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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1577 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1577 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 399, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Research
  [SJR: 0.807]   [H-I: 60]   [31 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-557X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2109
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • The impact of hibernation and arousal on energy metabolism and antioxidant
           defenses in leech (Whitmania pigra)
    • Authors: Jia Wang; Hongzhuan Shi, Qiaosheng Guo, Fei Liu, Shimeng Yan, Daoxin Dai, Manjun Wu
      Abstract: Whitmania pigra is an important medicinal resource that is widely farmed in aquaculture in Asia, and a decrease in body weight occurring during hibernation and hibernation lasting long time has serious impacts on production efficiency in aquaculture system. We examined energy metabolic and antioxidant enzymes of intestine from a hibernator (W. pigra) over cycles of hibernation-arousal. Results of the study demonstrated that hibernation in W. pigra was characterized by a profound decrease in energy metabolic during deep hibernation that was interrupted by rewarming arousal. And energy metabolic increased significantly during the rewarming arousal. Regulated suppression of energy metabolism probably contributes to energy savings. Oxidative stress decreased during deep hibernation along with a reduction in oxidative metabolism, but increased during entrance into hibernation and arousal from hibernation. This up-regulation of antioxidant defense (AD) during arousal was interpreted as protection of the intestine against oxidative damage to come with the enormous increase in metabolic activity during arousal from hibernation, and the up-regulation of AD during entrance into hibernation was interpreted that leech are exposed to significant stresses (cold acclimation) that must be dealt with appropriately to avoid irreversible tissue damage. It can be concluded that W. pigra has a strong AD system that protects it from the injurious effects of free radicals either during periods of entrance into hibernation and arousal. These results indicate the adaptive mechanism of hibernation that may be applied to increase production efficiency of leech by interrupting or shortening hibernation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T23:40:39.429921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13447
       
  • Parentage determination of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain using
           microsatellite markers
    • Authors: Xiaojun Xu; Guizhong Wang, Chaoshu Zeng, Shaojing Li
      Abstract: This study evaluated the properties of nine Scylla paramamosain microsatellite loci screened by us previously for inclusion in a parentage assignment marker suite. These nine highly polymorphic markers (mean He=0.847 and PIC=0.830) were determined as being suitable for parentage assignment. Simulations based on allele frequency data from 15 known maternal families (165 individuals) demonstrated that at least four loci were required to assign>95% of offspring to maternal parents with 95% confidence. In actual parentage assignments, all progenies were assigned to the maternal parents with six or more loci, which was similar to the simulation predictions. Our results suggest that this set of microsatellites provide a powerful and efficient tool for identifying pedigree information for selective breeding programmes of S. paramamosain.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T04:55:21.155108-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13450
       
  • Gonad transcriptome of discus fish (Symphysodon haraldi) and discovery of
           sex-related genes
    • Authors: Ruijuan Lin; Lei Wang, Yuming Zhao, Jianzhong Gao, Zaizhong Chen
      Abstract: Discus fish (Symphysodon haraldi) is a well-known and economical ornamental fish. In this study, RNA-seq technology was applied to de novo assemble a gonad transcriptome of discus fish, and to discover sex-related genes. Assembly of these reads generated 115,050 transcripts, corresponding to 97,074 non-redundant unigenes, with an average length of 748 bp and N50 length of 1,531 bp. A total of 14,073 unique proteins were assigned at least one Gene Ontology (GO) category and 52,764 unigenes involved in 345 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways were identified. More importantly, about 12 candidate genes involved in sex determination were identified. Furthermore, 10,571 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 26,083 simple sequence repeats were also detected. The results of the present study can provide basic information for examining the potential roles of sex-related genes in the sex determination of discus fish.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T23:45:59.307683-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13424
       
  • Growth, histology, ultrastructure and expression of MITF and astacin in
           the pigmentation stages of green, white and purple morphs of the sea
           cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
    • Authors: Lili Xing; Lina Sun, Shilin Liu, Zixuan Wan, Xiaoni Li, Ting Miao, Libin Zhang, Yucen Bai, Hongsheng Yang
      Abstract: The body colour of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), is an important trait affecting the price and taste of its products; the rare white and purple colour types are favoured and are more expensive in China. Identification of factors that may contribute to the differences among white, green and purple sea cucumbers will provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of the rare colour morphs. In this study, the growth, histology, ultrastructure and expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and astacin of two newly discovered white and purple colour morphs were investigated and compared with the common green morph, in the same breeding environment. At 50 days old, the growth and survival rates and the extent of pigmentation were the highest in purple, then green colour morphs and were lowest in white morphs. The white morph had fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes compared with the green and purple colour morphs. MITF and astacin expression, which are necessary for the formation of melanin and astaxanthin, respectively, were highest in purple morphs and lowest in white morphs. In addition, there were significant differences in growth rates and expression of MITF and astacin among early, mid and late pigmentation stages of each colour morph. The results suggested that growth and survival rates were highest in purple sea cucumber and lowest in white sea cucumber. Epidermis thickness and melanin content may be the newfound factors contributed to the differences in growth and survival rate among three colour morphs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T02:31:42.27957-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13446
       
  • Evaluation of some intestinal cytokines genes expression and serum innate
           immune parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed dietary loquat
           (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract
    • Authors: Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Hassan Khodadadian Zou, Hien Van Doan, Hamed Kolangi Miandare, Seyyed Morteza Hoseini
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to illustrate the effects of dietary loquat leaf extract (LLE) on the expression of some intestinal cytokines as well as serum innate immune parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. The fish were fed with experimental diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.25% (0.25LLE), 0.5% (0.5LLE) and 1% (1LLE) LLE over a 7-week period. At the end of the trial, the serum lysozyme (Lys) activity, ACH50, total Ig as well as the expression of IL1B, IL8, TNF-alpha, LYZ and TGF-β in intestine were evaluated. The results showed that administration of 0.5% or 1% LLE significantly increased serum total Ig. However, in case of serum Lys activity significant elevation was observed just in fish fed 0.5% LLE. Also, supplementation of diet with LLE significantly increased ACH50 compared to the control group, regardless of inclusion levels. Gene expression studies revealed upregulation of TNF-alpha, IL1B, IL8 and LYZ in intestine of fish fed LLE. However, the effects varied dependent on LLE levels and the tested immune related gene. Also, in case of TGF-β significant downregulation was observed just in 1% LLE treatment. In conclusion, dietary LLE supplementation significantly upregulated immune related genes in intestine and improves innate immune responses. Altogether, LLE can be recommended as fish immunostimulant in early stage of carp culture.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T02:21:12.325772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13440
       
  • Development of a SIDA-SPE-GC-MS/MS isotope dilution assay for the
           quantification of eugenol in water samples
    • Authors: Huan Liu; Jincheng Li, Chaoying Wang
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T02:15:27.319487-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13428
       
  • The observed oogenesis impairment in greater amberjack Seriola dumerili
           (Risso, 1810) reared in captivity is not related to an insufficient liver
           transcription or oocyte uptake of vitellogenin
    • Authors: Chrysovalentinos Pousis; Constantinos C Mylonas, Caterina De Virgilio, Gemma Gadaleta, Nicoletta Santamaria, Letizia Passantino, Rosa Zupa, Maria Papadaki, Ioannis Fakriadis, Rosalia Ferreri, Aldo Corriero
      Abstract: The greater amberjack Seriola dumerili is an excellent candidate for the Mediterranean aquaculture, due to its large body size and high growth rate, as well as its high flesh quality and commercial value worldwide. For its successful incorporation in the aquaculture industry, an in-depth understanding of the reproductive function of the species under rearing conditions is necessary, since completion of oogenesis in captivity is currently a bottleneck for the commercial production of the species. Liver and ovary samples from wild and captive-reared greater amberjack females were collected at three different phases of the reproductive cycle: early gametogenesis (EARLY, late April-early May), advanced gametogenesis (ADVANCED, late May-early June) and spawning (SPAWNING, late June-July). The cDNAs of three vitellogenins (VtgA, VtgB and VtgC) were partially sequenced and a qRT-PCR for their expression was used to compare ovarian maturity stage and liver vitellogenin transcript levels between wild and captive-reared individuals. An extensive atresia of late vitellogenic follicles, which prevented any further oocyte development and spawning was observed in captive-reared individuals during the ADVANCED phase. The expression levels of the three vitellogenins, as well as the amount of yolk globules in vitellogenic oocytes, did not differ significantly between captive-reared and wild females, indicating that the observed oogenesis impairment in greater amberjack reared in captivity was not related to an insufficient liver synthesis or a reduced oocyte uptake of vitellogenin.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T00:25:53.831785-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13453
       
  • Effect of thermal stress on Hsp70 gene expression and female reproductive
           performance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
    • Authors: Aslah Mohamad; Aziz Arshad, Yeong Yik Sung, Safiah Jasmani
      Abstract: Using Hsp70 as a biomarker, thermal stress impinges on reproductive organs, ovary and hepatopancreas were being analyzed by determining the expression of Hsp70 mRNA inside the organs after the adult inter-molt females were subjected to thermal treatment at 35, 30 and 28°C (Control). Results showed the expression of Hsp70 mRNA under thermal treatment of 35°C after 2 hr recovery in ovary were upregulated at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hr and 30 days compared to control whereas in hepatopancreas under similar treatment, the expression of Hsp70 mRNA were significantly higher than control at 6, 24 hr and 30 days. Frequency of reproductive molt at 35°C showed the ovary of females were failed to develop and only entered common molt along three consecutive molt cycles. For 30°C thermal treatment, the expression of Hsp70 mRNA was significantly higher than control after 2 hr recovery but returned to normal afterwards until 30 days’ thermal treatment. Maternal heat shock for 2 hr at 35°C were found to give significantly lower frequency of reproductive molt and longer duration of ovarian development and incubation period whereas maternal heat shock for 2 hr at 30°C gave lower frequency of reproductive molt, slower development of embryo and lower hatching success compared to untreated control. This study suggests that short and long-term thermal stress at 30 and 35°C were found to affect the induction of Hsp70 mRNA in reproductive organs of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and also influence their reproductive performance.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T00:06:14.677816-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13442
       
  • Utilization of dietary carbohydrates by sea cucumber Apostichopus
           japonicus (Selenka) as indicated by carbon stable isotope analysis
    • Authors: Bin Wen; Yong-Jun Sun, Qin-Feng Gao, Shuang-Lin Dong, Zai-Zhong Chen, Jian-Zhong Gao
      Abstract: Carbon stable isotopes were used as trophic markers to investigate the utilization of dietary terrestrial-source carbohydrates by sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumbers were fed by five different types of diets with the ingredients containing Sargassum muticum either without starch or with one of the four starches including corn starch, sweet potato starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. After the 70-day feeding trial, the carbon isotopic compositions of A. japonicus appeared to reflect those of corresponding dietary components. The average contribution of corn starch (22.0%) to the growth of A. japonicus was slightly higher than the expected contribution (20%). While the proportional contributions of sweet potato, tapioca and potato starches (6.0%, 7.0% and 4.0%, respectively) were all considerably lower relative to the expected contributions. These results indicated that A. japonicus could utilize corn starch more efficiently than sweet potato, tapioca or potato starch. Moreover, A. japonicus fed diet containing corn starch showed the highest specific growth rates which were significantly higher than those fed diets containing potato or tapioca starch. The results of the present study suggested that the corn starch could be used as dietary carbohydrate source in the artificial feeds for A. japonicus farming.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T00:15:34.330216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13425
       
  • First feeding of diploid and triploid yellowtail tetra Astyanax
           altiparanae: An initial stage for application in laboratory studies
    • Authors: Rafaela Manchin Bertolini; José Augusto Senhorini, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, Wellington Adriano Moreira Peres, Regiane Cristina da Silva, George Shigueki Yasui
      Abstract: In this study, the aim was to establish a protocol for first feeding of diploid and triploid yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae in laboratory conditions. The fry were fed with five different diets: (i) Artemia franciscana nauplii, (ii) plankton, (iii) dry food, (iv) Artemia franciscana nauplii + plankton, and (v) Artemia nauplii + plankton + dry food. Additionally, the growth and survival rates of diploid and triploid individuals were also evaluated. On day 10, the length of the fish between the treatments differed significantly (p = .0001) and ranged from 4.07 ± 0.06 mm (dry food) to 8.50 ± 0.64 mm (plankton + Artemia). The sizes of the fish increased with time, except for the fish fed with dry food. The survival rates were similar for the fish fed with the four diets and ranged from 80.7 ± 5.4% (dry food + plankton + Artemia to 92.0 ± 1.6% (plankton + Artemia), but differed from the fish fed with dry food (17.7 ± 5.8%, p = .0017). Diploids and triploids did not present differences on day 0 (p = .2252) and on day 10 (p = .4844) when the fish presented 6.77 ± 0.25 mm and 6.54 ± 0.15 mm respectively. Survival of diploids (87.3 ± 5.13%) and triploids (74.67 ± 2.30%) were also similar (p = .0285). These data are innovative and useful for establishing protocols for this species in both academic and applied sciences.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T00:00:28.490298-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13433
       
  • Depletion study and estimation of withdrawal periods for florfenicol and
           florfenicol amine in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
    • Authors: Tamires Valim Marques; Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Rafael Simões Coelho Barone, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino, Susanne Rath
      Abstract: The intensive production of farmed fish is at a global all-time high, and the control of bacteria proliferation in fish farms requires the frequent use of antimicrobials. This practice raises important environmental concerns related to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria strains. Only a few antimicrobial drugs have been approved for use in aquaculture, one of which is florfenicol. This work studies the depletion and withdrawal period of florfenicol and its main metabolite, florfenicol amine, in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), a neotropical characin widely farmed in the southern hemisphere. Juvenile pacu (average weight of 724 g) were stocked in a closed-loop laboratory system with controlled water temperature (25.8°C), and were fed for 10 consecutive days with a diet containing an intended dose of 10 mg/florfenicol per kg bw. Muscle and skin tissues were collected at 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 days post-treatment, and florfenicol and florfenicol amine were quantified using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The limits of quantitation for florfenicol and florfenicol amine were 10 ng/g in muscle and 50 ng/g in skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 1000 ng/g for the sum of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in muscle with skin in natural proportions a withdrawal period of 5 days (water temperature 25.8°C) or 129 degree days was calculated on the basis of the upper limit of the one-sided 95% confidence interval for the 99th percentile derived from the residue depletion study.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T06:41:00.261709-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13439
       
  • Effect of feed pellet size on production parameters of pike-perch (Sander
           lucioperca)
    • Authors: Jaakko Mattila; Juha Koskela
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T06:40:41.9175-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13443
       
  • Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) hydrolate as sedative of tambaqui (Colossoma
           macropomum) juveniles in simulated transport conditions
    • Authors: Hugo Napoleão Pereira Silva; Elen Monique de Oliveira Sousa, Janna Laely dos Santos Maia, Mônica Tatiane Lima Pinheiro, Soraia Valeria de Oliveira Coelho Lameirão, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão, José Guilherme Soares Maia, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Lenise Vargas Flores Silva
      Abstract: Lippia alba hydrolate (LAH) is produced as a secondary product in essential oil extraction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of LAH in a simulation of the transport of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) juveniles. A series of 17 hr simulations were performed using load densities of 30, 60 and 90 juveniles per L and four LAH concentrations of 0.4%, 1%, 2% and 5%, with a control of just water. Fish survival, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, ammonia excretion, alkalinity water hardness and net Na+, K+, Cl- fluxes, were all evaluated before and after the transport simulations. Mucous cell densities in the gills were also determined microscopically, post simulation. The results showed that addition of 5% LAH achieved better survival during the simulation than the water control. Dissolved oxygen was significantly lower with an increased load density. Also, conductivity, NH4 excretion and net ionic fluxes (K+ and Cl−) were lower with 5% LAH, although mainly where higher load densities were tested. Mucous cell density was lower in LAH concentrations of 2% and 5%, again with higher load densities. In view of these findings, it is suggested that 5% LAH is an effective sedative for use in the transport of tambaqui, mainly with high load densities. This work is the first study of LAH and highlights its potential applications in aquaculture management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T01:20:32.662333-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13441
       
  • The effects of temperature and photoperiod on egg hatching success, egg
           production and population growth of the calanoid copepod, Acartia grani
           (Calanoida: Acartiidae)
    • Authors: Natacha Nogueira; Bernardo Sumares, Carlos Alberto Pestana Andrade, António Afonso
      Abstract: Calanoid copepods, including species of the genus Acartia, are commonly used as larval diets for marine finfish. This study aimed to determine the separate effects of water temperature (18, 22, 24, 28° ± 0.5°C) and photoperiod (24L:0D; 18L:6D; 12L:12D; 8L:18D; 0L:24D) on Acartia grani egg production (EP), hatching rate (EHR) and population growth. Egg production rate was not affected by the two abiotic parameters. A. grani eggs incubated at T24°C and T28°C were the first to achieve 50% hatching rate (23–25 hr), with significant differences at the end of the experiment (48 hr) between T28°C treatment (EHR 88 ± 5%) and T18°C treatment (EHR 65 ± 2%). However, different temperature regimes did not affect final number of individuals in population growth experiment. Still, when eggs were excluded from data, population at lower temperatures (18°C) was mainly composed by the nauplii stage (72%), while at higher temperatures (24°C and 28°C) more than 60% of the population was composed by copepodites and adults. A. grani subjected to long-day photoperiods had significantly lower EHR (16.7% at 24L:0D; 20.8% at 18L:6D) than at short-day photoperiods (52.6% at 6L:18D; 50.0% at 0L:24D). In population growth experiment, eggs were the most common life stage after 12-day culture. Lowest population number was found at constant light conditions (665.0 ± 197.1), suggesting higher metabolic rates and depletion of energy reserves in long-day conditions. This study expanded knowledge on the biological response of A. grani to separate temperature and photoperiod regimes, and provided ground to improve the culture of this potential life feed species for hatcheries.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:35:29.09115-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13437
       
