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Publisher: John Wiley and Sons   (Total: 1592 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1592 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 22)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 91)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.547, h-index: 30)
ACEP NOW     Free   (Followers: 1)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 88)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 9)
Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 41)
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 74)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 81)
Acta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Acta Paediatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.794, h-index: 88)
Acta Physiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 88)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.518, h-index: 113)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 29)
Acute Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.086, h-index: 143)
Addiction Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.091, h-index: 57)
Adultspan J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 6.411, h-index: 86)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.81, h-index: 81)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.21, h-index: 203)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 7)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279, SJR: 9.021, h-index: 345)
Advanced Materials Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 10)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.488, h-index: 21)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.729, h-index: 121)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 31)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 17)
African J. of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 39)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 66)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.374, h-index: 95)
Agribusiness : an Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.627, h-index: 14)
Agricultural and Forest Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.925, h-index: 43)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
AIChE J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 120)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 125)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.833, h-index: 138)
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Symposium Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.048, h-index: 129)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Anthropologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 61)
American Business Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 17)
American Ethnologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 51)
American J. of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 26)
American J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.761, h-index: 77)
American J. of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 58)
American J. of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.993, h-index: 85)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.115, h-index: 61)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 107)
American J. of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.315, h-index: 79)
American J. of Physical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 88)
American J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 296, SJR: 5.101, h-index: 114)
American J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 63)
American J. of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.347, h-index: 75)
American J. of Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.792, h-index: 140)
American J. on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.843, h-index: 57)
Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.404, h-index: 88)
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 18)
Analytic Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: J. of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 27)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 24)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 45)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 14)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Angewandte Chemie Intl. Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 6.229, h-index: 397)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.576, h-index: 62)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 67)
Animal Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.569, h-index: 24)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.46, h-index: 40)
Annals of Anthropological Practice     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, h-index: 5)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 56)
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.191, h-index: 67)
Annals of Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.584, h-index: 241)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 38)
Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 23)
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.389, h-index: 189)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, h-index: 31)
Anthropology & Humanism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 3)
Anthropology News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 5)
Anthropology of Work Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 5)
Anthropology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 0.545, h-index: 15)
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Anz J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.432, h-index: 59)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.855, h-index: 73)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 69)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.632, h-index: 58)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 1.023, h-index: 64)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 13)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 24)
Aquaculture Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 55)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 60)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.047, h-index: 57)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 21)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 18)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.809, h-index: 48)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 9)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 43)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.768, h-index: 54)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 57)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267, SJR: 0.153, h-index: 13)
Arthritis & Rheumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.984, h-index: 20)
Arthritis Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 114)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 60)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific J. of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.494, h-index: 19)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 26)
Asia-Pacific J. of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Asia-pacific J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 14)
Asia-Pacific J. of Financial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.241, h-index: 7)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 7)
Asian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 21)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Asian J. of Control     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.862, h-index: 34)
Asian J. of Endoscopic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 7)
Asian J. of Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.443, h-index: 19)
Asian J. of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 37)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 7)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 15)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomische Nachrichten     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 27)
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.095, h-index: 66)
Austral Entomology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 28)
Australasian J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.714, h-index: 40)
Australasian J. On Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 22)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 28)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 14)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Family Therapy (ANZJFT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.382, h-index: 12)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 49)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 62)
Australian Dental J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 46)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 12)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.357, h-index: 21)
Australian Endodontic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 24)
Australian J. of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.765, h-index: 36)
Australian J. of Grape and Wine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 56)
Australian J. of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 14)
Australian J. of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 30)
Australian J. of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 29)
Australian J. of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 34)
Australian Occupational Therapy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 29)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 31)
