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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Research
  [SJR: 0.807]   [H-I: 60]   [31 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-557X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2109
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Dietary fishmeal levels affect the volatile compounds in cooked muscle of
           farmed large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea
    • Authors: Hua Mu; Zehong Wei, Lina Yi, Haiou Liang, Limei Zhao, Wenbing Zhang, Kangsen Mai
      Abstract: A comparative study on the volatile compounds in cooked muscle of wild and farmed large yellow croaker (LYC) was conducted. The two farmed LYC groups were fed with diets containing 44% (CF) and 25% (LF) of fish meal (FM) respectively. Results showed that 48 volatiles, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons, aromatics, acids, esters, furans and miscellaneous compound, were detected in cooked fillets. The LF group had significantly lower amounts of total aldehydes and ketones, higher content of miscellaneous compound in cooked fillets than that in the CF and wild groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T23:22:43.336946-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13405
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone gene of Oreochromis
           niloticus and their association with growth performance
    • Authors: Suhaila Karim Khalil Jaser; Marco Aurélio Dessimoni Dias, Aline de Assis Lago, Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto, Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf
      Abstract: Polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) gene that is associated with the growth rate of farmed fish have been the target of many breeding programmes. The present study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GH gene regions to evaluate the association of SNP variations with the growth rate of two Nile tilapia: Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) strains. The targeted regions were amplified, sequenced, aligned and screened for the presence of SNPs; thereafter, performance tests were used to check for the association between SNPs and weight. Allele and genotype frequencies were estimated for each SNP and genotype. Genotype blocks or sets of SNP genotypes and frequencies were also estimated. Association between SNPs and growth rate was statistically evaluated using a univariate linear mixed model that included both fixed and random effects. A total of 10 SNPs were identified, nine in the proximal promoter and one located in the 5′ UTR, forming 10 genotype blocks. In all weight recordings, five genotype blocks were significantly associated with the highest weights. Single nucleotide polymorphisms 6-10 were also found to be significantly associated with growth (p-value 
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T01:25:37.150139-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13406
       
  • Effect of starvation on the performance of baby octopus (Robsonella
           fontaniana) paralarvae
    • Authors: Viviana Espinoza; Maria T. Viana, Carlos Rosas, Iker Uriarte, Ana Farías
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short- and long-term starvation on paralarvae from hatching and compare to fed paralarvae. In the continuous starvation treatments, paralarvae at hatching were left without food as independent treatments for 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 15 days. In the fed treatments, the newly hatched paralarvae were fed for five and eight days; then each group was left in starvation as independent treatments for 3, 5 and 7 days. After any experimental starvation period, the paralarvae were fed for five more days to evaluate their recovery. Paralarvae exposed to continuous starvation from hatching endured up to 8 days after hatching (8 SDAH) showing significant recovery. Its survival decreased proportionally to the days of starvation, without any recovery after 12 DAH. Fed paralarvae (5 and 8 FDAH), resulted in significant differences accordingly to the length of the starvation period. Paralarvae left under permanent starvation showed a noticeable decrease in their arm/mantle length ratio and an atrophy of the digestive gland was observed. Amino acids were used primarily as energy source by paralarvae, particularly in the second week of starvation. It is discussed the critical age to avoid deleterious effects of starvation on paralarvae.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:24:14.420789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13387
       
  • Effects of replacing fish oil with canola oil on the growth performance,
           fatty acid composition and metabolic enzyme activity of juvenile
           yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)
    • Authors: Haruhisa Fukada; Etsunori Taniguchi, Katsuji Morioka, Toshiro Masumoto
      Abstract: In this study, fish oil (FO) was replaced with canola oil (CO) in juvenile yellowtail diets to establish the optimal replacement levels that ensure adequate feed quality for aquaculture. Juvenile yellowtails (initial body weight: 104.7 g) were fed one of four diets for 10 weeks: 100% FO (FO group) or FO replacement with 25%, 50% or 100% CO (CO25, CO50 and CO100 groups respectively). Body weight, specific growth rate and feed efficiency were significantly affected by the replacement of FO with CO. The final body weight of the CO100 group was significantly lower than that of the FO (control) and CO50 groups. Furthermore, the CO50 group showed significantly higher feed efficiency than the FO group during the first 4 weeks (long photoperiod and high water temperature conditions). Increasing dietary CO increased serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Regarding the proximate composition of fillet and liver, only crude protein in fillet was affected by the replacement of FO with CO. Fatty acid compositions of fillet and liver were correlated to the amount of CO in each diet. The activities of the metabolic enzymes phosphofructokinase and alanine aminotransferase were lowest in the CO25 and CO50 groups respectively. Thus, FO replacement with CO affected growth performance, serum components, fatty acid composition and the activity of metabolic enzymes. Overall, results obtained in the present study suggest that partial replacement (50%) of FO with CO is effective and might increase juvenile yellowtail growth under long photoperiod and/or high water temperature conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T01:55:40.580089-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13416
       
  • Effects of linalool on physiological responses of Cyprinus carpio
           (Linnaeus, 1758) and water physico-chemical parameters during
           transportation
    • Authors: Mohammad Mazandarani; Seyyed Morteza Hoseini, Meisam Dehghani Ghomshani
      Abstract: This study investigated the potential of linalool as an anaesthetic during transportation of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The fish were transported at a loading density of ~103 g/L for 3 hr in 12 plastic bags (3 L water and 6 L pure oxygen) divided into four triplicated treatments: control (without linalool), L50 (50 mg linalool/L), L100 (100 mg linalool/L) and L200 (200 mg linalool/L). After 3-hr transportation, serum physiological responses and water physico-chemical parameters were compared among the treatments. Results showed that water total and un-ionized ammonia increased and dissolved oxygen decreased in all treatments after transportation. Water total ammonia and dissolved oxygen levels in the linalool-treated bags were significantly lower than the control. After transportation, the control fish showed significant elevation in serum cortisol and glucose levels; however, the levels were significantly lower than the linalool-treated fish. All fish showed similar serum lactate levels, significantly lower than the value obtained before transportation. The control fish showed serum urea levels similar to the level obtained before transportation; however, the linalool-treated fish had significantly higher serum urea levels compared to the control and before transportation levels. After transportation, all fish had decreased serum chloride and sodium levels compared to the before transport level. Overall, the present results showed that linalool is not beneficial for carp transportation in plastic bags, because it reacts with water oxygen, increases stress in fish, interferes with ammonia excretion and has no benefits in preventing ion loss.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T23:45:20.538013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13400
       
  • Effects of biofloc technology on reproduction and ovarian recrudescence in
           Nile tilapia
    • Authors: Érika Ramos de Alvarenga; Suellen Cristina Moreira de Sales, Túlio Soares de Brito, Cláudia Regina Santos, Rebeca Dias Serafim Corrêa, Gabriel Francisco Oliveira Alves, Ludson Guimarães Manduca, Eduardo Maldonado Turra
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive cycle, morphological changes of ovary and mobilization of energy reserves in Nile tilapia reared with biofloc technology (BFT). In general, the growth and reproductive performance were highly similar between BFT and Control system (clear water). Difference between the systems was found in the hepatosomatic index (using mixed-effects models), which suggested that BFT can alter the energy mobilization in the post-spawning period. The absolute and relative fecundity, fertilization rate, number of larvae produced per female, gonadosomatic index, proportion of oogenesis cells, number of post-ovulatory and atretic follicles were similar between the two systems. We also did not detect a reduction in the reproductive cycle length in Nile tilapia reared in BFT. Because there was no evidence of the negative effects of BFT on Nile tilapia reproduction, we concluded that BFT might be used for breeder stocking of this species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T23:40:26.631127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13420
       
  • Immunostimulatory effects of dietary poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in
           European sea bass postlarvae
    • Authors: Andrea Franke; Catriona Clemmesen, Peter De Schryver, Linsey Garcia-Gonzalez, Joanna J. Miest, Olivia Roth
      Abstract: The stable production of high-quality fry in marine aquaculture is still hampered by unpredictable mortality caused by infectious diseases during larval rearing. Consequently, the development of new biocontrol agents is crucial for a viable aquaculture industry. The bacterial energy storage compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has been shown to exhibit beneficial properties on aquatic organisms such as enhanced survival, growth, disease resistance and a controlling effect on the gastrointestinal microbiota. However, the effect of PHB on the developing immune system of fish larvae has so far not been investigated. In this study, the effect of feeding PHB-enriched Artemia nauplii on survival, growth and immune response in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) postlarvae was examined. Amorphous PHB was administered to 28-day-old sea bass postlarvae over a period of 10 days. The survival and growth performance were monitored, and the expression of 29 genes involved in immunity, growth, metabolism and stress-response was measured. While the expression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1), an indicator of relative growth, was upregulated in response to feeding PHB, the larval survival and growth performance remained unaffected. After 10 days of PHB treatment, the expression of the antimicrobial peptides dicentracin (dic) and hepcidin (hep) as well as mhc class IIa and mhc class IIb was elevated in the PHB fed postlarvae. This indicates that PHB is capable of stimulating the immune system of fish early life stages, which may be the cause of the increased resistance to diseases and robustness observed in previous studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:40:25.647988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13393
       
  • Laboratory and field investigations on the effect of scheduled meal
           timings on growth performance and nutrient retention in an Indian major
           carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham) fingerlings: Effect on nitrogen retention
           and excretion of metabolites
    • Authors: Sudhir Krishan Garg; Alok Kalla
      Abstract: To investigate the effect of scheduled meal timings on growth performance in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions and the fish were submitted to schedule meal timings (at 08:00, 12:00,16:00, 20:00, 00:00 and 04:00). A control on continuous feeding was also maintained. ANOVA had revealed a significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:40:21.130467-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13417
       
  • Response of berried prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to commercial
           probiotics
    • Authors: Devkusum Barua; Jewel Das, Istiaq Ahmad Chowdhury, Md Sohrab Hossain, Hiranmoy Bhattacharjee, M Zahedur Rahman Chowdhury, Nani Gopal Das, S M Sharifuzzaman
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:43.768573-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13419
       