  • Effects of egg aging on the metabolites of ovarian fluid in rainbow trout,
           Oncorhynchus mykiss
    • Authors: Saeed Hajirezaee; Hossein Khara, Amirreza Abed-Elmdoust, Ahmad Rafieepour, Ruhollah Rahimi
      Abstract: Nuclear magnetic resonance -based metabolomics was applied to study effects of egg aging on ovarian fluid metabolites in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The eggs of three females were pooled and then assigned to three plastic vials for 18 days in vitro storage at 4°C. Ovarian fluid samples were taken 0, 6, 12 and 18 days after storage. Three groups of metabolites including amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites were found to change during storage period. The glucose levels of ovarian fluid showed significant decreases on days 12 and 18 after storage (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T23:50:24.513855-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13438
       
  • Histopathological changes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii (de Man 1879) fed with probiotic Bacillus licheniformis upon
           challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus
    • Authors: Ranjit Kumar Nadella; Raman Ram Prakash, Gyanaranjan Dash, Sreenath Kannanchery Ramanathan, Lalitha Velayudhan Kuttanappilly, Mukteswar Prasad Mothadaka
      Abstract: The effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis on the histopathological changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles (4.0 ± 0.02 g) challenged with known pathogenic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus are reported. Two isocaloric basal diets supplemented with probiotic bacteria B. licheniformis (1.0 × 109 cfu/g feed) and other without probiotic supplementation were fed to the M. rosenbergii juveniles for 45 days. The histological observations revealed no significant changes in the hepatopancreas and gut tissues of both the experimental and the control groups which indicate that the present bacterium is a safe candidate probiont for the host. Prawns were challenged with V. alginolyticus after 45 days of feeding with probiotic diet. The histopathological studies of the hepatopancreas revealed that M. rosenbergii fed with probiotic-supplemented diet showed less changes as compared to the prawns fed with control diet on second and fourth day of post-experimental challenge with V. alginolyticus. Histopathological observations revealed that the gills of the prawns fed with control diet were severely affected in comparison to the prawns fed with probiotic-supplemented diet after challenging with V. alginolyticus. Results from this study revealed the improved protection by dietary incorporation of B. licheniformis in reducing the histopathological manifestations due to V. alginolyticus infection in freshwater prawn.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T02:36:28.159212-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13436
       
  • Quality assessment of newly hatched mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae
    • Authors: Emilia T Quinitio; Joana Joy Cruz-Huervana, Fe D Parado-Estepa
      Abstract: Starvation and exposure to formalin were investigated as possible stress tests for evaluating the quality of mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae. For the starvation stress test, newly hatched zoeae stocked in 150-ml containers were either starved or fed rotifers. Similarly, newly hatched zoeae were stocked in containers with seawater of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 mg/L formalin for the formalin stress test. The zoeae from the same batches were used for seed production to monitor their performance and validate the results of stress tests. Starvation was found to be unsuitable for larval quality evaluation. However, the impact of initial food deprivation on the newly hatched larvae indicates that feeding immediately after hatching is necessary for mud crab larvae. Exposure of larvae to 40 mg/L formalin for 3 hr appeared to be a reliable and practical method for larval quality assessment as the survival of larvae in the mass production tanks validated the classification of good and poor quality batches in the stress tests. On this basis, a hatchery operator can decide which batch should be cultured further. Finally, there appears to be a link between the quality of larvae and the performance at the megalopa and early juvenile crabs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T04:15:57.54157-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13434
       
  • Performance of a photo-heterotrophic, hypersaline system for intensive
           cultivation of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with minimal water
           replacement in lined ponds using a stochastic approach
    • Authors: Luis Daniel Moreno-Figueroa; José Naranjo-Páramo, Alfredo Hernández-Llamas, Mayra Vargas-Mendieta, José Andrés Hernández-Gurrola, Humberto Villarreal-Colmenares
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in an intensive photo-heterotrophic hypersaline system with minimal seawater replacement, and establish relationships between parameters of a stochastic production model and relevant water quality variables. Six experimental 1000 m2 lined ponds were stocked at a density of 120 shrimp m−2 for a 105-day trial. Salinity increased from 37 to 45 ± 2 g/L, and the water level was maintained with the weekly addition of filtered seawater, equivalent to 1.6% per day. The stochastic model predicted that, at harvest, there is 95% confidence that the system produces between 12.1 and 14.7 t/ha with a mean final individual weight of 13.1 g and a mean survival of 84.2%. Sensitivity analyses showed that dissolved oxygen and individual final weight of shrimp were the main variables influencing yield variance. Nitrogenous compounds were maintained between optimal cultivation levels (NH3–NH4+ = 0.73 ± 0.43 mg/L, N–NO2− = 0.09 ± 0.05 mg/L, N–NO3− = 3.22 ± 0.11 mg/L). Heterotrophic bacteria (6.6 ± 3.4 × 105 CFU/ml) and chlorophyll-α concentration (108.5 ± 80.2 μg/L) showed a similar development pattern, indicating a strong relationship between bacteria and microalgae during cultivation. Vibrio spp. concentrations were low (1.24 ± 1.42 × 103 CFU/ml). It was shown that the photo-heterotrophic system could be used in hypersaline conditions, typical of semi-arid regions, to consistently produce between 12.1 and 14.7 t/ha in 15 weeks.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T04:10:33.845607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13432
       
  • Developing a new tool based on a quantile regression mixed-TGC model for
           optimizing gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L) farm management
    • Authors: Vicente D. Estruch; Pablo Mayer, Bernardino Roig, Miguel Jover
      Abstract: In this work, a seasonal quantile regression growth model for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L) based on an aggregation of the quantile TGC models with exponent 1/3 and 2/3, named the “Quantile TGC-Mixed Model”, is presented. This model generalizes the proposal of Mayer, Estruch and Jover (Aquaculture, 358-359, 2012, 6) in the sense that the new model is able to describe the evolution of weight distribution throughout an entire production cycle, which could be a powerful tool for fish farm management. The information provided by the model simulations enables us to estimate total fish production and final fish size distribution and helps to design and simulate production and sales plan strategies considering the market price of different fish sizes, in order to increase economic profits. The most interesting alternative in the studied case results in sending all production when 0.25 quantile fish reach 600 g, although on each fish farm it would be necessary to evaluate optimum strategy depending on its own quantile regression model, the production cost and the market price.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T01:35:37.491354-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13414
       
  • Early assessment of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) spawning dynamics
           by mini-broodstocks
    • Authors: Carmen García-Fernández; José A Sánchez, Gloria Blanco
      Abstract: The implementation of any sustainable breeding program requires a maximization of effective size (Ne) to maintain inbreeding rate at minimum levels. However, the control of Ne remains a major challenge for those species whose reproduction in captivity is based on a spawning strategy where there is no control over the established matings. The present study aims to assess the spawning dynamic of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) at different dates from two mini-broodstocks (4 ♀ and 4 ♂). Here we report the use of a simple protocol based on the genotyping of fertilized eggs from a reduced set of microsatellite loci which provides a quick evaluation of daily spawning in terms of family structuring (number of active breeders and number and family size). According to our results, the daily spawning dynamics is characterized by a fluctuation in the number of active breeders, reaching maximum values (until 100%) during peak production phase. However, the proportion of possible mating (families) in a single daily spawning never exceeded more than 81%. Unbalanced parental contributions were highly frequent, with extreme cases involving the assignment of 50%–90% of the offspring to a single family. Therefore, the use of mini-broodstocks and the grouping of spawning harvested at different dates are proposed as strategies to minimize the inbreeding risk by providing a more optimal pattern of family structuring (increase in the number of families obtained and a more balanced parental contributions) that entails a more conservative Ne/N ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T01:40:26.131075-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13430
       
  • Effects of controlled air exposure on the survival, growth, condition,
           pathogen loads and refrigerated shelf life of eastern oysters
    • Authors: Jerome F La Peyre; Sandra M Casas, John E Supan
      Abstract: The benefits of exposing eastern oysters to air during commercial culture have not been well-characterized. An adjustable longline system (ALS) designed in Australia and recently adopted by the nascent aquaculture industry in the northern Gulf of Mexico, allows growing oysters at any position in the water column and is perfectly suited to study the benefits of air exposure. Four-month old diploid oysters were deployed in an ALS and divided into three groups: 1) oysters exposed to air daily for 8–12 hr during low tide, 2) oysters exposed to air weekly (~24 hr once a week), and 3) oysters kept subtidally. Oyster mortality and growth rates, Perkinsus marinus load and condition index were then determined every 3 months over 2 years, while refrigerated shelf life and Vibrio vulnificus load were determined in summer and early fall of the second year. Summer mortalities were delayed, P. marinus infection intensities tended to be lower and condition index was significantly higher in oysters exposed to air daily compared with oysters exposed to air weekly or held subtidally. Shell heights of oysters exposed to air daily were lower for most of the study due to a lower growth rate during the initial sampling interval following deployment. No consistent differences were found in V. vulnificus loads or refrigerated shelf lives between the groups. It is recommended that ALS be set so that oysters are kept subtidally fall through spring to promote growth, and exposed to air daily during summer to delay P. marinus proliferation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T01:35:36.712778-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13427
       
  • Detection of the white spot syndrome virus in zooplankton samples
           collected off the coast of Sonora, Mexico
    • Authors: Marco Antonio Porchas-Cornejo; Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, Francisco Javier Álvarez-Tello, Marcel Martínez-Porchas, Luis Rafael Martínez-Córdova, Juana López-Martínez, Ricardo García-Morales
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in zooplankton organisms collected from an important shrimp-culture area of the Gulf of California. Environmental water parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH) were monitored, and zooplankton was collected. Samples were sectioned according to taxonomic groups (from Phylum to Family) for the detection of WSSV via PCR. A total of 52 zooplankton taxa were identified, of which crustaceans were the most abundant (82%). From the 228 WSSV diagnoses performed, 35% were positive. Moreover, from 32 taxa recorded at least one positive result was observed during the study, and only 13 were negative in all tests. The highest prevalence was observed in three taxa of copepods, brachyurous and bivalves. However, considering prevalence and frequency of occurrence, it was determined that up to 12 taxa could be considered as high-risk vectors. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the number of diagnoses per station with biovolume (rs = 0.817) and taxa richness (rs = 0.995). The results suggest that zooplankton diversity and abundance are associated with virus dispersion; moreover, these results demonstrated that the dispersion capacity of the virus through different taxa has been probably underestimated in recent years.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T01:35:27.913987-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13431
       
  • Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and RNAi of
           Retinoblastoma-like gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
    • Authors: Bobo Xie; Pengfei Wang, Chao Zhao, Lihua Qiu
      Abstract: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a multifunctional regulator involved in several key cellular processes, such as cell cycle control, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and senescence. In this study, an Rb-like gene, PmRBL, was cloned from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full-length cDNA sequence of PmRBL is 4,069 bp with an open reading frame of 3,243 bp, which encodes 1,080 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmRBL was highly expressed in the gills, hepatopancreas and ovaries of P. monodon. The highest PmRBL expression levels were observed in stage III of the ovarian development in P. monodon. RNA interference experiments were conducted to examine the expression profiles of PmRBL, PmCDK2 and PmCyclin E. The knockdown of PmRBL in the ovary and hepatopancreas by dsRNA-RBL was successful. After dsRNA-RBL was injected into the shrimp, the relative expression levels of PmCDK2 and PmCyclin E were upregulated at 12–72 hr in the ovaries and hepatopancreas. The localization and level of PmRBL expression in the ovary and hepatopancreas were investigated through in situ hybridization, which revealed consistent results with those of qRT-PCR. Therefore, PmRBL, PmCDK2 and PmCyclin E may be involved in vitellogenin synthesis and ovarian maturation in P. monodon.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:56:21.103399-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13399
       
  • Viability of a bottom-set tray ocean nursery system for Holothuria scabra
           Jaeger 1833
    • Authors: JayR C Gorospe; Jon P Altamirano, Marie Antonette Juinio-Meñez
      Abstract: Scaling up the hatchery production of juvenile sandfish Holothuria scabra is constrained by limited hatchery space and the associated high operational costs. To shorten the hatchery rearing phase, ocean nursery systems like floating hapa nets have been used with good prospects but with limitations during rough sea conditions. In this study, the potential of bottom-set trays (0.14 m2) as an alternative ocean nursery system for early sandfish juveniles (0.5 ± 0.1 cm) was evaluated. The effects of stocking density and presence of artificial substrates (AS) on the growth and survival were determined in a 60-day field experiment. Average length and growth rates at lower stocking density treatment (100 individuals tray−1) were significantly higher (1.45 ± 0.22 cm; 0.03 ± 0.01 cm day−1) than at higher stocking density treatments (400 and 500 individuals tray−1) 0.95 ± 0.06 cm; 0.03 ± 0.004 cm day−1) with or without AS (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T00:00:25.534624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13423
       
  • Genetic parameter estimation of nine quantitative traits by a marker-based
           method in Large Yellow Croaker, Larimichthys crocea (Richardson)
    • Authors: Changliang Qiu; Linsong Dong, Shijun Xiao, Shuangbin Xu, Ming Fang, Zhiyong Wang
      Abstract: Large yellow croaker accounts for the largest biomass production of any maricultured fish in China. However, very little is known about the genetic parameters of its commercially important traits. As an initial step towards developing a selective breeding programme, genetic parameters of nine quantitative traits were estimated using a marker-based method. Dorsal fin samples were collected to extract genomic DNA, and GBS method was employed to construct the libraries for sequencing. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML method through a genomic relationship matrix (G matrix) constructed by abundant genomewide SNPs. The nine traits were body weight (BWT), body length (BL), body height (BH), length/height ratio (LTH), body width (BWH), eviscerated weight (EW), gonad weight (GW), eviscerated weight/body weight ratio (REB) and swim bladder index (SBI). Estimates of heritability were 0.63 ± 0.11, 0.60 ± 0.11, 0.53 ± 0.11, 0.34 ± 0.11, 0.55 ± 0.11, 0.66 ± 0.11, 0.37 ± 0.10, 0.25 ± 0.08 and 0.71 ± 0.10 for the nine traits respectively. The relatively high heritability values may be derived from calculating the genetic relationship by high-density SNPs. To illustrate that, we had studied on the variation of the heritability estimates with different number of SNPs evenly sampled from 29748 SNPs. The results showed that the estimates of heritability generally decreased when the number of SNPs reduced. There were relatively high phenotypic and genetic correlations between the pairs of BWT, BL, BH, BWH and EW, which indicated that genetic improvement for these traits could be accomplished merely by selecting one trait. The results obtained in this study may provide a reference for the later selective breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T06:46:55.110383-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13412
       
  • Effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid sources, microalgae meal and oil,
           on growth, fatty acid composition and docosahexaenoic acid retention of
           orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides
    • Authors: Meng-Chou Lee; Li-Chao Zhuo, Yu-Hung Lin
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of Aurantiochytrium spp. microalgae meal and oil as dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources on the growth, fatty acid composition and DHA retention of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Dietary fish oil was replaced with microalgae meal or oil to provide an equal amount of DHA as a fish oil-containing basal diet. In total, three experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial wt: 8.48 ± 0.06 g) in a recirculating system for 8 weeks. The weight gain and feed efficiency of the fish did not differ significantly among the experimental diets. The fatty acid composition of the whole body of the fish generally reflected the composition of their diet. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid in the whole body was higher in the fish fed the fish meal control diet than in those fed the two experimental diets The fish fed the control diet and those fed the diet containing microalgae oil exhibited higher DHA concentrations than did the fish fed the diet containing microalgae meal. The whole-body DHA retention was the highest in the fish fed the diet with microalgae oil, followed by the fish fed the control diet. The lowest whole-body DHA retention was observed in the fish fed the diet containing microalgae meal. The results suggested that the oil from Aurantiochytrium spp. microalgae can be used as DHA source for the grouper. DHA utilization by the fish was higher when the diet was supplemented with microalgae oil than with dry microalgae meal.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T03:47:12.669931-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13429
       
  • Mortality processes of hatchery-reared Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus
           orientalis (Temminck et Schlegel) larvae in relation to their piscivory
    • Authors: Yosuke Tanaka; Kazunori Kumon, Yuka Ishihi, Takeshi Eba, Akefumi Nishi, Hideki Nikaido, Satoshi Shiozawa
      Abstract: In mass culture of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, yolk-sac larvae of other species are fed as a major prey item to tuna larvae from 7 to 8 mm in total length. Marked growth variations in tuna larvae are frequently observed after feeding of yolk-sac larvae, and this variation in the growth of tuna larvae is subsequently a factor leading to the prevalence of cannibalistic attacks. To elucidate details of the mortality process of hatchery-reared tuna larvae after the initiation of yolk-sac larvae feeding, we compared the nutritional and growth histories of the surviving (live) tuna larvae to those of the dead fish, found dead on the bottom of the tank, as direct evidence of their mortality processes. Cause of mortality of tuna larvae 3 and 5 days after the initiation of feeding of yolk-sac larvae was assessed from nitrogen stable isotope and otolith microstructure analyses. Stable isotope analysis revealed that the live fish rapidly utilized prey fish larvae, but the dead fish had depended more on rotifers relative to the live fish 3 and 5 days after the initiation of feeding of yolk-sac larvae. The growth histories based on otolith increments were compared between the live and dead tuna larvae and indicated that the live fish showed significantly faster growth histories than dead fish. Our results suggest that fast-growing larvae at the onset of piscivory could survive in the mass culture tank of Pacific bluefin tuna and were characterized by growth-selective mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T01:32:41.086718-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13426
       
