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Showing 1 - 200 of 1589 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 243, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Research
  [SJR: 0.807]   [H-I: 60]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-557X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2109
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Interactions between populations of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa
           Dana and the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae Humes in mixed
           cultures of live feed for fish larvae
    • Authors: Benni W Hansen; Emil Boesen, Ole B Brodnicke, Natasja L Corfixen, Per M Jepsen, Stephanie M Larsen, Casper D Læssøe, Pernille S Munch, Peder K F Nielsen, Jørgen Olesen, Bent Vismann, Birgitte Nilsson
      Abstract: Copepods are considered high quality live feed for fish larvae due to their large within species size span, swimming pattern triggering hunting behaviour, and complete biochemical profile. In a continuous cultivation system aiming at the planktonic calanoid Acartia tonsa an intruding harpacticoid frequently appears. We experimentally evaluate how the interaction from the semi-benthic Tisbe holothuriae is affecting our cultures and ask whether the two copepod-species are expected to pose competitive exclusion or co-exist long-term. This is pursued by establishing ~40 days mono- and mixed copepod cultures reared in a stationary setup (S) theoretically advantageous for T. holothuriae and a rotating setup (R) with organisms kept in suspension by use of a plankton wheel, theoretically advantageous for A. tonsa. The carrying capacities of A. tonsa in either mono- or mixed cultures are not affected whether the copepods are subject to S or R treatment. Only exception is the S-setup containing mixed culture were A. tonsa obtains a significantly lower carrying capacity compared with A. tonsa alone in R-setup. The mono- and mixed cultures of T. holothuriae are, however, highly negatively affected by the R setup compared with S setup. A long-term solution to limit the presence of T. holothuriae is to apply turbulence level in a classical stagnant tank setup to an extend that suppress T. holothuriae and simultaneously allow algae in suspension as food for A. tonsa, make their eggs sediment as well as minimize risk of benthic-predation on eggs.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T01:35:40.426565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13581
  • Effects of dietary vitamin C on growth, gonad development and antioxidant
    • Authors: Liye Shao; Dong Han, Yunxia Yang, Junyan Jin, Haokun Liu, Xiaoming Zhu, Shouqi Xie
      Abstract: An 88-day experiment was conducted in a flowing system to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C on growth, body composition, antioxidant and gonad development of on-growing gibel carp. Triplicate tanks of gibel carp (77.2 ± 0.1 g) were randomly fed with one of seven experimental diets containing l-ascorbic acid of 0, 101.1, 188.5, 313.1, 444.1, 582.1 and 747.0 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish were not affected by dietary l-ascorbic acid. Dietary l-ascorbic acid of 444.1 mg/kg diet led to low levels (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T04:11:10.28577-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13578
  • Effect of increasing docosahexaenoic acid content in weaning diets on
           survival, growth and skeletal anomalies of longfin yellowtail (Seriola
           rivoliana, Valenciennes 1833)
    • Authors: Antonio Mesa-Rodriguez; Carmen Maria Hernández-Cruz, Mónica Beatriz Betancor, Hipólito Fernández-Palacios, Marisol S Izquierdo, Javier Roo
      Abstract: Five isoproteic (54.8%) and isolipidic (24.1%) microdiets, which varied in their docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content (0.25%, 0.75%, 1.64%, 1.99% and 3.17%; dw), were manufactured to determine its effects on longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana larvae in terms of fish biological performance, whole body fatty acid profile and incidence of skeletal anomalies from 30 dah (11.31 ± 1.79 Total Length, TL) to 50 dah (19.80 ± 0.58 mm TL). The inclusion of dietary DHA up to 3.17% (dw) improved larval resistance to air exposure, although DHA did not significantly affect fish final growth or final survival. Indeed, high levels of dietary DHA (1.99% and 3.17%, dw) tended to increase the incidence of skeletal anomalies in S. rivoliana larvae, albeit no significant differences were observed. Furthermore, the occurrence of severe anomalies such as kyphosis and lordosis, was mainly associated to the larvae fed the highest levels of dietary DHA. In terms of survival, increasing dietary DHA levels did not significantly affect longfin yellowtail survival rate, despite a tendency for enhanced survival. The results of the present study proved that the inclusion of dietary DHA in inert diets up to a 3.17% (dw) and a DHA/EPA ratio above 3.1 increased the final survival and stress resistance in S. rivoliana larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T07:01:35.133992-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13573
  • Inbreeding evaluation using microsatellite and its effect on growth traits
           in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus
    • Authors: Ding Lyu; Huanhuan Wu, Yulong Hu, Weiji Wang
      Abstract: Turbot is an economically relevant fish, and simultaneously at the risk of inbreeding depression in China. Microsatellite DNA markers were used to evaluate inbreeding level of a random turbot breeding population and further investigate its effects on growth traits. DNA based inbreeding coefficients (FDNA) were ranged from 0 to 0.4124. Average inbreeding coefficient was 0.0621 with a standard deviation of 0.0658. Regression analysis results showed inbreeding had a very significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:21:23.128439-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13569
  • Shell shape and meat condition in selectively bred Sydney rock oysters,
           Saccostrea glomerata (Gould, 1850): The influence of grow-out methods
    • Authors: Caleb Rankin; Natalie Moltschaniwskyj, Jason Morton, Emma Wilkie
      Abstract: The Australian edible oyster industry has been severely impacted by disease and declining yields since the 1970s. Selective breeding of Saccostrea glomerata is one measure addressing these problems by producing fast-growing, disease-resistant oysters. Farmers report that selected oysters have different growth characteristics than their wild counterparts using conventional grow-out methods. This study investigated how different grow-out methods influence commercially valuable oyster characteristics including shell length, shape, surface growth deformities and meat condition. In June 2015, selectively bred S. glomerata spat were deployed in two estuaries (Hawkesbury River and Georges River) in NSW, Australia, using three grow-out methods (fixed trays, Stanway cylinders and floating baskets). In November 2015, oysters were transferred among grow-out methods to test for the effects of changing grow-out methods on oyster growth patterns. Oysters transferred from baskets to cylinders and from trays to cylinders had, on average, deeper and wider shells, a higher meat condition and fewer shell surface deformities than oysters in other grow-out method combinations. However, these oysters were smaller than oysters not grown in cylinders. While there were some differences in growth patterns between the estuaries, overall it was the grow-out methods that most influenced oyster characteristics. This was attributed to differences in the amount and magnitude of movement oysters experienced in the grow-out methods, as recorded by motion sensors. This study demonstrates how grow-out methods can be managed to achieve desired growth trajectories and therefore improve marketability among selective bred S. glomerata.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:16:57.800826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13572
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-12-08T01:41:05.789259-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13515
  • Effect of ultrasonic cavitation on small and large organisms for water
           disinfection during fish transport
    • Authors: Eirik Svendsen; Stine W Dahle, Andreas Hagemann, Jens Birkevold, Stephanie Delacroix, Aage Bjørn Andersen
      Abstract: Motivated by the need for additional tools to disinfect discharge water from well boats, and to prevent distribution of salmon lice, the effect of ultrasonic cavitation on the planktonic stages of the salmon louse, nauplii and copepodids, as well as marine heterotrophic bacteria, and the marine green microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, has been investigated. Survival and morphology were registered after different exposure times. Efficacy of the ultrasonic cavitation treatments varied with exposure time. A reduction in survival was registered even for the shortest exposure time (5 seconds) for both naupliar and copepodid stages of the salmon louse (36.7 ± 11.5 and 67.20 ± 7.2% survival respectively). Survival reached zero after exposure times of 20 and 60 seconds for the nauplii and copepodid stages, respectively. A reduction in 70% was observed for bacteria at all exposure times (5 to 300 s), while a reduction of 95% was observed after 300 s for algal cells. The logged energy transfer to the samples was on average 17.5 J/s. In conclusion, cavitation treatment is destructive for the planktonic stages of salmon lice, and may contribute to reduce discharge of pathogens and parasites from well boats when adapted for this purpose and combined with existing water disinfection methods.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T00:06:19.638633-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13567
  • Optimization of the stocking parameters for mud spiny lobster Panulirus
           polyphagus (Herbst, 1793) capture-based aquaculture in tropical open sea
           floating net cages
    • Authors: Divu Damodaran; Kunnamangalam Mohammed Koya, Suresh Kumar Mojjada, Chauhan Devaji Lalaji, Gyanaranjan Dash, Vinay Kumar Vase, Kannanchery Ramanathan Sreenath
      Abstract: Mud spiny lobsters, Panulirus polyphagus (Herbst, 1793), were reared at four different stocking sizes and stocking densities in open sea cages to evaluate their effects on growth performance. To evaluate the effect of stocking size on the growth performance, the lobsters were segregated into four different treatment groups according to size and were stocked at a density of 300 animals per cage. To evaluate the effect of stocking density on the growth performance, lobsters of 81–100 g were stocked in four different stocking densities, i.e. 16/m2, 24/m2, 32/m2 and 40/m2. The results showed that the growth rate of (60–80 g) size group, was significantly higher compared to the size groups, i.e. 101–120 g and 121–140 g comprising of larger individuals. The final body weight, though significantly higher in 81–100 g as compared to 60–80 g, the growth performance (i.e. weight gain percentage (WG %) and specific growth rate (SGR)) were not significantly different. The density-dependent influence on growth performance was evident in this study. The WG % and SGR during 90 days’ culture period was significantly higher in 24/m2 compared to other groups. This study provides crucial information about the appropriate stocking density and stocking size of lobsters at the field level, which would help to promote sustainable lobster cage farming by maximizing the production potential of the system.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T04:40:36.823873-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13557
  • mRNA abundance changes during in vitro oocyte ageing in African catfish
           Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)
    • Authors: Azadeh Mohagheghi Samarin; Sabine Sampels, Tomas Policar, Marek Rodina, Nima Hematyar, Azin Mohagheghi Samarin
      Abstract: Delayed fertilization following ovulation leads to the oocyte ageing which has been identified as the most important factor affecting egg quality after ovulation. Very little is known about the molecular changes associated with the progress of oocyte ageing. The present study monitored the egg viability rates during post-stripping oocyte ageing in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. In addition the mRNA abundance of selected genes were studied during the progress of oocyte ageing by real time quantitative PCR. To study how maternal transcripts influence egg quality, expression levels were correlated with egg hatching rates. The highest embryo survival and hatching rates (88% and 81%, respectively) were obtained from eggs that were fertilized immediately after stripping. Complete loss of egg viability occurred at 16 and 24 hr Post Stripping (HPS) when eggs were stored at 25°C and 4°C respectively. Under both storage temperatures, the embryo mortality and larval malformation rates increased significantly over time and were the highest in the most aged oocytes. Genes indicating an upward trend in expression during ova ageing were determined to be related to oxidative injury and the stress response (hsp70), mitochondrial function (calmodulin), apoptosis (cathepsin D) and germ line speciation (vasa and sox9a). The results suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction might be associated with post-stripping ova ageing and the consequent induction of egg quality defects. The examined genes may be considered as candidate markers of egg quality associated with oocyte ageing in African catfish.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T04:40:34.057665-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13552
  • Lipid deposition patterns among different sizes of three commercial fish
    • Authors: Wei Ren; Jingqi Li, Peng Tan, Zuonan Cai, Kangsen Mai, Wei Xu, Yanjiao Zhang, Rui Nian, Benoit Macq, Qinghui Ai
      Abstract: This study was conducted to compare lipid deposition pattern of three fish species among fish size, Large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea), Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), Using magnetic resonance imaging technology for adult fish, results showed that lipid of large yellow croaker mainly deposits in abdominal cavity wall, while for Japanese seabass mainly deposit in visceral adipose tissue and for turbot lipid mainly distribute subcutaneous tissue. Three sizes for each species were selected: S1 (small size), S2 (intermediate size) and S3 (big size), to examine chemical analysis. Results of chemical analysis indicated that whole body lipid content of large yellow croaker significantly increased with the increase in body weight, but Japanese seabass and turbot significantly decreased (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T01:20:27.493513-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13553
  • The effect of dietary bamboo charcoal supplementation on growth and serum
           biochemical parameters of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
    • Authors: Lerato Tshepiso Mabe; Shengyan Su, Dan Tang, Wenbin Zhu, Sunguo Wang, Zaijie Dong
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of dietary bamboo charcoal (BC) supplementation on the growth performance and health status of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). A 63-day feeding trial was carried out wherein the carp were reared on diets containing increasing levels of BC (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%). Treatment with BC did not produce any obvious effect (p > .05) on the growth performance of the juvenile common carp and on the overall muscle fatty acid composition. However, significant improvements (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-02T01:15:32.100435-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13564
  • Effect of minor allele frequency on the number of single nucleotide
           polymorphisms needed for accurate parentage assignment: A methodology
           illustrated using Atlantic salmon
    • Authors: Forest M Dussault; Elizabeth G Boulding
      PubDate: 2017-12-02T01:10:38.21248-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13566
  • Changes in proximate composition, lipid class and fatty acid profile in
           Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) over an annual cycle
    • Authors: Matthew R Miller; Hong Tian
      Abstract: Greenshell™ mussel (GSM, Perna canaliculus) is New Zealand's most important aquaculture species. This study looked at changes in the proximate composition, lipid class and fatty acid profile of male and female market ready mussels over a year from April 2016 through to March 2017. There were differences over the season as well as differences between male and female mussels. Winter GSM had lower lipid, carbohydrate and protein concentrations than other seasons. Female mussels had a higher lipid (on average 1.8 ± 0.5 g/100 g ww) and carbohydrate (on average 5.0 ± 1.1 g/100 g ww) compared with the males (lipid, 1.5 ± 0.4 g/100 g ww and carbohydrate 4.5 ± 1.2 g/100 g ww). The major differences observed between seasons in the omega 3 and fatty acids content of the GSM were driven by the fat content, with the highest fat content found in female mussels in the spring prior to spawning. The majority of lipids found in mussels are polar lipids. Overall, this study provides the most comprehensive data on the composition and the lipid content of GSM to date and provides solid base-line data as the New Zealand GSM industry continues to improve their production procedures. The enhanced nutritional payload of mussels harvested outside of winter (particularly female mussels in spring) could drive a differentiated higher value mussel product.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T01:45:38.183284-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13565
  • Abarenicola pusilla (Quatrefages, 1866): A novel species for fish waste
           bioremediation from marine recirculating aquaculture systems
    • Authors: Silvia Gómez; Carlos Felipe Hurtado, Jaime Orellana, Guillermo Valenzuela-Olea, Alice Turner
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T04:56:33.792353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13562
  • Dietary zinc potentiates thermal tolerance and cellular stress protection
           of Pangasius hypophthalmus reared under lead and thermal stress
    • Authors: Neeraj Kumar; Kishore K Krishnani, Nitish K Chandan, Narendra P Singh
      Abstract: Zinc micronutrient is the second most abundant trace element in the animal body, as it could not be stored in the body; hence, regular dietary zinc is required for animals. With this backdrops a 60 days feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary zinc on the thermal tolerance and cellular metabolic stress of Pangasius hypophthalmus reared under Pb (1/21th of LC50, 4 ppm) and elevated temperature (34°C). Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets with Zn-0, 10 and 20 mg/kg were prepared. Two hundred seventy-three fish were randomly distributed into seven treatments in triplicate in completely randomized forms. Dietary zinc supplementation had remarkable (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T01:40:11.670094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13560
  • Pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin against field isolates of Streptococcus
           parauberis from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
    • Authors: Ji-Yong Park; Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu, Seung-Jin Lee, Na-Hye Park, Jin-Yoon Kim, Abraham Fikru Mechesso, Naila Boby, Seung-Chun Park
      Abstract: Olive flounder is the most important species for the Northeast Asian fish farming industry. However, this species is substantially affected by multiple infectious agents, including Streptococcus parauberis. Evaluation of antibiotics before their application is critical to treat infections and prevent drug resistance. Therefore, in this study, the pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin (AMX) and other antimicrobials against the planktonic- and biofilm-forming bacteria were assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and Time–kill curve assay were analysed using micro-dilution method. The minimum biofilm eradicating concentration (MBEC) was determined using the Calgary Biofilm device. The effects of temperature, pH, hardness and salinity were detected for both planktonic- and biofilm-forming bacteria. The MIC of AMX ranged from 0.015 to 2 μg/ml, whereas that of cephalexin (CEP), enrofloxacin (ENR) and oxytetracycline (OTC) ranged from 0.125 to 256, 0.125 to>512 and 0.25 to>512 μg/ml respectively. No bacteria were resistant against AMX, while the percentage of resistance to CEP, OTC and ENR were 68.7%, 52.6% and 11.1% respectively. The IC50 of AMX, CEP, ENR and OTC was 0.03, 0.091, 0.015 and 0.213 μg/ml respectively. The MBEC of amoxicillin against S. parauberis ranged from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml. Higher rates of bacterial growth were obtained at 30°C, pH = 8 and salinity of 7.5–10 ppt. The hardness of the media suppressed the bacterial growth. In conclusion, AMX was found to be effective against both the planktonic and the biofilm forms of the prominent fish pathogen, S. parauberis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T01:51:35.876401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13555
  • Format and mode of artificial substrate fixation affect the performance of
           Litopenaeus vannamei in high-density rearing systems
    • Authors: Rodrigo Schveitzer; Thais Sabino Zanetti Leite, Natacha Estér Orteney, Fabrini Copetti Temistocles Menezes, Igor Dias Medeiros
      Abstract: We investigated whether the positive impacts of artificial substrates on shrimp performance are altered in any way by their format or mode of fixation in the tanks. To examine this question, substrates were fixed vertically in the water column in three different configurations: SCF treatment (Substrate Completely Fixed), SPF treatment (Substrate Partially Fixed) and SFF (Substrate in Frond Format). Another treatment received no substrate and served as control (WS = Without Substrate). The shrimp were cultured for 38 days in intensive biofloc culture tanks at a stocking density of 1,125 shrimp m−3. In general, water quality variables were similar among treatments and remained within the appropriate range for shrimp culture. The final biomass was higher (8.5 kg m−3) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) lower (1.6) in all tanks with substrates when compared with the WS treatment tanks (final biomass = 6.3 kg m−3 and FCR = 3.1). However, only shrimp from the SCF and SPF treatments had a higher survival rate (>95.0%) compared to those in WS tanks (75.9%), which was statistically similar to the SFF treatment (88.0%). These results show that substrate format and its mode of fixation in tanks can alter shrimp performance. In well-aerated intensive tanks, substrates in frond format are constantly pushed to the tank surface, making it difficult for shrimp to adhere to the screens. In such situation, the extra surface provided by the substrates is not always available to the shrimp, a fact that minimizes the positive effects of substrate.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T01:51:22.13029-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13561
  • Effect of the supplementation of live preys enriched in cod liver oil on
           the survival rate, growth and fatty acid profile of meagre (Argyrosomus
           regius) larvae
    • Authors: Houda Saidi; Rocío Morales-Medina, Azeddine Abrehouch, Soumia Fahd, Emilia M Guadix Escobar, Raúl Pérez-Gálvez
