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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1580 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1580 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 243, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Nutrition
  [SJR: 1.025]   [H-I: 55]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1353-5773 - ISSN (Online) 1365-2095
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1580 journals]
  • The effect of varying dietary digestible protein and digestible
           non-protein energy sources on growth, nutrient utilization efficiencies
           and body composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio) evaluated with a
           two-factorial central composite study design
    • Authors: M.C. Heinitz; C. Figueiredo Silva, C. Schulz, A. Lemme
      Abstract: To determine optimized dietary nutrient supply for common carp (Cyprinus carpio), nine isoenergetic diets were formulated according to a two-factorial central composite design on digestible basis. Digestible protein contents (DP) in diets ranged from 208.8 to 251.2 g/kg, and digestible fat-to-digestible carbohydrate energy ratios (DEF/DEC) varied from 0.79 to 1.21. Carp were fed four times a day at a daily feeding rate of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 56 days. Optima of responses were determined by applying the standard least squares method according to response surface methodology. All diets resulted in excellent performance with feed conversion ratios lower than 1 and digestible protein efficiency ratios (PERdig) higher than 4.6. For most parameters, calculated extreme values were minimum points, except for FCR, retention efficiencies of digestible arginine (RetArgdig) and of digestible methionine (RetMetdig), being maximum points, and retention efficiencies of digestible isoleucine, digestible sulphuric amino acids and digestible lysine, being saddle points. Highest growth and feed utilization efficiency were graphically determined for a diet containing 208.8 g/kg DP/1.21 DEF/DEC. Body lipid was optically increased for 251.2 g/kg DP/0.79 DEF/DEC in comparison with 208.8 g/kg DP/1.21 DEF/DEC.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T02:06:04.700765-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12601
       
  • Effect of dietary bile acids on growth, body composition, lipid metabolism
           and microbiota in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: J.S. Zhou; H.J. Chen, H. Ji, X.C. Shi, X.X. Li, L.Q. Chen, Z.Y. Du, H.B. Yu
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BA) on growth and metabolism of lipid in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, C. idella) at high dietary lipid level, a basal diet (50 g kg–1 lipid, 5L group) was supplemented with 20 g kg–1 soybean oil (70 g kg–1 lipid, 7L group); then, 0.06 g/kg BA was added in 7L diet to form the third diet (7L+BA group). The 96 C. idella (69.86 ± 6.24 g) were divided into three groups (duplicate per group) and fed three diets, respectively, for 8 weeks, and then, growth and lipid metabolism were determined. Results showed that growth of fish in 7L+BA group was significantly higher than 5L and 7L groups. The lipid level in whole body, hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp in 7L+BA group were significantly lower than 7L group. Relative expression of lipid catabolism genes in hepatopancreas and muscle of 7L+BA group was significantly higher than 5L group. The amount of microbiota in intestine of fish in 7L+BA group was significantly higher than the other two groups. The present results indicated that BA in 7L diet improved growth of fish by increasing protein synthesizing, decreasing lipid content in fish body and by regulating amount of microbiota in intestine of fish.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:45:48.837412-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12609
       
  • Growth, immunity and ammonia excretion of albino and normal Apostichopus
           japonicus (Selenka) feeding with various experimental diets
    • Authors: S.-D. Xia; M. Li, L.-B. Zhang, M.M. Rahman, Q.-Z. Xu, L.-N. Sun, S.-L. Liu, H.-S. Yang
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of six experimental diets on growth performance, ammonia excretion and immunity of albino and normal Apostichopus japonicus. A factorial design was used, the factors being type of diets (six levels) and colour of A. japonicus (two levels). A total of 30 randomly selected albino A. japonicus were housed in each (60 × 50 × 30 cm3) of 18 blue plastic aquaria to form six groups in triplicate, and the same set-up was used for the normal A. japonicus. Each group of animals was fed with one of the six experimental diets. Apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD) and apparent crude protein digestibility (ACPD) were analysed using acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content method. At the end of the experiment, all A. japonicus were harvested and weighed to calculate growth parameters. After weighing, six individuals from each aquarium were randomly sampled for immune indices. Results indicated that all growth parameters of A. japonicus increased with decreasing nutrient content in their diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T01:40:29.245397-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12646
       
  • Natural dietary additive yellow loess as potential antibiotic replacer in
           Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica: Effects on growth, immune responses,
           serological characteristics and disease resistance against Edwardsiella
           tarda
    • Authors: S.H. Lee; Y.K. Lee, K. Katya, J.K. Park, S.C. Bai
      Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an additive derived from the nature as an alternative of dietary antibiotic in Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Six experimental diets were formulated to contain no antibiotics or additive (yellow loess/YL) (control/CON), three graded levels of yellow loess at 5 (YL5), 10 (YL10) and 20 g/kg (YL20), oxytetracycline at 5 (OTC) and amoxicillin at 10 g/kg amoxicillin (AMX) of diet. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) from fish fed CON or YL5 diets were significantly lower than those of fish fed YL20 or OTC diets. Among non-specific enzyme, lysozyme activity of fish fed YL20, OTC or AMX was detected to be significantly higher than that from fish fed CON or YL5 diets, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the fish fed CON was significantly lower than that for fish fed other experimental diets. Challenge test with bacteria, Edwardsiella tarda, showed improved disease resistance among the fish fed different levels of natural additive without any statistical difference from those fed antibiotics (OTC and/or AMX) supplemented diets. Therefore, these results demonstrated the potential of natural feed additive, yellow loess to replace oxytetracycline and/or amoxicillin in Japanese eel, A. japonica.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T00:05:50.960479-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12641
       
  • Replacing fish meal with a blend of poultry by-product meal and feather
           meal in diets for giant croaker (Nibea japonica)
    • Authors: Y.B. Wu; X. Ren, X.J. Chai, P. Li, Y. Wang
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of replacing fish meal with poultry by-product meal (PBM) and feather meal (FEM) in giant croaker (Nibea japonica) diet. The control diet (C) contained 400 g/kg fish meal, and 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the fish meal in diet C was replaced by a blend of PBM and FEM (PBM: FEM = 7:3) in diets B20, B40, B60 and B80, respectively. The weight gain and feed intake of fish fed diet C did not differ from those of fish fed diets B20 and B40 (p > .05), but were higher than those of fish fed diets B60 and B80 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T01:45:25.170271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12647
       
  • Dietary requirements for leucine, isoleucine and valine (branched-chain
           amino acids) by juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus
    • Authors: S. Castillo; D.M. Gatlin
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the minimum dietary requirements of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine [Leu], isoleucine [Ile] and valine [Val]) for juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. This was accomplished by conducting three independent 49-day feeding trials with juvenile red drum. Experimental diets were prepared by supplementing a basal diet containing 370 g/kg crude protein from red drum muscle and crystalline amino acids with incremental levels of Leu (9.0, 13.0, 17.0, 21.0, 25.0 and 29.0 g/kg of dry diet), Ile (5.0, 8.0, 11.0, 14.0, 17.0 and 20.0 g/kg of dry diet) and Val (6.8, 8.0, 9.2, 10.4, 11.6, 12.8 and 14.0 g/kg of dry diet). Fish were fed to apparent satiation twice daily in each trial, after which growth performance parameters were calculated and body composition and concentrations of BCAAs in plasma were analysed. Incremental levels of dietary Leu, Ile and Val significantly affected weight gain, feed efficiency and protein retention. Analyses of the weight gain data using a broken-line regression model estimated the minimum Leu, Ile and Val requirements for maximum growth of juvenile red drum to be 15.7 ± 1.7 g/kg (±95% confidence interval), 11.1 ± 2.3 g/kg and 12.4 ± 0.6 g/kg of dry diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T04:00:24.944001-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12644
       
  • Mineral contents of the muscle tissue and the digestive gland of Octopus
           vulgaris during short-term starvation
    • Authors: P. S. Morillo-Velarde; J. Cerezo Valverde, B. García García
      Abstract: We used spectrometry to study variation in the contents of minor (B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and major essential elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) in the muscle tissue and digestive glands of Octopus vulgaris after 1, 2, 4 or 8 days of starvation and in fed controls. The contents of the major essential elements remained constant during 8 days of starvation. Na was the principal element found in both tissues, followed by K, P and Mg. The contents of the minor essential elements were higher in the digestive gland than in the muscle tissue, with increased contents of Fe, Mn and Zn (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T01:20:26.556473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12624
       
  • Effects of soybean meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth,
           serum biochemistry and morphological condition of liver and distal
           intestine of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus
    • Authors: R. Novriadi; M. Rhodes, M. Powell, T. Hanson, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: This study evaluated the suitability of commercially produced fermented soybean meal (FSBM) known as PepSoyGen™, in a plant-based diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus fingerlings. An 8-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of four isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing 0, 206, 309 and 410 g/kg FSBM, replacing approximately 0%, 50%, 75% and 100% SBM (designated as Basal, FSBM 50, FSBM 75 and FSBM 100, respectively) on growth performance, body composition, serum biochemistry and morphological condition of liver and distal intestine of Florida pompano. There were no significant differences in final mean weight, percentage weight gain, thermal unit growth coefficient and feed conversion ratio in all treatments. For serum biochemistry analysis, there were no significant differences in total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, bile acids, plasma alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in all treatments. Cellular infiltration, presence of goblet cells and the width of lamina propria in the distal intestine were partly improved in fish fed FSBM 75 and 100 compared to the fish fed FSBM 50 and basal diet. Glycogen granulation, inflammation and nuclear change condition in the liver of pompano were better as the inclusion of fermented product increased. Results of this study indicate that FSBM can be utilized as an alternative protein source and microbial fermentation process could improve the functional properties of SBM.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T04:17:31.52085-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12645
       
  • Replacement of dietary macroalgae with corn starch in juvenile sea
           cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)
    • Authors: B. Wen; Y.-J. Sun, Q.-F. Gao, S.-L. Dong, Z.-Z. Chen, J.-Z. Gao
      Abstract: A 70-day experiment was conducted to investigate the optimal dietary macroalgae and substitute proportion by corn starch in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumbers were fed by eighteen different diets formulated with one of the three macroalgae including Sargassum muticum, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Ulva lactuca and six graded levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/kg) of corn starch as the replacements for each seaweed. An isotope mixing model indicated that the relative contribution of corn starch to the growth of A. japonicus did not consistently increase, even slightly decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level. The contributions of corn starch to A. japonicus fed by diets containing S. muticum were higher than those fed by diets containing G. lemaneiformis with corresponding corn starch levels or containing U. lactuca at 200–400 g/kg replacement proportions. The growth of A. japonicus first significantly increased and then decreased with increasing corn starch level, regardless of macroalgal species. The corn starch could replace up to 200 g/kg of dietary G. lemaneiformis or U. lactuca, even up to 300 g/kg of S. muticum without affecting growth performance. Based on the polynomial regression model, the replacement of S. muticum with 114 g/kg corn starch was optimal for A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:02:15.346413-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12639
       
  • Effects of dietary inclusion of yacon, ginger and blueberry on growth,
           body composition and challenge test of juvenile rockfish (Sebastes
           schlegeli) against Edwardsiella tarda
    • Authors: H.S. Kim; K.W. Lee, H.S. Jung, J. Kim, A. Yun, S.H. Cho, M. Kwon
      Abstract: Effects of dietary inclusion of yacon, Polymnia sonchifolia (YC), ginger, Zingiber officinale (GG), and blueberry, Vaccinium ashei (BB), on growth, body composition and challenge test of rockfish against Edwardsiella tarda compared to ethoxyquin were investigated. Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into 12 flow-through tanks. Four experimental diets were prepared: the control diet (Con) with 0.1 g/kg ethoxyquin, and YC, GG and BB diets. Each diet was assigned to triplicate tanks of fish and hand-fed for 8 weeks. Externally normal fish after fourth and eighth weeks of feeding trial were infected with Edwardsiella tarda for challenge test. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed the YC diet were greater than those of fish fed all other diets. Feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention of fish fed the YC diet were higher than those of fish fed all other diets. In the both fourth and eighth weeks of infection trials, mortality of fish fed the Con diet was higher than that of fish fed all other diets. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of YC, GG and BB increased weight gain and SGR of fish. YC, GG and BB for 4 and 8 weeks lowered mortality of fish at occurrence of E. tarda.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T02:00:21.60253-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12643
       
  • Successful rearing of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae fed a
           desiccation-tolerant nematode to replace Artemia
    • Authors: L.H. Seychelles; S. Happe, E. Palacios, M. Ludwig, S. Hollmer, R.-U. Ehlers, C. Schulz, L. Mercier
      Abstract: The nematode Panagrolaimus sp. was tested as live feed to replace Artemia nauplii during first larval stages of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In Trial 1, shrimp larvae were fed one of four diets from Zoea 2 to Postlarva 1 (PL1): (A) Artemia nauplii, control treatment; (NC) nematodes enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided by the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii; (N) non-enriched nematodes; and (Algae) a mixture of microalgae supplemented in C. cohnii cells. In Trial 2, shrimp were fed (A), (NC) and a different treatment (NS) with nematodes enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) provided by the commercial product S.presso®, until Postlarva 6 (PL6). Mysis 1 larvae fed nematodes of the three dietary treatments were 300 μm longer (3.2 ± 0.3 mm) than control larvae. At PL1, control shrimp were 300 μm longer (4.5 ± 0.3 mm) than those fed DHA-enriched or PUFAs-enriched nematodes. No differences were observed in length and survival at PL6 between control larvae and those fed DHA-enriched nematodes (5.1 ± 0.5 mm; 33.1%–44.4%). Shrimp fed microalgae showed a delay in development at PL1. This work is the first demonstration of Panagrolaimus sp. suitability as a complete substitute for Artemia in rearing shrimp from Zoea 2 to PL6.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T01:50:25.126248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12626
       