  • The effects of dietary protein levels with amino acid supplementation on
           the growth performance, haematological profile and histology of meagre
           (Argyrosomus regius) in two different size classes
    • Authors: Derya Güroy; Onur Karadal, Betül Güroy, Serhan Mantoğlu, Kamil Çelebi, Olcay Şimşek, Orhan Tufan Eroldoğan, Münevver Ayçe Genç, Ercüment Genç
      Abstract: A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the effects of supplemented amino acids (lysine and methionine) with different dietary protein levels on growth, haematology and liver histology in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) at two different sizes: fingerling (15.2 g) and juvenile (44.4 g). Six practical diets were prepared, and three of these practical diets were formulated with 40 (P40), 44 (P44) and 48% (P48) crude protein without supplementation of amino acids. Other three diets having same protein levels were supplemented with lysine and methionine (P40AA, P44AA and P48AA) to bring these amino acids level up to that estimated to be at the least in the 48% protein diet. Final mean weight (FMW) and specific growth rate (SGR) of P48AA in fingerlings were higher than that of 40AA. According to FMW and SGR of juveniles, there was interaction found between dietary protein levels and the supplementation of amino acids. The FMW and SGR of meagre fed P44AA were higher than that of fish fed the other diets, except fish fed the P48. Economic profit index, packed cell volume and haemoglobin for juvenile meagre were significantly improved with the dietary protein level and amino acid supplementation. The liver tissues of the P48 group in both sizes displayed better structure compared with the other groups. In conclusion, dietary crude protein content of practical diets for juvenile meagre could be reduced from 48% to 44% by adding essential amino acids with an enhancement in growth, health and economic profit.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T01:18:22.164774-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13398
       
  • Deviation of habitat salinity during seasonal gonad recrudescence affects
           plasma sex steroid levels and suppresses gonadal maturation in an
           euryhaline fish Etroplus suratensis
    • Authors: Babita Mandal; Paramita Banerjee Sawant, Subrata Dasgupta, Narinder Kumar Chadha, Jitendra Kumar Sundaray, Bhawesh T. Sawant, Aritra Bera
      Abstract: Impact of osmoregulation on plasma sex steroid levels and gonadal histo-architecture was monitored to elucidate the effects of deviation from habitat salinity on gonadal recrudescence in an active reproductive season of an euryhaline fish Etroplus suratensis (pearlspot). Fish were maintained in three different salinities of 0 ppt Fresh Water (FW), 15 ppt Brackish Water (BW) and 30 ppt Sea Water (SW) for a period of 60 days. Plasma osmolality values were found to be significantly highest in SW-acclimated fish accompanied by highest levels of plasma K⁺ and Cl¯ ions. The progress of gonadal recrudescence was higher in BW followed by FW and SW as evident from the cellular features of gonads and increased level of plasma sex steroids, such as, in case of female and 11-keto Testosterone and Testosterone in case of males. Plasma cortisol levels were comparatively higher in fish of both sexes in SW group. Significantly high levels of cortisol in SW suggest its role in hypo-osmoregulation and associated stress. This study clearly reveals that salinity changes during the active reproductive phase can suppress the steroid-mediated gonad recrudescence maximally under hypo-osmoregulation in an euryhaline fish.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T01:12:48.013579-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13422
       
  • Dietary fishmeal levels affect the volatile compounds in cooked muscle of
           farmed large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea
    • Authors: Hua Mu; Zehong Wei, Lina Yi, Haiou Liang, Limei Zhao, Wenbing Zhang, Kangsen Mai
      Abstract: A comparative study on the volatile compounds in cooked muscle of wild and farmed large yellow croaker (LYC) was conducted. The two farmed LYC groups were fed with diets containing 44% (CF) and 25% (LF) of fish meal (FM) respectively. Results showed that 48 volatiles, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons, aromatics, acids, esters, furans and miscellaneous compound, were detected in cooked fillets. The LF group had significantly lower amounts of total aldehydes and ketones, higher content of miscellaneous compound in cooked fillets than that in the CF and wild groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T23:22:43.336946-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13405
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone gene of Oreochromis
           niloticus and their association with growth performance
    • Authors: Suhaila Karim Khalil Jaser; Marco Aurélio Dessimoni Dias, Aline de Assis Lago, Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto, Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf
      Abstract: Polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) gene that is associated with the growth rate of farmed fish have been the target of many breeding programmes. The present study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GH gene regions to evaluate the association of SNP variations with the growth rate of two Nile tilapia: Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) strains. The targeted regions were amplified, sequenced, aligned and screened for the presence of SNPs; thereafter, performance tests were used to check for the association between SNPs and weight. Allele and genotype frequencies were estimated for each SNP and genotype. Genotype blocks or sets of SNP genotypes and frequencies were also estimated. Association between SNPs and growth rate was statistically evaluated using a univariate linear mixed model that included both fixed and random effects. A total of 10 SNPs were identified, nine in the proximal promoter and one located in the 5′ UTR, forming 10 genotype blocks. In all weight recordings, five genotype blocks were significantly associated with the highest weights. Single nucleotide polymorphisms 6-10 were also found to be significantly associated with growth (p-value 
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T01:25:37.150139-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13406
       
  • Effect of starvation on the performance of baby octopus (Robsonella
           fontaniana) paralarvae
    • Authors: Viviana Espinoza; Maria T. Viana, Carlos Rosas, Iker Uriarte, Ana Farías
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short- and long-term starvation on paralarvae from hatching and compare to fed paralarvae. In the continuous starvation treatments, paralarvae at hatching were left without food as independent treatments for 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 15 days. In the fed treatments, the newly hatched paralarvae were fed for five and eight days; then each group was left in starvation as independent treatments for 3, 5 and 7 days. After any experimental starvation period, the paralarvae were fed for five more days to evaluate their recovery. Paralarvae exposed to continuous starvation from hatching endured up to 8 days after hatching (8 SDAH) showing significant recovery. Its survival decreased proportionally to the days of starvation, without any recovery after 12 DAH. Fed paralarvae (5 and 8 FDAH), resulted in significant differences accordingly to the length of the starvation period. Paralarvae left under permanent starvation showed a noticeable decrease in their arm/mantle length ratio and an atrophy of the digestive gland was observed. Amino acids were used primarily as energy source by paralarvae, particularly in the second week of starvation. It is discussed the critical age to avoid deleterious effects of starvation on paralarvae.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:24:14.420789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13387
       
  • Effects of replacing fish oil with canola oil on the growth performance,
           fatty acid composition and metabolic enzyme activity of juvenile
           yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)
    • Authors: Haruhisa Fukada; Etsunori Taniguchi, Katsuji Morioka, Toshiro Masumoto
      Abstract: In this study, fish oil (FO) was replaced with canola oil (CO) in juvenile yellowtail diets to establish the optimal replacement levels that ensure adequate feed quality for aquaculture. Juvenile yellowtails (initial body weight: 104.7 g) were fed one of four diets for 10 weeks: 100% FO (FO group) or FO replacement with 25%, 50% or 100% CO (CO25, CO50 and CO100 groups respectively). Body weight, specific growth rate and feed efficiency were significantly affected by the replacement of FO with CO. The final body weight of the CO100 group was significantly lower than that of the FO (control) and CO50 groups. Furthermore, the CO50 group showed significantly higher feed efficiency than the FO group during the first 4 weeks (long photoperiod and high water temperature conditions). Increasing dietary CO increased serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Regarding the proximate composition of fillet and liver, only crude protein in fillet was affected by the replacement of FO with CO. Fatty acid compositions of fillet and liver were correlated to the amount of CO in each diet. The activities of the metabolic enzymes phosphofructokinase and alanine aminotransferase were lowest in the CO25 and CO50 groups respectively. Thus, FO replacement with CO affected growth performance, serum components, fatty acid composition and the activity of metabolic enzymes. Overall, results obtained in the present study suggest that partial replacement (50%) of FO with CO is effective and might increase juvenile yellowtail growth under long photoperiod and/or high water temperature conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T01:55:40.580089-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13416
       
  • Effects of linalool on physiological responses of Cyprinus carpio
           (Linnaeus, 1758) and water physico-chemical parameters during
           transportation
    • Authors: Mohammad Mazandarani; Seyyed Morteza Hoseini, Meisam Dehghani Ghomshani
      Abstract: This study investigated the potential of linalool as an anaesthetic during transportation of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The fish were transported at a loading density of ~103 g/L for 3 hr in 12 plastic bags (3 L water and 6 L pure oxygen) divided into four triplicated treatments: control (without linalool), L50 (50 mg linalool/L), L100 (100 mg linalool/L) and L200 (200 mg linalool/L). After 3-hr transportation, serum physiological responses and water physico-chemical parameters were compared among the treatments. Results showed that water total and un-ionized ammonia increased and dissolved oxygen decreased in all treatments after transportation. Water total ammonia and dissolved oxygen levels in the linalool-treated bags were significantly lower than the control. After transportation, the control fish showed significant elevation in serum cortisol and glucose levels; however, the levels were significantly lower than the linalool-treated fish. All fish showed similar serum lactate levels, significantly lower than the value obtained before transportation. The control fish showed serum urea levels similar to the level obtained before transportation; however, the linalool-treated fish had significantly higher serum urea levels compared to the control and before transportation levels. After transportation, all fish had decreased serum chloride and sodium levels compared to the before transport level. Overall, the present results showed that linalool is not beneficial for carp transportation in plastic bags, because it reacts with water oxygen, increases stress in fish, interferes with ammonia excretion and has no benefits in preventing ion loss.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T23:45:20.538013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13400
       
  • Effects of biofloc technology on reproduction and ovarian recrudescence in
           Nile tilapia
    • Authors: Érika Ramos de Alvarenga; Suellen Cristina Moreira de Sales, Túlio Soares de Brito, Cláudia Regina Santos, Rebeca Dias Serafim Corrêa, Gabriel Francisco Oliveira Alves, Ludson Guimarães Manduca, Eduardo Maldonado Turra
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive cycle, morphological changes of ovary and mobilization of energy reserves in Nile tilapia reared with biofloc technology (BFT). In general, the growth and reproductive performance were highly similar between BFT and Control system (clear water). Difference between the systems was found in the hepatosomatic index (using mixed-effects models), which suggested that BFT can alter the energy mobilization in the post-spawning period. The absolute and relative fecundity, fertilization rate, number of larvae produced per female, gonadosomatic index, proportion of oogenesis cells, number of post-ovulatory and atretic follicles were similar between the two systems. We also did not detect a reduction in the reproductive cycle length in Nile tilapia reared in BFT. Because there was no evidence of the negative effects of BFT on Nile tilapia reproduction, we concluded that BFT might be used for breeder stocking of this species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T23:40:26.631127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13420
       
  • Immunostimulatory effects of dietary poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in
           European sea bass postlarvae
    • Authors: Andrea Franke; Catriona Clemmesen, Peter De Schryver, Linsey Garcia-Gonzalez, Joanna J. Miest, Olivia Roth
      Abstract: The stable production of high-quality fry in marine aquaculture is still hampered by unpredictable mortality caused by infectious diseases during larval rearing. Consequently, the development of new biocontrol agents is crucial for a viable aquaculture industry. The bacterial energy storage compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has been shown to exhibit beneficial properties on aquatic organisms such as enhanced survival, growth, disease resistance and a controlling effect on the gastrointestinal microbiota. However, the effect of PHB on the developing immune system of fish larvae has so far not been investigated. In this study, the effect of feeding PHB-enriched Artemia nauplii on survival, growth and immune response in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) postlarvae was examined. Amorphous PHB was administered to 28-day-old sea bass postlarvae over a period of 10 days. The survival and growth performance were monitored, and the expression of 29 genes involved in immunity, growth, metabolism and stress-response was measured. While the expression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1), an indicator of relative growth, was upregulated in response to feeding PHB, the larval survival and growth performance remained unaffected. After 10 days of PHB treatment, the expression of the antimicrobial peptides dicentracin (dic) and hepcidin (hep) as well as mhc class IIa and mhc class IIb was elevated in the PHB fed postlarvae. This indicates that PHB is capable of stimulating the immune system of fish early life stages, which may be the cause of the increased resistance to diseases and robustness observed in previous studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:40:25.647988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13393
       
  • Laboratory and field investigations on the effect of scheduled meal
           timings on growth performance and nutrient retention in an Indian major
           carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham) fingerlings: Effect on nitrogen retention
           and excretion of metabolites
    • Authors: Sudhir Krishan Garg; Alok Kalla
      Abstract: To investigate the effect of scheduled meal timings on growth performance in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions and the fish were submitted to schedule meal timings (at 08:00, 12:00,16:00, 20:00, 00:00 and 04:00). A control on continuous feeding was also maintained. ANOVA had revealed a significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:40:21.130467-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13417
       
  • Response of berried prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to commercial
           probiotics
    • Authors: Devkusum Barua; Jewel Das, Istiaq Ahmad Chowdhury, Md Sohrab Hossain, Hiranmoy Bhattacharjee, M Zahedur Rahman Chowdhury, Nani Gopal Das, S M Sharifuzzaman
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:43.768573-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13419
       
  • Quantitative trait locus mapping of growth-related traits in
           inter-specific F1 hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E.
           lanceolatus) in a tropical climate
    • Authors: Satoshi Kubota; Amphai Longloy, Arkom Singhabun, Wanpen Khammee, Kanonkporn Kessuwan, Paiboon Bunlipatanon, Akiyuki Ozaki, Kom Silapajarn, Varin Tanasomwang, Nobuaki Okamoto, Takashi Sakamoto
      Abstract: Growth-related traits are the main target of genetic breeding programmes in grouper aquaculture. We constructed genetic linkage maps for tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) using 399 simple sequence repeat markers and performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to identify the genomic regions responsible for growth-related traits in F1 hybrid grouper (E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus). The tiger grouper (female) linkage map contained 330 markers assigned to 24 linkage groups (LGs) and spanned 1,202.0 cM. The giant grouper (male) linkage map contained 231 markers distributed in 24 LGs and spanned 953.7 cM. Six QTLs affecting growth-related traits with 5% genome-wide significance were detected on different LGs. Four QTLs were identified for total length and body weight on Efu_LG8, 10, 13 and 19 on the tiger grouper map, which explained 6.6%–12.0% of the phenotypic variance. An epistatic QTL with a reciprocal association was observed between Efu_LG8 and 10. Two QTLs were identified for body weight on Ela_LG3 and 10 on the giant grouper map, which explained 6.9% of the phenotypic variance. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that the QTL on Efu_LG13 interacts with the QTLs on Ela_LG3 and 10 with large effects on body weight. Furthermore, these six QTLs showed different features among the winter, summer and rainy seasons, suggesting that environmental factors and fish age affected these QTLs. These findings will be useful to understand the genetic structure of growth and conduct genetic breeding in grouper species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:40.319132-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13415
       
  • Influence of nanochitosan/zeolite composite on growth performance,
           digestive enzymes and serum biochemical parameters in rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: Najmeh Sheikhzadeh; Mobina Kouchaki, Mobina Mehregan, Hossein Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Baharak Divband, Masoomeh Khataminan, Ali Khani Oushani, Sadigheh Shabanzadeh
      Abstract: Protective effects of nanochitosan/zeolite composite besides zeolite and chitosan/zeolite composite on rainbow trout growth, digestive enzyme activities and biochemical parameters were studied. Nanochitosan/zeolite hybrid composites with three different ratio of nanochitosan:zeolite (35:100, 3.5:100 and 0.35:100) were synthesized and analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal gravim (TG) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods. Prepared composites as well as zeolite and control diets were fed to rainbow trout (50 g) for a period of 60 days. The addition of treated diets significantly improved growth performance compared to the control diet. Supplemental zeolite could only enhance the amylase activity in fish intestine, whereas other treatment groups could increase the pepsin activity besides intestinal alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and amylase activities. No differences were observed for intestinal acid phosphatase and lipase activities among the experimental diets. Meanwhile, serum total antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation product, indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), significantly increased and decreased, respectively, with some doses of administration, indicating the elevated antioxidant status in treatment groups. Serum-specific marker enzymes, namely aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were not affected in all groups. Meanwhile serum total protein in most treatment groups was significantly higher than the control group. Results showed that synthesized composites especially nanochitosan/zeolite composite at 5 g/kg had potential to enhance growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and some biochemical parameters in rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T02:05:23.456358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13418
       
  • Gonadal reproductive and metabolic proteins of male abalone Haliotis
           laevigata (Donovan, 1808) assessed by targeted mass spectrometry after
           artificial induction of spawning
    • Authors: Omar Mendoza-Porras; James O Harris, Gene Wijffels, Antonio Reverter, Mathew T Cook, Natasha A Botwright, Michelle L Colgrave
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T02:00:28.305265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13413
       
  • Assessment of benthic biological indicators for evaluating the
           environmental impact of tuna farming
    • Authors: Marija Mangion; Joseph A Borg, Patrick J Schembri, Pablo Sanchez-Jerez
      Abstract: The overall impact of tuna farming on soft-bottom habitat was assessed at three tuna farms over a period of 3 years, using benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators. Polychaetes and amphipods served as better indicators of the impact of tuna farming compared with molluscs and decapods. Lower number and Shannon–Wiener diversity of polychaete and amphipod taxa were recorded over time at the impacted plots compared with the control plots, while the polychaete/amphipod index indicated that the Ecological Quality Status at the impacted plots changed from “Poor”/”Moderate” to “Good” during the study period. Results of the multivariate analyses indicated significantly higher dispersion of samples of the polychaete and amphipod assemblages over time at the impacted plots compared with the control plots, indicative of stressed assemblages. Differences in the macroinvertebrate assemblages between impacted and control plots were consistent across faunal groups except for molluscs, which showed no response. Results must be interpreted with caution due to the high spatiotemporal variation in the influence of tuna farming on the macroinvertebrate assemblages, which highlights the importance of including multiple impacted and reference areas, as well as replicate sampling times, in assessing the environmental impact of tuna farms.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T00:00:27.619348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13403
       
