indicate that H. tubulosa shows good performance in hatchery rearing during the larval phases, indicating that this species could be a new candidate for aquaculture in the Mediterranean region, both for production and restocking proposes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:16:20.094018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13487
  • Growth in juvenile pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.) stimulated with yeast,
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extract
    • Authors: Sylwia Jarmołowicz; Maciej Rożyński, Agata Kowalska, Zdzisław Zakęś
      Abstract: Thanks to the content of valuable bioactive substances, yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is finding wider applications in aquaculture and marine fish husbandry. Highly bio-available and bio-assimilable yeast extracts, which are obtained through processes that remove cell walls, are of special interest. The current study examined the impact of yeast extracts added to commercial feed at concentrations of 2% (group F2), 4% (group F4) and 6% (group F6) on growth, blood biochemistry parameters, liver and intestinal morphology, proximate body composition and the content of free amino acids in the muscle tissues of European pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (initial body weight = 10 g). At the termination of the experiment that ran for 60 days, the highest increases in body weight were noted in all the groups of fish that had received yeast extract (final body weight ≈ 35 g vs. control group ≈ 31 g). The daily and specific growth rates indexes were the highest in group F6. The alanine aminotransferase activity in this group was half of that in the control group (group C) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:12:01.72362-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13490
  • Effects of dietary phospholipid level and fraction on the feed intake of
           non-fish meal diet in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck &
           Schlegel, 1845
    • Authors: Thao Xuan La; Manabu Ishikawa, Siriporn Tola, Haruhisa Fukada, Toshiro Masumoto
      Abstract: Three feeding studies were conducted to investigate whether dietary soybean lecithin (SBL) enhanced feed intake of non-fish meal, SPC-based diet, in yellowtail, and also to clarify which fraction of phospholipid (PL) was effective to enhance feed intake. In experiments 1 and 2, fish were fed SBL level at 0%–5%, and it was revealed that the daily feeding rate (DFR) of fish was significantly higher for SBL 2% than for SBL 0%, while a further increase of SBL in the diet did not additionally increase the DFR. Moreover, the DFR of fish fed a diet without feeding stimulants (FS) was the lowest among the dietary treatments, indicating that the SBL does not have an effect of enhancing feed intake in yellowtail. In experiment 3, fish were fed a diet with several products containing PL at 2%. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol concentrations in these products positively correlated to the DFR of fish. This result revealed that these two fractions in the SBL are effective for enhancing feed intake of yellowtail when FS is present in the diet.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:07:29.154028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13488
  • Molecular isolation and characterization of a haemocyanin of Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii reveal its antibacterial activities
    • Authors: Chutima Srisuk; Saengchan Senapin, William G Bendena, Siwaporn Longyant, Paisarn Sithigorngul, Parin Chaivisuthangkura
      Abstract: Haemocyanin is a multi-subunit protein complex found in the haemolymph and is involved in the immune system of crustaceans. In this study, a haemocyanin gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrHc, was successfully isolated. The MrHc gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,992 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 663 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 76.5 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained distinct structural motifs of the haemocyanin superfamily, including an all-alpha domain, a copper-containing domain and an immunoglobulin-like domain. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the MrHC protein demonstrated a close relationship with the haemocyanins of Palaemon carinicauda and Macrobrachium nipponense. The MrHc gene was expressed in various shrimp tissues, including the hepatopancreas, gill, haemocytes, stomach and muscle. After Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) challenge tests, the MrHc gene was up-regulated 237-fold at day 2. A recombinant protein of the MrHc immunoglobulin-like domain exhibited antibacterial activity against Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Bacillus cereus. This study suggested that MrHc may play important roles in the shrimp innate immune response to MrNV infection and bacterial infection.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T05:45:40.814141-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13481
  • Role of sulphide reduction by magnesium hydroxide on the sediment of the
           eutrophic closed bay
    • Authors: Dong Xia; Katsumi Okada, Kunio Watanabe, Yukiko Miura, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Niwooti Wangchai, Kanda Wangchai, Tomoaki Itayama
      Abstract: This study was focused on the effect of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) for improving the sediment of aquaculture field and eutrophic closed estuaries. Sediment samples were collected from Omura Bay, Nagasaki, Japan. The change in pH, acid volatile sulphides (AVS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water of the sediment samples were measured before and after 20-day incubation under the condition of overlapping seawater at 25°C with 0.3–0.4 mg/L of dissolved oxygen (DO). Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and the dsrA gene copy number of Grp3 sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the sediment samples were also measured at 7-day incubation under the same condition. The pH of Mg(OH)2 treatment group was significantly increased from 7.43 to 8.25; it was higher compared to the control group which pH was maintained around 7.6. Meanwhile, the AVS content of Mg(OH)2 treatment group was significantly reduced and the value was lower than the control group after the 20-day incubation. Each concentration of interstitial water DOC in the treatment group and the control group increased after the incubation from initial value of 15.4–40.1 and 29.0  mg/L respectively. Furthermore, simultaneous decrease in H2S and the dsrA gene copy number of Grp3 SRB was observed at the end of the 7-day incubation by adding Mg(OH)2. It is concluded that the loss of activity of SRB was strongly related to the decrease in sulphide (H2S and AVS) and the increase in DOC was due to the alkalization of the sediment by adding Mg(OH)2.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:41:24.981103-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13477
  • Integration of mapping and socio-economic status of cage culture: Towards
           balancing lake-use and culture fisheries in Lake Victoria, Kenya
    • Authors: Christopher Mulanda Aura; Safina Musa, Ernest Yongo, John K. Okechi, James M. Njiru, Zachary Ogari, Robert Wanyama, Harrison Charo-Karisa, Henry Mbugua, Samson Kidera, Veronica Ombwa, Jacob Abwao Oucho
      Abstract: Mapping of lacustrine aquaculture and socio-economic assessment of cage farmers operations can be employed as decision support tools in an integrated fashion for fisheries management. We simultaneously mapped and reported the location of cages and characterized socio-economic and indicators of cage farming in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Structured questionnaires and interviews from cage farmers generated socio-economic data and management information. Vital water quality parameters were analyzed in selected sampling sites. Cage culture was found to be a male-dominated activity with the majority of owners aged 100%, indicative of its robust viability within “The Blue Economy” concept. With the increasing number of cages in the lake, there is the need for policy and regulations to guide its investment, both to protect local economies through improved business practices and to ensure sustainability for the lake ecosystem due to the likelihood of exacerbation in water quality deterioration in cage culture sites.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:40:56.074491-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13484
  • Effect of aromatable androgen (17-methyltestosterone) on induced
           maturation of silver European eels (Anguilla Anguilla): Oocyte performance
           and synchronization
    • Authors: Oliviero Mordenti; Pietro Emmanuele, Antonio Casalini, Pieter Mark Lokman, Annalisa Zaccaroni, Andrea Di Biase, Albamaria Parmeggiani
      Abstract: The reproductive performances of silver European eel in term of gonad development and egg production, employing slow-release implants with the androgen 17-MT (1 mg) in combination with traditional weekly injection of carp pituitary extract (CPE) was evaluated. Wild female European eels (Anguilla anguilla) underwent a standard induction protocol with CPE and were randomly divided into three groups (N-group, no implant; Y-group, with implant; and control, C-group, no treatment). The results showed that 17-MT-treated females (Y-group) reproduced spontaneously about 6 weeks earlier than the N-group females with a saving of almost 40% in CPE and time of induction. Concerning artificial induction of maturation in female silver eels, our study demonstrated that they positively respond to androgen exposure also in terms of eggs productivity. Indeed, Y-group was more productive than N-group: in Y-group, 11 eels ensured an eggs production that exceeded 50% of initial body weight (BW), whereas in N-group only three eels have exceeded this value. The results suggest that 17-MT should be considered in future protocols for the improvement of the artificial reproduction of female silver European eels.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:26:04.466093-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13475
  • Soy protein concentrate as an alternative in replacement of fish meal in
           the feeds of hybrid grouper, brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus
           fuscoguttatus) × giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) juvenile
    • Authors: Norfazreena Mohd Faudzi; Annita Seok Kian Yong, Rossita Shapawi, Shigeharu Senoo, Amal Biswas, Kenji Takii