  • Fishmeal replacement by mixed plant proteins and effect on growth and
           sensory attributes in on-growing turbot
    • Authors: J. Árnason; A.K.D. Imsland, T. Helmig, S. Gunnarsson, G.Ö. Kristjánsson
      Abstract: Fishmeal replacement with a mixture of plant protein (PP) raw materials (soya, wheat gluten meal, corn gluten meal and rapeseed meal) in diets for 300-950 g turbot was tested. Eight different diets with fishmeal protein stepwise varying from 53.7% of crude protein (CP) to 93% of CP of the total protein in the diet were tested. The fish was weighed at monthly intervals for following of weight development and calculation of specific growth rates, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At the end of the experiment, fish was sampled for sensory evaluation. Average final weight was 950 g and did not vary between the experimental groups. There were no effects of dietary treatment on specific growth rates, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio or sensory attributes measured. The least-cost diet (with 53.7% fishmeal protein) is about 12% lower in raw material cost (based on material price of diet components) than the all fishmeal diet. The results therefore indicate that the raw material cost in feed for on-growing turbot can be reduced considerably without any negative effect on growth and feed utilization.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T00:35:28.524701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12642
       
  • Chemical, bioactive properties and in vitro digestibility of spray-dried
           fish silages: Comparison of two discard fish (Equulites klunzingeri and
           Carassius gibelio) silages
    • Authors: G. Ozyurt; M. Boga, Y. Uçar, E.K. Boga, A. Polat
      Abstract: The fermented fish silages produced with Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici and Enterococcus gallinarum, and formic acid silages were compared for production of two discard fish silages (Equulites klunzingeri and Carassius gibelio). The E/NE ratio of spray-dried fish silages was determined in range of 0.80–1.10 for E. klunzingeri and 0.80–0.90 for C. gibelio silages. Pediococcus acidilactici and En. gallinarum groups had greater antioxidant activity than other silage groups. The DPPH radical scavenging ability was found as 6.14%–14.71% and 6.99%–13.36% for E. klunzingeri and C. gibelio silages, respectively. The OMD, ME and NEL values were determined in range of 69.74%–80.08%, 6.38–8.65 MJ/kg DM and 6.45–7.49 MJ/kg DM, respectively for spray-dried E. klunzingeri silages and 81.18%–86.62%, 8.97–9.61 MJ/kg DM and 7.61–8.08 MJ/kg DM, respectively, for spray-dried C. gibelio silages. According to the nutritional and chemical evaluation, spray-dried fish silages have great potential as a feed components because of high rate of digestibility and nutritious components.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T02:10:25.059097-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12636
       
  • Mobilization of energetic reserves during starvation in juveniles of
           different size of the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus
    • Authors: N.S. Calvo; L. Stumpf, E. Cortés-Jacinto, F. Castillo Díaz, L.S. López Greco
      Abstract: Mobilization patterns of energy reserves during starvation are highly variable among crustaceans, and understanding this process is useful to satisfy the nutritional requirements of cultured organisms. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mobilization patterns on early and advanced juveniles—first free stage and one-gram juveniles—of redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus). A biochemical approach was used to analyse the organic carbon, total proteins, lipids and glycogen levels of the entire animal, and a histochemical approach was adopted to identify location of metabolites in the hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. While starvation did not affect early juvenile protein levels, it showed a significant decrease in advanced juveniles. Histochemical analysis showed that lipid storage of hepatopancreas R cells was depleted near point of no return (PNR) and recovered after feeding. Glycogen storage was localized in the F cells of the hepatopancreas, and among muscle fibres of the abdomen, where after feeding, a pronounced accumulation was observed. Early and advanced juveniles of redclaw crayfish showed different patterns of consumption mainly related to the protein level, which was the most abundant reserve in advanced juveniles and the most consumed during starvation. Hepatopancreas R cells were confirmed as the principal lipid storage, whereas the abdominal muscle was the main glycogen storage. In crustacean aquaculture, the understanding of resistance to temporary feed deprivation is relevant to achieve an adequate feeding management, thereby avoiding the overfeeding and diminishing operating costs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T00:51:19.783961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12631
       
  • Probiotic effect of Streptomyces spp. on shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
           postlarvae challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    • Authors: M. García-Bernal; R. Medina-Marrero, C. Rodríguez-Jaramillo, O. Marrero-Chang, Á.I. Campa-Córdova, R. Medina-García, J.M. Mazón-Suástegui
      Abstract: The effect of Streptomyces strains RL8 and N7 on the growth, survival and histological structure of the hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei was determined. Shrimp post-larvae of 0.02 ± 0.01 g were fed with diets supplemented with Streptomyces spp. RL8 and N7 at 108 CFU g⁻1 of feed for 30 days, followed by challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Toxicity was also assessed by recording the mortality associated with the use of 1-100 g/L of cell mass and 108-1010 CFU/g of feed of these strains in Artemia salina and L. vannamei, respectively. The group treated with Streptomyces sp. RL8 had significantly better weight gain (0.62 ± 0.18 g) and survival rates (84.44 ± 5.7%) after challenge, whereas the one fed with Streptomyces sp. N7 showed significantly higher survival rate (57.77 ± 6.8%) than the control group (0.55 ± 0.20 g and 11.11 ± 9.0%, respectively). The hepatopancreas of Streptomyces-fed shrimps showed better histological integrity with significantly lower degree of atrophy and necrotic tubules than their unfed counterpart. No toxicity associated with these strains was found. Consequently, they can be excellent probiotic candidates to improve the physiological status and prevent infectious diseases of cultured L. vannamei.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T00:36:04.657322-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12622
       
  • Molecular characterization and nutritional regulation of specificity
           protein 1 (Sp1) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: F. Qu; J. Tang, R. Hu, G. Hao, Y. Zhou, S. Lu, Q. Zhao, C. You, Y. Li, Z. Zhou, Z. Liu
      Abstract: Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is a ubiquitous nuclear factor in eukaryotic cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of di-/tripeptide absorption in the intestine. However, the function of Sp1 in bony fish remains poorly understood. In this study, a fish Sp1 gene (designated CiSp1) was identified from Ctenopharyngodon idella. The deduced CiSp1 protein contains structural features typical of Sp1 family proteins, including a glutamine-rich (Q-rich) region and three typical Cys2His2 zinc fingers. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed ubiquitous expression of CiSp1 in all tested tissues and embryonic developmental stages of grass carp. In addition, CiSp1 expression in the intestine was significantly increased after feeding with fish meal and 270 g/kg dietary protein. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo glutamine dipeptide treatments showed similar stimulatory effects on the expression of the transcription factors CiSp1 and CiCDX2 and their potential target gene CiPepT1 in the intestines of grass carp. Finally, our results demonstrated that the mRNA expression of CiSp1/CiCDX2/CiPepT1 in the intestine was significantly increased after treatment with sodium butyrate in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these results demonstrate for the first time that grass carp possesses a functional Sp1 and that its expression is regulated by dietary protein and feed additives.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T05:40:41.691744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12630
       
  • Dietary thiamin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch) based
           on growth, protein gain, liver thiamin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and
           biochemical composition
    • Authors: S. Zehra; M. A. Khan
      Abstract: Dietary thiamin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus was quantified by feeding casein/gelatin-based diets (450 g/kg CP; 18.39 kJ/g GE) with seven graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish (6.9 ± 0.93 cm; 4.91 ± 0.62 g) for 16 weeks. Fish fed diet with 2.5 mg/kg thiamin reflected highest absolute weight gain (AWG), protein gain (PG), RNA/DNA ratio and lowest feed conversion ratio. Similarly, highest liver thiamin concentration was also recorded in fish fed 2.5 mg/kg thiamin diet. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration responded negatively with increasing concentrations of dietary thiamin up to 2.5 mg/kg, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were found to improve with the increasing levels of dietary thiamin from 0 to 2.5 mg/kg. Transketolase activity also improved as the thiamin concentrations increased up to 2.5 mg/kg. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PG, RNA/DNA ratio, liver thiamin concentrations, transketolase and TBARS activities exhibited the thiamin requirement in the range of 2.34–2.59 mg/kg diet. Data generated during this study would be useful in formulating thiamin-balanced feeds for the intensive culture of this fish.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T05:05:29.060892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12638
       
  • Availability of minerals in rendered meat and bone meal for Nile tilapia:
           Preliminary observations
    • Authors: L. B. de Moura; T. O. Xavier, D. A. V. Campelo, M. Michelato, F. L. Alves de Almeida, L. V. O. Vidal, W. M. Furuya
      Abstract: A digestibility trial was conducted with 180 Nile tilapia (32.65 ± 4.52 g) fed a reference diet containing 350 g/kg crude protein and 4,500 kcal/kg gross energy. Five different meat and bone meals (MBMs) were evaluated. The test diets compound by 70% of reference diet and 30% of each MBM were elaborated and classified according to ash content: MBM-430, MBM-400, MBM-370, MBM-340 and MBM-310. The apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of minerals and the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter (DM) were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T00:25:22.267153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12635
       
  • Apparent digestibility of animal, plant and microbial ingredients for
           Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; L. Nguyen, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: A digestibility trial was conducted to determine apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, energy and amino acids of animal, plant and microbial ingredients for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The tested ingredients included traditional soybean meal (TSBM), PepsoyGen soybean meal (PSBM), NutriVance soybean meal (NSBM), fish meal (FM), poultry meal (PM), squid hydrolysis (SQH), scallop hydrolysis (SCH), flash dried yeast (FDY), two batches of Ulva meal (UMF and UMS) and bacteria biomass (BB). A basal diet was formulated and produced along with the experimental diets which included 300 g/kg of each ingredient and 700 g/kg of the basal diet. Juvenile shrimp (initial mean weight: 12 g, six shrimp/tank, n = 3) were stocked in a recirculation system. Apparent dry matter, protein and energy digestibility coefficients ranged from −40.11% to 78.51%, 15.17% to 97.03% and 13.33% to 82.56% among different protein sources, respectively. In general, protein and energy digestibilities in soy sources (77.6% to 97.03% and 62.77% to 82.56%, respectively) are higher than the tested animal protein (51.39% to 71.41% and 45.29% to 69.77%, respectively) and single-cell protein sources (15.17% to 53.47% and 13.33% to 40.39%, respectively). Among the three soybean sources, TSBM showed highest protein and energy digestibility. Apparent individual amino acid digestibility coefficients were also variable among different types of ingredients, and there was a reasonable correspondence to protein digestibility. The most digestible feed ingredients for Pacific white shrimp in this study were conventional soybean meal (SBM) and NutriVance soybean meal (NSBM), which indicated that these ingredients are good protein and amino acid sources for Pacific white shrimp. Resultant digestibility data may provide useful information to commercial shrimp feed industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T23:30:58.705403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12629
       
  • Evaluation of a fish meal analogue as a replacement for fish meal in
           practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; H. Tian, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: Three six-week growth trials and a digestibility trial were conducted to evaluate a fish meal analogue (FMA) as a replacement for fish meal (FM) in shrimp feeds. Trials 1 and 2 evaluated and confirmed the potential of FMA supplementation (0, 48.5, 97, 145.5 and 194 g/kg) as a replacement for FM up to 200 g/kg without balancing for phosphorus (P) in practical diets for juvenile Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei. At the end of trial 1, shrimp offered diets containing 48.5 g/kg FMA exhibited significantly higher weight gain (WG) than those fed with the diet containing 145.5 g/kg FMA. At the end of trial 2, dietary FMA inclusion at 48.5 and 97 g/kg significantly improved WG and protein retention (PR), while reducing FCR and protein content of shrimp body compared to the diet containing 194 g/kg FMA. To determine whether P deficiency is the cause of reduced growth, the third trial was conducted utilizing equivalent diet but balanced for P. At the end of trial 3, shrimp fed diet containing 48.5 g/kg FMA+P showed significantly higher WG and PR than those fed diet containing 145.5 g/kg FMA+P. No decreasing trend of growth was detected in the diets containing FMA compared to the FM-based diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, energy, protein and amino acids of FMA were determined using chromic oxide as an inert maker and the 70:30 replacement technique. The energy, protein and individual amino acid digestibility of FMA were significantly lower than those of soybean meal and FM which were run at the same time. Results of this work indicate that FMA can replace up to 200 g/kg FM in shrimp diets with supplemental inorganic P. Given the good growth across the range of inclusion without any indication of a growth depression, the low nutrient digestibility of FMA may be due to an atypical response or the product simply does not work with the testing technique.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T23:20:32.575518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12634
       
  • Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and
           faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)
    • Authors: L.C. Tran-Tu; T.T.T. Hien, R.H. Bosma, L.T.N. Heinsbroek, J.A.J. Verreth, J.W. Schrama
      Abstract: The ingredients’ particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878). The experiment had a 2 × 3 factorial-design: two feed mesh particle sizes, by grinding ingredient mixtures at two screen sizes (0.8 versus 1.0 mm); and three dietary viscosity levels, created by exchanging carboxymethylcellulose by guar gum (GG) (0, 3 and 6 g of GG/kg of diet). Six diets were assigned to 18 tanks, each connected to three faecal settling tanks. All aquaria were stocked with 20 fish (82 g per fish). After 52 experimental days, dietary viscosity negatively affected both feed digestibility and performance of striped catfish; as a result, the amount of organic matter in the culture system through faeces had increased significantly. The coarse diets significantly increased the digestibility of dry matter and carbohydrate but worsened feed conversion ratio. Increasing dietary viscosity tended to increase the viscosity and moisture content of the faeces, but significantly accelerated the faecal disintegration through the reduction of both faecal recovery and the amount of recovered faeces.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T05:45:36.456753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12632
       
  • Assessment of the fecundity, population growth and fatty acid composition
           of Apocyclops royi (Cyclopoida, Copepoda) fed on different microalgal
           diets
    • Authors: Y.-J. Pan; I. Sadovskaya, J.-S. Hwang, S. Souissi
      Abstract: The brackish cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops royi is used in Taiwanese aquaculture industry as a prey for fish larvae. This study investigated the effects of seven microalgal diets, namely single-species diets of Isochrysis galbana (ISO), Nannochloropsis oculata (NAN), and Tetraselmis chui (TET), two-species diets (ISO+NAN, ISO+TET and TET+NAN), and a three-species diet (ISO+NAN+TET), on the population growth, female fecundity and fatty acid composition of A. royi. For reproductive traits, the combination ISO+NAN was found to be the most supportive diet for both population growth and female fecundity. For nutritional value, copepods fed ISO and ISO+NAN were detected to have the highest content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (18.99% and 10.73% total fatty acid, respectively) and, more importantly, a high DHA/EPA ratio (6.09 and 4.09, respectively). Additionally, a comparison of fatty acid composition between copepods and microalgae gives a tentative indication that A. royi may have the ability to synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from short-chain PUFA. Our findings illustrate that ISO+NAN is the most suitable microalgal diet for mass culturing A. royi because it increases productivity and enhances the nutritional value of the copepods for use as fish larvae prey.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T05:41:20.07766-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12633
       