  • Quantitative trait locus mapping of growth-related traits in
           inter-specific F1 hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E.
           lanceolatus) in a tropical climate
    • Authors: Satoshi Kubota; Amphai Longloy, Arkom Singhabun, Wanpen Khammee, Kanonkporn Kessuwan, Paiboon Bunlipatanon, Akiyuki Ozaki, Kom Silapajarn, Varin Tanasomwang, Nobuaki Okamoto, Takashi Sakamoto
      Abstract: Growth-related traits are the main target of genetic breeding programmes in grouper aquaculture. We constructed genetic linkage maps for tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) using 399 simple sequence repeat markers and performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to identify the genomic regions responsible for growth-related traits in F1 hybrid grouper (E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus). The tiger grouper (female) linkage map contained 330 markers assigned to 24 linkage groups (LGs) and spanned 1,202.0 cM. The giant grouper (male) linkage map contained 231 markers distributed in 24 LGs and spanned 953.7 cM. Six QTLs affecting growth-related traits with 5% genome-wide significance were detected on different LGs. Four QTLs were identified for total length and body weight on Efu_LG8, 10, 13 and 19 on the tiger grouper map, which explained 6.6%–12.0% of the phenotypic variance. An epistatic QTL with a reciprocal association was observed between Efu_LG8 and 10. Two QTLs were identified for body weight on Ela_LG3 and 10 on the giant grouper map, which explained 6.9% of the phenotypic variance. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that the QTL on Efu_LG13 interacts with the QTLs on Ela_LG3 and 10 with large effects on body weight. Furthermore, these six QTLs showed different features among the winter, summer and rainy seasons, suggesting that environmental factors and fish age affected these QTLs. These findings will be useful to understand the genetic structure of growth and conduct genetic breeding in grouper species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:40.319132-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13415
       
  • Influence of nanochitosan/zeolite composite on growth performance,
           digestive enzymes and serum biochemical parameters in rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: Najmeh Sheikhzadeh; Mobina Kouchaki, Mobina Mehregan, Hossein Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Baharak Divband, Masoomeh Khataminan, Ali Khani Oushani, Sadigheh Shabanzadeh
      Abstract: Protective effects of nanochitosan/zeolite composite besides zeolite and chitosan/zeolite composite on rainbow trout growth, digestive enzyme activities and biochemical parameters were studied. Nanochitosan/zeolite hybrid composites with three different ratio of nanochitosan:zeolite (35:100, 3.5:100 and 0.35:100) were synthesized and analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal gravim (TG) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods. Prepared composites as well as zeolite and control diets were fed to rainbow trout (50 g) for a period of 60 days. The addition of treated diets significantly improved growth performance compared to the control diet. Supplemental zeolite could only enhance the amylase activity in fish intestine, whereas other treatment groups could increase the pepsin activity besides intestinal alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and amylase activities. No differences were observed for intestinal acid phosphatase and lipase activities among the experimental diets. Meanwhile, serum total antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation product, indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), significantly increased and decreased, respectively, with some doses of administration, indicating the elevated antioxidant status in treatment groups. Serum-specific marker enzymes, namely aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were not affected in all groups. Meanwhile serum total protein in most treatment groups was significantly higher than the control group. Results showed that synthesized composites especially nanochitosan/zeolite composite at 5 g/kg had potential to enhance growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and some biochemical parameters in rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T02:05:23.456358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13418
       
  • Gonadal reproductive and metabolic proteins of male abalone Haliotis
           laevigata (Donovan, 1808) assessed by targeted mass spectrometry after
           artificial induction of spawning
    • Authors: Omar Mendoza-Porras; James O Harris, Gene Wijffels, Antonio Reverter, Mathew T Cook, Natasha A Botwright, Michelle L Colgrave
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T02:00:28.305265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13413
       
  • Assessment of benthic biological indicators for evaluating the
           environmental impact of tuna farming
    • Authors: Marija Mangion; Joseph A Borg, Patrick J Schembri, Pablo Sanchez-Jerez
      Abstract: The overall impact of tuna farming on soft-bottom habitat was assessed at three tuna farms over a period of 3 years, using benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators. Polychaetes and amphipods served as better indicators of the impact of tuna farming compared with molluscs and decapods. Lower number and Shannon–Wiener diversity of polychaete and amphipod taxa were recorded over time at the impacted plots compared with the control plots, while the polychaete/amphipod index indicated that the Ecological Quality Status at the impacted plots changed from “Poor”/”Moderate” to “Good” during the study period. Results of the multivariate analyses indicated significantly higher dispersion of samples of the polychaete and amphipod assemblages over time at the impacted plots compared with the control plots, indicative of stressed assemblages. Differences in the macroinvertebrate assemblages between impacted and control plots were consistent across faunal groups except for molluscs, which showed no response. Results must be interpreted with caution due to the high spatiotemporal variation in the influence of tuna farming on the macroinvertebrate assemblages, which highlights the importance of including multiple impacted and reference areas, as well as replicate sampling times, in assessing the environmental impact of tuna farms.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T00:00:27.619348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13403
       
  • Isolation of alginate lyase-producing bacteria and screening for their
           potential characteristics as abalone probionts.
    • Authors: Muhamad Amin; Christopher C J Bolch, Mark B Adams, Christopher M Burke
      Abstract: This study is aimed at the isolation and screening of alginate lyase-producing bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of hybrid abalone, Haliotis rubra x H. laevigata, as probiotic candidates. Six bacterial isolates were detected to produce alginate lyase. Of these, the isolate with the highest alginate-lyase activity was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii strain EN-119, displaying 99% similarity of 16S rDNA sequence. Further assays indicated that E. ludwigii showed good viability and stability when it was incorporated into manufactured pellets and stored at 4°C for 7 days. The isolate also had high tolerance of high salinity (35 mg/L), low pH in simulated stomach juice (5) and to simulated intestinal juice containing surfactants such as bile salts and gastric enzymes (pepsin and trypsin). Additionally, a short, preliminary study indicated that supplementation of E. ludwigii via manufactured pellets improved the total weight gain and specific growth rate of hybrid abalone. These results suggest that E. ludwigii is a potential probiont for shortening the culture period of hybrid abalone.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T23:55:30.686676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13383
       
  • Histological alterations in gills of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in
           low-salinity waters under different stocking densities: Potential
           relationship with nitrogen compounds
    • Authors: Marcela G. Fregoso-López; María S. Morales-Covarrubias, Miguel A Franco-Nava, Javier Ramírez-Rochín, Juan F Fierro-Sañudo, Jesús T Ponce-Palafox, Federico Páez-Osuna
      Abstract: Two experimental modules with different stocking densities (M1 = 70 and M2 = 120 shrimp /m2) were examined weekly over a culture cycle in tanks with low-salinity water (1.9 g/L) and zero water exchange. Results showed survival rates of 87.7 and 11.9% in M1 and M2, respectively. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and chlorophyll a were not significantly (p > .05) different between modules. In contrast, the concentrations of nitrogen compounds were significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T23:50:43.373423-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13408
       
  • Growth, development and behaviour of Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus
           larvae in different light regimes
    • Authors: Bahram Falahatkar; Samaneh Poursaeid, Iraj Efatpanah, Bahman Meknatkhah
      Abstract: The effects of five different light regimes on growth performance and behaviour of Persian Sturgeon larvae were examined. Larvae were reared under five different photoperiods (24L, 12L:12D, 16L:8D, 8L:16L and 24D), from hatching (25.8 ± 8.1 mg; 12 ± 0.6 mm) to 28 days post-hatch (dph). Except the last week, there was no significant difference in growth parameters among the experimental groups. Growth performance significantly improved in larvae reared under a continuous light regime. The highest final length (34.5 ± 1.7 mm) was measured in 24L and the lowest one (29.5 ± 0.4 mm) in the constant darkness. Relative to other experimental groups, the continuous darkness had a retarding impact on the yolk sac absorption and swarming behaviour. Among the whole body compositions, the lowest body moisture content was measured in the continuous light group. Persian Sturgeon pre-larvae and larvae were not completely dependent on light regimes (in 1–21 days), whereas on the basis of measured parameters (total length, wet and dry weight and digestive fullness index) a continuous light regime played a decisive role on growth performance beyond 21 dph.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:32:10.792916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13404
       
  • Conditioning, maturation and year-round natural spawning of orange-spotted
           grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), in recirculating
           aquaculture system
    • Authors: Ritesh Ranjan; Sekar Megarajan, Biji Xavier, Biswajit Dash, Shubhadeep Ghosh, Muktha Menon, Loveson L Edward
      Abstract: The present experiment was aimed at studying the conditioning, maturation and natural spawning of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, in a recirculatory aquaculture system (RAS). Thirty fish (n = 30; 3.35 ± 0.05 kg) were stocked in a circular tank of 125 m3 capacity fitted with an RAS for conditioning and broodstock development. After 15 days, 15 fish were implanted with 17 α methyl testosterone and letrozole at the rate of 5 mg and 0.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for conversion from female to male. The gonadal development started after 1 month, and by 90th day, 63.53 ± 3.78% and 2.07 ± 0.84% of the oocytes attained a size of 400–500 μm and 500–600 μm respectively. Natural spawning commenced in the RAS from 4th month onward after stocking and spawning continued round the year. The spawning pair showed courtship behaviour with a typical vertical burst of swimming just before release of gametes. The total number of eggs spawned during 1 year was 47.23 million with spawning frequency varying form 5 to 13 times per month. The association of spawning events with new moon day (lunar cycle) weakened as time progressed. The mean monthly fertilization and hatching rates varied from 77.80 ± 3.34% to 83.70 ± 1.76% and 82.80 ± 4.21% to 88.33 ± 1.39% respectively. The study proved that RAS is an efficient system that provides a stable, controllable and conducive environment for year-round natural breeding of orange-spotted grouper.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:32:06.913447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13409
       