      Abstract: First-feeding diets employed in the rearing of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) larvae are based on live preys that are commonly enriched to compensate for their deficiency of essential fatty acids. A feeding trial was conducted on meagre larvae (Argyrosomus regius) fed rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia salina enriched in lipids from an emulsion of cod liver oil (CLO) and a commercial product (CP). The effect of both enrichment products was evaluated on the survival rate, size and lipid composition of meagre larvae. The results showed that larvae fed CLO presented significant higher values of survival rate (35.0 ± 3.2%) and larval size (12.06 ± 1.17 mm) at the end of the experiment, compared to the CP diet (26.0 ± 2.5%, 11.41 ± 0.91 mm, respectively). Both zootechnical parameters were related to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the larvae. Indeed, the larvae fed CLO presented a higher ratio DHA/EPA than those enriched in commercial product (0.82 ± 0.18 and 0.38 ± 0.12 at 26 days after hatching, respectively). Both larval groups presented similar body content of arachidonic acid (1.4 wt.% on average at 26 days after hatching), regardless the enrichment source. From all above, we can conclude that the enrichment of live preys with an emulsion of cod liver oil is an economically viable alternative to commercial products. Indeed, cod liver oil emulsions are able to fully meet the requirements for fatty acids of meagre larvae. Furthermore, cod liver oil is easily available from fish processing facilities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T01:50:23.356355-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13563
  • First feeding parameters of the milletseed butterflyfish Chaetodon
    • Authors: Jon-Michael L A Degidio; Roy P E Yanong, Cortney L Ohs, Craig A Watson, Eric J Cassiano, Kevin Barden
      Abstract: First feeding performance of the milletseed butterflyfish (Chaetodon miliaris) was evaluated using three experiments examining prey type, microalgal cell density and prey density. To ensure no size bias existed between trials, morphometric measurements, fertilization and hatch rates were recorded for each trial. The proportion of larvae feeding and feeding intensity were measured in each experiment. To evaluate prey type, larvae were offered small size Brachionus plicatilis and Parvocalanus crassirostris nauplii in clear water and water greened with Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso). In trial 1, green water and P. crassirostris nauplii had a significantly higher proportion of larvae feeding and feeding intensity. In trial 2 no differences were detected between P. crassirostris treatments. Microalgae experiments evaluated six treatments ranging from 0 cells/ml to 8 × 105 cells/ml. Feeding response increased as microalgae was added to the environment, but no statistical differences were discerned between treatments besides the highest cell density (8 × 105 cells/ml) and lowest cell density in both trials (0 cells/ml). To determine if prey density had an effect on first feeding response P. crassirostris nauplii were added to tanks at 1 to 15 nauplii/ml. No significant differences in the feeding response were found between prey densities of 1–15 P. crassirostris nauplii/ml in either trial. This study revealed that C. miliaris larvae had the highest first feeding response, measured by the proportion of larvae feeding and feeding intensity per larvae, with the prey item P. crassirostris nauplii in green water and prey densities between 1 and 15 nauplii/ml.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T02:06:21.628547-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13558
  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals olfactory-related genes expression in
           large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) regulated by taurine: May be a
           good phagostimulant for all-plant protein diets
    • Authors: Jiabao Hu; Yajun Wang, Qijun Le, Na Yu, Xiaohuan Cao, Huakun Zheng, Siwen Kuang, Man Zhang, Junyong Zheng, Xiaokai Wu, Jianbo Wang, Shunshun Tao, Xiaojun Yan
      Abstract: Taurine is usually included in fish feed as a nutritional supplement, and it can also improve feed performance. To assess the potential use of taurine as a feed attractant in plant protein-based diets, we examined four different concentrations of taurine to determine the optimal levels for attracting large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The fish displayed the most significant attractive responses to 3.5% taurine and showed good feed performance with an all–plant protein diet supplying 3.5% taurine. Next, deep sequencing of the olfactory epithelium was conducted to identify genes differentially expressed in the taurine group (Tau) versus controls. We found that 11,793 unigenes were differentially expressed: 10,795 were up-regulated and 998 were down-regulated unigenes. We detected 77 olfactory receptor genes, including 37 up-regulated unigenes, and validated the expression dynamics of eight genes using quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (RT-qPCR). We utilized Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) to analyse the function of the differentially expressed genes, which were mainly involved in signaling and cell communication (GO) and olfactory transduction (KEGG). Cumulatively, our results indicate that taurine could be a good phagostimulant for plant protein–based diets for L. crocea. Furthermore, improved understanding via olfactory epithelium transcriptomic analysis would inform the development of an all–plant protein diet for L. crocea.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T04:07:01.02133-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13559
  • Investigation of geographic origin, salinity and feed on stable isotope
           profile of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
    • Authors: Li Li; Wenjing Ren, Shuanglin Dong, Jianxiang Feng
      Abstract: Increasing numbers of mislabelled seafood products in the globalized market underline the need for approaches to identify the origin of these products. Pacific white shrimp cultured in different salinities (Litopenaeus vannamei) from 16 locations in China and USA were collected and differentiated based on δ13C and δ15N values. The δ13C and δ15N values of 16 commercial feeds used in shrimp culture were measured and effects of feed on C and N stable isotope composition in shrimp were investigated. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of the shrimp did not provide means to discriminate farmed shrimp from China and USA. However, the shrimp cultured in water with high salinity were enriched in 13C compared to shrimp cultured in freshwater and this provided another basis for discrimination. The correlation between δ13C in feed and shrimp was not significant, while the δ15N in feed and shrimp showed a trend of positive correlation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T01:05:27.930572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13551
  • Acute effects of ammonia exposure on the plasma and haematological
           parameters and histological structure of the juvenile blunt snout bream,
           Megalobrama amblycephala, and post-exposure recovery
    • Authors: Wuxiao Zhang; Shengming Sun, Xianping Ge, Silei Xia, Jian Zhu, Linghong Miao, Yan Lin, Hualiang Liang, Wenjing Pan, Yanli Su, Han Yu
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of ammonia-N on the plasma and haematological parameters and histological structure of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) juveniles. The fish (initial weight, 14.79 ± 0.01 g) were randomly sorted into six tanks (200 L), and each tank was stocked with 40 fish for culture. The juveniles were exposed to two ammonia-N levels—0 mg/L (control group) and 25 mg/L (experimental group)—and sampled at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hr, and then they underwent 96 hr of post-exposure recovery. The results showed that ammonia-N had significant effects on the plasma and haematological parameters. The treatment group showed increased cortisol, plasma ammonia and haematocrit levels and white blood cell count with increasing exposure time, up to 24 hr, and then the levels and count decreased. A significantly higher plasma glucose level was observed in the treatment group at 12 hr. After 96 hr of post-exposure recovery, all parameter levels decreased to the control levels. The fish displayed histopathological alterations in the gills, liver and kidney. The results indicate that the severity of the lesions clearly differed among the organs, with the liver showing the most extensive damage, followed by the gills and kidney. Adverse effects to physiological indicators and histological structure increased with increasing exposure time before 24 hr. The fish showed self-regulation; however, the histological structure could not recover fully, the gill tissue showed irreversible changes and the kidney tissue exhibited the worst recovery ability.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T01:02:01.384607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13548
  • Growth performance and biochemical composition of the oysters Crassostrea
           sikamea, Crassostrea angulata and their hybrids in southern China
    • Authors: Lulu Yan; Jiaqi Su, Zhaoping Wang, Yuehuan Zhang, Xiwu Yan, Ruihai Yu
      Abstract: The Kumamoto oyster (Crassostrea sikamea) and the Portuguese oyster (C. angulata) are important aquaculture species which naturally coexist along the southern coast of China. To understand the potential feasibility of hybridization between the two species, we conducted two-by-two factorial cross-experiments in Beihai (Guangxi province), and also compared the survival and growth of the hybrids to that of the two parental progenies during the grow-out period from July 2014 to July 2015. Genetic analysis confirmed that the hybrid spats were true hybrids. Additionally, the biochemical composition of the 1-year-old oyster progenies was determined. In July 2015, the mean shell height of the hybrids was 42.98 ± 6.29 mm, which was higher than that of the Kumamoto oyster progeny. The cumulative survival rate of the hybrids was 26.37 ± 1.32%, which was higher than that of the progeny of the Portuguese oyster. Mean lipid content of the hybrids was 13.65 ± 1.63% of dry weight, which showed obvious heterosis compared to those of the two parental progenies. Observation of gonads revealed that all hybrids were completely fertile. Furthermore, relative expression of the lipid homeostasis genes, SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins), PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) and INSIG (insulin-induced gene) were found to vary between parental progenies and the hybrids, thus providing a possible reason for difference in the lipid contents of these experimental groups. Overall, the hybrids were viable, rich in lipid and completely fertile and thus could serve as a promising aquaculture stock for oyster breeding in southern China.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:05:51.537237-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13549
  • Temperature, density and ammonia effects on growth and fecundity of the
           ramshorn snail (Helisoma anceps)
    • Authors: Tien-Chieh Hung; Troy Stevenson, Marade Sandford, Tewdros Ghebremariam
      Abstract: Ramshorn snail (Helisoma anceps) is a freshwater gastropod found all over North America and is also an essential component to the larval and juvenile culture of endangered Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) at the UC Davis Fish Conservation and Culture Lab (FCCL). H. anceps has been proven effective in cleaning the excess algae while not harming the larvae. A challenge at the FCCL has been having a reliable source of these snails, since previously it has been dependent upon nature and never guaranteed there would be enough to meet the needs of the FCCL. Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of temperature, food types, rearing density and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. Procedures recommended to increase snail fecundity for the FCCL are to rear spawning parent snails and the resultant eggs at a high temperature (16–20°C) and with a low TAN concentration (0–5 mg/L). Newly hatched snails need to be cultured at a low density (about one snail/20 cm2). After the snails grow to an acceptable size (1.3 cm diameter), they could be set aside and cultured in an environment with less optimal water quality parameters such as a high TAN level (as high as 20 mg/L) and low temperature (12°C) for quantity control prior to use.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T04:10:53.264816-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13556
  • Effects of replacing fish meal with corn gluten meal on growth, feed
           utilization, nitrogen and phosphorus excretion and IGF-I gene expression
           of juvenile Pseudobagrus ussuriensis
    • Authors: Xianyong Bu; Xuqiu Lian, Ying Zhang, Fangyi Chen, Baibing Tang, Xianping Ge, Yuhong Yang
      Abstract: Seven isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing fish meal (FM) protein replaced by corn gluten meal (CGM) protein at 0% (the control, C0), 10% (C10), 20% (C20), 30% (C30), 40% (C40), 50% (C50) and 60% (C60) were fed to juvenile Pseudobagrus ussuriensis for 8-weeks to evaluate the effects of FM protein replaced by CGM protein on growth, feed utilization, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion and IGF-I gene expression of juvenile P. ussuriensis. The results showed that the replacement level up to 40% did not affect the weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake and protein efficiency ratio, whereas these parameters were depressed by further replacement level. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, crude protein significantly decreased, but ADC of phosphorus significantly increased with increasing dietary CGM levels (p  .05). The lowest pepsin activity was found in C60 group. Fish fed diet C40, C50 and C60 had significantly lower serum lysozyme activity compared with fish fed diet C0 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T23:50:29.557585-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13545
  • Enhancement of reproductive performance in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
           (Boone, 1931) by supplementation of Ulva clathrata meal in maturation diet
           in two commercial hatcheries
    • Authors: Diana Cristina Corral-Rosales; Elena Palacios, Denis Ricque-Marie, Lucia Elizabeth Cruz-Suárez
      Abstract: The effect of supplementing dehydrated seaweed Ulva clathrata (20 g/kg) in the squid fraction of a formulated fresh diet on the reproductive performance of Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock was evaluated in two commercial hatcheries (A and B). The origin of broodstock, use of ablation on females, tank/culture conditions (for maturation, spawning, and larval rearing) were different between hatcheries. Daily mortality was higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T23:50:25.5277-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13554
  • The effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue and carp
           pituitary hormones on Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) sperm
    • Authors: Güneş Yamaner; Gökhan Tunçelli, Devrim Memiş
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T23:25:36.640657-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13550
  • Prevalence and effects of the cymothoid isopod (Ceratothoa oestroides,
           Risso 1816) on cultured meagre (Argyrosomus regius, Asso 1801) in the
           Eastern Adriatic Sea
    • Authors: Slavica Čolak; Matko Kolega, Danijel Mejdandžić, Ivan Župan, Tomislav Šarić, Edi Piplović, Bosiljka Mustać
      Abstract: Meagre (Argirosomus regius) is a relatively new farmed fish species in Croatian mariculture. This study is the first attempt to determine the prevalence of cymothoid isopod parasite Ceratothoa oestroides and its effects on cultured meagre in the Mediterranean area. When analysing growth of meagre at two sites in the central part of the Eastern Adriatic Sea, the greatest difference in total fish length was recorded in March 2016, when fish with parasites were 33% smaller than fish without parasites (24.47 ± 3.29 vs. 16.28 ± 1.01 cm; p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T03:38:17.787598-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13547
  • Isolation and identification of indigenous marine diatoms
           (Bacillariophyta) for biomass production in open raceway ponds
    • Authors: Ines Barkia; Fahad Zadjali, Nazamid Saari, Muta Harah Zakaria, Chun L Li, Andrzej Witkowski, Lamya Al-Haj
      Abstract: For the successful, large-scale cultivation of microalgae, which for our work refers to diatoms, it is important to select the appropriate species for the right environment. Intensive research on the growth of different strains of microalgae from several regions worldwide is an ongoing effort. The aim of our research in this context was to select the best isolates of diatoms from different coastal sites in Oman, a region whose flora is poorly known, and identify these species using molecular (nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA and chloroplast-encoded rbcL and psbC) and morphologic data. We aimed also to investigate and measure the growth rate, biomass production and fatty acid composition under ambient environmental conditions. Our results showed that in contrast to most of the research reported in the literature, the production of biomass from six isolates has been successfully carried out with reduced amounts of nutrients and without CO2 addition. Growth rates for species cultivated outdoors were high and ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 day−1. These findings are economically very promising as fast growth rates, associated with reduced operational costs, could remarkably improve the production efficiency and thereby justify their use as biomass feedstocks. Molecular data revealed that one isolate was Bellerochea malleus, four isolates represented an unidentified species of Bellerochea and the remaining strain studied represented an unidentified species of the genus Nitzschia. These six strains were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with an average of 47% of the total fatty acids, confirming their potential use as aquaculture feed supplements.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03T23:26:01.713891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13539
  • Effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on growth and
           shape of early larval European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)
    • Authors: Spyridon Nikolakakis; Kristof Dierckens, Peter Bossier, Dominique Adriaens
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on the size and shape of fish larvae, using Dicentrarchus labrax of day after hatching (DAH) 3 as a case study. They were split in two treatment groups and reared in 50 ml vials until DAH 14, with the control treatment (“NA”) including larvae reared in filtered autoclaved seawater without antibiotics, while the second (“A”) included larvae reared in filtered autoclaved seawater with rifampicin, ampicillin, kanamycin, trimethoprim and gentamicin, with a concentration of 10 mg/L each. They were sampled for bacterial presence on DAH 4, 7 and 14, and had their mortalities recorded, their total lengths, gut lengths, anal body depths, eye diameters, head depths, yolk sac lengths and yolk sac depths measured, and their outlines analysed on DAH 7 and 14. Treatment NA exhibited the highest mortalities on DAH 14. The antibiotics had a significant size effect, yielding larvae with larger total length on DAH 7 and 14, larger bodies on DAH 7, and on DAH 14 larger anal body depth and greater variance in body size. Their effect on outline shape was also significant in both age classes, with increasing differences from DAH 7 to DAH 14. On DAH 7, “A” specimens were more uniform in their dorso-ventral development, and on DAH 14 “NA” had more slender shapes. The beneficial total length and size effects and the witnessed shape effects might be associated with the low bacterial presence.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:12:33.785526-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13546
  • Effect of density on survival, physiological parameters and water quality
           during pirarucu transportation in open system
    • Authors: Adriana Ferreira Lima; Hyago Jovane Borges Oliveira
      Abstract: The loading density of pirarucu Arapaima gigas transported for 6 hr in open system was assessed on survival, physiological parameters (blood hematocrit, cortisol, lactate and glucose concentrations) and water quality (temperature, pH, ammonia, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide). No mortality was observed after fish transportation at 80, 120 and 160 kg/m³, although ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations increased and dissolved oxygen decreased. Physiological parameters were not affected by loading density but significant differences were observed between sampling periods (immediately before transport, immediately after transport, 24 and 96 hr after transport), except glucose. Hematocrit values increased with time, whereas lactate concentration decreased. No significant differences were observed in blood cortisol levels before and after transport, but concentration increased gradually for 96 hr after transport. According to the results, 9 kg pirarucu may be transported for up to 6 hr at a loading density of 160 kg/m³.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:12:17.219443-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13541
  • Toxic effects of mercury chloride on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
    • Authors: Shimelly Rocha; Danilo P Streit, Lis S Marques, Antonio S Varela, Carine D Corcini, Márcio A Hoshiba
      Abstract: Heavy metals are highly toxic elements that are present in the environment, especially in water. Mercury chloride (HgCl2) stands out among these compounds because of its strong ability to induce damage to any tissue with which it comes into contact. The gametes of spawning aquatic animals, such as fish, are susceptible to such damage. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the toxic potential of HgCl2 in the capacitation and activation of Rhamdia quelen sperm. Semen was collected from seven males and activated in 58 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) containing 0 (control), 4−10, 7−10, 7−9, and 7−8 M HgCl2. The evaluated variables included motility, vigor, motility time, morphology, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, mitochondrial functionality, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and DNA fragmentation. All evaluated HgCl2 concentrations increased primary pathologies and reduced motility, vigor and motility time. Damage to membrane integrity and fluidity began occurring at a concentration of 7−10 M HgCl2. These results indicate that HgCl2 has a toxic effect on different sites of fish spermatozoa and that sperm motility decreases after exposure to HgCl2, impairing sperm capacitation and activation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T00:55:35.277319-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13543
  • Population genetic structure and differential selection in mussel Mytilus
    • Authors: Marcela P Astorga; Jaime Vargas, Andrea Valenzuela, Carlos Molinet, Sandra L Marín
      Abstract: This study examines the genetic connectivity between natural banks of Chilean mussel, Mytilus chilensis, located in Reloncaví Fjord. This sector is the principal source of seed for commercial farming and has the second-largest aquaculture production volume in the country. The objects of this work are as follows: (1) to estimate the degree of connectivity between patches (microscale) located in the intertidal/subtidal zones, evaluating the presence of selection processes; and (2) to identify connectivity patterns by gene flow between subpopulations (mesoscale) in order to determine whether they all correspond to a common population (meta-population). We analysed individuals distributed in the intertidal and subtidal zones of five locations by sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene and eight nuclear DNA microsatellite loci. Comparison of the two tidal zones presented differences revealed by the COI gene. The locations presented low genetic differentiation; however, differences were found in both markers at the mouth of the fjord. The differences between the tidal zones may result from differentiated natural selection processes between the intertidal and subtidal environments, with those in the intertidal subjected to greater selective pressure. There is effective connectivity between the locations, facilitated by the capacity for dispersion of the larvae and certain oceanographic processes, which would also explain the differences observed in the location at the mouth of the fjord. Because these banks sustain mussel aquaculture activity throughout the country, it is important to take measures to ensure their proper maintenance, observing all the indicators including their genetic diversity and structure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T00:55:33.434883-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13538