  • Supplementation of diets for Oreochromis niloticus with essential oil
           extracts from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and geranium (Pelargonium
           graveolens) and effects on growth, intestinal microbiota, antioxidant and
           immune activities
    • Authors: A. A. Al-Sagheer; H. K. Mahmoud, F. M. Reda, S. A. Mahgoub, M. S. Ayyat
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) (LEO) and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) (GEO) essential oils on growth, immunity, antioxidant responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (3.04 ± 0.003 g) were fed the basal diet (G1), or the basal diet supplemented with LEO at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 of the diet (G2 and G3), or GEO at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 of the diet (G4 and G5), respectively for 12 weeks. Growth indices and feed utilization were significantly improved with G2, G3 and G5 groups. Also, a significant increase in protein content of the whole body was recorded in all groups. G2 and G5 showed a significant rise of both catalase activity and reduced glutathione content with a significant incline in the MDA level. Lysozyme activity and total IgM levels were significantly increased in G2 and G5 groups. G3 and G5 groups had a significantly lower intestinal total bacteria, Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas spp counts. Following challenge with A. hydrophila, all groups had a high survival rate. In conclusion, LEO and GEO could be a candidate dietary supplementation in fish improving growth performance, feed utilization, oxidative status, immune responses and disease resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T05:30:57.681195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12637
       
  • Effect of replacing fish meal with meat and bone meal on growth, feed
           utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion for juvenile
           Pseudobagrus ussuriensis
    • Authors: B. Tang; X. Bu, X. Lian, Y. Zhang, I. Muhammad, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, Y. Yang
      Abstract: The effect of replacing fish meal (FM) with meat and bone meal (MBM) in diets for juvenile Pseudobagrus ussuriensis was evaluated in a 90-day feeding trial. Six isonitrogenous (crude protein, 430 g/kg) and isolipidic (crude lipid, 74 g/kg) diets were formulated to contain MBM to replace FM at 0 (S0), 200 (S20), 400 (S40), 600 (S60), 800 (S80) and 1000 g/kg (S100), respectively. The results showed that there was no significant difference in weight gain (WG) among fish fed S0, S20 and S40 diets. However, a significant reduction in WG occurred when 600, 800 and 1000 g/kg FM protein was replaced by MBM (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T00:45:31.19271-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12625
       
  • Replacing fish meal with vegetable protein sources in feed for juvenile
           red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii: Effects of amino acids
           supplementation on growth and feed utilization
    • Authors: Q. Tan; D. Song, X. Chen, S. Xie, X. Shu
      Abstract: An 8-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fish meal replacement with a vegetable mixture of soybean meal and rapeseed meal (1:1) on growth of juvenile red swamp crayfish. Nine isonitrogenous diets were designed: V0, V34, V50, V65, V73 and V81 with six levels of vegetable proteins, and VA48, VA63 and VA78 by further adding crystalline lysine and methionine into V50, V65 and V81. Compared with V0, V34 significantly improved the specific growth rate (SGR), while V65, V73, V81 and VA78 depressed the SGR (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:40:21.769952-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12621
       
  • Cloning and characterization of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the effects
           of dietary lipid levels on the expression of LPL in the redlip mullet
           (Liza haematocheila)
    • Authors: A. Wang; W. Yang, F. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Cang, X. Yin, Y. Yu, G. Qiao, J. Ni
      Abstract: The genetic improvement of redlip mullet Liza haematocheila through breeding programmes is of interest for this important aquaculture species. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in lipid deposition and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional regulation of LPL in redlip mullet. We cloned and identified the LPL gene, determined LPL gene expression in various tissues, and examined the effect of dietary lipid level on hepatic LPL gene expression. The LPL gene of redlip mullet Liza haematocheila (L.hLPL) was 2,395 bp in length and encoded 516 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that L.hLPL shared 61%–90.3% identity with LPLs in other species. Expression patterns of hepatic L.hLPL were studied in redlip mullet fed diets containing 2.0, 4.8, 7.5, 9.8, 12.0 or 14.6 g/kg, crude fat for 60 days by real-time quantitative PCR. The abundance of LPL mRNA in hepatic tissue increased with the increase in dietary fat. The expression L.hLPL mRNA was significantly higher in the groups fed diets with 14.6 and 12.0 g/kg fat than in the other groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T23:55:50.145837-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12612
       
  • Evaluation of a novel bacterial biomass as a substitution for soybean meal
           in plant-based practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus
           vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; H.Y. Tian, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: Three growth trials and a digestibility trial were designed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel bacterial biomass (BB) in commercial-type feed formulation for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In trial 1, the basal diet was supplemented with 0, 60 and 120 g/kg BB to replace soybean meal (SBM). Significant improvement was observed in the survival when BB was incorporated in the diets. However, shrimp fed diets containing 120 g/kg BB exhibited significantly lower weight gain (WG) and higher feed conversion ratio (FCR). To confirm the results from trial 1 and explore the effects of BB supplementation at low levels, the basal diet was incorporated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 120 g/kg BB to replace SBM in trial 2. Significant reductions in WG, FCR, lipid content of whole body, protein retention efficiency and most amino acids retention efficiency were detected in shrimp fed with diet containing 120 g/kg BB. Trial 3 was designed to elucidate whether the digestible protein is the cause of reduced growth. No improvements in terms of growth performance and FCR were detected in the treatments balanced for digestible protein. Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein and amino acid (AA) for BB were determined using chromic oxide as an inert marker and the 70:30 replacement technique. The energy, protein and individual amino acid digestibility coefficients of BB were significantly lower than those of fish meal (FM) and SBM that were given at the same time. Results of this study indicated that BB can be utilized up to 40 g/kg in shrimp feed without causing a decrease in growth. However, supplementations (≥60 g/kg) of BB can result in negative effects on growth response, FCR and protein as well as amino acids retention efficiency. At the lower levels of inclusion, shrimp performance was improved when BB was supplemented on a digestibility basis; however, at the higher level of inclusion, there was no improvement, indicating there may be other nutrients limiting. Based on enhanced survival in the treatment with BB supplementation in trial 1, further research regarding the immune effects of BB in practical shrimp feed will be necessary.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T23:40:23.249851-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12623
       
  • Dietary protease modulates nutrient retention efficiency and
           hepatopancreatic protease activity in juvenile Chinese mitten crab
           Eriocheir sinensis
    • Authors: M.A.K. Chowdhury; J. Zhu, C. Cai, Y. Ye, J. He
      Abstract: An 8-week growth trial was conducted with juvenile Chinese mitten crab fed a high fishmeal (FM) diet (PC), a low FM diet (NC) and three other diets (NC125, NC150 and NC175) supplemented with 125, 150 and 175 mg/kg of a dietary protease. In the NC diets, a portion of FM (from PC diet) was replaced by a combination of plant proteins. All diets were isoproteic (404 ± 3 g/kg) and isoenergetic (18.6 ± 0.2 kJ/g). No differences were observed among treatments in most parameters except protein (PRE, %) and lipid (LRE, %) retention efficiencies, where LRE was the highest (37.9%) in NC175 followed by the PC. A linear regression demonstrated significant effects of protease on hepatopancreatic trypsin activity (HPRO, p = .001), and PRE (p = .05) and LRE (p = .014) but not on energy retention efficiency (ERE). Dietary protease level was positively correlated with HPRO and nutrient retention efficiency (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T06:15:22.591786-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12627
       
  • Dietary amino acid profile affects muscle cellularity, growth, survival
           and ammonia excretion of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) larvae
    • Authors: M. Saavedra; T.G. Pereira, A. Candeias-Mendes, L.E.C. Conceição, B. Teixeira, R. Mendes, P. Pousão-Ferreira
      Abstract: Formulation of diets according to fish amino acid (AA) qualitative requirements may improve fish growth. Two diets with different AA profiles were tested on 16-day-old meagre during 20 days. The first diet had an AA profile closer to meagre larval AA requirements (BAL), whereas the second had a different AA profile (UNBAL). Results showed that larvae fed the diet with higher similarities to the AA profile of meagre carcass had a higher final weight (19.8 ± 0.5 mg versus 13.4 ± 1.8 mg) and lower ammonia excretion after being fed (0.6 ± 0.1 ml/(g DW. larvae. h) and 0.8 ± 0.1 ml/(g DW larvae. h)). A higher mean fibre area was obtained in 36 DAH larvae fed the BAL diet (224.8 ± 33.3 μm2 versus 158.8 ± 34.5 μm2) as well as higher larval weight. When fibre area distribution was analysed, a higher frequency of larger fibres was observed in 36 DAH BAL larvae, suggesting that fibre hypertrophy had a higher importance in this treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that meagre larvae fed a diet with an AA profile closer to their requirements had lower nitrogen losses and higher final weight, as result of higher muscle hypertrophy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T00:05:53.101943-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12610
       
  • Supplementation of heat-inactivated Bacillus clausii DE5 in diets for
           grouper, Epinephelus coioides, improves feed utilization, intestinal and
           systemic immune responses and not growth performance
    • Authors: J. Wang; H.-L. Yang, H.-Q. Xia, J.-d. Ye, K.-L. Lu, X. Hu, Y. Feng, L. Ruan, Y.-Z. Sun
      Abstract: In recent years, more and more attentions have been paid to the development and application of probiotics in aquaculture, and viable probiotics have been extensively studied, while rare information was available about inactivated probiotics in aquaculture. Therefore, in this study, a feeding trial was designed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus clausii DE5 on growth performance, immune response and key immune genes expression in head kidney and intestine in grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish were fed for 60 days with control diet (C) and two experimental diets containing 1.0 × 108 CFU/g live (T1) and heat-inactivated (T2) B. clausii DE5, respectively. The probiotic treatments did not affect the final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of E. coioides at days 30 and 60 (p > .05), while both heat-inactivated and live B. clausii DE5 significantly decreased the feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at day 60 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T00:25:29.886881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12611
       
  • Elevated concentrations of T-2 toxin cause oxidative stress in the rainbow
           trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: H. Modra; E. Sisperova, J. Blahova, V. Enevova, P. Fictum, A. Franc, J. Mares, Z. Svobodova
      Abstract: T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium fungi that can contaminate plant components used in feed for aquaculture. The aim of this 28-day study was to investigate the effect of the T-2 toxin in feed in concentrations 1.0 and 1.8 mg/kg (0.01 mg/kg b.w. and 0.018 mg/kg b.w.) on the oxidative stress markers and on the detoxifying enzymes of the rainbow trout. The results showed that T-2 toxin in both tested concentrations induced oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in the liver of trout manifesting by the increase in activities of enzymes glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase and the decrease in the catalase activity. The increase in lipid peroxidation was recorded only in the higher concentration of T-2 toxin. Ceruloplasmin activity in the plasma increased at both tested concentrations, and the ferric reducing ability of the plasma increased at the higher toxin concentration. The T-2 toxin in feed caused alteration of the total protein, albumin and triacylglycerols as well as the alkaline phosphatase activity in the plasma. Despite no changes in histological examination were found, the influence of T-2 toxin on scavenger system may result in increased sensitivity to other stress factors.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T04:05:27.457059-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12613
       
  • Geometric approach to evaluate the energy/protein balance in tambaqui
           (Colossoma macropomum): Can fish ensure nutritional intake targets by
           postingestion signals'
    • Authors: E.C.T.N. Filho; B.O. Mattos, A.A. Santos, K.A. Barreto, R.C.B. Albinati, L.V. Oliveira Vidal, F.J. Sánchez-Vázquez, R. Fortes-Silva
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) to balance the energy (E) and protein (P) ratio by encapsulated diets (without sensory properties). Thirty fish (71.37 ± 2.58 g) were distributed in six 250-litre tanks. Protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and fat (F) were encapsulated separately to ensure the same sensory properties of each macronutrient. Diets varied in terms of macronutrients to allow the maximal/minimal possibility of ingesting each nutrient following a geometric approach. P, C and F capsules were provided for 40 days (phase 1). After this procedure, fish were subjected to fixed low and poor protein challenges (200 g/kg), and freely to C + F, to evaluate whether they maintained a given intake target (phase 2). As a result, tambaqui showed an intake target at 300 g/kg of crude protein and 16.74 MJ per kg. Give the possibility of freely feeding protein, fish regulated their feed intake and showed a constant E/P ratio pattern (5.024-5.861 MJ/kg). When protein was restricted and fixed at 200 g/kg, fish maintained similar feed consumption until the end of phase 1, probably to keep a minimal protein amount according to their nutritional requirements.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T05:27:16.974345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12602
       
  • Effect of sex and protein level on the intermediary metabolism, growth,
           deposition of nutrients and profile of volatile compounds of silver
           catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
    • Authors: T.J. Adorian; P.I. Mombach, F.R. Goulart, D. Pianesso, M.B. Fagundes, R. Wagner, R. Lazzari, J. Radünz Neto, L.P. Silva
      Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the intermediary metabolism, growth, nutritional deposition and volatile compounds of fillet of female and male silver catfish created in cages having commercial diets at two levels of crude protein. A total of 1,200 silver catfish were randomly distributed in 12 cages with initial weight of 130.05 ± 0.14 g and visually sexed. Commercial diets with 280 g/kg and 320 g/kg of crude protein were offered twice a day in the amount of 30 g/kg their biomass/day, for 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, biometry was performed to collect data, blood and tissue for later determination of plasma metabolites, hepatic metabolites, digestive enzymes, volatile compounds, deposition of nutrients and calculation of growth variables. There were metabolic differences due to the sex of silver catfish, reflecting greater productive efficiency on the females. For the plasma metabolites, in male, there were higher values of triglycerides and free amino acids than in female. For hepatic glucose, males fed with diet containing 280 g/kg of crude protein showed higher values. For protein and free amino acids, the interaction between males that received 320 g/kg of crude protein was higher. In males, there were higher values of AST and hepatic glycogen than in females. In turn, hepatic ammonia was higher in females. There was greater activity of acid protease enzymes and trypsin in the silver catfish that received diets containing 320 g/kg of crude protein. Regardless of sex, in this cultivation phase, diets with 320 g/kg of crude protein provided better performance to silver catfish. The profile of volatile compounds suggests mild odour for the fillet of silver catfish, which can be a competitive advantage of the species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T02:05:50.997362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12608
       
