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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1584 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1584 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 69)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Nutrition
  [SJR: 1.025]   [H-I: 55]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1353-5773 - ISSN (Online) 1365-2095
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1584 journals]
  • Combined effect of weaning time and co-feeding duration on growth and
           survival of peled Coregonus peled (Gmelin) larvae
    • Authors: V. Stejskal; J. Matousek, M. Prokesova, P. Podhorec, R. Sebesta, B. Drozd
      Abstract: The study investigated the combined effect of weaning from live feed to a commercial dry pellet at 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 days posthatching (dph) and co-feeding for 1, 3 or 6 days on survival and growth of Coregonus peled larvae. Additional groups fed only live Artemia sp. nauplii (ART), and only Biomar LARVIVA ProWean 100 (DRY) were included. A final survival rate of 66.4%–85.5% was observed in groups weaned after 20 dph. Final body weight (BW) and total length (TL) were significantly lower in groups weaned at 10 and 15 dph, regardless of the duration of co-feeding. Larvae reached 29–37 mg BW and TL of 17.7–19.0 mm in groups weaned at 20, 25 and 30 dph. The recommended minimum duration of feeding with live food, based on these results, is 20 days. Based on the significantly higher yield of larvae weaned after 20 dph irrespective of co-feeding duration, it can be concluded that abrupt weaning to dry food after 20 days of feeding with live prey can provide adequate production while reducing the effort and costs associated with live feed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24T03:52:39.361526-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12575
       
  • Efficacy of feeding tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes on moon jellyfish with
           respect to nutritional composition and behavioural traits
    • Authors: Y. Miyajima-Taga; R. Masuda, A. Kurihara, R. Komi, Y. Yamashita, T. Takeuchi
      Abstract: Although jellyfish blooms are serious nuisances for fisheries and other industries, the utilization and nutritional value of by-catch jellyfish has drawn public attention. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of feeding tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes with moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. using 20-day rearing experiments. Feeding on jellyfish had no positive effect on growth performance, although it significantly reduced neutral lipids and increased proportions of polar lipids, n−3 and n−6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), especially arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and taurine. Supplemental feeding on jellyfish plus pellets elevated activity and responsiveness in the fish, with no effect on burst swimming speed or prevention of aggressive biting by siblings. The present research suggests that feeding on jellyfish improves body composition and some behaviours in tiger puffers. As cultured fish tend to accumulate excessive amounts of lipids from lipid-rich pellets that can induce an unhealthy condition, and behavioural deficits of hatchery-reared fish reduce survival after release in the wild, we propose the use of jellyfish as a supplemental diet in the nursery production of tiger puffer. Moreover, feeding on jellyfish can overcome deficiencies in alternative soy-material feeds by supplying phospholipid, HUFAs, or taurine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24T03:52:31.615742-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12583
       
  • 1H-NMR metabolomic profiling of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus
           subjected to polyphenol-enriched diets
    • Authors: Susan Costantini; Lucia Parrillo, Eliana Guerriero, Dominique Melck, Giovanni Colonna, Maria Grazia Volpe, Marina Paolucci
      Abstract: 1H-NMR analysis of the hepatopancreas, muscle and haemolymph of Astacus leptodactylus after feeding with polyphenol-enriched diet is reported. 1H-NMR spectra of lipophilic extracts showed the presence of cholesterol, fatty acid residues, phospholipids and triglycerides. 1H-NMR spectra of aqueous extracts identified 35 metabolites in the hepatopancreas, 31 in the muscle and 22 in the haemolymph. A total of 20 metabolites (amino acids and their derivatives) were present in the hepatopancreas, the muscle and the haemolymph. A total of 10 metabolites were present in both the hepatopancreas and the muscle (five amino acids, 2-hydroxybutyrate, choline, myo-inositol, glycogen and uracil). 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate and creatine were present in both the hepatopancreas and the haemolymph. Phosphorylethanolamine, phosphocholine and fumarate were present only in the hepatopancreas and isoleucine only in the muscle. Statistical analysis showed that the percentage of weight gain was statistically higher in polyphenol-enriched diet groups compared to the control and that polyphenols had a stimulating effect on the general metabolism. No stress-related metabolites were higher in crayfish fed with polyphenol-enriched diet. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and DHA, linked to resistance to environmental stress and diseases, were higher compared to the control diet. This study indicates that 1H-NMR is a useful tool to study the metabolomics in relation to diet differences.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:35:39.149729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12585
       
  • Evaluating dietary supply of microminerals as a premix in a complete plant
           ingredient-based diet to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: P. Antony Jesu Prabhu; J.W. Schrama, S. Fontagné-Dicharry, C. Mariojouls, A. Surget, M. Bueno, I. Geurden, S.J. Kaushik
      Abstract: Two basal diets M0 and V0 were formulated with marine and plant based ingredient composition. Seven experimental diets were prepared from the two basal diets namely M0, M100, V0, V30, V60, V100 and V150 by incorporating different levels of a micromineral premix (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn). Triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20 g) reared at 17°C were fed one of each diet to apparent visual satiation over 12 weeks. Among the V diet fed fish, growth and feed intake exhibited maximal response at V60 level of premix inclusion; Apparent availability coefficient of Fe, Cu and Zn decreased linearly with increasing level of premix whereas apparent availability coefficient of Mn and Se was unaffected. The available dietary concentration in basal V0 diet was for Fe, 20.6; Cu, 2.8; Mn, 6.5; Zn, 17.3 and Se, 0.195 (in mg/kg DM) and in the M0 diet for Fe, 63.3; Cu, 5.2; Mn, 2.9; Zn, 35.2 and Se, 0.87 (in mg/kg DM). In reference to NRC (Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. Washington, DC: National Research Council, The National Academies Press, 2011) recommendations, the V0 basal diet accounted for 34.3%, 92.9%, 53.9%, 115% and 130.2% and the contribution from M0 diet for 105.5%, 173.3%, 24.2%, 234.7% and 580% of the minimal dietary inclusion levels of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se to rainbow trout, respectively. However, data on whole body mineral contents showed that normal levels were maintained only for Cu and Mn through supply from basal V0 diet. For Zn and Se, available supply even from the highest supplemented diet (V150) was not sufficient to maintain normal body mineral levels of rainbow trout in the present study. On the whole, optimal dietary inclusion levels of microminerals are altered while using fishmeal-free diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:25:20.623846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12586
       
  • Dietary nucleotide mixture effects on reproductive and performance, ovary
           fatty acid profile and biochemical parameters of female Pacific shrimp
           Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: A. Arshadi; V. Yavari, A. Oujifard, S.M. Mousavi, E. Gisbert, M.T. Mozanzadeh
      Abstract: The effects of different dietary nucleotide mixture (NT) levels (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/kg) were investigated on the reproductive performance, fatty acid profile and biochemical parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei female that were co-fed with fresh food (two times daily) and experimental diets (two times daily) for 30 days. Sampling was carried out at the first day of the trial, before eyestalk ablation (ESA) (day 21) and after ESA (day 30). Reproductive performance parameters including the hepatopancreatic index, absolute fecundity, egg diameter and latency period were higher in the NT-supplemented groups than the control group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:20:19.802476-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12584
       
  • Effects of dietary vitamin E and astaxanthin on growth, skin colour and
           antioxidative capacity of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea
    • Authors: X. Yi; H. Shen, J. Li, Z. Wei, J. Shentu, W. Zhang, K. Mai
      Abstract: A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E and astaxanthin on growth performance, skin colour and antioxidative capacity of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. Six practical diets were formulated in a 2 × 3 factorial design to supplement with two levels of astaxanthin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin E (0, 120 and 800 mg/kg). The results showed that both the highest final body weight and specific growth rate were found in fish fed diets with 120 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation. No significant differences were found in survival rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio among all the treatments (p > .05). Skin lightness (L*) was not significantly affected by dietary treatments (p > .05). Ventral skin redness (a*) of fish fed diet with 25 mg/kg astaxanthin and 0 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation was significantly lower than that of fish fed with other diets. Yellowness (b*) and carotenoid contents both in the dorsal and in the ventral skin were found to be significantly increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin or vitamin E (p  .05). The vitamin E content in liver reflected the dietary vitamin E content. Level of vitamin E content in fish fed diets with 800 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation was significantly higher than that in fish fed with the other diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:15:21.592978-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12580
       
  • The tolerance and safety assessment of taurine as additive in a marine
           carnivorous fish, Scophthalmus maximus L.
    • Authors: Y. Liu; P. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Li, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. Ai, W. Xu, W. Zhang, K. Mai
      Abstract: The effects of dietary taurine on growth performance, liver and intestine morphology, serum physiological and antioxidant parameters, serum thyroid hormone level, muscle taurine content and fatty acid composition of turbot were first evaluated, for the safe utilization in marine fish feed and for human food safety. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 10, 50 and 100 g/kg taurine. Each diet was randomly assigned to six replicates of 30 juvenile turbot (initial mean weight of 7.46 g). The feeding trial lasted for 10 weeks. The growth performance of fish was significantly enhanced by 10 g/kg dietary taurine. The integrity of the distal intestine was impaired and the absorptive surface was found to be significantly reduced by 100 g/kg dietary taurine. The obvious pathological changes in liver were observed in fish fed 100 g/kg taurine. Dietary taurine with 10 and 50 g/kg significantly increased the activities of serum superoxide dismutase, lysozyme and thyroid hormone. The taurine content in muscle was found to be significantly increased by dietary taurine; however, no significant differences were observed among taurine-supplemented treatments. This study suggested that 10 g/kg taurine was safe in turbot feed, and fivefold of safety margin was obtained.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:05:56.233704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12579
       