  • Isolation of alginate lyase-producing bacteria and screening for their
           potential characteristics as abalone probionts.
    • Authors: Muhamad Amin; Christopher C J Bolch, Mark B Adams, Christopher M Burke
      Abstract: This study is aimed at the isolation and screening of alginate lyase-producing bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of hybrid abalone, Haliotis rubra x H. laevigata, as probiotic candidates. Six bacterial isolates were detected to produce alginate lyase. Of these, the isolate with the highest alginate-lyase activity was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii strain EN-119, displaying 99% similarity of 16S rDNA sequence. Further assays indicated that E. ludwigii showed good viability and stability when it was incorporated into manufactured pellets and stored at 4°C for 7 days. The isolate also had high tolerance of high salinity (35 mg/L), low pH in simulated stomach juice (5) and to simulated intestinal juice containing surfactants such as bile salts and gastric enzymes (pepsin and trypsin). Additionally, a short, preliminary study indicated that supplementation of E. ludwigii via manufactured pellets improved the total weight gain and specific growth rate of hybrid abalone. These results suggest that E. ludwigii is a potential probiont for shortening the culture period of hybrid abalone.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T23:55:30.686676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13383
       
  • Histological alterations in gills of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in
           low-salinity waters under different stocking densities: Potential
           relationship with nitrogen compounds
    • Authors: Marcela G. Fregoso-López; María S. Morales-Covarrubias, Miguel A Franco-Nava, Javier Ramírez-Rochín, Juan F Fierro-Sañudo, Jesús T Ponce-Palafox, Federico Páez-Osuna
      Abstract: Two experimental modules with different stocking densities (M1 = 70 and M2 = 120 shrimp /m2) were examined weekly over a culture cycle in tanks with low-salinity water (1.9 g/L) and zero water exchange. Results showed survival rates of 87.7 and 11.9% in M1 and M2, respectively. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and chlorophyll a were not significantly (p > .05) different between modules. In contrast, the concentrations of nitrogen compounds were significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T23:50:43.373423-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13408
       
  • Growth, development and behaviour of Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus
           larvae in different light regimes
    • Authors: Bahram Falahatkar; Samaneh Poursaeid, Iraj Efatpanah, Bahman Meknatkhah
      Abstract: The effects of five different light regimes on growth performance and behaviour of Persian Sturgeon larvae were examined. Larvae were reared under five different photoperiods (24L, 12L:12D, 16L:8D, 8L:16L and 24D), from hatching (25.8 ± 8.1 mg; 12 ± 0.6 mm) to 28 days post-hatch (dph). Except the last week, there was no significant difference in growth parameters among the experimental groups. Growth performance significantly improved in larvae reared under a continuous light regime. The highest final length (34.5 ± 1.7 mm) was measured in 24L and the lowest one (29.5 ± 0.4 mm) in the constant darkness. Relative to other experimental groups, the continuous darkness had a retarding impact on the yolk sac absorption and swarming behaviour. Among the whole body compositions, the lowest body moisture content was measured in the continuous light group. Persian Sturgeon pre-larvae and larvae were not completely dependent on light regimes (in 1–21 days), whereas on the basis of measured parameters (total length, wet and dry weight and digestive fullness index) a continuous light regime played a decisive role on growth performance beyond 21 dph.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:32:10.792916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13404
       
  • Conditioning, maturation and year-round natural spawning of orange-spotted
           grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), in recirculating
           aquaculture system
    • Authors: Ritesh Ranjan; Sekar Megarajan, Biji Xavier, Biswajit Dash, Shubhadeep Ghosh, Muktha Menon, Loveson L Edward
      Abstract: The present experiment was aimed at studying the conditioning, maturation and natural spawning of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, in a recirculatory aquaculture system (RAS). Thirty fish (n = 30; 3.35 ± 0.05 kg) were stocked in a circular tank of 125 m3 capacity fitted with an RAS for conditioning and broodstock development. After 15 days, 15 fish were implanted with 17 α methyl testosterone and letrozole at the rate of 5 mg and 0.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for conversion from female to male. The gonadal development started after 1 month, and by 90th day, 63.53 ± 3.78% and 2.07 ± 0.84% of the oocytes attained a size of 400–500 μm and 500–600 μm respectively. Natural spawning commenced in the RAS from 4th month onward after stocking and spawning continued round the year. The spawning pair showed courtship behaviour with a typical vertical burst of swimming just before release of gametes. The total number of eggs spawned during 1 year was 47.23 million with spawning frequency varying form 5 to 13 times per month. The association of spawning events with new moon day (lunar cycle) weakened as time progressed. The mean monthly fertilization and hatching rates varied from 77.80 ± 3.34% to 83.70 ± 1.76% and 82.80 ± 4.21% to 88.33 ± 1.39% respectively. The study proved that RAS is an efficient system that provides a stable, controllable and conducive environment for year-round natural breeding of orange-spotted grouper.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:32:06.913447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13409
       
  • In vitro study of a putative role of gonad-inhibiting hormone in oocyte
           growth stimulation in Penaeus monodon
    • Authors: Ponsit Sathapondecha; Sakol Panyim, Apinunt Udomkit
      Abstract: Ovarian development in crustacean is controlled by several factors, among which a neuropeptide gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) is known to inhibit vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis in the ovary. It has been postulated that GIH may control Vg synthesis by inhibiting the release of gonad-stimulating factor (GSF) from brain and thoracic ganglia. To prove this hypothesis, this study was primarily aimed to investigate the influence of GIH on the release of GSF from thoracic ganglia of Penaeus monodon. Our result showed that GIH did not suppress the release of putative GSF from thoracic ganglia by calcium ionophore A23187 as the induction of oocyte growth in the ovary explants that were cocultured with thoracic ganglia in the presence of A23187 was not affected by the addition of recombinant GIH protein. In addition and interestingly, when the ovary explants were incubated with the recombinant GIH alone, the oocyte growth was increased at the rate comparable to that induced by A23187 in the presence of thoracic ganglia. Hence, our in vitro study demonstrated that the stimulation of GSF released from thoracic ganglia is independent of GIH, and that the GIH has a dual function in oocyte growth stimulation and inhibition of Vg synthesis in the early stage of ovarian development. This expands our knowledge on the regulation of ovarian development in shrimp by GIH. Further in vivo studies in this novel aspect of GIH function will be useful for the improvement of shrimp ovarian maturation in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:25:34.542601-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13407
       
  • Effects of feeding frequency on the enzymes and genes involved in
           oxidative stress in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco
           (Richardson) exposed to ammonia
    • Authors: Xiwei Fan; Ming Li, Lixia Yuan, Hang Lai, Meize Song, Rixin Wang, Rongquan Zheng
      Abstract: Optimal feeding strategies improve fish growth and health but may be affected by ammonia stress in closed rearing systems such as tanks or ponds. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency and ammonia levels in rearing water on the enzymes and genes involved in oxidative stress of yellow catfish. Experiment (ammonia exposure) and control groups were randomly assigned to one of three feeding frequencies (1, 2 and 4 times daily) for 8 weeks. Weight gain increased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily, but feed conversion ratio values decreased. The highest survival in ammonia group was found when fish was fed 2 times daily. Glutathione peroxidase activity and total antioxidant capacity in liver and brain of fish exposed to ammonia increased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily. Liver malondialdehyde content in control group decreased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily. The lowest liver malondialdehyde content in ammonia group was observed when fish was fed 2 times daily. Liver mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in control group increased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily, but the highest superoxide dismutase and catalase expression in ammonia group were observed when fish were fed 2 times daily. This study indicates that higher feeding frequency of yellow catfish exposed to ammonia could result in oxidative stress and poor survival. The optimal feeding frequency of yellow catfish exposed to ammonia is 2 times daily.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:20:25.057502-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13410
       
  • Effects of dietary linolenic acid on growth, fatty acid composition,
           immune function and antioxidant status of juvenile blunt snout bream,
           Megalobrama amblycephala
    • Authors: Wuxiao Zhang; Shengming Sun, Xianping Ge, Silei Xia, Jian Zhu, Linghong Miao, Yan Lin, Hualiang Liang
      Abstract: A nine-week feeding trial was performed to determine the dietary linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n–3) requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream. Six iso-nitrogenous, semi-purified diets were prepared with different concentrations of LNA (0–25 g/kg). Dietary LNA had no significant effects on survival rate. However, final fish weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) increased with increasing dietary LNA concentrations up to 20 g/kg. Dietary LNA increased muscle LNA and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents, but decreased total saturated fatty acid content. Fish fed 20 g/kg LNA had the highest plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein, albumin and white blood cell count levels. Additionally, fish fed 20 g/kg LNA had higher triglyceride levels than control fish. Plasma glucose increased with increasing dietary LNA concentrations. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities significantly increased with increasing dietary LNA concentrations up to 15 g/kg. Based on SGR and FER, the optimal dietary LNA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were 17.5 and 15.6 g/kg respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:15:25.766864-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13358
       
  • Genetic diversity of nitrate reducing bacteria in marine and brackish
           water nitrifying bacterial consortia generated for activating nitrifying
           bioreactors in recirculating aquaculture systems
    • Authors: Prasannan Geetha Preena; Nedumattathil James Manju, Velachery Deepesh, Ammu Thomas, Isaac Sarojini Bright Singh
      Abstract: Nitrate reducing potency of 88 bacterial isolates segregated from marine and brackish water nitrifying bacterial consortia (NBC), generated for activation of nitrifying bioreactors, was confirmed by determining the nitrate reducing capability under aerobic conditions as maintained in nitrifying bioreactors. All the isolates had the potential to be used as bio-augmentors for activating nitrate dissimilation in recirculating aquaculture system. The existence of nitrate reducers with nitrifiers in NBC and in the reactor configuration negates the requirement of integrating anoxic denitrifying system for effective removal of NO3−-N. Phylogenetic analyses of representative isolates from each cluster of the dendrograms generated based on phenotypic characterization and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed profound diversity of nitrate reducing bacterial flora in the NBC. They were composed of Streptomyces enissocaesilis, Marinobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Microbacterium oxydans, Pelagibacterium halotolerans and Alcanivorax dieselolei from marine NBC and Streptomyces tendae, Nesterenkonia sp., Bacillus cereus, Microbacterium oxydans and Brevibacterium sp. from brackish water NBC. The diversity indices of the consortia were calculated using Mega 5.0, primer 7 and VITCOMIC softwares. Marine NBC exhibited higher Shannon wiener diversity and mean population diversity than brackish water NBC. The study delineated higher species richness and diversity in marine NBC than in its brackish water counterpart, a possible reflection of the higher biodiversity of marine systems, and hence, the former is more promising to be used as start-up cultures for the activation of nitrifying bioreactors after appropriate acclimatization to the desired salinity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T01:55:29.560462-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13396
       
  • A comparative histological study on early thyroid gland development in
           Acipenser stellatus and A. gueldenstaedtii larvae in hatchery
    • Authors: Tulay Akayli; Devrim Memiş, Erol Rustu Bozkurt
      Abstract: The thyroid is an endocrine gland, with an important role in fish growth, development and adaptation of larvae. The aim of this study was to describe the development of the thyroid gland and to determine the initial functional activity of thyroid gland and hormones in Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and A. stellatus larvae using immunohistochemistry. For this aim, fertilized eggs of two species were reared in a hatchery and larval samples were collected daily for 20 days post hatching (dph). For immunostaining, rabbit polyclonal primary antibodies for thyroglobulin and mouse monoclonal antibodies for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) were used. In histological analyses, it was observed that the first development of the thyroid gland in stellate sturgeon larvae occurs on the 3–4 dph and on the 4–5 dph in Russian sturgeon larvae in the ventral pharyngeal region of the fish. In the immunostaining analyses of 12-day-old stellate larvae and 19-day-old Russian sturgeon larvae, the thyroid follicles showed dispersion in great numbers around the aorta, and also it was observed that they were stained positively with antithyroglobulin staining, but the same sections gave negative results with TTF-1 staining. Also melanomacrophage centres, which are generally found in the haemopoietic tissues in some cases, were first observed around the thyroid follicles of sturgeon larvae. The results of this study revealed a similarity in the early thyroid gland development between two sturgeon species but using immunostaining methods, it was described that A. stellatus shows a faster functional development and earlier hormone production than A. gueldenstaedtii.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T04:17:55.634985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13374
       
  • Carbohydrate and amino acids metabolic response to heat stress in the
           intestine of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus
    • Authors: Dongxue Xu; Shun Zhou, Hongsheng Yang
      Abstract: The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is an economic species mainly distributed along the coast of northern China, south-eastern Russia, Japan, Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Aquaculture industry of A. japonicus has been facing severe challenge of high temperature. In this study, we studied the mRNA expression profiles of eight key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism in A. japonicus under heat stress. The expression of hexokinase, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase showed downregulated response to heat stress, while the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine transaminase and branched-chain aminotransferase showed upregulated response. In addition, the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase showed no significant difference. We also applied 1H NMR-based metabolomics to investigate metabolic changes in the intestine tissue of A. japonicus under heat stress, the results of which revealed nine increased and 10 decreased metabolites in the heat stress group. These response genes and metabolites have potential to become markers for identifying severity of heat stress. More importantly, our findings suggest significant links between gene expression and metabolites changing, highlighting regulation networks of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism in heat-stressed A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T05:55:30.572436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13411
       
  • Phenotypic and genetic parameters for body traits in the giant freshwater
           prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in India
    • Authors: Bindu R. Pillai; Pa Luan Lalrinsanga, Raul W. Ponzoni, Hooi Ling Khaw, Kanta Das Mahapatra, Swagatika Mohanty, Gunamaya Patra, Namita Naik, Haramohan Pradhan, Pallipuram Jayasankar
      Abstract: Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated for three body traits (harvest weight, carapace length and standard length) and for adult male morphotypes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a fully pedigreed synthetic population in India. The data set included 9,173 progeny produced over four generations from 162 sires and 234 dams. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated fitting an animal model using the residual maximum-likelihood methodology. The heritabilities for harvest body weight (HW), carapace length (CL) and standard length (SL) were moderate (0.22 ± 0.056, 0.22 ± 0.055 and 0.25 ± 0.059 respectively). The common environmental effects for HW, CL and SL were 0.10 ± 0.020, 0.08 ± 0.018 and 0.10 ± 0.021 respectively. As M. rosenbergii is sexually dimorphic, we estimated heritabilities within each sex. Heritability of HW in females (0.27 ± 0.068) was greater than that in males (0.15 ± 0.057). CL and SL followed the same pattern. The occurrence of male morphotypes is a unique characteristic of adult populations of M. rosenbergii. Populations from culture ponds exhibit a wide range of sizes. To examine whether there was a heritable component in male morphotype frequencies, we treated male morphotypes as traits. The additive genetic variance (and hence the heritability) was zero for male morphotype, indicating that selective breeding to increase the proportion of desirable male morphotypes would not be effective. The genetic correlations among body traits were all positive, high and approaching unity. The results are discussed in relation to selection plans for the giant freshwater prawn.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T02:00:27.949498-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13397
       
  • Plasma proteins, hepatic enzymes, thyroid hormones and liver
           histopathology of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to an oxadiazin
           pesticide, indoxacarb
    • Authors: Melika Ghelichpour; Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Hamidreza Joshaghani, Hoseinali Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi
      Abstract: Indoxacarb is a relatively new pesticide from oxadiazin class, which is used near carp ponds for agricultural purposes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine indoxacarb effects on common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75, 1.5 and 3 ppm of indoxacarb over 21 days and plasma biochemical characteristics and liver histopathology were examined. Exposure to indoxacarb induced fall in total protein after 21 days. Globulin increased after 7 days and then decreased after 14- and 21-day exposure. Plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities increased in 1.5 and 3 ppm treatments after 7-day exposure. Indoxacarb exposure significantly decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase after 7 days with no change at the second and third samplings. After 7 days, plasma T3 levels had no significant change; however, it decreased after 14 days in the 1.5 and 3 ppm treatments and also reduced after 21-day exposure to the 3 ppm treatment compared to the control group. Plasma T4 level only decreased significantly in the 3 ppm treatment compared to the control group after 21 days. Different histopathological symptoms such as necrosis, hyperaemia, sinusoidal space extension, pyknotic nuclei, leucocyte infiltration and melanomacrophage aggregates were observed after 21-day exposure to indoxacarb. The symptoms intensity was dependent on indoxacarb concentration. In conclusion, the present results show that indoxacarb exposure adversely affects common carp health and welfare, which consequently may induce serious problems in this species aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T01:55:30.62635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13390
       
  • Tagging juvenile European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) with
           passive integrated transponders—Impact of fish size on growth
           performance and tag retention
    • Authors: Zdzisław Zakęś; Krzysztof Wunderlich, Mirosław Szczepkowski, Maciej Rożyński
      Abstract: The study examined the effect of PIT tagging and size on the growth, survival, food conversion, tag retention and wound healing in juvenile European whitefish. Three size classes of juvenile whitefish (class S—body weight (b.w.) approx. 4.0 g; class M—b.w. approx. 8.0 g; class L—b.w. approx. 13.6 g) were tagged with PIT implanted intraperitoneally (TROVAN®, United Kingdom). These groups formed S-P, M-P and L-P respectively. Fish from the control groups (groups S-C, M-C and L-C) were not tagged. Whitefish from the tagged and control groups were reared for 28 days in recirculating aquaculture systems. Only in the fish from the smallest group (group S-P) was tagging confirmed to have a negative impact on growth rate and survival, which, after 28 days, was 70% in comparison with 94.4% in group S-C. The rate of wound healing in all whitefish groups was similar. After 28 days following PIT implantation, all wounds were healed. Short-term PIT retention (28 days) for all the groups was> 90%, and no differences were noted among groups. In summary, it is recommended that whitefish be PIT-tagged using the intraperitoneal method after they have attained a body weight> 8 g. Tagging smaller specimens of this species leads to higher mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T01:50:28.595578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13402
       