  • Effects of Chinese herbal medicines mixture on growth performance
           digestive enzyme activity immune response of juvenile Japanese seabass,
           Lateolabrax japonicus
    • Authors: C.-Y. Wang; Z.-B. Li, Y.-Z. Sun, Q. Chen, W.-J. Li, Y.-C. Huang, J. Lu
      Abstract: A single factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbal medicines mixture (CHMM) on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immune response of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus (initial weight 5.01 ± 0.32 g). The fish were fed diets containing six levels of CHMM (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 g/kg) for 4 weeks. The results showed that the weight gain rate and specific growth rate (SGR) enhanced significantly in fish fed diet containing 8 g/kg CHMM (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T05:05:22.560501-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12597
       
  • Effects of dietary inulin and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)
           on intestinal microbiota community and morphology of Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings
    • Authors: S. Boonanuntanasarn; N. Tiengtam, T. Pitaksong, P. Piromyou, N. Teaumroong
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of dietary inulin and Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on intestinal microbiota and morphometry of Nile tilapia fingerlings. Five treatment diets were designed to supplement inulin at 0 (basal diet), 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg, and JA at 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg. Nile tilapia larvae were fed experimental diets from the first feeding through the fingerling stage (84 days). The cultivation-dependent technique showed that dietary inulin at 5.0 g/kg and JA (at both levels) increased lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp., but decreased Vibrio spp. (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T03:36:16.442209-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12600
       
  • Effects of supplemental phytic acid on the apparent digestibility and
           utilization of dietary amino acids and minerals in juvenile grass carp
           (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
    • Authors: L.W. Liu; X.-F. Liang, J. Li, X.C. Yuan, J.G. Fang
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted for 8 weeks to evaluate the effects of supplemental phytic acid (PA) on the apparent digestibility and utilization of dietary amino acids (AAs) and minerals in juvenile grass carp. Five experimental diets consisted of graded levels of PA (0.2, 4.7, 9.5, 19.1 and 38.3 g kg−1, named as P0, P5, P10, P20 and P40). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 22.37 ± 0.16 g) were fed twice daily (08:00 and 16:00 h). The crude protein content in whole body significantly (p 4.7 g kg−1) significantly reduced the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of AAs (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Cys, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Phe, Lys, Pro, His and Arg) and the ADC of minerals (P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in grass carp. The contents of minerals (P, Ca, Mg and Zn) in whole body and bone were also found to be significantly reduced in dietary PA> 4.7 g kg−1, while the bone ash, serum Alkp and Zn contents were found to be significantly decreased when the PA supplementation level was above 9.5 g kg−1, and the contents of serum Ca and Mg were found to be markedly altered in higher PA-supplemented groups. The results indicated that supplemental PA decreased the apparent digestibility and utilization of AAs and minerals, and thus reduced the feed utilization of grass carp, suggesting that the level of total PA should be below 4.7 g kg−1 in grass carp diet.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:15:21.253531-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12614
       
  • Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil blends in feeds for greater
           amberjack (Seriola dumerili) juveniles: Effect on growth performance, feed
           efficiency, tissue fatty acid composition and flesh nutritional value
    • Authors: R. Monge-Ortiz; A. Tomás-Vidal, D. Rodriguez-Barreto, S. Martínez-Llorens, J.A. Pérez, M. Jover-Cerdá, A. Lorenzo
      Abstract: This study was undertaken to assess the effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by a mixture of alternative vegetable oils (VO) on Seriola dumerili culture performance. A 154-day feeding experiment was conducted using juveniles (39.2 ± 1.6 g average weight). Three isolipidic and isoenergetic meal-based diets were formulated varying their lipid component. The control diet contained 100% FO (FO100), whereas diets VO50 and VO100 included 1/2 of oil blend and all the oil from blend of palm oil (PO) and linseed oil (LO) as substitute for FO, respectively. Dietary regime did not significantly affect growth performance, biometric indices, feed efficiency, plasma chemistry and liver and muscle lipid contents. Nonetheless, dietary VO inclusion impacted on the fatty acid profile of target tissues, especially in the liver. Fatty acid profiles of the fillets reflected those of the dietary oils except that there was apparent selective utilization of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1n-9) and apparent selective retention of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). The nutritional value and the potential ability to prevent the development of coronary heart diseases of the flesh lipid fraction decreased with gradual FO substitution.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T05:05:34.662192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12595
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, feed utilization, digestive
           tract enzyme activity and lipid deposition of juvenile Manchurian trout,
           Brachymystax lenok (Pallas)
    • Authors: J. Chang; H.X. Niu, Y.D. Jia, S.G. Li, G.F. Xu
      Abstract: Six isoproteic diets were designated to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels (from 70 to 270 g/kg) on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive tract enzyme activity and lipid deposition of juvenile Brachymystax lenok (average initial weight 0.54 ± 0.04 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (30 fish per tank) in an indoor closed recirculating system for 9 weeks. Final body weight and weight gain were highest in fish fed 190 g/kg diet and lowest in fish fed the 70 g/kg diet. Specific growth rate of fish fed with 190 g/kg diet was significantly higher than those fed with 70 and 270 g/kg diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-20T02:00:21.9326-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12598
       
  • Effects of dietary sunflower oil on growth parameters, fatty acid profiles
           and expression of genes regulating growth and metabolism in the pejerrey
           (Odontesthes bonariensis) fry
    • Authors: J.I. Bertucci; M.O. Tovar, S. Unniappan, J.C. Navarro, L.F. Canosa
      Abstract: Aquaculture fish diets usually contain an addition of fish oil to improve their nutritional value. The effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil (FO) by sunflower oil (SfO) on growth, fatty acid composition and expression of genes implicated in somatic growth, feed intake and fatty acid metabolism was studied in pejerrey fry. Fry were fed per 45 days with diets containing FO/SfO ratios of 100% FO; 50% FO:50% SfO; 20% FO:80% SfO; and 100% SfO. No differences were detected in growth and in the total per cent of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Gh, ghr-I and ghr-II showed a higher mRNA expression in head and trunk of fry fed with 100% SfO diet. Expression of igf-II was higher in trunk of fry fed with 100% SfO diet compared with 100% FO diet. The Δ6-desaturase gene expression was upregulated in head and trunk of fry fed with 100% SfO diet. The nucb2/nesfatin-1 gene expression decreased in the trunk of fry with increasing dietary SfO. We conclude that the replacement of fish oil by sunflower oil in pejerrey fry feed does not affect growth and is a viable strategy to reduce production costs of this fish.
      PubDate: 2017-08-20T01:45:26.904353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12603
       
  • Dietary ascorbic acid requirement for growth of striped catfish,
           Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) juveniles
    • Authors: N. Daniel; A.P. Muralidhar, P.P. Srivastava, K.K. Jain, K. Pani Prasad, J. Manish, T. Sivaramakrishnan
      Abstract: A sixty-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the ascorbic acid (AA) requirement for growth of striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus juveniles. Seven iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic (370 g protein per kg and 19.6 MJ/kg) purified diets were prepared with different levels of ascorbic acid such as control (0), T1 (17.5), T2 (35), T3 (70), T4 (175), T5 (350) and T6 (700) mg ascorbic acid (L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate) equivalent per kg diet. Fish with a mean body weight of 3.2–3.4 g were stocked (fifteen fish per tank) in triplicates following a completely randomized design. Each group was fed to satiation twice a day for 60 days. Significant differences were observed in growth, survival, body composition and metabolic enzymes activities with different dietary ascorbic acid levels. Maximum weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were found in fishes fed with 35 mg AA per kg diet, supported by best feed conversion. Fish fed a diet containing vitamin C had the highest activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to those fed with vitamin C-depleted diets. In this study, based on using broken-line regression analysis, the dietary vitamin C requirement for growth of P. hypophthalmus juveniles was estimated to be in the range of 46–76 mg AA per kg, depending on the criterion used, growth and liver storage. Our results will be helpful for the formulation of cost-effective ascorbic acid incorporated diets for striped catfish, P. hypophthalmus.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T05:05:39.368088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12596
       
  • Immune responses by dietary supplement with Astragalus polysaccharides in
           the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Z.-Q. Chang; Q.-Q. Ge, M. Sun, Q. Wang, H.-Y. Lv, J. Li
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to investigate the immune-enhancing effect of dietary supplement with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In experiment 1, the optimal APS dose was determined based on the immune responses of shrimps fed APS diet for 30 days. In experiment 2, the effect of APS supplementation on immune response of shrimp suffering white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge was determined. Results showed that the total haemocyte count and phagocytic activity in shrimps fed APS diets significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T05:40:34.713843-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12599
       
  • Effect of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly larvae meal
           on growth and fatty acid composition of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var.
           Jian)
    • Authors: J.S. Zhou; S.S. Liu, H. Ji, H.B. Yu
      Abstract: To explore the effect of replacing dietary fish meal (FM) with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (BSFLM) on growth and body composition of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), the FM in basal diet of Jian carp was replaced by 0, 35, 70, 105 and 140 g/kg BSFLM respectively to form five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets. A total of 300 Jian carp (10.1 ± 1.6 g) were randomly divided into five groups (triplicate per group) and fed five diets, respectively. After 56 days of feeding, growth and body composition of fish were determined. Results showed that serum maleic dialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in fish significantly decreased and 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0 significantly increased with increasing replacement of BSFLM. The growth, biological parameters, proximate composition, amino acid composition and serum biochemical parameters of Jian carp were not affected by the replacement of BSFLM. In conclusion, up to 140 g/kg BSFLM (100% replacement of FM) can be included in diets of Jian carp without unfavourable effects on growth while decreasing n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) composition in body of fish, suggesting that BSFLM could be used after nutrient enrichment with n-3 HUFA to bring active effects on fish quality.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T03:55:22.031791-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12574
       
  • Synchronized effect of citric acid and phytase supplementation on growth
           performance and nutrient digestibility of Labeo rohita
    • Authors: N. Bano; M. Afzal
      Abstract: A 2-month trial was conducted to record the effect of citric acid and phytase supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in labeo rohita. Nine treatment (T) diets having 0, 500 and 1,000 FTU/KG phytase and 0, 15 and 30 g/kg citric acid were prepared and were designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9 diets. There were three replicates for each of the test diets. Fish samples (n = 324) were stocked in different tanks and were fed with T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9 diets. Significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T01:05:46.245081-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12607
       
  • Replacement of fishmeal by two types of fish protein hydrolysate in feed
           for postlarval shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: B.P.T. Quinto; J.V. Albuquerque, R.S. Bezerra, S. Peixoto, R. Soares
      Abstract: After filleting of tilapia, the material remaining is discarded and this waste represents about 700 g/kg of fish body volume, corresponding to carcass and viscera. These leftovers are important sources of proteins that can be used as feed in aquaculture industry by producing protein hydrolysates. In this study, two protein hydrolysates of tilapia were produced, with one (FPH1) and two (FPH2) hours of hydrolysis. The nutritional composition of the hydrolysates showed desirable levels of crude protein and essential amino acids. Electrophoresis revealed peptides ranging from 10 to 250 kDa. In addition, caseinolytic activity was recorded by zymogram. The hydrolysates were incorporated separately in experimental diets to replace fishmeal at distinct levels: 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg, totalizing seven diets named 0 (control), 40H1, 80H1, 120H1, 40H2, 80H2 and 120H2. A 45-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the zootechnical performance of postlarvae fed these diets. In conclusion, the use of FPH2 as a substitute for fishmeal promotes better shrimp growth than FPH1 and allows higher levels of substitution. In addition, it is recommended a 60 g/kg fishmeal replacement by FPH2 to improve growth.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T01:45:24.393026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12605
       
  • Dietary supplements of guanosine improve the growth, non-specific immunity
           of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, and its resistance
           against Vibrio splendidus
    • Authors: X.R. Chen; K.S. Mai, W.B. Zhang, B.P. Tan, Y.H. Yuan, Q.C. Wang, H.O. Liang, L.M. Zhao
      Abstract: The growth response, non-specific immune activities and disease resistance were measured in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka (initial average weight 6.80 ± 0.10 g), when fed diets supplemented with graded levels of guanosine from the guanosine-5’-monophosphate disodium (GMP) at 0 (control), 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg for 8 weeks. The results showed that GMP supplemented at 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg significantly enhanced the growth of sea cucumber. Sea cucumber fed a diet with 0.6 g/kg of GMP had significantly higher intracellular superoxide anion production, nitric oxide synthase activity, lysozyme activity and the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity than those in control group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T01:35:27.484671-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12590
       
  • Antioxidant-related parameters, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal
           morphology in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry fed graded levels of
           red seaweed, Gracilaria pygmaea
    • Authors: E. Sotoudeh; F. Mardani
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary red seaweed, Gracilaria pygmaea level on growth, antioxidant-related parameters, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain four G. pygmaea levels (30 (GL-30), 60 (GL-60), 90 (GL-90) and 120 g/kg (GL-120)), and a control diet was used, without inclusion of seaweed. Results of the feeding trial indicated that final body (FBW: 2.8–3.5 g) and specific growth rate (SGR: 4.8–5.2) were significantly improved when 60 g/kg G. pygmaea was supplemented in the diets. However, there was a significant reduction (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T01:25:42.557247-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12606
       