  • Astaxanthin krill oil enhances the growth performance and fatty acid
           composition of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared
           under hypersaline conditions
    • Authors: O.S. Castro; L. Burri, A.J.P. Nunes
      Abstract: Hypersalinity culture of marine shrimp can lead to poor growth and feed efficiency. This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of three oil sources (krill, fish and soybean) on the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared under high salinity. Shrimp of 2.79 ± 0.60 g were reared for 64 days under isosmotic (ISO, 23 ± 1.2 g/L) and hyperosmotic (HOS, 44 ± 2.0 g/L) conditions. Diets varied in their fatty acid composition: Control, 35 g/kg of the diet (as fed basis) soybean oil; Fish, 27 g/kg fish oil and 10 g/kg soybean oil; Krill, 48 g/kg krill oil and 4 g/kg soybean oil; Krill-, 15 g/kg krill oil and 21 g/kg soybean oil; Krill+, 55 g/kg krill oil and 4 g/kg soybean oil. At harvest, Krill diet promoted the fastest shrimp growth (1.01 ± 0.01 g/week) and body weight (11.97 ± 2.01 g), regardless of water salinity. There were no significant differences in shrimp survival (93.4 ± 5.07%) and yield (554 ± 68.5 g/m2) among different diets. Shrimp fed Fish, Krill and Krill+ had higher concentrations of PUFA compared to those fed Control and Krill- diets.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:00:47.360152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12577
       
  • Dietary lysine requirement of juvenile dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus
    • Authors: A.A. Adesola; C.L.W. Jones, T.A. Shipton
      Abstract: To determine dietary lysine requirement of dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (431 g/kg crude protein, 141 g/kg lipid and 20 kJ/kg) were formulated with graded levels of crystalline L-lysine (18–42 g/kg of the dry diet). The protein source in the basal diet comprised fishmeal and soya, where a combination of L-aspartic and L-glutamic acids was maintained at a ratio of 1:1, and all diets were supplemented with a mixture of crystalline essential amino acids to simulate the amino acid profile in dusky kob. Dietary treatments were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 12 fish (4.5 ± 0.2 g, mean weight; 66.5 ± 1.1 mm, total length ± SD), which were fed to apparent satiation three times daily for 12 weeks. The fish fed dietary L-lysine at 21, 29 and 33 g/kg dry diet showed the highest specific growth rates (SGR) and the lowest feed conversion ratio. For most amino acids, retention in the body of the fish increased with an increase in dietary lysine from 18 to 21 g/kg, and it reached a maximum somewhere between 21 and 33 g/kg, where after amino acid retention decreased with increasing dietary lysine. Based on SGR and using segmented broken-line analysis, the dietary L-lysine requirement of juvenile dusky kob was estimated at 31.7 ± 1.6 g/kg dry diet corresponding to 73.5 g lysine per kg protein.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:51:42.196278-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12576
       
  • Effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio on growth, feed
           utilization, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of golden
           pompano (Trachinotus ovatus)
    • Authors: L.-F. Dong; T. Tong, Q. Zhang, Q.-C. Wang, M.-Z. Xu, H.-R. Yu, J. Wang
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO: L) on growth, feed utilization, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus. Five iso-nitrogenous (450 g/kg protein) and iso-energetic (19 MJ/kg gross energy) diets with varying CHO: L ratios of 0.68, 1.02, 1.62, 2.61 and 4.35, respectively, were fed to triplicate groups of 30 fish (average 13.8 ± 0.1 g). Results showed that dietary CHO: L ratios did not show any significant influence on survival of golden pompano (p > .05) but significantly affected its growth performance and feed utilization (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:30:24.003745-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12565
       
  • Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of advanced
           nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing Black
           Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal
    • Authors: E. Devic; W. Leschen, F. Murray, D.C. Little
      Abstract: A 32-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects on the performance, feed utilization efficiency and body composition of a strategic inclusion of Black Soldier Fly larvae meal (MM) in a commercially formulated diet for advance nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were commercially formulated and manufactured as a control and three test diets with strategic inclusions of MM inclusions (0, 30, 50 and 80 g/kg) and poultry by-product meal substituting gradually three conventional expensive feedstuffs: fish meal, fish oil and soybean meal. Fish (5.7 ± 0.5 g/fish) were nursed in a cage-in-lake system (Volta Lake, Ghana), under conditions similar to commercial farming practices. Control and experimental diets were fed to triplicate cages by hand to visual satiety, six times per day. Growth performance (final weight; weight gain and SGR), feed utilization efficiency indices (FCR and PER) and feed intake were not significantly different (p ≥ .05) between treatments. Survival was significantly different (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:25:20.3709-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12573
       
  • Substitution effect of sea tangle (ST) (Laminaria japonica) with tunic of
           sea squirt (SS) (Halocynthia roretzi) in diet on growth and carcass
           composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis discus, Reeve 1846)
    • Authors: B. Jang; P.Y. Kim, H.S. Kim, K.W. Lee, H.J. Kim, D.G. Choi, S.H. Cho, B. Min, K. Kim, H. Han
      Abstract: Substitution effect of sea tangle (ST) with tunic of sea squirt (SS) in diet on growth and carcass composition of juvenile abalone was determined. One thousand four hundred and seventy abalones were distributed into 21 containers. Six formulated diets in triplicate were prepared. A 200 g/kg ST was included into the ST0 diet. The 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 g/kg of ST were substituted with the same amount of tunic of SS, referred to as the ST200, ST400, ST600, ST800 and ST1000 diets, respectively. Finally, Undaria was prepared to compare effect of the formulated diets on performance of abalone. The experimental diets were fed to abalone for 16 weeks. Weight gain of abalone fed the ST400 diet was higher than that of abalone fed the ST0, ST600, ST800 and ST1000 diets and Undaria. Weight gain of abalone fed the formulated diets was higher than that of abalone fed the Undaria. The chemical composition of the carcass of abalone was affected by dietary substitution of ST with tunic of SS. In conclusion, ST could be completely substituted with tunic of SS without retardation in performance of abalone. Abalone fed the ST400 diet substituting 400 g/kg ST with tunic of SS achieved the best growth.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T04:30:52.474085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12593
       
  • Cross-effects of dietary probiotic supplementation and rearing temperature
           on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, cumulative mortality
           and innate immune response in seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
    • Authors: L.F. Pereira; M.J. Peixoto, P. Carvalho, K. Sansuwan, G.A. Santos, J.F.M. Gonçalves, R.O.A. Ozório
      Abstract: Probiotic influence on fish immune response and digestive capacity is extensively discussed in aquaculture. In this experiment, a feeding trial was carried out for 100 days to evaluate the cross-effects of probiotic supplementation and rearing temperature (17, 20 and 23°C) in juvenile seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The experimental diet was supplemented with a commercial probiotic blend (Biomin AquaStar Growout) at 3 g/kg diet (5.23 × 108 CFU/kg diet), and tested against a non-supplemented diet (control). Growth performance and innate immune responses were analysed at 70 and 100 days of feeding, whereas digestive enzyme activities were determined at 100 days of feeding. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were subjected to a handling stress and cumulative mortality was recorded. Digestive enzyme activities were influenced by temperature, with α-amylase and lipase activities peaking at the higher temperature (23°C) and trypsin at the lower temperature (17°C). Immune parameters showed a significant temperature versus feeding duration effect, with complement system (ACH50) and peroxidase peaking at 70 and 100 days of feeding, respectively. Poststress cumulative mortality was higher at the lowest temperature (17°C), especially in fish fed the control diet. In conclusion, water temperature was the main variable affecting the studied parameters, whereas the dietary probiotic supplementation had influence on the chymotrypsin activity and survival rate in seabass reared at 17°C.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T07:40:39.756623-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12578
       
  • Effects of complete fish meal replacement by rice protein concentrate with
           or without lysine supplement on growth performance, muscle development and
           flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
    • Authors: W.-C. Cai; G.-Z. Jiang, X.-F. Li, C.-X. Sun, H.-F. Mi, S.-Q. Liu, W.-B. Liu
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of fish meal (FM) replacement by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with supplementation of microcapsule lysine (ML) or crystalline lysine (CL) on growth performance, muscle development and flesh quality of blunt snout bream. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated, including FM diet (containing 50 g/kg FM), RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC), MRPC diet (FM replaced by RPC with ML supplementation) and CRPC diet (FM replaced by RPC with CL supplementation). Fish fed FM diet had significantly higher weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy utilization than that of RPC group, but showed no statistical difference with other treatments. In addition, fish fed RPC diet showed higher muscle fibre frequency in the 20- to 50-μm class but lower>50-μm class and higher cooking loss than that of the other groups. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in whole-body proximate compositions, frequency distribution of
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T07:40:32.53198-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12581
       