  • Impacts of diet on hindgut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in grass
           carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
    • Authors: Yao Tong Hao; Shan Gong Wu, Ivan Jakovlić, Hong Zou, Wen Xiang Li, Gui Tang Wang
      Abstract: Diet is known to influence intestinal microbiota in fish, but the specifics of these impacts are still poorly understood. Different protein/fibre ratio diets may result in differing structures and activities of gut microbiota. We examined the hindgut microbiome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fed three different diets: fish meal (FM, high protein – low fibre), Sudan grass (SG, high fibre – low protein) and compound feed (CF, intermediate). Microbial profiles of fish fed on FM were significantly different from profiles of fish fed CF and SG (F = 18.85, p CF>SG). Overall low SCFA levels indicate that hindgut fermentation probably provides a low proportion of energy requirements in grass carp.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T06:40:25.390989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13381
       
  • Digestibility, growth and pigmentation of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin or
           lutein diets in Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish, Melanotaenia parva (Allen)
           cultured species
    • Authors: Nina Meilisza; Dedi Jusadi, Muhammad Zairin, I Made Artika, Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo, Tutik Kadarini, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi
      Abstract: New cultured ornamental fish namely Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish Melanotaenia parva (Allen) run into reduced of colour performances when reared in the aquaria, consequently, fish feed must be added with carotenoids as a pigment source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility, growth and pigmentation of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and lutein in diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, lipid, protein, carotenoids, growth and pigmentation were studied in twenty fish after 14 and 56 days of observation. The single-dose supplementation of 100 mg/kg of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, or lutein diets on fish was fed by apparent satiation. The basal diet without carotenoids was used as control. The result showed that the ADC of carotenoids of test diets was higher compared to control. Fish fed astaxanthin diet had higher survival rate (96.67 ± 2.89%), colour measurements of lightness (57.60 ± 7.46%), a*-values (4.66 ± 1.20), total carotenoids content in skin (33.75 ± 5.02 mg/kg) and muscle (2.16 ± 0.74 mg/kg). Astaxanthin also increased the growth after 14 days (2.00% ± 0.19%/days) but there was no significantly different at the end of experiment. The yellowish-orange colour performance was more rapidly achieved by fish fed astaxanthin diet after 28 days experimentation. These values suggested that dietary carotenoids were required and astaxanthin diet was superior to other diets for skin pigmentation of Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T06:35:25.245966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13372
       
  • The effect of water oxygen saturation on growth and haematological profile
           of juvenile peled Coregonus peled (Gmelin)
    • Authors: Jan Matousek; Marketa Prokesova, Katsiaryna Novikava, Roman Sebesta, Eliska Zuskova, Vlastimil Stejskal
      Abstract: The effect of varying oxygen saturation regimes on growth and haematological profiles of peled Coregonus peled was investigated on fish of initial age 90 days post hatching. Eighty-five juveniles per group (initial body weight 3.09 ± 0.80 g) were submitted to a 63-day experiment with one of four water saturation regimes: normoxia (NORm, 80%–90%), hypoxia (HYPo, 50%–60%), hyperoxia (HYPe, 150%–160%) and intermittent hyperoxia (iHYPe, 150%–160% - 80%–90%). Survival rate in NORm, HYPe and iHYPe ranged from 96.3 ± 2.1% to 97.7 ± 2.7, but survival 87.5 ± 3.0 was significantly lower in the HYPo group. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratio. The highest final body weight of 18.2 ± 4.6 g and a specific growth rate of 2.81 ± 0.01%/day were seen in the NORm group. Significant differences were found in haemoglobin concentration with increased saturation. The fish had lower haemoglobin 55.00 ± 5.72 and 51.35 ± 10.89 g/L in treatments HYPe, iHYPe with compared to the normoxia (64.22 ± 5.78 g/L). Haematocrit was similar in the groups HYPo, NORm and iHYPe (0.55 ± 0.04, 0.58 ± 0.05 and 0.54 ± 0.09) with the exception of HYPe, which was significantly lower (0.48 ± 0.06). Significantly lower count of erythrocyte was observed in iHYPe group (0.88 ± 0.20) with compared to the normoxia (1.06 ± 0.13). The supersaturation level was not associated with effects on growth and survival, and adding oxygen is not recommended for intensive rearing of peled. The results showed normoxia oxygen level to be the most suitable conditions for peled.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:45:25.553936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13356
       
  • Cloning and characterization of fatty acid transport proteins in Japanese
           seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, and their gene expressions in response to
           dietary arachidonic acid
    • Authors: Houguo Xu; Yuanqin Zhang, Chengqiang Wang, Yuliang Wei, Keke Zheng, Mengqing Liang
      Abstract: In this study, putative cDNA of three fatty acid transport protein (FATP) isoforms, that is FATP1, FATP4 and FATP6, was cloned and characterized from the liver of Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), and their expression in response to diets with different arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (0.05%, 0.22%, 0.37%, 0.60%, 1.38% and 2.32% of dry matter) was investigated through a feeding trial. Two subtypes of FATP1, that is FATP1a and FATP1b, were cloned for the first time. The Japanese seabass FATPs showed high identity to their orthologs in other fish species and mammals, but Japanese seabass FATP6 showed low identity to Japanese seabass FATP1 and FATP4. FATP1a gene was highly expressed in brain, liver and eye, whereas FATP1b had the highest gene expression in gill, followed by kidney, skin, eye, muscle and heart. FATP4 gene was primarily expressed in intestine, brain and eye. However, FATP6 had very low gene expression levels in almost all tissues. High levels of dietary ARA (0.60%~2.32%) enhanced the gene expressions of FATP1a and FATP4 in the intestine and the gene expression of FATP1a in the muscle, whereas the dietary ARA supplementation reduced the FATP1b mRNA expression in the liver. The gene expression of FATP1a, FATP4 and FATP6 in the liver, as well as the FATP4 gene expression in the muscle, was not significantly affected by dietary ARA levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the regulation of FATP gene expressions by dietary ARA.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:35:37.131836-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13395
       
  • Assessment of dietary taurine essentiality on the physiological state of
           juvenile Totoaba macdonaldi
    • Authors: Tony Budi Satriyo; Mario A. Galaviz, Guillaume Salze, Lus M. López
      Abstract: Information on specific nutrients like taurine is important to support a nutritionally balanced diet for marine species such as totoaba Totoaba macdonaldi under culture conditions. Eight isoproteic (50%) and isolipidic (12%) experimental diets were formulated to contain graded levels of taurine (0.23%, 0.45%, 0.91%, 1.28%, 1.76%, 2.20%, 2.72%, 3.01% as-is) using ethanol-washed fishmeal (FM) as primary protein source. Green liver, low gallbladder-somatic index (GBSI), low apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of lipid, low erythrocyte turnover, low plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as low visceral fat, were detected in the basal diet (T-0.23) after 10 weeks. Thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC) was best modelled by a five-parameter saturation kinetic model (5-SKM, p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:30:26.680067-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13391
       
  • Enhancing growth and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus disease in
           catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus) with Bacillus and Lactobacillus
           probiotic strains during early development
    • Authors: Fernando Abasolo-Pacheco; Ángel I Campa-Córdova, José M Mazón-Suástegui, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Rubén Araya, Pedro E Saucedo
      Pages: 4597 - 4607
      Abstract: In bivalve aquaculture, selecting suitable probiotic treatments can be crucial for improving hatchery-rearing of larvae and juveniles. We assessed the potential of five bacterial strains, previously selected in vitro, to improve survival, growth and resistance of catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus during early and late larval and juvenile developmental stages, as well as during exposure to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. Hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles were treated with eight treatments of single or combined strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus at 1 × 106 CFU mL−1 every 48 h for 9 days (larvae) and 21 days (juveniles). Compared with the control, significantly higher survival and growth in size and weight of early veliger larvae occurred with the antibiotic and the RL5 (Lactobacillus graminis) treatments. Significantly enhanced settlement of pediveliger larvae occurred with a different probiotic strain, the mix of Lactobacillus and Bacillus (MIX-LB), while higher survival and growth of early juveniles occurred with C3 (Lactobacillus plantarum). The mix of Bacillus (MIX-B) significantly increased survival of juveniles from V. alginolyticus after 120-h infection, consistent with maximum activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. In contrast, all untreated and infected scallops died by 96 h. The three Bacillus strains performed poorly when used as single treatments and when given to early developing larvae. Our results indicate that the action mechanism of probiotic strains is stage specific and strain specific, generating different responses by the host, including improved survival and growth (likely from better nutrient assimilation) and higher resistance against pathogens (possibly from strengthening the immune system).
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:00:29.916021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13283
       
  • Effect of l-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate supplementation on growth
           performance, body composition, antioxidative capacity and salinity stress
           tolerance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Shi-Jun Chen; Yu-Jie Gao, Shi-Wei Xie, Jin Niu, Fan Yang, Wei-Ping Fang, Li-Xia Tian, Yong-Jian Liu
      Pages: 4608 - 4622
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA), in the form of l-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (LAPP) on growth performance, body composition, antioxidative capacity and salinity stress tolerance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Five practical diets (46% crude protein and 7.6% lipid) supplemented with graded levels of AsA (14.64, 48.55, 84.98, 308.36 and 639.27 mg kg−1 diet) were fed to five replicate groups of L. vannamei (mean initial wet weight 0.57 g). No significant differences were found on growth performance among all treatments. However, whole body lipid content significantly decreased with dietary AsA levels increasing. Activities of total antioxidant capacity, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly affected by dietary AsA levels. Shrimp fed LAPP-free diet had higher malondialdehyde content than those fed the diets supplemented with LAPP. Dietary AsA levels higher than 308.36 mg kg−1 diet increased the survival of shrimps after 1, 2 and 3 h of acute salinity change. Broken-line regression analysis on survival after 3 h of salinity stress and second-degree polynomial regression analysis on glutathione reductase data indicated that the optimal dietary AsA requirement of L. vannamei was estimated to be 306.39, 319.75 mg kg−1 diet respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T00:35:33.952255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13284
       
  • Is the use of turmeric in the diet safe for fish'
    • Authors: Pollyanna Moraes França Ferreira; Suellen Silva Condessa, Juliana Silva Rocha, Débora Werneck Caldas, Juliana Rodrigues Gomes, Maria Tatiana Soares, Alex Junio Silva Cardoso, Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon
      Pages: 4623 - 4631
      Abstract: With this study, we aimed to assess the safety of using Curcuma longa in fish feed. Juvenile Astyanax aff. bimaculatus (0.83 ± 0.04 g) were kept in 24 80-L aquaria, at a density of 0.5 fish L−1 for 60 days. Six diets supplemented with 0.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, 80.0 and 100.0 g kg−1 were evaluated. Histopathological analysis of the gills showed that there was an increasing linear effect of turmeric on the frequency of lamellar aneurysm, hypertrophy of mucous cells, oedema and necrosis. There was a quadratic effect of turmeric supplementation on the frequency of fusion and disruption of secondary lamellae, vacuolation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells, and the estimated values to minimize these variables were 4.63, 25.93 and 24.46 g kg−1 respectively. There was a quadratic effect of turmeric on the gills index (IBRA), and the estimated value to minimize this index was 30.23 g kg−1. No effect of turmeric on the frequency of histopathological changes and organ index in fish liver was observed. Thus, we conclude that turmeric is not hepatotoxic for A. aff. bimaculatus; however, its use is safe at concentrations up to 30.23 g kg−1 diet as a function of its gill toxic effect at higher doses.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T01:30:33.641117-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13285
       
  • Significant improvement of shrimp growth performance by growth
           hormone-releasing peptide-6 immersion treatments
    • Authors: Rebeca Martínez; Yamila Carpio, Amílcar Arenal, Juana María Lugo, Reynold Morales, Leonardo Martín, Ramón Franco Rodríguez, Jannel Acosta, Antonio Morales, Jorge Duconge, Mario Pablo Estrada
      Pages: 4632 - 4645
      Abstract: Growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is one of the earliest developed synthetic peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists. These compounds mimic the effect of the endogenous ligand ghrelin. In vertebrates, ghrelin is a potent circulating orexigenic hormone with functional roles in controlling food intake, energy expenditure, adiposity, growth hormone secretion and immunity. Ghrelin has been studied mainly in vertebrates; thus, little is known about its role in invertebrates, including crustaceans. We first evaluated the effect of GHRP-6 injection over feed intake in shrimp and its effects on shrimp growth when the peptide was administrated by successive immersion baths. GHRP-6 increased feed intake, body weight and size, the number of rostral spines and gill branches, protein concentration and haemocyte number in treated shrimps. We also evaluated the peptide uptake and clearance in a pharmacokinetics, using [H3]GHRP-6 administered to postlarvae. Given a limited exposure and efficient clearance of the peptide-associated radioactivity from larvae, our findings suggested that GHRP-6-treated Litopenaeus vannamei can be consumed safely by humans after aquaculture applications. These results propose that GHRP-6 could be an additional tool to study growth physiology in crustaceans and also a promising candidate for development into a new biotechnology product for improving shrimp growth and quality.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T02:40:32.59538-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13286
       
  • Geosmin depuration from European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not affected
           by the water renewal rate of depuration tanks
    • Authors: Edward Schram; Tobias Kooten, Jan W Heul, Johan W Schrama, Johan A J Verreth, Albertinka J Murk
      Pages: 4646 - 4655
      Abstract: This study established that geosmin depuration from European eel is not affected by the water renewal rate of depuration tanks. A general fish bioaccumulation model extended with terms that account for effects of tank water renewal rate and system losses of chemicals, predicted strong effects of the water renewal rate of depuration tanks on geosmin depuration from European eel. Model predictions were validated in a depuration experiment with geosmin-loaded European eel (n = 95) with a mean (SD) individual weight of 134.4 (5.0) g and a mean (SD) lipid content of 33.7 (2.8) % (w/w). Fish were depurated for 24, 48 or 72 h at three different tank water renewal rates (0.3, 3.3 and 33 day−1). Treatments were installed by three different mean (SD) water flow rates (13.8 (1.3), 143.5 (9.2) and 1511 (80) L kg fish−1 day−1) over 30-L tanks. Eels eliminated geosmin from their bodies, but unlike the model predicted, this was independent of the water renewal rate of the depuration tanks. Although being eliminated from the fish, geosmin hardly appeared and certainly did not accumulate in the water of the depuration tanks as the model predicted. This observation may be explained by geosmin being eliminated from eel as metabolite rather than the parent compound. Geosmin elimination from eel seems not to occur according to the generally accepted passive diffusion mechanism for excretion of lipophilic chemicals, and geosmin biotransformation by the eel seems indicated. Clearly geosmin depuration from European eel cannot be enhanced by increasing water renewal rates of depuration tanks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T01:06:10.064843-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13287
       
  • Freshwater nucleated pearl quality is influenced by host mussel growth
           traits in Hyriopsis cumingii
    • Authors: Qingqing Li; Zhiyi Bai, Xuekai Han, Jiale Li
      Pages: 4656 - 4665
      Abstract: Hyriopsis cumingii is one of the most important freshwater pearl mussels in China. Recently, this species can produce freshwater nucleated pearls of high quality. Here, we investigated whether nucleated pearl quality is influenced by the growth traits of the host mussel or other factors like cultivation period. We implanted host mussels with a spherical nucleus consisting of a small piece of mantle tissue from donor mussels. After 24 and 36 months of culture, host mussel growth traits including body weight and shell length, height, width and weight were recorded. These factors were then correlated with the quality traits of the pearls they produced, such as nacre thickness, size, weight, lustre and colour. Results indicated pearls obtained at 36 months after seeding were significantly larger in terms of nacre thickness, size and weight compared to those harvested at 24 months. In particular, nacre thickness (r = 0.33–0.48, P = 0.00), pearl size (r = 0.39–0.43, P = 0.00) and pearl weight (r = 0.35–0.47, P = 0.00) were showed to be significantly correlated with host mussels shell length, body weight and shell weight at 24 or 36 months. Larger and heavier host mussels tended to produce bigger pearls. In contrast, host mussels did not affect pearl colour. Cumulatively, our results suggest that longer culturing times and a larger host mussel may help produce better quality nucleated pearl. This information can help guide selective breeding programs designed to improve pearl quality produced by H. cumingii.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T05:04:18.622532-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13288
       
  • Land-based growth of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and consumers’
           acceptance
    • Authors: Maddi Badiola; Irene Gartzia, Oihane C Basurko, Diego Mendiola
      Pages: 4666 - 4683
      Abstract: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is currently the highest valued species grown in Europe. The industry has been on the frontline of public concerns regarding sustainability which has increased the use of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Salmon has changed from a luxury product to global commodity. Nevertheless, food products need to meet consumers demand for the industry to be successful. Descriptive sensory tests present a sophisticated tool for the comparison of product prototypes to understand consumer responses in relation to sensory attributes. Aquaculture is being promoted in the Basque region with the aim of creating a sustainable and complementary economic activity to the fishing and seafood sectors. Here, RAS and salmon have been prioritized as a potential technology and species respectively. Both salmon's growth and a hedonic evaluation of the final product's consumer acceptance and purchasing intention were studied. One thousand five hundred salmon individuals were grown for 497 days at two different thermal regimes in two pilot-scale RAS units using partial reuse water recirculation systems. Growth rates were significantly different for both temperature regimes during the second summer season; some compensatory growth patterns were observed that followed the timing of the natural thermal regime. No significant differences were observed at sensorial level between fillet samples from the present study and salmon from Denmark. Consumer's high level of acceptance and positive product purchasing intention reflect the possibility of locally marketing RAS grown salmon. This study refers to the first technical attempt at salmon in land-based aquaculture systems in northern Spain.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T08:20:30.315066-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13289
       