      Abstract: Hybrid grouper juveniles (body weight, 6.1 ± 0.7 g) (brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × giant grouper, E. lanceolatus) were fed with six isoproteic (50% crude protein) and isolipidic (12% crude lipid) feeds containing different levels of soy protein concentrate (SPC) in replacement of fish meal (SPC at 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% protein) and control feed (SPC0) for 6 weeks. Hybrid grouper juveniles were cultured in 100-L fibreglass tank equipped with flow-through water system and fed twice a day to apparent satiation level. The highest and lowest growth was recorded in fish fed SPC20 and SPC60 respectively. However, growth of SPC20 was not significantly higher than those fed SPC0, SPC30, SPC40 and SPC50 (p > .05). A decreasing growth trend was observed with the increasing level of SPC from feed SPC40 to SPC60. A noticeable better feed utilization was also observed in fish fed SPC0, SPC20, SPC30, SPC40 and SPC50 compared to fish fed SPC60 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:25:20.540488-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13474
  • Triploid hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria produced by inhibiting polar
           body I or polar body II
    • Authors: Huiping Yang; Ximing Guo
      Abstract: Two types of triploid hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria were produced by inhibiting polar body I (PB1) or polar body II (PB2) with cytochalasin B. Treatments were applied at 22–23°C, with PB1 inhibition starting at 4–7 min postfertilization and ending when PB2 was first observed in control groups, and with PB2 inhibition starting at 17–23 min postfertilization and ending when 80% of control eggs released PB2. Triploid induction success was evaluated by chromosome counting in 2–4 cell embryos and by flow cytometry at larval and juvenile stages. PB2 inhibition produced more triploids (82%–100%) than PB1 inhibition (71%–83%), although the difference was not significant (p ≥ .088). Triploid percentages in PB1- or PB2-inhibited groups showed a small but insignificant decline during the first 6 months. At month 3, PB1 and PB2 triploids were not different from their within-group diploids, but significantly larger than control diploids; PB1 triploids were significantly larger than PB2 triploids (p ≤ .003). At month 6, PB1 triploids were not different from either within-group or control-group diploids, while PB2 triploids were significant larger than both within-group and control diploid; PB1 triploids were smaller than PB2 triploids. At month 16, PB1 and PB2 triploids in one remaining replicate were not different from their within-group diploids. Overall, this study shows that triploids can be efficiently produced by PB1 or PB2 inhibition, and their growth performance relative to diploids is variable depending on age and replicates or parental genotype.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:20:54.509621-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13476
  • Bacterial community composition and distribution in different segments of
           the gastrointestinal tract of wild-caught adult Penaeus monodon
    • Authors: Phayungsak Mongkol; Phimsucha Bunphimpapha, Wanilada Rungrassamee, Sopacha Arayamethakorn, Sirawut Klinbunga, Piamsak Menasveta, Sage Chaiyapechara
      Abstract: Bacterial community associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of aquaculture animals can play important roles in health, nutrition and disease. Compared with the GI tract of aquatic vertebrates such as fish, crustacean GI tract has unique structures and surfaces in different segments that may contribute to differences in the bacterial communities. This study examined the bacterial composition and distribution in different segments along the GI tract and in digesta of wild-caught adult Penaeus monodon using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), real-time quantitative PCR and clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Thirty-nine bacterial species in four phyla including Proteobacteria (α, β, ε, γ), Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were represented in the GI tract of adult P. monodon. Proteobacteria comprised over 80% abundance of the bacterial community in most segments of the GI tract, except the middle intestine that was dominated by Firmicutes (~50% abundance). The results also showed that bacterial communities showed significant differences along the GI tract segments, particularly the hindgut (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T04:00:50.689706-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13468
  • Production of specific dsRNA against white spot syndrome virus in the
           yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
    • Authors: Ana R. Álvarez-Sánchez; Carlos Romo-Quinones, Raymundo Rosas-Quijano, Ana G. Reyes, Aarón Barraza, Francisco Magallón-Barajas, Carlos Angulo, Claudio Humberto Mejía-Ruíz
      Abstract: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most aggressive disease affecting cultured shrimp. One possibility to tackle it is by means of RNA interference (RNAi) induced by the presence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Normally, dsRNA is a product of the cellular machinery to gene regulation, but it can be produced synthetically and introduced into specific tissues or cells and thereby induce RNAi. Although in vitro production of dsRNA is possible, this is high cost. An alternative is to produce dsRNA in vivo using biological systems such as bacteria or yeasts. In this regard, Yarrowia lipolytica offers distinctive advantages for dsRNA production. The objective was to develop a Y. lipolytica strain able to produce dsRNA-specific against WSSV and to evaluate its antiviral activity in the white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. From the 0.4 and 0.6 Kb fragments of the ORF89 gene, a dsRNA-ORF89-producing construct was built in the plasmid pJC410; the resulting construct (pARY410) was used to transform Y. lipolytica to drive the specific expression of dsRNA-ORF89. Yeast colonies positive to the WSSV-ORF89 gene were selected. The expression of dsRNA-ORF89 and RNAse III was measured being detected at 32 and 48 hr. Subsequently, the antiviral activity of dsRNA-ORF89 was tested in a WSSV challenge bioassay. The results showed survival in dsRNA-ORF89 shrimp (25%) compared to control organisms treated with total RNA from the yeast P01-AS harvested at 32 hr. In conclusion, Y. lipolytica is a convenient host to produce and deliver dsRNA-ORF89 able to protect WSSV-challenged shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:20:52.553898-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13479
  • Effects of different feed management treatments on water quality for
           Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Lauren N Jescovitch; Carter Ullman, Melanie Rhodes, Donald Allen Davis
      Abstract: Increasing feeding rates may provide an increase in production, thus nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter will also increase. These nutrients promote a greater oxygen demand and concentrations of toxic metabolites which can lead to frequent problems with low dissolved oxygen and an abundance of blue-green algae. Four feed management practices were evaluated among sixteen 0.1 ha ponds culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Feeding treatments included hand feeding using the Standard Feeding Protocol (SFP), SFP plus 15% from 8 to 16 weeks, an automatic-solar timer which fed SFP+15%, and an AQ1 acoustic demand feeder allowing up to 12 kg/day·pond based on shrimps feeding response. Samples were analysed at weeks 0, 4 and 8–16 for the following parameters: chlorophyll a, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite–nitrogen, nitrate–nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total suspended solids, total suspended volatile solids, turbidity, conductivity, salinity and biological oxygen demand. Samples were collected and shipped overnight to Auburn, Alabama for off-site analysis. On-site water quality was also obtained at the farm. The AQ1 acoustic demand feeder produced the most shrimp with a yield of 4,568 kg/ha; however, the AQ1 also had the highest total ammonia nitrogen and nitrite–nitrogen levels late in the growing season. The AQ1 feeder may be a viable, reduced labour and cost alternative for the shrimp commercial industry; however, such technologies must also be matched to the ability of the production system to process nutrients.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:20:43.415798-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13483
  • Effects of rearing temperature on growth and survival of larval sablefish
           (Anoplopoma fimbria)
    • Authors: Matthew A Cook; Jonathan S F Lee, Kenneth M Massee, Thomas H Wade, Frederick W Goetz
      Abstract: The effects of three different rearing temperatures (12, 15 and 18°C) on growth and survival of sablefish larvae (Anoplopoma fimbria) were examined from 5 days poststocking to weaned subjuveniles. First-feeding larvae were stocked into 960-L circular tanks at a density of 15 larvae/L (n = 3 per temperature treatment). Feeding, increases in light and water flow and other changes during the experiment were based on a degree-day (°Cday) schedule to adjust for time and temperature. The larvae were weaned on calendar day 41, 34 and 30 in the 12, 15 and 18°C treatments respectively. Survival to weaning was greater at 15 than 12 or 18°C. Calendar day and degree-day length and dry weight were greater in the 18°C treatment. The larvae were weaned 7 days earlier at 15°C and 11 days earlier at 18°C compared to larvae at 12°C. Sablefish larvae can be reared at 15°C with faster growth and good survival compared to 12°C and at an approximately 17% reduction in cost and labour. Sablefish grew even faster but had higher mortality rates at 18°C compared to 15°C. Results from genotyping strongly suggest that there is a genetic basis for performing differentially at varying rearing temperatures and would also suggest that selection for faster growth and higher survival could be accomplished in a broodstock programme.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:15:37.114565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13473
  • A metabolic approach to understanding adaptation to sea water by
           endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus fingerlings
    • Authors: Saeed Hajirezaee; Ali Reza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Naser Agh
      Abstract: In this study, metabolic responses of Persian sturgeon fingerlings to hyperosmotic condition were investigated by NMR-based metabolomics. Persian sturgeon fingerlings (n = 2010, mean total weight: 3.2 ± 0.6 g; mean total length: 8.5 ± 1.5 cm) were held in freshwater (FW) for 96 hr and then acclimated in brackish water (BW) (12 g/L) for 24 hr. Blood samples were taken before and after salinity acclimation. The major metabolite changes corresponding to salinity acclimation were related to amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. The plasma glucose levels increased significantly after 24 hr acclimation in BW (p  .05). The osmolytes (taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, choline, N,N-dimethylglycine) and amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, leucine, phenylalanine, β-alanine, histidine, threonine, cysteine) declined significantly after 24 hr acclimation in BW (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:15:27.027936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13464