  • Effect of three natural phytochemicals supplementation on growth
           performance, testosterone level and feed utilization of Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: A.T. Mansour; E.A. Omar, T.M. Srour, M.I. Yousef
      Abstract: An 84-day feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary ginseng extract (GE), tribulus extract (TE) and date palm pollen grains (DPPG) on growth, testosterone level and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings. Seven experimental treatments were conducted in three replicates: control fed basal diets without any supplementations, GE0.2 (supplemented with 0.2 g GE/kg diet), GE0.4 (supplemented with 0.4 g GE/kg diet), TE0.6 (supplemented with 0.6 g TE/kg diet), TE1.2 (supplemented with 1.2 g TE/kg diet), DPPG3 (supplemented with 3 g DPPG/kg diet) and DPPG6 (supplemented with 6 g DPPG/kg diet). The results indicated that all dietary phytochemicals significantly increased growth compared to the control. Plasma testosterone levels were improved by 86.27%, 64.58%, 57.35% and 24.58% with TE1.2, GE0.4, TE0.6 and DPPG6, respectively, more than the control. The relationship between testosterone and final body weight showed a significant simple linear regression with a positive correlation. The nutrient utilization imprxoved with higher doses of phytochemical supplementations. Moreover, protein content increased and ether extract decreased with phytochemical supplementation. The present results concluded that higher doses of GE, TE and DPPG could be used as growth promoters and testosterone boosters for Nile tilapia fingerlings.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T02:55:52.518018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12572
       
  • Effects of increasing protein level on the performance, enzyme activity
           and body composition of the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis
           (Steindachner, 1879)
    • Authors: F.C. Sterzelecki; J.K. Sugai, M. Baloi, G. Passini, C.V.A. Carvalho, D.M. Fracalossi, V.R. Cerqueira
      Abstract: A six-week growth trial was performed to estimate the dietary protein requirements for maximum growth of juvenile Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) based on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and digestive enzyme activity. Six isoenergetic diets were formulated to contain protein levels that increased from 250 to 500 g/kg. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 160 fish with mean initial body weight of 0.93 ± 0.13 g, which were fed four times a day to apparent satiation. Growth tended to increase with the increase in the dietary protein level up to 400 g/kg. Total protein intake was indirectly correlated to apparent protein utilization. No significant differences in whole-body composition were found between fish fed the different protein levels. Acid protease and neutral lipase activities did not show significant differences among the different protein dietary groups. Alkaline protease activity increased in fish fed up to 350 g/kg of protein and amylase activity in fish fed up to 400 g/kg. Using polynomial regression, 367 g/kg was estimated to be the optimum dietary protein requirement for maximum weight gain of juvenile Brazilian sardines.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T08:10:25.424934-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12567
       
  • Suitability of two agglomerated commercial microdiets for rearing larvae
           of different strains of Coregonus lavaretus under cold-water conditions
    • Authors: S. Esmaeilzadeh-Leithner; J. Wanzenböck
      Abstract: The suitability of two agglomerated commercial microdiets (“Gemma micro®” and “O.range®” from now on called diet A and diet B) as a starter feed was tested on larvae of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Two strains (Baltic and Alpine) were tested in a 60-day experiment under ambient cold-water conditions (average 7.6 ± 1.9°C). The experiment was carried out in 400-L PVC tanks with a stocking density of 5,000 larvae per tank. Samples were removed weekly to determine growth, survival and feed acceptance, in addition to water quality. Striking differences between the feeds and different strains were observed. For one diet, growth and survival were distinctively higher in strain 1 compared to strain 2, where it was invariably low with both diets. For the second diet, growth and survival in strain 1 were also low and similar to strain 2. Feed acceptance in strain 1 was found higher compared to strain 2. Final weights were significantly different with strain 1 being heavier; however, in terms of relative growth rate, no differences between strains were found. Strong differences in the performance in terms of growth, survival and feed acceptance of different strains of European whitefish became apparent. Furthermore, the rearing of larvae exclusively on standard agglomerated commercial microdiets under cold-water conditions is possible, but not every microdiet is suitable.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T03:30:37.803483-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12554
       
  • Dietary valine requirement of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: W. Xiao; D.Y. Li, J.L. Zhu, Z.Y. Zou, Y.R. Yue, H. Yang
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to quantify the dietary valine requirement of cultured juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Six isonitrogenous (280 g/kg crude protein) and isoenergetic (16.06 MJ/kg gross energy) diets with graded levels of valine (amounting to 4.1, 7.2, 9.9, 12.7, 15.6 and 18.8 g/kg of dry diet) were formulated. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish (6.48 ± 0.06 g). Results showed that the weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention efficiency all increased with an increasing level of dietary valine up to 12.7 g/kg, but remained relatively constant for fish fed higher levels of dietary valine. In addition, the total protein concentration and aspirate aminotransferase activity in plasma, hepatic lysozyme and catalase activities were all significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:36.588147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12562
       
  • Apparent digestibility coefficients of European grain legumes in rainbow
           trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: S.C.Q. Magalhães; A.R.J. Cabrita, P. Valentão, P.B. Andrade, P. Rema, M.R.G. Maia, L.M.P. Valente, A.J.M. Fonseca
      Abstract: Two trials were carried out to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), lipids, starch and gross energy (GE) of six European varieties of grain legumes, namely chickpea-type Kabuli (CHK), chickpea-type Desi (CHD), field pea (FP), faba bean (FB), white lupin (WL) and chickling vetch (CV), in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia juveniles. The ADCs were measured using a reference diet and six experimental diets (700 g/kg of the reference diet and 300 g/kg of each raw grain legume) containing 10 g/kg chromic oxide as inert marker. Additionally, grain legumes were analysed for the organic acids profile. In rainbow trout, FP presented the highest ADCs of DM, CP and GE, whereas chickpeas and FB had the lowest DM, GE and starch ADC values. In Nile tilapia, the lowest values of nutrients (except starch) and energy ADCs were found for FP and CV. Nutrients and energy of chickpeas, WL and FB were better digested by tilapia, whereas FP was better digested by trout. Overall results reveal raw grain legumes as promising feed sources for both fish species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:33.367686-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12564
       
  • Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from
           rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792), with inhibitory
           activity against Vagococcus salmoninarum and Lactococcus garvieae
    • Authors: B.I. Didinen; E.E. Onuk, S. Metin, O. Cayli
      Abstract: In this study, a total of 98 lactic acid bacteria isolated from rainbow trout intestines were screened for their probiotic properties. The isolates were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of Vagococcus salmoninarum and Lactococcus garvieae. Based on in vitro antagonism, 10 isolates were selected and evaluated pathogenicity in rainbow trout. Isolates were further investigated for hydrophobicity, bile salts and acid tolerance. These isolates were able to survive low pH and high bile concentrations and showed good adherence characteristics. Isolates were characterized phenotypically, and then, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used for confirmation. Selected strains were administered orally at 108 cfu/g feed, and fish were challenged with V. salmoninarum and L. garvieae. The fish fed with lactic acid bacteria supplemented diets did not improve protection against V. salmoninarum. However, administration of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis M17 2-2 and Lactobacillus sakei 2-3 resulted in a significant reduction in mortality due to L. garvieae when compared to the control fish. RPS values were calculated as 80 and 53% in fish fed with L. sakei 2-3 and L. lactis subsp. lactis M17 2-2, respectively. Our results suggest that these strains could provide an alternative for lactococcosis control in aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:31.840039-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12571
       
  • Evaluation of dried fermented biomass as a feed ingredient in plant-based
           practical diets for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; D.A. Davis
      Abstract: Two growth trials were designed to evaluate the utilization of dried fermented biomass (DFB) in commercial type feed formulation for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In trial 1, four experimental diets were formulated to utilize increasing levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 g/kg) of spray-dried fermented biomass (SDFB) as a replacement of fish meal (FM). Results indicated that SDFB can be utilized up to 50 g/kg as a substitution for FM without causing growth depression in shrimp. However, dietary SDFB supplementation at 100 g/kg significantly reduced the weight gain (WG) of shrimp and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR). This reduction in performance is likely due to palatability or nutrient imbalances of the feed. In trial 2, nine experimental diets were formulated with increasing levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 120 g/kg) of spray-dried (S) or granular (G) DFB to replace soy protein concentrate (SPC) or SPC + corn protein concentrate (CPC). This allowed the comparison between spray-dried and ring-dried products. Ring drying produced a granular product, reducing dust and increasing product particle size. Shrimp fed with diet containing 20 g/kg GDFB performed the best in terms of final mean weight, WG and FCR. Significantly reduced growth and increased FCR were observed in shrimp fed diets containing 60 and 120 g/kg SDFB. Lipid content of whole body was significantly reduced when GDFB was incorporated at 120 g/kg. No significant differences were detected in survival, protein retention efficiency as well as protein and ash contents of the whole shrimp. Results from analysis of covariance indicated that the processing method (covariant) had a significant effect on final mean weight, WG and FCR. In general, shrimp fed with diet containing granular product performed better as compared to those fed with diets utilizing spray-dried product. GDFB can be utilized in the diets up to 120 g/kg in practical shrimp feeds as a substitute for SPC and CPC without compromising the growth of shrimp. However, a significant reduction in WG was observed in the diets containing 60 and 120 g/kg SDFB. The results in the current study demonstrate that processing changes to produce a granular product produced an improved feed ingredient for shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T06:36:02.45768-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12569
       
