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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1583 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1583 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free  
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Nutrition
  [SJR: 1.025]   [H-I: 55]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1353-5773 - ISSN (Online) 1365-2095
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Effects of increasing protein level on the performance, enzyme activity
           and body composition of the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis
           (Steindachner, 1879)
    • Authors: F.C. Sterzelecki; J.K. Sugai, M. Baloi, G. Passini, C.V.A. Carvalho, D.M. Fracalossi, V.R. Cerqueira
      Abstract: A six-week growth trial was performed to estimate the dietary protein requirements for maximum growth of juvenile Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) based on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and digestive enzyme activity. Six isoenergetic diets were formulated to contain protein levels that increased from 250 to 500 g/kg. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 160 fish with mean initial body weight of 0.93 ± 0.13 g, which were fed four times a day to apparent satiation. Growth tended to increase with the increase in the dietary protein level up to 400 g/kg. Total protein intake was indirectly correlated to apparent protein utilization. No significant differences in whole-body composition were found between fish fed the different protein levels. Acid protease and neutral lipase activities did not show significant differences among the different protein dietary groups. Alkaline protease activity increased in fish fed up to 350 g/kg of protein and amylase activity in fish fed up to 400 g/kg. Using polynomial regression, 367 g/kg was estimated to be the optimum dietary protein requirement for maximum weight gain of juvenile Brazilian sardines.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T08:10:25.424934-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12567
       
  • Suitability of two agglomerated commercial microdiets for rearing larvae
           of different strains of Coregonus lavaretus under cold-water conditions
    • Authors: S. Esmaeilzadeh-Leithner; J. Wanzenböck
      Abstract: The suitability of two agglomerated commercial microdiets (“Gemma micro®” and “O.range®” from now on called diet A and diet B) as a starter feed was tested on larvae of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Two strains (Baltic and Alpine) were tested in a 60-day experiment under ambient cold-water conditions (average 7.6 ± 1.9°C). The experiment was carried out in 400-L PVC tanks with a stocking density of 5,000 larvae per tank. Samples were removed weekly to determine growth, survival and feed acceptance, in addition to water quality. Striking differences between the feeds and different strains were observed. For one diet, growth and survival were distinctively higher in strain 1 compared to strain 2, where it was invariably low with both diets. For the second diet, growth and survival in strain 1 were also low and similar to strain 2. Feed acceptance in strain 1 was found higher compared to strain 2. Final weights were significantly different with strain 1 being heavier; however, in terms of relative growth rate, no differences between strains were found. Strong differences in the performance in terms of growth, survival and feed acceptance of different strains of European whitefish became apparent. Furthermore, the rearing of larvae exclusively on standard agglomerated commercial microdiets under cold-water conditions is possible, but not every microdiet is suitable.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T03:30:37.803483-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12554
       
  • Dietary valine requirement of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: W. Xiao; D.Y. Li, J.L. Zhu, Z.Y. Zou, Y.R. Yue, H. Yang
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to quantify the dietary valine requirement of cultured juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Six isonitrogenous (280 g/kg crude protein) and isoenergetic (16.06 MJ/kg gross energy) diets with graded levels of valine (amounting to 4.1, 7.2, 9.9, 12.7, 15.6 and 18.8 g/kg of dry diet) were formulated. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish (6.48 ± 0.06 g). Results showed that the weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention efficiency all increased with an increasing level of dietary valine up to 12.7 g/kg, but remained relatively constant for fish fed higher levels of dietary valine. In addition, the total protein concentration and aspirate aminotransferase activity in plasma, hepatic lysozyme and catalase activities were all significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:36.588147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12562
       
  • Apparent digestibility coefficients of European grain legumes in rainbow
           trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: S.C.Q. Magalhães; A.R.J. Cabrita, P. Valentão, P.B. Andrade, P. Rema, M.R.G. Maia, L.M.P. Valente, A.J.M. Fonseca
      Abstract: Two trials were carried out to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), lipids, starch and gross energy (GE) of six European varieties of grain legumes, namely chickpea-type Kabuli (CHK), chickpea-type Desi (CHD), field pea (FP), faba bean (FB), white lupin (WL) and chickling vetch (CV), in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia juveniles. The ADCs were measured using a reference diet and six experimental diets (700 g/kg of the reference diet and 300 g/kg of each raw grain legume) containing 10 g/kg chromic oxide as inert marker. Additionally, grain legumes were analysed for the organic acids profile. In rainbow trout, FP presented the highest ADCs of DM, CP and GE, whereas chickpeas and FB had the lowest DM, GE and starch ADC values. In Nile tilapia, the lowest values of nutrients (except starch) and energy ADCs were found for FP and CV. Nutrients and energy of chickpeas, WL and FB were better digested by tilapia, whereas FP was better digested by trout. Overall results reveal raw grain legumes as promising feed sources for both fish species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:33.367686-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12564
       
  • Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from
           rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792), with inhibitory
           activity against Vagococcus salmoninarum and Lactococcus garvieae
    • Authors: B.I. Didinen; E.E. Onuk, S. Metin, O. Cayli
      Abstract: In this study, a total of 98 lactic acid bacteria isolated from rainbow trout intestines were screened for their probiotic properties. The isolates were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of Vagococcus salmoninarum and Lactococcus garvieae. Based on in vitro antagonism, 10 isolates were selected and evaluated pathogenicity in rainbow trout. Isolates were further investigated for hydrophobicity, bile salts and acid tolerance. These isolates were able to survive low pH and high bile concentrations and showed good adherence characteristics. Isolates were characterized phenotypically, and then, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used for confirmation. Selected strains were administered orally at 108 cfu/g feed, and fish were challenged with V. salmoninarum and L. garvieae. The fish fed with lactic acid bacteria supplemented diets did not improve protection against V. salmoninarum. However, administration of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis M17 2-2 and Lactobacillus sakei 2-3 resulted in a significant reduction in mortality due to L. garvieae when compared to the control fish. RPS values were calculated as 80 and 53% in fish fed with L. sakei 2-3 and L. lactis subsp. lactis M17 2-2, respectively. Our results suggest that these strains could provide an alternative for lactococcosis control in aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:31.840039-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12571
       
  • Evaluation of dried fermented biomass as a feed ingredient in plant-based
           practical diets for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; D.A. Davis
      Abstract: Two growth trials were designed to evaluate the utilization of dried fermented biomass (DFB) in commercial type feed formulation for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In trial 1, four experimental diets were formulated to utilize increasing levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 g/kg) of spray-dried fermented biomass (SDFB) as a replacement of fish meal (FM). Results indicated that SDFB can be utilized up to 50 g/kg as a substitution for FM without causing growth depression in shrimp. However, dietary SDFB supplementation at 100 g/kg significantly reduced the weight gain (WG) of shrimp and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR). This reduction in performance is likely due to palatability or nutrient imbalances of the feed. In trial 2, nine experimental diets were formulated with increasing levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 120 g/kg) of spray-dried (S) or granular (G) DFB to replace soy protein concentrate (SPC) or SPC + corn protein concentrate (CPC). This allowed the comparison between spray-dried and ring-dried products. Ring drying produced a granular product, reducing dust and increasing product particle size. Shrimp fed with diet containing 20 g/kg GDFB performed the best in terms of final mean weight, WG and FCR. Significantly reduced growth and increased FCR were observed in shrimp fed diets containing 60 and 120 g/kg SDFB. Lipid content of whole body was significantly reduced when GDFB was incorporated at 120 g/kg. No significant differences were detected in survival, protein retention efficiency as well as protein and ash contents of the whole shrimp. Results from analysis of covariance indicated that the processing method (covariant) had a significant effect on final mean weight, WG and FCR. In general, shrimp fed with diet containing granular product performed better as compared to those fed with diets utilizing spray-dried product. GDFB can be utilized in the diets up to 120 g/kg in practical shrimp feeds as a substitute for SPC and CPC without compromising the growth of shrimp. However, a significant reduction in WG was observed in the diets containing 60 and 120 g/kg SDFB. The results in the current study demonstrate that processing changes to produce a granular product produced an improved feed ingredient for shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T06:36:02.45768-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12569
       
  • Effect of dietary taurine and methionine supplementation on growth
           performance, body composition, taurine retention and lipid status of
           Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897), fed with plant-based
           diet
    • Authors: S.M. Hoseini; S.A. Hosseini, S. Eskandari, M. Amirahmadi
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary taurine and methionine on Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) fed with plant-based diets. To this purpose, sturgeons were fed with either of methionine + taurine-supplemented (MT), without taurine supplementation (M) or without methionine supplementation (T) diets. Growth performance, body composition, tissue amino acids and serum glucose and lipids were studied at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the treatments T and MT had similar growth performance and feed efficiency, which were significantly higher than the treatment M. Dietary taurine and methionine significantly altered carcass and liver taurine and methionine contents. The highest serum glucose was observed in the treatment M and the lowest in treatment MT. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the treatments T and MT were similar and significantly higher than those of the treatment M. This study showed that Persian sturgeon needs taurine supplementation when fed with plant-based diets, but the supplemented level seems to be lower than those of the other species. Taurine has hypoglycaemic and lipidogenesis effects on Persian sturgeon. However, further studies are required to illustrate taurine and methionine metabolism in Persian sturgeon.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T06:36:00.250887-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12563
       
  • Effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin on growth, haemato-biochemical
           parameters, immune functions and tolerance to air exposure stress in the
           African cichlid Sciaenochromis fryeri
    • Authors: A.M. Moradian; S. Dorafshan, F. Paykan Heyrati, E. Ebrahimi
      Abstract: The effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin (LF) on the growth, haemato-biochemical parameters, non-specific serum immunity and stress responses were investigated in the African cichlid, Sciaenochromis fryeri. Four isocaloric diets containing 0 (control), 200, 400 and 800 mg LF kg−1 diet were formulated and fed to juvenile fish for 8 weeks. The treatments had no effects on the survival rate, growth performance or haematological parameters. Nor were the serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin significantly influenced. Serum iron levels and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), however, changed vigorously as the result of dietary LF. Dietary LF led to significant reductions in serum levels of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The highest lysozyme and bactericidal activities were observed in the fish fed the diets with 200 and 800 mg/kg of LF, respectively, while no changes were observed in their ACH50 levels. Recovery rates were measured after 10 min of air exposure stress. The rate was about twice higher (36% vs 20%) in fish fed on 400 mg LF than in those fed the control diet. Results revealed that adding 400 mg/kg LF could be beneficial as an iron discriminator, for liver function as well as an immune and stress resistance promoter.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T13:25:14.868825-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12570
       
  • Graded replacing fishmeal with canola meal in diets affects growth and
           target of rapamycin pathway gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream,
           Megalobrama amblycephala
    • Authors: Q.-L. Zhou; H.-M. Habte-Tsion, X. Ge, J. Xie, M. Ren, B. Liu, L. Miao, L. Pan
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) with canola meal (CM) on the growth performance, feed utilization and related gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fishes were fed with five isonitrogenous (330 g/kg crude protein) and isoenergetic (15 MJ/kg) diets for 16 weeks, which was graded replacing levels of fishmeal (replacing 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5 and 150 g/kg FM with CM). The results revealed that specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio of the groups with replacement level up to half were significantly higher than the others, while feed intake was inverse. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) mRNA level in the gut was significantly up-regulated in groups CM25 and CM50 compared to other groups. Relative gene expression of IGF-1 among groups was extremely significant based on the nonparametric test. Replacement of FM with CM caused a reduction in the hepatic expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), while significant increase trends were observed in hepatic genes of protein kinase B (AKT) and eIF4-binding protein (4E-BP2). However, TOR gene expression in the gut was significantly up-regulated first and then down-regulated, while mRNA levels of 4E-BP2 and S6K1 in the gut were first significantly decreased and then increased in CM75, finally significantly decreased to the lowest. The overall results indicated that up to 75 g/kg FM could be replaced by CM (350.5 g/kg CM) in the diets for juvenile blunt snout bream. Besides, these signalling molecules could explain further the mechanisms that juvenile blunt snout can only maintain optimal growth performance up to 75 g/kg FM replacement with CM.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:16:19.377181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12560
       