  • Dietary phospholipids requirement of the early juvenile (C1) swimming
           crab, Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: Jiteng Wang; Min Yang, Xinyu Li, Chunlin Wang, Tao Han
      Abstract: A 30-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phospholipids (PLs) on growth performance, survival, fatty acid profile and gene expression of the early juvenile (C1) swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). Five semi-purified diets were formulated with graded PLs levels (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%). Each diet was fed to four replicates of crabs (30 crabs per replicate, initial weight: 8.4 ± 0.1 mg). In this study, crabs fed diets with 2%, 4% and 8% PLs had significantly higher survival rates than crabs fed with 0% and 1% PLs. Crabs fed diets with 0% and 1% PLs had significant lower weight gain (WG) than crabs fed with 8% PLs. But crabs fed with diets containing 2%, 4% and 8% PLs showed no significant difference in WG. Besides, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in whole body was higher than that in diets, but the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content showed an opposite trend. The EPA and DHA content in whole body increased with the increase in dietary PLs. Moreover, the moulting number increased with the increasing dietary PLs levels, the lowest moulting number was observed in crabs fed diets without supplementation of PLs. The ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) was found to be significantly up-regulated by PLs levels. This study demonstrated that 2% PLs could meet the requirement of early juvenile (C1) swimming crab based on the growth and survival. And 4%–8% PLs supplemented in diets could reduce the leaching of feed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T00:05:26.452017-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13471
  • Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus subtilisKADR1 and its subcellular
           components on immune responses and disease resistance in Labeo rohita
    • Authors: Dharmaraj Ramesh; Sami Souissi
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilisKADR1 and its subcellular components on immunity and disease resistance in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish were fed diet containing different concentrations of live bacterial cells (DI-106, DII-108 and DIII-1010 CFU/g) and another group of fish were immunized intraperitoneally with cellular components (WCPs, CWPs and ECPs) of Bacillus subtilisKADR1. After 4 weeks of trial, fish were challenged intraperitoneally with Aeromonas hydrophila cell suspension and survival percentage was recorded. Significantly higher post-challenge survivability was recorded in fish groups fed 108 CFU/g of KADR1 (80.24%; RPS = 75.76%) or immunized with WCPs (77.77%; RPS = 72.73%), compared with the control (18.51%). Analysis of immunological parameters viz. serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, serum total protein, respiratory burst, serum IgM levels, superoxide dismutase and alternative complement pathway activity reflected significant enhancement (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T04:30:47.662979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13467
  • Growth performance, haematology, antioxidant status, immune response and
           histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed biofloc grown on
           different carbon sources
    • Authors: Farideh Bakhshi; Ebrahim H Najdegerami, Ramin Manaffar, Amir Tokmechi, Kaveh Rahmani Farah, Ali Shalizar Jalali
      Abstract: A 10 weeks trial was performed to investigate how different carbon sources (sugar beet molasses: SBM+BFT, sugar: S+BFT, corn starch: CS+BFT) along with control affect welfare status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in biofloc-based tanks. Three hundred healthy fingerlings (22.5 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (70 L) at a density of 8.02 kg/m3 (25 fish/tank). The fish in BFT treatments fed only 75% feeding rate of control. At the end of the experiment no differences were seen between the groups in case of growth performance, but the fish reared in CS+BFT had a significant lower food conversion ratio compared with the others (p  .05). Total serum protein and antibody concentration differed in treatments, and the highest values were found in S+BFT and CS+BFT treatments (p  .05), whereas the fish in BFT treatments showed a significant higher total antioxidant capacity and lower glutathione peroxidase than the control (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T03:56:20.597395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13469
  • Habituation and conditioning in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata):
           Effects of aversive stimuli, reward and social hierarchies
    • Authors: Ole Folkedal; Anders Fernö, Marit A J Nederlof, Jan E Fosseidengen, Marco Cerqueira, Rolf E Olsen, Jonatan Nilsson
      Abstract: To tailor the farming environment to a fish species, we should understand the species-specific responses to stimuli, including the degree of adaption and learning. Groups of gilthead sea bream were given a delay Pavlovian conditioning regime using a conditioning stimulus (CS) of light flashes signalling arrival of food. Controls were exposed to light flashes unrelated to feeding. Fish in both treatments showed an initial fear response of moving away from the CS combined with reduced swimming speed. In subsequent trials, the Control fish largely habituated the fleeing response but sustained to respond by reducing the swimming speed. The Conditioning fish also stopped to escape from the CS, but opposed to the Control group they gradually increased their swimming speed in response to the CS. In addition, the number of fish in the feeding/CS area increased and became similar to basal level after around 16 trials. A small and variable proportion of the fish displayed black vertical bands on their body and territorial behaviour, and a social hierarchy could interfere with the processes of habituation and conditioning. The swimming speed of the fish increased with number of dark individuals, but this was not found during the CS and the light stimulus thus seemed to overrule the effect of territorial behaviour. The persistent negative response to light flashes in the Control suggests that fish seemingly adapted to repetitive stressors are still in a state of alertness. The change in the response to light shows the potential for rewarding aversive stimuli to reduce stress.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T04:46:08.087176-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13463
  • Fasting and refeeding lead to more efficient growth in lean pacu
           (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
    • Authors: Gisele Cristina Favero; Rodrigo Yukihiro Gimbo, Luz Natália Franco Montoya, Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
      Abstract: We evaluated whether body fat content affects the energetic metabolism and growth in pacu submitted to daily feeding, fasting and refeeding. For 15 days, fish were fed different diets to obtain lean and fat conditions, and then subjected, for 20 days to: (1) continuously feeding (control), or (2) fasting for 15 days and refeeding for 5 days. Blood (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and total protein) and tissue (liver lipid and glycogen, muscle lipid and mesenteric fat) metabolic indicators, and growth performance parameters (weight gain, specific growth rate, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were measured. Fasting led both lean and fat pacu to make notable use of their energy reserves, through glycogenolysis and lipolysis, reflected in reduced blood glucose and triglycerides, liver glycogen and muscle lipid levels. Lipolysis was confirmed by the high levels of non-esterified fatty acids, especially in fat pacu. Refeeding led to higher plasma glucose and liver lipid in lean fish. Muscle fat increased in fat fish but was not restored in lean fish, while mesenteric fat index (MFI) remained the same in fat fish and increased in lean fish. Although refeeding occurred only for 5 days, lean fish grew more and were more efficient at utilizing food (higher weight gain and better feed conversion ratio). In conclusion, our results suggest that fat pacu have higher glycogenic and lipogenic abilities, and the higher deposition of lipids in fish does not mean higher availability of energy for growth when compensatory growth is stimulated by refeeding after fasting.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:50:43.908183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13466
  • Growth, enzymatic glutathione peroxidase activity and biochemical status
           of juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fed dietary fermented lupin meal
           supplemented with organic selenium
    • Authors: Ilham Ilham; Fitriska Hapsari, Ravi Fotedar
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of high level of lupin meal (LM) supplemented with organic selenium (OS) on the growth and blood biochemistry of barramundi (Lates calcarifer), four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were prepared, containing either non-fermented or fermented LM, and either supplemented with 2 mg OS/kg (LM, LMOS, FLM and FLMOS), or not. A fishmeal (FM)-based diet formulated for juvenile barramundi was used as a control diet. Fish (initial mean weight of 5.88 g) were triplicated and fed the test diets for 75 days. The findings demonstrated that growth performance of fish fed with the FLM and FLMOS diets were similar to fish fed with the FM diet (p > .05). The antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and haemoglobin (Hb) of fish fed with the FLMOS diet were significantly higher than that of FM-fed fish (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:50:39.382672-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13444
  • The impacts of integrated homestead pond-dike systems in relation to
           production, consumption and seasonality in central north Bangladesh
    • Authors: Manjurul Karim; David C Little