  • Effect of dietary taurine and methionine supplementation on growth
           performance, body composition, taurine retention and lipid status of
           Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897), fed with plant-based
           diet
    • Authors: S.M. Hoseini; S.A. Hosseini, S. Eskandari, M. Amirahmadi
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary taurine and methionine on Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) fed with plant-based diets. To this purpose, sturgeons were fed with either of methionine + taurine-supplemented (MT), without taurine supplementation (M) or without methionine supplementation (T) diets. Growth performance, body composition, tissue amino acids and serum glucose and lipids were studied at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the treatments T and MT had similar growth performance and feed efficiency, which were significantly higher than the treatment M. Dietary taurine and methionine significantly altered carcass and liver taurine and methionine contents. The highest serum glucose was observed in the treatment M and the lowest in treatment MT. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the treatments T and MT were similar and significantly higher than those of the treatment M. This study showed that Persian sturgeon needs taurine supplementation when fed with plant-based diets, but the supplemented level seems to be lower than those of the other species. Taurine has hypoglycaemic and lipidogenesis effects on Persian sturgeon. However, further studies are required to illustrate taurine and methionine metabolism in Persian sturgeon.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T06:36:00.250887-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12563
       
  • Effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin on growth, haemato-biochemical
           parameters, immune functions and tolerance to air exposure stress in the
           African cichlid Sciaenochromis fryeri
    • Authors: A.M. Moradian; S. Dorafshan, F. Paykan Heyrati, E. Ebrahimi
      Abstract: The effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin (LF) on the growth, haemato-biochemical parameters, non-specific serum immunity and stress responses were investigated in the African cichlid, Sciaenochromis fryeri. Four isocaloric diets containing 0 (control), 200, 400 and 800 mg LF kg−1 diet were formulated and fed to juvenile fish for 8 weeks. The treatments had no effects on the survival rate, growth performance or haematological parameters. Nor were the serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin significantly influenced. Serum iron levels and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), however, changed vigorously as the result of dietary LF. Dietary LF led to significant reductions in serum levels of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The highest lysozyme and bactericidal activities were observed in the fish fed the diets with 200 and 800 mg/kg of LF, respectively, while no changes were observed in their ACH50 levels. Recovery rates were measured after 10 min of air exposure stress. The rate was about twice higher (36% vs 20%) in fish fed on 400 mg LF than in those fed the control diet. Results revealed that adding 400 mg/kg LF could be beneficial as an iron discriminator, for liver function as well as an immune and stress resistance promoter.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T13:25:14.868825-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12570
       
  • Graded replacing fishmeal with canola meal in diets affects growth and
           target of rapamycin pathway gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream,
           Megalobrama amblycephala
    • Authors: Q.-L. Zhou; H.-M. Habte-Tsion, X. Ge, J. Xie, M. Ren, B. Liu, L. Miao, L. Pan
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) with canola meal (CM) on the growth performance, feed utilization and related gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fishes were fed with five isonitrogenous (330 g/kg crude protein) and isoenergetic (15 MJ/kg) diets for 16 weeks, which was graded replacing levels of fishmeal (replacing 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5 and 150 g/kg FM with CM). The results revealed that specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio of the groups with replacement level up to half were significantly higher than the others, while feed intake was inverse. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) mRNA level in the gut was significantly up-regulated in groups CM25 and CM50 compared to other groups. Relative gene expression of IGF-1 among groups was extremely significant based on the nonparametric test. Replacement of FM with CM caused a reduction in the hepatic expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), while significant increase trends were observed in hepatic genes of protein kinase B (AKT) and eIF4-binding protein (4E-BP2). However, TOR gene expression in the gut was significantly up-regulated first and then down-regulated, while mRNA levels of 4E-BP2 and S6K1 in the gut were first significantly decreased and then increased in CM75, finally significantly decreased to the lowest. The overall results indicated that up to 75 g/kg FM could be replaced by CM (350.5 g/kg CM) in the diets for juvenile blunt snout bream. Besides, these signalling molecules could explain further the mechanisms that juvenile blunt snout can only maintain optimal growth performance up to 75 g/kg FM replacement with CM.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:16:19.377181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12560
       
  • Replacing the substitute—Guar meal as an alternative for non-genetically
           modified soybean meal in the nutrition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss, Walbaum, 1792)
    • Authors: F. Pach; F. Nagel
      Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) is widely used in aqua feed products. In the European Union, only non-genetically modified (non-GM) SBM is accepted. However, global production of non-GM soybeans is declining and is limiting its utilization in aqua feeds. Therefore, non-GM SBM alternatives are required. In this study, guar meal was evaluated as a substitute for non-GM SBM in test feeds for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (initial weight of 57 ± 10.1 g) were stocked to 12 experimental tanks of a freshwater recirculation system with a stocking density of 6 kg/tank (500 L). Fish were organized in triplicate groups and received isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds designated as control and test feeds 1–3, where 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg feed of non-GM SBM was replaced by guar meal. During the experimental test period of 56 days, fish were fed twice a day until apparent satiation. Compared to the control group, daily feed intake of test feeds 1–3 was significantly increased by guar meal inclusion. No significant differences in feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate were detected among all the treatments. Furthermore, guar meal inclusion did not affect protein efficiency ratio. However, protein productive value was significantly impaired when guar meal incorporation was above 100 g/kg feed. In accordance with the affected protein productive value, the crude protein content of the proximate whole fish body declined significantly. In contrast, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, slaughter yield and fillet yield provided no significant differences between the experimental groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that non-GM SBM could be entirely replaced by guar meal without affecting the general performance of fish and suggests guar meal as an appropriate alternative for non-GM SBM in the nutrition of rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:15:49.800489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12557
       
  • Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus
           punctatus growth performance
    • Authors: B.C. Peterson; M.H. Li
      Abstract: Juvenile channel catfish (5.6 g/fish) were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain, wheat middlings) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. The basal diet was supplemented with three levels of crystalline taurine to provide 1, 2 and 5 g/kg taurine. In addition, a fifth diet that contained 80 g/kg menhaden fishmeal formulated with the same plant-source ingredients was included as the positive control diet. Fish were fed the five diets once daily for 12 weeks. Weight gain was highest in catfish fed taurine at 2 g/kg (47.8 g/fish) compared to catfish fed the control basal diet (40.8 g/fish) and 80 g/kg fishmeal diet (41.1 g/fish) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T07:16:43.24428-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12561
       
  • Effect of in vitro selected synbiotics (galactooligosaccharide and
           mannanoligosaccharide with or without Enterococcus faecalis) on growth
           performance, immune responses and intestinal microbiota of juvenile narrow
           clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823
    • Authors: O. Safari; M. Paolucci
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the best synbiotic combination (based on growth and short-chain fatty acids production) between Enterococcus faecalis and eight prebiotics. Based on the results of in vitro studies, E. faecalis + galactooligosaccharide (EGOS) and E. faecalis + mannanoligosaccharide (EMOS) were selected as synbiotics. A 126-day feeding trial was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotics, probiotic and synbiotics on the growth indices, In vivo ADC of nutrients, digestive enzymes, hemolymph indices and finally, biological responses against 48-hr Aeromonas hydrophila exposure challenges of juvenile (4.13 ± 0.12 g) crayfish. The highest values of SGR (2.19% body weight day−1), VFI (2.75% body weight day−1), survival rate (96.67%) and the lowest FCR (2.33) were observed in the juvenile crayfish fed the EGOS- diet. The significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T05:41:29.979206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12553
       
  • Dietary riboflavin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch)
           based on growth, conversion efficiencies, protein retention, liver
           riboflavin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; M.A. Khan
      Abstract: A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:55:24.744416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12555
       
  • Dietary riboflavin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch)
           based on growth, conversion efficiencies, protein retention, liver
           riboflavin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; M.A. Khan
      Abstract: A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:55:24.744416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12555
       
  • Dietary riboflavin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch)
           based on growth, conversion efficiencies, protein retention, liver
           riboflavin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; M.A. Khan
      Abstract: A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:55:24.744416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12555
       
  • Response of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to unrefined peanut oil
           diets: Effect on growth performance, fish health and fillet fatty acid
           composition
    • Authors: Ü. Acar; A. Türker
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:24.337606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12559
       
  • Response of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to unrefined peanut oil
           diets: Effect on growth performance, fish health and fillet fatty acid
           composition
    • Authors: Ü. Acar; A. Türker
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:24.337606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12559
       
  • Response of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to unrefined peanut oil
           diets: Effect on growth performance, fish health and fillet fatty acid
           composition
    • Authors: Ü. Acar; A. Türker
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:24.337606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12559
       
  • Effect of dietary Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth
           performance and pigmentation of Queen loach Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: S. Gogoi; S.C. Mandal, A.B. Patel
      Abstract: The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p  .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:22.060789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12558
       
  • Effect of dietary Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth
           performance and pigmentation of Queen loach Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: S. Gogoi; S.C. Mandal, A.B. Patel
      Abstract: The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p  .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:22.060789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12558
       
  • Effect of dietary Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth
           performance and pigmentation of Queen loach Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: S. Gogoi; S.C. Mandal, A.B. Patel
      Abstract: The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p  .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:22.060789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12558
       