  • Replacing the substitute—Guar meal as an alternative for non-genetically
           modified soybean meal in the nutrition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss, Walbaum, 1792)
    • Authors: F. Pach; F. Nagel
      Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) is widely used in aqua feed products. In the European Union, only non-genetically modified (non-GM) SBM is accepted. However, global production of non-GM soybeans is declining and is limiting its utilization in aqua feeds. Therefore, non-GM SBM alternatives are required. In this study, guar meal was evaluated as a substitute for non-GM SBM in test feeds for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (initial weight of 57 ± 10.1 g) were stocked to 12 experimental tanks of a freshwater recirculation system with a stocking density of 6 kg/tank (500 L). Fish were organized in triplicate groups and received isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds designated as control and test feeds 1–3, where 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg feed of non-GM SBM was replaced by guar meal. During the experimental test period of 56 days, fish were fed twice a day until apparent satiation. Compared to the control group, daily feed intake of test feeds 1–3 was significantly increased by guar meal inclusion. No significant differences in feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate were detected among all the treatments. Furthermore, guar meal inclusion did not affect protein efficiency ratio. However, protein productive value was significantly impaired when guar meal incorporation was above 100 g/kg feed. In accordance with the affected protein productive value, the crude protein content of the proximate whole fish body declined significantly. In contrast, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, slaughter yield and fillet yield provided no significant differences between the experimental groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that non-GM SBM could be entirely replaced by guar meal without affecting the general performance of fish and suggests guar meal as an appropriate alternative for non-GM SBM in the nutrition of rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:15:49.800489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12557
       
  • Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus
           punctatus growth performance
    • Authors: B.C. Peterson; M.H. Li
      Abstract: Juvenile channel catfish (5.6 g/fish) were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain, wheat middlings) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. The basal diet was supplemented with three levels of crystalline taurine to provide 1, 2 and 5 g/kg taurine. In addition, a fifth diet that contained 80 g/kg menhaden fishmeal formulated with the same plant-source ingredients was included as the positive control diet. Fish were fed the five diets once daily for 12 weeks. Weight gain was highest in catfish fed taurine at 2 g/kg (47.8 g/fish) compared to catfish fed the control basal diet (40.8 g/fish) and 80 g/kg fishmeal diet (41.1 g/fish) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T07:16:43.24428-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12561
       
  • Effect of in vitro selected synbiotics (galactooligosaccharide and
           mannanoligosaccharide with or without Enterococcus faecalis) on growth
           performance, immune responses and intestinal microbiota of juvenile narrow
           clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823
    • Authors: O. Safari; M. Paolucci
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the best synbiotic combination (based on growth and short-chain fatty acids production) between Enterococcus faecalis and eight prebiotics. Based on the results of in vitro studies, E. faecalis + galactooligosaccharide (EGOS) and E. faecalis + mannanoligosaccharide (EMOS) were selected as synbiotics. A 126-day feeding trial was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotics, probiotic and synbiotics on the growth indices, In vivo ADC of nutrients, digestive enzymes, hemolymph indices and finally, biological responses against 48-hr Aeromonas hydrophila exposure challenges of juvenile (4.13 ± 0.12 g) crayfish. The highest values of SGR (2.19% body weight day−1), VFI (2.75% body weight day−1), survival rate (96.67%) and the lowest FCR (2.33) were observed in the juvenile crayfish fed the EGOS- diet. The significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T05:41:29.979206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12553
       
  • Dietary riboflavin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch)
           based on growth, conversion efficiencies, protein retention, liver
           riboflavin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; M.A. Khan
      Abstract: A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:55:24.744416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12555
       
  • Dietary riboflavin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch)
           based on growth, conversion efficiencies, protein retention, liver
           riboflavin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; M.A. Khan
      Abstract: A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:55:24.744416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12555
       
  • Dietary riboflavin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch)
           based on growth, conversion efficiencies, protein retention, liver
           riboflavin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; M.A. Khan
      Abstract: A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:55:24.744416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12555
       
  • Response of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to unrefined peanut oil
           diets: Effect on growth performance, fish health and fillet fatty acid
           composition
    • Authors: Ü. Acar; A. Türker
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:24.337606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12559
       
  • Response of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to unrefined peanut oil
           diets: Effect on growth performance, fish health and fillet fatty acid
           composition
    • Authors: Ü. Acar; A. Türker
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:24.337606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12559
       
  • Response of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to unrefined peanut oil
           diets: Effect on growth performance, fish health and fillet fatty acid
           composition
    • Authors: Ü. Acar; A. Türker
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:24.337606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12559
       
  • Effect of dietary Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth
           performance and pigmentation of Queen loach Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: S. Gogoi; S.C. Mandal, A.B. Patel
      Abstract: The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p  .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:22.060789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12558
       
  • Effect of dietary Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth
           performance and pigmentation of Queen loach Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: S. Gogoi; S.C. Mandal, A.B. Patel
      Abstract: The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p  .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:22.060789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12558
       
  • Effect of dietary Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth
           performance and pigmentation of Queen loach Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: S. Gogoi; S.C. Mandal, A.B. Patel
      Abstract: The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p  .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:22.060789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12558
       
  • Combined effects of dietary malic acid and Bacillus subtilis on growth,
           gut microbiota and blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan, S. Jarmołowicz, H.S. Abdo
      Abstract: The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:25:30.882616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12536
       
  • Combined effects of dietary malic acid and Bacillus subtilis on growth,
           gut microbiota and blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan, S. Jarmołowicz, H.S. Abdo
      Abstract: The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:25:30.882616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12536
       
  • Combined effects of dietary malic acid and Bacillus subtilis on growth,
           gut microbiota and blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan, S. Jarmołowicz, H.S. Abdo
      Abstract: The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:25:30.882616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12536
       
  • Different preference is modulated by the feeding stimulants
           supplementation in different Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus
           sinensis) basic diets
    • Authors: C.-X. Sun; W.-N. Xu, D.-D. Zhang, X.-F. Li, P.-F. Li, G.-Z. Jiang, W.-B. Liu
      Abstract: Five 2-week feeding trials were conducted to investigate five stimulants on P. sinensis. Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated, one contained 600 g kg–1 fishmeal (FM diet) and the other contained 420 g kg–1 fishmeal and 225 g kg–1 animal protein blend (APB diet), and each tested one stimulant with four levels. The feeding stimulant candidates were betaine, 2-carboxy-ethyl dimethyl sulphonium bromide (DMPT), inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP), taurine and squid extract. In the experiment on each stimulant, turtles (10.85 ± 0.10 g) were equally divided into FM and APB groups and fed with an equal mixture of corresponding diets containing four levels of stimulants, respectively. Each diet contained a unique rare earth oxide as inert marker. Turtles were fed twice daily (8:00 and 17:00), and faeces were collected. Preference for each diet was estimated based on the relative concentration of each marker in the faeces. In the FM group, only IMP showed the enhanced attraction. But in APB groups, all the stimulants, except IMP, showed higher preference than basal diets for at least one inclusion level, and the optimum level was 10 g kg–1 for betaine, 0.1 g kg–1 for DMPT, 0.1 g kg–1 for IMP, 5 g kg–1 for taurine and 10 g kg–1 for squid extract, and the squid extract had the strongest stimulating effect among the stimulants.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:41:30.363156-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12547
       
  • Dietary manganese requirement of juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus
           lanceolatus × E. fuscoguttatus
    • Authors: Y. Liu; J.Y. Wang, B.S. Li, H.J. Qiao, X.D. Liu, T.T. Hao, X.Y. Wang
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary manganese (Mn) requirement for juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus × E. fuscoguttatus. The basal diet was formulated to contain 520 g/kg crude protein from casein and fishmeal. Manganese methionine was added to the basal diet at 0 (control group), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg Mn/kg diet providing 7.48, 10.34, 13.76, 19.72, 31.00 and 53.91 mg Mn/kg diet, respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of juveniles, and each tank was stocked with 20 fish (initial weight, 60.06 ± 0.68 g). The manganese content in rearing water was monitored and kept below 0.01 mg/L. Results showed that the weight gain ratio (WGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), Mn contents in whole body, liver and vertebra, and activities of hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), total SOD (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were significantly improved by dietary Mn supplementation (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:16:50.470314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12549
       
  • Effect of dietary lipid on growth, expression of canthaxanthin-based
           coloration, digestive enzymes activities and immunity in blood parrot
           cichlid Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus
    • Authors: M. Li; M.M. Rahman, Y.-C. Lin, K. Chiu
      Abstract: A 42-day experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of four different lipid containing diets (lipid 74.0, 105.3, 135.0, 168.1 g/kg diet) on growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and expression of canthaxanthin-based coloration in parrot cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus). Each diet contained canthaxanthin 0.05 g/kg diet. Two hundred and eighty-eight fish were randomly stocked into 12 glass aquaria to form four triplicate groups. Fish were fed one of four diets daily at 20 g/kg of their total body weight. Growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and body colour parameters were measured at the end of experiment. Based on the polynomial regression of dietary lipid level and specific growth rate, the dietary lipid level inclusion was calculated as 117.2 g/kg for the highest specific growth rate of these animals. The polynomial regression of skin colour parameters and dietary lipid levels indicated the critical threshold lipid inclusions in diet: 113.7 g/kg for the best expression of lightness, 112.1 g/kg for redness, 127.5 g/kg for yellowness and 125.3 g/kg for chroma of fish's skin. Considering redness, lightness and specific growth rate are most important variables, a diet containing lipid 115.0 g/kg can be recommended for blood parrot cichlid.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:07:28.503966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12556
       
  • Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, lipid metabolism and health
           
    • Authors: C. Xu; E. Li, Y. Liu, S. Wang, X. Wang, K. Chen, J.G. Qin, L. Chen
      Abstract: Three isonitrogenous diets containing 60 g kg–1, 90 g kg–1 or 120 g kg–1 lipid were formulated and fed to the Litopenaeus vannamei (2.00 ± 0.08 g) under two salinities (25 or 3 psu) in triplicate for 8 weeks. Shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid had higher weight gain and specific growth rate than shrimp fed the other two diets regardless of salinity, and the hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary lipid at both salinities. The shrimp at 3 psu had significantly lower survival and ash content, higher condition factor, weight gain and specific growth rate than the shrimp at 25 psu. Increasing dietary lipid level induced the accumulation of serum MDA regardless of salinity, and at 3 psu, it reduced the serum GOT and GPT activities and the mRNA expression of TNF-α in intestine and gill of L. vannamei. The hepatopancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) and CPT-1 mRNA expression showed the highest value in shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid diet at 3 psu. This study indicates that 120 g kg–1 dietary lipid may negatively affect the growth and induce oxidative damage in shrimp, but can improve immune defence at low salinity; 60 g kg–1 dietary lipid cannot afford the growth and either has no positive impact on the immunology for L. vannamei at 3 psu.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T06:01:02.599968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12548
       
  • Evaluation of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance and
           antioxidant status in hybrid snakehead (Channa argus × Channa maculata)
    • Authors: H. Zhao; H.-J. Ma, S.-N. Gao, X.-R. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, P.-F. Zhao, S.-M. Lin
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth performance and antioxidant status of juvenile snakehead. The snakeheads (20.47 ± 0.06 g) were fed with five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets that contained 13 (the basal diet), 52, 79, 168 and 326 mg of vitamin E kg−1, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake (FI) were achieved in fish fed on a diet with 79 mg kg−1 vitamin E (p  .05). Vitamin E supplementation improved hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity significantly. A consistent decline in the hepatic and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed diets with the increased supplementation of vitamin E (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:57:27.810719-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12552
       