  • In vitro study of a putative role of gonad-inhibiting hormone in oocyte
           growth stimulation in Penaeus monodon
    • Authors: Ponsit Sathapondecha; Sakol Panyim, Apinunt Udomkit
      Abstract: Ovarian development in crustacean is controlled by several factors, among which a neuropeptide gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) is known to inhibit vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis in the ovary. It has been postulated that GIH may control Vg synthesis by inhibiting the release of gonad-stimulating factor (GSF) from brain and thoracic ganglia. To prove this hypothesis, this study was primarily aimed to investigate the influence of GIH on the release of GSF from thoracic ganglia of Penaeus monodon. Our result showed that GIH did not suppress the release of putative GSF from thoracic ganglia by calcium ionophore A23187 as the induction of oocyte growth in the ovary explants that were cocultured with thoracic ganglia in the presence of A23187 was not affected by the addition of recombinant GIH protein. In addition and interestingly, when the ovary explants were incubated with the recombinant GIH alone, the oocyte growth was increased at the rate comparable to that induced by A23187 in the presence of thoracic ganglia. Hence, our in vitro study demonstrated that the stimulation of GSF released from thoracic ganglia is independent of GIH, and that the GIH has a dual function in oocyte growth stimulation and inhibition of Vg synthesis in the early stage of ovarian development. This expands our knowledge on the regulation of ovarian development in shrimp by GIH. Further in vivo studies in this novel aspect of GIH function will be useful for the improvement of shrimp ovarian maturation in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:25:34.542601-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13407
       
  • Effects of feeding frequency on the enzymes and genes involved in
           oxidative stress in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco
           (Richardson) exposed to ammonia
    • Authors: Xiwei Fan; Ming Li, Lixia Yuan, Hang Lai, Meize Song, Rixin Wang, Rongquan Zheng
      Abstract: Optimal feeding strategies improve fish growth and health but may be affected by ammonia stress in closed rearing systems such as tanks or ponds. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency and ammonia levels in rearing water on the enzymes and genes involved in oxidative stress of yellow catfish. Experiment (ammonia exposure) and control groups were randomly assigned to one of three feeding frequencies (1, 2 and 4 times daily) for 8 weeks. Weight gain increased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily, but feed conversion ratio values decreased. The highest survival in ammonia group was found when fish was fed 2 times daily. Glutathione peroxidase activity and total antioxidant capacity in liver and brain of fish exposed to ammonia increased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily. Liver malondialdehyde content in control group decreased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily. The lowest liver malondialdehyde content in ammonia group was observed when fish was fed 2 times daily. Liver mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in control group increased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times daily, but the highest superoxide dismutase and catalase expression in ammonia group were observed when fish were fed 2 times daily. This study indicates that higher feeding frequency of yellow catfish exposed to ammonia could result in oxidative stress and poor survival. The optimal feeding frequency of yellow catfish exposed to ammonia is 2 times daily.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:20:25.057502-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13410
       
  • Effects of dietary linolenic acid on growth, fatty acid composition,
           immune function and antioxidant status of juvenile blunt snout bream,
           Megalobrama amblycephala
    • Authors: Wuxiao Zhang; Shengming Sun, Xianping Ge, Silei Xia, Jian Zhu, Linghong Miao, Yan Lin, Hualiang Liang
      Abstract: A nine-week feeding trial was performed to determine the dietary linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n–3) requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream. Six iso-nitrogenous, semi-purified diets were prepared with different concentrations of LNA (0–25 g/kg). Dietary LNA had no significant effects on survival rate. However, final fish weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) increased with increasing dietary LNA concentrations up to 20 g/kg. Dietary LNA increased muscle LNA and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents, but decreased total saturated fatty acid content. Fish fed 20 g/kg LNA had the highest plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein, albumin and white blood cell count levels. Additionally, fish fed 20 g/kg LNA had higher triglyceride levels than control fish. Plasma glucose increased with increasing dietary LNA concentrations. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities significantly increased with increasing dietary LNA concentrations up to 15 g/kg. Based on SGR and FER, the optimal dietary LNA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were 17.5 and 15.6 g/kg respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:15:25.766864-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13358
       
  • Genetic diversity of nitrate reducing bacteria in marine and brackish
           water nitrifying bacterial consortia generated for activating nitrifying
           bioreactors in recirculating aquaculture systems
    • Authors: Prasannan Geetha Preena; Nedumattathil James Manju, Velachery Deepesh, Ammu Thomas, Isaac Sarojini Bright Singh
      Abstract: Nitrate reducing potency of 88 bacterial isolates segregated from marine and brackish water nitrifying bacterial consortia (NBC), generated for activation of nitrifying bioreactors, was confirmed by determining the nitrate reducing capability under aerobic conditions as maintained in nitrifying bioreactors. All the isolates had the potential to be used as bio-augmentors for activating nitrate dissimilation in recirculating aquaculture system. The existence of nitrate reducers with nitrifiers in NBC and in the reactor configuration negates the requirement of integrating anoxic denitrifying system for effective removal of NO3−-N. Phylogenetic analyses of representative isolates from each cluster of the dendrograms generated based on phenotypic characterization and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed profound diversity of nitrate reducing bacterial flora in the NBC. They were composed of Streptomyces enissocaesilis, Marinobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Microbacterium oxydans, Pelagibacterium halotolerans and Alcanivorax dieselolei from marine NBC and Streptomyces tendae, Nesterenkonia sp., Bacillus cereus, Microbacterium oxydans and Brevibacterium sp. from brackish water NBC. The diversity indices of the consortia were calculated using Mega 5.0, primer 7 and VITCOMIC softwares. Marine NBC exhibited higher Shannon wiener diversity and mean population diversity than brackish water NBC. The study delineated higher species richness and diversity in marine NBC than in its brackish water counterpart, a possible reflection of the higher biodiversity of marine systems, and hence, the former is more promising to be used as start-up cultures for the activation of nitrifying bioreactors after appropriate acclimatization to the desired salinity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T01:55:29.560462-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13396
       
  • A comparative histological study on early thyroid gland development in
           Acipenser stellatus and A. gueldenstaedtii larvae in hatchery
    • Authors: Tulay Akayli; Devrim Memiş, Erol Rustu Bozkurt
      Abstract: The thyroid is an endocrine gland, with an important role in fish growth, development and adaptation of larvae. The aim of this study was to describe the development of the thyroid gland and to determine the initial functional activity of thyroid gland and hormones in Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and A. stellatus larvae using immunohistochemistry. For this aim, fertilized eggs of two species were reared in a hatchery and larval samples were collected daily for 20 days post hatching (dph). For immunostaining, rabbit polyclonal primary antibodies for thyroglobulin and mouse monoclonal antibodies for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) were used. In histological analyses, it was observed that the first development of the thyroid gland in stellate sturgeon larvae occurs on the 3–4 dph and on the 4–5 dph in Russian sturgeon larvae in the ventral pharyngeal region of the fish. In the immunostaining analyses of 12-day-old stellate larvae and 19-day-old Russian sturgeon larvae, the thyroid follicles showed dispersion in great numbers around the aorta, and also it was observed that they were stained positively with antithyroglobulin staining, but the same sections gave negative results with TTF-1 staining. Also melanomacrophage centres, which are generally found in the haemopoietic tissues in some cases, were first observed around the thyroid follicles of sturgeon larvae. The results of this study revealed a similarity in the early thyroid gland development between two sturgeon species but using immunostaining methods, it was described that A. stellatus shows a faster functional development and earlier hormone production than A. gueldenstaedtii.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T04:17:55.634985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13374
       
  • Carbohydrate and amino acids metabolic response to heat stress in the
           intestine of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus
    • Authors: Dongxue Xu; Shun Zhou, Hongsheng Yang
      Abstract: The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is an economic species mainly distributed along the coast of northern China, south-eastern Russia, Japan, Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Aquaculture industry of A. japonicus has been facing severe challenge of high temperature. In this study, we studied the mRNA expression profiles of eight key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism in A. japonicus under heat stress. The expression of hexokinase, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase showed downregulated response to heat stress, while the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine transaminase and branched-chain aminotransferase showed upregulated response. In addition, the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase showed no significant difference. We also applied 1H NMR-based metabolomics to investigate metabolic changes in the intestine tissue of A. japonicus under heat stress, the results of which revealed nine increased and 10 decreased metabolites in the heat stress group. These response genes and metabolites have potential to become markers for identifying severity of heat stress. More importantly, our findings suggest significant links between gene expression and metabolites changing, highlighting regulation networks of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism in heat-stressed A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T05:55:30.572436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13411
       
  • Phenotypic and genetic parameters for body traits in the giant freshwater
           prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in India
    • Authors: Bindu R. Pillai; Pa Luan Lalrinsanga, Raul W. Ponzoni, Hooi Ling Khaw, Kanta Das Mahapatra, Swagatika Mohanty, Gunamaya Patra, Namita Naik, Haramohan Pradhan, Pallipuram Jayasankar
      Abstract: Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated for three body traits (harvest weight, carapace length and standard length) and for adult male morphotypes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a fully pedigreed synthetic population in India. The data set included 9,173 progeny produced over four generations from 162 sires and 234 dams. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated fitting an animal model using the residual maximum-likelihood methodology. The heritabilities for harvest body weight (HW), carapace length (CL) and standard length (SL) were moderate (0.22 ± 0.056, 0.22 ± 0.055 and 0.25 ± 0.059 respectively). The common environmental effects for HW, CL and SL were 0.10 ± 0.020, 0.08 ± 0.018 and 0.10 ± 0.021 respectively. As M. rosenbergii is sexually dimorphic, we estimated heritabilities within each sex. Heritability of HW in females (0.27 ± 0.068) was greater than that in males (0.15 ± 0.057). CL and SL followed the same pattern. The occurrence of male morphotypes is a unique characteristic of adult populations of M. rosenbergii. Populations from culture ponds exhibit a wide range of sizes. To examine whether there was a heritable component in male morphotype frequencies, we treated male morphotypes as traits. The additive genetic variance (and hence the heritability) was zero for male morphotype, indicating that selective breeding to increase the proportion of desirable male morphotypes would not be effective. The genetic correlations among body traits were all positive, high and approaching unity. The results are discussed in relation to selection plans for the giant freshwater prawn.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T02:00:27.949498-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13397
       