  • Combined effects of dietary malic acid and Bacillus subtilis on growth,
           gut microbiota and blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan, S. Jarmołowicz, H.S. Abdo
      Abstract: The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:25:30.882616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12536
       
  • Combined effects of dietary malic acid and Bacillus subtilis on growth,
           gut microbiota and blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan, S. Jarmołowicz, H.S. Abdo
      Abstract: The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:25:30.882616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12536
       
  • Combined effects of dietary malic acid and Bacillus subtilis on growth,
           gut microbiota and blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus)
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan, S. Jarmołowicz, H.S. Abdo
      Abstract: The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:25:30.882616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12536
       
  • Different preference is modulated by the feeding stimulants
           supplementation in different Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus
           sinensis) basic diets
    • Authors: C.-X. Sun; W.-N. Xu, D.-D. Zhang, X.-F. Li, P.-F. Li, G.-Z. Jiang, W.-B. Liu
      Abstract: Five 2-week feeding trials were conducted to investigate five stimulants on P. sinensis. Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated, one contained 600 g kg–1 fishmeal (FM diet) and the other contained 420 g kg–1 fishmeal and 225 g kg–1 animal protein blend (APB diet), and each tested one stimulant with four levels. The feeding stimulant candidates were betaine, 2-carboxy-ethyl dimethyl sulphonium bromide (DMPT), inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP), taurine and squid extract. In the experiment on each stimulant, turtles (10.85 ± 0.10 g) were equally divided into FM and APB groups and fed with an equal mixture of corresponding diets containing four levels of stimulants, respectively. Each diet contained a unique rare earth oxide as inert marker. Turtles were fed twice daily (8:00 and 17:00), and faeces were collected. Preference for each diet was estimated based on the relative concentration of each marker in the faeces. In the FM group, only IMP showed the enhanced attraction. But in APB groups, all the stimulants, except IMP, showed higher preference than basal diets for at least one inclusion level, and the optimum level was 10 g kg–1 for betaine, 0.1 g kg–1 for DMPT, 0.1 g kg–1 for IMP, 5 g kg–1 for taurine and 10 g kg–1 for squid extract, and the squid extract had the strongest stimulating effect among the stimulants.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:41:30.363156-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12547
       
  • Dietary manganese requirement of juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus
           lanceolatus × E. fuscoguttatus
    • Authors: Y. Liu; J.Y. Wang, B.S. Li, H.J. Qiao, X.D. Liu, T.T. Hao, X.Y. Wang
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary manganese (Mn) requirement for juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus × E. fuscoguttatus. The basal diet was formulated to contain 520 g/kg crude protein from casein and fishmeal. Manganese methionine was added to the basal diet at 0 (control group), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg Mn/kg diet providing 7.48, 10.34, 13.76, 19.72, 31.00 and 53.91 mg Mn/kg diet, respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of juveniles, and each tank was stocked with 20 fish (initial weight, 60.06 ± 0.68 g). The manganese content in rearing water was monitored and kept below 0.01 mg/L. Results showed that the weight gain ratio (WGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), Mn contents in whole body, liver and vertebra, and activities of hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), total SOD (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were significantly improved by dietary Mn supplementation (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:16:50.470314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12549
       
  • Effect of dietary lipid on growth, expression of canthaxanthin-based
           coloration, digestive enzymes activities and immunity in blood parrot
           cichlid Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus
    • Authors: M. Li; M.M. Rahman, Y.-C. Lin, K. Chiu
      Abstract: A 42-day experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of four different lipid containing diets (lipid 74.0, 105.3, 135.0, 168.1 g/kg diet) on growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and expression of canthaxanthin-based coloration in parrot cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus). Each diet contained canthaxanthin 0.05 g/kg diet. Two hundred and eighty-eight fish were randomly stocked into 12 glass aquaria to form four triplicate groups. Fish were fed one of four diets daily at 20 g/kg of their total body weight. Growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and body colour parameters were measured at the end of experiment. Based on the polynomial regression of dietary lipid level and specific growth rate, the dietary lipid level inclusion was calculated as 117.2 g/kg for the highest specific growth rate of these animals. The polynomial regression of skin colour parameters and dietary lipid levels indicated the critical threshold lipid inclusions in diet: 113.7 g/kg for the best expression of lightness, 112.1 g/kg for redness, 127.5 g/kg for yellowness and 125.3 g/kg for chroma of fish's skin. Considering redness, lightness and specific growth rate are most important variables, a diet containing lipid 115.0 g/kg can be recommended for blood parrot cichlid.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:07:28.503966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12556
       
  • Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, lipid metabolism and health
           
    • Authors: C. Xu; E. Li, Y. Liu, S. Wang, X. Wang, K. Chen, J.G. Qin, L. Chen
      Abstract: Three isonitrogenous diets containing 60 g kg–1, 90 g kg–1 or 120 g kg–1 lipid were formulated and fed to the Litopenaeus vannamei (2.00 ± 0.08 g) under two salinities (25 or 3 psu) in triplicate for 8 weeks. Shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid had higher weight gain and specific growth rate than shrimp fed the other two diets regardless of salinity, and the hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary lipid at both salinities. The shrimp at 3 psu had significantly lower survival and ash content, higher condition factor, weight gain and specific growth rate than the shrimp at 25 psu. Increasing dietary lipid level induced the accumulation of serum MDA regardless of salinity, and at 3 psu, it reduced the serum GOT and GPT activities and the mRNA expression of TNF-α in intestine and gill of L. vannamei. The hepatopancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) and CPT-1 mRNA expression showed the highest value in shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid diet at 3 psu. This study indicates that 120 g kg–1 dietary lipid may negatively affect the growth and induce oxidative damage in shrimp, but can improve immune defence at low salinity; 60 g kg–1 dietary lipid cannot afford the growth and either has no positive impact on the immunology for L. vannamei at 3 psu.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T06:01:02.599968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12548
       
  • Evaluation of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance and
           antioxidant status in hybrid snakehead (Channa argus × Channa maculata)
    • Authors: H. Zhao; H.-J. Ma, S.-N. Gao, X.-R. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, P.-F. Zhao, S.-M. Lin
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth performance and antioxidant status of juvenile snakehead. The snakeheads (20.47 ± 0.06 g) were fed with five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets that contained 13 (the basal diet), 52, 79, 168 and 326 mg of vitamin E kg−1, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake (FI) were achieved in fish fed on a diet with 79 mg kg−1 vitamin E (p  .05). Vitamin E supplementation improved hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity significantly. A consistent decline in the hepatic and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed diets with the increased supplementation of vitamin E (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:57:27.810719-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12552
       
  • Dietary effects of soybean products on gut microbiota and immunity of
           aquatic animals: A review
    • Authors: Z. Zhou; E. Ringø, R.E. Olsen, S.K. Song
      Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most commonly used vegetable ingredient to replace fish meal in fish diets. However, SBM is limiting in some essential amino acids and contains numerous antinutritional factors and antigens that can affect intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans and compromise health. The impact of SBM on health and gut microbiota of aquatic animals is not only affected by SBM in general, but also on the degree of treatment of the meal and exposure. Recently, many studies are actively seeking ways to complement or balance those adverse responses induced by high inclusion of SBM in aquaculture diets. These include advanced processing and mixture of feed with other feed components to balance antinutritional factors. The impact of dietary soybean oil on gut microbiota has also been investigated but to a lesser extent than SBM. As the gastrointestinal tract has been suggested as one of the major routes of infection in finfish species and crustaceans, the effect of soybean products on the gut microbiota is important to investigate. Several studies have focus on supplementation of SBM on the adverse responses of the innate immune system as immunological mechanisms are likely involved in the underlying pathology. However, the precise cause of the inflammatory process has not yet been clarified, even though some investigations have suggested that alcohol-soluble antinutritional factors, especially soy saponins, are potential causative factors. Possible interactions between soybean products and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:07:21.369937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12532
       
  • Evaluation of replacing fish meal with corn protein concentrate in Nile
           tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings commercial diet
    • Authors: N.S.A. Khalifa; I.E.H. Belal, K.A. El-Tarabily, S. Tariq, A.A. Kassab
      Abstract: Four isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 50, 100 and 190 g/kg corn protein concentrate (CPC) as replacement for dietary fish meal were fed to Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings for 8 weeks. Tilapia growth parameters were not significantly (p > .05) different in fish fed diets with 0, 50 and 100 g/kg CPC and found to be superior compared to those fed on 190 g/kg CPC. Fish dressing ratios and body composition were similar among all treatments. The electron microscope indicated that the stomach size of control fish was slightly smaller and the wall was thinner while the stomach of the fish fed all other levels of CPC undergone a remarkable size increase and their walls were thicker after feeding diets with CPC. Total aerobic bacterial and coliform counts were significantly decreased in fish intestine when fed diets with 100 and 190 g/kg CPC compared with fish fed diets with 0 g/kg or 50 g/kg CPC. This study indicates that it is possible to replace up to 534 g/kg of dietary fish meal in tilapia fingerlings using 100 g/kg of CPC without any negative effect on fish growth and proximate body composition.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:05:51.913747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12542
       
  • Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid requirement of juvenile rock bream,
           Oplegnathus fasciatus
    • Authors: J.W. Hong; S.H. Lee, M. Moniruzzaman, Y. Park, S.H. Won, H.Y. Jo, S.S.O. Hung, S.C. Bai
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the optimum dietary level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) based on growth and non-specific immune responses in juvenile rock bream. A basal diet without EPA supplementation was used as a control, and six other diets were prepared by supplementing with 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 or 40 g of EPA per kg diet. The actual EPA concentrations of the diets were 0.5, 4.3, 8.5, 13.0, 16.8, 21.0 and 41.2 g of EPA per kg diet, and the diets were abbreviated as EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5, EPA13.0, EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish averaging 1.06 ± 0.01 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the seven experimental diets at the apparent satiation for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency of fish fed EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5 and EPA13.0 diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:05:42.745342-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12530
       
  • A comprehensive evaluation of replacing fishmeal with housefly (Musca
           domestica) maggot meal in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus): growth performance, flesh quality, innate immunity and water
           environment
    • Authors: L. Wang; J. Li, J.N. Jin, F. Zhu, M. Roffeis, X.Z. Zhang
      Abstract: A 10-week feeding trial of using housefly (Musca domestica) maggot meal (MM) in practical feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was conducted to assess the growth performance, ingredient utilization, flesh quality, innate immunity and its influence on water environment. Fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, where fishmeal (FM) was substituted by MM at the level of 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 g kg-1 diet (remaining FM content: 360, 270, 180, 90 and 0 g kg-1). There was no significant difference in feed intake and apparent digestibility coefficient between the treatments. Replacing up to 270 g kg-1 FM did not have an impact on the growth performance and ingredient utilization, whereas the complete replacement of FM caused significantly lower survival rate, weight gain, specific growth rate and higher feed conversion rate. Dietary MM was also proved positively influential in flesh quality, whereas replacing 180 g kg-1 or more FM suppressed the innate immunity of tilapia. When compared by the effects on the water environment, the increasing substitute levels were accompanied with the declining concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and total phosphorus in the water. Our study verified the feasibility of using MM as a partial substitute of FM in aquatic feed. When replacing 180 g kg-1 FM (corresponding to half of the FM content in control diet) in the diet of Nile tilapia, it can serve as a renewable and environmentally superior alternative without compromising the performance criteria.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:55:43.61092-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12466
       
  • Effects of dietary n-3 long-chain unsaturated fatty acid on growth
           performance, lipid deposition, hepatic fatty acid composition and
           health-related serum enzyme activity of juvenile Japanese seabass
           Lateolabrax japonicus
    • Authors: H. Xu; J. Du, S. Li, K. Mai, W. Xu, Q. Ai
      Abstract: Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth performance, lipid deposition, hepatic fatty acid composition and serum enzyme activities of juvenile Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (initial mean weight 29.2 ± 1.34 g). Triplicate groups of 30 Japanese seabass were fed with six diets containing grade levels of n-3 LC-PUFA (1.30, 2.98, 5.64, 10.31, 14.51, 24.13 g kg–1 of dry weight) to apparent satiation twice daily for 9 weeks. The specific growth rate (SGR) was the highest in 10.31 g kg–1 dietary n-3 LC-PUFA group. Crude lipid content of the fish decreased significantly with increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA. Meanwhile, the hepatic lipid content increased significantly in the 24.13 g kg–1 group. Hepatic n-3 LC-PUFA content of total fatty acids was closely correlated with that in diet. No significant difference was observed in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Moderate n-3 LC-PUFA level (10.31 g kg–1 of dry weight) in the diet was beneficial to enhance the activity of lysozyme in serum. Based on SGR, the optimum dietary n-3 LC-PUFA content was estimated to be around 10.94 g kg–1 of dry weight by second-order polynomial regression method.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:15:28.72977-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12520
       
  • Interactive effects of coffee bean supplementation and waterborne zinc
           toxicity on growth performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant
           activity and zinc bioaccumulation in whole body of common carp, Cyprinus
           carpio L.
    • Authors: M. Abdel-Tawwab; K.M. Sharafeldin, N.E.M. Ismaiel
      Abstract: Roasted coffee powder (RCP; Coffea arabica) is usually used as a beverage for human but there are few attempts to use it as a natural feed supplement in fish diets. In this study, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., (11.8 ± 0.09 g) were reared in zinc (Zn)-containing water at concentrations of 0.0 or 5.0 mg/L and cosupplemented with 0.0 or 1.0 g RCP/kg diet for 6 weeks to investigate effects of RCP supplementation, Zn exposure and their interaction on fish performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant activity and Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body. Fish growth and feed intake were significantly affected by RCP supplementation, Zn toxicity and their interaction. However, fish fed a RCP-supplemented diet did not exhibit better performance than those fed the RCP-free diet and both diets produced higher fish performance than the Zn-toxicated fish. It is noticed that RCP supplementation to Zn-toxicated fish enhanced their growth, and feed utilization as compared to Zn-toxicated fish alone. Fish fed control and RCP-enriched diets showed no significant differences in biochemical variables, which were significantly altered due to waterborne Zn toxicity. Moreover, Zn reduced significantly; meanwhile, RCP supplementation increased significantly superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Notably, Zn exposure could reduce fish growth and antioxidant activity and increase Zn deposition in whole fish body. And RCP intake could enhance the antioxidant activity exerting a protective effect against Zn toxicity, thereby reducing Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:15:25.526877-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12540
       
  • Evaluation of dietary taurine concentrations in microparticulate diets
           provided to larval California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis) postlarvae
    • Authors: K. Stuart; M. Hawkyard, F. Barrows, M. Rust, M. Drawbridge
      Abstract: Taurine is an important amino acid derivative for marine and freshwater fish, especially during early development. We investigated the range of taurine concentrations that influence the growth and survival rates of California yellowtail (CYT; Seriola dorsalis) during transition from live feeds to microparticulate diets, as well as the extent to which nutrient leaching from the microparticulate diets affects these ranges. We tested particle-assisted rotationally agglomerated (PARA) particles with four levels of taurine: 4 (low taurine; LT), 45 (medium taurine; MT), 93 (high taurine; HT) and 122 g/kg (very high taurine; VHT). Our results showed that CYT postlarvae had no significant differences in growth, survival and feed consumption rates between the MT, HT and VHT treatments. However, it should be noted that the PARA particles containing 122 g/kg (VHT) taurine were especially prone to leaching and may have had taurine concentrations as low as 34.9 g/kg before they settled on the bottom of the tank. Therefore, the actual dietary taurine concentrations experienced by the larvae were likely lower than the initial dietary concentrations. More research is needed to evaluate the potential nutrient toxicity of elevated dietary taurine concentrations for marine fish larvae and juveniles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:25:37.91647-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12527
       
  • Early introduction of an inert diet and unenriched Artemia enhances growth
           and quality of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae
    • Authors: Ø.J. Hansen; V. Puvanendran, J.P. Jøstensen, I.-B. Falk-Petersen
      Abstract: The effects of two weaning diets and different weaning protocols on growth, survival, skeletal deformity and gut morphology of Atlantic cod larvae were studied in four groups from 16 to 45 days posthatch (dph). Cod larvae in groups 1 (early weaning with control diet) and 2 (early weaning with experimental diet) were used to evaluate the effects of different polar lipid content of weaning diets on larval and juvenile performance. Cod larvae in groups 2, 3 (early weaning with experimental diet + cofeeding with Artemia) and 4 (earlier weaning with experimental diet and earlier cofeeding with Artemia) were used to evaluate the effects of early introduction of dry diet and Artemia. From 45 to 170 dph, cod juveniles from all four groups were reared using a standard feeding protocol. No significant differences in growth, survival, deformities and gut morphology were found between cod larvae and juveniles from groups 1 and 2. Cod larvae fed on cofeeding regime with Artemia nauplii (groups 3 and 4) were bigger and had lower frequencies of jaw and neck deformities and higher foregut microvillus circumference than cod larvae from group 2. Our results demonstrate the importance of proper weaning protocols in producing better quality cod juveniles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T05:25:35.652721-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12538
       
  • Performance and immunological responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss) fed bioprocessed plant-based proteins
    • Authors: T.J. Bruce; S.C. Sindelar, J.M. Voorhees, M.L. Brown, M.E. Barnes
      Abstract: Marine-derived fish meal (FM) is a traditional component of commercial aquaculture feeds for many farmed fish species. Modern bioprocessing technologies have been developed to produce high-protein plant-based ingredients for aquafeeds to further reduce FM and other conventional animal protein sources. A 90-day feeding trial using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (27.9 ± 1.4 g; mean ± SE) was completed to evaluate growth, feed efficiency, general health and immunological responses to diets containing experimental plant-based protein sources and reduced FM. Trout were fed one of four dietary treatments: experimental bioprocessed soy protein concentrate (BSPC), commercially available enzymatically hydrolysed soy protein concentrate (CSPC), experimental bioprocessed barley protein concentrate (BBPC) and a FM control (FMC). At trial termination, there were no significant differences in relative growth (RG) or specific growth rate (SGR) between fish fed either FMC or BSPC (p > .05). Fish fed either CSPC or BBPC resulted in significantly lower RG and SGR than the FMC (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T05:20:30.914168-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12485
       