  • Dietary effects of soybean products on gut microbiota and immunity of
           aquatic animals: A review
    • Authors: Z. Zhou; E. Ringø, R.E. Olsen, S.K. Song
      Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most commonly used vegetable ingredient to replace fish meal in fish diets. However, SBM is limiting in some essential amino acids and contains numerous antinutritional factors and antigens that can affect intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans and compromise health. The impact of SBM on health and gut microbiota of aquatic animals is not only affected by SBM in general, but also on the degree of treatment of the meal and exposure. Recently, many studies are actively seeking ways to complement or balance those adverse responses induced by high inclusion of SBM in aquaculture diets. These include advanced processing and mixture of feed with other feed components to balance antinutritional factors. The impact of dietary soybean oil on gut microbiota has also been investigated but to a lesser extent than SBM. As the gastrointestinal tract has been suggested as one of the major routes of infection in finfish species and crustaceans, the effect of soybean products on the gut microbiota is important to investigate. Several studies have focus on supplementation of SBM on the adverse responses of the innate immune system as immunological mechanisms are likely involved in the underlying pathology. However, the precise cause of the inflammatory process has not yet been clarified, even though some investigations have suggested that alcohol-soluble antinutritional factors, especially soy saponins, are potential causative factors. Possible interactions between soybean products and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:07:21.369937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12532
       
  • Evaluation of replacing fish meal with corn protein concentrate in Nile
           tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings commercial diet
    • Authors: N.S.A. Khalifa; I.E.H. Belal, K.A. El-Tarabily, S. Tariq, A.A. Kassab
      Abstract: Four isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 50, 100 and 190 g/kg corn protein concentrate (CPC) as replacement for dietary fish meal were fed to Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings for 8 weeks. Tilapia growth parameters were not significantly (p > .05) different in fish fed diets with 0, 50 and 100 g/kg CPC and found to be superior compared to those fed on 190 g/kg CPC. Fish dressing ratios and body composition were similar among all treatments. The electron microscope indicated that the stomach size of control fish was slightly smaller and the wall was thinner while the stomach of the fish fed all other levels of CPC undergone a remarkable size increase and their walls were thicker after feeding diets with CPC. Total aerobic bacterial and coliform counts were significantly decreased in fish intestine when fed diets with 100 and 190 g/kg CPC compared with fish fed diets with 0 g/kg or 50 g/kg CPC. This study indicates that it is possible to replace up to 534 g/kg of dietary fish meal in tilapia fingerlings using 100 g/kg of CPC without any negative effect on fish growth and proximate body composition.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:05:51.913747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12542
       
  • Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid requirement of juvenile rock bream,
           Oplegnathus fasciatus
    • Authors: J.W. Hong; S.H. Lee, M. Moniruzzaman, Y. Park, S.H. Won, H.Y. Jo, S.S.O. Hung, S.C. Bai
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the optimum dietary level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) based on growth and non-specific immune responses in juvenile rock bream. A basal diet without EPA supplementation was used as a control, and six other diets were prepared by supplementing with 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 or 40 g of EPA per kg diet. The actual EPA concentrations of the diets were 0.5, 4.3, 8.5, 13.0, 16.8, 21.0 and 41.2 g of EPA per kg diet, and the diets were abbreviated as EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5, EPA13.0, EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish averaging 1.06 ± 0.01 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the seven experimental diets at the apparent satiation for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency of fish fed EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5 and EPA13.0 diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:05:42.745342-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12530
       
  • A comprehensive evaluation of replacing fishmeal with housefly (Musca
           domestica) maggot meal in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus): growth performance, flesh quality, innate immunity and water
           environment
    • Authors: L. Wang; J. Li, J.N. Jin, F. Zhu, M. Roffeis, X.Z. Zhang
      Abstract: A 10-week feeding trial of using housefly (Musca domestica) maggot meal (MM) in practical feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was conducted to assess the growth performance, ingredient utilization, flesh quality, innate immunity and its influence on water environment. Fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, where fishmeal (FM) was substituted by MM at the level of 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 g kg-1 diet (remaining FM content: 360, 270, 180, 90 and 0 g kg-1). There was no significant difference in feed intake and apparent digestibility coefficient between the treatments. Replacing up to 270 g kg-1 FM did not have an impact on the growth performance and ingredient utilization, whereas the complete replacement of FM caused significantly lower survival rate, weight gain, specific growth rate and higher feed conversion rate. Dietary MM was also proved positively influential in flesh quality, whereas replacing 180 g kg-1 or more FM suppressed the innate immunity of tilapia. When compared by the effects on the water environment, the increasing substitute levels were accompanied with the declining concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and total phosphorus in the water. Our study verified the feasibility of using MM as a partial substitute of FM in aquatic feed. When replacing 180 g kg-1 FM (corresponding to half of the FM content in control diet) in the diet of Nile tilapia, it can serve as a renewable and environmentally superior alternative without compromising the performance criteria.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:55:43.61092-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12466
       
  • Effects of dietary n-3 long-chain unsaturated fatty acid on growth
           performance, lipid deposition, hepatic fatty acid composition and
           health-related serum enzyme activity of juvenile Japanese seabass
           Lateolabrax japonicus
    • Authors: H. Xu; J. Du, S. Li, K. Mai, W. Xu, Q. Ai
      Abstract: Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth performance, lipid deposition, hepatic fatty acid composition and serum enzyme activities of juvenile Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (initial mean weight 29.2 ± 1.34 g). Triplicate groups of 30 Japanese seabass were fed with six diets containing grade levels of n-3 LC-PUFA (1.30, 2.98, 5.64, 10.31, 14.51, 24.13 g kg–1 of dry weight) to apparent satiation twice daily for 9 weeks. The specific growth rate (SGR) was the highest in 10.31 g kg–1 dietary n-3 LC-PUFA group. Crude lipid content of the fish decreased significantly with increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA. Meanwhile, the hepatic lipid content increased significantly in the 24.13 g kg–1 group. Hepatic n-3 LC-PUFA content of total fatty acids was closely correlated with that in diet. No significant difference was observed in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Moderate n-3 LC-PUFA level (10.31 g kg–1 of dry weight) in the diet was beneficial to enhance the activity of lysozyme in serum. Based on SGR, the optimum dietary n-3 LC-PUFA content was estimated to be around 10.94 g kg–1 of dry weight by second-order polynomial regression method.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:15:28.72977-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12520
       
  • Interactive effects of coffee bean supplementation and waterborne zinc
           toxicity on growth performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant
           activity and zinc bioaccumulation in whole body of common carp, Cyprinus
           carpio L.
    • Authors: M. Abdel-Tawwab; K.M. Sharafeldin, N.E.M. Ismaiel
      Abstract: Roasted coffee powder (RCP; Coffea arabica) is usually used as a beverage for human but there are few attempts to use it as a natural feed supplement in fish diets. In this study, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., (11.8 ± 0.09 g) were reared in zinc (Zn)-containing water at concentrations of 0.0 or 5.0 mg/L and cosupplemented with 0.0 or 1.0 g RCP/kg diet for 6 weeks to investigate effects of RCP supplementation, Zn exposure and their interaction on fish performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant activity and Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body. Fish growth and feed intake were significantly affected by RCP supplementation, Zn toxicity and their interaction. However, fish fed a RCP-supplemented diet did not exhibit better performance than those fed the RCP-free diet and both diets produced higher fish performance than the Zn-toxicated fish. It is noticed that RCP supplementation to Zn-toxicated fish enhanced their growth, and feed utilization as compared to Zn-toxicated fish alone. Fish fed control and RCP-enriched diets showed no significant differences in biochemical variables, which were significantly altered due to waterborne Zn toxicity. Moreover, Zn reduced significantly; meanwhile, RCP supplementation increased significantly superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Notably, Zn exposure could reduce fish growth and antioxidant activity and increase Zn deposition in whole fish body. And RCP intake could enhance the antioxidant activity exerting a protective effect against Zn toxicity, thereby reducing Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:15:25.526877-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12540
       
  • Evaluation of dietary taurine concentrations in microparticulate diets
           provided to larval California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis) postlarvae
    • Authors: K. Stuart; M. Hawkyard, F. Barrows, M. Rust, M. Drawbridge
      Abstract: Taurine is an important amino acid derivative for marine and freshwater fish, especially during early development. We investigated the range of taurine concentrations that influence the growth and survival rates of California yellowtail (CYT; Seriola dorsalis) during transition from live feeds to microparticulate diets, as well as the extent to which nutrient leaching from the microparticulate diets affects these ranges. We tested particle-assisted rotationally agglomerated (PARA) particles with four levels of taurine: 4 (low taurine; LT), 45 (medium taurine; MT), 93 (high taurine; HT) and 122 g/kg (very high taurine; VHT). Our results showed that CYT postlarvae had no significant differences in growth, survival and feed consumption rates between the MT, HT and VHT treatments. However, it should be noted that the PARA particles containing 122 g/kg (VHT) taurine were especially prone to leaching and may have had taurine concentrations as low as 34.9 g/kg before they settled on the bottom of the tank. Therefore, the actual dietary taurine concentrations experienced by the larvae were likely lower than the initial dietary concentrations. More research is needed to evaluate the potential nutrient toxicity of elevated dietary taurine concentrations for marine fish larvae and juveniles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:25:37.91647-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12527
       
  • Early introduction of an inert diet and unenriched Artemia enhances growth
           and quality of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae
    • Authors: Ø.J. Hansen; V. Puvanendran, J.P. Jøstensen, I.-B. Falk-Petersen
      Abstract: The effects of two weaning diets and different weaning protocols on growth, survival, skeletal deformity and gut morphology of Atlantic cod larvae were studied in four groups from 16 to 45 days posthatch (dph). Cod larvae in groups 1 (early weaning with control diet) and 2 (early weaning with experimental diet) were used to evaluate the effects of different polar lipid content of weaning diets on larval and juvenile performance. Cod larvae in groups 2, 3 (early weaning with experimental diet + cofeeding with Artemia) and 4 (earlier weaning with experimental diet and earlier cofeeding with Artemia) were used to evaluate the effects of early introduction of dry diet and Artemia. From 45 to 170 dph, cod juveniles from all four groups were reared using a standard feeding protocol. No significant differences in growth, survival, deformities and gut morphology were found between cod larvae and juveniles from groups 1 and 2. Cod larvae fed on cofeeding regime with Artemia nauplii (groups 3 and 4) were bigger and had lower frequencies of jaw and neck deformities and higher foregut microvillus circumference than cod larvae from group 2. Our results demonstrate the importance of proper weaning protocols in producing better quality cod juveniles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T05:25:35.652721-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12538
       
  • Performance and immunological responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss) fed bioprocessed plant-based proteins
    • Authors: T.J. Bruce; S.C. Sindelar, J.M. Voorhees, M.L. Brown, M.E. Barnes
      Abstract: Marine-derived fish meal (FM) is a traditional component of commercial aquaculture feeds for many farmed fish species. Modern bioprocessing technologies have been developed to produce high-protein plant-based ingredients for aquafeeds to further reduce FM and other conventional animal protein sources. A 90-day feeding trial using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (27.9 ± 1.4 g; mean ± SE) was completed to evaluate growth, feed efficiency, general health and immunological responses to diets containing experimental plant-based protein sources and reduced FM. Trout were fed one of four dietary treatments: experimental bioprocessed soy protein concentrate (BSPC), commercially available enzymatically hydrolysed soy protein concentrate (CSPC), experimental bioprocessed barley protein concentrate (BBPC) and a FM control (FMC). At trial termination, there were no significant differences in relative growth (RG) or specific growth rate (SGR) between fish fed either FMC or BSPC (p > .05). Fish fed either CSPC or BBPC resulted in significantly lower RG and SGR than the FMC (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T05:20:30.914168-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12485
       
  • Fish meal replacement by soy protein from soymilk in the diets of red sea
           bream (Pagrus major)
    • Authors: A. Biswas; H. Araki, T. Sakata, T. Nakamori, K. Kato, K. Takii
      Abstract: Six isoenergetic diets were formulated as follows: fish meal (FM) 700 g kg–1 (control, C), FM 300 g kg–1 + soy protein concentrate 300 g kg–1 (SPC), FM 300 g kg–1 + enzyme-treated SPC 300 g kg–1 (ESC), FM 170 g kg–1 + soy protein isolate 300 g kg–1 (SPI), FM 160 g kg–1 + enzyme-treated SPI 300 g kg–1 (ESI) and FM 150 g kg–1 + conglycinin 300 g kg–1(CG). Forty fish (3.9 g) were randomly distributed into each of eighteen 300-L tanks, fed twice daily until satiation for 8 weeks. The final body weight, specific growth rate and condition factor did not show significant differences among the fish fed with diets C, SPC, ESC and ESI (p > .05). The survival was significantly lower in fish fed with diets SPI and CG. Feed efficiency was significantly higher in fish fed with diets SPC and C than in fish fed with other diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:50:38.544505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12513
       