  • Chlorella vulgaris meal improved growth performance, digestive enzyme
           activities, fatty acid composition and tolerance of hypoxia and ammonia
           stress in juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: S. Pakravan; A. Akbarzadeh, M.M. Sajjadi, A. Hajimoradloo, F. Noori
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of fish meal substitution by Chlorella vulgaris meal in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Experimental diets contained varying levels of fish meal (400, 300, 200, 100 and 0 g/kg) which was replaced by increasing levels of C. vulgaris (0, 97.2, 194.4, 291.6 and 388.8 g/kg). After 8 weeks of feeding trial, shrimp fed diet with 97.2 g/kg C. vulgaris showed significantly improved growth compared to other treatments including control. Similarly, shrimp fed diet with 97.2 g/kg C. vulgaris showed significantly higher amount of trypsin and amylase activities compared to other treatments. The contents of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly higher in the whole body of L. vannamei fed with different levels of C. vulgaris compared to those of control group. After exposure to hypoxia, the survival rate of shrimp fed diets contained different levels of C. vulgaris was higher than that of control group, while no significant differences were observed in ammonia tolerance among treatments. In conclusion, this study indicated that fish meal can be completely replaced with C. vulgaris in the diet of juvenile L. vannamei with no adverse effects on the performance of shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T01:35:46.709865-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12594
       
  • Effect of supplementation of dietary fibre concentrates on biochemical
           parameters, stress response, immune response and skin mucus of jundiá
           (Rhamdia quelen)
    • Authors: F.R. Goulart; T.J. Adorian, N.M. Lovatto, B.B. Loureiro, D. Pianesso, L.G. Barcellos, G. Koakoski, L.P. da Silva
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary fibre concentrates (DFC: Mucilage = MG; pectin = PN or β-glucan+mannan = βg+M), on biochemical parameters, stress and immune response and skin mucus of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). The fish (7.16 ± 0.06 g) were fed with Control diet (0 g/kg of DFC); diet supplemented with 5 g/kg of commercial prebiotic (CP 5) or diets supplemented with 5 or 10 g/kg of MG; PN or βg+M. After 8 weeks of the feeding trials, biochemical parameters (cholesterol, glucose, albumin and total protein), cortisol, immunoglobulin IgM and mucoproteins of skin mucus were assessed. Results demonstrated that supplementation with PN increased cholesterol levels (p
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T00:07:02.48556-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12568
       
  • The effects on some non-enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative stress of
           Astacus leptodactylus (Esch., 1823) of starvation periods
    • Authors: Özden Barim-Öz
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of starvation (78 days) and refeeding (33 days) on the oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)] and the non-enzymatic antioxidants [vitamin E (VE), vitamin C (VC), vitamin A (VA), beta carotene (βC) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] in the hepatopancreas, muscle and gill tissues of freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus). Crayfish were divided into three experimental groups: control (fed), starved (not fed) crayfish for 78 days and refeeding crayfish for 33 days after 78 days of starvation. The biochemical analysis of the tissues was conducted at 3, 18, 33, 48, 63 and 78 days of starvation and feeding and at 3, 18 and 33 days of refeeding. It was determined that crayfish can withstand starvation period of 78 days. In all of the periods, the MDA levels were significantly higher in the tissues of starved crayfish when compared with the control. The findings of this study demonstrate that starvation has a negative effect on the VE, VC, VA, βC and GSH levels in the crayfish. The measured parameters returned to control values after 33 days of the refeeding. Additionally, the starvation resulted in decreased levels of VE, VA and βC in the abdomen muscle of crayfish consumed by humans.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T23:55:43.011472-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12582
       
  • Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 probiotic supplementation as enhancer of
           Artemia n-3 HUFA contents and growth performance in Senegalese sole
           larviculture
    • Authors: C. Lobo; M.V. Martín, X. Moreno-Ventas, S.T. Tapia-Paniagua, C. Rodríguez, M.A. Moriñigo, I. García de la Banda
      Abstract: Adequate enrichment of live prey like Artemia, naturally deficient of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), is critical for the rapidly developing tissues, survival, normal development and production of good-quality fingerlings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a pulse (10–30 dah) of Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 (2.5*107 cfu/ml) using Artemia metanauplii as live vector, on its proper lipid profiles and resultant Solea senegalensis body composition and performance. Probiotic administration significantly increased total lipids and specifically n-3 HUFA levels in Pdp11-enriched Artemia. The live prey lipid modulation was also reflected in the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of Pdp11 sole specimens, which achieved a higher growth performance. A fatty acid multivariate principal component analysis confirmed a neat separation of two groups corresponding to Control and probiotic fish for each age sampled (23, 56, 87 and 119 dah). In addition, a further SIMPER analysis highlighted that the Pdp11 Artemia effect on sole lipid profile was different for each fatty acid and was gradually diluted with age. Results suggest an ability of Pdp11 strain to produce n-3 HUFA as an effective tool for fish marine larviculture optimization.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T02:10:23.869716-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12587
       
  • Use of marine by-product meals in diets for juvenile longfin yellowtail
           Seriola rivoliana
    • Authors: A. Benitez-Hernández; S.P.L. Jiménez-Bárcenas, E.Y. Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.C. Pérez-Urbiola, D. Tovar-Ramírez, E. Palacios, R. Civera-Cerecedo
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding trial to determine the nutritional value of marine by-product meals in diets for longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana juveniles (48.1 ± 0.6 g initial weight) was conducted. Five diets were evaluated: a reference diet (RD; 500 g kg−1 CP, 130 g kg−1 L), containing 500 g kg−1 of fish meal (FM); three experimental diets with 125 g kg−1 of shrimp head (SM), Catarina scallop viscera (CM) or Pen shell viscera (PM) meals; and one diet (SCP) containing 125 g kg−1 of each of the experimental meals, to partially replace FM. Survival was not significantly affected by any treatment. Individual weight gain per day was high for the PM (5.3 ± 0.51 g d−1) and SM (4.7 ± 0.32 g d−1) diets, being significantly higher than the RD (3.5 ± 0.23 g d−1) and the other treatments (
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T02:05:24.322566-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12588
       
  • Replacing live feed with formulated diets in juvenile Patagonian red
           octopus (Enteroctopus megalocyathus)
    • Authors: E. Martínez-Montaño; I. Uriarte, C. Rosas, R. Amthauer, A. Romero, A. Farías
      Abstract: Two formulated diets were evaluated to replace live crab (C) as feed for juveniles Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Formulated diets consisted of crab paste (CP) and a mixture of freeze-dried meals of crab and squid (C&S). After 10 weeks of feeding, the effect of each diet was analysed on productive performance, nutritional and physiological condition and immune system. Both the crab and C&S diets produced the best values for specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The diet C&S proved to be the most digestible with greatest metabolized energy. The CP diet was similar to the C diet in terms of biological value and protein apparent digestibility; nevertheless, its performance was weaker for the other indicators. Furthermore, the highest α-amylase, lipase and alkaline proteolytic activity values were observed in octopuses fed live crab, as opposed to those fed formulated feeds. The type of diet did not affect lysozyme activity in neither mucus nor haemolymph. The production of reactive oxygen species was highest in octopuses fed CP diet. It is proposed the use of C&S diet to study the nutritional requirements and to develop an optimal formulated diet for juvenile Patagonian red octopus.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T01:45:23.08075-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12589
       
  • Effect of feeding frequency on growth and enzymatic activity of
           Litopenaeus vannamei during nursery phase in biofloc system
    • Authors: S. Peixoto; E. Silva, C.B. Costa, R.C. Nery, F. Rodrigues, J.F. Silva, R. Bezerra, R. Soares
      Abstract: This study evaluated the zootechnical performance and enzymatic activity of Litopenaeus vannamei reared at different feeding frequencies during the nursery phase in biofloc system. The experiment consisted of four treatments, corresponding to the feeding frequencies of one, two, three and four times a day. Twelve-day postlarvae (PL12) were stocked in 12 circular tanks at a density of 3,000/m2 for 35 days. These tanks were connected to a recirculation system supplied by a matrix tank where biofloc management was carried out. Water quality remained within acceptable limits for the species over the experiment. Food frequencies had no influence on survival (88.5–92.7%) and feed conversion ratio (1.5–1.7), but the final mean weight (0.43–0.56 g) was significantly higher in shrimp fed three times a day. This fact is probably associated with amylase (14.58 U/mg) and trypsin (23.84 U/mg) activities, as well as the significant increase of chymotrypsin (11.74 U/mg) and lipase (1.27 U/mg) in shrimp of this treatment at the end of culture period. Feeding three times a day provided the highest enzymatic activity and the best zootechnical performance of L. vannamei during the nursery phase in biofloc system.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T00:00:47.93736-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12591
       
  • Utilization of H2SO4-hydrolysed phosphorus from herring bone by-products
           in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) 0+ postsmolt
    • Authors: S. Albrektsen; E.-J. Lock, G. Bæverfjord, M. Pedersen, A. Krasnov, H. Takle, E. Veiseth-Kent, R. Ørnsrud, R. Waagbø, E. Ytteborg
      Abstract: The utilization efficiency of phosphorus (P) hydrolysed from herring by-products in feed for Atlantic salmon 0+ postsmolt was studied. Seven diets were produced with a low P level (D1): 5 g soluble P/kg, with P hydrolysed from herring by-products (D2, D3, D4): 7, 9 and 11 g soluble P/kg, or blue whiting fish bone meal (D5): 9 g soluble P/kg, and with P from NaH2PO4 (D6, D7): 9 g soluble P/kg diet. Diet D7 was also added (NH4)2SO4. Fish fed D1 had significantly lower growth compared to D3, D5 and D7, morphological changes in bone consistent with low mineral contents, significantly reduced scale macromineral contents and changes in P markers, that is bone ALP and NaPi in pyloric caeca. The average P retention was 3.6 and 3.2 g P/kg weight gain, respectively, in D2–D7 and in D1. Fish fed D3, D5 and D6 showed similar growth, P digestibility, tissue mineralization, P retention and P excretion. The dietary P requirement in salmon was met between 5.1 and 7.4 g/kg soluble P (DM). This study shows that P hydrolysed from fish bones can be recycled and used as an efficient P source in feed for Atlantic salmon.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T01:45:59.198771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12566
       
  • Combined effect of weaning time and co-feeding duration on growth and
           survival of peled Coregonus peled (Gmelin) larvae
    • Authors: V. Stejskal; J. Matousek, M. Prokesova, P. Podhorec, R. Sebesta, B. Drozd
      Abstract: The study investigated the combined effect of weaning from live feed to a commercial dry pellet at 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 days posthatching (dph) and co-feeding for 1, 3 or 6 days on survival and growth of Coregonus peled larvae. Additional groups fed only live Artemia sp. nauplii (ART), and only Biomar LARVIVA ProWean 100 (DRY) were included. A final survival rate of 66.4%–85.5% was observed in groups weaned after 20 dph. Final body weight (BW) and total length (TL) were significantly lower in groups weaned at 10 and 15 dph, regardless of the duration of co-feeding. Larvae reached 29–37 mg BW and TL of 17.7–19.0 mm in groups weaned at 20, 25 and 30 dph. The recommended minimum duration of feeding with live food, based on these results, is 20 days. Based on the significantly higher yield of larvae weaned after 20 dph irrespective of co-feeding duration, it can be concluded that abrupt weaning to dry food after 20 days of feeding with live prey can provide adequate production while reducing the effort and costs associated with live feed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24T03:52:39.361526-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12575
       
  • Efficacy of feeding tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes on moon jellyfish with
           respect to nutritional composition and behavioural traits
    • Authors: Y. Miyajima-Taga; R. Masuda, A. Kurihara, R. Komi, Y. Yamashita, T. Takeuchi
      Abstract: Although jellyfish blooms are serious nuisances for fisheries and other industries, the utilization and nutritional value of by-catch jellyfish has drawn public attention. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of feeding tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes with moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. using 20-day rearing experiments. Feeding on jellyfish had no positive effect on growth performance, although it significantly reduced neutral lipids and increased proportions of polar lipids, n−3 and n−6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), especially arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and taurine. Supplemental feeding on jellyfish plus pellets elevated activity and responsiveness in the fish, with no effect on burst swimming speed or prevention of aggressive biting by siblings. The present research suggests that feeding on jellyfish improves body composition and some behaviours in tiger puffers. As cultured fish tend to accumulate excessive amounts of lipids from lipid-rich pellets that can induce an unhealthy condition, and behavioural deficits of hatchery-reared fish reduce survival after release in the wild, we propose the use of jellyfish as a supplemental diet in the nursery production of tiger puffer. Moreover, feeding on jellyfish can overcome deficiencies in alternative soy-material feeds by supplying phospholipid, HUFAs, or taurine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24T03:52:31.615742-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12583
       
  • 1H-NMR metabolomic profiling of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus
           subjected to polyphenol-enriched diets
    • Authors: Susan Costantini; Lucia Parrillo, Eliana Guerriero, Dominique Melck, Giovanni Colonna, Maria Grazia Volpe, Marina Paolucci
      Abstract: 1H-NMR analysis of the hepatopancreas, muscle and haemolymph of Astacus leptodactylus after feeding with polyphenol-enriched diet is reported. 1H-NMR spectra of lipophilic extracts showed the presence of cholesterol, fatty acid residues, phospholipids and triglycerides. 1H-NMR spectra of aqueous extracts identified 35 metabolites in the hepatopancreas, 31 in the muscle and 22 in the haemolymph. A total of 20 metabolites (amino acids and their derivatives) were present in the hepatopancreas, the muscle and the haemolymph. A total of 10 metabolites were present in both the hepatopancreas and the muscle (five amino acids, 2-hydroxybutyrate, choline, myo-inositol, glycogen and uracil). 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate and creatine were present in both the hepatopancreas and the haemolymph. Phosphorylethanolamine, phosphocholine and fumarate were present only in the hepatopancreas and isoleucine only in the muscle. Statistical analysis showed that the percentage of weight gain was statistically higher in polyphenol-enriched diet groups compared to the control and that polyphenols had a stimulating effect on the general metabolism. No stress-related metabolites were higher in crayfish fed with polyphenol-enriched diet. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and DHA, linked to resistance to environmental stress and diseases, were higher compared to the control diet. This study indicates that 1H-NMR is a useful tool to study the metabolomics in relation to diet differences.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:35:39.149729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12585
       