  • Dualistic feeding pattern of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)
           reared under different self-feeding system conditions
    • Authors: Fittrie M Pratiwy; Jun Kohbara
      Abstract: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the most important cultured species worldwide. The research aims to clarify the feeding characteristics, such as daily feeding pattern of Nile tilapia using a self-feeding technique. The feeding pattern was conducted under two rearing conditions, indoor treatments under a controlled light regime (LD 12:12) and constant water temperature (25°C), and outdoor treatments under natural conditions which consisted of duplicate trials with two periods each. The outdoor treatment was carried out from early summer through late autumn in Mie, Central Japan. Daily self-feeding activity of Nile tilapia in indoor treatments was nearly daytime feeding pattern, synchronizing with the given photoperiod (24 hr). However, the self-feeding activity in the outdoor experiments from early summer to early autumn was almost daytime feeding pattern, but it became less clear and shifted to a nighttime feeding profile in late autumn. The results revealed that Nile tilapia has a dualistic capacity for demand-feeding both in light and dark phases. These results might have been caused by the seasonal change in light intensity and/or water temperature. Information obtained from the self-feeding experiments enables us to identify the influence of environmental changes on the physiological condition of farmed fish through their expression of appetite.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T07:07:46.529925-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13544
  • Experimental validation of geosmin uptake in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
           mykiss (Waldbaum) suggests biotransformation
    • Authors: Edward Schram; Johan W Schrama, Tobias Kooten, Christiaan J A F Kwadijk, Harm Kampen, Jan W Heul, Johan A J Verreth, Albertinka J Murk
      Abstract: The bioconcentration of waterborne geosmin in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Waldbaum) was assessed. Fifty rainbow trout with a mean (SD) weight of 226.6 (29.0) g and lipid content of 6.2 (0.6) % (w/w) were exposed to geosmin in static water for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 120 hr, with one tank containing five fish for each exposure period. Geosmin concentrations were measured in fish tissue and water samples collected over time. With time the geosmin concentration in the fish increased and decreased in the water. However, the total absolute amount of geosmin in the system declined over time which could be explained by induction of biotransformation. This is in accordance with the decreasing lipid normalized geosmin levels in the liver compared with the liver-free carcass. Geosmin distribution within rainbow trout clearly is not exclusively governed by the lipid content of tissues. In vivo geosmin bioconcentration in rainbow trout is slower and the body burden reached is lower than the generally accepted theoretical model predicts.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:41:19.807353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13496
  • Assessing uncertainty of semi-intensive production of whiteleg shrimp
           (Litopenaeus vannamei) using partial harvesting programs
    • Authors: Miguel A González-Romero; Javier M J Ruiz-Velazco, Margarita Estrada-Pérez, José T Nieto-Navarro, Iram Zavala-Leal, Alfredo Hernandez-Llamas
      Abstract: We used stochastic models for analysis of the uncertainty involved in semi-intensive production of shrimp in Nayarit state, Mexico, incorporating partial harvests. Analysis of the database showed that increasing the number of harvests was associated with lower stocking densities, the use of larger ponds, longer cultivation periods, larger final weight of shrimp and total production. Equivalence tests showed that the models adequately fitted the primary data. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that improving management by controlling stocking density and the duration of cultivation increased mean production from 981 to 2573 kg/ha (one partial harvest), from 1808 to 3602 kg/ha (two partial harvests) and from 1364 to 3834 kg/ha (three partial harvests), closely approaching the yields reported in the database. When conducting one and three partial harvests, improved management increased production and the certainty in obtaining the crops, as indicated by diminishing values of the coefficient of variation in output probability distributions. When conducting two partial harvests, however, improved management increased yields, but also increased uncertainty because there was a lower control on production parameters. This does not necessarily imply more uncertainty when conducting two harvests, but that at this stage of knowledge, the primary data only allows detecting limited control on production. Results of a preliminary economic evaluation showed that net revenues ranged from USD$ 2361.1–3488.9, the benefit-cost ratio from 1.47 to 1.62 and that the best and worse results were obtained by conducting two and one partial harvests. We conclude that the models are useful for analysing uncertainty of semi-intensive shrimp production incorporating partial harvesting.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:40:27.187243-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13542
  • Effect of diet on growth and body biochemical composition of juvenile
           four-sided sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (Selenka, 1867)
    • Authors: Magali Zacarías-Soto; Pedro Tec-Tec, Miguel Ángel Olvera-Novoa
      Abstract: The farming of sea cucumber is a growing industry that demands feeds that are tailored to the organism's nutritional needs. Therefore, in this study, the effect of diet composition, with and without additives, on the growth, survival, specific growth rate (SGR) and body biochemical composition of the four-sided sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus was evaluated over a period of 3 months. Four diets were used: D1 (Macrocystis sp. and Sargassum sp.), D2 (Macrocystis sp. and Spirulina sp.), D3 (Sargassum sp. and Spirulina sp.) and D4 (Macrocystis sp., Sargassum sp. and Spirulina sp.), and the same diets enriched with 0.22% of Algamac 2000® (D1H, D2H, D3H and D4H) were also tested. The organisms fed the diets containing Spirulina sp. demonstrated the highest growth rates and significantly greater SGR (% per day) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:37:48.282813-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13540
  • Water quality and physiological response of F1 hybrid seabream (Pagrus
           major♀ × Acanthopagrus schlegelii♂) to transport stress at
           different densities
    • Authors: Jun Qiang; Zhiwei Zhang, Juhua Yu, Jin Xu, Hailin Liu, Zhiyong Zhang, Pao Xu
      Abstract: Hybrid seabream (Pagrus major♀ × Acanthopagrus schlegelii♂) grow quickly, with retarded gonadal growth and enhanced muscle nutritional composition. This F1 hybrid seabream is a new marine aquaculture fish in China. However, the response of hybrid seabream to transport is severe, which seriously restricts its promotion and development. Water quality and the physiological response of hybrid sea bream were studied at three fish transport densities (5, 10 and 20 g/L) during 8 hr of transport in a light van (60 km hr−1 and 25°C water temperature). We found that total ammonia–nitrogen and nitrite–nitrogen levels in the water of the highest density group increased sharply after 4 and 8 hr of transport. Cumulative survival of the fish in the 10 and 20 g/L groups (86.7% and 75% respectively) was significantly lower than in the 5 g/L group (100%) after 8 hr of transport (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T01:10:33.046021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13507
  • Effects of photoperiod, light intensity, turbidity and prey density on
           feed incidence and survival in first feeding yellow tang (Zebrasoma
    • Authors: Erin Pereira-Davison; Chatham K Callan
      Abstract: Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett) aquaculture is limited by high mortality during first feeding. Photoperiod, light intensity, turbidity and prey density are culture parameters that have been shown to affect feed incidence and survival in some food fish species, offering a logical starting point to improve first feeding in Z. flavescens. This study aimed to determine the effect of photoperiod, light intensity, turbidity and prey density on feed incidence and survival in larval yellow tang age 3 DPH to 5 DPH (days post hatch). Larvae were reared in four photoperiods (24L:0D, 16L:8D, 12L:12D, 0L:24D), four light intensities (1,500, 3,000, 4,500 and 6,500 lx), three turbidity ranges (0 cells/ml, 100,000–200,000 cells/ml and 400,000–600,000 cells/ml) and four prey densities (1, 3, 6 and 9 per mL). Photoperiod at 16L:8D and 12L:12D significantly increased feed incidence; 16L:8D significantly increased survival. Light intensities at 3,000 and 4,500 lx significantly increased feed incidence. Larvae reared in 400,000–600,000 cells/ml fed and survived significantly better than those in clear water. Larvae in 1 per mL fed and survived significantly less than those fed at 6 per mL.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T01:10:23.410655-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13535
  • Effect of temperature on growth performance of greater amberjack (SERIOLA
           DUMERILI Risso 1810) Juveniles
    • Authors: Alvaro Fernández-Montero; Maria Jose Caballero, Silvia Torrecillas, Victor Manuel Tuset, Antoni Lombarte, Rafael Ruiz Ginés, Marisol Izquierdo, Lidia Robaina, Daniel Montero
      Abstract: In order to successfully diversify Mediterranean aquaculture, it is necessary to determine optimum culture conditions of potential candidate species such as greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). Among culture conditions, rearing temperature is a key factor for achieving optimum growth and maintaining fish welfare. However, little is known about the optimum culture conditions of greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different rearing temperatures (17, 22 and 26°C) during 120 days on growth performance, body morphometry, biochemical composition, gut transit and liver morphology of greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) juveniles. After 120 days of rearing, fish raised at 26°C showed higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T00:00:41.073231-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13537
  • Properties and activities of blood- or seawater-contaminated wild-caught
           Striped Jewfish (Stereolepis doederleini) sperm
    • Authors: Minh Hoang Le; Young Jin Chang, Augustine Arukwe
      Abstract: Understanding the effects of environmental factors in sperm qualities will be helpful in the development of optimal artificial reproduction methods and contributes towards the knowledge base of better short- and long-term fish semen preservation conditions The objectives of this study were to determine properties and activities of wild-caught striped jewfish Stereolepis doederleini sperm contaminated with blood or seawater and compare them with data reported in the literature on other freshwater and marine fish species, for effective short- and long-term storage of fish semen. Overall, we observed that the sodium, chloride, glucose, total protein concentrations of normal sperm were not significantly different from blood- or seawater-contaminated sperm. The salinity and osmolality concentration of sperm contaminated with blood were lower than sperm contaminated with seawater and were not significantly different from normal sperm. In addition, the spermatozoa motility (SM) and duration of spermatozoa motility (DSM) in blood-contaminated sperm were higher than seawater-contaminated sperm and also not significantly different from normal sperm. The best condition for SM and DSM in normal sperm was dilution rate of 1:50. Sperm was immotile in distilled water, and cationic factors were shown to stimulate the initiation of spermatozoa activation. The maximum SM and DSM were observed in solution containing 0.4 M NaCl, 0.6 M KCl, 0.6 M CaCl2 and 0.4 M MgCl2. This study provides some basic and important knowledge about striped jewfish sperm sensitivity to a cationic condition. In this regard, Na+ is the major inhibitory factor of spermatozoa motility in this fish species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T00:00:22.645062-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13536
  • Effects of Isatis root polysaccharide on non-specific immune responses and
           nutritive indices in obscure pufferfish, Takifugu obscurus
    • Authors: Liwei Song; Zheng Guo, Anli Wang
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS) on the growth and non-specific immunological responses of obscure pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) as well as the potential of using this Traditional Chinese Medicine for disease prevention. The antioxidant capacities, lysozyme and complement C3 activities in phagocytosis, erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rates, respiratory burst activity, body weight increase (BWI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and several other nutritive indices were determined in pufferfish fed a control diet or diets containing either a low or high level of IRPS. The results showed that IRPS played a positive role in regulating the leukocyte phagocytic rate, respiratory burst and antioxidant enzymes. The IRPS-fed fish showed an increased BWI and reduced FCR compared with pufferfish fed the control diet. The significant alterations of non-specific immune response parameters in fish fed the less IPRS diet were rapid, occurring within 7 days, but were then reduced, whereas those in fish fed the more IRPS diet peaked at 10–15 days of treatment but were maintained for at least 30 days. Isatis root polysaccharide activates host immune function, improves phagocytosis by macrophages and exerts direct antimicrobial and antiviral effects, thereby helping to resist infection.
      PubDate: 2017-10-22T23:56:19.664833-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13472
  • Effects of rhythmic temperature change on the growth, body composition and
           energy budget of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus
           lanceolatus♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀)
    • Authors: Rui-Peng He; Xiang-Li Tian, Jie Feng, Shuang-Lin Dong, Bin Wen
      Abstract: Effects of rhythmic temperature change on the growth, body composition and energy budget of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂ × E. fuscoguttatus ♀) were investigated. Nine groups of fish received repeating cycles of low-temperature manipulation (22°C) for 1, 2 and 4 days followed by recovery temperature (28°C) for (3, 7 and 11 days), (6, 14 and 22 days) and (12, 28 and 44 days) respectively, designated as L1R3, L1R7, L1R11, L2R6, L2R14, L2R22, L4R12, L4R28 and L4R44 respectively. In the control group (C), fish were reared at 28°C throughout the whole experiment. After 96-day feeding trail, the final weight, relative weight gain rate, specific growth rate, food conversion efficiency and apparent digestibility coefficient of fish in L4R28 were significantly higher than those of control (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-22T23:55:37.573121-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13532
  • Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression and nutritional
           regulation of O-GlcNAc transferase gene in hybrid grouper (Epinephelus
           fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂)
    • Authors: Songlin Li; Jiacan Zhang, Chunyan Sang, Ziqiang Li, Naisong Chen, Xuxiong Huang
      Abstract: O-GlcNAc transferase gene (OGT) was considered as the sole rate-limiting enzyme in the O-GlcNAc modification. In the present study, the OGT gene of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂) was cloned and characterized, and its expression in response to dietary carbohydrate level and acute glucose treatment was investigated. The full-length of OGT (GenBank accession no. KY656469) was 4,063 bp, including a 302 bp 5′untranslated terminal region (UTR), a 3,165 bp coding region that encoded 1,054 amino acids residues and a 596 bp 3′ UTR. The highly conservation of OGT gene between fish and mammals was also observed through multiple sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis. O-GlcNAc transferase gene was ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissues with highest expressions in brain and liver, to a lesser degree, in eye, heart, kidney and intestine. The increasing dietary carbohydrate from 8.02% to 16.08% had no significant effect on the mRNA expression of OGT. However, the expression of OGT was slightly elevated at 6 hr post-glucose injection, and the elevation became significant at 24 hr time-point. These data may enhance our understanding on the nutritional regulation of OGT and O-GlcNAc modification in fish species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T04:20:40.395787-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13533
  • Bioefficacy of dietary chromium picolinate and chromium yeast on growth
           performance and blood biochemical in Red Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: Rakhmawati Rakhmawati; Muhammad Agus Suprayudi, Mia Setiawati, Widanarni Widanarni, Muhammad Zairin Junior, Dedi Jusadi
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate bioefficacy of dietary chromium picolinate and chromium yeast on growth performance and blood biochemical in red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus). Seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds were prepared (approximately 29% and 3,900 kcal/kg). These diets were supplemented with different sources and levels of dietary chromium: 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg of Cr picolinate and 2 and 4 mg/kg of Cr yeast and one control group, all groups were arranged triplicate. After a 60-day feeding experiment, specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency ratio (FER) and feed utilization were observed. Blood biochemistry consisted of serum total protein, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Chromium distribution in several organs and glucose tolerant test were measured. The result shows that CrPic of 1 mg/kg and CrYst of 2 mg/kg produced the best SGR (2.91 ± 0.03% and 2.91 ± 0.04%), improved insulin sensitivity (7.30 ± 2.96 and 1.70 ± 0.78 μIU/ml) and increased glucose utilization. CrYst supplementation of 2 mg/kg feed resulted in the highest FER (0.79 ± 0.01) and the lowest triglycerides (126.24 ± 12.36 mg/dl). In conclusion, dietary chromium picolinate at 1 mg/kg or chromium yeast at 2 mg/kg significantly improved bioefficacy on growth performance and blood biochemicals in red tilapia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T04:15:58.375749-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13527
  • Osmoregulation of pre- and prometamorphic Chinese edible frogs
           (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) raised in brackish water relies on body Na+ and
           Cl− concentrations, but not urea production
    • Authors: La-iad Nakkrasae; Varin Jaisin, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T03:51:29.727485-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13534
  • Effects of dietary macroalgae meal and lipid source on growth performance
           and body wall fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus
    • Authors: Bin Wen; Yong-Jun Sun, Qin-Feng Gao, Shuang-Lin Dong, Zai-Zhong Chen, Jian-Zhong Gao
      Abstract: A 70-day experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different macroalgal meals and lipid sources on growth, body wall composition and fatty acid (FA) profile of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Two macroalgal meals including Sargassum muticum (SM) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis (GL) and two lipid sources including fish oil (FO) and vegetable oil (VO) were formulated into four diets, i.e., S. muticum and fish oil (SF), S. muticum and vegetable oil (SV), G. lemaneiformis and fish oil (GF) and G. lemaneiformis and vegetable oil (GV). The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of A. japonicus fed diets containing SM were significantly higher than those fed diets containing GL. No significant differences in SGR between the FO-based and VO-based groups were observed. Similar results were observed in the body wall lipid content. Most body wall FAs changed to resemble the dietary FA proportions because of the dietary effect. Concentrations of 20:4n-6 of the SF and GF groups were significantly lower than the SV and GV groups, while levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significantly higher than the SV and GV groups. The n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratios of the SF and GF groups were significantly higher than the SV and GV groups. Moreover, the SF group had significantly higher 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents and n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio than the GF group. These findings reveal that the SF diet can show beneficial effects on both growth performance and body wall n-3 PUFAs content of A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T03:50:50.542385-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13508
  • Molecular cloning of heat shock protein 60 from Marsupenaeus japonicus and
           its expression profiles at early developmental stages and response to heat
    • Authors: Jinbin Zheng; Lijun Li, Hongbiao Dong, Yong Mao, Yongquan Su, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Water temperature is an essential environmental factor in aquaculture that affects many aspects of organism, and a rise in water temperature stresses aquatic animals. HSP60 is a major component of the chaperone system and plays an important role in stress response. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of HSP60 from Marsupenaeus japonicus was cloned for the first time, and the tissue distributions and expression profiles of MjHSP60 at the early developmental stages of M. japonicus and under heat stress were verified by qRT-PCR. The full-length cDNA sequence of MjHSP60 was 2,303 bp with the deduced amino acid (AA) sequence of 579 AA. MjHSP60 was expressed in all eight tested tissues of M. japonicus and was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas under normal condition. MjHSP60 was expressed in all of the early developmental stages examined from the fertilized egg to the post-larval stage, and the expression level of MjHSP60 peaked at zoea II and reached a trough at the transition periods between each two stages (N and M1) and showed a relatively stable expression level at the post-larval stage. The expression level of MjHSP60 was significantly up-regulated in the gills, muscle, heart, hepatopancreas and stomach at 3 hr post-heat-stress and showed varied sensitivity to heat stress. The expression profile of MjHSP60 in the hepatopancreas and gill showed a time-dependent manner post-heat-stress and peaked at 3 hr post-heat-stress. The present study provided a basis for further studies for elucidating the function of MjHSP60 in the heat stress response and the early developmental stages of M. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T05:46:55.85247-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13461
  • Effects of thyroxine, cod liver oil and potassium iodide on growth and
           survival of juvenile seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri
    • Authors: Fatihah Abd Halid Nur; Annie Christianus, Abd Rahim Abdullah, Muta Harah Zakaria, Che Roos Saad