  • Fish meal replacement by soy protein from soymilk in the diets of red sea
           bream (Pagrus major)
    • Authors: A. Biswas; H. Araki, T. Sakata, T. Nakamori, K. Kato, K. Takii
      Abstract: Six isoenergetic diets were formulated as follows: fish meal (FM) 700 g kg–1 (control, C), FM 300 g kg–1 + soy protein concentrate 300 g kg–1 (SPC), FM 300 g kg–1 + enzyme-treated SPC 300 g kg–1 (ESC), FM 170 g kg–1 + soy protein isolate 300 g kg–1 (SPI), FM 160 g kg–1 + enzyme-treated SPI 300 g kg–1 (ESI) and FM 150 g kg–1 + conglycinin 300 g kg–1(CG). Forty fish (3.9 g) were randomly distributed into each of eighteen 300-L tanks, fed twice daily until satiation for 8 weeks. The final body weight, specific growth rate and condition factor did not show significant differences among the fish fed with diets C, SPC, ESC and ESI (p > .05). The survival was significantly lower in fish fed with diets SPI and CG. Feed efficiency was significantly higher in fish fed with diets SPC and C than in fish fed with other diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:50:38.544505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12513
       
  • Establishing the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for
           silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles by deletion method
    • Authors: J.G. Marammazi; M. Yaghoubi, O. Safari, H. Peres, M.T. Mozanzadeh
      Abstract: A 6-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid (EAA) pattern for silvery-black porgy juvenile based on the AA deletion method. Eleven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing 60% of fish meal nitrogen and 40% of crystalline AA nitrogen. In the control diet, the EAA profile was made similar to fish meal protein. Ten other diets were formulated similar to the control diet but replacing 40% of each EAA by a mixture of non-essential amino acids. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 4.7 g) were handfed with the experimental diets, three times a day, to visual satiation, for 42 days. At the end of the trial, final body weight of all EAA-deficient groups was lower than that of control group, ranging from 6.3% of reduction with arginine-deficient diet to 39.4% of reduction with lysine-deficient diet, relatively to the control group. Based on the relationship between nitrogen retention and EAA intake of the control and EAA-deficient diets, the optimal dietary EAA profile for silvery-black porgy juveniles was estimated to be (g 16/g N): arginine 5.3, lysine 6.0, threonine 5.2, histidine 2.5, isoleucine 4.6, leucine 5.4, methionine + cysteine 4.0 (in a diet containing 0.6 cysteine), phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.6 (in a diet containing 1.9 tyrosine), tryptophan 1.0 and valine 4.6.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:50:36.39596-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12524
       
  • Processing of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus cells for dietary inclusion
           and optimal pigmentation in Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss L.
    • Authors: A.J. Young; J. Pritchard, D. White, S. Davies
      Abstract: A range of physical cell disruption techniques have been evaluated to aid the processing of astaxanthin-rich haematocysts of Haematococcus pluvialis for inclusion in salmonid feeds. Cell disruption by a scalable pressure treatment system was shown to be effective in breaking open the haematocysts without altering the content or isomeric composition of carotenoids in the algal cells. Storage of disrupted cells was optimal at −20°C in the dark under nitrogen. Disrupted cells were spray-dried, incorporated into commercial diets and fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss L.). A marketable level of pigmentation in fish muscle was achieved after 10-week dietary supplementation. The geometric and optimal isomer composition of the astaxanthin deposited in the muscle was nearly identical to that seen in Haematococcus. Changes were observed in the chirality of the astaxanthin deposited in the skin in comparison with that isolated from both the white muscle and the alga.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T05:05:32.844842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12505
       
  • Nigella sativa seed protects against 4-nonylphenol-induced haematotoxicity
           in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): Oxidant/antioxidant rebalance
    • Authors: N.S. Abou Khalil; M. Abd-Elkareem, A.H. Sayed
      Abstract: 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is an emerging concern contaminant which is widely spread in the aquatic ecosystem. Nigella sativa seed (NSS) has multifaceted therapeutic values. This study aimed to give insight into the potential protective effect of NSS on NP-induced haematotoxicity in Clarias gariepinus through evaluation of haematological parameters, oxidant/antioxidant balance of blood lysate and histopathological investigation of blood smear. One hundred and fifty fish were divided into five groups (30/group). First group served as control which did not received NP exposure and fed basal diet without NSS supplementation. The other four groups were exposed to NP at a dose of 0.1 mg L−1 and fed diets supplemented with NSS at levels of 0, 10, 25 and 50 g/kg diet, respectively. Macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis and eosinophilia were observed following NP exposure together with increase in morphological erythrocyte alterations and micronuclei formation. Elevation in total peroxide and malondialdehyde and depletion in total antioxidant capacity of blood lysate were reported. We concluded that supplementation of NSS markedly ameliorated the previously listed manifestations, and the most effective doses were 25 and 50 g/kg feed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:55:28.920821-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12522
       
  • Effects of Pediococcus pentosaceus supplementation on growth performance,
           intestinal microflora and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus
           vannamei
    • Authors: M. Adel; S. Yeganeh, M.A.O. Dawood, R. Safari, S. Radhakrishnan
      Abstract: Litopenaeus vannamei is economically important shrimp species in worldwide aquaculture. This study was conducted to assess the effect of different levels of probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus (PP) on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal microflora count and body composition of L. vannamei. Four diets containing different concentrations [0 (PP0), 106 (PPI), 107 (PPII) and 108 (PPIII) CFU/g] of PP were formulated. After 8 weeks feeding trial, the experimental shrimps were challenged with Vibrio anguillarum and noted the surveillance. At the end of the feeding trial, the obtained results revealed a significant increase (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:45:35.247729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12515
       
  • Effects of dietary yeast inclusion and acute stress on postprandial plasma
           free amino acid profiles of dorsal aorta-cannulated rainbow trout
    • Authors: D. Huyben; A. Vidaković, M. Langeland, A. Nyman, T. Lundh, A. Kiessling
      Abstract: In a 4-week experiment, 15 cannulated rainbow trout were fed three diets based on fish meal (FM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (SC) and Wickerhamomyces anomalus and S. cerevisiae yeast mix (WA). Fish were fed daily, and blood samples were collected on day 7 of each week at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr after feeding. In the final week, fish were exposed to a 1-min netting stressor. All essential and non-essential plasma amino acid levels except methionine were similar between fish fed diets FM, SC and WA. Plasma methionine and sarcosine were significantly higher in fish fed diets SC and WA, possibly due to the crystalline methionine level, form or feeding regime. Hydroxy-proline and 3-methyl-histidine were higher in fish fed diet FM, which can be explained by the higher levels present in fish meal compared with yeast. In stressed fish, there were no dietary effects on plasma amino acid levels, but significant increases in taurine and cystathionine were found in stressed compared with unstressed fish. These results demonstrate that yeast-based diets produce similar plasma amino acid profiles to fish meal and suggest that yeast may be a suitable fish meal replacement in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T02:25:40.192162-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12551
       
  • Effects of dietary phospholipid and cholesterol levels on growth and fatty
           acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: T. Han; J.T. Wang, X.Y. Li, Y.X. Yang, M. Yang, H.L. Tian, P.Q. Zheng, C.L. Wang
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different phospholipids (PL) and cholesterol (CH) levels on the growth, moulting and fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Six diets were designed to contain three PL levels (0, 10 and 20 g/kg) and two CH levels (2 and 8 g/kg). Juvenile swimming crabs (3.48 ± 0.02 g/crab) were reared for 8 weeks. The weight gain (WG) was significantly (p  .05). The moulting frequency (MF), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FCR) were not significantly (p > .05) affected by the dietary treatments. The serum total cholesterol (TCH) significantly (p > .05) increased with increasing dietary PL level. The C20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3 content of the whole body of crabs increased with the addition of PL to the diet containing 2 g/kg CH of diet. An interaction was observed between PL and CH on certain saturated and unsaturated fatty acid concentrations of body.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:55:35.608624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12544
       
  • Effects of replacing fishmeal with different cottonseed meals on growth,
           feed utilization, haematological indexes, intestinal and liver morphology
           of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)
    • Authors: F. Bian; H. Zhou, G. He, C. Wang, H. Peng, X. Pu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, K. Mai
      Abstract: A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fishmeal with two differently processed cottonseed meals (CSM), namely XC and SC, separately in turbot (5.28 ± 0.02 g). Nine isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated without fishmeal replacement (FM), 150 g/kg (XC15, SC15), 250 g/kg (XC25, SC25), 350 g/kg (XC35, SC35) and 450 g/kg (XC45, SC45) of fishmeal replaced by CSM. Fishmeal was successfully replaced by XC in turbot diets without growth reduction at 350 g/kg, but not by SC even at 150 g/kg. The apparent digestibility coefficients of SC-included diets were significantly lower than XC-included diets at same replacement level. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and superoxide dismutase were significantly affected in XC45 and SC45 group. The XC45 and SC-included diets caused shortened distal intestine villi height and structural damage of liver compared with FM diet. This study indicated that different processing methods could affect the nutritional value of CSM and effect as a protein source for turbot. CSM with high quality could be an important alternative dietary protein source for juvenile turbot.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:46.341631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12518
       