  • Establishing the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for
           silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles by deletion method
    • Authors: J.G. Marammazi; M. Yaghoubi, O. Safari, H. Peres, M.T. Mozanzadeh
      Abstract: A 6-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid (EAA) pattern for silvery-black porgy juvenile based on the AA deletion method. Eleven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing 60% of fish meal nitrogen and 40% of crystalline AA nitrogen. In the control diet, the EAA profile was made similar to fish meal protein. Ten other diets were formulated similar to the control diet but replacing 40% of each EAA by a mixture of non-essential amino acids. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 4.7 g) were handfed with the experimental diets, three times a day, to visual satiation, for 42 days. At the end of the trial, final body weight of all EAA-deficient groups was lower than that of control group, ranging from 6.3% of reduction with arginine-deficient diet to 39.4% of reduction with lysine-deficient diet, relatively to the control group. Based on the relationship between nitrogen retention and EAA intake of the control and EAA-deficient diets, the optimal dietary EAA profile for silvery-black porgy juveniles was estimated to be (g 16/g N): arginine 5.3, lysine 6.0, threonine 5.2, histidine 2.5, isoleucine 4.6, leucine 5.4, methionine + cysteine 4.0 (in a diet containing 0.6 cysteine), phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.6 (in a diet containing 1.9 tyrosine), tryptophan 1.0 and valine 4.6.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:50:36.39596-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12524
       
  • Processing of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus cells for dietary inclusion
           and optimal pigmentation in Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss L.
    • Authors: A.J. Young; J. Pritchard, D. White, S. Davies
      Abstract: A range of physical cell disruption techniques have been evaluated to aid the processing of astaxanthin-rich haematocysts of Haematococcus pluvialis for inclusion in salmonid feeds. Cell disruption by a scalable pressure treatment system was shown to be effective in breaking open the haematocysts without altering the content or isomeric composition of carotenoids in the algal cells. Storage of disrupted cells was optimal at −20°C in the dark under nitrogen. Disrupted cells were spray-dried, incorporated into commercial diets and fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss L.). A marketable level of pigmentation in fish muscle was achieved after 10-week dietary supplementation. The geometric and optimal isomer composition of the astaxanthin deposited in the muscle was nearly identical to that seen in Haematococcus. Changes were observed in the chirality of the astaxanthin deposited in the skin in comparison with that isolated from both the white muscle and the alga.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T05:05:32.844842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12505
       
  • Nigella sativa seed protects against 4-nonylphenol-induced haematotoxicity
           in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): Oxidant/antioxidant rebalance
    • Authors: N.S. Abou Khalil; M. Abd-Elkareem, A.H. Sayed
      Abstract: 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is an emerging concern contaminant which is widely spread in the aquatic ecosystem. Nigella sativa seed (NSS) has multifaceted therapeutic values. This study aimed to give insight into the potential protective effect of NSS on NP-induced haematotoxicity in Clarias gariepinus through evaluation of haematological parameters, oxidant/antioxidant balance of blood lysate and histopathological investigation of blood smear. One hundred and fifty fish were divided into five groups (30/group). First group served as control which did not received NP exposure and fed basal diet without NSS supplementation. The other four groups were exposed to NP at a dose of 0.1 mg L−1 and fed diets supplemented with NSS at levels of 0, 10, 25 and 50 g/kg diet, respectively. Macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis and eosinophilia were observed following NP exposure together with increase in morphological erythrocyte alterations and micronuclei formation. Elevation in total peroxide and malondialdehyde and depletion in total antioxidant capacity of blood lysate were reported. We concluded that supplementation of NSS markedly ameliorated the previously listed manifestations, and the most effective doses were 25 and 50 g/kg feed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:55:28.920821-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12522
       
  • Effects of Pediococcus pentosaceus supplementation on growth performance,
           intestinal microflora and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus
           vannamei
    • Authors: M. Adel; S. Yeganeh, M.A.O. Dawood, R. Safari, S. Radhakrishnan
      Abstract: Litopenaeus vannamei is economically important shrimp species in worldwide aquaculture. This study was conducted to assess the effect of different levels of probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus (PP) on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal microflora count and body composition of L. vannamei. Four diets containing different concentrations [0 (PP0), 106 (PPI), 107 (PPII) and 108 (PPIII) CFU/g] of PP were formulated. After 8 weeks feeding trial, the experimental shrimps were challenged with Vibrio anguillarum and noted the surveillance. At the end of the feeding trial, the obtained results revealed a significant increase (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:45:35.247729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12515
       
  • Effects of dietary yeast inclusion and acute stress on postprandial plasma
           free amino acid profiles of dorsal aorta-cannulated rainbow trout
    • Authors: D. Huyben; A. Vidaković, M. Langeland, A. Nyman, T. Lundh, A. Kiessling
      Abstract: In a 4-week experiment, 15 cannulated rainbow trout were fed three diets based on fish meal (FM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (SC) and Wickerhamomyces anomalus and S. cerevisiae yeast mix (WA). Fish were fed daily, and blood samples were collected on day 7 of each week at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr after feeding. In the final week, fish were exposed to a 1-min netting stressor. All essential and non-essential plasma amino acid levels except methionine were similar between fish fed diets FM, SC and WA. Plasma methionine and sarcosine were significantly higher in fish fed diets SC and WA, possibly due to the crystalline methionine level, form or feeding regime. Hydroxy-proline and 3-methyl-histidine were higher in fish fed diet FM, which can be explained by the higher levels present in fish meal compared with yeast. In stressed fish, there were no dietary effects on plasma amino acid levels, but significant increases in taurine and cystathionine were found in stressed compared with unstressed fish. These results demonstrate that yeast-based diets produce similar plasma amino acid profiles to fish meal and suggest that yeast may be a suitable fish meal replacement in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T02:25:40.192162-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12551
       
  • Effects of dietary phospholipid and cholesterol levels on growth and fatty
           acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: T. Han; J.T. Wang, X.Y. Li, Y.X. Yang, M. Yang, H.L. Tian, P.Q. Zheng, C.L. Wang
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different phospholipids (PL) and cholesterol (CH) levels on the growth, moulting and fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Six diets were designed to contain three PL levels (0, 10 and 20 g/kg) and two CH levels (2 and 8 g/kg). Juvenile swimming crabs (3.48 ± 0.02 g/crab) were reared for 8 weeks. The weight gain (WG) was significantly (p  .05). The moulting frequency (MF), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FCR) were not significantly (p > .05) affected by the dietary treatments. The serum total cholesterol (TCH) significantly (p > .05) increased with increasing dietary PL level. The C20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3 content of the whole body of crabs increased with the addition of PL to the diet containing 2 g/kg CH of diet. An interaction was observed between PL and CH on certain saturated and unsaturated fatty acid concentrations of body.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:55:35.608624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12544
       
  • Effects of replacing fishmeal with different cottonseed meals on growth,
           feed utilization, haematological indexes, intestinal and liver morphology
           of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)
    • Authors: F. Bian; H. Zhou, G. He, C. Wang, H. Peng, X. Pu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, K. Mai
      Abstract: A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fishmeal with two differently processed cottonseed meals (CSM), namely XC and SC, separately in turbot (5.28 ± 0.02 g). Nine isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated without fishmeal replacement (FM), 150 g/kg (XC15, SC15), 250 g/kg (XC25, SC25), 350 g/kg (XC35, SC35) and 450 g/kg (XC45, SC45) of fishmeal replaced by CSM. Fishmeal was successfully replaced by XC in turbot diets without growth reduction at 350 g/kg, but not by SC even at 150 g/kg. The apparent digestibility coefficients of SC-included diets were significantly lower than XC-included diets at same replacement level. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and superoxide dismutase were significantly affected in XC45 and SC45 group. The XC45 and SC-included diets caused shortened distal intestine villi height and structural damage of liver compared with FM diet. This study indicated that different processing methods could affect the nutritional value of CSM and effect as a protein source for turbot. CSM with high quality could be an important alternative dietary protein source for juvenile turbot.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:46.341631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12518
       
  • Effect of dietary leucine on growth performance, hemolymph and
           hepatopancreas enzyme activities of swimming crab, Portunus
           trituberculatus
    • Authors: Y.-W. Huo; M. Jin, P. Sun, Y.-M. Hou, Y. Li, H. Qiu, Q.-C. Zhou
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary leucine requirement for juvenile swimming crabs reared in cement pools. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic practical diets (430 g/kg crude protein and 70 g/kg crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded leucine levels which ranged from 16.7 to 26.7 g/kg (dry weight). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 60 juvenile swimming crabs (initial average weight 3.75 ± 0.12 g) that were stocked in rectangle plastic baskets. The results of the present study indicated that dietary leucine levels significantly influenced weight gain (WG) and specific growth ratio (SGR) (p  .05). Total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose in serum were significantly affected by the dietary leucine levels. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase activities in hemolymph, AST and superoxide dismutase activities in hepatopancreas were significantly affected by dietary leucine levels; moreover, crab fed the 16.7 g/kg leucine diet had higher malondialdehyde in hemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Crab fed the diet containing 24.9 g/kg leucine had higher phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph than those fed the other diets. Based on two-slope broken-line model of SGR against dietary leucine levels, the optimal dietary leucine requirement for growth was estimated to be 22.1 g/kg of the dry diet (corresponding to 51.4 g/kg of dietary protein on a dry weight basis). In summary, findings of this study indicated that dietary leucine could improve growth performance and antioxidant status.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:25:25.61554-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12509
       
  • Growth performance and digestion improvement of juvenile sea cucumber
           Apostichopus japonicus fed by solid-state fermentation diet
    • Authors: J.-h. Wang; H. Guo, T.-r. Zhang, H. Wang, B.-n. Liu, S. Xiao
      Abstract: In this study, the compound probiotics including Pseudoalteromonas. Sp D11, Bacillus subtilis A142, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y23 and Lactobacillus plantarum L54 were applied for solid-state fermenting the artificial diet of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The quality of solid-state fermented (SSF) feed and its potential effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities were investigated. The results showed that, compared to unfermented diet, SSF feed had a better palatability quality; meanwhile, a higher ratio of crude protein, free amino acids and reducing sugars and a lower ratio of crude fibre, crude ash and alginic acid were found in SSF feed. The results of the feeding trial showed that feeding SSF feed could improve growth performance of sea cucumbers more than those fed with the unfermented diet. The results of digestive enzyme assays showed that feeding SSF feed to animals could significantly improve activities of amylase, cellulase, alginic acid enzyme and protease, which implied that fermented feed could improve digestibility of A. japonicus. In summary, the SSF feed fermented by compound probiotics had better palatability and nutrition value than unfermented feed. And feeding SSF feed could significantly improve the growth performance and digestion ability for sea cucumbers in the phases of nursery and grow-out.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:20:25.443436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12506
       
  • Effects of dietary copper nanoparticles and vitamin C supplementations on
           growth performance, immune response and stress resistance of red sea
           bream, Pagrus major
    • Authors: M.F. El Basuini; A.M. El-Hais, M.A.O. Dawood, A.E.-S. Abou-Zeid, S.Z. EL-Damrawy, M.M.E.-S. Khalafalla, S. Koshio, M. Ishikawa, S. Dossou
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and vitamin C (VC) on red sea bream. Besides the control diet (D1), six diets were supplemented with Cu-NPs and VC [0/800 (D2), 0/1,000 (D3), 0/1,200 (D4), 2/800 (D5), 2/1,000 (D6) and 2/1,200 (D7) mg Cu-NPs/VC per kg]. Cu-NP was a significant factor on final weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI), feed (FER) and protein efficiency ratios (PER), protein gain (PG) and protein retention (PR), body protein and lipid contents, protease (PA) and bactericidal activities (BA) and tolerance against stress (LT50%) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:10:43.368314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12508
       