      Abstract: Low survival at early stage is the bottleneck in seahorse aquaculture, particularly in the feeding aspect since newborn seahorses must feed immediately upon birth to sustain themselves. Seahorses are visual predator, therefore preferred live feed such as zooplankton. In aquaculture, the most common live feed used is Artemia. In this study, two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different Artemia enrichment on the growth and survival of newborn Hippocampus barbouri. In the first experiment, six treatments using Artemia enriched with Culture Selco Plus™ (SELCO), thyroxine (T4), potassium iodide (KI), cod liver oil (CLO), cod liver oil in combination with thyroxine (CLO + T4) and potassium iodide (CLO+KI) were fed to newborn H. barbouri. Newly hatched Artemia were used as control. At the end of first experiment, treatments using CLO + T4 produced juvenile H. barbouri with the best (p  .05) in survival and growth performance (except for final standard length) when compared with treatment CLO + T4 at daily frequency.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:29:35.92797-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13531
  • Effect of L-tryptophan supplemented diets on serotonergic system and
           plasma cortisol in Totoaba macdonaldi (Gilbert, 1890) juvenile exposed to
           acute stress by handling and hypoxia
    • Authors: Miguel Cabanillas-Gámez; Lus M López, Mario A Galaviz, Conal D True, Ulises Bardullas
      Abstract: Brain serotonin and cortisol play a central role in integrating the neuroendocrine response to stress. Previous studies in aquatic species show that dietary supplementation with the 5-HT precursor L-tryptophan amino acid is able to modulate this response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on the serotonergic system and acute stress response in Totoaba macdonaldi. Four groups of fish were fed with one of four isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets formulated with different Trp content: 0.5% (1X TRP, control diet), 1.1% (2X TRP), 1.7% (3X TRP) and 2.3% (4X TRP). After a feeding period of 21 days, groups were exposed to acute stress by handling with a net or hypoxia. Feeding with Trp-enriched diets resulted in increased 5-HT content in telencephalon of undisturbed fish. Handling increased the 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in telencephalon of fish fed with 1X TRP and 2X TRP but was not significant for the fish fed 3X TRP and 4X TRP, and no significant increase was observed by hypoxia in both telencephalon and hypothalamus in any of the diets. An inverted U-shaped response was observed in plasma cortisol increasing with 2X TRP after both handling and hypoxia and decreasing with diets rich in Trp, 3X TRP and 4X TRP. A higher increase was observed in haematocrit, plasma glucose and lactate in hypoxia than the handling groups. Our results indicate that Trp supplementation modulated cortisol response and mediated negative feedback of 5-HT system in telencephalon after acute stress.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:05:25.096759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13529
  • Evaluating the spatial range of the effect of synchronized antiparasitic
           treatments on the abundance of sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall &
           Bravo, 2000) in Chile
    • Authors: Gabriel A Arriagada; Sandra L Marín
      Abstract: Sea lice are the most important ectoparasites affecting farmed salmonids in marine water worldwide and pharmacological treatments are widely used to control their abundance. Synchronization of antiparasitic treatments among closely located salmon farms has been recently evaluated as a promising strategy for improving treatment performance. However, the optimum distance at which farms should synchronize their treatments is not clear. We used a repeated measures linear mixed effects model to evaluate the impact of two nationwide treatment synchronization procedures conducted in Chile in 2014 and 2015 on subsequent adult lice counts up to 13 weeks after the procedure. Each treatment synchronization procedure consisted of two 2-week synchronization windows, in which farms were required to treat their fish. A period of 3 weeks elapsed between the two windows. Treatment synchronization was measured as the number of neighbouring farms that treated their fish within a certain geographical threshold, each of them weighted by its distance from the farm of interest. We tested four different thresholds: 5, 10, 20 and 30 km. The results indicate that the abundance of adult lice on farms that synchronized treatments with their neighbours within a distance of 5 km was lower than the abundance on non-synchronized farms from weeks 4 to 11 after the procedure. Our findings suggest the treatment synchronization effect was distance dependent and greater when neighbouring farms up to 5 km joined the procedure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:00:37.059411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13513
  • Determination of methionine requirement of juvenile silver catfish
           (Rhamdia quelen) and its effects on growth performance, plasma and hepatic
           metabolites at a constant cystine level
    • Authors: Daniel Antonio Rotili; Suzete Rossato, Isadora Liberalesso Freitas, Suziane Ghedini Martinelli, João Radünz Neto, Rafael Lazzari
      Abstract: This study was performed to determine the dietary methionine requirements and its effects on growth performance, plasma and hepatic metabolites for juvenile silver catfish. The fish (initial weight = 3.26 ± 0.3 g) were distributed in 24 experimental units (35 fish each). Six diets were formulated with increasing levels of methionine (09, 16, 23, 30, 37 and 44 g/kg protein diet). Each diet was distributed randomly to the groups, with four replicates fed twice daily to apparent satiation for 15 weeks. Methionine levels influenced in body composition (moisture and ash), and submit effect on liver metabolism and plasma. The relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with highest levels of methionine to 30 g/kg protein in the diet, thereafter maintaining a nearly constant level of 1.9 g/kg cystine in the protein diet. The protein retention coefficient (PRC) also increased with increasing levels of up to 23 g/kg protein diet, thereafter maintaining a constant level of 1.9 g/kg cystine protein diet until beginning to decrease at a level of 44 g/kg protein diet. In conclusion, methionine is an essential amino acid for the growth of juvenile silver catfish and exhibits an efficient capacity when provided as a synthetic amino acid. Based on the RWG and SGR data, the methionine requirement of juvenile silver catfish was estimated at 34.42 and 35.85 g/kg of the CP or 12.74 g/kg and 13.26 g/kg of the diet respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-10-08T23:55:21.636245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13530
  • A simple technique for accurate estimation of fertilization rate with
           specific application to Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)
    • Authors: Victor T Okomoda; Ivan Chong Chu Koh, Sherif Md Shahreza
      PubDate: 2017-10-07T01:00:36.149384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13528
  • Effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance, body
           composition and lipid metabolism-related enzymes and genes of juvenile
           golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus
    • Authors: Kang Liu; Hongyu Liu, Shuyan Chi, Xiaohui Dong, Qihui Yang, Beiping Tan
      Abstract: Three groups of juvenile golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus (54.75 ± 0.25 g), were each fed one of three diets containing different lipid sources: fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO) and lard oil (LO). Fish were reared in sea cages for 8 weeks, and the fish fed the FO diet had significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) but lower condition factor (CF) than the other treatments. The fatty acid (FA) composition of whole-body lipids was closely correlated with those in the diets. Although no differences can be found in hepatic fatty acid synthase (fasn) activity, the carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (cpt1) activity in fish fed the FO diet was significantly higher compared with other treatments. In addition, the relative gene expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes, such as cpt1, fas, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase (fadsd6) and fatty acid-binding protein 1 (fabp1), was also influenced by the different dietary lipid sources. Serum triglyceride (TG) and glucose content in fish fed the LO and FO diets were significantly higher than those in the SO group. Accordingly, it can be concluded that FO could not be completely replaced by SO or LO in golden pompano diets. The lipid sources of a diet could impose significant influence on body condition factor and hepatic lipid metabolism of golden pompano.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T00:55:35.060826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13502
  • Cytogenetic analysis of hybrids and hybrid triploids between the river
           puffer, Takifugu obscurus, and the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes
    • Authors: Gwang Yeol Yoo; Tae Ho Lee, Hyun Woo Gil, Sang Gu Lim, In-Seok Park
      Abstract: Cytogenetic analyses of the river puffer, Takifugu obscurus, the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes and hybrids produced between female T. obscurus and male T. rubripes and their hybrid triploids (produced by cold shock treatment at 4°C) were performed. T. obscurus had 2n = 44 chromosomes and 1.84 ± 0.019 pg DNA/cell, T. rubripes had 2n = 44 and 2.64 ± 0.015, the hybrids had 2n = 44 and 2.15 ± 0.010 and the hybrid triploids had 3n = 66 and 3.22 ± 0.010. The erythrocyte values of the hybrids were more similar to those for T. obscurus, whereas the hepatocyte, midgut and proximal tubule kidney cell values of the hybrids fell down between those for the parental species (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T05:12:48.218936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13493
  • Improved solution for vitrification of Prochilodus lineatus embryos based
           on the reduction in risk factors: Toxicity, osmotic responses and
    • Authors: Raphael da Silva Costa; Fabrício Marçal Silva Souza, José Augusto Senhorini, Douglas de Castro Ribeiro, Cristiane Bashiyo-Silva, Geovanna Carla Zacheo Coelho, Rosicleire Verissimo-Silveira, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira
      Abstract: The objective of our work was to describe a low toxicity cryoprotectant solution that allowed vitreous solid formation. Embryos of Prochilodus lineatus were submitted to sensitivity evaluations of six internal cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulphoxide – Me2SO, dimethyl acetamide – DMA, dimethyl formamide – DMF, methanol – MET, glycerol – GLY and 1,2-propanediol – PROP) at concentrations of 1–6 M; and two external cryoprotectants (sucrose – SUC and glucose – GLU) at concentrations of 0.1–1 M for 20 min. The capacity of the cryoprotectant solutions to exchange heat with the medium and to form glassy solids was evaluated by immersing 10 μl of cryoprotectant in liquid nitrogen. The PROP had a high survival rate at all concentrations evaluated, and was the only substance that allowed a vitreous solid formation. Thus, it is concluded that the PROP-6 M was the most adequate solution for embryonic vitrification processes, because heat exchange between the system (PROP 6 M/embryos/liquid nitrogen) was faster than for other cryoprotectants and combinations thereof; has low toxicity, promote high rates of dehydration in short periods, and reach the vitreous state, being a good candidate to be used in the tests of embryonic vitrification.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T05:10:33.765555-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13510
  • Growth and survival of the winged pearl oyster Pteria sterna (Gould, 1851)
           in suspended culture in the tropical Eastern Pacific: Influence of
           environmental factors
    • Authors: César Lodeiros; Daniel Rodríguez-Pesantes, Adrian Márquez, Jormil Revilla, Luis Freites, Carla Lodeiros-Chacón, Stanislaus Sonnenholzner
      Abstract: The growth, survival and influence of environmental factors were analysed in two cohorts of cultured Pteria sterna in Ayangue Bay, Province of Santa Elena, Ecuador (tropical Eastern Pacific). Juveniles representing cohorts I and II (8.4 ± 0.54 and 5.0 ± 0.17 mm in dorso-ventral axis) were deployed in November 2015 and February 2016, and grown in pearl nets suspended in a long line for 12 and 10 months respectively. The stocking density was monthly and bi-monthly reduced during sampling of individuals to determine growth in dorso-ventral shell axis, dry mass of shell, soft tissues and dry mass of fouling on shell. Water temperature, salinity, total seston and phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) were determined at the culture site. Results showed that P. sterna reached ~100 mm in length during the first year of culture. Although little negative influence of environmental factors was detected, high temperatures during the reproduction period can be the most negative influential trait. The highest tissue mass (6 g), which occurred at the 10th month of cultivation, as well as a high availability of spat by artificial collectors in the coastal waters, showed that the species can be considered a good candidate for aquaculture in the tropical eastern Pacific.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:25:32.103192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13514
  • Effects of dietary herbal formulae combined by Astragalus polysaccharides,
           chlorogenic acid and allicin in different combinations and proportions on
           growth performance, non-specific immunity, antioxidant status, vibriosis
           resistance and damage indexes of Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Hui Huang; Luqing Pan, Shanshan Pan, Mengsi Song
      Abstract: In this study, a feeding trial followed by a challenge test was performed to evaluate effects of six herbal formulae which were different combinations of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and allicin on growth performance, non-specific immune response, antioxidant capacity, disease resistance and biomolecule damage of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were fed seven diets, control diet (basal diet with no herbal formulae) and six herbal formula diets (G1–G6, basal diet supplemented with 0.1% APS + 0.05% allicin, 0.1% APS + 0.1% allicin, 0.1% CGA + 0.05% allicin, 0.1% CGA + 0. 1% allicin, 0.1% APS + 0.1% CGA and 0.1% APS + 0.1% CGA + 0.05% allicin respectively), for 21 days. After that, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi and then the cumulative mortality of shrimp was recorded for 7 days post challenge. The results showed that there were no significant differences in growth performance among all groups, while the non-specific immune responses and antioxidant indexes were significantly improved (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:20:44.589774-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13500
  • The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth
           performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing
           Atlantic salmon Salmo salar
    • Authors: Thomas Waldrop; Steven Summerfelt, Patricia Mazik, Christopher Good
      Abstract: Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in modern aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon. In our study, Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:20:24.432331-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13511
  • Effect of cannabis oil on growth performance, haematology and metabolism
           of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: I Patrick Saoud; Jessica Babikian, Nivin Nasser, Samer Monzer
      Abstract: Cannabis sativa is a plant that produces an oil with psychoactive and stress reduction effects and thus illegal in many nations. Lately, the beneficial properties of the plant extract are becoming better understood and perceptions are changing. As the aquaculture industry matures from a primitive extensive pond system to an industrialized intensive system, fish stress and disease incidence are increasing, with negative economic results. A nutritional ingredient that could reduce stress and disease incidence in aquacultured fish would thus be opportune. In the present work we investigated whether ether extracted cannabis oil would relieve stress, improve growth and feed conversion, and/or improve haematological indicators of disease resistance. Three diets were made to contain either soy oil, industrial hemp oil or cannabis oil and offered to tilapia for 8 weeks. At termination, survival, growth, feed conversion and blood parameters were assessed. Fish were returned to their tanks, offered the same feeds as during the experiment and respiration assessed. Cannabis extract was found to increase metabolism and thus increase feed conversion. On the other hand, cannabis had no effect on blood cell counts, total plasma protein, haematocrit or lysozyme activity. Results thus suggest that cannabis does not improve immune response of tilapia or body composition but does reduce growth rate by increasing metabolic rate.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T06:20:21.625594-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13512
  • Biochemical parameters in the blood of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata
           Linnaeus, 1758) supplemented with commercially available β-glucan-based
           product (IMUNO-2865®)
    • Authors: Ivan Župan; Suzana Tkalčić, Rozelindra Čož-Rakovac, Ivančica Strunjak-Perović, Natalija Topić-Popović, Sanja Babić, Maro Bujak, Tomislav Šarić
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a promising new immune stimulant in aquaculture (IMUNO-2865®) on biochemical parameters in sea bream during the winter stress period. A total of 640 sea bream were fed throughout 90 days with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 g (Group 4) of IMUNO-2865® kg−1 of feed. Samples were taken each month and 90 days after supplementation. No statistical differences among treatment groups were noticed for the following biochemical parameters: glucose (GLU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), plasma cholesterol (CHOL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea (URE) and creatinine (CREA). At the final sampling, total ammonia (NH3) was higher in Groups 3 and 4 compared to the control and the low supplementation group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T01:51:05.905455-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13509
  • Labeo rohita and Argulus siamensis infection: Host size, local
           inflammatory reaction and immunity modulate ectoparasite load on fish
    • Authors: Sonali Parida; Amruta Mohapatra, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Pramoda K Sahoo
      Abstract: Parasite species often show a heterogeneous, highly dispersed pattern of infestation within hosts. Varieties of factors including morphological, physiological, immunological and nutritional characteristics affect the infestation level of a specific parasite in homogenous pray. Limited attempts, however, have been made to explore such underlying drivers of infestation pattern. Here, three stages of Labeo rohita (fingerling, juvenile and pre-adult) were challenged with ectoparasite, Argulus siamensis in same aquaria. The parasite load on individuals was determined at 5-day interval for 1 month. The load was found to be highest in pre-adult stage followed by juveniles and fingerlings. On day 20 post infection, the load of parasite on pre-adult fish was high along with detectable skin damages. Skin tissues were collected for immune gene expression analysis and histopathology. Histological studies showed increased melanization in the dermis and mild inflammatory cellular reactions in pre-adult fish whereas, massive subcutaneous myositis with engorged blood vessels were observed in fingerlings. The expression levels of various inflammation and innate immune-related genes viz., interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-11, IL-15, natural killer enhancing factor, toll-like receptor 4, apolipoprotein A–I and immunoglobulin Z were significantly high in skin samples of infected fingerlings as compared to other two growth stages or controls of each stage. On the other hand, the expression of immunoglobulin M was down-regulated in all infected samples as compared to their respective controls. The results thus depict that local immuno-inflammatory response plays a significant role in determining susceptibility of host in intra-specific group, and has important implications for ecology and aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T01:31:09.262226-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13506
  • Effects of l-tryptophan on the performance, energy partitioning and
           endocrine response of Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus
           Selenka) exposed to crowding stress
    • Authors: Endong Zhang; Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao
      Abstract: The effects of dietary tryptophan on growth performance, energy budget and endocrine response of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were studied, to test whether the tryptophan could mitigate the crowding stress response of the sea cucumber. Four density treatments of the sea cucumber (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 1%, 3% and 5% l-tryptophan, respectively, for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCE) of A. japonicus decreased with increasing in the stocking densities but increased after supplementation of 1% and 3% tryptophan. The energy allocation of the A. japonicus was affected significantly by stocking density and dietary tryptophan treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:26:59.113499-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13478
  • Genetic identification of a newly synthetic allopolyploid strain with 206
           chromosomes in polyploid gibel carp
    • Authors: Meng Lu; Zhong-Wei Wang, Chong-Jiang Hu, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: A newly synthetic allopolyploid strain (SAS) was selected and established from gynogenetic offspring of gibel carp clone A+ with 156 chromosomes induced by common carp sperm with 50 chromosomes. In this study, the allopolyploid strain was detected to contain 206 chromosomes, and the growth trait was evaluated to have 25.15% growth faster than that of clone A+. Genetic marker analyses of transferrin (Tf) alleles, ITS1 sequences and mtDNA D-loop sequences indicated that the allopolyploid strain was synthetized from maternal gibel carp clone A+ and paternal common carp, and the synthetic chromosome sets were further confirmed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and chromosome localization of 45S rDNA. Significantly, the synthetic allopolyploid strain has tended to be stable by five successive generations of gynogenesis, because it still keeps unisexual reproduction mode of gynogenesis. Therefore, it will become a novel variety for gibel carp aquaculture in future.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T03:56:05.971854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13485
  • Mortality processes of hatchery-reared Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus
           orientalis (Temminck et Schlegel) larvae in relation to their piscivory
    • Authors: Yosuke Tanaka; Kazunori Kumon, Yuka Ishihi, Takeshi Eba, Akefumi Nishi, Hideki Nikaido, Satoshi Shiozawa
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: In mass culture of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, yolk-sac larvae of other species are fed as a major prey item to tuna larvae from 7 to 8 mm in total length. Marked growth variations in tuna larvae are frequently observed after feeding of yolk-sac larvae, and this variation in the growth of tuna larvae is subsequently a factor leading to the prevalence of cannibalistic attacks. To elucidate details of the mortality process of hatchery-reared tuna larvae after the initiation of yolk-sac larvae feeding, we compared the nutritional and growth histories of the surviving (live) tuna larvae to those of the dead fish, found dead on the bottom of the tank, as direct evidence of their mortality processes. Cause of mortality of tuna larvae 3 and 5 days after the initiation of feeding of yolk-sac larvae was assessed from nitrogen stable isotope and otolith microstructure analyses. Stable isotope analysis revealed that the live fish rapidly utilized prey fish larvae, but the dead fish had depended more on rotifers relative to the live fish 3 and 5 days after the initiation of feeding of yolk-sac larvae. The growth histories based on otolith increments were compared between the live and dead tuna larvae and indicated that the live fish showed significantly faster growth histories than dead fish. Our results suggest that fast-growing larvae at the onset of piscivory could survive in the mass culture tank of Pacific bluefin tuna and were characterized by growth-selective mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T01:32:41.086718-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13426