  • Effect of dietary leucine on growth performance, hemolymph and
           hepatopancreas enzyme activities of swimming crab, Portunus
           trituberculatus
    • Authors: Y.-W. Huo; M. Jin, P. Sun, Y.-M. Hou, Y. Li, H. Qiu, Q.-C. Zhou
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary leucine requirement for juvenile swimming crabs reared in cement pools. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic practical diets (430 g/kg crude protein and 70 g/kg crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded leucine levels which ranged from 16.7 to 26.7 g/kg (dry weight). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 60 juvenile swimming crabs (initial average weight 3.75 ± 0.12 g) that were stocked in rectangle plastic baskets. The results of the present study indicated that dietary leucine levels significantly influenced weight gain (WG) and specific growth ratio (SGR) (p  .05). Total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose in serum were significantly affected by the dietary leucine levels. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase activities in hemolymph, AST and superoxide dismutase activities in hepatopancreas were significantly affected by dietary leucine levels; moreover, crab fed the 16.7 g/kg leucine diet had higher malondialdehyde in hemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Crab fed the diet containing 24.9 g/kg leucine had higher phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph than those fed the other diets. Based on two-slope broken-line model of SGR against dietary leucine levels, the optimal dietary leucine requirement for growth was estimated to be 22.1 g/kg of the dry diet (corresponding to 51.4 g/kg of dietary protein on a dry weight basis). In summary, findings of this study indicated that dietary leucine could improve growth performance and antioxidant status.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:25:25.61554-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12509
       
  • Growth performance and digestion improvement of juvenile sea cucumber
           Apostichopus japonicus fed by solid-state fermentation diet
    • Authors: J.-h. Wang; H. Guo, T.-r. Zhang, H. Wang, B.-n. Liu, S. Xiao
      Abstract: In this study, the compound probiotics including Pseudoalteromonas. Sp D11, Bacillus subtilis A142, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y23 and Lactobacillus plantarum L54 were applied for solid-state fermenting the artificial diet of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The quality of solid-state fermented (SSF) feed and its potential effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities were investigated. The results showed that, compared to unfermented diet, SSF feed had a better palatability quality; meanwhile, a higher ratio of crude protein, free amino acids and reducing sugars and a lower ratio of crude fibre, crude ash and alginic acid were found in SSF feed. The results of the feeding trial showed that feeding SSF feed could improve growth performance of sea cucumbers more than those fed with the unfermented diet. The results of digestive enzyme assays showed that feeding SSF feed to animals could significantly improve activities of amylase, cellulase, alginic acid enzyme and protease, which implied that fermented feed could improve digestibility of A. japonicus. In summary, the SSF feed fermented by compound probiotics had better palatability and nutrition value than unfermented feed. And feeding SSF feed could significantly improve the growth performance and digestion ability for sea cucumbers in the phases of nursery and grow-out.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:20:25.443436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12506
       
  • Effects of dietary copper nanoparticles and vitamin C supplementations on
           growth performance, immune response and stress resistance of red sea
           bream, Pagrus major
    • Authors: M.F. El Basuini; A.M. El-Hais, M.A.O. Dawood, A.E.-S. Abou-Zeid, S.Z. EL-Damrawy, M.M.E.-S. Khalafalla, S. Koshio, M. Ishikawa, S. Dossou
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and vitamin C (VC) on red sea bream. Besides the control diet (D1), six diets were supplemented with Cu-NPs and VC [0/800 (D2), 0/1,000 (D3), 0/1,200 (D4), 2/800 (D5), 2/1,000 (D6) and 2/1,200 (D7) mg Cu-NPs/VC per kg]. Cu-NP was a significant factor on final weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI), feed (FER) and protein efficiency ratios (PER), protein gain (PG) and protein retention (PR), body protein and lipid contents, protease (PA) and bactericidal activities (BA) and tolerance against stress (LT50%) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:10:43.368314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12508
       
  • A new approach to fishery waste revalorization to enhance Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus) digestion process
    • Authors: Y.E. Rodriguez; N.A. Pereira, N.S. Haran, J.C. Mallo, A.V. Fernández-Gimenez
      Abstract: The main goal of this research was to analyse in vitro compatibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) digestive proteinases and enzymes recovered from species comprising fishery waste as Pleoticus muelleri, Artemesia longinaris and Patagonotothen ramsayi. It evaluated the use of exogenous enzymes as feed supplements to increase digestion efficiency in tilapia fingerlings and juveniles (3.5 ± 0.11 g and 11.6 ± 1.5 g, respectively). We successfully have obtained proteinases from fishery waste as source of exogenous enzymes. P. muelleri and A. longinaris enzymes had more activity of acid and alkaline proteinases than P. ramsayi. SDS-PAGE gels demonstrated that Nile tilapia digestive proteinases keep their activity when combined with each exogenous proteinase. Exogenous enzymes varied in their ability to enhance hydrolysis of different feed ingredients. P. muelleri by-products are the best candidates to be employed as feed supplements for tilapia juveniles. Enzymes from this by-product did not affect the activity and integrity of fish digestive enzymes, improved the hydrolysis of different protein sources (fish meal, squid meal, shrimp meal and soybean meal), and maintained its activity after being exposed to high temperatures and acid pHs. Our findings are applicable to other places where O. niloticus is raised utilizing local fishery waste, and also to different cultured species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:50:27.597176-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12510
       
  • Effect of dietary iron (Fe) levels on growth performance, hepatic lipid
           metabolism and antioxidant responses in juvenile yellow catfish
           Pelteobagrus fulvidraco
    • Authors: Z. Luo; G.-Y. Zou, Y. Gao, H.-M. Ye, W.-Q. Xi, X. Liu
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary Fe levels on growth performance, hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant response for juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing Fe levels of 16.20, 34.80, 54.50, 76.44, 100.42 and 118.25 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with dietary Fe levels from 16.20 to 54.50 mg/kg diet and then plateaued over the level. Feed conversion rate (FCR) was highest and protein efficiency rate (PER) was lowest for fish fed the lowest Fe levels of diet. Fe contents in whole body and liver increased with increasing dietary Fe levels. Hepatic lipid content was lowest, but mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were highest for fish fed 54.50 mg Fe/kg diet. Fish fed adequate dietary Fe levels reduced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and GS. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of WG against dietary Fe levels, optimal dietary Fe requirement for yellow catfish was 55.73 mg Fe/kg diets. Fe-induced changes in MDA levels and antioxidant enzymatic activities paralleled with the change in hepatic lipid content, suggesting the potential relationship between oxidative stress and hepatic lipid accumulation in yellow catfish.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:40:35.115254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12523
       
  • The performance of microbial flocs produced with aquaculture waste as food
           for Artemia
    • Authors: G.Z. Luo; M.L. Yao, H.X. Tan, W.H. Wu
      Abstract: The performance of microbial flocs as food for Artemia, which were produced using waste from a recirculating aquaculture system stocking European eel (Anguilla anguilla), was investigated in an 18-day feeding trial. Four dietary treatments were used: Chlorella only (diet 1), flocs only (diet 2), and both Chlorella and flocs offered as mixed diets in different proportions (diets 3 and 4). The survival rate of Artemia fed diets 1 and 4 were significantly higher than those fed diets 2 and 3. The survival rate of Artemia fed diet 4 was the highest among the four diets. Individual length (10.02 ± 2.44 mm) and biomass production of diet 3 (3.2 ± 0.40 g L–1) were the highest among the four diets. The crude protein contents for Artemia fed diets 2, 3 and 4 were 591.22 ± 30.15, 580.34 ± 22.42 and 533.27 ± 34.19 g kg–1, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of diet 1 (461.25 ± 10.33 g kg–1). The concentrations of free amino acids and the fatty acid compositions in the four diets were equal, except for the C24:0 content. The highly unsaturated fatty acid concentration of Artemia fed diet 2 was higher than those of the other three diets. It showed that microbial flocs produced from fish waste can be used for Artemia.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:30:28.113607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12519
       
  • Reconstitution of muscle F-actin from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
           with carotenoids—binding characteristics of astaxanthin and
           canthaxanthin
    • Authors: A.J. Young; J. Pritchard, G.M. Lowe, V. Crampton, L. Buttle
      Abstract: The binding of carotenoids to the myofibrillar protein F-actin purified from the white muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was studied using in vitro reconstitution. The binding of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin was saturable, and analysis revealed the presence of a single carotenoid-binding site. The dissociation constants (Kd) for actin prepared from 2.5 kg FW (Fresh Weight) fish were 1.04 ± 0.13 μg carotenoid per milligram of actin and 0.54 ± 0.11 μg/mg for astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, respectively. The saturation binding level (Bmax) for astaxanthin was 1.39 ± 0.07 μg/mg and 1.04 ± 0.08 μg/mg for canthaxanthin. These values were higher for F-actin prepared from organic and small (~0.5 kg FW) salmon than for non-organic and larger, mature fish. The structural specificity of carotenoid binding revealed a preference for carotenoids that possess a keto group at C-4 on the β end group of the molecule, but the presence of hydroxyl groups at C-3 or C-4 reduced overall binding efficiency. The study suggests that the ability of myofibrillar proteins to bind carotenoids is not a limiting factor governing the deposition of carotenoids in the muscle of salmonids.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:30:24.446525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12504
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 649 - 650
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T23:52:26.81086-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12495
       
 
 
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