  • A new approach to fishery waste revalorization to enhance Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus) digestion process
    • Authors: Y.E. Rodriguez; N.A. Pereira, N.S. Haran, J.C. Mallo, A.V. Fernández-Gimenez
      Abstract: The main goal of this research was to analyse in vitro compatibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) digestive proteinases and enzymes recovered from species comprising fishery waste as Pleoticus muelleri, Artemesia longinaris and Patagonotothen ramsayi. It evaluated the use of exogenous enzymes as feed supplements to increase digestion efficiency in tilapia fingerlings and juveniles (3.5 ± 0.11 g and 11.6 ± 1.5 g, respectively). We successfully have obtained proteinases from fishery waste as source of exogenous enzymes. P. muelleri and A. longinaris enzymes had more activity of acid and alkaline proteinases than P. ramsayi. SDS-PAGE gels demonstrated that Nile tilapia digestive proteinases keep their activity when combined with each exogenous proteinase. Exogenous enzymes varied in their ability to enhance hydrolysis of different feed ingredients. P. muelleri by-products are the best candidates to be employed as feed supplements for tilapia juveniles. Enzymes from this by-product did not affect the activity and integrity of fish digestive enzymes, improved the hydrolysis of different protein sources (fish meal, squid meal, shrimp meal and soybean meal), and maintained its activity after being exposed to high temperatures and acid pHs. Our findings are applicable to other places where O. niloticus is raised utilizing local fishery waste, and also to different cultured species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:50:27.597176-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12510
       
  • Effect of dietary iron (Fe) levels on growth performance, hepatic lipid
           metabolism and antioxidant responses in juvenile yellow catfish
           Pelteobagrus fulvidraco
    • Authors: Z. Luo; G.-Y. Zou, Y. Gao, H.-M. Ye, W.-Q. Xi, X. Liu
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary Fe levels on growth performance, hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant response for juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing Fe levels of 16.20, 34.80, 54.50, 76.44, 100.42 and 118.25 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with dietary Fe levels from 16.20 to 54.50 mg/kg diet and then plateaued over the level. Feed conversion rate (FCR) was highest and protein efficiency rate (PER) was lowest for fish fed the lowest Fe levels of diet. Fe contents in whole body and liver increased with increasing dietary Fe levels. Hepatic lipid content was lowest, but mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were highest for fish fed 54.50 mg Fe/kg diet. Fish fed adequate dietary Fe levels reduced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and GS. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of WG against dietary Fe levels, optimal dietary Fe requirement for yellow catfish was 55.73 mg Fe/kg diets. Fe-induced changes in MDA levels and antioxidant enzymatic activities paralleled with the change in hepatic lipid content, suggesting the potential relationship between oxidative stress and hepatic lipid accumulation in yellow catfish.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:40:35.115254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12523
       
  • The performance of microbial flocs produced with aquaculture waste as food
           for Artemia
    • Authors: G.Z. Luo; M.L. Yao, H.X. Tan, W.H. Wu
      Abstract: The performance of microbial flocs as food for Artemia, which were produced using waste from a recirculating aquaculture system stocking European eel (Anguilla anguilla), was investigated in an 18-day feeding trial. Four dietary treatments were used: Chlorella only (diet 1), flocs only (diet 2), and both Chlorella and flocs offered as mixed diets in different proportions (diets 3 and 4). The survival rate of Artemia fed diets 1 and 4 were significantly higher than those fed diets 2 and 3. The survival rate of Artemia fed diet 4 was the highest among the four diets. Individual length (10.02 ± 2.44 mm) and biomass production of diet 3 (3.2 ± 0.40 g L–1) were the highest among the four diets. The crude protein contents for Artemia fed diets 2, 3 and 4 were 591.22 ± 30.15, 580.34 ± 22.42 and 533.27 ± 34.19 g kg–1, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of diet 1 (461.25 ± 10.33 g kg–1). The concentrations of free amino acids and the fatty acid compositions in the four diets were equal, except for the C24:0 content. The highly unsaturated fatty acid concentration of Artemia fed diet 2 was higher than those of the other three diets. It showed that microbial flocs produced from fish waste can be used for Artemia.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:30:28.113607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12519
       
  • Reconstitution of muscle F-actin from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
           with carotenoids—binding characteristics of astaxanthin and
           canthaxanthin
    • Authors: A.J. Young; J. Pritchard, G.M. Lowe, V. Crampton, L. Buttle
      Abstract: The binding of carotenoids to the myofibrillar protein F-actin purified from the white muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was studied using in vitro reconstitution. The binding of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin was saturable, and analysis revealed the presence of a single carotenoid-binding site. The dissociation constants (Kd) for actin prepared from 2.5 kg FW (Fresh Weight) fish were 1.04 ± 0.13 μg carotenoid per milligram of actin and 0.54 ± 0.11 μg/mg for astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, respectively. The saturation binding level (Bmax) for astaxanthin was 1.39 ± 0.07 μg/mg and 1.04 ± 0.08 μg/mg for canthaxanthin. These values were higher for F-actin prepared from organic and small (~0.5 kg FW) salmon than for non-organic and larger, mature fish. The structural specificity of carotenoid binding revealed a preference for carotenoids that possess a keto group at C-4 on the β end group of the molecule, but the presence of hydroxyl groups at C-3 or C-4 reduced overall binding efficiency. The study suggests that the ability of myofibrillar proteins to bind carotenoids is not a limiting factor governing the deposition of carotenoids in the muscle of salmonids.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:30:24.446525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12504
       
  • Dietary niacin requirement of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama
           amblycephala based on a dose–response study
    • Authors: X.-F. Li; T.-J. Wang, Y. Qian, G.-Z. Jiang, D.-D. Zhang, W.-B. Liu
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the optimal dietary niacin requirement of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish, with an average weight of 3.62 ± 0.02 g, were randomly divided into six groups and fed six purified diets with graded levels of niacin (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg) three times daily for 8 weeks. The survival rate, weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency and protein retention all significantly improved (p  .05) with further increases in niacin levels. The supplementation of 30 mg/kg niacin also led to a significant (p  .05) but exerted a significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:20:25.74478-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12516
       
  • Ferulic acid: A natural compound as an efficient feed additive for GIFT
           (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: L.-J. Yu; F. Wu, M. Jiang, C.-G. Yang, W. Liu, J. Tian, X. Lu, H. Wen
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and some physical characteristics of flesh in genetic improvement of farmed tilapia (GIFT) juveniles. Five diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg FA were prepared. Weight gain was significantly increased, while feed conversion ratio, viscerosomatic index and hepatosomatic index were significantly decreased in fish fed FA diet at 100 mg/kg feed (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:15:26.086053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12529
       
  • Growth and metabolic responses of juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense to
           different dietary carbohydrate levels
    • Authors: Z.L. Ding; Y.Q. Kong, J.F. Li, F. Cao, Y.X. Zhang, Z.Y. Du, J.Y. Ye
      Abstract: It remains controversial whether carbohydrate can be efficiently used by crustaceans. Six isonitrogenous and isolipid diets were formulated containing 50–350 g kg–1 corn starch and were fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.133 ± 0.003 g) for 56 days in five replicates. Prawns fed 50–150 g kg–1 corn starch attained significantly greater weight gain. Digestive enzyme activities were significantly affected by dietary corn starch level. Hepatopancreatic and muscle glycogen levels peaked in prawns fed 350 g kg–1 and 150 g kg–1 corn starch content, respectively. Prawns fed 350 g kg–1 corn starch had a significantly higher haemolymph glucose level than that in the other groups. Hepatopancreatic hexokinase (HK) activity increased significantly as corn starch level was increased. Hepatopancreatic pyruvate kinase (PK) activity of prawns fed the 150 g kg–1 and 250 g kg–1 corn starch was significantly higher than that of prawns fed 50 g kg–1 corn starch. Including carbohydrate in the diet promoted increased lipogenic activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) in the hepatopancreas. Hepatopancreatic HK and PK mRNA expression levels had similar trends with their activities. The 350 g kg–1 corn starch level induced the highest glucose-6-phosphatase and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA expression levels. Overall, moderate metabolic adaptations for using dietary corn starch were detected in Macrobrachium nipponense; however, a high proportion (>150 g kg–1 ) of corn starch in the diet may reduce growth.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T07:00:45.947124-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12482
       
  • Effects of dietary coated protease on growth performance, feed
           utilization, nutrient apparent digestibility, intestinal and
           hepatopancreas structure in juvenile Gibel carp (Carassius auratus
           gibelio)
    • Authors: W. Liu; J.P. Wu, Z. Li, Z.Y. Duan, H. Wen
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protease on growth performance, feed utilization, whole-body proximate composition, nutrient digestibility, intestinal and hepatopancreas structure of juvenile Gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (mean weight 8.08 ± 0.18 g). Six diets were prepared, including a positive control diet (dietary protein 350 g/kg, PC), one negative control diet (dietary protein 33 g/kg, NC) and four protease supplementations diets, which were 75, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg protease NC diet. After 12 weeks of diet feeding in indoor recycle aquarium tanks, no significant difference (p > .05) was found on growth performance between fish fed diet with 75–600 mg/kg protease and the PC group. Compared with the fish fed the NC diet, the specific growth rate of fish fed 300 mg/kg protease increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:50:27.929751-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12531
       
  • Growth performance, body composition and metabolic response to feeding
           rates in juvenile Brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis
    • Authors: M.F. Baloi; F.C. Sterzelecki, J.K. Sugai, G. Passini, C.V.A. Carvalho, V.R. Cerqueira
      Abstract: A 6-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding rate on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites and enzyme activities, and to determine the optimal feeding rate for juvenile Brazilian sardine. Fish were fed at six feeding rates, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% BWday−1 (body weight per day) and until satiation (10.3% BWday−1). The survival of fish fed at 2%–6%BWday−1 was significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:40:24.083734-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12521
       
  • Evaluation of ingredient combinations from differing origins (fishmeal,
           terrestrial animal and plants) and two different formulated nutrient
           targets on rainbow trout growth and production efficiency
    • Authors: T.G. Gaylord; W.M. Sealey, F.T. Barrows, C.A. Myrick, G. Fornshell
      Abstract: A 12-week trial was performed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) utilizing combinations of ingredients at two nutrient targets. Ingredient combinations were fishmeal-based diet (FMD), animal product-based diet (APD), plant product-based diet (PPD), novel plant-based diet (NPD) and potential future plant-based diet (FPD). Two nutrient concentrations were targeted: 1) to meet published amino acid targets for rainbow trout utilizing approximately 450 g/kg crude protein (400–420 g/kg digestible protein) and 2) to meet the amino acid targets based on ideal amino acid balance of trout muscle for Lys, Met and Thr utilizing approximately 400 g/kg crude protein (370–380 g/kg digestible protein). Interactive effects between ingredient combination and nutrient concentration occurred across all response variables. When diets were formulated to Target 1, fish consuming FMD and APD displayed better weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) than plant-based diet, while graded effects were found within the plant-based treatments. When differing ingredient combinations were utilized and formulated to Target 2, fish grew equally well except for the NPD treatment which supported lower growth and higher FCR. Based on the data from the current experiment, one can completely remove fishmeal from trout feeds and reduce protein levels when dietary digestible amino acids are balanced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:15:28.294998-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12507
       
  • Effect of dietary valine levels on the growth performance, feed
           utilization and immune function of juvenile golden pompano, Trachinotus
           ovatus
    • Authors: Z. Huang; X.-h. Tan, C.-p. Zhou, Y.-k. Yang, C.-l. Qi, S.-y. Zhao, H.-z. Lin
      Abstract: This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of dietary valine on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes, serum antioxidant and immune indices of juvenile Trachinotus ovatus and determine its valine requirement. Six diets with different concentrations of L-valine (15.0, 16.6, 18.6, 20.7, 23.5 and 25.4 g/kg dry diet, defined as diet Val-1 to Val-6.), were formulated to contain 430 g/kg crude protein with fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal and precoated crystalline amino acids. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate treatments of 20 fish (the initial body weight was 5.34 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the final body weight and percent weight gain (PWG) increased with increasing valine concentration up to 18.6 g/kg (diet Val-3), whereas the diets containing higher valine concentration reduced the growth performance significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:55:39.744739-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12535
       
  • Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth performance,
           hemolymph indices and fillet organoleptic properties of juvenile
           narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus Eschscholtz,
           1823
    • Authors: O. Safari; M. Paolucci
      Abstract: A 18-week feeding trial was carried out under controlled conditions to compare the effects of onion powder (OP) at six levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/kg) on the growth performance, nutritional efficiency indices, hemolymph indices and fillet organoleptic properties of juvenile (5.62 ± 0.39 g) crayfish. The significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:50:44.276077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12517
       
  • Digestibility of nutrients and energy in ingredients for bullfrogs during
           different phases of development
    • Authors: C.F.M. Mansano; B.I. Macente, T.M.T. Nascimento, D.F.H. Pinto, M.M. Pereira, M.V. De Stéfani
      Abstract: The ability of frogs to digest dietary nutrients changes with growth, with the animals becoming more or less demanding. The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, energy and ether extract of 14 ingredients used in bullfrog diets (spray-dried blood meal, hydrolysed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, red blood cell concentrate, tilapia by-product meal, sardine fishmeal, salmon fishmeal, meat and bone meal, corn gluten meal, soybean meal, corn, wheat bran, soy protein concentrate and soybean oil). A total of 2,325 bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) in different phases of development were used: early phase (mean weight of 30–50 g), growth phase (80–110 g) and finishing phase (150–200 g). Faeces were collected using the method of dissection. Marked differences in digestibility of the ingredients were observed between the different phases of frog development. Among the ingredients studied, salmon fishmeal and corn gluten meal showed good utilization of the protein (78.9% and 86.7%, respectively) and energy fraction (89.4% and 83.3%, respectively). The salmon fishmeal, poultry by-product meal, sardine fishmeal, soy protein concentrate, wheat bran and soybean oil exhibited good ether extract utilization (81.2%–92.8%), recommending their use in bullfrog diets.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:40:22.80889-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12512
       
  • Aloysia triphylla essential oil as food additive for Rhamdia quelen –
           Stress and antioxidant parameters
    • Authors: C.C. Zeppenfeld; E.M.H. Saccol, T.S. Pês, J. Salbego, G. Koakoski, A.C. Santos, B.M. Heinzmann, M.A. Cunha, L.J.G. Barcellos, M.A. Pavanato, B.O. Caron, B. Baldisserotto
      Abstract: We examined the effects of dietary supplementation for 21 days with different levels (0, 0.25 and 2.0 ml/kg) of the Aloysia triphylla essential oil (EOAT) on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Cortisol levels were lower in fish fed EOAT at 2.0 ml/kg diet, and lactate levels were lower in those fed at both doses. Glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride levels did not vary between groups. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxide, superoxide dismutase, catalase and non-protein thiols, were lower in the brain, liver and muscle of fish fed EOAT at 2.0 ml EO/kg diet. Glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, plasma Na+, Cl−, and K+, and gill Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase did not vary between groups. Taken together, our results clearly indicate that the addition of EOAT at 2.0 ml/kg diet improves oxidative status and lowers the stress response in silver catfish.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:15:31.26356-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12511
       
  • You are what you eat' Differences in lipid composition of cod larvae
           reared on natural zooplankton and enriched rotifers
    • Authors: A. Folkvord; R. Koedijk, O. Grahl-Nielsen, S. Meier, B. Rydland Olsen, G. Blom, E. Otterlei, A.K. Imsland
      Abstract: A laboratory experiment with larval cod fed natural zooplankton and enriched rotifers was carried out to investigate the effects of feed type on fatty acid (FA) and lipid composition. A divergence in FA composition was observed within a week of feeding on respective diets, and subsequent transfers of larvae from one feeding regime to the other also confirmed a rapid change in FA composition towards that of the newly provided feed source. The rapid change in FA composition after switching diet is in part expected to be due to the high growth and tissue turnover of cod larvae during the early life stages and provides an opportunity to assess recent feeding history by means of FA analysis. The FA contents also varied between the main analysed lipid classes, with relatively higher eicosapentaenoic acid levels in neutral lipids than in polar lipid classes. Although zooplankton contained notably more polar lipids and less neutral lipids than enriched rotifers, the relative amounts of polar and neutral lipids in larvae from respective prey groups were similar, signifying that the larval composition only partly reflects what they have been eating. Still, the FA composition of the previous diet was still discernible in larvae after 1–2 weeks of transfer to a new diet or after weaning to a formulated feed. The potential long-term effects of these nutritional differences are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:10:28.311375-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12550
       
  • The effect of plant-based diet and suboptimal environmental conditions on
           digestive function and diet-induced enteropathy in rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: P. Mosberian-Tanha; J.W. Schrama, T. Landsverk, L.T. Mydland, M. Øverland
      Abstract: This experiment investigated intestinal enteropathy and digestive function of rainbow trout challenged with soybean meal-based diet (SBM) at optimal or suboptimal environments created by normal or reduced water flow, respectively. Oxygen level remained above 7 mg L-1 for optimal environment and between 4 and 5 mg L-1 for suboptimal environment. Triplicate groups of fish (mean body weight 74 g) were fed fishmeal-based diet (FM) or SBM at optimal environment in period 1 (28 days). In period 2 (42 days), fish were subjected to a change from FM to SBM or remained on the same diet as used in period 1. The fish were also exposed to change from optimal to suboptimal environment or remained under optimal conditions. The fish subjected to change from FM to SBM, regardless of their environment, showed similar degree of enteropathy from day 14. Lipid and starch digestibility was lower in SBM-fed fish at suboptimal environment compared to fish fed the same diet at optimal environment. Crude protein digestibility, however, was highest in SBM-fed fish at suboptimal environment throughout period 2. In conclusion, in SBM-fed rainbow trout, exposure to suboptimal environment did not change the degree of enteropathy; however, lipid and starch digestibility were further reduced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T00:35:35.588875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12539
       
  • Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal in the diets improved the
           reproductive performance of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)
           broodstock
    • Authors: H.G. Xu; M. Zhao, K.K. Zheng, Y.L. Wei, L. Yan, M.Q. Liang
      Abstract: A three-month feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary krill meal on the reproductive performance of tongue sole broodstock. Three diets were formulated to contain different levels of krill meal, 0 (Diet K-0), 10 (K-100) and 200 (K-200) g kg–1 dry matter, replacing the corresponding contents of protein and lipid from fishmeal and fish oil. Each diet was assigned to triplicate tanks. Compared with K-0, both K-100 and K-200 increased the egg properties such as buoyant eggs rate, egg diameter, oil droplet diameter and SOD activity of the fertilized egg. However, the maturation rate, serum estradiol content, the relative fecundity and hatching rate were improved only by K-100. The krill meal supplementation increased the concentrations of astaxanthin and n-3 fatty acids in eggs, but decreased the n-6 fatty acid concentrations. Both K-100 and K-200 increased the survival activity index, but the larval deformity rate was decreased only by K-100. At 15 DPH, the larval length and the digestive enzyme activities were significantly higher in group K-200 compared with groups K-0 and K-100. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of krill meal, at the level of 100 or 200 g kg–1 dry matter in exchange of fishmeal and fish oil had the considerable positive effects on C. semilaevis reproduction.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T07:55:43.297896-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12503
       
  • European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) ability to discriminate between
           diets made with different dietary fat sources
    • Authors: R.K. Luz; D. Boluda-Navarro, F.J. Sánchez-Vázquez, R. Fortes-Silva, M.C. Portella, S. Zamora Navarro, J.A. Madrid
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine whether juvenile and adult European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), fed ad libitum manually and with self-feeding demand feeders, respectively, were able to discriminate between a fish oil-based diet and a series of diets made with vegetable oils (soybean, linseed, rapeseed and sunflower oil), as well as a fat-free diet. Adult D. labrax (443.6 ± 108.8 g) selected diets made from soybean (SYO) and rapeseed (RO) in proportions similar to fish oil (FO). Demand levels for the other two diets, sunflower (SUO) and linseed (LO) oils, were significantly lower than FO, whilst juveniles (56.4 ± 11.2 g) displayed a preference for SYO and FO. The lowest demand levels were associated with a fat-free diet (FF). Selection percentages of the diets for adult and juvenile fish were, respectively, FF—22.96% and 39.76%, SYO—43.02% and 53.26%, LO—36.48% and 36.19%, SUO—39.87% and 37.32%, and RO—46.38% and 40.94%. The animals’ size and feeding method did not significantly affect dietary selection. However, a statistical difference in specific growth rate (1.37% ± 0.26% day−1) for juveniles was only observed for FO+FF combination. For juveniles, no differences were observed in the conversion index. The juvenile group (FO + FF) had the highest food intake (2.00 ± 0.35 g 100 g−1 body weight). Moreover, the groups fed FO + SUO and FO + RO consumed the least. In conclusion, this study shows D. labrax can discriminate between diets where the only difference is the lipid source. These findings should be used to understand the acceptance or rejection of different source oils, which are increasingly being used in aquaculture such as aquafeeds for European seabass.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T07:50:55.262021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12534
       
  • Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium meal on growth
           performance, activities of digestive enzyme and fatty acid profile of
           Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae
    • Authors: Y. Wang; M. Li, K. Filer, Y. Xue, Q. Ai, K. Mai
      Abstract: This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing dietary fish oil with Schizochytrium meal for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae (initial body weight 4.21 ± 0.10 mg). Six test microdiets were formulated using Schizochytrium meal to replace 0 g/kg, 250 g/kg, 500 g/kg, 750 g/kg, 1000 g/kg or 1500 g/kg fish oil DHA. No significant differences were observed in survival, growth, final body length and activities of digestive enzyme among shrimp fed different diets (p > .05). No significant differences were observed in C20:5n-3 (EPA) in muscle samples (p > .05). C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6 in muscle increased as Schizochytrium meal replacement level increased (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T07:45:24.467522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12479
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 431 - 432
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T01:52:07.168202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12494
       
  • Organ and phospholipid class fatty acid specificity in response to dietary
           depletion of essential n-3 fatty acids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar
           L.)
    • Authors: M.S. Thomassen; M. Bou, C. Røsjø, B. Ruyter
      Pages: 433 - 443
      Abstract: The cell membrane phospholipid composition is of major importance for normal cell functions. However, it is not known how complete depletion of both shorter and longer chain omega-3 fatty acids in salmon diets influences fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses in different organs of Atlantic salmon. We describe here the fatty acid composition in phospholipid subclasses of liver, muscle, heart and intestine in Atlantic salmon after 18 months of dietary n-3 essential fatty acids deprivation. The percentage of 22:6n-3 was markedly reduced in almost all phospholipid subclasses, and except for muscle phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), phospholipids in deficient fish were totally devoid of 20:5n-3. As compensation, we observed significant increases in 20:4n-6, and especially in 20:3n-9 (Mead acid) and 22:5n-6, varying among phospholipids and organs. High amounts of 20:3n-9 were found in liver and intestinal PE, little in PE from heart and muscle. For 22:5n-6, we saw a small incorporation in PI in liver and intestine compared to heart and muscle. Generally in PI, the preference for 20:4n-6 to 20:5n-3 differed significantly between organs. Overall, changes upon n-3 deprivation seemed to be strongest in liver and intestine, the lipid-secreting organs, and less in muscle and heart.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T01:27:58.367475-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12409
       
  • Influence of different dietary carbohydrate sources on the growth and
           intestinal microbiota of Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity
    • Authors: F. Qiao; Y.K. Liu, Y.H. Sun, X.D. Wang, K. Chen, T.Y. Li, E.C. Li, M.L. Zhang
      Pages: 444 - 452
      Abstract: Because of the increasing market potential of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and limited availability of coastal areas for production, culture of L. vannamei at low salinity is a growing trend throughout the world. Dietary manipulation could improve the growth performance of L. vannamei at low salinity. This study reared L. vannamei with glucose, sucrose and corn starch as dietary carbohydrate sources, respectively, at a low salinity. The results indicated that the sucrose and glucose feeding groups showed better growth performance. An Illumina-based sequencing method was used to examine the intestinal bacterial composition and the results indicated that Proteobacteria were the most prevalent members, but abundance of Actinobacteria decreased while Firmicutes increased in the corn starch-fed group. Furthermore, bacteria related to complex carbohydrate degradation were in lower abundance, whereas the abundance of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria increased in corn starch-fed group than the other two groups, suggesting that the diet imposes selective pressure on the intestinal microbiota. Complex carbohydrates were not the ideal energy sources for L. vannamei at low salinity because the host has higher energy demand in the stressful conditions while the complex carbohydrate degradation efficiency of the gut microbiota in L. vannamei is limited.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T00:40:46.043978-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12412
       