  • Evaluating dietary supply of microminerals as a premix in a complete plant
           ingredient-based diet to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: P. Antony Jesu Prabhu; J.W. Schrama, S. Fontagné-Dicharry, C. Mariojouls, A. Surget, M. Bueno, I. Geurden, S.J. Kaushik
      Abstract: Two basal diets M0 and V0 were formulated with marine and plant based ingredient composition. Seven experimental diets were prepared from the two basal diets namely M0, M100, V0, V30, V60, V100 and V150 by incorporating different levels of a micromineral premix (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn). Triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20 g) reared at 17°C were fed one of each diet to apparent visual satiation over 12 weeks. Among the V diet fed fish, growth and feed intake exhibited maximal response at V60 level of premix inclusion; Apparent availability coefficient of Fe, Cu and Zn decreased linearly with increasing level of premix whereas apparent availability coefficient of Mn and Se was unaffected. The available dietary concentration in basal V0 diet was for Fe, 20.6; Cu, 2.8; Mn, 6.5; Zn, 17.3 and Se, 0.195 (in mg/kg DM) and in the M0 diet for Fe, 63.3; Cu, 5.2; Mn, 2.9; Zn, 35.2 and Se, 0.87 (in mg/kg DM). In reference to NRC (Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. Washington, DC: National Research Council, The National Academies Press, 2011) recommendations, the V0 basal diet accounted for 34.3%, 92.9%, 53.9%, 115% and 130.2% and the contribution from M0 diet for 105.5%, 173.3%, 24.2%, 234.7% and 580% of the minimal dietary inclusion levels of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se to rainbow trout, respectively. However, data on whole body mineral contents showed that normal levels were maintained only for Cu and Mn through supply from basal V0 diet. For Zn and Se, available supply even from the highest supplemented diet (V150) was not sufficient to maintain normal body mineral levels of rainbow trout in the present study. On the whole, optimal dietary inclusion levels of microminerals are altered while using fishmeal-free diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:25:20.623846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12586
       
  • Dietary nucleotide mixture effects on reproductive and performance, ovary
           fatty acid profile and biochemical parameters of female Pacific shrimp
           Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: A. Arshadi; V. Yavari, A. Oujifard, S.M. Mousavi, E. Gisbert, M.T. Mozanzadeh
      Abstract: The effects of different dietary nucleotide mixture (NT) levels (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/kg) were investigated on the reproductive performance, fatty acid profile and biochemical parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei female that were co-fed with fresh food (two times daily) and experimental diets (two times daily) for 30 days. Sampling was carried out at the first day of the trial, before eyestalk ablation (ESA) (day 21) and after ESA (day 30). Reproductive performance parameters including the hepatopancreatic index, absolute fecundity, egg diameter and latency period were higher in the NT-supplemented groups than the control group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:20:19.802476-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12584
       
  • Effects of dietary vitamin E and astaxanthin on growth, skin colour and
           antioxidative capacity of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea
    • Authors: X. Yi; H. Shen, J. Li, Z. Wei, J. Shentu, W. Zhang, K. Mai
      Abstract: A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E and astaxanthin on growth performance, skin colour and antioxidative capacity of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. Six practical diets were formulated in a 2 × 3 factorial design to supplement with two levels of astaxanthin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin E (0, 120 and 800 mg/kg). The results showed that both the highest final body weight and specific growth rate were found in fish fed diets with 120 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation. No significant differences were found in survival rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio among all the treatments (p > .05). Skin lightness (L*) was not significantly affected by dietary treatments (p > .05). Ventral skin redness (a*) of fish fed diet with 25 mg/kg astaxanthin and 0 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation was significantly lower than that of fish fed with other diets. Yellowness (b*) and carotenoid contents both in the dorsal and in the ventral skin were found to be significantly increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin or vitamin E (p  .05). The vitamin E content in liver reflected the dietary vitamin E content. Level of vitamin E content in fish fed diets with 800 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation was significantly higher than that in fish fed with the other diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:15:21.592978-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12580
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1191 - 1192
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T03:38:38.282077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12497
       
  • High dietary energy level stimulates growth hormone receptor and feed
           utilization in large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under hypoxic
           conditions
    • Authors: V. Vikeså; L. Nankervis, E.M. Hevrøy
      Pages: 1193 - 1203
      Abstract: This study examines how appetite and growth regulation of Atlantic salmon are affected by low dissolved oxygen (LO) and dietary digestible energy levels (DE: high [HE] vs. low [LE]). Long-term exposure to LO resulted in a reduced feed intake, growth, digestible protein and fat retention efficiencies and increased feed conversation ratio and plasma ghrelin concentrations (p 
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:15:29.411071-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12488
       
  • In vitro protein digestibility of different grow-out stages of spotted
           rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus, Steindachner, 1869)
    • Authors: E. Peña; C. Hernández, L. Ibarra-Castro, C.A. Álvarez-González
      Pages: 1204 - 1215
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare in vitro protein digestibility between two groups of fish, at early (21 g) and late stages (400 g) of spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus, to evaluate the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and total amino acid release (TAAR) using crude extracts from stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine of 13 protein ingredients including marine, animal and plant meals. Degree of hydrolysis and TAAR were measured by a pH-Stat method, and the PAGE-Zymogram was also used as complementary technique. Differences in DH were found between both grow-out stages mainly in the alkaline hydrolysis phase. Fish and squid meals (marine sources) had the highest DH and TAAR, followed by porcine meat and poultry meal by-products from recycling sources, and soybean and canola meals (plant sources), which represent better protein sources for use in practical diets. Stomach zymograms showed two pepsin isoforms in both grow-out stages. Pyloric caeca and intestine zymograms showed five bands with proteolytic activity in the early grow-out stage, whereas four additional bands were found in late grow-out stage. Alkaline proteases were identified as serine and metalloproteases. Thus, L. guttatus presents an ontogenetically differentiated digestive enzyme pattern that modifies the DH and TAAR of different protein sources.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T04:45:32.170606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12489
       
  • Effects of fish meal replacement with meat and bone meal using garlic
           (Allium sativum) powder on growth, feeding, digestive enzymes and apparent
           digestibility of nutrients and fatty acids in juvenile rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792)
    • Authors: M. Esmaeili; A. Abedian Kenari, A. N. Rombenso
      Pages: 1225 - 1234
      Abstract: Effects of graded dietary levels of fish meal (FM) replacement with meat and bone meal (MBM) with garlic powder (G) or without garlic powder (WG) garlic powder were investigated on growth, digestive enzymes, apparent digestibility, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss; 8.26 ± 1.10 g). A total of eight dietary treatments were evaluated: control with garlic powder (0 MBM+G), 250 MBM+G, 450 MBM+G, and 650 MBM+G (g MBM/kg diet; treatments with garlic powder; G treatments), control without garlic powder (0 MBM), 250 MBM, 450 MBM and 650 MBM (g MBM/kg diet; treatments without garlic powder; WG treatments). Our results demonstrated that increased dietary content of MBM impaired growth and production performance, body composition, digestive enzyme activity, tissue fatty acid profile and overall digestibility. Addition of garlic powder was able to correct fish performance, body composition, enzyme activity and digestibility to some extent. Dietary supply of garlic resulted in increased digestive enzyme activity improving fish performance. The current results indicated that fish fed 650 g MBM/kg feed exhibited impaired growth that could be attributed to reduce digestibility of protein, fat, energy and dry matter, PUFAs and n-3 LC-PUFAs in muscle. We suggest that 450 g FM per kilo feed can be successfully replaced with MBM supplemented with 30 g garlic powder per kilo feed without impairing fish performance and physiology, however distorting tissue fatty acid composition resulting in lesser levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs compared to the 0 MBM+G diet.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T07:05:33.029827-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12491
       
  • Probiotic dietary supplementation in Nile tilapia as prophylaxis against
           streptococcosis
    • Authors: M.M. Yamashita; S.A. Pereira, L. Cardoso, A.P. Araujo, C.E. Oda, É.C. Schmidt, Z.L. Bouzon, M.L. Martins, J.L.P. Mouriño
      Pages: 1235 - 1243
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum as dietary supplement on growth performance, haemato-immunological responses, microbiology, histology and transmission electron microscopy of the intestinal epithelium of Nile tilapia challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae. Fish were distributed into two groups: control (unsupplemented) group and the group fed L. plantarum supplemented diet for a period of 58 days. We observed an increase in the concentration of lactic acid bacteria and a reduction in the number of Vibrionaceae in supplemented fish. A significant increase in the final weight, specific growth rate and feed efficiency was also observed in supplemented fish. After challenge, the number of thrombocytes and neutrophils also increased in supplemented animals. Transmission electron microscopy showed damage to the intestinal mucosa and the presence of bacteria similar to S. agalactiae in both infected groups. L. plantarum colonized the intestines of fish, enhanced the growth performance and modulated some haematological parameters.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T07:15:32.303877-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12498
       
  • Evaluation of flash dried yeast as a nutritional supplement in plant-based
           practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; D.A. Davis
      Pages: 1244 - 1253
      Abstract: Growth and digestibility trials were conducted to evaluate the use of flash dried yeast (FDY) as a supplement in practical shrimp feeds. The six-week growth trial evaluated the effects of FDY supplementation (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 g kg–1) in the plant-based practical diet on the performances and proximate compositions of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Final biomass, final mean weight, per cent weight gain (WG), feed conversion (FCR) and protein retention efficiency (PRE) of Pacific white shrimp were not significantly influenced when FDY was added up to 40 g kg–1 of the diet. However, 60 g kg–1 FDY supplementation significantly reduced growth, feed utilization and protein retention. Supplementation of FDY in the practical diets of Pacific white shrimp did not affect protein, moisture, lipid, crude fibre, and ash content of whole shrimp body. Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein, and amino acid (AA) for FDY were determined using chromic oxide as an inert marker and the 70:30 replacement technique. The energy and protein digestibility of FDY were 38.20% and 53.47%, respectively, which were significantly lower than fishmeal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) that were run at the same time. Most amino acid digestibility of FDY was lowest among the three ingredients tested. Results of this work indicated that energy, protein and amino acid digestibility of FDY are lower compared to SBM and FM, and high levels supplementation (≥60 g kg–1) of FDY can cause negative effects to the growth response of Pacific white shrimp. Based on these results, further research regarding the effects of the low level inclusion of FDY in practical diets on immune responses of Pacific white shrimp is warranted.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T06:10:26.110695-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12499
       
  • Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth, flesh quality and serum
           biochemical indices of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: W.T. Sun; X.Q. Li, H.B. Xu, J.N. Chen, X.Y. Xu, X.J. Leng
      Pages: 1254 - 1263
      Abstract: The study was to investigate effects of dietary chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance, flesh quality and serum biochemical indices of grass carp (95.1 ± 0.3 g) (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed seven different diets, including control diet, Eucommia ulmoides (EU)-supplemented diet (20 g kg–1) and CGA-supplemented diets containing 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg CGA. Contents of collagen and alkaline-insoluble collagen in muscle and skin were significantly increased by dietary CGA and EU (p 
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T07:00:27.940891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12500
       
  • Optimization of emulsion properties and enrichment conditions used in live
           prey enrichment
    • Authors: A. Estévez; G. Giménez
      Pages: 1264 - 1273
      Abstract: Five variables relating to the enrichment of live prey were studied using experimental micellar emulsions. Rotifers and Artemia nauplii were enriched for 12 and 24 hrs, respectively, and sampled at several intervals to analyse their fatty acid profile and determine the better time length for enrichment. Two hour and 18 hr were shown to be the most effective in boosting rotifer and nauplii, respectively, with arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids as well as in total lipid content. Three doses of the same emulsion were also used to check which one conferred the best fatty acid profile. In this case, the higher the dose utilized the higher the content of DHA present in the live food. The use of 15 g/Kg–20 g/Kg of egg yolk as emulsifier was proved to be very effective on rotifer boosting, whereas for nauplii, the amount of emulsifier might be reduced. Egg-derived emulsifiers have been shown to be more effective for rotifer enrichment while for Artemia nauplii, soy lecithin rendered a better fatty acid profile. Finally, live prey lipid composition paralleled that of the oil used in the emulsion formula although rotifers were far more easily enriched than Artemia nauplii especially in DHA but not in EPA or ARA.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T02:05:48.170054-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12501
       
  • Beef tallow is suitable as a primary lipid source in juvenile Florida
           pompano feeds
    • Authors: A.N. Rombenso; J.T. Trushenski, M.H. Schwarz
      Pages: 1274 - 1286
      Abstract: It is assumed that Florida pompano have dietary EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) requirements. However, it is unclear whether both are equally important in meeting demand for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) or whether the requirement(s) can be influenced by other fatty acids. Accordingly, we assessed production performance and tissue composition of juvenile Florida pompano (41.0 ± 0.5 g) fed diets containing fish oil; beef tallow; or beef tallow partially or fully supplemented with EPA, DHA or both. After 8 weeks, no signs of fatty acid deficiency were observed. Although fish performance did not vary significantly among the dietary treatments, fish fed the DHA-supplemented feeds exhibited numerically superior growth than those fed the other diets. Fillets of fish fed the beef tallow-based diets contained reduced levels of n-3 fatty acids and LC-PUFAs and elevated levels of MUFAs and n-6 fatty acids, although dietary supplementation with EPA and/or DHA attenuated these effects somewhat. Our results suggest that beef tallow is suitable as a primary lipid source in Florida pompano feeds and n-3 LC-PUFA requirements may be met by as little as 4 g/kg EPA and 4 g/kg DHA. However, there may be value in supplementing tallow-based diets with DHA to enhance tissue levels and possibly growth.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T07:00:29.014726-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12502
       
  • Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal in the diets improved the
           reproductive performance of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)
           broodstock
    • Authors: H.G. Xu; M. Zhao, K.K. Zheng, Y.L. Wei, L. Yan, M.Q. Liang
      Pages: 1287 - 1295
      Abstract: A three-month feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary krill meal on the reproductive performance of tongue sole broodstock. Three diets were formulated to contain different levels of krill meal, 0 (Diet K-0), 10 (K-100) and 200 (K-200) g kg–1 dry matter, replacing the corresponding contents of protein and lipid from fishmeal and fish oil. Each diet was assigned to triplicate tanks. Compared with K-0, both K-100 and K-200 increased the egg properties such as buoyant eggs rate, egg diameter, oil droplet diameter and SOD activity of the fertilized egg. However, the maturation rate, serum estradiol content, the relative fecundity and hatching rate were improved only by K-100. The krill meal supplementation increased the concentrations of astaxanthin and n-3 fatty acids in eggs, but decreased the n-6 fatty acid concentrations. Both K-100 and K-200 increased the survival activity index, but the larval deformity rate was decreased only by K-100. At 15 DPH, the larval length and the digestive enzyme activities were significantly higher in group K-200 compared with groups K-0 and K-100. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of krill meal, at the level of 100 or 200 g kg–1 dry matter in exchange of fishmeal and fish oil had the considerable positive effects on C. semilaevis reproduction.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T07:55:43.297896-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12503
       
  • Reconstitution of muscle F-actin from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
           with carotenoids—binding characteristics of astaxanthin and
           canthaxanthin
    • Authors: A.J. Young; J. Pritchard, G.M. Lowe, V. Crampton, L. Buttle
      Pages: 1296 - 1303
      Abstract: The binding of carotenoids to the myofibrillar protein F-actin purified from the white muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was studied using in vitro reconstitution. The binding of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin was saturable, and analysis revealed the presence of a single carotenoid-binding site. The dissociation constants (Kd) for actin prepared from 2.5 kg FW (Fresh Weight) fish were 1.04 ± 0.13 μg carotenoid per milligram of actin and 0.54 ± 0.11 μg/mg for astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, respectively. The saturation binding level (Bmax) for astaxanthin was 1.39 ± 0.07 μg/mg and 1.04 ± 0.08 μg/mg for canthaxanthin. These values were higher for F-actin prepared from organic and small (~0.5 kg FW) salmon than for non-organic and larger, mature fish. The structural specificity of carotenoid binding revealed a preference for carotenoids that possess a keto group at C-4 on the β end group of the molecule, but the presence of hydroxyl groups at C-3 or C-4 reduced overall binding efficiency. The study suggests that the ability of myofibrillar proteins to bind carotenoids is not a limiting factor governing the deposition of carotenoids in the muscle of salmonids.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:30:24.446525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12504
       
  • Processing of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus cells for dietary inclusion
           and optimal pigmentation in Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss L.
    • Authors: A.J. Young; J. Pritchard, D. White, S. Davies
      Pages: 1304 - 1311
      Abstract: A range of physical cell disruption techniques have been evaluated to aid the processing of astaxanthin-rich haematocysts of Haematococcus pluvialis for inclusion in salmonid feeds. Cell disruption by a scalable pressure treatment system was shown to be effective in breaking open the haematocysts without altering the content or isomeric composition of carotenoids in the algal cells. Storage of disrupted cells was optimal at −20°C in the dark under nitrogen. Disrupted cells were spray-dried, incorporated into commercial diets and fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss L.). A marketable level of pigmentation in fish muscle was achieved after 10-week dietary supplementation. The geometric and optimal isomer composition of the astaxanthin deposited in the muscle was nearly identical to that seen in Haematococcus. Changes were observed in the chirality of the astaxanthin deposited in the skin in comparison with that isolated from both the white muscle and the alga.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T05:05:32.844842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12505
       
  • Growth performance and digestion improvement of juvenile sea cucumber
           Apostichopus japonicus fed by solid-state fermentation diet
    • Authors: J.-h. Wang; H. Guo, T.-r. Zhang, H. Wang, B.-n. Liu, S. Xiao
      Pages: 1312 - 1318
      Abstract: In this study, the compound probiotics including Pseudoalteromonas. Sp D11, Bacillus subtilis A142, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y23 and Lactobacillus plantarum L54 were applied for solid-state fermenting the artificial diet of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The quality of solid-state fermented (SSF) feed and its potential effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities were investigated. The results showed that, compared to unfermented diet, SSF feed had a better palatability quality; meanwhile, a higher ratio of crude protein, free amino acids and reducing sugars and a lower ratio of crude fibre, crude ash and alginic acid were found in SSF feed. The results of the feeding trial showed that feeding SSF feed could improve growth performance of sea cucumbers more than those fed with the unfermented diet. The results of digestive enzyme assays showed that feeding SSF feed to animals could significantly improve activities of amylase, cellulase, alginic acid enzyme and protease, which implied that fermented feed could improve digestibility of A. japonicus. In summary, the SSF feed fermented by compound probiotics had better palatability and nutrition value than unfermented feed. And feeding SSF feed could significantly improve the growth performance and digestion ability for sea cucumbers in the phases of nursery and grow-out.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:20:25.443436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12506
       
  • Evaluation of ingredient combinations from differing origins (fishmeal,
           terrestrial animal and plants) and two different formulated nutrient
           targets on rainbow trout growth and production efficiency
    • Authors: T.G. Gaylord; W.M. Sealey, F.T. Barrows, C.A. Myrick, G. Fornshell
      Pages: 1319 - 1328
      Abstract: A 12-week trial was performed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) utilizing combinations of ingredients at two nutrient targets. Ingredient combinations were fishmeal-based diet (FMD), animal product-based diet (APD), plant product-based diet (PPD), novel plant-based diet (NPD) and potential future plant-based diet (FPD). Two nutrient concentrations were targeted: 1) to meet published amino acid targets for rainbow trout utilizing approximately 450 g/kg crude protein (400–420 g/kg digestible protein) and 2) to meet the amino acid targets based on ideal amino acid balance of trout muscle for Lys, Met and Thr utilizing approximately 400 g/kg crude protein (370–380 g/kg digestible protein). Interactive effects between ingredient combination and nutrient concentration occurred across all response variables. When diets were formulated to Target 1, fish consuming FMD and APD displayed better weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) than plant-based diet, while graded effects were found within the plant-based treatments. When differing ingredient combinations were utilized and formulated to Target 2, fish grew equally well except for the NPD treatment which supported lower growth and higher FCR. Based on the data from the current experiment, one can completely remove fishmeal from trout feeds and reduce protein levels when dietary digestible amino acids are balanced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:15:28.294998-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12507
       
  • Effects of dietary copper nanoparticles and vitamin C supplementations on
           growth performance, immune response and stress resistance of red sea
           bream, Pagrus major
    • Authors: M.F. El Basuini; A.M. El-Hais, M.A.O. Dawood, A.E.-S. Abou-Zeid, S.Z. EL-Damrawy, M.M.E.-S. Khalafalla, S. Koshio, M. Ishikawa, S. Dossou
      Pages: 1329 - 1340
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and vitamin C (VC) on red sea bream. Besides the control diet (D1), six diets were supplemented with Cu-NPs and VC [0/800 (D2), 0/1,000 (D3), 0/1,200 (D4), 2/800 (D5), 2/1,000 (D6) and 2/1,200 (D7) mg Cu-NPs/VC per kg]. Cu-NP was a significant factor on final weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI), feed (FER) and protein efficiency ratios (PER), protein gain (PG) and protein retention (PR), body protein and lipid contents, protease (PA) and bactericidal activities (BA) and tolerance against stress (LT50%) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:10:43.368314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12508
       
  • Effect of dietary leucine on growth performance, hemolymph and
           hepatopancreas enzyme activities of swimming crab, Portunus
           trituberculatus
    • Authors: Y.-W. Huo; M. Jin, P. Sun, Y.-M. Hou, Y. Li, H. Qiu, Q.-C. Zhou
      Pages: 1341 - 1350
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary leucine requirement for juvenile swimming crabs reared in cement pools. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic practical diets (430 g/kg crude protein and 70 g/kg crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded leucine levels which ranged from 16.7 to 26.7 g/kg (dry weight). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 60 juvenile swimming crabs (initial average weight 3.75 ± 0.12 g) that were stocked in rectangle plastic baskets. The results of the present study indicated that dietary leucine levels significantly influenced weight gain (WG) and specific growth ratio (SGR) (p  .05). Total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose in serum were significantly affected by the dietary leucine levels. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase activities in hemolymph, AST and superoxide dismutase activities in hepatopancreas were significantly affected by dietary leucine levels; moreover, crab fed the 16.7 g/kg leucine diet had higher malondialdehyde in hemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Crab fed the diet containing 24.9 g/kg leucine had higher phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph than those fed the other diets. Based on two-slope broken-line model of SGR against dietary leucine levels, the optimal dietary leucine requirement for growth was estimated to be 22.1 g/kg of the dry diet (corresponding to 51.4 g/kg of dietary protein on a dry weight basis). In summary, findings of this study indicated that dietary leucine could improve growth performance and antioxidant status.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:25:25.61554-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12509
       
  • A new approach to fishery waste revalorization to enhance Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus) digestion process
    • Authors: Y.E. Rodriguez; N.A. Pereira, N.S. Haran, J.C. Mallo, A.V. Fernández-Gimenez
      Pages: 1351 - 1361
      Abstract: The main goal of this research was to analyse in vitro compatibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) digestive proteinases and enzymes recovered from species comprising fishery waste as Pleoticus muelleri, Artemesia longinaris and Patagonotothen ramsayi. It evaluated the use of exogenous enzymes as feed supplements to increase digestion efficiency in tilapia fingerlings and juveniles (3.5 ± 0.11 g and 11.6 ± 1.5 g, respectively). We successfully have obtained proteinases from fishery waste as source of exogenous enzymes. P. muelleri and A. longinaris enzymes had more activity of acid and alkaline proteinases than P. ramsayi. SDS-PAGE gels demonstrated that Nile tilapia digestive proteinases keep their activity when combined with each exogenous proteinase. Exogenous enzymes varied in their ability to enhance hydrolysis of different feed ingredients. P. muelleri by-products are the best candidates to be employed as feed supplements for tilapia juveniles. Enzymes from this by-product did not affect the activity and integrity of fish digestive enzymes, improved the hydrolysis of different protein sources (fish meal, squid meal, shrimp meal and soybean meal), and maintained its activity after being exposed to high temperatures and acid pHs. Our findings are applicable to other places where O. niloticus is raised utilizing local fishery waste, and also to different cultured species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:50:27.597176-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12510
       
  • Aloysia triphylla essential oil as food additive for Rhamdia quelen –
           Stress and antioxidant parameters
    • Authors: C.C. Zeppenfeld; E.M.H. Saccol, T.S. Pês, J. Salbego, G. Koakoski, A.C. Santos, B.M. Heinzmann, M.A. Cunha, L.J.G. Barcellos, M.A. Pavanato, B.O. Caron, B. Baldisserotto
      Pages: 1362 - 1367
      Abstract: We examined the effects of dietary supplementation for 21 days with different levels (0, 0.25 and 2.0 ml/kg) of the Aloysia triphylla essential oil (EOAT) on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Cortisol levels were lower in fish fed EOAT at 2.0 ml/kg diet, and lactate levels were lower in those fed at both doses. Glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride levels did not vary between groups. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxide, superoxide dismutase, catalase and non-protein thiols, were lower in the brain, liver and muscle of fish fed EOAT at 2.0 ml EO/kg diet. Glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, plasma Na+, Cl−, and K+, and gill Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase did not vary between groups. Taken together, our results clearly indicate that the addition of EOAT at 2.0 ml/kg diet improves oxidative status and lowers the stress response in silver catfish.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:15:31.26356-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12511
       
  • Digestibility of nutrients and energy in ingredients for bullfrogs during
           different phases of development
    • Authors: C.F.M. Mansano; B.I. Macente, T.M.T. Nascimento, D.F.H. Pinto, M.M. Pereira, M.V. De Stéfani
      Pages: 1368 - 1378
      Abstract: The ability of frogs to digest dietary nutrients changes with growth, with the animals becoming more or less demanding. The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, energy and ether extract of 14 ingredients used in bullfrog diets (spray-dried blood meal, hydrolysed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, red blood cell concentrate, tilapia by-product meal, sardine fishmeal, salmon fishmeal, meat and bone meal, corn gluten meal, soybean meal, corn, wheat bran, soy protein concentrate and soybean oil). A total of 2,325 bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) in different phases of development were used: early phase (mean weight of 30–50 g), growth phase (80–110 g) and finishing phase (150–200 g). Faeces were collected using the method of dissection. Marked differences in digestibility of the ingredients were observed between the different phases of frog development. Among the ingredients studied, salmon fishmeal and corn gluten meal showed good utilization of the protein (78.9% and 86.7%, respectively) and energy fraction (89.4% and 83.3%, respectively). The salmon fishmeal, poultry by-product meal, sardine fishmeal, soy protein concentrate, wheat bran and soybean oil exhibited good ether extract utilization (81.2%–92.8%), recommending their use in bullfrog diets.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:40:22.80889-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12512
       
  • Fish meal replacement by soy protein from soymilk in the diets of red sea
           bream (Pagrus major)
    • Authors: A. Biswas; H. Araki, T. Sakata, T. Nakamori, K. Kato, K. Takii
      Pages: 1379 - 1389
      Abstract: Six isoenergetic diets were formulated as follows: fish meal (FM) 700 g kg–1 (control, C), FM 300 g kg–1 + soy protein concentrate 300 g kg–1 (SPC), FM 300 g kg–1 + enzyme-treated SPC 300 g kg–1 (ESC), FM 170 g kg–1 + soy protein isolate 300 g kg–1 (SPI), FM 160 g kg–1 + enzyme-treated SPI 300 g kg–1 (ESI) and FM 150 g kg–1 + conglycinin 300 g kg–1(CG). Forty fish (3.9 g) were randomly distributed into each of eighteen 300-L tanks, fed twice daily until satiation for 8 weeks. The final body weight, specific growth rate and condition factor did not show significant differences among the fish fed with diets C, SPC, ESC and ESI (p > .05). The survival was significantly lower in fish fed with diets SPI and CG. Feed efficiency was significantly higher in fish fed with diets SPC and C than in fish fed with other diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:50:38.544505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12513
       