  • Effects of controlled air exposure on the survival, growth, condition,
           pathogen loads and refrigerated shelf life of eastern oysters
    • Authors: Jerome F La Peyre; Sandra M Casas, John E Supan
      Pages: 19 - 29
      Abstract: The benefits of exposing eastern oysters to air during commercial culture have not been well-characterized. An adjustable longline system (ALS) designed in Australia and recently adopted by the nascent aquaculture industry in the northern Gulf of Mexico, allows growing oysters at any position in the water column and is perfectly suited to study the benefits of air exposure. Four-month old diploid oysters were deployed in an ALS and divided into three groups: 1) oysters exposed to air daily for 8–12 hr during low tide, 2) oysters exposed to air weekly (~24 hr once a week), and 3) oysters kept subtidally. Oyster mortality and growth rates, Perkinsus marinus load and condition index were then determined every 3 months over 2 years, while refrigerated shelf life and Vibrio vulnificus load were determined in summer and early fall of the second year. Summer mortalities were delayed, P. marinus infection intensities tended to be lower and condition index was significantly higher in oysters exposed to air daily compared with oysters exposed to air weekly or held subtidally. Shell heights of oysters exposed to air daily were lower for most of the study due to a lower growth rate during the initial sampling interval following deployment. No consistent differences were found in V. vulnificus loads or refrigerated shelf lives between the groups. It is recommended that ALS be set so that oysters are kept subtidally fall through spring to promote growth, and exposed to air daily during summer to delay P. marinus proliferation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T01:35:36.712778-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13427
  • Effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid sources, microalgae meal and oil,
           on growth, fatty acid composition and docosahexaenoic acid retention of
           orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides
    • Authors: Meng-Chou Lee; Li-Chao Zhuo, Yu-Hung Lin
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of Aurantiochytrium spp. microalgae meal and oil as dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources on the growth, fatty acid composition and DHA retention of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Dietary fish oil was replaced with microalgae meal or oil to provide an equal amount of DHA as a fish oil-containing basal diet. In total, three experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial wt: 8.48 ± 0.06 g) in a recirculating system for 8 weeks. The weight gain and feed efficiency of the fish did not differ significantly among the experimental diets. The fatty acid composition of the whole body of the fish generally reflected the composition of their diet. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid in the whole body was higher in the fish fed the fish meal control diet than in those fed the two experimental diets The fish fed the control diet and those fed the diet containing microalgae oil exhibited higher DHA concentrations than did the fish fed the diet containing microalgae meal. The whole-body DHA retention was the highest in the fish fed the diet with microalgae oil, followed by the fish fed the control diet. The lowest whole-body DHA retention was observed in the fish fed the diet containing microalgae meal. The results suggested that the oil from Aurantiochytrium spp. microalgae can be used as DHA source for the grouper. DHA utilization by the fish was higher when the diet was supplemented with microalgae oil than with dry microalgae meal.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T03:47:12.669931-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13429
  • Early assessment of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) spawning dynamics
           by mini-broodstocks
    • Authors: Carmen García-Fernández; José A Sánchez, Gloria Blanco
      Pages: 36 - 47
      Abstract: The implementation of any sustainable breeding program requires a maximization of effective size (Ne) to maintain inbreeding rate at minimum levels. However, the control of Ne remains a major challenge for those species whose reproduction in captivity is based on a spawning strategy where there is no control over the established matings. The present study aims to assess the spawning dynamic of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) at different dates from two mini-broodstocks (4 ♀ and 4 ♂). Here we report the use of a simple protocol based on the genotyping of fertilized eggs from a reduced set of microsatellite loci which provides a quick evaluation of daily spawning in terms of family structuring (number of active breeders and number and family size). According to our results, the daily spawning dynamics is characterized by a fluctuation in the number of active breeders, reaching maximum values (until 100%) during peak production phase. However, the proportion of possible mating (families) in a single daily spawning never exceeded more than 81%. Unbalanced parental contributions were highly frequent, with extreme cases involving the assignment of 50%–90% of the offspring to a single family. Therefore, the use of mini-broodstocks and the grouping of spawning harvested at different dates are proposed as strategies to minimize the inbreeding risk by providing a more optimal pattern of family structuring (increase in the number of families obtained and a more balanced parental contributions) that entails a more conservative Ne/N ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T01:40:26.131075-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13430
  • Detection of the white spot syndrome virus in zooplankton samples
           collected off the coast of Sonora, Mexico
    • Authors: Marco Antonio Porchas-Cornejo; Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, Francisco Javier Álvarez-Tello, Marcel Martínez-Porchas, Luis Rafael Martínez-Córdova, Juana López-Martínez, Ricardo García-Morales
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in zooplankton organisms collected from an important shrimp-culture area of the Gulf of California. Environmental water parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH) were monitored, and zooplankton was collected. Samples were sectioned according to taxonomic groups (from Phylum to Family) for the detection of WSSV via PCR. A total of 52 zooplankton taxa were identified, of which crustaceans were the most abundant (82%). From the 228 WSSV diagnoses performed, 35% were positive. Moreover, from 32 taxa recorded at least one positive result was observed during the study, and only 13 were negative in all tests. The highest prevalence was observed in three taxa of copepods, brachyurous and bivalves. However, considering prevalence and frequency of occurrence, it was determined that up to 12 taxa could be considered as high-risk vectors. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the number of diagnoses per station with biovolume (rs = 0.817) and taxa richness (rs = 0.995). The results suggest that zooplankton diversity and abundance are associated with virus dispersion; moreover, these results demonstrated that the dispersion capacity of the virus through different taxa has been probably underestimated in recent years.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T01:35:27.913987-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13431
  • Performance of a photo-heterotrophic, hypersaline system for intensive
           cultivation of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with minimal water
           replacement in lined ponds using a stochastic approach
    • Authors: Luis Daniel Moreno-Figueroa; José Naranjo-Páramo, Alfredo Hernández-Llamas, Mayra Vargas-Mendieta, José Andrés Hernández-Gurrola, Humberto Villarreal-Colmenares
      Pages: 57 - 67
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in an intensive photo-heterotrophic hypersaline system with minimal seawater replacement, and establish relationships between parameters of a stochastic production model and relevant water quality variables. Six experimental 1000 m2 lined ponds were stocked at a density of 120 shrimp m−2 for a 105-day trial. Salinity increased from 37 to 45 ± 2 g/L, and the water level was maintained with the weekly addition of filtered seawater, equivalent to 1.6% per day. The stochastic model predicted that, at harvest, there is 95% confidence that the system produces between 12.1 and 14.7 t/ha with a mean final individual weight of 13.1 g and a mean survival of 84.2%. Sensitivity analyses showed that dissolved oxygen and individual final weight of shrimp were the main variables influencing yield variance. Nitrogenous compounds were maintained between optimal cultivation levels (NH3–NH4+ = 0.73 ± 0.43 mg/L, N–NO2− = 0.09 ± 0.05 mg/L, N–NO3− = 3.22 ± 0.11 mg/L). Heterotrophic bacteria (6.6 ± 3.4 × 105 CFU/ml) and chlorophyll-α concentration (108.5 ± 80.2 μg/L) showed a similar development pattern, indicating a strong relationship between bacteria and microalgae during cultivation. Vibrio spp. concentrations were low (1.24 ± 1.42 × 103 CFU/ml). It was shown that the photo-heterotrophic system could be used in hypersaline conditions, typical of semi-arid regions, to consistently produce between 12.1 and 14.7 t/ha in 15 weeks.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T04:10:33.845607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13432
  • First feeding of diploid and triploid yellowtail tetra Astyanax
           altiparanae: An initial stage for application in laboratory studies
    • Authors: Rafaela Manchin Bertolini; José Augusto Senhorini, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, Wellington Adriano Moreira Peres, Regiane Cristina da Silva, George Shigueki Yasui
      Pages: 68 - 74
      Abstract: In this study, the aim was to establish a protocol for first feeding of diploid and triploid yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae in laboratory conditions. The fry were fed with five different diets: (i) Artemia franciscana nauplii, (ii) plankton, (iii) dry food, (iv) Artemia franciscana nauplii + plankton, and (v) Artemia nauplii + plankton + dry food. Additionally, the growth and survival rates of diploid and triploid individuals were also evaluated. On day 10, the length of the fish between the treatments differed significantly (p = .0001) and ranged from 4.07 ± 0.06 mm (dry food) to 8.50 ± 0.64 mm (plankton + Artemia). The sizes of the fish increased with time, except for the fish fed with dry food. The survival rates were similar for the fish fed with the four diets and ranged from 80.7 ± 5.4% (dry food + plankton + Artemia to 92.0 ± 1.6% (plankton + Artemia), but differed from the fish fed with dry food (17.7 ± 5.8%, p = .0017). Diploids and triploids did not present differences on day 0 (p = .2252) and on day 10 (p = .4844) when the fish presented 6.77 ± 0.25 mm and 6.54 ± 0.15 mm respectively. Survival of diploids (87.3 ± 5.13%) and triploids (74.67 ± 2.30%) were also similar (p = .0285). These data are innovative and useful for establishing protocols for this species in both academic and applied sciences.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T00:00:28.490298-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13433
  • Quality assessment of newly hatched mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae
    • Authors: Emilia T Quinitio; Joana Joy Cruz-Huervana, Fe D Parado-Estepa
      Pages: 75 - 80
      Abstract: Starvation and exposure to formalin were investigated as possible stress tests for evaluating the quality of mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae. For the starvation stress test, newly hatched zoeae stocked in 150-ml containers were either starved or fed rotifers. Similarly, newly hatched zoeae were stocked in containers with seawater of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 mg/L formalin for the formalin stress test. The zoeae from the same batches were used for seed production to monitor their performance and validate the results of stress tests. Starvation was found to be unsuitable for larval quality evaluation. However, the impact of initial food deprivation on the newly hatched larvae indicates that feeding immediately after hatching is necessary for mud crab larvae. Exposure of larvae to 40 mg/L formalin for 3 hr appeared to be a reliable and practical method for larval quality assessment as the survival of larvae in the mass production tanks validated the classification of good and poor quality batches in the stress tests. On this basis, a hatchery operator can decide which batch should be cultured further. Finally, there appears to be a link between the quality of larvae and the performance at the megalopa and early juvenile crabs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T04:15:57.54157-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13434
  • Histopathological changes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii (de Man 1879) fed with probiotic Bacillus licheniformis upon
           challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus
    • Authors: Ranjit Kumar Nadella; Raman Ram Prakash, Gyanaranjan Dash, Sreenath Kannanchery Ramanathan, Lalitha Velayudhan Kuttanappilly, Mukteswar Prasad Mothadaka
      Pages: 81 - 92
      Abstract: The effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis on the histopathological changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles (4.0 ± 0.02 g) challenged with known pathogenic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus are reported. Two isocaloric basal diets supplemented with probiotic bacteria B. licheniformis (1.0 × 109 cfu/g feed) and other without probiotic supplementation were fed to the M. rosenbergii juveniles for 45 days. The histological observations revealed no significant changes in the hepatopancreas and gut tissues of both the experimental and the control groups which indicate that the present bacterium is a safe candidate probiont for the host. Prawns were challenged with V. alginolyticus after 45 days of feeding with probiotic diet. The histopathological studies of the hepatopancreas revealed that M. rosenbergii fed with probiotic-supplemented diet showed less changes as compared to the prawns fed with control diet on second and fourth day of post-experimental challenge with V. alginolyticus. Histopathological observations revealed that the gills of the prawns fed with control diet were severely affected in comparison to the prawns fed with probiotic-supplemented diet after challenging with V. alginolyticus. Results from this study revealed the improved protection by dietary incorporation of B. licheniformis in reducing the histopathological manifestations due to V. alginolyticus infection in freshwater prawn.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T02:36:28.159212-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13436
  • The effects of temperature and photoperiod on egg hatching success, egg
           production and population growth of the calanoid copepod, Acartia grani
           (Calanoida: Acartiidae)
    • Authors: Natacha Nogueira; Bernardo Sumares, Carlos Alberto Pestana Andrade, António Afonso
      Pages: 93 - 103
      Abstract: Calanoid copepods, including species of the genus Acartia, are commonly used as larval diets for marine finfish. This study aimed to determine the separate effects of water temperature (18, 22, 24, 28° ± 0.5°C) and photoperiod (24L:0D; 18L:6D; 12L:12D; 8L:18D; 0L:24D) on Acartia grani egg production (EP), hatching rate (EHR) and population growth. Egg production rate was not affected by the two abiotic parameters. A. grani eggs incubated at T24°C and T28°C were the first to achieve 50% hatching rate (23–25 hr), with significant differences at the end of the experiment (48 hr) between T28°C treatment (EHR 88 ± 5%) and T18°C treatment (EHR 65 ± 2%). However, different temperature regimes did not affect final number of individuals in population growth experiment. Still, when eggs were excluded from data, population at lower temperatures (18°C) was mainly composed by the nauplii stage (72%), while at higher temperatures (24°C and 28°C) more than 60% of the population was composed by copepodites and adults. A. grani subjected to long-day photoperiods had significantly lower EHR (16.7% at 24L:0D; 20.8% at 18L:6D) than at short-day photoperiods (52.6% at 6L:18D; 50.0% at 0L:24D). In population growth experiment, eggs were the most common life stage after 12-day culture. Lowest population number was found at constant light conditions (665.0 ± 197.1), suggesting higher metabolic rates and depletion of energy reserves in long-day conditions. This study expanded knowledge on the biological response of A. grani to separate temperature and photoperiod regimes, and provided ground to improve the culture of this potential life feed species for hatcheries.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:35:29.09115-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13437
  • Effects of egg aging on the metabolites of ovarian fluid in rainbow trout,
           Oncorhynchus mykiss
    • Authors: Saeed Hajirezaee; Hossein Khara, Amirreza Abed-Elmdoust, Ahmad Rafieepour, Ruhollah Rahimi
      Pages: 104 - 110
      Abstract: Nuclear magnetic resonance -based metabolomics was applied to study effects of egg aging on ovarian fluid metabolites in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The eggs of three females were pooled and then assigned to three plastic vials for 18 days in vitro storage at 4°C. Ovarian fluid samples were taken 0, 6, 12 and 18 days after storage. Three groups of metabolites including amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites were found to change during storage period. The glucose levels of ovarian fluid showed significant decreases on days 12 and 18 after storage (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T23:50:24.513855-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13438
  • Depletion study and estimation of withdrawal periods for florfenicol and
           florfenicol amine in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
    • Authors: Tamires Valim Marques; Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Rafael Simões Coelho Barone, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino, Susanne Rath
      Pages: 111 - 119
      Abstract: The intensive production of farmed fish is at a global all-time high, and the control of bacteria proliferation in fish farms requires the frequent use of antimicrobials. This practice raises important environmental concerns related to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria strains. Only a few antimicrobial drugs have been approved for use in aquaculture, one of which is florfenicol. This work studies the depletion and withdrawal period of florfenicol and its main metabolite, florfenicol amine, in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), a neotropical characin widely farmed in the southern hemisphere. Juvenile pacu (average weight of 724 g) were stocked in a closed-loop laboratory system with controlled water temperature (25.8°C), and were fed for 10 consecutive days with a diet containing an intended dose of 10 mg/florfenicol per kg bw. Muscle and skin tissues were collected at 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 days post-treatment, and florfenicol and florfenicol amine were quantified using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The limits of quantitation for florfenicol and florfenicol amine were 10 ng/g in muscle and 50 ng/g in skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 1000 ng/g for the sum of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in muscle with skin in natural proportions a withdrawal period of 5 days (water temperature 25.8°C) or 129 degree days was calculated on the basis of the upper limit of the one-sided 95% confidence interval for the 99th percentile derived from the residue depletion study.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T06:41:00.261709-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13439
  • Evaluation of some intestinal cytokines genes expression and serum innate
           immune parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed dietary loquat
           (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract
    • Authors: Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Hassan Khodadadian Zou, Hien Van Doan, Hamed Kolangi Miandare, Seyyed Morteza Hoseini
      Pages: 120 - 127
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to illustrate the effects of dietary loquat leaf extract (LLE) on the expression of some intestinal cytokines as well as serum innate immune parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. The fish were fed with experimental diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.25% (0.25LLE), 0.5% (0.5LLE) and 1% (1LLE) LLE over a 7-week period. At the end of the trial, the serum lysozyme (Lys) activity, ACH50, total Ig as well as the expression of IL1B, IL8, TNF-alpha, LYZ and TGF-β in intestine were evaluated. The results showed that administration of 0.5% or 1% LLE significantly increased serum total Ig. However, in case of serum Lys activity significant elevation was observed just in fish fed 0.5% LLE. Also, supplementation of diet with LLE significantly increased ACH50 compared to the control group, regardless of inclusion levels. Gene expression studies revealed upregulation of TNF-alpha, IL1B, IL8 and LYZ in intestine of fish fed LLE. However, the effects varied dependent on LLE levels and the tested immune related gene. Also, in case of TGF-β significant downregulation was observed just in 1% LLE treatment. In conclusion, dietary LLE supplementation significantly upregulated immune related genes in intestine and improves innate immune responses. Altogether, LLE can be recommended as fish immunostimulant in early stage of carp culture.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T02:21:12.325772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13440
  • Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) hydrolate as sedative of tambaqui (Colossoma
           macropomum) juveniles in simulated transport conditions
    • Authors: Hugo Napoleão Pereira Silva; Elen Monique de Oliveira Sousa, Janna Laely dos Santos Maia, Mônica Tatiane Lima Pinheiro, Soraia Valeria de Oliveira Coelho Lameirão, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão, José Guilherme Soares Maia, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Lenise Vargas Flores Silva
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: Lippia alba hydrolate (LAH) is produced as a secondary product in essential oil extraction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of LAH in a simulation of the transport of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) juveniles. A series of 17 hr simulations were performed using load densities of 30, 60 and 90 juveniles per L and four LAH concentrations of 0.4%, 1%, 2% and 5%, with a control of just water. Fish survival, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, ammonia excretion, alkalinity water hardness and net Na+, K+, Cl- fluxes, were all evaluated before and after the transport simulations. Mucous cell densities in the gills were also determined microscopically, post simulation. The results showed that addition of 5% LAH achieved better survival during the simulation than the water control. Dissolved oxygen was significantly lower with an increased load density. Also, conductivity, NH4 excretion and net ionic fluxes (K+ and Cl−) were lower with 5% LAH, although mainly where higher load densities were tested. Mucous cell density was lower in LAH concentrations of 2% and 5%, again with higher load densities. In view of these findings, it is suggested that 5% LAH is an effective sedative for use in the transport of tambaqui, mainly with high load densities. This work is the first study of LAH and highlights its potential applications in aquaculture management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T01:20:32.662333-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13441