  • Plasma proteins, hepatic enzymes, thyroid hormones and liver
           histopathology of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to an oxadiazin
           pesticide, indoxacarb
    • Authors: Melika Ghelichpour; Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Hamidreza Joshaghani, Hoseinali Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi
      Abstract: Indoxacarb is a relatively new pesticide from oxadiazin class, which is used near carp ponds for agricultural purposes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine indoxacarb effects on common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75, 1.5 and 3 ppm of indoxacarb over 21 days and plasma biochemical characteristics and liver histopathology were examined. Exposure to indoxacarb induced fall in total protein after 21 days. Globulin increased after 7 days and then decreased after 14- and 21-day exposure. Plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities increased in 1.5 and 3 ppm treatments after 7-day exposure. Indoxacarb exposure significantly decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase after 7 days with no change at the second and third samplings. After 7 days, plasma T3 levels had no significant change; however, it decreased after 14 days in the 1.5 and 3 ppm treatments and also reduced after 21-day exposure to the 3 ppm treatment compared to the control group. Plasma T4 level only decreased significantly in the 3 ppm treatment compared to the control group after 21 days. Different histopathological symptoms such as necrosis, hyperaemia, sinusoidal space extension, pyknotic nuclei, leucocyte infiltration and melanomacrophage aggregates were observed after 21-day exposure to indoxacarb. The symptoms intensity was dependent on indoxacarb concentration. In conclusion, the present results show that indoxacarb exposure adversely affects common carp health and welfare, which consequently may induce serious problems in this species aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T01:55:30.62635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13390
       
  • Tagging juvenile European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) with
           passive integrated transponders—Impact of fish size on growth
           performance and tag retention
    • Authors: Zdzisław Zakęś; Krzysztof Wunderlich, Mirosław Szczepkowski, Maciej Rożyński
      Abstract: The study examined the effect of PIT tagging and size on the growth, survival, food conversion, tag retention and wound healing in juvenile European whitefish. Three size classes of juvenile whitefish (class S—body weight (b.w.) approx. 4.0 g; class M—b.w. approx. 8.0 g; class L—b.w. approx. 13.6 g) were tagged with PIT implanted intraperitoneally (TROVAN®, United Kingdom). These groups formed S-P, M-P and L-P respectively. Fish from the control groups (groups S-C, M-C and L-C) were not tagged. Whitefish from the tagged and control groups were reared for 28 days in recirculating aquaculture systems. Only in the fish from the smallest group (group S-P) was tagging confirmed to have a negative impact on growth rate and survival, which, after 28 days, was 70% in comparison with 94.4% in group S-C. The rate of wound healing in all whitefish groups was similar. After 28 days following PIT implantation, all wounds were healed. Short-term PIT retention (28 days) for all the groups was> 90%, and no differences were noted among groups. In summary, it is recommended that whitefish be PIT-tagged using the intraperitoneal method after they have attained a body weight> 8 g. Tagging smaller specimens of this species leads to higher mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T01:50:28.595578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13402
       
  • Impacts of diet on hindgut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in grass
           carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
    • Authors: Yao Tong Hao; Shan Gong Wu, Ivan Jakovlić, Hong Zou, Wen Xiang Li, Gui Tang Wang
      Abstract: Diet is known to influence intestinal microbiota in fish, but the specifics of these impacts are still poorly understood. Different protein/fibre ratio diets may result in differing structures and activities of gut microbiota. We examined the hindgut microbiome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fed three different diets: fish meal (FM, high protein – low fibre), Sudan grass (SG, high fibre – low protein) and compound feed (CF, intermediate). Microbial profiles of fish fed on FM were significantly different from profiles of fish fed CF and SG (F = 18.85, p CF>SG). Overall low SCFA levels indicate that hindgut fermentation probably provides a low proportion of energy requirements in grass carp.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T06:40:25.390989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13381
       
  • Digestibility, growth and pigmentation of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin or
           lutein diets in Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish, Melanotaenia parva (Allen)
           cultured species
    • Authors: Nina Meilisza; Dedi Jusadi, Muhammad Zairin, I Made Artika, Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo, Tutik Kadarini, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi
      Abstract: New cultured ornamental fish namely Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish Melanotaenia parva (Allen) run into reduced of colour performances when reared in the aquaria, consequently, fish feed must be added with carotenoids as a pigment source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility, growth and pigmentation of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and lutein in diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, lipid, protein, carotenoids, growth and pigmentation were studied in twenty fish after 14 and 56 days of observation. The single-dose supplementation of 100 mg/kg of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, or lutein diets on fish was fed by apparent satiation. The basal diet without carotenoids was used as control. The result showed that the ADC of carotenoids of test diets was higher compared to control. Fish fed astaxanthin diet had higher survival rate (96.67 ± 2.89%), colour measurements of lightness (57.60 ± 7.46%), a*-values (4.66 ± 1.20), total carotenoids content in skin (33.75 ± 5.02 mg/kg) and muscle (2.16 ± 0.74 mg/kg). Astaxanthin also increased the growth after 14 days (2.00% ± 0.19%/days) but there was no significantly different at the end of experiment. The yellowish-orange colour performance was more rapidly achieved by fish fed astaxanthin diet after 28 days experimentation. These values suggested that dietary carotenoids were required and astaxanthin diet was superior to other diets for skin pigmentation of Lake Kurumoi rainbowfish.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T06:35:25.245966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13372
       
  • The effect of water oxygen saturation on growth and haematological profile
           of juvenile peled Coregonus peled (Gmelin)
    • Authors: Jan Matousek; Marketa Prokesova, Katsiaryna Novikava, Roman Sebesta, Eliska Zuskova, Vlastimil Stejskal
      Abstract: The effect of varying oxygen saturation regimes on growth and haematological profiles of peled Coregonus peled was investigated on fish of initial age 90 days post hatching. Eighty-five juveniles per group (initial body weight 3.09 ± 0.80 g) were submitted to a 63-day experiment with one of four water saturation regimes: normoxia (NORm, 80%–90%), hypoxia (HYPo, 50%–60%), hyperoxia (HYPe, 150%–160%) and intermittent hyperoxia (iHYPe, 150%–160% - 80%–90%). Survival rate in NORm, HYPe and iHYPe ranged from 96.3 ± 2.1% to 97.7 ± 2.7, but survival 87.5 ± 3.0 was significantly lower in the HYPo group. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratio. The highest final body weight of 18.2 ± 4.6 g and a specific growth rate of 2.81 ± 0.01%/day were seen in the NORm group. Significant differences were found in haemoglobin concentration with increased saturation. The fish had lower haemoglobin 55.00 ± 5.72 and 51.35 ± 10.89 g/L in treatments HYPe, iHYPe with compared to the normoxia (64.22 ± 5.78 g/L). Haematocrit was similar in the groups HYPo, NORm and iHYPe (0.55 ± 0.04, 0.58 ± 0.05 and 0.54 ± 0.09) with the exception of HYPe, which was significantly lower (0.48 ± 0.06). Significantly lower count of erythrocyte was observed in iHYPe group (0.88 ± 0.20) with compared to the normoxia (1.06 ± 0.13). The supersaturation level was not associated with effects on growth and survival, and adding oxygen is not recommended for intensive rearing of peled. The results showed normoxia oxygen level to be the most suitable conditions for peled.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:45:25.553936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13356
       
  • Cloning and characterization of fatty acid transport proteins in Japanese
           seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, and their gene expressions in response to
           dietary arachidonic acid
    • Authors: Houguo Xu; Yuanqin Zhang, Chengqiang Wang, Yuliang Wei, Keke Zheng, Mengqing Liang
      Abstract: In this study, putative cDNA of three fatty acid transport protein (FATP) isoforms, that is FATP1, FATP4 and FATP6, was cloned and characterized from the liver of Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), and their expression in response to diets with different arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (0.05%, 0.22%, 0.37%, 0.60%, 1.38% and 2.32% of dry matter) was investigated through a feeding trial. Two subtypes of FATP1, that is FATP1a and FATP1b, were cloned for the first time. The Japanese seabass FATPs showed high identity to their orthologs in other fish species and mammals, but Japanese seabass FATP6 showed low identity to Japanese seabass FATP1 and FATP4. FATP1a gene was highly expressed in brain, liver and eye, whereas FATP1b had the highest gene expression in gill, followed by kidney, skin, eye, muscle and heart. FATP4 gene was primarily expressed in intestine, brain and eye. However, FATP6 had very low gene expression levels in almost all tissues. High levels of dietary ARA (0.60%~2.32%) enhanced the gene expressions of FATP1a and FATP4 in the intestine and the gene expression of FATP1a in the muscle, whereas the dietary ARA supplementation reduced the FATP1b mRNA expression in the liver. The gene expression of FATP1a, FATP4 and FATP6 in the liver, as well as the FATP4 gene expression in the muscle, was not significantly affected by dietary ARA levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the regulation of FATP gene expressions by dietary ARA.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:35:37.131836-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13395
       