      Abstract: The roles of homestead ponds and surrounding dike production of vegetables on farms in peri-urban and rural communities in central north Bangladesh were assessed. A baseline survey sought to characterize actively managed (“active”) pond-dike systems, producing fish and vegetables, in terms of productivity and impact compared to less intensively integrated (“passive”) and control, no-pond households. A longitudinal survey was carried out over 12 months to explore the relationship between seasonality and livelihood outcomes in relation to location and well-being status. Active homestead pond operators tended to have greater access to information and credit compared to passive and non-pond households; this was likely linked to their greater literacy and greater social connectedness. They enjoyed higher incomes through fish sales and consumed more fish than passive households, which was related to their higher production, in turn explained mainly by the use of more inputs. All active, 50% passive and 38% non-pond households were involved in vegetable cultivation; however, significantly more vegetables were produced by active households than others. The impacts of pond-dike production were more critical for food-vulnerable, rural households than peri-urban households prior to monsoon rice harvest; worse-off households suffered more prior to the “irrigated rice” harvest. Fish and vegetables raised on farm were most important during lower income months. The study supports the view that small homestead ponds can contribute to the wider food supply, and that such “quasi-peasant” forms of aquaculture contribute to reduced poverty and enhanced dietary diversity and food security in the broader population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T04:36:48.23039-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13462
  • Survival and growth of geoduck clam larvae (Panopea generosa) in
           flow-through culture tanks under laboratory conditions
    • Authors: Gabriel Enrique Nava-Gómez; Zaúl Garcia-Esquivel, Eugenio Carpizo-Ituarte, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos
      Abstract: The geoduck clam, Panopea generosa, is a species from the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, and the optimization of seed production systems is still a limiting factor for its aquaculture. In this study, a flow-through culture system was designed and tested in P. generosa larvae. Survival and growth was compared in triplicate 45-L fiberglass tanks using three larval densities (5, 10 and 15 larvae/ml). A head tank kept constant the water inflow, with a daily renewal rate of 1.8× tank volume. The food (Isochrysis spp.) was dosed according to the ingestion rate of larvae and the dilution rate. Survival decreased linearly during the first 10 days and reached asymptotic values of ca. 20% (15 larvae/ml) and 50% (densities of 5 and 10 larvae/ml) afterwards. Mean shell length at the end of the experiment (243 ± 1.8 to 270 ± 0.7 μm) was not statistically different among treatments, even though a trend towards higher gross growth rate was observed in the treatment with the lowest density (9.5 μm/day) relative to the rest of the treatments (8.5 μm/day). It is concluded that P. generosa larvae can be successfully grown in flow-through systems at maximum densities of 10 larvae/ml without significantly affecting their survival and growth rates. The system design was reliable, kept a constant water flow with reduced maintenance, and may represent an important option in the laboratory for increasing the stocking density of Panopea species during the larval phase.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T23:40:40.170826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13460
  • Fisheries or aquaculture' Unravelling key determinants of livelihoods
           in the Brazilian semi-arid region
    • Authors: Priscila F M Lopes; Adriana R Carvalho, Sebastián Villasante, Gustavo Gonzaga Henry-Silva
      Abstract: In impoverished semi-arid regions in the world, reservoirs serve multiple purposes, including food provision through fisheries and aquaculture. Yet, the socio-economic benefits of promoting both activities remain unclear. We independently assessed the socio-economic benefits generated from fisheries and aquaculture, in two reservoirs in the Brazilian semi-arid region (June 2013 to June 2014). These reservoirs produced 27.75 ton of farmed tilapia over a year (USD Purchasing Power Parities [PPP] 88,778.73) and provided at least 16.5 ton of fish through fisheries (USD PPP 37,557.81), based on data from four farmer associations. Our input–output model revealed that the local economy depends on both activities, which, therefore, contribute similarly to providing goods and services to different branches. Aquaculture generated much higher revenues (seven times) than fisheries, but also much higher losses (the most successful farm yielded an average income of USD PPP 592.41 monthly). Still, there were no statistical differences in income among the compared associations. Fisheries provided very but guaranteed income (USD PPP 311.02 ± 82.94) and employed over three times as many people and contributed much more (>3 times) to food security than aquaculture. Encouraging aquaculture through specific policies while overlooking fisheries is not advisable because poor fishers would not be able to deal with unpredictable outcomes and it would put their food security at risk. However, if initial external support is provided to fishers in order to buffer large losses, aquaculture could represent a way out of poverty by generating an opportunity for larger gains, as long as potential negative ecological impacts of aquaculture are accounted for.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T00:50:26.799803-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13452
  • Production of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus grown in BFT using two
           aeration systems
    • Authors: Jesus J Malpartida Pasco; Jose W Carvalho Filho, Carlos M de Espirito Santo, Luis Vinatea
      Abstract: Aeration systems used in BFT farming need to meet the dissolved oxygen demand from the biota present in the tank, as well as to keep the particulate matter in suspension. In BFT systems, it is common to use blowers, but the choice of an aerator with better efficiency in oxygen transfer and in electric energy consumption is indispensable. The vertical pump model (VPM) aerator is the most used in intensive tilapia production systems in southern Brazil. The objective of this research was to verify if this aerator model can support Nile tilapia farming under BFT system without producing negative impacts on the functionality neither of the biofloc nor in the production indexes. Simultaneous farming on BFT using blowers served as control. Oreochromis niloticus juveniles with an initial density of 7 kg/m3 were used. After 56 days of farming, the VPM aerator obtained significantly better results, both in water quality parameters and in production indexes, when compared to those obtained in the control treatment. The temperature was higher in the treatment of the blowers due to the lower thermal exchange between the atmospheric air and the tank water. Although the VPM caused lower temperatures, it obtained a productivity of 21.2 kg/m3, compared to 20.2 kg/m3 of the blowers. It was concluded that the use of the VPM aerator had no negative influence on both the formation and functionality of the biofloc, obtaining even higher production rates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T00:36:48.532337-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13451
  • Effect of low salinity on the expression profile of Na+/K+-ATPase and the
           growth of juvenile chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)
    • Authors: Hajime Kitano; Naoki Nagano, Keishi Sakaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
      Abstract: Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus Houttuyn) is one of the most commercially important scombroid fish used as a food resource. Recently, there has been a demand for efficient rearing methods of this fish for a full-life cycle aquaculture. In the present study, we evaluated the physiological responses in the juvenile S. japonicus to different ambient salinities. A significantly higher gain of the body mass was observed in the juveniles reared in 24 g/L and 13 g/L seawater than in those reared in natural seawater (34 g/L) within 40 days of the experimental period without affecting mortality. A principal enzyme for osmoregulation, Na+/K+-ATPase, was expressed in the ionocytes located in the gill filaments of the juveniles. The number and the cell size of ionocytes and the enzymatic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase in the gills decreased within 10 days after the low-salinity challenge, which implies the reduction of the energy-consuming active ion secretion under the low-salinity environment. The physiological capacity for adaptation to low-salinity seawater in chub mackerel could be basic knowledge to carry out culturing of these fish in coastal sea pens where ambient salinity fluctuates. The improvement of the growth performance by rearing in low-salinity seawater will contribute to the efficient production of the seed juveniles for aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T00:36:32.5637-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13465
  • The study of antioxidant enzymes and immune-related genes expression in
           common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings fed different prebiotics
    • Authors: Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Alireza Ahmadi, Mohsen Khalili, Mojtaba Raeisi, Hien Van Doan, Christopher Marlowe Caipang
      Pages: 5447 - 5454
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to study the effects of different prebiotics (galacto-, fructooligosaccharide and inulin) on immune response and oxidative stress of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings at the molecular level. A total number of 240 fish (13.85 ± 0.85 g) were supplied and randomly stocked in twelve fiberglass tanks (20 specimens per tank). Fish were fed a basal formulated diet (Control) or basal diet supplemented with equal level (2%) of different prebiotics (four treatments repeated in triplicated) for 8 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the expression of immune-related genes (interleukin 1 beta [IL-1β], IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme [LYZ], tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]) were determined in head kidney and intestine tissues and the expression of antioxidant-related genes (glutathione S-transferase [GST-α], glutathione reductase [GR] and glutathione peroxidase genes [GPX]) were studied in intestine. The results revealed that dietary administration of prebiotics modulated the expression of immune-related genes and the degree of expression was affected by the type of prebiotics and the organ that was used for analyses. Also, evaluation of antioxidant genes expression showed that GSTα and GR expression levels increased as a result of feeding common carp with the prebiotics. According to these findings, it can be concluded that feeding on different prebiotics had altered effects on the expression of immune and antioxidant-related genes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:31:11.750441-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13359