  • The effects of dietary vitamin C on growth performance, serum enzymes
           activities and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus challenge of yellow drum
           Nibea albiflora
    • Authors: Ligai Wang; Dongxing Chen, Bao Lou, Wei Zhan, Ruiyi Chen, Feng Liu, Guomin Mao
      Pages: 4684 - 4695
      Abstract: A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal dietary vitamin C requirement and its effects on serum enzymes activities and bacterial resistance in the juvenile yellow drum Nibea albiflora (initial weight 33.2 ± 0.10 g). Six practical diets were formulated containing vitamin C 2.1, 45.3, 89.6, 132.4, 178.6 and 547.1 mg kg−1 diet supplied as l-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate. The fish fed 547.1 mg kg−1 diet showed a significantly higher survival than that fed 2.1 mg kg−1 diet. The weight gains and specific growth rate of the fish fed 2.1 mg kg−1 diet were significantly lower than those of the fish fed 89.6–547.1 mg kg−1 diets. The liver vitamin C concentration firstly increased with increasing dietary vitamin C supply from 2.1 to 178.6 mg kg−1 diet and then stabilized. The serum superoxide dismutase activities of the fish fed 547.1 mg kg−1 diet were significantly lower than those of the fish fed 2.1–89.6 mg kg−1 diet. The fish fed 2.1 mg kg−1 diet had a significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity than those in the other groups except the 45.3 mg kg−1 group. Fish that received diets containing vitamin C at 547.1 mg kg−1 had significantly higher nitro blue tetrazolium and lysozyme activity, and fish that received diets containing vitamin C at 45.3–547.1 mg kg−1 exhibited resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The dietary vitamin C requirement of the juvenile yellow drum was established based on broken-line model of weight gain to be 142.2 mg l-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate kg−1 diet.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:51:48.418359-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13290
       
  • The effect of food type (formulated diet vs. natural) and fish size on
           feed utilization in common sole, Solea solea (L.)
    • Authors: Stephan S W Ende; Saskia Kroeckel, Johan W Schrama, Oliver Schneider, Johan A J Verreth
      Pages: 4696 - 4706
      Abstract: This study compares the effect of food type (formulated diet vs. natural food) and fish size on protein and energy utilization efficiencies for growth in common sole, Solea solea (L.). Replicate groups of common sole (mean initial body weight ± SD was 45.7 g ± 2.1 and 111.2 g ± 4.2) received the diets at five (natural feed) or four (formulated diet) feeding levels. The protein utilization efficiency for growth (kgCP) was higher (P > 0.001) in common sole fed ragworms than in common sole fed the formulated diet (respectively, 0.40 and 0.31). Likewise, the energy utilization efficiency for growth (kgGE) was higher (P = 0.001) in common sole fed ragworms than in common sole fed the formulated diet (respectively, 0.57 and 0.33). The protein maintenance requirement was not different between food types (P = 0.64) or fish size (P = 0.41) being on average 0.82 g kg−0.8 day−1. The energy maintenance requirement was not different between food type (P = 0.390) but differed between fish size (P = 0.036). The gross energy maintenance requirement of small common sole was 35 kJ g−0.8 day−1. The gross energy maintenance requirement of large common sole was 25 kJ g−0.8 day−1. In conclusion, the low growth of common sole fed formulated diets was related to reduced feed utilization.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T08:26:21.495771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13291
       
  • Siltation increases the susceptibility of surface-cultured eastern oysters
           (Crassostrea virginica) to parasitism by the mudworm Polydora websteri
    • Authors: Jeff C Clements; Daniel Bourque, Janelle McLaughlin, Mary Stephenson, Luc A Comeau
      Pages: 4707 - 4717
      Abstract: Mudworm (Polydora websteri) parasitism is known to result in unsightly mud blisters in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), resulting in reduced product quality and increased vulnerability to illness and environmental stress. While typically a concern only for bottom-grown oysters, an abnormal severe outbreak of P. websteri in surface-cultured oysters in New Brunswick, Canada, was reported in 2013, along with an anecdotally reported concurrent increase in siltation. Although heavier loads of silt are reported to increase P. websteri infestations in oysters, studies report mixed effects of siltation to this regard. Here, we report the results of a field experiment testing the effect of siltation on P. websteri recruitment in surface-grown oysters at an aquaculture site in Richibucto, New Brunswick. Live oysters of similar size were deployed at the aquaculture site and were left to collect P. websteri recruits under one of two siltation treatments (high vs. low) for 50 days. Results suggested that P. websteri recruitment correlated with metrics of oyster size (shell weight, length, width, depth and surface area). When P. websteri counts were standardized for oyster shell morphometry, P. websteri recruitment was significantly higher in oysters exposed to the high siltation treatment, accumulating approximately 1.5× as many P. websteri as oysters exposed to the low siltation treatment. Our results suggest that higher amounts of siltation on surface-cultured oysters can result in increased rates of P. websteri parasitism. Enhanced cleaning regimes may help to alleviate the impacts of P. websteri in surface-grown oysters, although other mitigation strategies exist.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T04:56:35.820253-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13292
       
  • Parentage analysis of tropical spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus) by
           microsatellite markers
    • Authors: Madjid Delghandi; Manal Saif Nasser Al Hinai, Hasifa Afzal, Mohamed Khalfan Al-Wahaibi
      Pages: 4718 - 4724
      Abstract: Parentage analysis is of vital importance for hatchery production and breeding programmes. Two multiplex PCR protocols including seven tropical spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus) microsatellites (Pho-G06, Pho-G25, Pho-G53, Pho-G62, Pho-G74, Pho-G89 and Pho-G100) were introduced for parentage assignment. All loci were polymorphic with allele sizes from 113 to 337 base pairs (bp), observed alleles (k) from two to seven and polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.25 to 0.73. Twenty-four stage-3 phyllosoma larvae (39 days posthatching) were collected for paternity exclusion study using selected microsatellites. Exclusion-based parentage analysis unambiguously assigned 83% of fry (20 of 24) to a single female parent. Of ten putative female parents, five have contributed to the 20 allocated offspring, with one being true parent of 11. Four others were assigned to two or more potential female parents, probably due to genotyping error or the presence of null allele. The exclusion power (EP) for the seven loci varied between 13% and 54% with known genotypes of one parent (P1) and 19% and 71% for given the genotypes of both parents (P2). The theoretical combined parentage exclusion (cEP) power for all seven microsatellites was P1 = 95% and P2 = 99%. The power of discrimination for each locus varied between 0.18 and 0.86. This report presents the first study to utilize microsatellite markers for successful parentage assignment of P. homarus. The selected microsatellites provide a practical tool for parentage analysis in hatchery production of juveniles as well as in future commercial breeding programme of tropical spiny lobsters.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T08:56:01.075467-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13293
       
  • Effect of inoculation of the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. on tilapia
           biofloc culture
    • Authors: Anselmo Miranda-Baeza; María de los A Mariscal-López, José A López-Elías, Martha E Rivas-Vega, Mauricio Emerenciano, Adolfo Sánchez-Romero, José L Esquer-Méndez
      Pages: 4725 - 4734
      Abstract: Cyanophytes are the most ancient photosynthetic organisms. During its evolution, they have developed various ecophysiological adaptation strategies to survive in extreme conditions. The environment prevailing under biofloc cultures provides various conditions appropriate for cyanobacterial proliferation. An outdoor experiment (7 weeks) was performed with a simple random design consisting of four inoculation levels (by triplicate) of Oscillatoria sp. (0.0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg L−1) in saltwater biofloc. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the cyanobacteria inoculation on water quality and tilapia production parameters. The results indicated that the amount of Oscillatoria sp. inoculated significantly affected water quality (pH, chlorophyll a, TSS and NO3-N) and tilapia parameters (final weight, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and survival). No significant effects on dissolved oxygen, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) or NO2-N were observed. We recommend identifying the cyanobacteria species that are able to grow in a biofloc system and their possible adverse effects on the system.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:35:25.007494-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13294
       
  • Evaluation of dietary natural mineral materials as an antibiotic replacer
           on growth performance, non-specific immune responses and disease
           resistance in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
    • Authors: Seonghun Won; Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Seunghan Lee, Jeongwhui Hong, Jung-Keug Park, Sangeun Kim, Sungchul C Bai
      Pages: 4735 - 4747
      Abstract: We evaluated the effects of some dietary natural mineral materials as an antibiotic replacer based on growth performance, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile and subadult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. First experiment, juvenile rainbow trout averaging 2.7 ± 0.02 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the six experimental diets; a basal commercial diet as a control (CON), CON with oxytetracycline (OTC), with yellow loess (YL), with Macsumsuk® (MS), with Song-Gang® stone (SG) and with barley stone (BS) at 0.4% of each diet. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed YL diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON diet. Non-specific immune responses such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), lysozyme (LYS) activity and oxidative radical production of fish fed YL diet were higher than those of fish fed CON diet. At the end of 15 days of challenge test with Aeromonas salmonicida, average cumulative survival rate of fish fed YL diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed BS and CON diets. However, there were no significant differences among fish fed YL, SG and OTC diets. Second experiment, subadult rainbow trout averaging 261.5 ± 3.5 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the four experimental diets for 22 weeks: CON, and CON with OTC, YL or SG at 0.4% of each diet. At the end of feeding, growth performance of fish fed SG and YL diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed CON diet. Non-specific immune responses in terms of SOD, MPO, LYS and NBT of fish fed SG and YL diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON diet. However, there were no significant differences among the fish fed YL, SG and OTC diets. The results indicate that dietary yellow loess or Song-gang® stone at 0.4% of diet could replace oxytetracycline in juvenile and subadult rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:40:33.421347-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13295
       
  • Productive performance of juvenile freshwater prawns Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii in biofloc system
    • Authors: Eduardo Luis Cupertino Ballester; Shayene Agatha Marzarotto, Cecília Silva de Castro, Amábile Frozza, Isabel Pastore, Paulo César Abreu
      Pages: 4748 - 4755
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare two rearing systems for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: one with use of a recirculating aquaculture system with biofilters (RAS) and another with use of microbial flocs (F). Thirty postlarvae of freshwater prawn with an initial average weight of 0.13 ± 0.05 g were randomly stocked in six experimental units with 0.20 m² and volume of 50 L. The experiment lasted thirty days. Dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH were monitored daily; ammonia concentration was determined three times per week; nitrite concentration, alkalinity and hardness were measured weekly. For the formation of microbial floc, molasses was used to keep the ammonia concentrations within safe levels for prawn farming. The variables of water quality remained within the suitable range for the production of the species, except for ammonia concentrations at the F treatment, which exceeded the safe levels. At the end of the experiment, the following parameters were evaluated: survival, specific growth rate, weight gain and feed conversion rate. Differences were found only in feed conversion rate with better values on RAS treatment. The microorganisms present in the RAS and F treatment were also evaluated. The densities of rotifers, amoebas and total bacteria were higher at the F treatment although the same organisms were found at the RAS treatment. The results of this study showed the possibility of rearing M. rosenbergii in biofloc system technology.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T00:45:31.028227-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13296
       
  • Influence of feeding regime and temperature on development and settlement
           of oyster Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae
    • Authors: René Robert; Julien Vignier, Bruno Petton
      Pages: 4756 - 4773
      Abstract: Under controlled conditions of food density and temperature, larval performances (ingestion, growth, survival and settlement success) of the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, were investigated using a flow-through rearing system. In the first experiment, oyster larvae were reared at five different phytoplankton densities (70, 500, 1500, 2500 and 3500 μm3 μL−1: ≈1, 8, 25, 42 and 58 cells μL−1 equivalent TCg), and in the second, larvae were grown at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C). Overall, larvae survived a wide range of food density and temperature, with high survival recorded at the end of the experiments. Microalgae concentration and temperature both impacted significantly larval development and settlement success. A mixed diet of Chaetoceros neogracile and Tisochrysis lutea (1:1 cell volume) maintained throughout the whole larval life at a concentration of 1500 μm3 μL−1 allowed the best larval development of O. edulis at 25°C with high survival (98%), good growth (16 μm day−1) and high settlement success (68%). In addition, optimum larval development (survival ≥97%; growth ≥17 μm day−1) and settlement (≥78%) were achieved at 25 and 30°C, at microalgae concentrations of 1500 μm3 μL−1. In contrast, temperature of 20°C led to lower development (≤10 μm day−1) and weaker settlement (≤27%), whereas at 15°C, no settlement occurred. The design experiments allowed the estimation of the maximum surface-area-specific ingestion rate {J˙Xm} = 120 ± 4 μm3 day−1 μm−2, the half saturation coefficient {XK} = 537 ± 142 μm3 μL−1 and the Arrhenius temperature TA = 8355 K. This contribution put a tangible basis for a future O. edulis Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) larval growth model.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:46:21.15364-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13297
       
  • Weaning methods using formulated feeds for snakehead (Channa striata and
           Channa micropeltes) larvae
    • Authors: Tran Thi Thanh Hien; Bui Minh Tam, Tran Le Cam Tu, David A Bengtson
      Pages: 4774 - 4782
      Abstract: The culture of snakehead fish (Channa striata and Channa micropeltes) in Vietnam is limited, and snakehead culture has been banned in Cambodia, because traditional practices include capture of fingerlings from the wild as seed, as well as capture of small-size (also known as trash fish or low-value) fish. As hatchery breeding technology has improved, we investigated the optimal weaning practices for these two species. Both laboratory experiments and farm trials were conducted. For C. striata, the optimal weaning procedure is to begin at 17 days after hatch (dah) and wean the fish at 10% replacement of live feed with formulated feed per day. However, for C. micropeltes, the optimal procedure is to wait until 40 dah to begin weaning and then to wean the fish with a 10% replacement of live feed with formulated feed every 3 days. These results should enable farmers to domesticate snakehead culture in Vietnam and Cambodia and eliminate reliance on fish captured from the wild as both seed and feed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T00:50:30.64123-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13298
       
  • Physiological and biochemical responses of Zhikong scallop, Chlamys
           farreri, to different thermal stressors
    • Authors: Weiwei Jiang; Zengjie Jiang, Meirong Du, Yuze Mao, Jiaqi Li, Jinghui Fang, Xuning Lv, Suyan Xue, Wei Wang, Jihong Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Jianguang Fang
      Pages: 4783 - 4797
      Abstract: Water temperature is a significant environmental stressor that affects physiology and biochemical activities of bivalves. Here, temporal variations in physiological and biochemical parameters of Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri, under three water temperature treatments were investigated. For the first treatment, scallops were transferred from rearing temperature (15°C, control temperature) to 5, 10, 20 and 25°C, respectively. The second group of scallops was gradually acclimated to above experimental temperatures at a rate of 1–2°C day−1. The third group was transferred directly between 15 and 7°C every 12 h and for six times. Results showed that significantly higher oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion together with a significant lower ingestion rate was observed for the acute temperature change treatment compared to those in the equivalent gradual temperature variation treatment (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T21:45:42.143723-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13299
       
  • Effects of Bacillus subtilis strains and the prebiotic Previda® on
           growth, immune parameters and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila
           infection in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: Samuel Addo; Abel A Carrias, Malachi A Williams, Mark R Liles, Jeffery S Terhune, Donald A Davis
      Pages: 4798 - 4810
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the individual and combined effects of long-term feeding of diets containing two probiotic Bacillus subtilis group strains (Aqua NZ and AP193) and the prebiotic Previda®, a commercial hemicellulose extract, on growth performance, immune parameters and Aeromonas hydrophila susceptibility of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia of average weight 7.47 ± 0.11 g were fed diets formulated with the probiotics and/or the prebiotic, or a control diet for 8 weeks and, subsequently, challenged with A. hydrophila by intragastric gavage at a dosage of 3.9 × 107 CFU per fish. Fish attained a mean weight of 59.5 ± 0.99 g at the end of the growth period. Under the conditions of the present trial, none of the diets significantly improved mean per cent weight gain (P = 0.70), thermal growth coefficient (P = 0.88) or feed conversion ratio (P = 0.87) of Nile tilapia. Except for the diet containing the prebiotic Previda® only (P = 0.17), all other diets resulted in significantly higher fish survival compared to the control (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:40:25.999768-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13300
       
  • Comparative effects of Shirazi thyme and vitamin E on some growth and
           plasma biochemical changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during cadmium
           exposure
    • Authors: Mohammad Mohiseni; Maryam Sepidnameh, Dara Bagheri, Mahdi Banaee, Behzad Nematdust Haghi
      Pages: 4811 - 4821
      Abstract: Phytobiotics include a large number of active components which potentially have a growth-promoting effects and antioxidant properties. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of Shirazi thyme and vitamin E on growth and plasma biochemical parameters of common carp exposed to cadmium. Fish (34 ± 3 g) were divided into four groups and fed four distinct diets including commercial diet without any additive (for control and metal only group) and supplemented with either 1% ground Shirazi thyme or 100 mg kg−1 vitamin E for 45 days. At the end of the feeding trial, all treatments except control group were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of waterborne cadmium for 15 days and sampling was done on days 0, 7 and 15 after the metal exposure. According to the results, dietary inclusion of thyme prevented the harmful effects of cadmium and also improved fish growth and nutritional indices including weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and condition factor. Results also revealed that Shirazi thyme was more effective than vitamin E. Similarly, no changes in the hepatosomatic, viscerosomatic and bile somatic indices were observed. Plasma enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and LDH) and metabolites were not altered due to thyme supplementation compared to the control. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 1% ground Shiraz thyme improved the growth and health status of fish and showed better hepatorenoprotective properties than vitamin E during waterborne cadmium exposure in common carp juveniles. It might be conceivable to consider Shirazi thyme as a potential phytobiotic for incorporation in fish diet.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:40:30.705195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13301
       