  • Effect of thermal stress on Hsp70 gene expression and female reproductive
           performance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
    • Authors: Aslah Mohamad; Aziz Arshad, Yeong Yik Sung, Safiah Jasmani
      Pages: 135 - 150
      Abstract: Using Hsp70 as a biomarker, thermal stress impinges on reproductive organs, ovary and hepatopancreas were being analyzed by determining the expression of Hsp70 mRNA inside the organs after the adult inter-molt females were subjected to thermal treatment at 35, 30 and 28°C (Control). Results showed the expression of Hsp70 mRNA under thermal treatment of 35°C after 2 hr recovery in ovary were upregulated at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hr and 30 days compared to control whereas in hepatopancreas under similar treatment, the expression of Hsp70 mRNA were significantly higher than control at 6, 24 hr and 30 days. Frequency of reproductive molt at 35°C showed the ovary of females were failed to develop and only entered common molt along three consecutive molt cycles. For 30°C thermal treatment, the expression of Hsp70 mRNA was significantly higher than control after 2 hr recovery but returned to normal afterwards until 30 days’ thermal treatment. Maternal heat shock for 2 hr at 35°C were found to give significantly lower frequency of reproductive molt and longer duration of ovarian development and incubation period whereas maternal heat shock for 2 hr at 30°C gave lower frequency of reproductive molt, slower development of embryo and lower hatching success compared to untreated control. This study suggests that short and long-term thermal stress at 30 and 35°C were found to affect the induction of Hsp70 mRNA in reproductive organs of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and also influence their reproductive performance.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T00:06:14.677816-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13442
  • Growth, enzymatic glutathione peroxidase activity and biochemical status
           of juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fed dietary fermented lupin meal
           supplemented with organic selenium
    • Authors: Ilham Ilham; Fitriska Hapsari, Ravi Fotedar
      Pages: 151 - 164
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of high level of lupin meal (LM) supplemented with organic selenium (OS) on the growth and blood biochemistry of barramundi (Lates calcarifer), four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were prepared, containing either non-fermented or fermented LM, and either supplemented with 2 mg OS/kg (LM, LMOS, FLM and FLMOS), or not. A fishmeal (FM)-based diet formulated for juvenile barramundi was used as a control diet. Fish (initial mean weight of 5.88 g) were triplicated and fed the test diets for 75 days. The findings demonstrated that growth performance of fish fed with the FLM and FLMOS diets were similar to fish fed with the FM diet (p > .05). The antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and haemoglobin (Hb) of fish fed with the FLMOS diet were significantly higher than that of FM-fed fish (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:50:39.382672-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13444
  • Overall development of a bioprocess for the outdoor production of
           Nannochloropsis gaditana for aquaculture
    • Authors: Karina Riveros; Claudia Sepulveda, Jazmín Bazaes, Paola Marticorena, Carlos Riquelme, Gabriel Acién
      Pages: 165 - 176
      Abstract: In this paper, a systematic methodology is shown for the scaling-up of Nannochloropsis gaditana production for aquaculture uses. First, an adequate culture medium was developed, prepared using fertilizers instead of pure chemicals. Subsequently, the performance of N. gaditana was modelled as a function of average irradiance; this model being validated in continuous culture experiments. The model was used to determine the optimal dilution rate as well as the expected biomass concentration and productivity at optimal conditions. Finally, outdoor experiments were performed to confirm the model's validity and to determine optimal conditions at real production step. Biomass productivity values of up to 0.08 g L−1 day−1 were obtained at an optimal dilution rate of 0.25 per day in 0.2 m wide flat-panel reactors using culture medium containing 0.4 g/L NO−3 and 0.034 g/L·PO4−3. Fish trials with Atlantic Salmon demonstrated that the inclusion of produced biomass into fed increase the final weight up to 5%, thus confirming the adequacy of the biomass produced for aquaculture uses. The growth model and the scaling-up strategy proposed here are necessary to develop real industrial-scale processes capable of supplying microalgal biomass to the aquaculture markets, which in turn require a guaranteed supply and quality of the raw materials provided.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T05:51:04.078299-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13445
  • Growth, histology, ultrastructure and expression of MITF and astacin in
           the pigmentation stages of green, white and purple morphs of the sea
           cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
    • Authors: Lili Xing; Lina Sun, Shilin Liu, Zixuan Wan, Xiaoni Li, Ting Miao, Libin Zhang, Yucen Bai, Hongsheng Yang
      Pages: 177 - 187
      Abstract: The body colour of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), is an important trait affecting the price and taste of its products; the rare white and purple colour types are favoured and are more expensive in China. Identification of factors that may contribute to the differences among white, green and purple sea cucumbers will provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of the rare colour morphs. In this study, the growth, histology, ultrastructure and expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and astacin of two newly discovered white and purple colour morphs were investigated and compared with the common green morph, in the same breeding environment. At 50 days old, the growth and survival rates and the extent of pigmentation were the highest in purple, then green colour morphs and were lowest in white morphs. The white morph had fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes compared with the green and purple colour morphs. MITF and astacin expression, which are necessary for the formation of melanin and astaxanthin, respectively, were highest in purple morphs and lowest in white morphs. In addition, there were significant differences in growth rates and expression of MITF and astacin among early, mid and late pigmentation stages of each colour morph. The results suggested that growth and survival rates were highest in purple sea cucumber and lowest in white sea cucumber. Epidermis thickness and melanin content may be the newfound factors contributed to the differences in growth and survival rate among three colour morphs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T02:31:42.27957-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13446
  • The impact of hibernation and arousal on energy metabolism and antioxidant
           defenses in leech (Whitmania pigra)
    • Authors: Jia Wang; Hongzhuan Shi, Qiaosheng Guo, Fei Liu, Shimeng Yan, Daoxin Dai, Manjun Wu
      Pages: 188 - 196
      Abstract: Whitmania pigra is an important medicinal resource that is widely farmed in aquaculture in Asia, and a decrease in body weight occurring during hibernation and hibernation lasting long time has serious impacts on production efficiency in aquaculture system. We examined energy metabolic and antioxidant enzymes of intestine from a hibernator (W. pigra) over cycles of hibernation-arousal. Results of the study demonstrated that hibernation in W. pigra was characterized by a profound decrease in energy metabolic during deep hibernation that was interrupted by rewarming arousal. And energy metabolic increased significantly during the rewarming arousal. Regulated suppression of energy metabolism probably contributes to energy savings. Oxidative stress decreased during deep hibernation along with a reduction in oxidative metabolism, but increased during entrance into hibernation and arousal from hibernation. This up-regulation of antioxidant defense (AD) during arousal was interpreted as protection of the intestine against oxidative damage to come with the enormous increase in metabolic activity during arousal from hibernation, and the up-regulation of AD during entrance into hibernation was interpreted that leech are exposed to significant stresses (cold acclimation) that must be dealt with appropriately to avoid irreversible tissue damage. It can be concluded that W. pigra has a strong AD system that protects it from the injurious effects of free radicals either during periods of entrance into hibernation and arousal. These results indicate the adaptive mechanism of hibernation that may be applied to increase production efficiency of leech by interrupting or shortening hibernation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T23:40:39.429921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13447
  • Comparative genomic insights into the taxonomy of Edwardsiella tarda
           isolated from different hosts: Marine, freshwater and migratory fish
    • Authors: Jianchun Shao; Qingxiang Guo, Ruixue Hu, Zemao Gu
      Pages: 197 - 204
      Abstract: Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, has been isolated from many animal species worldwide, especially fish species. Its broad host range indicates the diversity in taxonomy, which attracted the attention of many researchers. Here, we added genome of E. tarda strain isolated from freshwater fish to comparative genomics study for the first time. We sequenced and assembled the genome of E. tarda ASE201307 which was isolated from freshwater Asian swamp eel. ASE201307 genome contained a single circular chromosome of 3.68M with G+C 57.09% content. Comparative genomics including SNP calling, synteny block, Core/Pan genes analysis and phylogeny analysis was conducted among ASE201307 and other Edwardsiella strains isolated from different fish species. Results of SNP analysis and synteny block demonstrated the close relative of ASE201307, FL95.01 and DT which were all isolated from freshwater fish. In further analysis heat map of dispensable genes and phylogenetic tree, all E. tarda strains were divided into two groups. One was isolated from freshwater fish and the other was isolated from marine/migratory fish. Based on all studies above, we proposed the living environment of hosts as a new taxonomic character and divided E. tarda isolated from diseased fish into freshwater group and marine/migratory group.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T00:21:59.529579-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13448
  • Exploring the efficacy of vaccine techniques in juvenile sablefish,
           Anoplopoma fimbria
    • Authors: Mary R. Arkoosh; Joseph P. Dietrich, Mary Beth Rew, Wendy Olson, Graham Young, Frederick W. Goetz
      Pages: 205 - 216
      Abstract: Wild sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, are a valuable commercial species whose populations are declining. Fortunately, sablefish are excellent species for commercial aquaculture. Sablefish raised under high-density conditions in the marine environment require the use of efficacious vaccines to control disease. Sablefish impacted by disease in net pens may have poor flesh quality and high mortality during grow-out. As a result, disease can cause financial hardship for sablefish aquaculture operators. The efficacy of a multivalent vaccine preparation for sablefish, administered either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by immersion, against atypical and typical Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agents of atypical and typical furunculosis, respectively, was examined. A. salmonicida can affect sablefish at any age and size. Consequently, an efficacious vaccine that can be appropriately and optimally administered to all life stages is desirable. Sablefish vaccinated by immersion at ~1.5 or ~4.5 g with a whole-cell multivalent vaccine were not protected against either typical or atypical A. salmonicida. Factors that may have contributed to the ineffectiveness of the immersion vaccine are discussed. By contrast, the relative per cent survival (RPS) or potency of the whole-cell multivalent vaccine injected i.p. in juvenile sablefish at ~50 g against typical and atypical A. salmonicida was 94.3% and 81.7% respectively. The high RPS values indicated that the vaccine successfully initiated an immune response in sablefish upon a second encounter with the pathogen.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T04:10:34.896845-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13449
  • Parentage determination of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain using
           microsatellite markers
    • Authors: Xiaojun Xu; Guizhong Wang, Chaoshu Zeng, Shaojing Li
      Pages: 217 - 221
      Abstract: This study evaluated the properties of nine Scylla paramamosain microsatellite loci screened by us previously for inclusion in a parentage assignment marker suite. These nine highly polymorphic markers (mean He=0.847 and PIC=0.830) were determined as being suitable for parentage assignment. Simulations based on allele frequency data from 15 known maternal families (165 individuals) demonstrated that at least four loci were required to assign>95% of offspring to maternal parents with 95% confidence. In actual parentage assignments, all progenies were assigned to the maternal parents with six or more loci, which was similar to the simulation predictions. Our results suggest that this set of microsatellites provide a powerful and efficient tool for identifying pedigree information for selective breeding programmes of S. paramamosain.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T04:55:21.155108-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13450
  • Production of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus grown in BFT using two
           aeration systems
    • Authors: Jesus J Malpartida Pasco; Jose W Carvalho Filho, Carlos M de Espirito Santo, Luis Vinatea
      Pages: 222 - 231
      Abstract: Aeration systems used in BFT farming need to meet the dissolved oxygen demand from the biota present in the tank, as well as to keep the particulate matter in suspension. In BFT systems, it is common to use blowers, but the choice of an aerator with better efficiency in oxygen transfer and in electric energy consumption is indispensable. The vertical pump model (VPM) aerator is the most used in intensive tilapia production systems in southern Brazil. The objective of this research was to verify if this aerator model can support Nile tilapia farming under BFT system without producing negative impacts on the functionality neither of the biofloc nor in the production indexes. Simultaneous farming on BFT using blowers served as control. Oreochromis niloticus juveniles with an initial density of 7 kg/m3 were used. After 56 days of farming, the VPM aerator obtained significantly better results, both in water quality parameters and in production indexes, when compared to those obtained in the control treatment. The temperature was higher in the treatment of the blowers due to the lower thermal exchange between the atmospheric air and the tank water. Although the VPM caused lower temperatures, it obtained a productivity of 21.2 kg/m3, compared to 20.2 kg/m3 of the blowers. It was concluded that the use of the VPM aerator had no negative influence on both the formation and functionality of the biofloc, obtaining even higher production rates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T00:36:48.532337-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13451
  • Fisheries or aquaculture' Unravelling key determinants of livelihoods
           in the Brazilian semi-arid region
    • Authors: Priscila F M Lopes; Adriana R Carvalho, Sebastián Villasante, Gustavo Gonzaga Henry-Silva
      Pages: 232 - 242
      Abstract: In impoverished semi-arid regions in the world, reservoirs serve multiple purposes, including food provision through fisheries and aquaculture. Yet, the socio-economic benefits of promoting both activities remain unclear. We independently assessed the socio-economic benefits generated from fisheries and aquaculture, in two reservoirs in the Brazilian semi-arid region (June 2013 to June 2014). These reservoirs produced 27.75 ton of farmed tilapia over a year (USD Purchasing Power Parities [PPP] 88,778.73) and provided at least 16.5 ton of fish through fisheries (USD PPP 37,557.81), based on data from four farmer associations. Our input–output model revealed that the local economy depends on both activities, which, therefore, contribute similarly to providing goods and services to different branches. Aquaculture generated much higher revenues (seven times) than fisheries, but also much higher losses (the most successful farm yielded an average income of USD PPP 592.41 monthly). Still, there were no statistical differences in income among the compared associations. Fisheries provided very but guaranteed income (USD PPP 311.02 ± 82.94) and employed over three times as many people and contributed much more (>3 times) to food security than aquaculture. Encouraging aquaculture through specific policies while overlooking fisheries is not advisable because poor fishers would not be able to deal with unpredictable outcomes and it would put their food security at risk. However, if initial external support is provided to fishers in order to buffer large losses, aquaculture could represent a way out of poverty by generating an opportunity for larger gains, as long as potential negative ecological impacts of aquaculture are accounted for.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T00:50:26.799803-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13452
  • The observed oogenesis impairment in greater amberjack Seriola dumerili
           (Risso, 1810) reared in captivity is not related to an insufficient liver
           transcription or oocyte uptake of vitellogenin
    • Authors: Chrysovalentinos Pousis; Constantinos C Mylonas, Caterina De Virgilio, Gemma Gadaleta, Nicoletta Santamaria, Letizia Passantino, Rosa Zupa, Maria Papadaki, Ioannis Fakriadis, Rosalia Ferreri, Aldo Corriero
      Pages: 243 - 252
      Abstract: The greater amberjack Seriola dumerili is an excellent candidate for the Mediterranean aquaculture, due to its large body size and high growth rate, as well as its high flesh quality and commercial value worldwide. For its successful incorporation in the aquaculture industry, an in-depth understanding of the reproductive function of the species under rearing conditions is necessary, since completion of oogenesis in captivity is currently a bottleneck for the commercial production of the species. Liver and ovary samples from wild and captive-reared greater amberjack females were collected at three different phases of the reproductive cycle: early gametogenesis (EARLY, late April-early May), advanced gametogenesis (ADVANCED, late May-early June) and spawning (SPAWNING, late June-July). The cDNAs of three vitellogenins (VtgA, VtgB and VtgC) were partially sequenced and a qRT-PCR for their expression was used to compare ovarian maturity stage and liver vitellogenin transcript levels between wild and captive-reared individuals. An extensive atresia of late vitellogenic follicles, which prevented any further oocyte development and spawning was observed in captive-reared individuals during the ADVANCED phase. The expression levels of the three vitellogenins, as well as the amount of yolk globules in vitellogenic oocytes, did not differ significantly between captive-reared and wild females, indicating that the observed oogenesis impairment in greater amberjack reared in captivity was not related to an insufficient liver synthesis or a reduced oocyte uptake of vitellogenin.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T00:25:53.831785-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13453
  • Glucose transporters in pearl gentian grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
           ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂): Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue
           distribution and their expressions in response to dietary carbohydrate
    • Authors: Songlin Li; Ziqiang Li, Chunyan Sang, Jiacan Zhang, Naisong Chen, Xuxiong Huang
      Pages: 253 - 264
      Abstract: The glucose transporters (GLUTs) play vital role in mediating the glucose uptake process, the movement of glucose across plasma membranes. In this study, three GLUTs, GLUT1, GLUT2 and GLUT4 were cloned and characterized form pearl gentian grouper, a hybrid grouper, and their expressions in response to dietary carbohydrate level (8.02%, 11.89% and 16.08%) were investigated after feeding. The full-length cDNA of GLUT1, GLUT2 and GLUT4 were 2,104, 3,759 and 2,815 bp, respectively, encoding a putative protein of 491, 508 and 505 amino acids respectively. The results of sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that grouper GLUTs were highly conserved and clustered together with their corresponding teleost orthologues, rather than mammals. In addition, GLUT1 was ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissues with relative high expressions in heart and brain. GLUT2 is relatively abundant in some certain tissues that release glucose, such as liver and intestine, and GLUT4 was expressed primarily in muscle and eye. The elevated dietary carbohydrate level had no significant difference on the expression of GLUT1 in grouper liver. The expression of GLUT2 in grouper liver was significantly up-regulated with the increasing dietary carbohydrate from 8.02% to 11.89%, and therefore down-regulated significantly. Meanwhile, the expression of GLUT4 in grouper muscle increased significantly with increasing dietary carbohydrate. Results of this study indicate that the up-regulation of GLUTs in fish contribute to maintain glucose equilibrium to some extent when fish were fed with high carbohydrate diets.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T23:25:39.016293-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13455
  • Genetic variation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Pacific white
           shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) culture of Thailand
    • Authors: Patharapol Piamsomboon; Tidaporn Chaweepack, Jee Eun Han, Kathy Fengjyu Tang, Janenuj Wongtavatchai
      Pages: 265 - 272
      Abstract: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and has caused significant economic losses in the shrimp farming industry in Thailand. Genotyping analysis was done in 124 WSSV isolates from cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. These samples were obtained during 2007–2014 from eight provinces in Thailand. We investigated five variable loci in the virus genome: deletions in two variable regions, VR14/15 and VR23/24, and three variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in open reading frame (ORF) 75, 125 and 94. WSSV genotype was characterized as (X14/15, X23/24) (N75-N125-N94) where X is the number of base pair deletion in the variable region and N is the number of repeat units (RUs) in a specific ORF. The deletion pattern in VR14/15 and VR23/24 regions characterized three WSSV genotypes. The most prevalent genotype was (595014/15, 1097123/24), and it was found in all studied areas. At least 33 genotypes of WSSV were analysed based on 3 VNTR loci, indicating that the VNTRs of WSSV genome are highly variable. From 124 WSSV samples, two samples presented the characteristic of all five variable loci similar to WSSV collected during 2010 in Saudi Arabia (595014/15, 1097123/24) (375-6125-794). Many different WSSV genotypes shown in this study as compared to previously reported genotypes in Thailand suggests current status of disease epidemiology, as well as probable movements of WSSV between countries.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16T06:16:57.471982-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13456