  • Mass culture of fairy shrimp Branchinecta orientalis (G. O. Sars 1901)
           (Crustacea: Anostraca) using effluent of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss
           (Walbaum 1792) ponds
    • Authors: Navid Pormehr Yabandeh; Lynda Beladjal, Naser Agh, Behrooz Atashbar, Gilbert Van Stappen
      Pages: 5455 - 5462
      Abstract: The variable quality and high price of Artemia (Leach 1819) cyst products, used worldwide as live food, motivate aquaculturists to find an appropriate alternative, especially for fresh/brackish water organisms. In this study, Branchinecta orientalis (G. O. Sars 1901), a common fairy shrimp in north-western Iran, was reared for 15 days using effluent from trout ponds enriched with effluent filtrate as sole feed, or co-fed with microalgae (Scenedesmus sp.). The effluent filtrate was replaced by algae at different ratios (25% and 50%), and feeding experiments were designed at densities of 100, 200 and 400 individuals/L in 3-L containers and at 100 individuals/L in 20-L containers. The results indicated that, at a certain density, the final length and survival were not significantly affected by different feeding regimes (p > .05). In 3-L containers, the highest length and survival were observed at the lowest density. B. orientalis contained the highest amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, though, when co-fed algae, although the differences with the treatment fed solely effluent filtrate were often limited. Inclusion of algae in the diet also resulted in higher levels of a number of PUFAs. Our study proves that B. orientalis can be mass-cultured successfully using trout effluent as culture medium without additional microalgae. Fish pond effluent is massively available as a cheap food source. Recycling aquaculture effluent for this type of live food production contributes to lowering the use of natural resources and to less discharge of nutrient loads into natural water bodies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:30:29.633185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13360
  • Effects of hydrodynamic factors on Pecten maximus larval development
    • Authors: Marine Holbach; René Robert, Philippe Miner, Christian Mingant, Pierre Boudry, Réjean Tremblay
      Pages: 5463 - 5471
      Abstract: Hatchery production of great scallop, Pecten maximus, remains unpredictable, notably due to poor larval survival. Large-scale flow-through systems up to 3500 L have been developed to avoid the use of antibiotics in static systems. Alternatively, small-scale flow-through systems have been successfully applied for oysters but they proved to be unsuitable to rear scallop larvae. By focusing on physical factors presumed to limit P. maximus larval development, this study aimed to optimize great scallop larvae rearing parameters under controlled conditions. First, the influence of aeration on larval performances, energetic metabolism and antioxidant defences were studied both in static and flow-through systems. Aeration depressed larval food intake, regardless of the intensities of flow tested (100 ml/min, 155 ml/min and 270 ml/min). On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activities remained constant or decreased, suggesting that antioxidant defences were inactivated. The increase in citrate synthase activity suggested an increase in metabolic rate possibly due to a turbulent stressful environment. All larvae exposed to such turbulence died before reaching metamorphosis, whereas those reared without aeration survived well (≈ 95%). The effects of water renewal were thereafter studied in 50-L flow-through flat-bottomed tanks. No differences in survival (20.4 ± 0.5%), growth (3.8 ± 0.2 μm/d), competence (5.6 ± 0.2%), energetic metabolism level and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed when comparing 12.5 and 25 L/hr water renewal. Whereas air bubbling leads to detrimental effects, flow-through in small flat-bottomed tanks appears to be a suitable technique for scallop larvae rearing.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T11:31:12.746044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13361
  • The effects of five dietary lipid sources on growth, body composition and
           antioxidant parameters of the clamworm, Perinereis aibuhitensis
    • Authors: Fu Lv; Qing Nie, Tian Wang, Aimin Wang, Wenping Yang, Fei Liu, Yebing Yu, Linlan Lv
      Pages: 5472 - 5480
      Abstract: The clamworm Perinereis aibuhitensis is a commercially important polychaete in China, but knowledge about the nutritional demands of this species is limited. In this study, the effects of five lipid sources in the diet, namely fish oil (FO), soyabean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), cottonseed oil (CO) and mixed vegetable oil (MO), on growth, whole-body composition and antioxidant parameters of juvenile P. aibuhitensis were evaluated. The results showed that clamworms fed the CO diet had higher specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than the other treatments. The accumulation of longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was observed in P. aibuhitensis, suggesting that P. aibuhitensis had the ability to elongate and desaturate PUFAs with 18C to form longer-chain PUFAs. The values of n-3/n-6 in clamworms fed vegetable oil diets (ranged from 0.20 to 0.31) were much closer to the recommended values for human food compared with FO diet (2.47). Analysis of the antioxidant parameters revealed that clamworms fed the CO diet suffered lower peroxidation burden than those fed FO diet. These results suggested that cottonseed oil is a suitable lipid source for P. aibuhitensis feeds.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:47:42.960868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13362
  • Fishmeal can be totally replaced by a mixture of rapeseed meal and
           Chlorella meal in diets for crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)
    • Authors: Xi Shi; Feng Chen, Guang-Hui Chen, Ya-Xiong Pan, Xiao-Ming Zhu, Xu Liu, Zhi Luo
      Pages: 5481 - 5489
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fishmeal (FM) replacement by a mixture of rapeseed meal and Chlorella meal (RCM) on growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs), digestive enzymatic activities and intestinal histology of crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelioi. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to replace 0% (RCM0), 25% (RCM25), 50% (RCM50), 75% (RCM75), and 100% (RCM100) of protein from fishmeal with RCM respectively. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups with 25 juvenile fish (initial body weight: 1.77 ± 0.04 g) per fibreglass tank for 6 weeks. With increasing substitution levels, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, feed intake and protein efficiency ratio increased, but feed conversion rate decreased. Dietary RCM substitution improved lipid content of muscle, but had no significant effect on other proximate composition of muscle and liver. ADCs of dry matter, protein, lipid, energy and the majority of amino acids increased with increasing substitution level, and digestive enzyme activities (amylase, trypsin and lipase) in intestine showed the similar trend with ADCs. Dietary RCM substitution had no significant adverse effect on intestinal histology. This study indicated that FM protein could be completely replaced by mixed protein sources (RCM) in crucian carp diets.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:25:50.047471-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13364
  • Mate selection in aquaculture breeding using differential evolution
    • Authors: Grazyella Massako Yoshida; José Manuel Yáñez, Carlos Antonio Lopes Oliveira, Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro, Jean Paul Lhorente, Sandra Aidar Queiroz, Roberto Carvalheiro
      Pages: 5490 - 5497
      Abstract: An algorithm to perform mate selection in aquaculture breeding using a computational optimization procedure called “differential evolution” (DE) was applied under optimum contribution selection and mate selection scenarios, to assess its efficiency in maximizing the genetic merit while controlling inbreeding. Real aquaculture data sets with 8,782 Nile tilapias from five generations and 79,144 coho salmon from eight generations were used to optimize objective functions accounting for coancestry of parents and expected genetic merit and inbreeding of the future progeny. The mate selection results were compared with those from the realized scenario (real mates), truncation selection and optimum contribution selection method. Mate selection allowed reducing inbreeding up to 73% for Nile tilapia, compared with truncation selection, and up to 20% for coho salmon, compared with realized scenario. There was evidence that mate selection outperformed optimum contribution selection followed by minimum inbreeding mating in controlling inbreeding under the same expected genetic gain. The developed algorithm was computationally efficient in maximizing the objective functions and flexible for practical application in aquaculture breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T04:21:39.748754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13365
  • Optimal temperature and photoperiod for the spawning of blue crab,
           Callinectes sapidus, in captivity
    • Authors: S. Bembe; Dong Liang, J. Sook Chung
      Pages: 5498 - 5505
      Abstract: Like all poikilotherms, the growth and reproduction of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus depends on temperature and season. Warmer water temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay allow for ovarian development and spawning, while colder water temperatures slow their metabolism and reproduction. The current study aimed to identify optimal environmental conditions for inducing reproduction in animals held in long-term captivity for year round production in aquaculture through environmental manipulations. Temperature and photoperiod were the main environmental factors tested for 25 weeks: 11°C and 21°C, with the following photoperiods: 0L:24D, 8L:16D, 16L:8D and 24L:0D. At 21°C, the females increased spawning frequency, which was arrested at 11°C. Shorter light exposure at 21°C increased spawning frequency, while constant light inhibited and did not produce spawning. Constant dark (0L:24D) at 21°C produced the most (86%) spawns, but yielded poor larval quality. At 21°C with all photoperiod conditions except constant light, the first spawning took 94.8 ± 32.4 days to occur (n = 17). With females producing multiple spawns, the intervals between the first and second spawns and the second and third spawns were 37.7 ± 8.7 days (n = 6) and 31.0 ± 7.1 days (n = 2) respectively. Analysis of our data using response surface methodology (RSM) predicts the following conditions: at 15–19°C and 0–10 hr darkness for maximal survival and at 19–22°C and 0–8 hr darkness for spawning. The number of larvae produced was positively correlated with size (weight) of the female C. sapidus, suggesting the importance of female size in reproduction.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:24:47.584854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13366