  • Amino acid digestibility of animal protein ingredients for bullfrogs in
           different phases of post-metamorphic development
    • Authors: Cleber Fernando Menegasso Mansano; Beatrice Ingrid Macente, Thiago Matias Torres Nascimento, Marcelo Maia Pereira, Leonardo Sussumu Takahashi, Marta Verardino De Stéfani
      Pages: 4822 - 4835
      Abstract: The development of diets that economically and ecologically meet the requirements of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) is important for frog farming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients for essential amino acids of eight animal feed ingredients (poultry byproduct meal, meat and bone meal, salmon byproduct meal, tilapia byproduct meal, spray-dried blood meal, powered red blood cells, feather meal and sardine meal) used in the diets of bullfrogs. Additionally, the limiting digestible amino acids were determined for each ingredient. Bullfrogs in different phases of post-metamorphic development were used: 810 animals in the early phase (mean weight: 40 ± 10 g), 405 animals in the growing phase (95 ± 15 g) and 243 animals in the finishing phase (175 ± 25 g). Poultry byproduct meal, salmon byproduct meal and blood meal exhibited the largest number of high apparent digestibility coefficients for essential amino acids (>70%) in the early, growing and finishing phases, respectively. The animal protein ingredients were well digested by the bullfrogs and could be used in practical diets for this species, respecting the limits of inclusion and digestibility values for each developmental phase.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:20:27.724994-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13302
       
  • Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass as an immunostimulant for pacu Piaractus
           mesopotamicus
    • Authors: Sílvia Umeda Gallani; Gustavo Moraes Ramos Valladão, Elisa Helena Giglio Ponsano, Fabiana Pilarski
      Pages: 4836 - 4843
      Abstract: Rubrivivax gelatinosus is a bacterium present in the environment successfully used for treatment of fish industry effluent. Besides cleaning the effluent, this bacterium provides a biomass rich in proteins and carotenoid as a metabolic product. This study describes for the first time the use of this biomass as an immunostimulant feed. Haematological, immunological, biochemical and growth parameters in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus fed control diet or diets supplemented with 0.5 or 1.5 g kg−1 of the R. gelatinosus biomass during 60 days were assessed. Fish were sampled at 0, 30 and 60 days. The inclusion of increasing levels of biomass in feed increased thrombocytes and neutrophils (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:01:30.838647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13303
       
  • Development of a spectrophotometric technique for sperm quantification in
           the spermcasting Australian flat oyster Ostrea angasi Sowerby
    • Authors: Md Mahbubul Hassan; Jian G Qin, Xiaoxu Li
      Pages: 4844 - 4850
      Abstract: Sperm quantification is vitally important when sperm concentration is required for standardization of different fertilization treatments in a hatchery. Although the haemocytometer method is generally used to determine sperm concentration, the procedure is tedious and the attributes are not suitable for handling a large number of sperm samples within a short period. In this study, the efficiency of sperm concentration determination was improved in the spermcasting oyster Ostrea angasi Sowerby by optimizing the regression model and parameters critical to spectrophotometric reading. Although sperm concentration can be estimated in a wide range of wavelengths, the 350-nm wavelength produced the best fit to the regression model (y = 1 × 10−8 x + 0.163; r2 = 0.996). In addition, the sperm counts estimated with this model were similar to the haemocytometer counts. The reading repeatability of this technique was further validated with samples from different individuals. Comparisons with literature suggest that when the spectrophotometric technique is applied to a new species for estimating sperm concentration, the regression relationship between sperm concentration and wavelength reading should be reassessed due to species-specific discrepancy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T06:40:31.204297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13304
       
  • Reproductive performance of indoor-reared pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)
           females after wintering in outdoor earthen ponds
    • Authors: Uroš Ljubobratović; Géza Péter, Zoltán Horváth, Daniel Żarski, Tijana Ristović, Vanda Percze, Zsuzsana Sándor, Svetlana Lengyel, András Rónyai
      Pages: 4851 - 4863
      Abstract: Photo-thermal induction of gonadal maturation in completely controlled conditions is still not well explored in pikeperch. Thus, wintering intensively reared breeders in outdoor pond conditions might be rather suitable alternative to use these fish for larvae production. In this study, we compared the propagation success of indoor-reared [recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)-reared fish, RRF] and wild (WCF) pikeperch females wintering them in outside earthen ponds. Each group was composed of six females and four males which were artificially propagated following hormonal induction with human chorionic gonadotropin. Beside the main parameters of reproductive success, fatty acid composition of dry eggs and mortality during early larviculture were assessed. The only statistically significant difference among reproductive parameters was found in latency time, which was significantly lower in RRF. Fatty acid profiles of dry eggs were rather similar between the groups; however, significant difference was noticed in phospholipid fraction in EPA/AA (eicosapentaenoic acid; C20:5n-3/arachidonic acid; C20:4n-6) ratio which was, on average, five times higher in the RRF (5.1 ± 3.8) than in WCF (0.9 ± 0.3). Significantly lower mortality was seen in the larvae originating from wild breeders (13.4 ± 1.7% and 27.0 ± 4.9% for WCF and RRF respectively). Wintering indoor-reared females in outdoor pond conditions led to appropriate gonadal maturation, and ovulation occurred in all examined females. The lower quality of larvae was likely caused by suboptimal broodstock nutrition, which should be studied further, with special consideration given to the EPA/AA ratio and the phospholipid content and composition of the diet.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T21:50:29.874304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13305
       
  • Substituting fishmeal with mixtures of wheat, corn and soya bean meals in
           diets for the white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone): effect on
           production parameters and preliminary economic assessment
    • Authors: Manuel García-Ulloa; Alfredo Hernandez-Llamas, Styll Jesús Armenta-Soto, Hervey Rodríguez-González
      Pages: 4864 - 4873
      Abstract: We analysed the effect on production and economic performance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei of isoproteic diets substituting fishmeal by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% with mixtures of wheat, soya bean and cornmeals. In a laboratory trial, 10 juveniles m−2 (1.1 ± 0.1 g) were reared in 60-L plastic containers using a recirculation system for 90 days. Three replicates were used to test each diet. A commercial diet serving as a reference and the diet with the highest content of essential amino acids (50% substitution, 6.46 ± 1.1 g) produced significantly higher shrimp final weight (7.12 ± 0.9 g, P  0.05). In a pond trial, 10 shrimp m−2 (1.08 ± 0.3 g) were cultivated in 1.5 m−3 cages for 35 days, testing the diets in triplicate. Final weight was significantly higher (P  0.05). The optimal level of substitution was estimated at 86.0%. Apparently, nutrients contained in the diets combined well with natural feed available in the pond, up to a point where 7.3% of fishmeal inclusion is recommended. An economic analysis showed that 100% substitution produced the best results. We conclude that mixtures of wheat, corn and soya meals are potential alternatives to replace fishmeal effectively in diets for L. vannamei.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:26:54.411031-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13306
       
  • Short-term starvation in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus): molecular
           effects on lipid mobilization and utilization
    • Authors: Kai Liao; Ran Meng, Zhaoshou Ran, Guoqiang Cheng, Yajun Wang, Jilin Xu, Shanliang Xu, Xiaojun Yan
      Pages: 4874 - 4885
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of short-term starvation on lipid metabolism, juvenile silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) with an initial weight of 18.1 ± 1.53 g were starved for 6 days. Fish were sampled on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 of starvation (S0, S2, S4 and S6, respectively) and then analysed. The results showed that short-term starvation induced a significant decrease in visceral index, hepatosomatic index. The crude lipid content was also significantly decreased by 42.22% and 82.96% on S2 and S6 respectively. In addition, short-term starvation significantly decreased the plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Moreover, short-term starvation significantly increased the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) at the mRNA and protein levels in the muscle and the ATGL expression at the protein level in the liver. The expressions of fatty acid translocase (CD36) and plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm) at the protein level in the muscle were significantly increased by short-term starvation, while the expressions of fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), FABPpm and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) at the protein level in the liver were significantly increased by short-term starvation. Furthermore, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and PPARγ at the mRNA and protein levels in the muscle were significantly elevated by short-term starvation. These findings suggested that short-term starvation increased lipid mobilization and utilization possibly through activation of lipolysis-related genes (HSL and ATGL), lipid uptake-related genes (LPL, CD36, FATP1 and FABPpm) and PPARs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:45:33.629635-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13307
       
  • Ammonium bicarbonate supplementation as carbon source in alkaliphilic
           Spirulina mass culture
    • Authors: Yi Ding; Xiuling Li, Zhongjie Wang, Zhongkui Li, Dacong Yin, Yahong Geng, Yeguang Li
      Pages: 4886 - 4896
      Abstract: Cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is a commercial product with high content of protein and other nutritional elements, serving as a source of nutrients for food, feed and pharmaceutical industry. Generally, CO2 gas bubbling method is a common method to supply carbon source for algae culture. However, in commercial situation where the CO2 supply is limited, alternative bicarbonate could be utilized as a substitute carbon source in Spirulina cultivation. In this study, the optimum culture method of ammonium bicarbonate supplementation in open raceway pond as carbon source was firstly investigated to avoid the inhibition effect of ammonium bicarbonate. The optimal conditions estimated by experimental results for S. platensis cultivation were set as following: (1) the addition of ammonium bicarbonate at each time must be
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T22:05:36.803797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13308
       
  • The effect of four microbial products on production performance and water
           quality in integrated culture of freshwater pearl mussel and fishes
    • Authors: Xiafei Zheng; Jinyu Tang, Gang Ren, Yan Wang
      Pages: 4897 - 4909
      Abstract: An 80-day mesocosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of four commercial microbial products on production performance and water quality in integrated culture of freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp. Five treatments were tested. One treatment with non-supplementation of microbial products served as control (C). In the other four treatments, Novozymes Pond Protect (NO), Bio-Form BZT-Water Reform (WR), Bacillus natto (BN) and Effective Microbes (EM) were added at the intervals of two weeks, respectively. Mussel yield declined in the tanks with supplementation of the microbial products. No significant differences were found in fish yield and chemical water quality among the treatments except total nitrogen (TN) was higher in tanks EM than in tanks C. Biomass of phytoplankton and Cyanophyta was higher in tanks NO, WR, BN and EM than in tanks C. Supplementation of the microbial products resulted in change in bacterial community in which Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria dominated. Bacterial community in the tanks was significantly affected by TN, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand and Cyanophyta biomass. This study reveals that the function of these microbial products as probiotics is limited in H. cumingii farming.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:26:39.248143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13309
       
  • Rotifer community structure in fish-farming systems associated with a
           Neotropical semiarid reservoir in north-eastern Brazil
    • Authors: Gilmar de Aguiar Arruda; Leidiane Pereira Diniz, Viviane Lúcia dos Santos Almeida, Sigrid Neumann-Leitão, Mauro Melo Júnior
      Pages: 4910 - 4922
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the community structure of planktonic rotifers and their relation to the environmental impact of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linaeus, 1758), aquaculture activities (ponds and net-tanks), associated with a Neotropical semiarid reservoir in Brazil. Our hypothesis was that the ecological attributes of the rotifer community were different when considering the influence of fish aquaculture activities. We identified 28 species, with 10 species from the Brachionidae family. The average density and diversity index of rotifers were higher in reservoir stations, with mean values in the ponds approximately 50% lower than those of the reservoir. The microphagous species dominated during all the time, while the raptorial species were accidental in all studied environments. The ponds were represented by four significant indicator species: Brachionus caudatus, B. leydigi, Dicranophoroides caudatus and Testudinella patina and the reservoir by three: B. falcatus, B. havanaensis and Conochilus dossuarius. In general, nine species were significantly associated with some categories of environmental conditions, such as high or low turbidity and low values of conductivity and TDS. Four of the five best bioindicator species belonged to the microphagous genus Brachionus. B. havanaensis indicated five environmental conditions (IndVal > 93.1%), and it appeared to be a key species in this Neotropical semiarid reservoir influenced by aquaculture activities. The dominance of microphagous rotifers suggests a functional redundancy of species in the studied environments. We found that these systems and their management affected the planktonic rotifer community in this region of Brazil by increasing the species richness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:17:47.207548-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13310
       
  • Effects of artificial selection practices on loss of genetic diversity in
           the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai
    • Authors: Nan Chen; Xuan Luo, Chengkuan Lu, Caihuan Ke, Weiwei You
      Pages: 4923 - 4933
      Abstract: The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, is one of most important aquaculture species in China. Artificial selection has been the common and inevitable approach in breeding. In present study, the effect of artificial selection on the genetic structure of two abalone lines (JJ selection strain, three successive selection lines based on the fast-growing trait, which was named JJF0, JJF1, JJF2, and JJF3; and R selection strain, the offspring of the red shell colored variants) were evaluated using 10 microsatellites. Loci showed from low to high polymorphism, with the number of alleles (A) ranging from 2 to 18 in each population. The mean observed (Ho) and expected heterozygosities (He) were 0.650 ± 0.022 and 0.711 ± 0.018, respectively. In selection strain JJ, the values for most diversity genetic indexes (Ae, the number of effective alleles, Ho and He) decreased from JJF0 to JJF3. Meanwhile, compared to JJ line, the genetic diversity estimates of R were close to those of JJF3. Nei's genetic distance ranged from 0.20357 to 0.51346. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean tree based on Nei's genetic distance also showed that the control Japan population and JJF0 formed to a cluster firstly, which were subsequently grouped together with JJF1, JJF2, JJF3, whereas the R was isolated from the rest of the populations. Analysis of genetic information indicated that genetic diversity was lost with artificial selection practices. Mechanisms underlying the maintenance of an acceptable level of genetic diversity while pursuing economic interests should be conducted in future research studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:25:28.535517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13311
       
  • The influence of diet on the grass carp intestinal microbiota and bile
           acids
    • Authors: Jing Zhang; Fan Xiong, Gui-Tang Wang, Wen-Xiang Li, Ming Li, Hong Zou, Shan-Gong Wu
      Pages: 4934 - 4944
      Abstract: To elucidate the influence of different diet on the intestinal microbe and bile acids, we characterized the microbiota and bile acids in the hindgut content of grass carp fed on formula feed (FF group) or Sudan grass (SG group). Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria were significantly more represented in FF group than in SG group whereas Bacteroidetes was significantly more abundant in SG group than in FF group. Simpson diversity was significantly higher in FF group than in SG group (t = 2.33, P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T05:52:51.596917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13312
       
  • Dietary thiamin and pyridoxine requirements of fingerling Indian major
           carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; Mukhtar A Khan
      Pages: 4945 - 4957
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to quantify the dietary thiamin (experiment I) and pyridoxine (experiment II) requirements of fingerling Cirrhinus mrigala for 16 weeks. In experiment I, dietary thiamin requirement was determined by feeding seven casein–gelatin-based diets (400 g kg−1 CP; 18.69 kJ g−1 GE) with graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg kg−1 diet) to triplicate groups of fish (6.15 ± 0.37 cm; 1.89 ± 0.12 g). Fish fed diet with 2 mg kg−1 thiamin had highest specific growth rate (SGR), protein retention (PR), RNA/DNA ratio, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), RBCs and best feed conversion ratio (FCR). However, highest liver thiamin concentration was recorded in fish fed 4 mg thiamin kg−1 diet. Broken-line analysis of SGR, PR and liver thiamin concentrations exhibited the thiamin requirement in the range of 1.79–3.34 mg kg−1 diet (0.096–0.179 μg thiamin kJ−1 gross energy). In experiment II, six casein–gelatin-based diets (400 g kg−1 CP; 18.69 kJ g−1 GE) containing graded levels of pyridoxine (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg kg−1 diet) were fed to triplicate groups of fish (6.35 ± 0.37 cm; 1.97 ± 0.12 g). Fish fed diet containing 6 mg kg−1 pyridoxine showed best SGR, FCR, PR, RNA/DNA ratio, Hb, Hct and RBCs, whereas maximum liver pyridoxine concentration was recorded in fish fed 8 mg kg−1 dietary pyridoxine. Broken-line analysis of SGR, PR and liver pyridoxine concentrations reflected the pyridoxine requirement from 5.63 to 8.61 mg kg−1 diet. Data generated during this study would be useful in formulating thiamin- and pyridoxine-balanced feeds for the intensive culture of this fish.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T21:55:33.776169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13313
       