  • Assessment of dietary taurine essentiality on the physiological state of
           juvenile Totoaba macdonaldi
    • Authors: Tony Budi Satriyo; Mario A. Galaviz, Guillaume Salze, Lus M. López
      Abstract: Information on specific nutrients like taurine is important to support a nutritionally balanced diet for marine species such as totoaba Totoaba macdonaldi under culture conditions. Eight isoproteic (50%) and isolipidic (12%) experimental diets were formulated to contain graded levels of taurine (0.23%, 0.45%, 0.91%, 1.28%, 1.76%, 2.20%, 2.72%, 3.01% as-is) using ethanol-washed fishmeal (FM) as primary protein source. Green liver, low gallbladder-somatic index (GBSI), low apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of lipid, low erythrocyte turnover, low plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as low visceral fat, were detected in the basal diet (T-0.23) after 10 weeks. Thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC) was best modelled by a five-parameter saturation kinetic model (5-SKM, p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:30:26.680067-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13391
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of partially characterized analytes from Bacillus
           pumilus(B2)
    • Authors: Sanghamitra Nayak; Chalor Limsuwan, Niti Chichurd, Kai-J. Kühlmann, Supranee Pungpang
      Abstract: This study was carried out to characterize the antimicrobial substance produced by the strain of Bacillus pumilus (B2) obtained from Novozymes Biologicals Inc. to compare its antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion assay and bacteriocin activity assay via critical dilution method against seven different strains of Vibrio spp., specifically V. alginolyticus (A01), V. cholerae (C01), V. fluvialis (F01, F02), V herveyii (H), V. mimicus (M01), V. parahaemolyticus (P01) and V. vulnificus (V01, V02). All Vibrio spp. were isolated from the hemolymph and intestine of the white faeces disease-infected moribund pacific white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) and one strain (V. harveyi) from its diseased postlarva. The cell-free neutralized supernatant (CFNS) of B2 showed moderate thermo-stability being stable up to 70°C for 60 min with, however, reducing activity above 80°C for 20 min. B2 antimicrobials showed a stable activity within the pH ranging from 6 to 10 at room temperature and at 4°C, while residual antimicrobial activity of crude CFNS showed tolerance to salinity up to 7% of sodium chloride below 4°C. No B2 activity was obtained while exposed to proteolytic enzyme, such as proteinase k and pepsin, while its activity kept stable exposed to lipase. Initial B2 characterization for antimicrobial substance in CFNS revealed proteinaceous in nature owing to activity loss against proteolytic enzymes and no lipid moiety activity against lipase, which could be categorized as bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance having potential application against several strains of Vibrio spp. in aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:25:23.649395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13382
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on the growth, activities
           of digestive and non-specific immune enzymes in hybrid grouper
           (Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀)
    • Authors: Rui-Peng He; Jie Feng, Xiang-Li Tian, Shuang-Lin Dong, Bin Wen
      Abstract: Effects of Bacillus cereus BC-01, Lactobacillus acidophilus LAG01, Clostridium butyricum CBG01 and their combinations as supplementation on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and serum non-specific immunity of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂×E. fuscoguttatus ♀) were assessed. Seven different diets, that is one control diet (basal feed without any probiotics, CT) and six treatment diets containing single B. cereus (Bs), L. acidophilus (Ls) and C. butyricum (Cs) at 1.0 × 109 cfu/kg feed, and also their combinations in equal proportion at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 × 109 cfu/kg feed (BLC1, BLC2 and BLC3) were prepared respectively. After 60-day feeding trial, the final weight, specific growth rate,food consumption, food conversion efficiency and apparent digestibility coefficient of fish in Ls and BLC3 were significantly higher compared with the control (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:20:29.058678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13401
       
  • Design and performance of a recirculating aquaculture system for oyster
           larval culture
    • Authors: Tianlong Qiu; Jianfei Qi, Jimeng Zheng, Ying Liu
      Abstract: The major objective of this study was to introduce a newly designed recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for oyster (Crassostrea angulata) larval culture. The system includes a culture tank, a suspended circular inlet-pipe, an upwelling aeration pipe, combined “banjo” sieves and a bioreactor chamber containing microalgae life keeping installation. The system was designed to resolve three problems: (i) stranding of larvae caused by water level changes and aeration, (ii) physical clogging of the screens and also (iii) deterioration of diet microalgae. The culture tank, “banjo” sieve size, water flow rate and light intensity for maintaining microalgae activity were all designed according to the pattern of larval movement and feeding behaviour. Results of this study showed the best average SGR for larval length was 6.36%/d (9.5 μm/d) and survival rate was 80%, with initial rearing density of 50 larvae/ml, indicating the problems above were fully resolved. Consequently, the system is fit for larval culture in mass production of oysters.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T00:50:30.362307-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13392
       
  • Practical diets with essential oils of plants activate the complement
           system and alter the intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia
    • Authors: Gustavo M. R. Valladão; Sílvia U. Gallani, Gabriela Pala, Raphael B. Jesus, Suzana Kotzent, Jaqueline C. Costa, Thiago F. A. Silva, Fabiana Pilarski
      Abstract: The effect of the essential oils (EOs) of peppermint, Mentha piperita L., and tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, on the haematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., was evaluated. Fish (58.09 ± 5.87 g) were fed 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of each EO and sampled on days 7, 14, 30 and 60 after starting supplementation. The haematological and biochemical parameters were not altered by the supplementation of EOs compared to the control (p > .05). With regard to the immunological parameters, the activation of the complement system of fish fed 250 mg/kg peppermint and 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg tea tree EOs were significantly higher compared to the control after 60 days of feeding (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T00:50:28.453977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13386
       
  • Productivity of Sargassum linearifolium in potassium fortified inland
           saline water under laboratory conditions
    • Authors: Ha Thi Thu Bui; Trong Quoc Luu, Ravi Fotedar, Uras Tantulo
      Abstract: Growing aquatic species in inland saline water (ISW) is one way to reduce the adverse impact of ISW to agriculture farms. This 84-day laboratory-trial was conducted to study the growth of Sargassum linearifolium cultured in ocean water (OW), ISW, ISW fortified with potassium equivalent to 100% (ISW100), 66% (ISW66) and 33% (ISW33) of potassium in OW at 35 g/L. The biomass and cumulative specific growth rate (SGR) of S. linearifolium increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:20:24.91932-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13385
       
  • Participation of lectins in crustacean immune system
    • Authors: Jose Luis Sánchez-Salgado; Mohamed Alí Pereyra, Concepción Agundis, Oscar Vivanco-Rojas, Claudia Sierra-Castillo, Juan José Alpuche-Osorno, Edgar Zenteno
      Abstract: Several lectins have been found in crustaceans, and it has been suggested that they play roles in cell signalling, cell–cell interaction, protein synthesis and pathogen recognition. These functions are performed through their specificity for carbohydrates. This review analyses the carbohydrate specificity, tissue distribution and participation in the immune responses of lectins in crustaceans. Furthermore, we explore some data showing that lectin expression seems to be stimulated by pathogens, favouring crustacean survival.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T01:20:46.746278-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13394
       
  • Determination and transferability of plasmid-mediated antibiotic
           resistance genes of the bacteria isolated from rainbow trout
    • Authors: Erol Capkin; Saliha Ozdemir, Rafet Cagri Ozturk, Ilhan Altinok
      Abstract: Antibiotic resistance and the presence of resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in the bacteria isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from different trout farms located in Turkey. The most frequent types of antibiotic resistance were towards β-lactams (cephalothin [70% of bacterial isolates], amoxicillin [63%], ampicillin [62%], ticarcillin [56%], aztreonam [51%]), macrolide [erythromycin, 68%] and sulphonamide [sulphamethoxazole, 51%]. Of bacterial isolates, 51% were multiple drug resistant (MDR), while 35% of the isolates were extensively drug resistant (XDR). None of isolates were pandrug resistant (PDR). The most common ARGs were ampC (36%) and sul1 (24%). The class 1 integron gene cassette was detected in 51% of the bacteria. There was a strong positive correlation between the antibiotic resistance rate and the presence of ARGs (r2 = .932). Gene encodes blaCTX-M1, one of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes, was first described in Aeromonas caviae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas luteola and Burkholderia cepacia. It was determined that 35% of the bacteria harboured at least one plasmid. Plasmid-mediated ARGs were identified to be tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD), sulphonamides (sul1, sul3) and β lactams (ampC, blapse). Thus, results suggest that ARG contamination situation deliberates resistance to tetracycline, aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol and sulphonamide. Therefore, the presence and activity of ARGs in fish and in environmental bacteria may play an important role in the spread of resistance genes among bacteria by transposition or integron gene cassettes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T01:12:29.881772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13378
       
  • Genetic and morphological divergences between wild and captive-bred
           populations of Salmo trutta abanticus
    • Authors: Murat Telli; Büşra Gürleyen
      Abstract: Salmo trutta abanticus is a non-anadromous trout species native to Lake Abant and Seven Lakes in Turkey. A restocking programme by captive breeding was initiated in 1999 to support S. trutta abanticus population. Reared 2-year-old juveniles from randomly caught wild parental individuals in Maçka breeding farm were introduced into Lake Abant. We aimed to compare genetic and morphological divergences between wild- and captive-bred populations using seven microsatellite loci and geometric morphometric measurements. A significant genetic and morphological divergences were detected between all population in Fst and canonical variate analysis based on geometric morphometric with 10 homolog landmark. Eighty-six microsatellites alleles were recorded across loci. Number of private alleles, observed alleles and observed heterozygosity are statistically significant higher in Maçka captive-bred population than Lake Abant and Seven Lakes populations. Of 42 tests, three departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were detected in all populations after Bonferroni correction. Two pairs of loci (Ssa85 – Str73 and Str73-Str543) in Maçka, one pairs of loci (Ssa85-Str73) in Abant and two pairs of loci (Ssa85-Str60 and Str73-Str543) in Seven Lakes populations show linkage disequilibrium. Population structure analysed with Structure software showed three genetic groups (∆K = 3) in our studied populations. Relatedness estimates show higher mean relatedness values (r = 0.220 ± 0.230) for Maçka captive-breed population than wild populations of Abant Lake and Seven Lakes (r = 0.140 ± 0.210 and r = 0.170 ± 0.200 respectively).
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T01:15:50.664161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13384
       