  • Evaluating spawning performance among captive Florida pompano Trachinotus
           carolinus broodstock using microsatellite-based parentage assignment
    • Authors: Qian Ma; Seifu Seyoum, Michael D. Tringali, Matthew J. Resley, Nicole R. Rhody, Kevan L. Main, Kenneth M. Leber
      Pages: 5506 - 5516
      Abstract: Florida pompano has been identified as a promising candidate for commercial-scale aquaculture production, but to date, little information is available regarding captive broodstock spawning characteristics. Genetic markers were tested for their power in monitoring mating outcomes and potential in analysing heritability of rapid growth trait in Trachinotus carolinus. A total of 20 unrelated adults (10 females and 10 males) were chosen for a hormone-induced mass spawning event. The 515 fastest growing and 485 slowest growing fish of the total 4852 offspring were considered a selected progeny stock, and fish were collected at 45 days post hatch based on their growth traits. Parentage analyses based on the 20 breeders and 1,000 selected progeny were performed using a total of nine microsatellite markers, a 100% assignment rate was achieved, and a four-marker set was the minimum number for the parentage assignment. The effective breeding number for the selected progeny was 11 (six females and five males), among which three females and two males were predominant contributors with the total contribution of 95.8% and 94.7% respectively. The proportion of fast-growing offspring from broodfish and each mating cross (sire/dam) was used for detecting whether variation in growth of the offspring was related to parental stocks. Results showed that three adults and their mated combination exhibited the greatest fast-growing offspring proportion (69.73% and 55.95%). This research provided new information regarding spawning performance and parental contribution during mass spawning events; both important first steps towards developing improved management strategies for captive Florida pompano broodstock.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:28:51.16905-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13369
  • Digestibility, growth and pigmentation of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin or
           lutein diets in Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish, Melanotaenia parva (Allen)
           cultured species
    • Authors: Nina Meilisza; Dedi Jusadi, Muhammad Zairin, I Made Artika, Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo, Tutik Kadarini, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi
      Pages: 5517 - 5525
      Abstract: New cultured ornamental fish namely Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish Melanotaenia parva (Allen) run into reduced of colour performances when reared in the aquaria, consequently, fish feed must be added with carotenoids as a pigment source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility, growth and pigmentation of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and lutein in diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, lipid, protein, carotenoids, growth and pigmentation were studied in twenty fish after 14 and 56 days of observation. The single-dose supplementation of 100 mg/kg of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, or lutein diets on fish was fed by apparent satiation. The basal diet without carotenoids was used as control. The result showed that the ADC of carotenoids of test diets was higher compared to control. Fish fed astaxanthin diet had higher survival rate (96.67 ± 2.89%), colour measurements of lightness (57.60 ± 7.46%), a*-values (4.66 ± 1.20), total carotenoids content in skin (33.75 ± 5.02 mg/kg) and muscle (2.16 ± 0.74 mg/kg). Astaxanthin also increased the growth after 14 days (2.00% ± 0.19%/days) but there was no significantly different at the end of experiment. The yellowish-orange colour performance was more rapidly achieved by fish fed astaxanthin diet after 28 days experimentation. These values suggested that dietary carotenoids were required and astaxanthin diet was superior to other diets for skin pigmentation of Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T06:35:25.245966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13372
  • Motility of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus spermatozoa in the
           post-activation phase
    • Authors: Adele Fabbrocini; Raffaele D'Adamo
      Pages: 5526 - 5532
      Abstract: The characterization of sperm motility patterns, particularly post-activation changes, is the first step in setting up species-specific protocols involving gamete management and embryo production, for both aquaculture and laboratory research purposes. This study is aimed at the characterization of the sperm motility pattern of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Semen samples were individually diluted in artificial sea water for sperm motility activation. They were then incubated at 18°C for up to 24 hr. Motility was evaluated on dilution, and 1 hr, 3 hr and 24 hr after activation, by computerized analyser. The semen fertilization capacity was also evaluated. Under our experimental conditions (dilution 1:1,000 in artificial sea water plus 0.05% BSA, 18°C, in the dark), P. lividus semen remained viable for up to 24 hr, as the total motile sperm and the fertilization percentages did not change significantly during the incubation time. In contrast, the mean curvilinear velocity and the subpopulation of rapid sperm (those having a curvilinear velocity> 100 µm/s) slightly but significantly decreased after 3 hr, thereafter remaining unchanged for up to 24 hr after activation. In conclusion, our results show that diluted P. lividus semen can be used for a longer period than that of most fish species, with no need for motility inhibition procedures, supporting its wider use in laboratory research. In addition, the development of artificial fertilization protocols for aquaculture production is simplified by long-lasting sperm motility.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:35:43.8965-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13373
  • A comparative histological study on early thyroid gland development in
           Acipenser stellatus and A. gueldenstaedtii larvae in hatchery
    • Authors: Tulay Akayli; Devrim Memiş, Erol Rustu Bozkurt
      Pages: 5533 - 5540
      Abstract: The thyroid is an endocrine gland, with an important role in fish growth, development and adaptation of larvae. The aim of this study was to describe the development of the thyroid gland and to determine the initial functional activity of thyroid gland and hormones in Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and A. stellatus larvae using immunohistochemistry. For this aim, fertilized eggs of two species were reared in a hatchery and larval samples were collected daily for 20 days post hatching (dph). For immunostaining, rabbit polyclonal primary antibodies for thyroglobulin and mouse monoclonal antibodies for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) were used. In histological analyses, it was observed that the first development of the thyroid gland in stellate sturgeon larvae occurs on the 3–4 dph and on the 4–5 dph in Russian sturgeon larvae in the ventral pharyngeal region of the fish. In the immunostaining analyses of 12-day-old stellate larvae and 19-day-old Russian sturgeon larvae, the thyroid follicles showed dispersion in great numbers around the aorta, and also it was observed that they were stained positively with antithyroglobulin staining, but the same sections gave negative results with TTF-1 staining. Also melanomacrophage centres, which are generally found in the haemopoietic tissues in some cases, were first observed around the thyroid follicles of sturgeon larvae. The results of this study revealed a similarity in the early thyroid gland development between two sturgeon species but using immunostaining methods, it was described that A. stellatus shows a faster functional development and earlier hormone production than A. gueldenstaedtii.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T04:17:55.634985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13374
  • Measuring density effects on growth and survival of two size classes of
           juvenile sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) held in sea-based
           holding systems and impacts on holding system design and management
    • Authors: Philip James; Sten Ivar Siikavuopio, Tomas Wyatt Reguera
      Pages: 5541 - 5549
      Abstract: Assessing density in intensive sea urchin culture systems by measuring the percentage coverage of available surface area is an effective means of calculating the available space within a holding system, the proximity of the animals in the system to each other and the probable effects of the stocking density. The results of this study show that density plays a critical role in regard to both somatic growth (increase in test diameter measured in millimetres) as well as mortality of juvenile sea urchins ranging in size from 5 mm to 26 mm test diameter (the size range tested in the current experiments). These effects appear to be greater for smaller urchins. The critical percentage coverage densities are in the order of 50%-60% coverage for juvenile sea urchins, and the authors advise farmers growing Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis to maintain stocking densities below this point and to reduce the stocking densities as and when stocks reach these critical density points. Percentage cover must be constantly monitored as the results from this study indicate that the growth rates of juvenile urchins can alter percentage coverage rapidly and reductions in density may be required as frequently as every 3-4 months at the early juvenile stage. Holding system design should take these factors into account and incorporate a method of rapidly reducing stocking densities with minimal stress and handling of sea urchin stocks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:15:38.23425-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13375
  • Genotyping, pedigree reconstruction and endocrinological characterization
           of Acipenser naccarii (Bonaparte, 1836) using microsatellite markers and
           plasma steroid levels
    • Authors: Ilaria Guarniero; Michaela Mandelli, Laura Stancampiano, Alessia Cariani, Nadia Govoni, Albamaria Parmeggiani, Damiano Barboni, Oliviero Mordenti