  • Nucleoside by-product dietary supplementation influences blood chemistry,
           immune response, oxidative stress resistance and intestinal morphology of
           juvenile amberjack, Seriola dumerili
    • Authors: M.S. Hossain; S. Koshio, M. Ishikawa, S. Yokoyama, N.M. SONY, T. Fujieda
      Pages: 1390 - 1400
      Abstract: We explored the influence of nucleoside by-products (NBP) on blood chemistry, immune response, oxidative stress and intestinal morphology of Seriola dumerili. Four experimental diets were formulated where diets 1–3 are semipurified and supplemented with liquid NBP at concentration of 0 (D1, negative control), 30 (D2) and 90 (D3) g/kg. Diet 4 (D4) is a fishmeal-based positive control diet. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish for 50 days. The results revealed a significant influence of NBP supplementations on total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and triglyceride level. Lysozyme activity (LA), total serum protein (TSP) and peroxidase activity (PA) also increased with NBP supplementation as compared to the negative control. TSP, PA and LA were numerically higher in diet groups D2 and D4, respectively. Anterior enterocyte height (hE) was higher in diet group D4, while NBP-supplemented groups showed intermediate values with D1 group and negative control group showed significantly lowest value. Supplementation of NBP also increased anterior fold height (hF) and microvillus height and posterior hF, hE and microvillus height compared with D1. Finally, we concluded that NBP can be used as a cheaper nucleotide/nucleoside source for amberjack. Supplementation of more than 30 g/kg in diets improved blood chemistry, non-specific immunity, oxidative stress resistance and intestinal morphology of amberjack.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T02:25:25.773189-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12514
       
  • Effects of Pediococcus pentosaceus supplementation on growth performance,
           intestinal microflora and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus
           vannamei
    • Authors: M. Adel; S. Yeganeh, M.A.O. Dawood, R. Safari, S. Radhakrishnan
      Pages: 1401 - 1409
      Abstract: Litopenaeus vannamei is economically important shrimp species in worldwide aquaculture. This study was conducted to assess the effect of different levels of probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus (PP) on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal microflora count and body composition of L. vannamei. Four diets containing different concentrations [0 (PP0), 106 (PPI), 107 (PPII) and 108 (PPIII) CFU/g] of PP were formulated. After 8 weeks feeding trial, the experimental shrimps were challenged with Vibrio anguillarum and noted the surveillance. At the end of the feeding trial, the obtained results revealed a significant increase (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:45:35.247729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12515
       
  • Dietary niacin requirement of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama
           amblycephala based on a dose–response study
    • Authors: X.-F. Li; T.-J. Wang, Y. Qian, G.-Z. Jiang, D.-D. Zhang, W.-B. Liu
      Pages: 1410 - 1417
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the optimal dietary niacin requirement of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish, with an average weight of 3.62 ± 0.02 g, were randomly divided into six groups and fed six purified diets with graded levels of niacin (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg) three times daily for 8 weeks. The survival rate, weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency and protein retention all significantly improved (p  .05) with further increases in niacin levels. The supplementation of 30 mg/kg niacin also led to a significant (p  .05) but exerted a significant (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:20:25.74478-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12516
       
  • Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth performance,
           hemolymph indices and fillet organoleptic properties of juvenile
           narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus Eschscholtz,
           1823
    • Authors: O. Safari; M. Paolucci
      Pages: 1418 - 1428
      Abstract: A 18-week feeding trial was carried out under controlled conditions to compare the effects of onion powder (OP) at six levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/kg) on the growth performance, nutritional efficiency indices, hemolymph indices and fillet organoleptic properties of juvenile (5.62 ± 0.39 g) crayfish. The significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:50:44.276077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12517
       
  • Effects of replacing fishmeal with different cottonseed meals on growth,
           feed utilization, haematological indexes, intestinal and liver morphology
           of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)
    • Authors: F. Bian; H. Zhou, G. He, C. Wang, H. Peng, X. Pu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, K. Mai
      Pages: 1429 - 1439
      Abstract: A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fishmeal with two differently processed cottonseed meals (CSM), namely XC and SC, separately in turbot (5.28 ± 0.02 g). Nine isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated without fishmeal replacement (FM), 150 g/kg (XC15, SC15), 250 g/kg (XC25, SC25), 350 g/kg (XC35, SC35) and 450 g/kg (XC45, SC45) of fishmeal replaced by CSM. Fishmeal was successfully replaced by XC in turbot diets without growth reduction at 350 g/kg, but not by SC even at 150 g/kg. The apparent digestibility coefficients of SC-included diets were significantly lower than XC-included diets at same replacement level. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and superoxide dismutase were significantly affected in XC45 and SC45 group. The XC45 and SC-included diets caused shortened distal intestine villi height and structural damage of liver compared with FM diet. This study indicated that different processing methods could affect the nutritional value of CSM and effect as a protein source for turbot. CSM with high quality could be an important alternative dietary protein source for juvenile turbot.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:52:46.341631-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12518
       
  • The performance of microbial flocs produced with aquaculture waste as food
           for Artemia
    • Authors: G.Z. Luo; M.L. Yao, H.X. Tan, W.H. Wu
      Pages: 1440 - 1448
      Abstract: The performance of microbial flocs as food for Artemia, which were produced using waste from a recirculating aquaculture system stocking European eel (Anguilla anguilla), was investigated in an 18-day feeding trial. Four dietary treatments were used: Chlorella only (diet 1), flocs only (diet 2), and both Chlorella and flocs offered as mixed diets in different proportions (diets 3 and 4). The survival rate of Artemia fed diets 1 and 4 were significantly higher than those fed diets 2 and 3. The survival rate of Artemia fed diet 4 was the highest among the four diets. Individual length (10.02 ± 2.44 mm) and biomass production of diet 3 (3.2 ± 0.40 g L–1) were the highest among the four diets. The crude protein contents for Artemia fed diets 2, 3 and 4 were 591.22 ± 30.15, 580.34 ± 22.42 and 533.27 ± 34.19 g kg–1, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of diet 1 (461.25 ± 10.33 g kg–1). The concentrations of free amino acids and the fatty acid compositions in the four diets were equal, except for the C24:0 content. The highly unsaturated fatty acid concentration of Artemia fed diet 2 was higher than those of the other three diets. It showed that microbial flocs produced from fish waste can be used for Artemia.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:30:28.113607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12519
       
  • Effects of dietary n-3 long-chain unsaturated fatty acid on growth
           performance, lipid deposition, hepatic fatty acid composition and
           health-related serum enzyme activity of juvenile Japanese seabass
           Lateolabrax japonicus
    • Authors: H. Xu; J. Du, S. Li, K. Mai, W. Xu, Q. Ai
      Pages: 1449 - 1457
      Abstract: Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth performance, lipid deposition, hepatic fatty acid composition and serum enzyme activities of juvenile Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (initial mean weight 29.2 ± 1.34 g). Triplicate groups of 30 Japanese seabass were fed with six diets containing grade levels of n-3 LC-PUFA (1.30, 2.98, 5.64, 10.31, 14.51, 24.13 g kg–1 of dry weight) to apparent satiation twice daily for 9 weeks. The specific growth rate (SGR) was the highest in 10.31 g kg–1 dietary n-3 LC-PUFA group. Crude lipid content of the fish decreased significantly with increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA. Meanwhile, the hepatic lipid content increased significantly in the 24.13 g kg–1 group. Hepatic n-3 LC-PUFA content of total fatty acids was closely correlated with that in diet. No significant difference was observed in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Moderate n-3 LC-PUFA level (10.31 g kg–1 of dry weight) in the diet was beneficial to enhance the activity of lysozyme in serum. Based on SGR, the optimum dietary n-3 LC-PUFA content was estimated to be around 10.94 g kg–1 of dry weight by second-order polynomial regression method.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:15:28.72977-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12520
       
  • Growth performance, body composition and metabolic response to feeding
           rates in juvenile Brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis
    • Authors: M.F. Baloi; F.C. Sterzelecki, J.K. Sugai, G. Passini, C.V.A. Carvalho, V.R. Cerqueira
      Pages: 1458 - 1466
      Abstract: A 6-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding rate on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites and enzyme activities, and to determine the optimal feeding rate for juvenile Brazilian sardine. Fish were fed at six feeding rates, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% BWday−1 (body weight per day) and until satiation (10.3% BWday−1). The survival of fish fed at 2%–6%BWday−1 was significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:40:24.083734-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12521
       
  • Nigella sativa seed protects against 4-nonylphenol-induced haematotoxicity
           in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): Oxidant/antioxidant rebalance
    • Authors: N.S. Abou Khalil; M. Abd-Elkareem, A.H. Sayed
      Pages: 1467 - 1474
      Abstract: 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is an emerging concern contaminant which is widely spread in the aquatic ecosystem. Nigella sativa seed (NSS) has multifaceted therapeutic values. This study aimed to give insight into the potential protective effect of NSS on NP-induced haematotoxicity in Clarias gariepinus through evaluation of haematological parameters, oxidant/antioxidant balance of blood lysate and histopathological investigation of blood smear. One hundred and fifty fish were divided into five groups (30/group). First group served as control which did not received NP exposure and fed basal diet without NSS supplementation. The other four groups were exposed to NP at a dose of 0.1 mg L−1 and fed diets supplemented with NSS at levels of 0, 10, 25 and 50 g/kg diet, respectively. Macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis and eosinophilia were observed following NP exposure together with increase in morphological erythrocyte alterations and micronuclei formation. Elevation in total peroxide and malondialdehyde and depletion in total antioxidant capacity of blood lysate were reported. We concluded that supplementation of NSS markedly ameliorated the previously listed manifestations, and the most effective doses were 25 and 50 g/kg feed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:55:28.920821-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12522
       
  • Effect of dietary iron (Fe) levels on growth performance, hepatic lipid
           metabolism and antioxidant responses in juvenile yellow catfish
           Pelteobagrus fulvidraco
    • Authors: Z. Luo; G.-Y. Zou, Y. Gao, H.-M. Ye, W.-Q. Xi, X. Liu
      Pages: 1475 - 1482
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary Fe levels on growth performance, hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant response for juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing Fe levels of 16.20, 34.80, 54.50, 76.44, 100.42 and 118.25 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with dietary Fe levels from 16.20 to 54.50 mg/kg diet and then plateaued over the level. Feed conversion rate (FCR) was highest and protein efficiency rate (PER) was lowest for fish fed the lowest Fe levels of diet. Fe contents in whole body and liver increased with increasing dietary Fe levels. Hepatic lipid content was lowest, but mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were highest for fish fed 54.50 mg Fe/kg diet. Fish fed adequate dietary Fe levels reduced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and GS. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of WG against dietary Fe levels, optimal dietary Fe requirement for yellow catfish was 55.73 mg Fe/kg diets. Fe-induced changes in MDA levels and antioxidant enzymatic activities paralleled with the change in hepatic lipid content, suggesting the potential relationship between oxidative stress and hepatic lipid accumulation in yellow catfish.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:40:35.115254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12523
       
  • Establishing the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for
           silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles by deletion method
    • Authors: J.G. Marammazi; M. Yaghoubi, O. Safari, H. Peres, M.T. Mozanzadeh
      Pages: 1483 - 1491
      Abstract: A 6-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid (EAA) pattern for silvery-black porgy juvenile based on the AA deletion method. Eleven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing 60% of fish meal nitrogen and 40% of crystalline AA nitrogen. In the control diet, the EAA profile was made similar to fish meal protein. Ten other diets were formulated similar to the control diet but replacing 40% of each EAA by a mixture of non-essential amino acids. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 4.7 g) were handfed with the experimental diets, three times a day, to visual satiation, for 42 days. At the end of the trial, final body weight of all EAA-deficient groups was lower than that of control group, ranging from 6.3% of reduction with arginine-deficient diet to 39.4% of reduction with lysine-deficient diet, relatively to the control group. Based on the relationship between nitrogen retention and EAA intake of the control and EAA-deficient diets, the optimal dietary EAA profile for silvery-black porgy juveniles was estimated to be (g 16/g N): arginine 5.3, lysine 6.0, threonine 5.2, histidine 2.5, isoleucine 4.6, leucine 5.4, methionine + cysteine 4.0 (in a diet containing 0.6 cysteine), phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.6 (in a diet containing 1.9 tyrosine), tryptophan 1.0 and valine 4.6.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:50:36.39596-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12524
       
  • Effect of ginger and its nanoparticles on growth performance, cognition
           capability, immunity and prevention of motile Aeromonas septicaemia in
           Cyprinus carpio fingerlings
    • Authors: F.M.M. Korni; F. Khalil
      Pages: 1492 - 1499
      Abstract: Novel study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of ginger (GN) and its nanoparticles (GNNP) on growth, cognition, immunity and prevention of motile Aeromonas septicaemia (MAS) in Cyprinus carpio fingerlings. Fish were divided into five groups fed diet 1 (control; no additives), diet 2 (0.5 g of GN), 3 (1 g of GN), 4 (0.5 g of GNNP) and 5 (1 g of GNNP) per kg feed for 30 days. In the behavioural test, fish were individually placed in a foraging maze to evaluate their cognition capability and feeding behaviour. At the end of feeding period, fish fed GN and GNNP showed significant better final weight than the controls. GN and GNNP significantly increased total protein, globulin and lysozyme, whereas 1 g GNNP group was the highest. One gram of GN, 0.5 g and 1 g GNNP enhanced cognition capability, while GN and GNNP increased percentage of fish fed in the maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase was significantly decreased than control in 1 g GN group. GNNP succeeded in the prevention of MAS more than GN, because no mortalities and 100% relative percentage survival (RPS) were detected in 1 and 0.5 g GNNP and 1 g GN per kg feed, while fish fed 0.5 g GN showed 20% mortalities and 71.4 RPS.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:05:39.061109-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12526
       
 
 
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