  • Resistance to vibriosis, production performance and tolerance to stress of
           the selected giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
    • Authors: Ikhsan Khasani; Angela Mariana Lusiastuti, Muhammad Zairin, Alimuddin Alimuddin
      Pages: 273 - 281
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance to vibriosis, growth, survival and tolerance to stress of the selected prawn, second generation, compared to a non-selected control. The first generation of selected giant freshwater prawn, which has 10.4% higher of resistance, was used to attain disease resistant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) generation through challenge test-based selection. Resistance test was conducted by infecting the prawn (mean body weight of 10.29 ± 1.40 g) with pathogenic Vibrio harveyi (5 × 105 cfu prawn−1). The growth and survival of the prawn were evaluated by rearing the two populations of prawn in both nursery and grow-out phases. Stress tolerance test was done by evaluating the viability of postlarvae exposed to environmental stressors, i.e. temperature, salinity, NH3 and formaldehide. Post-challenge survival of the selected prawn (55.0 ± 5.0%) was about 46% higher than that of the control (37.5 ± 7.5%). The survival of the selected prawn in nursery culture (77.16 ± 0.841%) was significantly higher (p  .05). The growth of selected prawn (4.99 ± 0.03% day−1) was significantly higher than that of the control (4.81 ± 0.05% day−1). There was no difference between treatments on the tolerance level against the tested environmental stressor. Overall data suggested that the selected prawn showed better performance in growth and resistance against vibriosis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:10:34.518832-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13458
  • Characterizing egg quality and larval performance from captive mahi-mahi
           Coryphaena hippurus (Linnaeus, 1758) spawns over time
    • Authors: Steven Kloeblen; John D Stieglitz, Jorge A Suarez, Martin Grosell, Daniel D Benetti
      Pages: 282 - 293
      Abstract: Mahi-mahi Coryphaena hippurus is a promising species for aquaculture development and has been used as a model species for oil toxicology and physiology studies. This species has one of the fastest growth rates of any marine teleost and a unique reproductive biology due to its high spawning frequency and reproductive energy allocation. These characteristics lend the species to being an excellent model for understanding broodstock nutrition for other high energetic pelagic species. In this study, egg morphometrics and larval survival were tracked over a 10-week period from the initial capture of wild mahi-mahi broodstock. Larval quality from subsequent spawns collected over time was quantified using larval survival activity indices (SAIs) as a metric to assess egg quality. Larval SAIs were maintained and did not significantly decrease (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-19T23:30:30.981862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13459
  • Survival and growth of geoduck clam larvae (Panopea generosa) in
           flow-through culture tanks under laboratory conditions
    • Authors: Gabriel Enrique Nava-Gómez; Zaúl Garcia-Esquivel, Eugenio Carpizo-Ituarte, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos
      Pages: 294 - 300
      Abstract: The geoduck clam, Panopea generosa, is a species from the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, and the optimization of seed production systems is still a limiting factor for its aquaculture. In this study, a flow-through culture system was designed and tested in P. generosa larvae. Survival and growth was compared in triplicate 45-L fiberglass tanks using three larval densities (5, 10 and 15 larvae/ml). A head tank kept constant the water inflow, with a daily renewal rate of 1.8× tank volume. The food (Isochrysis spp.) was dosed according to the ingestion rate of larvae and the dilution rate. Survival decreased linearly during the first 10 days and reached asymptotic values of ca. 20% (15 larvae/ml) and 50% (densities of 5 and 10 larvae/ml) afterwards. Mean shell length at the end of the experiment (243 ± 1.8 to 270 ± 0.7 μm) was not statistically different among treatments, even though a trend towards higher gross growth rate was observed in the treatment with the lowest density (9.5 μm/day) relative to the rest of the treatments (8.5 μm/day). It is concluded that P. generosa larvae can be successfully grown in flow-through systems at maximum densities of 10 larvae/ml without significantly affecting their survival and growth rates. The system design was reliable, kept a constant water flow with reduced maintenance, and may represent an important option in the laboratory for increasing the stocking density of Panopea species during the larval phase.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T23:40:40.170826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13460
  • The impacts of integrated homestead pond-dike systems in relation to
           production, consumption and seasonality in central north Bangladesh
    • Authors: Manjurul Karim; David C Little
      Pages: 313 - 334
      Abstract: The roles of homestead ponds and surrounding dike production of vegetables on farms in peri-urban and rural communities in central north Bangladesh were assessed. A baseline survey sought to characterize actively managed (“active”) pond-dike systems, producing fish and vegetables, in terms of productivity and impact compared to less intensively integrated (“passive”) and control, no-pond households. A longitudinal survey was carried out over 12 months to explore the relationship between seasonality and livelihood outcomes in relation to location and well-being status. Active homestead pond operators tended to have greater access to information and credit compared to passive and non-pond households; this was likely linked to their greater literacy and greater social connectedness. They enjoyed higher incomes through fish sales and consumed more fish than passive households, which was related to their higher production, in turn explained mainly by the use of more inputs. All active, 50% passive and 38% non-pond households were involved in vegetable cultivation; however, significantly more vegetables were produced by active households than others. The impacts of pond-dike production were more critical for food-vulnerable, rural households than peri-urban households prior to monsoon rice harvest; worse-off households suffered more prior to the “irrigated rice” harvest. Fish and vegetables raised on farm were most important during lower income months. The study supports the view that small homestead ponds can contribute to the wider food supply, and that such “quasi-peasant” forms of aquaculture contribute to reduced poverty and enhanced dietary diversity and food security in the broader population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T04:36:48.23039-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13462
  • Habituation and conditioning in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata):
           Effects of aversive stimuli, reward and social hierarchies
    • Authors: Ole Folkedal; Anders Fernö, Marit A J Nederlof, Jan E Fosseidengen, Marco Cerqueira, Rolf E Olsen, Jonatan Nilsson
      Pages: 335 - 340
      Abstract: To tailor the farming environment to a fish species, we should understand the species-specific responses to stimuli, including the degree of adaption and learning. Groups of gilthead sea bream were given a delay Pavlovian conditioning regime using a conditioning stimulus (CS) of light flashes signalling arrival of food. Controls were exposed to light flashes unrelated to feeding. Fish in both treatments showed an initial fear response of moving away from the CS combined with reduced swimming speed. In subsequent trials, the Control fish largely habituated the fleeing response but sustained to respond by reducing the swimming speed. The Conditioning fish also stopped to escape from the CS, but opposed to the Control group they gradually increased their swimming speed in response to the CS. In addition, the number of fish in the feeding/CS area increased and became similar to basal level after around 16 trials. A small and variable proportion of the fish displayed black vertical bands on their body and territorial behaviour, and a social hierarchy could interfere with the processes of habituation and conditioning. The swimming speed of the fish increased with number of dark individuals, but this was not found during the CS and the light stimulus thus seemed to overrule the effect of territorial behaviour. The persistent negative response to light flashes in the Control suggests that fish seemingly adapted to repetitive stressors are still in a state of alertness. The change in the response to light shows the potential for rewarding aversive stimuli to reduce stress.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T04:46:08.087176-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13463
  • A metabolic approach to understanding adaptation to sea water by
           endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus fingerlings
    • Authors: Saeed Hajirezaee; Ali Reza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Naser Agh
      Pages: 341 - 351
      Abstract: In this study, metabolic responses of Persian sturgeon fingerlings to hyperosmotic condition were investigated by NMR-based metabolomics. Persian sturgeon fingerlings (n = 2010, mean total weight: 3.2 ± 0.6 g; mean total length: 8.5 ± 1.5 cm) were held in freshwater (FW) for 96 hr and then acclimated in brackish water (BW) (12 g/L) for 24 hr. Blood samples were taken before and after salinity acclimation. The major metabolite changes corresponding to salinity acclimation were related to amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. The plasma glucose levels increased significantly after 24 hr acclimation in BW (p  .05). The osmolytes (taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, choline, N,N-dimethylglycine) and amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, leucine, phenylalanine, β-alanine, histidine, threonine, cysteine) declined significantly after 24 hr acclimation in BW (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:15:27.027936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13464
  • Effect of low salinity on the expression profile of Na+/K+-ATPase and the
           growth of juvenile chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)
    • Authors: Hajime Kitano; Naoki Nagano, Keishi Sakaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
      Pages: 352 - 358
      Abstract: Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus Houttuyn) is one of the most commercially important scombroid fish used as a food resource. Recently, there has been a demand for efficient rearing methods of this fish for a full-life cycle aquaculture. In the present study, we evaluated the physiological responses in the juvenile S. japonicus to different ambient salinities. A significantly higher gain of the body mass was observed in the juveniles reared in 24 g/L and 13 g/L seawater than in those reared in natural seawater (34 g/L) within 40 days of the experimental period without affecting mortality. A principal enzyme for osmoregulation, Na+/K+-ATPase, was expressed in the ionocytes located in the gill filaments of the juveniles. The number and the cell size of ionocytes and the enzymatic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase in the gills decreased within 10 days after the low-salinity challenge, which implies the reduction of the energy-consuming active ion secretion under the low-salinity environment. The physiological capacity for adaptation to low-salinity seawater in chub mackerel could be basic knowledge to carry out culturing of these fish in coastal sea pens where ambient salinity fluctuates. The improvement of the growth performance by rearing in low-salinity seawater will contribute to the efficient production of the seed juveniles for aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T00:36:32.5637-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13465
  • Fasting and refeeding lead to more efficient growth in lean pacu
           (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
    • Authors: Gisele Cristina Favero; Rodrigo Yukihiro Gimbo, Luz Natália Franco Montoya, Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
      Pages: 359 - 366
      Abstract: We evaluated whether body fat content affects the energetic metabolism and growth in pacu submitted to daily feeding, fasting and refeeding. For 15 days, fish were fed different diets to obtain lean and fat conditions, and then subjected, for 20 days to: (1) continuously feeding (control), or (2) fasting for 15 days and refeeding for 5 days. Blood (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and total protein) and tissue (liver lipid and glycogen, muscle lipid and mesenteric fat) metabolic indicators, and growth performance parameters (weight gain, specific growth rate, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were measured. Fasting led both lean and fat pacu to make notable use of their energy reserves, through glycogenolysis and lipolysis, reflected in reduced blood glucose and triglycerides, liver glycogen and muscle lipid levels. Lipolysis was confirmed by the high levels of non-esterified fatty acids, especially in fat pacu. Refeeding led to higher plasma glucose and liver lipid in lean fish. Muscle fat increased in fat fish but was not restored in lean fish, while mesenteric fat index (MFI) remained the same in fat fish and increased in lean fish. Although refeeding occurred only for 5 days, lean fish grew more and were more efficient at utilizing food (higher weight gain and better feed conversion ratio). In conclusion, our results suggest that fat pacu have higher glycogenic and lipogenic abilities, and the higher deposition of lipids in fish does not mean higher availability of energy for growth when compensatory growth is stimulated by refeeding after fasting.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T23:50:43.908183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13466
  • Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus subtilis KADR1 and its subcellular
           components on immune responses and disease resistance in Labeo rohita
    • Authors: Dharmaraj Ramesh; Sami Souissi
      Pages: 367 - 377
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilisKADR1 and its subcellular components on immunity and disease resistance in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish were fed diet containing different concentrations of live bacterial cells (DI-106, DII-108 and DIII-1010 CFU/g) and another group of fish were immunized intraperitoneally with cellular components (WCPs, CWPs and ECPs) of Bacillus subtilisKADR1. After 4 weeks of trial, fish were challenged intraperitoneally with Aeromonas hydrophila cell suspension and survival percentage was recorded. Significantly higher post-challenge survivability was recorded in fish groups fed 108 CFU/g of KADR1 (80.24%; RPS = 75.76%) or immunized with WCPs (77.77%; RPS = 72.73%), compared with the control (18.51%). Analysis of immunological parameters viz. serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, serum total protein, respiratory burst, serum IgM levels, superoxide dismutase and alternative complement pathway activity reflected significant enhancement (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T04:30:47.662979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13467
  • Bacterial community composition and distribution in different segments of
           the gastrointestinal tract of wild-caught adult Penaeus monodon
    • Authors: Phayungsak Mongkol; Phimsucha Bunphimpapha, Wanilada Rungrassamee, Sopacha Arayamethakorn, Sirawut Klinbunga, Piamsak Menasveta, Sage Chaiyapechara
      Pages: 378 - 392
      Abstract: Bacterial community associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of aquaculture animals can play important roles in health, nutrition and disease. Compared with the GI tract of aquatic vertebrates such as fish, crustacean GI tract has unique structures and surfaces in different segments that may contribute to differences in the bacterial communities. This study examined the bacterial composition and distribution in different segments along the GI tract and in digesta of wild-caught adult Penaeus monodon using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), real-time quantitative PCR and clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Thirty-nine bacterial species in four phyla including Proteobacteria (α, β, ε, γ), Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were represented in the GI tract of adult P. monodon. Proteobacteria comprised over 80% abundance of the bacterial community in most segments of the GI tract, except the middle intestine that was dominated by Firmicutes (~50% abundance). The results also showed that bacterial communities showed significant differences along the GI tract segments, particularly the hindgut (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T04:00:50.689706-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13468
  • Growth performance, haematology, antioxidant status, immune response and
           histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed biofloc grown on
           different carbon sources
    • Authors: Farideh Bakhshi; Ebrahim H Najdegerami, Ramin Manaffar, Amir Tokmechi, Kaveh Rahmani Farah, Ali Shalizar Jalali
      Pages: 393 - 403
      Abstract: A 10 weeks trial was performed to investigate how different carbon sources (sugar beet molasses: SBM+BFT, sugar: S+BFT, corn starch: CS+BFT) along with control affect welfare status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in biofloc-based tanks. Three hundred healthy fingerlings (22.5 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (70 L) at a density of 8.02 kg/m3 (25 fish/tank). The fish in BFT treatments fed only 75% feeding rate of control. At the end of the experiment no differences were seen between the groups in case of growth performance, but the fish reared in CS+BFT had a significant lower food conversion ratio compared with the others (p  .05). Total serum protein and antibody concentration differed in treatments, and the highest values were found in S+BFT and CS+BFT treatments (p  .05), whereas the fish in BFT treatments showed a significant higher total antioxidant capacity and lower glutathione peroxidase than the control (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T03:56:20.597395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13469
  • Role of sex steroids in gonadal differentiation of the mussel Choromytilus
           chorus (Bivalvia Mytilidae) (Molina 1782)
    • Authors: Maryori Ruiz-Velásquez; Manuel Zapata, María Teresa Gonzalez, Mauricio Escalona, Maritza Fajardo, Eduardo Tarifeño, Juan Morales
      Pages: 404 - 414
      Abstract: In Chile, the species Choromytilus chorus stands out for its ecological and economic importance. This mussel has a very particular condition in the colour of the gonad, being cream-yellow colour the male gonad and dark brown the female which is hardly desired by the consumers. In this context, the aim of this research is to determine the role that sex steroids have in gonadal differentiation of the mussel C. chorus. For this, juveniles with sizes 15–22 mm were selected, which were subjected to acute exposure in the form of bath for 60 days to four treatments: T1: dihydrotestosterone (DHT); T2: 17β-estradiol (E2), T3: fadrozole (F) and T4: DHT-F (DF), plus a control without chemicals. Each treatment as well as control included three replicates with 90 individuals each. The mussels undergoing treatment with E2 had a sex ratio (male:female) of 0.47 compared to 1:1 in the control group. In contrast, in the groups treated with DHT, F and DF the sex ratio changed to 2.0, 1.60 and 1.70 respectively. In the fertilization trials, all the mussels produced functional gametes, as they were able to generate gametes that were developed to morula, and veliger larva. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the size of oocytes from the group exposed to estradiol (61.12 ± 2.40 μm) was significantly higher than in other groups. These results support the hypothesis that sex steroids would be involved in sexual differentiation of marine bivalves.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T04:36:38.964391-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13470
  • Dietary phospholipids requirement of the early juvenile (C1) swimming
           crab, Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: Jiteng Wang; Min Yang, Xinyu Li, Chunlin Wang, Tao Han
      Pages: 415 - 421
      Abstract: A 30-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phospholipids (PLs) on growth performance, survival, fatty acid profile and gene expression of the early juvenile (C1) swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). Five semi-purified diets were formulated with graded PLs levels (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%). Each diet was fed to four replicates of crabs (30 crabs per replicate, initial weight: 8.4 ± 0.1 mg). In this study, crabs fed diets with 2%, 4% and 8% PLs had significantly higher survival rates than crabs fed with 0% and 1% PLs. Crabs fed diets with 0% and 1% PLs had significant lower weight gain (WG) than crabs fed with 8% PLs. But crabs fed with diets containing 2%, 4% and 8% PLs showed no significant difference in WG. Besides, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in whole body was higher than that in diets, but the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content showed an opposite trend. The EPA and DHA content in whole body increased with the increase in dietary PLs. Moreover, the moulting number increased with the increasing dietary PLs levels, the lowest moulting number was observed in crabs fed diets without supplementation of PLs. The ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) was found to be significantly up-regulated by PLs levels. This study demonstrated that 2% PLs could meet the requirement of early juvenile (C1) swimming crab based on the growth and survival. And 4%–8% PLs supplemented in diets could reduce the leaching of feed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T00:05:26.452017-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13471
  • Effects of rearing temperature on growth and survival of larval sablefish
           (Anoplopoma fimbria)
    • Authors: Matthew A Cook; Jonathan S F Lee, Kenneth M Massee, Thomas H Wade, Frederick W Goetz
      Pages: 422 - 430
      Abstract: The effects of three different rearing temperatures (12, 15 and 18°C) on growth and survival of sablefish larvae (Anoplopoma fimbria) were examined from 5 days poststocking to weaned subjuveniles. First-feeding larvae were stocked into 960-L circular tanks at a density of 15 larvae/L (n = 3 per temperature treatment). Feeding, increases in light and water flow and other changes during the experiment were based on a degree-day (°Cday) schedule to adjust for time and temperature. The larvae were weaned on calendar day 41, 34 and 30 in the 12, 15 and 18°C treatments respectively. Survival to weaning was greater at 15 than 12 or 18°C. Calendar day and degree-day length and dry weight were greater in the 18°C treatment. The larvae were weaned 7 days earlier at 15°C and 11 days earlier at 18°C compared to larvae at 12°C. Sablefish larvae can be reared at 15°C with faster growth and good survival compared to 12°C and at an approximately 17% reduction in cost and labour. Sablefish grew even faster but had higher mortality rates at 18°C compared to 15°C. Results from genotyping strongly suggest that there is a genetic basis for performing differentially at varying rearing temperatures and would also suggest that selection for faster growth and higher survival could be accomplished in a broodstock programme.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:15:37.114565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13473
  • Soy protein concentrate as an alternative in replacement of fish meal in
           the feeds of hybrid grouper, brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus
           fuscoguttatus) × giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) juvenile
    • Authors: Norfazreena Mohd Faudzi; Annita Seok Kian Yong, Rossita Shapawi, Shigeharu Senoo, Amal Biswas, Kenji Takii
      Pages: 431 - 441
      Abstract: Hybrid grouper juveniles (body weight, 6.1 ± 0.7 g) (brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × giant grouper, E. lanceolatus) were fed with six isoproteic (50% crude protein) and isolipidic (12% crude lipid) feeds containing different levels of soy protein concentrate (SPC) in replacement of fish meal (SPC at 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% protein) and control feed (SPC0) for 6 weeks. Hybrid grouper juveniles were cultured in 100-L fibreglass tank equipped with flow-through water system and fed twice a day to apparent satiation level. The highest and lowest growth was recorded in fish fed SPC20 and SPC60 respectively. However, growth of SPC20 was not significantly higher than those fed SPC0, SPC30, SPC40 and SPC50 (p > .05). A decreasing growth trend was observed with the increasing level of SPC from feed SPC40 to SPC60. A noticeable better feed utilization was also observed in fish fed SPC0, SPC20, SPC30, SPC40 and SPC50 compared to fish fed SPC60 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:25:20.540488-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13474
  • Effect of aromatable androgen (17-methyltestosterone) on induced
           maturation of silver European eels (Anguilla Anguilla): Oocyte performance
           and synchronization
    • Authors: Oliviero Mordenti; Pietro Emmanuele, Antonio Casalini, Pieter Mark Lokman, Annalisa Zaccaroni, Andrea Di Biase, Albamaria Parmeggiani
      Pages: 442 - 448
      Abstract: The reproductive performances of silver European eel in term of gonad development and egg production, employing slow-release implants with the androgen 17-MT (1 mg) in combination with traditional weekly injection of carp pituitary extract (CPE) was evaluated. Wild female European eels (Anguilla anguilla) underwent a standard induction protocol with CPE and were randomly divided into three groups (N-group, no implant; Y-group, with implant; and control, C-group, no treatment). The results showed that 17-MT-treated females (Y-group) reproduced spontaneously about 6 weeks earlier than the N-group females with a saving of almost 40% in CPE and time of induction. Concerning artificial induction of maturation in female silver eels, our study demonstrated that they positively respond to androgen exposure also in terms of eggs productivity. Indeed, Y-group was more productive than N-group: in Y-group, 11 eels ensured an eggs production that exceeded 50% of initial body weight (BW), whereas in N-group only three eels have exceeded this value. The results suggest that 17-MT should be considered in future protocols for the improvement of the artificial reproduction of female silver European eels.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:26:04.466093-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13475
  • Triploid hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria produced by inhibiting polar
           body I or polar body II
    • Authors: Huiping Yang; Ximing Guo
      Pages: 449 - 461
      Abstract: Two types of triploid hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria were produced by inhibiting polar body I (PB1) or polar body II (PB2) with cytochalasin B. Treatments were applied at 22–23°C, with PB1 inhibition starting at 4–7 min postfertilization and ending when PB2 was first observed in control groups, and with PB2 inhibition starting at 17–23 min postfertilization and ending when 80% of control eggs released PB2. Triploid induction success was evaluated by chromosome counting in 2–4 cell embryos and by flow cytometry at larval and juvenile stages. PB2 inhibition produced more triploids (82%–100%) than PB1 inhibition (71%–83%), although the difference was not significant (p ≥ .088). Triploid percentages in PB1- or PB2-inhibited groups showed a small but insignificant decline during the first 6 months. At month 3, PB1 and PB2 triploids were not different from their within-group diploids, but significantly larger than control diploids; PB1 triploids were significantly larger than PB2 triploids (p ≤ .003). At month 6, PB1 triploids were not different from either within-group or control-group diploids, while PB2 triploids were significant larger than both within-group and control diploid; PB1 triploids were smaller than PB2 triploids. At month 16, PB1 and PB2 triploids in one remaining replicate were not different from their within-group diploids. Overall, this study shows that triploids can be efficiently produced by PB1 or PB2 inhibition, and their growth performance relative to diploids is variable depending on age and replicates or parental genotype.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:20:54.509621-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13476
  • Role of sulphide reduction by magnesium hydroxide on the sediment of the
           eutrophic closed bay
    • Authors: Dong Xia; Katsumi Okada, Kunio Watanabe, Yukiko Miura, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Niwooti Wangchai, Kanda Wangchai, Tomoaki Itayama
      Pages: 462 - 470
      Abstract: This study was focused on the effect of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) for improving the sediment of aquaculture field and eutrophic closed estuaries. Sediment samples were collected from Omura Bay, Nagasaki, Japan. The change in pH, acid volatile sulphides (AVS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water of the sediment samples were measured before and after 20-day incubation under the condition of overlapping seawater at 25°C with 0.3–0.4 mg/L of dissolved oxygen (DO). Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and the dsrA gene copy number of Grp3 sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the sediment samples were also measured at 7-day incubation under the same condition. The pH of Mg(OH)2 treatment group was significantly increased from 7.43 to 8.25; it was higher compared to the control group which pH was maintained around 7.6. Meanwhile, the AVS content of Mg(OH)2 treatment group was significantly reduced and the value was lower than the control group after the 20-day incubation. Each concentration of interstitial water DOC in the treatment group and the control group increased after the incubation from initial value of 15.4–40.1 and 29.0  mg/L respectively. Furthermore, simultaneous decrease in H2S and the dsrA gene copy number of Grp3 SRB was observed at the end of the 7-day incubation by adding Mg(OH)2. It is concluded that the loss of activity of SRB was strongly related to the decrease in sulphide (H2S and AVS) and the increase in DOC was due to the alkalization of the sediment by adding Mg(OH)2.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:41:24.981103-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13477
  • Production of specific dsRNA against white spot syndrome virus in the
           yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
    • Authors: Ana R. Álvarez-Sánchez; Carlos Romo-Quinones, Raymundo Rosas-Quijano, Ana G. Reyes, Aarón Barraza, Francisco Magallón-Barajas, Carlos Angulo, Claudio Humberto Mejía-Ruíz
      Pages: 480 - 491
      Abstract: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most aggressive disease affecting cultured shrimp. One possibility to tackle it is by means of RNA interference (RNAi) induced by the presence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Normally, dsRNA is a product of the cellular machinery to gene regulation, but it can be produced synthetically and introduced into specific tissues or cells and thereby induce RNAi. Although in vitro production of dsRNA is possible, this is high cost. An alternative is to produce dsRNA in vivo using biological systems such as bacteria or yeasts. In this regard, Yarrowia lipolytica offers distinctive advantages for dsRNA production. The objective was to develop a Y. lipolytica strain able to produce dsRNA-specific against WSSV and to evaluate its antiviral activity in the white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. From the 0.4 and 0.6 Kb fragments of the ORF89 gene, a dsRNA-ORF89-producing construct was built in the plasmid pJC410; the resulting construct (pARY410) was used to transform Y. lipolytica to drive the specific expression of dsRNA-ORF89. Yeast colonies positive to the WSSV-ORF89 gene were selected. The expression of dsRNA-ORF89 and RNAse III was measured being detected at 32 and 48 hr. Subsequently, the antiviral activity of dsRNA-ORF89 was tested in a WSSV challenge bioassay. The results showed survival in dsRNA-ORF89 shrimp (25%) compared to control organisms treated with total RNA from the yeast P01-AS harvested at 32 hr. In conclusion, Y. lipolytica is a convenient host to produce and deliver dsRNA-ORF89 able to protect WSSV-challenged shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:20:52.553898-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13479
  • Gut histology, immunology and the intestinal microbiota of rainbow trout,
           Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), fed process variants of soybean meal
    • Authors: Timothy J Bruce; Regg D Neiger, Michael L Brown
      Pages: 492 - 504
      Abstract: Processed soybean meal ingredients have become an emerging plant-based protein used in aquafeed formulations and have been shown to influence gastrointestinal health and microbiota in cultured species. Two 60-day feeding trials with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were conducted to compare the effects of fishmeal (FMC), defatted soybean meal (SBM), bioprocessed soybean meal (BSBM) and commercial soy protein concentrate (CSPC) ingredients on intestinal histology, innate immunity and microbiota profiles. Results indicated no significant differences in intestinal immunoglobulin concentrations (p = .41) or gut leukocyte phagocytosis at day 15 samplings (p = .41). Intestinal lysozyme content was found to be highest at day 60 in the BSBM treatment group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:25:25.585118-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13480
  • Molecular isolation and characterization of a haemocyanin of Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii reveal its antibacterial activities
    • Authors: Chutima Srisuk; Saengchan Senapin, William G Bendena, Siwaporn Longyant, Paisarn Sithigorngul, Parin Chaivisuthangkura
      Pages: 505 - 516
      Abstract: Haemocyanin is a multi-subunit protein complex found in the haemolymph and is involved in the immune system of crustaceans. In this study, a haemocyanin gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrHc, was successfully isolated. The MrHc gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,992 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 663 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 76.5 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained distinct structural motifs of the haemocyanin superfamily, including an all-alpha domain, a copper-containing domain and an immunoglobulin-like domain. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the MrHC protein demonstrated a close relationship with the haemocyanins of Palaemon carinicauda and Macrobrachium nipponense. The MrHc gene was expressed in various shrimp tissues, including the hepatopancreas, gill, haemocytes, stomach and muscle. After Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) challenge tests, the MrHc gene was up-regulated 237-fold at day 2. A recombinant protein of the MrHc immunoglobulin-like domain exhibited antibacterial activity against Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Bacillus cereus. This study suggested that MrHc may play important roles in the shrimp innate immune response to MrNV infection and bacterial infection.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T05:45:40.814141-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13481
  • Effects of stocking density, ration and temperature on growth, survival
           and metamorphosis of auricularia larvae of the California sea cucumber,
           Parastichopus californicus
    • Authors: Yichao Ren; Wenshan Liu, Christopher M Pearce
      Pages: 517 - 525
      Abstract: The combined effects of stocking density (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 inds/ml) and dietary microalgal ration (20,000 and 40,000 cells/ml) and the sole effect of temperature (10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 22°C) on the specific growth rate (SGR), per cent survival and per cent metamorphosis of auricularia larvae of the California sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, were evaluated in two separate experiments. The SGR was not significantly affected by stocking densities in the range of 0.2 to 4 inds/ml, but was significantly reduced at 8 inds/ml. The SGR of larvae fed 20,000 cells/ml was significantly reduced in comparison to those fed 40,000 cells/ml. Larvae had significantly higher per cent survival and per cent metamorphosis when reared at densities of 0.2 and 0.5 inds/ml compared with those reared at 2–8 inds/ml. Microalgal ration level did not significantly impact survival or metamorphosis. Larvae reared at 16 and 18°C had significantly higher SGRs and per cent metamorphosis than those held at all other temperatures, while per cent survival was highest at 16°C. Based on these results, we recommend rearing auricularia larvae of P. californicus at a stocking density at or below 0.5 inds/ml, a dietary ration of 40,000 cells/ml, and a temperature of 16°C.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T04:00:26.060519-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13482
  • Effects of different feed management treatments on water quality for
           Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Lauren N Jescovitch; Carter Ullman, Melanie Rhodes, Donald Allen Davis
      Pages: 526 - 531
      Abstract: Increasing feeding rates may provide an increase in production, thus nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter will also increase. These nutrients promote a greater oxygen demand and concentrations of toxic metabolites which can lead to frequent problems with low dissolved oxygen and an abundance of blue-green algae. Four feed management practices were evaluated among sixteen 0.1 ha ponds culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Feeding treatments included hand feeding using the Standard Feeding Protocol (SFP), SFP plus 15% from 8 to 16 weeks, an automatic-solar timer which fed SFP+15%, and an AQ1 acoustic demand feeder allowing up to 12 kg/day·pond based on shrimps feeding response. Samples were analysed at weeks 0, 4 and 8–16 for the following parameters: chlorophyll a, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite–nitrogen, nitrate–nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total suspended solids, total suspended volatile solids, turbidity, conductivity, salinity and biological oxygen demand. Samples were collected and shipped overnight to Auburn, Alabama for off-site analysis. On-site water quality was also obtained at the farm. The AQ1 acoustic demand feeder produced the most shrimp with a yield of 4,568 kg/ha; however, the AQ1 also had the highest total ammonia nitrogen and nitrite–nitrogen levels late in the growing season. The AQ1 feeder may be a viable, reduced labour and cost alternative for the shrimp commercial industry; however, such technologies must also be matched to the ability of the production system to process nutrients.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T04:20:43.415798-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13483
  • Integration of mapping and socio-economic status of cage culture: Towards
           balancing lake-use and culture fisheries in Lake Victoria, Kenya
    • Authors: Christopher Mulanda Aura; Safina Musa, Ernest Yongo, John K. Okechi, James M. Njiru, Zachary Ogari, Robert Wanyama, Harrison Charo-Karisa, Henry Mbugua, Samson Kidera, Veronica Ombwa, Jacob Abwao Oucho
      Pages: 532 - 545
      Abstract: Mapping of lacustrine aquaculture and socio-economic assessment of cage farmers operations can be employed as decision support tools in an integrated fashion for fisheries management. We simultaneously mapped and reported the location of cages and characterized socio-economic and indicators of cage farming in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Structured questionnaires and interviews from cage farmers generated socio-economic data and management information. Vital water quality parameters were analyzed in selected sampling sites. Cage culture was found to be a male-dominated activity with the majority of owners aged 100%, indicative of its robust viability within “The Blue Economy” concept. With the increasing number of cages in the lake, there is the need for policy and regulations to guide its investment, both to protect local economies through improved business practices and to ensure sustainability for the lake ecosystem due to the likelihood of exacerbation in water quality deterioration in cage culture sites.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:40:56.074491-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13484
  • Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth, body composition,
           antioxidant status, lipid metabolism and immunity parameters of juvenile
           Chu's croaker, Nibea coibor
    • Authors: Yi-Sheng Huang; Zhi-Deng Lin, Hua Rong, Mei-Ling Hao, Da-Shi Zhu, Sheng-Kang Li, Xiao-Bo Wen
      Pages: 546 - 556
      Abstract: A-56 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, feed utilization, biochemical composition, antioxidant status, lipid metabolism and immunity parameters of Chu's croaker Nibea coibor fed diets supplemented with different levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): 0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish (initial body weight: 12.8 ± 0.1 g) in 15 floating cage. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were not significantly affected. 2% of dietary CLA led to significant lower lipid content in both whole body and liver (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:30:34.559589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13486
  • Spawning and rearing of Holothuria tubulosa: A new candidate for
           aquaculture in the Mediterranean region
    • Authors: Arnold Rakaj; Alessandra Fianchini, Paola Boncagni, Alessandro Lovatelli, Michele Scardi, Stefano Cataudella
      Pages: 557 - 568
      Abstract: Holothuria tubulosa (Gmelin, 1788) has recently shown an increased demand in Asian markets, becoming one of the intensively exploited holothurian species in the Mediterranean Sea. A risk is that over-harvesting is likely affecting both the species' natural stocks and the benthic communities. In this scenario, sea ranching and restocking through aquaculture could assist in mitigating its overexploitation. This study is the first to demonstrate the successful artificial breeding and rearing of H. tubulosa, and its consequent potential as a new species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry. Here we describe the spawning induction, larval development and early juvenile growth in hatchery cultures, aimed at developing a spawning and rearing protocol for this species. The trials were conducted from July to October in both 2014 and 2015. Holothuria tubulosa was induced to spawn by testing four different methods. Thermal stimulation plus thermal shock emerged as the most efficient method to obtain active and healthy gametes. Larval development in H. tubulosa progressed through five stages, reaching the juvenile stage in 27 days. Two different microalgal feeding regimens were tested for larval breeding. Under the best feeding conditions, 7% of the larvae metamorphosed into settled juveniles, adhering to artificial substrates previously conditioned with benthic biofilm. Our results indicate that H. tubulosa shows good performance in hatchery rearing during the larval phases, indicating that this species could be a new candidate for aquaculture in the Mediterranean region, both for production and restocking proposes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:16:20.094018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13487
  • Effects of dietary phospholipid level and fraction on the feed intake of
           non-fish meal diet in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck &
           Schlegel, 1845
    • Authors: Thao Xuan La; Manabu Ishikawa, Siriporn Tola, Haruhisa Fukada, Toshiro Masumoto
      Pages: 569 - 575
      Abstract: Three feeding studies were conducted to investigate whether dietary soybean lecithin (SBL) enhanced feed intake of non-fish meal, SPC-based diet, in yellowtail, and also to clarify which fraction of phospholipid (PL) was effective to enhance feed intake. In experiments 1 and 2, fish were fed SBL level at 0%–5%, and it was revealed that the daily feeding rate (DFR) of fish was significantly higher for SBL 2% than for SBL 0%, while a further increase of SBL in the diet did not additionally increase the DFR. Moreover, the DFR of fish fed a diet without feeding stimulants (FS) was the lowest among the dietary treatments, indicating that the SBL does not have an effect of enhancing feed intake in yellowtail. In experiment 3, fish were fed a diet with several products containing PL at 2%. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol concentrations in these products positively correlated to the DFR of fish. This result revealed that these two fractions in the SBL are effective for enhancing feed intake of yellowtail when FS is present in the diet.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:07:29.154028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13488
  • Role of salinity in the dissolution rates of CaCO3 and its implications
           for aquaculture liming
    • Authors: Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá; Claude E Boyd
      Pages: 576 - 581
      Abstract: This work aimed at assessing the role of salinity in the dissolution rates of CaCO3, discussing its implications for aquaculture liming. A simplified formula of artificial seawater without HCO3− was initially prepared. Four batches of 10 L of diluted artificial seawater (salinity = 3.3 g/L) without HCO3− were prepared. Sixteen Erlenmeyer flasks were filled up with 2 L each of the diluted artificial seawater without HCO3−. Besides, 16 other 2,000-ml Erlenmeyer flasks were filled up with 2 L of distilled water (freshwater). The experimental treatments were formed by applying increasing amounts of analytical-grade sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) upon brackish water and freshwater. Accordingly, four initial levels of total alkalinity (TA) have been set up as follows: 4–6, 33–35, 62–63 and 120–122 mg/L. Next, approximately one gram of analytical-grade calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was applied onto each flask. Water's pH, TA and calcium concentration were determined weekly over a 7-week period, by appropriate methods. For a same initial TA, TA increase over time after CaCO3 application was lower in the brackish water flasks than in the freshwater ones. This was especially clear for moderate (63 mg/L) and high (120 mg/L) alkalinities. It was concluded that brackish and saline waters used for aquaculture would only benefit from CaCO3 liming if their alkalinities were lower than 60–80 mg/L.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T06:31:52.044127-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13489
  • Development of a SIDA-SPE-GC-MS/MS isotope dilution assay for the
           quantification of eugenol in water samples
    • Authors: Huan Liu; Jincheng Li, Chaoying Wang
      Pages: 582 - 585
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T02:15:27.319487-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13428
  • Effect of feed pellet size on production parameters of pike-perch (Sander
    • Authors: Jaakko Mattila; Juha Koskela
      Pages: 586 - 590
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T06:40:41.9175-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13443
  • Issue Information - Author Guidelines
    • Pages: 591 - 591
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T01:41:07.783624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/are.13583
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