      Pages: 5550 - 5560
      Abstract: This study aimed to set up a method for the long-term management of Adriatic sturgeon, through the analysis of sex steroids and the genetic profiling of individuals in order to maximize the already reduced genetic variability of this species. Ten A. naccarii adults (nine of captive origin, one captured in the Ticino river and then moved into captivity) and eight subadults located in a semi-natural land-locked pond in Abbiategrasso (Milan, Italy) were analysed. Plasma testosterone differed significantly in the eight analysed subadults allowing their differentiation into two groups: the first group with an average testosterone concentration of 5.42 ± 1.31 ng/ml (probably female) and the second group with an average of 423.14 ± 75.97 ng/ml (probably male), as subsequently confirmed by artificial stripping. The plasma testosterone level was also significantly different between adult males and females (371.37 ± 43.58 vs. 95.34 ± 51.10 ng/ml), while the E2 levels showed no significant differences. Animals were genotyped on the basis of 10 microsatellite loci and their parental relationships were defined: four adults, two females and two males, generated the eight subadults. On the basis of pedigree analyses and genetic distances, 15 unrelated couples were identified for the future breeding seasons. Finally, the adult female captured in the Ticino River showed an interesting genetic profile, widely different from all of the other 17 specimens analysed, and represents a valuable source of genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:55:26.818153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13376
  • Determination and transferability of plasmid-mediated antibiotic
           resistance genes of the bacteria isolated from rainbow trout
    • Authors: Erol Capkin; Saliha Ozdemir, Rafet Cagri Ozturk, Ilhan Altinok
      Pages: 5561 - 5575
      Abstract: Antibiotic resistance and the presence of resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in the bacteria isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from different trout farms located in Turkey. The most frequent types of antibiotic resistance were towards β-lactams (cephalothin [70% of bacterial isolates], amoxicillin [63%], ampicillin [62%], ticarcillin [56%], aztreonam [51%]), macrolide [erythromycin, 68%] and sulphonamide [sulphamethoxazole, 51%]. Of bacterial isolates, 51% were multiple drug resistant (MDR), while 35% of the isolates were extensively drug resistant (XDR). None of isolates were pandrug resistant (PDR). The most common ARGs were ampC (36%) and sul1 (24%). The class 1 integron gene cassette was detected in 51% of the bacteria. There was a strong positive correlation between the antibiotic resistance rate and the presence of ARGs (r2 = .932). Gene encodes blaCTX-M1, one of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes, was first described in Aeromonas caviae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas luteola and Burkholderia cepacia. It was determined that 35% of the bacteria harboured at least one plasmid. Plasmid-mediated ARGs were identified to be tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD), sulphonamides (sul1, sul3) and β lactams (ampC, blapse). Thus, results suggest that ARG contamination situation deliberates resistance to tetracycline, aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol and sulphonamide. Therefore, the presence and activity of ARGs in fish and in environmental bacteria may play an important role in the spread of resistance genes among bacteria by transposition or integron gene cassettes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T01:12:29.881772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13378
  • Partial and total replacement of fish meal by marine microalga Spirulina
           platensis in the diet of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei:
           Growth, digestive enzyme activities, fatty acid composition and responses
           to ammonia and hypoxia stress
    • Authors: Somayeh Pakravan; Arash Akbarzadeh, Mir Masoud Sajjadi, Abdolmajid Hajimoradloo, Farzaneh Noori
      Pages: 5576 - 5586
      Abstract: In the this study, we evaluated the effect of replacement of fish meal by a marine microalgae Spirulina platensis on growth, digestive enzyme activities, fatty acid composition and responses to ammonia and hypoxia stress in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2.6 ± 0.2 g). Experimental diets contained S. platensis at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% replacement levels. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, growth parameters and proximate body composition were not significantly different among treatments (p > .05). Amylase and lipase activities did not show any significant differences between control group and other experimental diets (p > .05), while activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin were significantly higher in shrimp fed diet with 50% substitution of microalgae compared to control group. Fatty acid contents, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were significantly higher in control diet compared to other experimental diets. On the contrary, the majority of fatty acids including the contents of PUFAs in the whole body of L. vannamei fed with different levels of S. platensis were significantly higher compared to those of control group. After 48-h exposure to ammonia, survival per cent was not statistically different between all groups (p > .05), but in hypoxia challenge, the survival per cent of control group was significantly less than that of treatments fed diets contained S. platensis (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:41:30.326303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13379
  • Transcriptional profile of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase encoding
           mRNAs of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei during PstDV-1
    • Authors: Patricia Olguín-León; Tania Enríquez-Espinoza, Fernando Mendoza-Cano, Trinidad Encinas-García, Arturo Sánchez-Paz
      Pages: 5587 - 5594
      Abstract: Beyond their ability to infect and spread, viruses lack the ability to replicate by their own. To counter this, viruses have evolved strategies to exploit the host's machinery for the production of new virions. However, viruses are by no means merely passive consumers of host metabolic products. Viruses induce remarkable changes in their host's cellular metabolism, yielding a metabolic state, to meet its specific requirements. The decapod penstyldensovirus (PstDV-1) is probably the most prevalent virus affecting shrimp farming and has been associated with massive mortality outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of Penaeus stylirostris, and results in developmental deformities in symptomatic specimens of P. vannamei. Previous studies have suggested that PstDV-1 induces metabolic reprogramming of P. vannamei to achieve a successful replication. In this study, the effects of PstDV-1 infection over the gene expression of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase of the shrimp P. vannamei were evaluated. The expression of both genes was significantly altered by PstDV-1 infection, which may lead to the accumulation of specific metabolites, as lactate and fatty acids, providing a suitable platform for viral assembly and replication. The transcriptional profile of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase-encoding mRNAs offers initial clues on the potential metabolic alteration that contribute to PstDV-1 pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:25:27.119772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13380
  • Impacts of diet on hindgut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in grass
           carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
    • Authors: Yao Tong Hao; Shan Gong Wu, Ivan Jakovlić, Hong Zou, Wen Xiang Li, Gui Tang Wang
      Pages: 5595 - 5605
      Abstract: Diet is known to influence intestinal microbiota in fish, but the specifics of these impacts are still poorly understood. Different protein/fibre ratio diets may result in differing structures and activities of gut microbiota. We examined the hindgut microbiome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fed three different diets: fish meal (FM, high protein – low fibre), Sudan grass (SG, high fibre – low protein) and compound feed (CF, intermediate). Microbial profiles of fish fed on FM were significantly different from profiles of fish fed CF and SG (F = 18.85, p CF>SG). Overall low SCFA levels indicate that hindgut fermentation probably provides a low proportion of energy requirements in grass carp.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T06:40:25.390989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13381
  • Antimicrobial activity of partially characterized analytes from Bacillus
    • Authors: Sanghamitra Nayak; Chalor Limsuwan, Niti Chichurd, Kai-J. Kühlmann, Supranee Pungpang
      Pages: 5606 - 5613
      Abstract: This study was carried out to characterize the antimicrobial substance produced by the strain of Bacillus pumilus (B2) obtained from Novozymes Biologicals Inc. to compare its antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion assay and bacteriocin activity assay via critical dilution method against seven different strains of Vibrio spp., specifically V. alginolyticus (A01), V. cholerae (C01), V. fluvialis (F01, F02), V herveyii (H), V. mimicus (M01), V. parahaemolyticus (P01) and V. vulnificus (V01, V02). All Vibrio spp. were isolated from the hemolymph and intestine of the white faeces disease-infected moribund pacific white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) and one strain (V. harveyi) from its diseased postlarva. The cell-free neutralized supernatant (CFNS) of B2 showed moderate thermo-stability being stable up to 70°C for 60 min with, however, reducing activity above 80°C for 20 min. B2 antimicrobials showed a stable activity within the pH ranging from 6 to 10 at room temperature and at 4°C, while residual antimicrobial activity of crude CFNS showed tolerance to salinity up to 7% of sodium chloride below 4°C. No B2 activity was obtained while exposed to proteolytic enzyme, such as proteinase k and pepsin, while its activity kept stable exposed to lipase. Initial B2 characterization for antimicrobial substance in CFNS revealed proteinaceous in nature owing to activity loss against proteolytic enzymes and no lipid moiety activity against lipase, which could be categorized as bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance having potential application against several strains of Vibrio spp. in aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:25:23.649395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13382
  • Isolation of alginate lyase-producing bacteria and screening for their
           potential characteristics as abalone probionts.