  • Effects of dietary choline on growth performance, lipid deposition and
           hepatic lipid transport of grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
    • Authors: D.G. Qin; X.H. Dong, B.P. Tan, Q.H. Yang, S.Y. Chi, H.Y. Liu, S. Zhang
      Pages: 453 - 459
      Abstract: The number of 360 individuals with an average initial weight of 87.8 ± 0.04 g was fed six diets containing graded levels of choline at 8.1 (control group), 602.5, 1119.0, 1511.5, 1970.0 and 4029.0 mg choline kg−1 diet, respectively, to investigate the effects of dietary choline on growth performance, lipid deposition and hepatic lipid transport for grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Dietary methionine was estimated to be 10.02 g kg−1, less than the requirement (13.10 g kg−1). The results of 10-week study period indicated that the best values of specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion rate (FCR) and protein efficiency rate (PER) all occurred in 1119.0 mg choline kg−1 diet (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-10T02:00:39.469659-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12413
       
  • Effect of restricted feeding and refeeding on compensatory growth,
           nutrient utilization and gain, production performance and whole body
           composition of carp cultured in earthen pond
    • Authors: K. N. Mohanta; S. C. Rath, K. C. Nayak, C. Pradhan, T. K. Mohanty, S. S. Giri
      Pages: 460 - 469
      Abstract: To assess the compensatory growth, a 10-month pond experiment was conducted in which three species of Indian major carps, viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (1 : 1 : 1), were stocked at 7500 ha−1 and the fish were subjected to different restricted feeding and refeeding protocols, viz. Control (C): Continuously fed for 10 months; Treatment-1 (T-1): Initial supplementary feeding for 2 months+ No supplementary feeding for 1 month + Refeeding for 7 months; Treatment-2 (T-2): Initial supplementary feeding for 2 months + No supplementary feeding for 2 months + Refeeding for 6 months; and Treatment-3 (T-3): Initial supplementary feeding for 2 months + No supplementary feeding for 3 months + Refeeding for 5 months in triplicate ponds. At the end of experiment, 100% growth compensation was achieved in T-2 for all the three carp species. Among all treatments, higher weight gain, PER and PPV and lower AFCR were also recorded in T-2, resulting in maximum fish production. The restricted feeding had significant effect (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-10T02:00:57.670553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12414
       
  • Optimal dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios for silvery-black porgy
           (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles
    • Authors: M. Torfi Mozanzadeh; V. Yavari, J.G. Marammazi, N. Agh, E. Gisbert
      Pages: 470 - 483
      Abstract: Four isonitrogenous diets containing different carbohydrate:lipid (CHO:L) ratios (0.3, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.8) were tested in triplicate groups (16 fish per replicate) of silvery-black porgy juveniles for 8 weeks. Growth performance was not affected by different dietary CHO:L ratios (P > 0.05); however, the viscerosomatic index, the intraperitoneal fat, whole-body lipid, energy and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids levels increased with decreasing dietary CHO:L ratios (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T00:51:15.014942-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12415
       
  • Probiotic bacteria may prevent haemorrhagic septicaemia by maturing
           intestinal host defences in Brazilian native surubins
    • Authors: G.F.A. Jesus; F.D.N. Vieira, B.C. Silva, M.M.D.S. Junior, T.T. Ushizima, E.C. Schmidt, Z.L. Bouzon, S.A. Pereira, G.V. Pereira, M.L. Martins, J.L.P. Mouriño
      Pages: 484 - 491
      Abstract: The farming of hybrid surubins in Brazil has been affected by bacterial diseases. To avoid this problem, the development of prophylactics such as probiotics has proved to be a promising tool against bacterial outbreaks. This study evaluated the dietary supplementation with lactic acid bacterium Weissella cibaria and its probiotic action in the intestinal tract focusing the hemato-immunological parameters, histology and electron microscopy. A total of 96 fish were maintained in a recirculation system and divided into 12 tanks, two treatments (supplemented and unsupplemented fish) and six replicates. Fish were fed supplemented commercial diet with W. cibaria for a period of 45 days, and the unsupplemented fish were with commercial feed without probiotic. The numbers of red blood cells, thrombocytes and lymphocytes were higher in supplemented fish after 45 days (P 
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T04:05:55.609222-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12416
       
  • Effect of dietary GroBiotic®-A supplementation as a prebiotic on the
           intestinal microflora, growth performance, haemato-serological parameters,
           survival rate and body composition in juvenile beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus,
           1754)
    • Authors: M. Adel; R. Safari, S. Yeganeh, M. Binaii, M. Ghiasi, S. Ahmadvand
      Pages: 492 - 499
      Abstract: The objectives of the present study were to investigate of GroBiotic®-A (GBA) on growth, autochthonous intestinal microbiota and haemato-serological parameters of beluga juvenile. A total of 180 fish (40.82 ± 5.81 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of GBA (0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg−1 diet) for 8 weeks. No significantly differences in body composition, total viable aerobic bacteria, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, albumin, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were detected between treatment groups. The fish fed on 10 and 20 g kg−1 GBA significantly showed higher lactic acid bacteria, final weight, body weight increases, weight gain and lower feed conversion ratio compared with the control and 5 g kg−1 groups. The group fed 20 g kg−1 GBA showed a highly significant difference in condition factor, survival rate, final length, total red and white blood cells, lymphocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, total protein, total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity. The specific growth rate of the treatment groups was significantly elevated compared with the control groups. These results indicated that GBA at level 20 g kg−1 improved growth, welfare and survival of beluga juvenile.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T00:35:39.953194-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12417
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, lipid metabolism
           and antioxidant status of juvenile Russian sturgeon Acipenser
           gueldenstaedtii
    • Authors: Q. Li; H.Y. Zhu, J.J. Wei, F. Zhang, E.C. Li, Z.Y. Du, J.G. Qin, L.Q. Chen
      Pages: 500 - 510
      Abstract: Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were used to test the influence of lipid source on growth performance, antioxidant status and lipid metabolism of juvenile Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Each diet was supplemented with 90 g kg−1 of lipid from each of six sources including fish oil (FO), beef tallow (BT), sunflower oil (SO), linseed oil (LO) and equal combinations of FO + SO + BT (FSB) or LO + SO + BT (LSB). After 56 days, fish fed LSB demonstrated highest weight gain, specific growth rate and lowest hepatosomatic index among all groups. The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the whole fish were highest in the SO group, and n-3 PUFAs were highest in fish fed LO. The fish fed FO contained highest n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Triglyceride in the serum of fish fed LSB was lowest, but was not significantly different from that in the SO group. Triglyceride in the serum of fish fed FO and BT was highest among all groups. Lipase, malate dehydrogenase and lipoprotein lipase activities were highest in fish fed LSB. Serum malondialdehyde in fish fed LSB was significantly lower than in fish fed FO or SO, but no significant differences were found among fish fed LSB, BT, LO or FSB. Fish fed LSB showed higher catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity than fish fed FO or FSB. This study indicates that linseed, sunflower oil and BT mixed oil are a suitable lipid source and can benefit growth performance and antioxidation in juvenile sturgeon.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T04:00:56.107076-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12418
       
  • Comparative growth and survival of spat of the Caribbean pearl oyster,
           Pinctada imbricata cultivated indoor with microalgae diets and outdoor
           with natural diet
    • Authors: C.J. Lodeiros; L. Freites, A. Márquez, M.E. Glem, M. Guevara, P.E. Saucedo
      Pages: 511 - 522
      Abstract: We report the results of survival and growth in size and dry mass of spat of the Caribbean pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata cultivated under outdoor (field culture) and indoor (Laboratory) conditions. Field group fed on environmental seston. Laboratory groups were fed with mono, binary and ternary mixtures of three cultivated algae: Isochrysis galbana (Ig), Tetraselmis chuii (Ig) and the Chaetoceros sp. (Ch-A, isolated from north-eastern Venezuela). After 30 days of trial, fatty acid profiles of spat were determined along with growth in length and height shell, adductor muscle and soft tissue dry mass. During the field grow-out phase (field culture), samplings were performed at days 1, 15 and 30 to measure environmental variables of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a), dissolved oxygen, seston, temperature and salinity. A significant increase in size and soft tissue mass occurred in spat fed the diets including the tropical diatom (Chaetoceros sp.). In contrast, monoalgal diets of Tc and Ig yielded no significant differences in size and mass of spat, compared with the field culture. These results suggest that nutritional requirements of cultivated spat for specific fatty acids of physiological importance for marine bivalves, such as: 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3, were satisfied from microalgal diets with Ch-A, alone or in combination, compared with spat fed from the field culture.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T00:46:31.839796-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12419
       
  • 1H NMR-based metabolomics studies on the effect of size-fractionated fish
           protein hydrolysate, fish meal and plant protein in diet for juvenile
           turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)
    • Authors: Y. Wei; M. Liang, K. Mai, K. Zheng, H. Xu
      Pages: 523 - 536
      Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate changes in the metabolic profile of liver and muscle of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed fishmeal-based diet, diets containing size-fractionated fish protein hydrolysate and plant protein-based diet using 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach combined with the growth. Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was obtained by enzymatic treatment, permeate fraction was obtained as UF by ultrafiltered step, and retentate fraction was retained as RF. FM diet contained fish meal used as a single protein source. Four other diets (PP, UF, FPH and RF) contained 180 g kg−1 diet fish meal. 54, 55 and 55 g kg−1 dry diet UF, FPH and RF were supplemented to UF, FPH and RF diets. All diets were formulated to be isolipidic and isonitrogenous fed to five triplicate groups of turbot (16.05 ± 0.03 g) for 68 days. O-PLS-DA in FM versus UF, FM versus FPH, FM versus RF and FM versus PP resulted in a reliable model for muscle and liver tissue, while O-PLS-DA in UF versus FPH and UF versus RF only showed metabolites changes in liver tissue. Results indicated that metabolite changes among the different treatments were consistent with the growth tendency.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T00:46:13.158929-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12420
       
  • Fatty acid digestibility in gilthead sea bream fed diets containing
           native, re-esterified or acid vegetable oils
    • Authors: C. Trullàs; R. Fontanillas, A. Tres, R. Sala
      Pages: 537 - 547
      Abstract: Re-esterified vegetable oils are obtained from a chemical esterification reaction between vegetable acid oils and glycerol. Due to their properties, it is expected that they have a higher nutritive value than their corresponding acid oils and a better digestibility than their native counterparts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of re-esterified oils with a different monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) content, produced from palm or rapeseed, on fatty acid digestibility in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Triplicate groups of fish were fed nine experimental diets containing different oils during 28 days. For each source, four different types of oil were used: native, re-esterified low or high in MAG and DAG and acid. A commercial fish oil was used for the control diet. Diets containing re-esterified oils had better apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of total fatty acids than acid oil diets. Re-esterified oils do not negatively affect apparent digestibility coefficients of fatty acids when compared to their corresponding native oils and could be incorporated as a source of energy in diets for gilthead sea bream. An improvement in digestibility compared to the native oil diet was only obtained in palm re-esterified oil high in MAG and DAG.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T01:28:19.415357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12421
       
  • Effects of dietary Rhodiola rosea on growth, body composition and
           antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal
           conditions and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite
    • Authors: Y. Wang; J.-P. Liang, Y.-F. Duan, J. Niu, J. Wang, Z. Huang, H.-Z. Lin
      Pages: 548 - 559
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite were designed to examine the effects of Rhodiola rosea on growth, body composition and antioxidant capacity of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp (3.60 ± 0.03 g) were randomly allocated to 4 groups, with 3 replicates per group and 30 shrimp per replicate. The dietary groups were given as follows: control and diets containing R. rosea (300, 1000 and 3000 mg kg−1). Antioxidant capacity including total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp was analysed at the end of feeding trial and again during the combined stress. The results showed that supplemental R. rosea had no significant impacts on growth and whole body composition of shrimp. There was significant effect of R. rosea supplementation dose and times on the antioxidant status parameters of L. vannamei. R. rosea (3000 mg kg−1) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-10T02:05:58.239179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12422
       