  • Induction of meiotic gynogenesis in bagrid catfish (Pseudobagrus
           ussuriensis) with homologous sperm and its confirmation for female
           homogamety
    • Authors: Zheng-Jun Pan; Chuan-Kun Zhu, Hui Wang, Guo-Liang Chang, Huai-Yu Ding, Xiao-Gang Qiang, Xiang-Sheng Yu
      Abstract: The bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus ussuriensis, exhibits significant sexual dimorphism in growth rate and body size with males growing faster than females. Therefore, an all-male culture can dramatically increase the output and profitability of fishery products. According to the monosex breeding route, super-male individuals’ acquirement by XY male sex reversal and artificial gynogenesis is the key step. An effective protocol to induce meiotic gynogenesis using homologous sperms has been developed in this study. The most effective UV irradiation for sperm genetic inactivation was found to be at a distance of 20 cm with 66 μW/cm2 light intensity for 25 min. Optimal treatment for cold shock was 5 min post-fertilization at 0-4°C for 30 min, which gave the best survival rate of 13.65 ± 2.87%. The sex ratio in the meiotic gynogens showed a significant female-biased deviation (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T07:00:29.68586-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13388
       
  • Mate selection in aquaculture breeding using differential evolution
           algorithm
    • Authors: Grazyella Massako Yoshida; José Manuel Yáñez, Carlos Antonio Lopes Oliveira, Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro, Jean Paul Lhorente, Sandra Aidar Queiroz, Roberto Carvalheiro
      Abstract: An algorithm to perform mate selection in aquaculture breeding using a computational optimization procedure called “differential evolution” (DE) was applied under optimum contribution selection and mate selection scenarios, to assess its efficiency in maximizing the genetic merit while controlling inbreeding. Real aquaculture data sets with 8,782 Nile tilapias from five generations and 79,144 coho salmon from eight generations were used to optimize objective functions accounting for coancestry of parents and expected genetic merit and inbreeding of the future progeny. The mate selection results were compared with those from the realized scenario (real mates), truncation selection and optimum contribution selection method. Mate selection allowed reducing inbreeding up to 73% for Nile tilapia, compared with truncation selection, and up to 20% for coho salmon, compared with realized scenario. There was evidence that mate selection outperformed optimum contribution selection followed by minimum inbreeding mating in controlling inbreeding under the same expected genetic gain. The developed algorithm was computationally efficient in maximizing the objective functions and flexible for practical application in aquaculture breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T04:21:39.748754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13365
       
  • Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance, fatty
           acid composition and antioxidant-related gene expressions in juvenile
           loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus
    • Authors: Jie Yan; Yang Li, Xiao Liang, Yin Zhang, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Daniel Matuli'c, Jian Gao
      Abstract: Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is one of the most important cultured freshwater fish in several East Asian countries. However, a little information is available in its nutritional requirements. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding varying levels of dietary protein and lipid on growth, fatty acid composition and antioxidant-related gene expressions in juvenile loach. Six practical diets at three levels of protein (30%, 40% and 50%) and two levels of lipid (6% and 12%) were fed to loach juveniles (initial weight 0.40 g) in triplicated groups (20 fish per replicated) for a period of 8 weeks. Results showed that regardless of lipid level, body weight gain of fish was significantly increased with incremental dietary protein level. Meanwhile, feed conversion ratio was significantly decreased by dietary protein levels, and the lowest value was observed in fish fed dietary protein levels of 50%, regardless of dietary lipid level. Moreover, the percentage of 22:6n-3 in viscera was significantly increased by different protein levels. The expression level of catalase was significantly increased with incremental dietary protein level with both lipid levels. Meanwhile, the expression level of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was downregulated with incremental dietary protein level with 6% of lipid level, but the expression was upregulated with incremental dietary protein level with 12% of lipid level. In conclusion, these data suggested that 6% lipid and 50% protein in diet was optimal for loach during early development stage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T01:46:01.043473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13352
       
  • Partial and total replacement of fish meal by marine microalga Spirulina
           platensis in the diet of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei:
           Growth, digestive enzyme activities, fatty acid composition and responses
           to ammonia and hypoxia stress
    • Authors: Somayeh Pakravan; Arash Akbarzadeh, Mir Masoud Sajjadi, Abdolmajid Hajimoradloo, Farzaneh Noori
      Abstract: In the this study, we evaluated the effect of replacement of fish meal by a marine microalgae Spirulina platensis on growth, digestive enzyme activities, fatty acid composition and responses to ammonia and hypoxia stress in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2.6 ± 0.2 g). Experimental diets contained S. platensis at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% replacement levels. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, growth parameters and proximate body composition were not significantly different among treatments (p > .05). Amylase and lipase activities did not show any significant differences between control group and other experimental diets (p > .05), while activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin were significantly higher in shrimp fed diet with 50% substitution of microalgae compared to control group. Fatty acid contents, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were significantly higher in control diet compared to other experimental diets. On the contrary, the majority of fatty acids including the contents of PUFAs in the whole body of L. vannamei fed with different levels of S. platensis were significantly higher compared to those of control group. After 48-h exposure to ammonia, survival per cent was not statistically different between all groups (p > .05), but in hypoxia challenge, the survival per cent of control group was significantly less than that of treatments fed diets contained S. platensis (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:41:30.326303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13379
       
  • Evaluating spawning performance among captive Florida pompano Trachinotus
           carolinus broodstock using microsatellite-based parentage assignment
    • Authors: Qian Ma; Seifu Seyoum, Michael D. Tringali, Matthew J. Resley, Nicole R. Rhody, Kevan L. Main, Kenneth M. Leber
      Abstract: Florida pompano has been identified as a promising candidate for commercial-scale aquaculture production, but to date, little information is available regarding captive broodstock spawning characteristics. Genetic markers were tested for their power in monitoring mating outcomes and potential in analysing heritability of rapid growth trait in Trachinotus carolinus. A total of 20 unrelated adults (10 females and 10 males) were chosen for a hormone-induced mass spawning event. The 515 fastest growing and 485 slowest growing fish of the total 4852 offspring were considered a selected progeny stock, and fish were collected at 45 days post hatch based on their growth traits. Parentage analyses based on the 20 breeders and 1,000 selected progeny were performed using a total of nine microsatellite markers, a 100% assignment rate was achieved, and a four-marker set was the minimum number for the parentage assignment. The effective breeding number for the selected progeny was 11 (six females and five males), among which three females and two males were predominant contributors with the total contribution of 95.8% and 94.7% respectively. The proportion of fast-growing offspring from broodfish and each mating cross (sire/dam) was used for detecting whether variation in growth of the offspring was related to parental stocks. Results showed that three adults and their mated combination exhibited the greatest fast-growing offspring proportion (69.73% and 55.95%). This research provided new information regarding spawning performance and parental contribution during mass spawning events; both important first steps towards developing improved management strategies for captive Florida pompano broodstock.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:28:51.16905-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13369
       
  • Genotyping, pedigree reconstruction and endocrinological characterization
           of Acipenser naccarii (Bonaparte, 1836) using microsatellite markers and
           plasma steroid levels
    • Authors: Ilaria Guarniero; Michaela Mandelli, Laura Stancampiano, Alessia Cariani, Nadia Govoni, Albamaria Parmeggiani, Damiano Barboni, Oliviero Mordenti
      Abstract: This study aimed to set up a method for the long-term management of Adriatic sturgeon, through the analysis of sex steroids and the genetic profiling of individuals in order to maximize the already reduced genetic variability of this species. Ten A. naccarii adults (nine of captive origin, one captured in the Ticino river and then moved into captivity) and eight subadults located in a semi-natural land-locked pond in Abbiategrasso (Milan, Italy) were analysed. Plasma testosterone differed significantly in the eight analysed subadults allowing their differentiation into two groups: the first group with an average testosterone concentration of 5.42 ± 1.31 ng/ml (probably female) and the second group with an average of 423.14 ± 75.97 ng/ml (probably male), as subsequently confirmed by artificial stripping. The plasma testosterone level was also significantly different between adult males and females (371.37 ± 43.58 vs. 95.34 ± 51.10 ng/ml), while the E2 levels showed no significant differences. Animals were genotyped on the basis of 10 microsatellite loci and their parental relationships were defined: four adults, two females and two males, generated the eight subadults. On the basis of pedigree analyses and genetic distances, 15 unrelated couples were identified for the future breeding seasons. Finally, the adult female captured in the Ticino River showed an interesting genetic profile, widely different from all of the other 17 specimens analysed, and represents a valuable source of genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:55:26.818153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13376
       
  • Microbiota of common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae exhibiting high
           mortality
    • Authors: Andrea M Tarnecki; Nicole R Rhody
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:45:26.959805-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13377
       
  • Mass culture of fairy shrimp Branchinecta orientalis (G. O. Sars 1901)
           (Crustacea: Anostraca) using effluent of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss
           (Walbaum 1792) ponds
    • Authors: Navid Pormehr Yabandeh; Lynda Beladjal, Naser Agh, Behrooz Atashbar, Gilbert Van Stappen
      Abstract: The variable quality and high price of Artemia (Leach 1819) cyst products, used worldwide as live food, motivate aquaculturists to find an appropriate alternative, especially for fresh/brackish water organisms. In this study, Branchinecta orientalis (G. O. Sars 1901), a common fairy shrimp in north-western Iran, was reared for 15 days using effluent from trout ponds enriched with effluent filtrate as sole feed, or co-fed with microalgae (Scenedesmus sp.). The effluent filtrate was replaced by algae at different ratios (25% and 50%), and feeding experiments were designed at densities of 100, 200 and 400 individuals/L in 3-L containers and at 100 individuals/L in 20-L containers. The results indicated that, at a certain density, the final length and survival were not significantly affected by different feeding regimes (p > .05). In 3-L containers, the highest length and survival were observed at the lowest density. B. orientalis contained the highest amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, though, when co-fed algae, although the differences with the treatment fed solely effluent filtrate were often limited. Inclusion of algae in the diet also resulted in higher levels of a number of PUFAs. Our study proves that B. orientalis can be mass-cultured successfully using trout effluent as culture medium without additional microalgae. Fish pond effluent is massively available as a cheap food source. Recycling aquaculture effluent for this type of live food production contributes to lowering the use of natural resources and to less discharge of nutrient loads into natural water bodies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:30:29.633185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13360
       