  • A production season of turbot larvae Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)
           reared on copepods in a Danish (56°N) semi-intensive outdoor system
    • Authors: Per M Jepsen; Hans H Jakobsen, Thomas A Rayner, Elisa Blanda, Aliona Novac, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Benni W Hansen
      Pages: 4958 - 4974
      Abstract: Turbot were reared from yolk sack larvae to juvenile in an outdoor semi-intensive system. Three production cycles were monitored from May to September. A pelagic food chain was established with phytoplankton, copepods and turbot larvae. Abiotic and biotic parameters of lower trophic levels together with turbot larval survival, development, prey electivity and growth were monitored. A decreasing larval survival from 18.4% in May to 13.6% in July and just 7.0% in September was observed. The overall phytoplankton and copepod abundance decreased during the productive season. The turbot larval growth showed significant differences between larvae below (isometric) and above (allometric) 7 mm. Larval fish gut content showed no differences with available prey between production cycles. Therefore, it appears that the available prey concentration is governing their growth in this outdoor system. First-feeding turbot larvae exhibited active selection for nauplii whereas developed larvae switched to copepodites and adult copepods. Although developing turbot larva exhibited active selection towards copepod size classes, there was no evidence of selective feeding on either of the two dominant copepod species. The turbot larvae's prey ingestion was modelled together with the standing stock of copepod biomass. The model results indicated that the estimated need for daily ingestion exceeded the standing stock of copepods. Hence, the initially established food web was unable to sustain the added turbot larvae with starvation as a consequence. We therefore suggest several solutions to circumvent starvation in the semi-intensive system.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:20:50.62652-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13314
       
  • In vitro assembly of Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV)-like particles
           produced in a prokaryote expression system
    • Authors: Rapee Sinnuengnong; Pongsopee Attasart, Duncan R Smith, Sakol Panyim, Wanchai Assavalapsakul
      Pages: 4975 - 4981
      Abstract: Viral diseases are a significant problem in the shrimp aquaculture industry as outbreaks can cause significant mortality and economic loss. While it has been shown that triggering the shrimp RNA interference pathway through dsRNA is a potentially viable treatment pathway, this approach is hampered by the lack of a suitable delivery mechanism. Virus-like particles (VLPs), which are structurally similar to native viruses but lack the genetic material, could possibly be developed as a delivery vehicle. To generate a candidate VLP, the Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) capsid protein was cloned with an added histidine tag and expressed in an E. coli expression system. While the protein was expressed in inclusion bodies, the recombinant PmDNV capsid protein could be dissolved and subsequently purified by nickel affinity column chromatography. The formation of VLP from this purified rPmDNV capsid protein was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and PmDNV-VLPs were observed that looked similar to the native PmDNV virion. Our results suggest that the PmDNV-like particle could be promisingly applied towards vaccination and that this PmDNV-like particle can potentially serve as a system for delivery of nucleic acids to trigger innate immunity in shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T22:00:32.240471-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13315
       
  • Changes in fatty acids profile, monosaccharide profile and protein content
           during batch growth of Isochrysis galbana (T.iso)
    • Authors: Asma Gnouma; Irina Sadovskaya, Anissa Souissi, Khaled Sebai, Amel Medhioub, Thierry Grard, Sami Souissi
      Pages: 4982 - 4990
      Abstract: To investigate the nutritional value of the marine micro-alga Isochrysis galbana Tahitian Isochrysis strain (T.iso) as an alternative feed for aquaculture during culture age, its biochemical composition was studied under autotrophic and controlled culture conditions at different growth stages: exponential phase, early and late stationary phases and decay phase. Analysis showed that C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:4 (n-3) and C22:6 (n-3) were the most abundant fatty acids in this alga at different growth stages. The highest values of monounsaturated fatty acids were recorded at the late stationary and the decay phases. However, the highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed at the early stationary phase. At all growth stages, I. galbana (T.iso) contained arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose. Glucose represented the main sugar, and its content per dry alga biomass weight increased with increasing age of the culture and reached about fourfold in the decay phase. The maximum protein content was also observed during this last phase.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:05:33.802466-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13316
       
  • Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the fatty acid delta
           6 desaturase (FAD6) gene in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Liu; Lin Wang, Zhengfu Feng, Xiaojun Song, Wei Zhu
      Pages: 4991 - 5003
      Abstract: The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), an important echinodermata, had high value in nutrition and medicine for its rich collagen, sulphated polysaccharide, glycosides and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The cDNA of the fatty acid desaturase gene in A. japonicus (AJFAD6) was cloned and was found to encode a desaturase with delta 6 FAD activity. Sequence analysis indicated that AJFAD6 included an open reading frame of 1392 bp, encoding 463 amino acids. AJFAD6 has all the conserved motifs found in other members of the FAD6 family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain and three histidine-rich regions. qRT-PCR showed that AJFAD6 was expressed in all tissues tested during juvenile development and was mainly expressed in the respiratory tree at 150 days after adherence (150 days) and in the intestine at 100 days. Furthermore, AJFAD6 mRNA was also detected in the analysed adult tissues, with higher expression in the intestine and testis. Functional characterization of AJFAD6 in a recombinant yeast, Pichia pastoris, showed that AJFAD6 could catalyse exogenous linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) to produce γ-linoleic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (STA), respectively, at conversion rates of 11.1% for LA to GLA and 3.4% for ALA to STA. Our results suggested that the biosynthetic pathway of PUFA existed in the sea cucumber, but endogenous production of eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from either LA or ALA precursor appeared to be limited.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:30:46.329829-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13317
       
  • A comparison between marine and terrestrial invertebrate meals for mirror
           carp (Cyprinus carpio) diets: Impact on growth, haematology and health
    • Authors: Alex H L Wan; Donna L Snellgrove, Simon J Davies
      Pages: 5004 - 5016
      Abstract: Invertebrate meals (e.g. polychaetes and insects) present novel and sustainable high-quality nutrient sources for use in fish feed formulations. To test this innovative source, an eleven-week feeding trial was conducted evaluating the effects of replacing the fishmeal (FM) component as an example of a superior protein source (FM CTRL) with ragworm meal (RW, Nereis virens) and/or silkworm pupae (SWP, Bombyx mori) in mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) diets. Three experimental diets with partial replacement of FM (diets: RW + FM, SWP + FM and RW + SWP + FM) were formulated. All diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous, iso-lipidic and iso-energetic. Growth performance and feed utilization indices were assessed, and the feeding trial concluded with the analysis of haematological parameters to provide an indication of carp physiological and health status. Mean weight gain was greatest in mirror carp fed RW + FM (60.83 fish−1 day−1; P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T05:56:46.689875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13318
       
  • Semisynthetic ferulic acid derivative: an efficient feed additive for
           Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: Lijuan Yu; Fan Wu, Wei Liu, Juan Tian, Xing Lu, Hua Wen
      Pages: 5017 - 5028
      Abstract: Ferulic acid (FA) derivative was synthesized by modifying the functional groups of FA as dietary additive in the feeding of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) juveniles. Structural confirmation of this compound was based on IR, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary FA derivative supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status and serum biochemical parameters of GIFT juveniles compared with that of FA. A total of 675 fish with an average initial weight of 10.73 ± 0.40 g were fed nine diets supplemented with 0, 0.26, 0.52, 1.04 and 2.08 mmol kg−1 FA, or 0.26, 0.52, 1.04 and 2.08 mmol kg−1 FA derivative. Each diet was assigned to three replicate groups of 25 experimental tilapia for 56 days. Weight gain (WG) in groups of fish fed FA derivative was much higher than that of fish fed FA diet (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:27:33.206846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13319
       
  • Optimal egg viability storage conditions in two commercial fairy shrimps
           (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from Thailand
    • Authors: Wipavee Thaimuangphol; La-orsri Sanoamuang
      Pages: 5029 - 5040
      Abstract: Optimal egg viability storage conditions for two commercial fairy shrimps, Branchinella thailandensis and Streptocephalus sirindhornae, were investigated. Eggs for each treatment were kept under eight different conditions at four different temperatures for 24 months. Every 2 months, representative eggs were hatched to evaluate hatching percentages. Low temperature and oxygen, darkness and dry conditions significantly influenced egg hatchability of both species. Undehydrated eggs hatchability in all conditions ranged from 0 to 10% in S. sirindhornae and 0 to 20% in B. thailandensis. Hatching percentages of B. thailandensis were higher than those of S. sirindhornae. Hatchability under all experimental regimes continuously decreased over time, except for dry eggs stored at −18°C in dark-anoxic conditions. Hatchability was markedly delayed in both species over time. We demonstrate that both species’ eggs can be stored at −18°C at least for 24 months with high hatchability in B. thailandensis (80%) and S. sirindhornae (60%) under dry, dark, anoxic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T23:20:41.177846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13320
       
  • Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides in early weaning diets on
           growth, survival, fatty acid composition and gut morphology of gilthead
           sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) larvae
    • Authors: Kamil Mert Eryalçin; Silvia Torrecillas, Maria Jose Caballero, Carmen Maria Hernandez-Cruz, John Sweetman, Marisol Izquierdo
      Pages: 5041 - 5052
      Abstract: Early weaning of marine fish larvae with dry diets delays gut maturation and reduces growth rates. In juvenile and adult forms of several marine fish species, inclusion of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) improves gut integrity and functionality, but the effects of MOS inclusion in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) larval diets have not been addressed yet. Thus, this study assesses the effects of dietary MOS inclusion on survival, growth performance, gut morphology, feed acceptance and quality of gilthead sea bream larvae. For that purpose, 16 days post-hatched gilthead sea bream larvae were fed four graded levels of MOS (Biomos®, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY, USA) in weaning diets as follows: 0 g kg−1 MOS, 0.5 g kg−1 MOS, 1.5 g kg−1 MOS and 2 g kg−1MOS. Dietary MOS did not affect feed acceptance in gilthead sea bream larvae (P > 0.05). MOS supplementation was correlated in a dose-dependent way with higher larval survival (P = 0.026). After 15 days of feeding, dietary MOS increased whole larvae (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-25T00:00:52.013254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13321
       
  • Effects of microalgae-added diets on growth performance and meat
           composition of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)
    • Authors: Zhi Yong Ju; Spencer Davis, Kathleen Ramm, Mireille Steck, Fabio Soller, Bradley K. Fox
      Pages: 5053 - 5061
      Abstract: Two floating diets and one sinking diet were prepared for tilapia with local ingredients by extrusion or steam-pelleting methods. Indoor and outdoor feeding trials were conducted to evaluate their effects on growth performance and quality of tilapia products. Local ingredients included defatted Haematococcus and Spirulina by-products from Hawaii. The three diets, plus a commercial feed, were each assigned to three replicate tanks, and each tank (120 L) was stocked with 12 juvenile tilapia in an 8-week indoor trial. The results showed that (1) the floating diet had significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:40:26.611484-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13322
       
  • A novel combined recirculating treatment system for intensive marine
           aquaculture
    • Authors: Xuechu Chen; Guoquan Zeng, Qilang Xie, Yi Chen, Yingying Huang, Jianbiao Qiu, Jinbo Cai, Chen Chen, Jianwu Tang
      Pages: 5062 - 5071
      Abstract: This study established a pilot-scale recirculating treatment system that coupled an ecological process with a biological process to achieve adequate water quality and to minimize the water consumption for intensive marine culture. The recirculating treatment system consisted of a settling cell, a biofilter tank, a bivalve tank and gravel beds. The toxic pollutants, threatening the growth of bivalves, were reduced by the settling cell and the biofilter tank, so that the polyculture of shrimp and bivalves could be achieved. The living bivalve tank could function well as a remover of remaining small suspended solids (SS), and other pollutants. As the SS was reduced to a very low level by bivalve tank before the water flowing into the gravel beds, the risk of clogging was prevented. The studies suggested that the system maintained high removal efficiencies of SS, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2−-N) and could contribute to the increase in shrimp yield.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:08:01.278653-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13323
       
  • Influence of vibration caused by sound on migration of sea cucumber
           Apostichopus japonicus
    • Authors: Chenggang Lin; Libin Zhang, Yang Pan, Hongsheng Yang
      Pages: 5072 - 5082
      Abstract: Vibrations exist widely in the ocean, and the one caused by sound and biological movement plays an important role in the sensory system of marine organisms. The vibration caused by sound has many characteristics that make it a good candidate for modifying the movements of marine organisms. However, few studies have tested whether hydraulic vibration caused by sound has effects on the migration of sea cucumbers, and this has never been systematically studied previously in Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). In order to understand whether hydraulic vibration caused by sound at different frequencies could affect the migration of sea cucumbers, in the present study, hydraulic vibration caused by sound at various frequencies was tested in the laboratory to determine their effects on the migration of A. japonicus at different sizes. The mean probability distribution was used as a statistical index to demonstrate the moving tendencies of the species. The experimental results showed that medium and small A. japonicus (
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:17:54.61441-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13324
       
  • Liver histology and histomorphometry in hybrid sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma
           reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) reared on intensive fish
           farming
    • Authors: Robson Andrade Rodrigues; Klaus Casaro Saturnino, Carlos Eurico Fernandes
      Pages: 5083 - 5093
      Abstract: This study aimed to characterize the liver histology and histomorphometry in sorubim hybrid of different categories (nursery, growth and grow-out) reared on fish farming. The categories were defined considering body weight (BW): nursery category (n = 5): BW = 37.06 ± 6.00 g (31.6–45.3 g); growth category (n = 5): BW = 310.40 ± 53.80 g (242.1–376.4 g) and grow-out category (n = 5): BW = 874.28 ± 27.59 g (846.2–913.1 g). Liver fragments were processed to paraffin inclusion, and sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and Perl's staining to histology, histomorphometry and density volumetric of liver structures; glycogen analysis and to detect ferric irons (Fe3+) respectively. The hepatosomatic index decreased between the categories (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-25T00:00:58.580823-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13325
       
  • Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation decreases tissue lead
           accumulation and alleviates lead toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: Qixiao Zhai; Hancheng Wang, Fengwei Tian, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
      Pages: 5094 - 5103
      Abstract: Pollution by the heavy metal lead (Pb) has become a threat to both aquaculture and food safety. In this study, the protective effects of a selected probiotic with good Pb binding capacity (Lactobacillus plantarumCCFM8661) against waterborne Pb exposure were evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). One hundred and eighty fish were divided into four groups as control, Pb-only, Pb-plus-CCFM8661 and CCFM8661-only. Fish were exposed to a dose of waterborne Pb level at 1 mg L−1 for 4 weeks, and the probiotic was administered at 108 CFU g−1 in fish diet twice daily. The results showed that dietary supplementation of CCFM8661 ameliorated the growth performance and prevented the death of Pb-exposed fish. Cotreatment with Pb and CCFM8661 also effectively decreased Pb accumulation in kidney, liver, gonad, brain, gills and muscle. Moreover, the administration of this probiotic alleviated Pb-induced oxidative stress, recovered digestive enzyme activities and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, reversed alterations in innate immune status and decreased the frequencies of the nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish. These results suggested that CCFM8661 may be a novel dietary supplement against Pb toxicity at least in tilapia.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T23:26:03.973127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13326
       
  • Semen characteristics of Colossoma macropomum from three successive sample
           collections in the same reproductive cycle
    • Authors: Luana Barbosa Pires; Eduardo Antonio Sanches, Elizabeth Romagosa, Ruy Alberto Caetano Corrêa Filho, Danilo Pedro Streit Junior, Rosiane Araujo Rodrigues Nass, Jayme Aparecido Povh
      Pages: 5104 - 5110
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the semen characteristics of C. macropomum fish from three successive semen sample collections taken during the same reproductive cycle. Six breeders (6.4 ± 1.5 kg) induced with crude carp pituitary extract (2.5 mg kg−1) were used. Samples of semen were collected in graduated syringes after a period of 260 degree-hours. The semen was collected from the same males in September 2014 (sample 1), December 2014 (64 days after the first collection – sample 2) and February 2015 (86 days after the second collection – sample 3). The semen volume was higher (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:11:53.614844-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13329
       
  • Effect of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratios on growth, digestive enzyme
           and blood metabolites of juvenile Brazilian sardines, Sardinella
           brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879)
    • Authors: Fabio Carneiro Sterzelecki; Juliet Kiyoko Sugai, Manecas Baloi, Gabriel Passini, Cristina Vaz Avelar Carvalho, Débora Machado Fracalossi, Vinícius Ronzani Cerqueira
      Pages: 5111 - 5121
      Abstract: The limited availability of live bait for capturing skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a bottleneck to increasing tuna production in many parts of the world. Therefore, a nutrition trial was performed to contribute to the production of the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis, for use as live bait. This study determined the best dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO:L) for juvenile Brazilian sardines based on growth performance, feed utilisation, body composition, blood metabolites and digestive enzyme activity. Six isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with increased CHO:L ratios (2.05, 3.41, 4.15, 5.11, 5.80 and 6.72). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 100 fish with mean initial body weight of 2.97 ± 0.51 g, which were fed four times a day to apparent satiation. Survival was not affected by differences in diet, however, a low CHO:L ratio stimulated growth. Juveniles fed with a rich-carbohydrate diet inhibit feed intake and protein intake. Body lipid increased as dietary lipid increased and was inversely correlated to body moisture. The diets did not affect the juvenile's blood metabolites. Alkaline and acid protease activities were not significantly different, but lipase and amylase responded positively to the dietary lipids and carbohydrates. Using segmented regression, the optimum CHO:L ratio for maximum weight gain of juvenile Brazilian sardines was estimated to be 3.41, which contain approximately 300 g kg−1 carbohydrate and 88 g kg−1 lipid.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T05:26:44.225809-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13330
       
  • Simulated hydrodynamic qualities of a virtually coated Raschel net
           fragment related to biofouling
    • Authors: Christof Baum; Peter Rohde, Lars Friedrichs, Stefan Carl, Ludger Kalmer, Torsten Bendig
      Pages: 5159 - 5165
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:08:12.195078-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13214
       
  • Response to strict within-family selection with special reference to
           aquaculture
    • Authors: Hugo H Montaldo; Héctor Castillo-Juárez
      Pages: 5175 - 5178
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T02:21:41.023323-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13251
       
  • Effects of low dietary fish meal on the volatile compounds in muscle of
           large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea
    • Authors: Hua Mu; Zehong Wei, Lina Yi, Jikang Shentu, Wenbing Zhang, Kangsen Mai
      Pages: 5179 - 5191
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T06:08:36.719258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13265
       
 
 
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