  • Protein-to-energy ratio of 21.43 g MJ−1 improves growth performance of
           Nile tilapia at the final rearing stage under commercially intensive
           rearing conditions
    • Authors: J. F. A. Koch; M. M. Barros, C. P. Teixeira, P. L. P. F. Carvalho, A. C. Fernandes Junior, F. T. Cintra, L. E. Pezzato
      Pages: 560 - 570
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of ratio of dietary digestible protein (DP) to digestible energy (DE) on growth performance, fillet chemical composition and haematological profile of Nile tilapia subjected to transport-induced stress at the final rearing stage (450 to 800 g) under commercial conditions. The trial was conducted using a 5 × 2 factorial layout (DP: 200, 230, 260, 290 and 320 g kg−1) and (DE: 12.6 and 13.8 MJ kg−1). Energy levels did not influence any analysed parameters in this research. Final weight and biomass gain were increased up to the ratio of 269 and 270 g PD kg−1, respectively, and feed conversion ratio was reduced down to a 275 g DP kg−1. Protein efficiency ratio linearly decreased from 200 g DP kg−1 diet to 320 g DP kg−1. There was no statistical difference in fillet chemical composition. Red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were different before and after transport-induced stress. Leucocyte differentiation after transport-induced stress revealed lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia. We conclude that for tilapia weighing 450–800 g reared under commercially intensive conditions, a diet with 270 g DP kg−1 and 12.6 MJ DE kg−1 (21.43 g DP MJ−1 DE) can improve the growth performance and ensure the fish health.
      PubDate: 2016-05-14T01:10:25.796701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12423
       
  • Evaluation of nutritive value of fermented de-oiled physic nut, Jatropha
           curcas, seed meal for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; A.M.A.-S. Goda, V. Kumar
      Pages: 571 - 584
      Abstract: Jatropha curcas seed meal was fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (LFJSM) and Bacillus pumilus (PFJSM) separately using the solid-state fermentation. After fermentation, the crude protein and the total hydrolysed amino acid contents were increased in LFJSM and PFJSM, while fibre content, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and saponins were decreased. An 84-day feeding experiment was designed for the nutritional evaluation of LFJSM and PFJSM in Nile tilapia. Seven isonitrogenous (305.47 g kg−1 crude protein) and isocaloric (18.21 MJ kg−1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0% (control diet), 25% (LFJSM-25), 50% (LFJSM-50), 75% (LFJSM-75) and 25% (PFJSM-25), 50% (PFJSM-50) and 75% (PFJSM-75) of protein from fish meal with LFJSM and PFJSM. The higher weight gain and the best feed conversion ratio were found in fish fed control diet, PFJSM-25 and PFJSM-50, which were insignificantly different. Apparent digestibility coefficient values of dry matter, crude protein, lipid and digestible energy reached a plateau in fish fed PFJSM-25 and PFJSM-50. No significant differences were found in haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum alternative complement pathway components, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and triglycerides between the control diet, LFJSM-25, LFJSM-50, PFJSM-25 and PFJSM-50 treatment groups. Therefore, these findings suggest that up 50% of fish meal can be replaced by PFJSM in Nile tilapia diets.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T01:26:23.587169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12424
       
  • Dietary nucleotides improve the growth performance, antioxidative capacity
           and intestinal morphology of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)
    • Authors: Y. Meng; R. Ma, J. Ma, D. Han, W. Xu, W. Zhang, K. Mai
      Pages: 585 - 593
      Abstract: A growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects and safety of nucleotides in low fish meal diets on the growth performance, antioxidative capacity and intestinal morphology of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). High fish meal control diet was formulated with 500 g kg−1 fish meal. Seven levels (0.075, 0.15, 0.225, 0.300, 1.5 and 3.0 g kg−1, respectively) of nucleotides were added to a low fish meal basal diet, which was formulated with 400 g kg−1 fish meal. The eight experimental diets were fed to groups of juvenile turbot (initial weight: 6.0 ± 0.03 g) for 60 days. Results showed that compared with high fish meal control diet, low fish meal basal diet treatment had lower total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase activity, fold height of proximal and distal intestine, enterocyte height of all evaluated enteric section and microvillus height of mid-intestine and distal intestine (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T01:27:35.858698-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12425
       
  • Effects of protein levels on growth, feed utilization, body composition,
           amino acid composition and physiology indices of juvenile chu's croaker,
           Nibea coibor
    • Authors: Y.S. Huang; X.B. Wen, S.K. Li, X.Z. Xuan, D.S. Zhu
      Pages: 594 - 602
      Abstract: A 49-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal dietary protein level for juvenile chu's croaker Nibea coibor in sea cages. Five isocaloric diets were formulated to contain graded levels of protein: 360 (D36), 400 (D40), 440 (D44), 480 (D48) and 520 (D52) g kg−1 diet. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish (mean 76.0 ± 0.8 g) in a total of 15 floating cages. Specific growth rate (SGR), protein retention efficiency (PRE), feed efficiency and feed intake were significantly higher at D44 and D48. Consumed protein (CP) obtained the maximum at D48, and protein efficiency ratio was significantly higher in fish fed with D44 and D48 compared with fish fed with D36 and D52. Hepatosomatic index and condition factor were not affected. Body protein and moisture content increased with increasing dietary protein, while lipid and ash content were not affected. Individual and total essential amino acids maximized at D44. Digestive enzymes and physiology indices in intestine, liver and plasma were differentially affected. Based on polynomial regression analysis of SGR, PRE and CP, we suggested that the optimum dietary protein level for juvenile chu's croaker was 444–478 g kg−1 diet.
      PubDate: 2016-04-10T02:05:39.488083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12426
       
  • Effects of dietary manganese source and supplemental levels on growth
           performance, antioxidant enzymes activities, tissue Mn concentrations and
           cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cMnSOD) mRNA expression level of
           juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: H.R. Cai; Q.H. Yang, B.P. Tan, X.H. Dong, S.Y. Chi, H.Y. Liu, S. Zhang
      Pages: 603 - 610
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different forms and levels of manganese (Mn) on the growth performance, antioxidant activities, tissue Mn content and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cMnSOD) gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei. Treatments consisted of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 mg Mn kg−1 from manganese sulphate (Mn-S) and manganese methionine (Mn-Met), providing the actual dietary value of 5.17, 15.62, 25.55, 34.22, 44.48 and 67.90 mg Mn kg−1 Mn-S, and 5.17, 15.71, 25.36, 35.86, 45.16 and 65.06 mg Mn kg−1 Mn-Met, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei (initial body weight: 1.925 ± 0.002 g) in a recirculated fresh water rearing system for 8 weeks. Weight gain rate (WGR) increased in prawns provided with from 25.55 to 44.48 mg Mn kg−1 Mn-S and 15.71 to 45.16 mg Mn kg−1 Mn-Met and then declined above these levels. The lowest protein efficiency ratio (PER) and the highest feed conversion rate (FCR) were observed in prawns fed the control diet (P  0.05). Survival rate (SR) was not affected by the dietary treatments (P > 0.05). Total SOD and Mn-SOD activities were higher in the hepatopancreas of prawns fed with Mn-supplemented diets from 15.71 to 44.48 mg Mn kg−1 (P 
      PubDate: 2016-05-07T00:50:50.091524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12427
       
  • Effects of different dietary selenium sources (sodium selenite,
           selenomethionine and nanoselenium) on growth performance, muscle
           composition, blood enzymes and antioxidant status of common carp (Cyprinus
           carpio)
    • Authors: S. Saffari; S. Keyvanshokooh, M. Zakeri, S.A. Johari, H. Pasha-Zanoosi
      Pages: 611 - 617
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of different sources of selenium (Se) on growth, muscle Se concentration, muscle proximate composition, blood enzymes and antioxidant status of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Organic Se (selenomethionine, SeMet), inorganic Se (sodium selenite, Na2SeO3), or nanoselenium were each added to the basal diet at 0.7 mg Se kg−1 diet. Four groups of fish with an average weight of 9.69 ± 0.12 g were fed one of the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Nano-Se diet resulted in better growth performance (P 
      PubDate: 2016-04-07T07:52:58.573464-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12428
       
  • Effects of dietary cellulase addition on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile crucian carp
           Carassius auratus
    • Authors: X. Shi; Z. Luo, F. Chen, C. Huang, X.–M. Zhu, X. Liu
      Pages: 618 - 628
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cellulase addition on improving the nutritive value of Chlorella for juvenile crucian carp Carassius auratus (initial body weight: 2.99 ± 0.02 g, mean ± SEM). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g kg−1 cellulase, respectively. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups with 25 juvenile fish per fibreglass tank for 8 weeks. The results showed that weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake and the trypsin activity in the anterior intestine increased with increasing dietary cellulase to 1.5 g kg−1 and then declined with further addition. However, the mRNA expression levels of Mrf4 and Myf5, the apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, protein, energy and the majority of amino acids, and the activity of lipase in the anterior intestine were highest in fish fed the 1.0 g kg−1 cellulase diet, and then tended to decline with further cellulase supplementation. In conclusion, the optimal dietary cellulase supplementation level was 1.0–1.5 g kg−1, which can improve growth performance, digestive activities and nutrient digestibility in crucian carp.
      PubDate: 2016-04-10T02:06:18.240057-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12429
       
  • Combined effects of dietary mannan- and fructo-oligosaccharide on growth
           indices, body composition, intestinal bacterial flora and digestive
           enzymes activity of regal peacock (Aulonocara stuartgranti)
    • Authors: S. S. Mirzapour-Rezaee; M. Farhangi, G. Rafiee
      Pages: 629 - 636
      Abstract: A 56-d feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on growth indices, body composition, intestinal bacterial community and digestive enzymes activity of regal peacock. A total of 240 fish were randomly distributed to 15 experimental units (40-L aquariums) of 16 fish each. These replicates were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. The treatments were control diet (no MOS and FOS), diet A (2 gkg−1 MOS + 1.5 g kg−1 FOS), diet B (2 g kg−1 MOS + 3 g kg−1 FOS), diet C (4 g kg−1 MOS + 1.5 g kg−1 FOS) or diet D (4 g kg−1 MOS + 3 g kg−1 FOS). The results showed that feeding diet C increased specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio and decreased feed conversion ratio compared with control diet. Higher intestinal trypsin activity and increased Lactobacillus counts were observed in fish fed diets B and C. All diets significantly elevated body protein deposition and intestinal amylase activity compared to the control diet. In conclusion, the diet supplemented with 4 g kg−1 MOS + 1.5 g kg−1 FOS was advantageous over other MOS + FOS-supplemented diets, with respect to growth performance and health benefits of regal peacock.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T07:12:00.349625-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12430
       
  • Effects of dietary calcium levels on growth and tissue mineralization in
           Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus
    • Authors: J.-Y. Song; C.-X. Zhang, L. Wang, K. Song, S.-C. Hu, L. Zhang
      Pages: 637 - 648
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of calcium (Ca) on growth and tissue mineralization in Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus. Six experimental diets were formulated to contain different levels of Ca (2.9, 4.2, 6.5, 7.9, 10.2 and 31.0 g kg−1) from dietary ingredients and Ca-lactate·5H2O. The diets were fed to three triplicate groups of Japanese seabass (initial weight, 12.5 ± 0.0 g) for 56 days. Dietary Ca had no significant effect on survival or feed efficiency; however, the highest Ca (31.0 g kg−1) diet significantly reduced weight gain, feeding rate and whole-body and muscle protein and lipid contents, as well as serum Ca concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. A significant reduction in vertebral Ca, P, Zn, Fe and Mn contents and scale Ca, P, Mg and Mn contents was observed in Japanese seabass as dietary Ca level increased. Deformed fish were primarily found in the 2.9 and 31.0 g Ca kg−1 groups, indicating that these fish had poor bone mineralization.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T04:05:41.375955-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12431
       
 
 
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