  • Activities of digestive enzymes and histology of digestive system during
           larval development of devil stinger (Inimicus japonicus)
    • Authors: Songlin Li; Wen Wen, Xuxiong Huang, Xu Gong, Longfeng Feng, Naisong Chen
      Abstract: Devil stinger is a valuable demersal scorpaenid fish while the rearing of stinger larvae still relies on live prey. This study was conducted to illustrate the development of the main digestive enzymes and digestive system during larval development of this species to provide evidence for the application of artificial feeds. Enzymatic and histological assays were conducted from 1 day post hatching (dph) to 36 dph in larvae. The result showed that the selected digestive enzyme activities increased significantly after 15 dph. Specifically, the total trypsin activities increased significantly from 18 dph to 33 dph. The total pepsin and amylase activities increased significantly first and thereafter decreased significantly. The lipase activities followed the similar pattern with trypsin. With regard to the histological study, the stinger larvae open their mouth to first feeding at 3 dph and turned into totally exogenous nutritional stage at 6 dph. In addition, mucous membrane, rich in goblet cells, was widely distributed in oesophagus epithelium at 18 dph. The height and amounts of gastric gland in cardia and main body of the stomach increased gradually with the development of stinger larvae after 15 dph. The intestine length of stinger larvae was short, and goblet cell was abundant in anterior intestine after 12 dph, not the posterior intestine. The ontogeny of liver and pancreas started from newly hatched stage, and the differentiation of liver was prior to pancreas. The above findings would provide evidence for the use of artificial feeds from the larval stage of stinger larvae (at least from 21 dph).
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T01:15:43.874264-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13353
       
  • Geosmin depuration from European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not affected
           by the water renewal rate of depuration tanks
    • Authors: Edward Schram; Tobias Kooten, Jan W Heul, Johan W Schrama, Johan A J Verreth, Albertinka J Murk
      Abstract: This study established that geosmin depuration from European eel is not affected by the water renewal rate of depuration tanks. A general fish bioaccumulation model extended with terms that account for effects of tank water renewal rate and system losses of chemicals, predicted strong effects of the water renewal rate of depuration tanks on geosmin depuration from European eel. Model predictions were validated in a depuration experiment with geosmin-loaded European eel (n = 95) with a mean (SD) individual weight of 134.4 (5.0) g and a mean (SD) lipid content of 33.7 (2.8) % (w/w). Fish were depurated for 24, 48 or 72 h at three different tank water renewal rates (0.3, 3.3 and 33 day−1). Treatments were installed by three different mean (SD) water flow rates (13.8 (1.3), 143.5 (9.2) and 1511 (80) L kg fish−1 day−1) over 30-L tanks. Eels eliminated geosmin from their bodies, but unlike the model predicted, this was independent of the water renewal rate of the depuration tanks. Although being eliminated from the fish, geosmin hardly appeared and certainly did not accumulate in the water of the depuration tanks as the model predicted. This observation may be explained by geosmin being eliminated from eel as metabolite rather than the parent compound. Geosmin elimination from eel seems not to occur according to the generally accepted passive diffusion mechanism for excretion of lipophilic chemicals, and geosmin biotransformation by the eel seems indicated. Clearly geosmin depuration from European eel cannot be enhanced by increasing water renewal rates of depuration tanks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T01:06:10.064843-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13287
       
  • Modulation of nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in
           aquatic animals: The functional feed additives scenario
    • Authors: Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Maryam Dadar, Einar Ringø
      Abstract: Considering the costs of feed costs (nearly 60% of production cost), nutrition, feeding and feed utilization are among the most important factors in commercial aquaculture. During the last decade, administration of functional feed additives has been practiced for enhancing nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities of cultured fish and shellfish. Traditionally, antibiotics were used for boosting growth performance and nutrient digestibility in commercial aquaculture. However, emergence of resistance pathogens and possible risk to human health resulted in limitation or prohibition of prophylactic administration of antibiotics. Recently, there was increasing attentions towards dietary administration of functional feed additives that include probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics for elevation of digestive enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility. The results of those studies revealed contradictory effects of different pro-, pre- or synbiotics on various fish species. It seems that the effects are species specific and related to modulation of the intestinal microbiota. In view of this issue, the present review provides a comprehensive sight on the effects of different pro-, pre- and synbiotics on digestive enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility in different species with special focus on the mode of action. In addition, the present review highlighted the gaps of existing knowledge as well as suggesting the subjects which needs additional studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:40:43.123464-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13368
       
  • Motility of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus spermatozoa in the
           post-activation phase
    • Authors: Adele Fabbrocini; Raffaele D'Adamo
      Abstract: The characterization of sperm motility patterns, particularly post-activation changes, is the first step in setting up species-specific protocols involving gamete management and embryo production, for both aquaculture and laboratory research purposes. This study is aimed at the characterization of the sperm motility pattern of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Semen samples were individually diluted in artificial sea water for sperm motility activation. They were then incubated at 18°C for up to 24 hr. Motility was evaluated on dilution, and 1 hr, 3 hr and 24 hr after activation, by computerized analyser. The semen fertilization capacity was also evaluated. Under our experimental conditions (dilution 1:1,000 in artificial sea water plus 0.05% BSA, 18°C, in the dark), P. lividus semen remained viable for up to 24 hr, as the total motile sperm and the fertilization percentages did not change significantly during the incubation time. In contrast, the mean curvilinear velocity and the subpopulation of rapid sperm (those having a curvilinear velocity> 100 µm/s) slightly but significantly decreased after 3 hr, thereafter remaining unchanged for up to 24 hr after activation. In conclusion, our results show that diluted P. lividus semen can be used for a longer period than that of most fish species, with no need for motility inhibition procedures, supporting its wider use in laboratory research. In addition, the development of artificial fertilization protocols for aquaculture production is simplified by long-lasting sperm motility.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:35:43.8965-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13373
       
  • A review of intestinal microbes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus
           (Valenciennes)
    • Authors: Ngoc Tuan Tran; Gui-Tang Wang, Shan-Gong Wu
      Abstract: Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, harbours complex intestinal bacterial communities, which are important in several physiological processes of their host. Intestinal microbiota of grass carp have been previously described in numerous studies. However, an overview on the bacterial community diversity, including their establishment, their functions in host's nutritional processes and immune-related responses, and use as probiotics, is absent. This study aimed to summarize the current understanding of the grass carp intestinal microbiota. In this review, we provide general information on the establishment and composition of intestinal microbial communities and factors influencing the diversity of gut microbiota. Also, this review covers the dietary effects of probiotics, prebiotics and/or synbiotics on the grass carp intestinal microbial communities and physiological characteristics. Although our knowledge of the grass carp intestinal microbiota is expanding rapidly, further studies on the factors affecting the diversity of intestinal microbes, interactions between intestinal microbiota and their hosts and application of probiotics/prebiotics/synbiotics in aquaculture industry, are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:30:33.487584-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13367
       
  • Transcriptional profile of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase encoding
           mRNAs of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei during PstDV-1
           infection
    • Authors: Patricia Olguín-León; Tania Enríquez-Espinoza, Fernando Mendoza-Cano, Trinidad Encinas-García, Arturo Sánchez-Paz
      Abstract: Beyond their ability to infect and spread, viruses lack the ability to replicate by their own. To counter this, viruses have evolved strategies to exploit the host's machinery for the production of new virions. However, viruses are by no means merely passive consumers of host metabolic products. Viruses induce remarkable changes in their host's cellular metabolism, yielding a metabolic state, to meet its specific requirements. The decapod penstyldensovirus (PstDV-1) is probably the most prevalent virus affecting shrimp farming and has been associated with massive mortality outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of Penaeus stylirostris, and results in developmental deformities in symptomatic specimens of P. vannamei. Previous studies have suggested that PstDV-1 induces metabolic reprogramming of P. vannamei to achieve a successful replication. In this study, the effects of PstDV-1 infection over the gene expression of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase of the shrimp P. vannamei were evaluated. The expression of both genes was significantly altered by PstDV-1 infection, which may lead to the accumulation of specific metabolites, as lactate and fatty acids, providing a suitable platform for viral assembly and replication. The transcriptional profile of pyruvate kinase and pancreatic lipase-encoding mRNAs offers initial clues on the potential metabolic alteration that contribute to PstDV-1 pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:25:27.119772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13380
       
  • Measuring density effects on growth and survival of two size classes of
           juvenile sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) held in sea-based
           holding systems and impacts on holding system design and management
    • Authors: Philip James; Sten Ivar Siikavuopio, Tomas Wyatt Reguera
      Abstract: Assessing density in intensive sea urchin culture systems by measuring the percentage coverage of available surface area is an effective means of calculating the available space within a holding system, the proximity of the animals in the system to each other and the probable effects of the stocking density. The results of this study show that density plays a critical role in regard to both somatic growth (increase in test diameter measured in millimetres) as well as mortality of juvenile sea urchins ranging in size from 5 mm to 26 mm test diameter (the size range tested in the current experiments). These effects appear to be greater for smaller urchins. The critical percentage coverage densities are in the order of 50%-60% coverage for juvenile sea urchins, and the authors advise farmers growing Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis to maintain stocking densities below this point and to reduce the stocking densities as and when stocks reach these critical density points. Percentage cover must be constantly monitored as the results from this study indicate that the growth rates of juvenile urchins can alter percentage coverage rapidly and reductions in density may be required as frequently as every 3-4 months at the early juvenile stage. Holding system design should take these factors into account and incorporate a method of rapidly reducing stocking densities with minimal stress and handling of sea urchin stocks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:15:38.23425-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13375
       