    • Authors: Muhamad Amin; Christopher C J Bolch, Mark B Adams, Christopher M Burke
      Pages: 5614 - 5623
      Abstract: This study is aimed at the isolation and screening of alginate lyase-producing bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of hybrid abalone, Haliotis rubra x H. laevigata, as probiotic candidates. Six bacterial isolates were detected to produce alginate lyase. Of these, the isolate with the highest alginate-lyase activity was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii strain EN-119, displaying 99% similarity of 16S rDNA sequence. Further assays indicated that E. ludwigii showed good viability and stability when it was incorporated into manufactured pellets and stored at 4°C for 7 days. The isolate also had high tolerance of high salinity (35 mg/L), low pH in simulated stomach juice (5) and to simulated intestinal juice containing surfactants such as bile salts and gastric enzymes (pepsin and trypsin). Additionally, a short, preliminary study indicated that supplementation of E. ludwigii via manufactured pellets improved the total weight gain and specific growth rate of hybrid abalone. These results suggest that E. ludwigii is a potential probiont for shortening the culture period of hybrid abalone.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T23:55:30.686676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13383
  • Genetic and morphological divergences between wild and captive-bred
           populations of Salmo trutta abanticus
    • Authors: Murat Telli; Büşra Gürleyen
      Pages: 5624 - 5630
      Abstract: Salmo trutta abanticus is a non-anadromous trout species native to Lake Abant and Seven Lakes in Turkey. A restocking programme by captive breeding was initiated in 1999 to support S. trutta abanticus population. Reared 2-year-old juveniles from randomly caught wild parental individuals in Maçka breeding farm were introduced into Lake Abant. We aimed to compare genetic and morphological divergences between wild- and captive-bred populations using seven microsatellite loci and geometric morphometric measurements. A significant genetic and morphological divergences were detected between all population in Fst and canonical variate analysis based on geometric morphometric with 10 homolog landmark. Eighty-six microsatellites alleles were recorded across loci. Number of private alleles, observed alleles and observed heterozygosity are statistically significant higher in Maçka captive-bred population than Lake Abant and Seven Lakes populations. Of 42 tests, three departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were detected in all populations after Bonferroni correction. Two pairs of loci (Ssa85 – Str73 and Str73-Str543) in Maçka, one pairs of loci (Ssa85-Str73) in Abant and two pairs of loci (Ssa85-Str60 and Str73-Str543) in Seven Lakes populations show linkage disequilibrium. Population structure analysed with Structure software showed three genetic groups (∆K = 3) in our studied populations. Relatedness estimates show higher mean relatedness values (r = 0.220 ± 0.230) for Maçka captive-breed population than wild populations of Abant Lake and Seven Lakes (r = 0.140 ± 0.210 and r = 0.170 ± 0.200 respectively).
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T01:15:50.664161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13384
  • Productivity of Sargassum linearifolium in potassium fortified inland
           saline water under laboratory conditions
    • Authors: Ha Thi Thu Bui; Trong Quoc Luu, Ravi Fotedar, Uras Tantulo
      Pages: 5631 - 5639
      Abstract: Growing aquatic species in inland saline water (ISW) is one way to reduce the adverse impact of ISW to agriculture farms. This 84-day laboratory-trial was conducted to study the growth of Sargassum linearifolium cultured in ocean water (OW), ISW, ISW fortified with potassium equivalent to 100% (ISW100), 66% (ISW66) and 33% (ISW33) of potassium in OW at 35 g/L. The biomass and cumulative specific growth rate (SGR) of S. linearifolium increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:20:24.91932-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13385
  • Practical diets with essential oils of plants activate the complement
           system and alter the intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia
    • Authors: Gustavo M. R. Valladão; Sílvia U. Gallani, Gabriela Pala, Raphael B. Jesus, Suzana Kotzent, Jaqueline C. Costa, Thiago F. A. Silva, Fabiana Pilarski
      Pages: 5640 - 5649
      Abstract: The effect of the essential oils (EOs) of peppermint, Mentha piperita L., and tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, on the haematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., was evaluated. Fish (58.09 ± 5.87 g) were fed 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of each EO and sampled on days 7, 14, 30 and 60 after starting supplementation. The haematological and biochemical parameters were not altered by the supplementation of EOs compared to the control (p > .05). With regard to the immunological parameters, the activation of the complement system of fish fed 250 mg/kg peppermint and 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg tea tree EOs were significantly higher compared to the control after 60 days of feeding (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T00:50:28.453977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13386
  • Effect of starvation on the performance of baby octopus (Robsonella
           fontaniana) paralarvae
    • Authors: Viviana Espinoza; Maria T. Viana, Carlos Rosas, Iker Uriarte, Ana Farías
      Pages: 5650 - 5658
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short- and long-term starvation on paralarvae from hatching and compare to fed paralarvae. In the continuous starvation treatments, paralarvae at hatching were left without food as independent treatments for 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 15 days. In the fed treatments, the newly hatched paralarvae were fed for five and eight days; then each group was left in starvation as independent treatments for 3, 5 and 7 days. After any experimental starvation period, the paralarvae were fed for five more days to evaluate their recovery. Paralarvae exposed to continuous starvation from hatching endured up to 8 days after hatching (8 SDAH) showing significant recovery. Its survival decreased proportionally to the days of starvation, without any recovery after 12 DAH. Fed paralarvae (5 and 8 FDAH), resulted in significant differences accordingly to the length of the starvation period. Paralarvae left under permanent starvation showed a noticeable decrease in their arm/mantle length ratio and an atrophy of the digestive gland was observed. Amino acids were used primarily as energy source by paralarvae, particularly in the second week of starvation. It is discussed the critical age to avoid deleterious effects of starvation on paralarvae.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:24:14.420789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13387
  • Induction of meiotic gynogenesis in bagrid catfish (Pseudobagrus
           ussuriensis) with homologous sperm and its confirmation for female
    • Authors: Zheng-Jun Pan; Chuan-Kun Zhu, Hui Wang, Guo-Liang Chang, Huai-Yu Ding, Xiao-Gang Qiang, Xiang-Sheng Yu
      Pages: 5659 - 5665
      Abstract: The bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus ussuriensis, exhibits significant sexual dimorphism in growth rate and body size with males growing faster than females. Therefore, an all-male culture can dramatically increase the output and profitability of fishery products. According to the monosex breeding route, super-male individuals’ acquirement by XY male sex reversal and artificial gynogenesis is the key step. An effective protocol to induce meiotic gynogenesis using homologous sperms has been developed in this study. The most effective UV irradiation for sperm genetic inactivation was found to be at a distance of 20 cm with 66 μW/cm2 light intensity for 25 min. Optimal treatment for cold shock was 5 min post-fertilization at 0-4°C for 30 min, which gave the best survival rate of 13.65 ± 2.87%. The sex ratio in the meiotic gynogens showed a significant female-biased deviation (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T07:00:29.68586-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13388
  • Plasma proteins, hepatic enzymes, thyroid hormones and liver
           histopathology of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to an oxadiazin
           pesticide, indoxacarb
    • Authors: Melika Ghelichpour; Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Hamidreza Joshaghani, Hoseinali Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi
      Pages: 5666 - 5676
      Abstract: Indoxacarb is a relatively new pesticide from oxadiazin class, which is used near carp ponds for agricultural purposes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine indoxacarb effects on common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75, 1.5 and 3 ppm of indoxacarb over 21 days and plasma biochemical characteristics and liver histopathology were examined. Exposure to indoxacarb induced fall in total protein after 21 days. Globulin increased after 7 days and then decreased after 14- and 21-day exposure. Plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities increased in 1.5 and 3 ppm treatments after 7-day exposure. Indoxacarb exposure significantly decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase after 7 days with no change at the second and third samplings. After 7 days, plasma T3 levels had no significant change; however, it decreased after 14 days in the 1.5 and 3 ppm treatments and also reduced after 21-day exposure to the 3 ppm treatment compared to the control group. Plasma T4 level only decreased significantly in the 3 ppm treatment compared to the control group after 21 days. Different histopathological symptoms such as necrosis, hyperaemia, sinusoidal space extension, pyknotic nuclei, leucocyte infiltration and melanomacrophage aggregates were observed after 21-day exposure to indoxacarb. The symptoms intensity was dependent on indoxacarb concentration. In conclusion, the present results show that indoxacarb exposure adversely affects common carp health and welfare, which consequently may induce serious problems in this species aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T01:55:30.62635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13390
  • Assessment of dietary taurine essentiality on the physiological state of
           juvenile Totoaba macdonaldi
    • Authors: Tony Budi Satriyo; Mario A. Galaviz, Guillaume Salze, Lus M. López
      Pages: 5677 - 5689
      Abstract: Information on specific nutrients like taurine is important to support a nutritionally balanced diet for marine species such as totoaba Totoaba macdonaldi under culture conditions. Eight isoproteic (50%) and isolipidic (12%) experimental diets were formulated to contain graded levels of taurine (0.23%, 0.45%, 0.91%, 1.28%, 1.76%, 2.20%, 2.72%, 3.01% as-is) using ethanol-washed fishmeal (FM) as primary protein source. Green liver, low gallbladder-somatic index (GBSI), low apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of lipid, low erythrocyte turnover, low plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as low visceral fat, were detected in the basal diet (T-0.23) after 10 weeks. Thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC) was best modelled by a five-parameter saturation kinetic model (5-SKM, p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:30:26.680067-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13391
  • Hemolymph haemagglutination activity of pearl oysters Pinctada fucata in
           post-operative care
    • Authors: Natsumi Sano; Takashi Atsumi, Shinji Tanaka, Akira Komaru
      Pages: 5690 - 5692
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:25:41.822545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13370
  • Microbiota of common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae exhibiting high
    • Authors: Andrea M Tarnecki; Nicole R Rhody
      Pages: 5693 - 5698
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:45:26.959805-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13377
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