  • Fishmeal can be totally replaced by a mixture of rapeseed meal and
           Chlorella meal in diets for crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)
    • Authors: Xi Shi; Feng Chen, Guang-Hui Chen, Ya-Xiong Pan, Xiao-Ming Zhu, Xu Liu, Zhi Luo
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fishmeal (FM) replacement by a mixture of rapeseed meal and Chlorella meal (RCM) on growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs), digestive enzymatic activities and intestinal histology of crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelioi. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to replace 0% (RCM0), 25% (RCM25), 50% (RCM50), 75% (RCM75), and 100% (RCM100) of protein from fishmeal with RCM respectively. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups with 25 juvenile fish (initial body weight: 1.77 ± 0.04 g) per fibreglass tank for 6 weeks. With increasing substitution levels, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, feed intake and protein efficiency ratio increased, but feed conversion rate decreased. Dietary RCM substitution improved lipid content of muscle, but had no significant effect on other proximate composition of muscle and liver. ADCs of dry matter, protein, lipid, energy and the majority of amino acids increased with increasing substitution level, and digestive enzyme activities (amylase, trypsin and lipase) in intestine showed the similar trend with ADCs. Dietary RCM substitution had no significant adverse effect on intestinal histology. This study indicated that FM protein could be completely replaced by mixed protein sources (RCM) in crucian carp diets.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:25:50.047471-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13364
       
  • Hemolymph haemagglutination activity of pearl oysters Pinctada fucata in
           post-operative care
    • Authors: Natsumi Sano; Takashi Atsumi, Shinji Tanaka, Akira Komaru
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:25:41.822545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13370
       
  • Optimal temperature and photoperiod for the spawning of blue crab,
           Callinectes sapidus, in captivity
    • Authors: S. Bembe; Dong Liang, J. Sook Chung
      Abstract: Like all poikilotherms, the growth and reproduction of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus depends on temperature and season. Warmer water temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay allow for ovarian development and spawning, while colder water temperatures slow their metabolism and reproduction. The current study aimed to identify optimal environmental conditions for inducing reproduction in animals held in long-term captivity for year round production in aquaculture through environmental manipulations. Temperature and photoperiod were the main environmental factors tested for 25 weeks: 11°C and 21°C, with the following photoperiods: 0L:24D, 8L:16D, 16L:8D and 24L:0D. At 21°C, the females increased spawning frequency, which was arrested at 11°C. Shorter light exposure at 21°C increased spawning frequency, while constant light inhibited and did not produce spawning. Constant dark (0L:24D) at 21°C produced the most (86%) spawns, but yielded poor larval quality. At 21°C with all photoperiod conditions except constant light, the first spawning took 94.8 ± 32.4 days to occur (n = 17). With females producing multiple spawns, the intervals between the first and second spawns and the second and third spawns were 37.7 ± 8.7 days (n = 6) and 31.0 ± 7.1 days (n = 2) respectively. Analysis of our data using response surface methodology (RSM) predicts the following conditions: at 15–19°C and 0–10 hr darkness for maximal survival and at 19–22°C and 0–8 hr darkness for spawning. The number of larvae produced was positively correlated with size (weight) of the female C. sapidus, suggesting the importance of female size in reproduction.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:24:47.584854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13366
       
  • Use of Nannochloropsis sp. isolated from the East China Sea in larval
           rearing of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus)
    • Authors: Jie Tan; Liang Wang, Changlin Liu, Fenghui Li, Xiaojun Wang, Huiling Sun, Jingping Yan, Xiaojie Sun
      Abstract: The supply of microalgae to hatcheries is a limiting factor for the mass larval production of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Fujian Province, China. In this study, Nannochloropsis sp. isolated from the East China Sea was tested as food for A. japonicus larvae. The first trial compared the effect of mono-, bi- and trialgal diets comprising three microalgae (Chaetoceros muelleri, Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nannochloropsis sp.) on A. japonicus larval growth, survival, settlement and juvenile growth. The results showed that there were no significant differences in survival and settlement between larvae fed with Nannochloropsis sp. and other diets. All diet treatments yielded similar juvenile sea cucumber output. In the second trial, A. japonicus larvae were fed equally four times daily at three different rations (5000, 20 000 and 40 000 cells mL−1 day−1). Larvae fed 20 000 cells mL−1 day−1 were significantly larger than larvae in other groups and experienced the highest survival rate. In the third trial, A. japonicus larvae were fed 20 000 cells mL−1 day−1 in three different frequency (2, 3 and 4 meals day−1). The greatest body length was observed in larvae that received 3 meals day−1. Survival and settlement of larvae fed 2 meals day−1 were significantly lower than other two groups. These results suggest that Nannochloropsis sp. can be used as a diet for the large-scale production of A. japonicus seed, and larvae fed three times daily at a ration of 20 000 cell mL−1 day−1 are recommended for hatchery production of A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29T01:26:10.802126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13268
       
  • Effects of hydrodynamic factors on Pecten maximus larval development
    • Authors: Marine Holbach; René Robert, Philippe Miner, Christian Mingant, Pierre Boudry, Réjean Tremblay
      Abstract: Hatchery production of great scallop, Pecten maximus, remains unpredictable, notably due to poor larval survival. Large-scale flow-through systems up to 3500 L have been developed to avoid the use of antibiotics in static systems. Alternatively, small-scale flow-through systems have been successfully applied for oysters but they proved to be unsuitable to rear scallop larvae. By focusing on physical factors presumed to limit P. maximus larval development, this study aimed to optimize great scallop larvae rearing parameters under controlled conditions. First, the influence of aeration on larval performances, energetic metabolism and antioxidant defences were studied both in static and flow-through systems. Aeration depressed larval food intake, regardless of the intensities of flow tested (100 ml/min, 155 ml/min and 270 ml/min). On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activities remained constant or decreased, suggesting that antioxidant defences were inactivated. The increase in citrate synthase activity suggested an increase in metabolic rate possibly due to a turbulent stressful environment. All larvae exposed to such turbulence died before reaching metamorphosis, whereas those reared without aeration survived well (≈ 95%). The effects of water renewal were thereafter studied in 50-L flow-through flat-bottomed tanks. No differences in survival (20.4 ± 0.5%), growth (3.8 ± 0.2 μm/d), competence (5.6 ± 0.2%), energetic metabolism level and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed when comparing 12.5 and 25 L/hr water renewal. Whereas air bubbling leads to detrimental effects, flow-through in small flat-bottomed tanks appears to be a suitable technique for scallop larvae rearing.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T11:31:12.746044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13361
       
  • Growth and economic analysis of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii (de Man), produced with feeds substituting sunflower cake for
           fish meal, soya bean meal and mustard oil cake
    • Authors: Mohammad Mokarrom Hossain; Subhash Chandra Chakraborty
      Abstract: A feeding trial with Macrobrachium rosenbergii was carried out to test the effectiveness of sunflower cake (SFC) as a replacement for conventional protein sources. Four isonitrogenous (~30% crude protein) and isocaloric (388–402 kcal) diets were formulated. Diet-1 was a control made with conventional ingredients including fish meal, soya bean meal and mustard oil cake. Diet-2, Diet-3 and Diet-4 were made with 30%, 40% and 50% SFC, respectively, replacing the usual protein sources used in Diet-1. After 100 days, diets with SFC inclusion showed favourable growth and economic performance trends compared to control diet-1, but without significant differences (p > .05). Better production (572.89 ± 62.99 kg/ha) was observed with Diet-4 followed by Diet-2, Diet-3 and Diet-1. Diet-4 revealed the best feed conversion ratio (2.56 ± 0.24), specific growth rate (1.18 ± 0.05) and protein efficiency ratio (1.14 ± 0.10) among these diets. Whole carcass composition analysis revealed highest crude protein (18.19%) and lipid (4.43%) content in prawns fed Diet-3 followed by Diet-4. Highest total income, gross margin and benefit cost ratio (BCR) per hectare from prawns were US$5,759, US$2,623 and 1.84, respectively, found in Diet-4. This study demonstrates that 30%–50% inclusion of SFC has favourable impacts on productivity and profitability compared with controls, with 50% SFC inclusion as the most cost-effective diet for prawns without apparent compromise in growth, flesh quality or economics. The performances of the diets suggest that SFC may be a suitable substitute for fishmeal, soya bean meal and mustard oil cake in prawn feed. The effectiveness of higher SFC concentrations should also be investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T03:45:29.106177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13357
       
  • Is it possible to successfully rear meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso 1801)
           larvae without using rotifers?
    • Authors: Said Sedki; Jawad Kassila, Hassan Nhhala, Kamal Chebbaki, Houda Akharbach, Mohamed Id Halla, Hassan Er-Raioui
      Abstract: In hatcheries, meagre Argyrosomus regius larvae still depend on an adequate supply of rotifers and Artemia, as no artificial diet can totally fulfil their nutritional requirements. However, production of live feed is highly expensive and demands intensive labour and specific facilities. This study investigated the effect of a dietary regime without the use of rotifers, to simplify the meagre larval rearing protocol. Two feeding treatments (T1 & T2) are compared to investigate their effects on survival and growth of meagre larvae. In T1, larvae were fed rotifers from 2 to 5 days post hatch (dph), and Artemia from 4 to 15 dph. In T2, larvae were kept under dark conditions and fed Artemia from 6 to 15 dph. Standard larval length (SL) was significantly higher in T1 (p < .01) until 8 dph in comparison with larvae reared initially without rotifers. No significant difference in SL was found among treatments (p = .187) at 15 dph. Significant difference was found among treatments in survival rate at 15 dph (p < .003). The survival rate observed at 15 dph in T2 (30 ± 4.2%) represents an important finding, although the highest survival rate was observed in T1 (45.0 ± 3.4%). This study showed that it is possible to conduct larval rearing of meagre without using rotifers. Nevertheless, further research efforts are still needed to improve these results in comparison with the common larval rearing protocol.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T00:00:42.255107-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13345
       
 
 
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