Australian Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 45)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.126, h-index: 39)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.371, h-index: 29)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 70)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 4)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.54, h-index: 60)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.194, h-index: 5)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 11)
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 23)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 57)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 5)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 26)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, h-index: 64)
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine     Open Access  
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.104, h-index: 155)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 39)
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.725, h-index: 56)
Biological J. of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 90)
Biological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.469, h-index: 114)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 1)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.812, h-index: 69)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 49)
Biometrical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 44)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.906, h-index: 96)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 44)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.199, h-index: 104)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 55)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.633, h-index: 146)
Biotechnology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.185, h-index: 51)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.736, h-index: 101)
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.374, h-index: 71)
Bipolar Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.592, h-index: 100)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 64)
Birth Defects Research Part A : Clinical and Molecular Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 77)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 47)
Birth Defects Research Part C : Embryo Today : Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.513, h-index: 55)
BJOG : An Intl. J. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 248, SJR: 2.083, h-index: 125)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture Nutrition
  [SJR: 1.025]   [H-I: 55]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1353-5773 - ISSN (Online) 1365-2095
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Effects of different dietary vitamin E and astaxanthin levels on growth,
           fatty acid composition and coloration of the juvenile swimming crab,
           Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: T. Han; X.-Y Li, Y.-X. Yang, M. Yang, C.-L. Wang, J.-T. Wang
      Abstract: Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated containing two astaxanthin (AX; 0 and 90 mg/kg) and three vitamin E (VE) levels (0, 25 and 50 mg/kg). There were three replicates (18 crabs per replicate) for each treatment. Juvenile swimming crab (initial weight 31.65 ± 0.06 g/crab) were fed different diets for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, growth performance was not significantly affected by the different treatments. Crabs fed with AX-supplemented diets showed more redness. Whole body 22:6n-3, 22:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 levels increased with the dietary addition of AX (P = .009, P = .002 and p = .042, respectively). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of fresh/frozen hepatopancreas and frozen muscle were significantly decreased by the dietary AX supplementation (p 
      PubDate: 2018-02-14T05:36:07.285826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12662
  • Partial substitution of soybean meal with fermented soybean residue in
           diets for juvenile largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides
    • Authors: Y. Jiang; P.-F. Zhao, S.-M. Lin, R.-J. Tang, Y.-J. Chen, L. Luo
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented soybean residue (FSR) on growth performance, body composition and plasma biochemical parameters of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Soybean residue was fermented with a mixture of microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus spp. and Molasses yeast) using the solid-state fermentation. Four isonitrogenous (crude protein 430 g/kg) and isoenergetic (gross energy 18 MJ/kg) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (the control), 20, 40 and 60g/kg of protein from SBM with FSR (FSR0, FSR20, FSR40 and FSR60, respectively). Each diet was fed to four replicate groups of fish (initial body weight: 17.1 ± 0.19 g) for 12 weeks. Results showed that dietary FSR substitution significantly improved growth of juvenile largemouth bass. The weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio were all significantly improved by dietary FSR level up to 40g/kg substitution level (p 
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T06:10:45.643837-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12659
  • Effects of dietary zinc level on performance, zinc status, tissue
           composition and enzyme activities of juvenile Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser
           baerii (Brandt 1869)
    • Authors: K. Moazenzadeh; H. Rajabi Islami, A. Zamini, M. Soltani
      Abstract: This study conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary zinc (Zn) levels on feed utilization, tissue Zn composition and serum enzyme activities of juvenile Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii. Five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous semi-purified diets were formulated with increasing Zn sulphate (ZnSO4.5H2O) level to provide the actual Zn values of 14.7 (control), 20.8, 27.3, 37.7 and 46.4 mg/kg diet. Each diet was assigned to three groups of 20 experimental Siberian sturgeons with uniform size (initial weight of 26.52 ± 0.94 g) for a period of 8-week feeding trial. Results showed that growth performance and muscle protein content were significantly increased with increasing dietary Zn level up to 27.3 mg/kg (p  .05). Muscle lipid content significantly declined with increasing dietary Zn level. While muscle and serum Zn contents were not significantly changed among treatments (p > .05), liver Zn content tended to rise with increasing dietary Zn supplementation. Alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also raised with increasing dietary Zn level. The adequate amount of dietary Zn requirements for the Siberian sturgeon was estimated to be 28.24 mg/kg based on the relative growth rate and 34.60 mg/kg based on the liver Zn content.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T06:00:25.007216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12670
  • Effects of dietary selenium on growth performance and oxidative stress in
           juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus
    • Authors: L.W. Liu; X.-F. Liang, J. Li, J.G. Fang, X.C. Yuan, J. Li, M.S. Alam
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on feed intake, weight gain and antioxidant activity in juvenile grass carp (11.2 ± 0.03 g). Six Se levels (0.13, 0.41, 0.56, 1.12, 2.18 and 4.31 mg/kg) of semi-purified diets were assayed in triplicate. The maximum weight gain, specific growth rate and feed intake were obtained in fish fed with 1.12 mg Se/kg diet. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity was markedly increased when dietary Se ≤1.12 mg/kg diet and reached a plateau when dietary Se ≥1.12 mg/kg diet. Hepatic superoxide dismutase and serum catalase activities in juvenile grass carp fed with 0.56, 1.12 and 2.18 mg Se/kg diets were all significantly higher than those in the other groups. The malondialdehyde content in liver and serum was firstly decreased and then increased with increasing dietary Se content, and the lowest content was observed in fish fed with 1.12 mg Se/kg diet. With the increase in Se level, the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were reduced. In addition, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and albumin content were highest in fish fed with 1.12 mg Se/kg diet. This study indicated that both the Se deficiency and excess of Se caused negative effect on the oxidative stress in juvenile grass carp and suggested that the health-giving concentration of dietary inorganic Se was 1.12 mg/kg diet. Moreover, based on the broken-line regression analysis of weight gain, the optimal concentration of dietary inorganic Se was 0.83 mg/kg for juvenile grass carp.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25T05:10:20.727076-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12667
  • Apparent digestibility coefficients of processed agro-food by-products in
           European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles
    • Authors: I. Campos; E. Matos, C. Aragão, M. Pintado, L.M.P. Valente
      Abstract: Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of processed agro-food by-products were assessed in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Each experimental diet was obtained by replacing 300 g/kg of a commercial-based diet used as reference (REF) with a test ingredient: wheat germ (GERM), okara meal (OKA), poultry by-product meal (POULT), steam hydrolysed (FeHY) and enzyme-treated feather meal (FeENZ), beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and peptide fractions>3,000 Da obtained from brewer's yeast (YeastP) and fish by-products (FishP). Dry matter ADC was highest in β-Lg (95%) and lowest in OKA (40%). Protein ADCs were high in β-Lg, FishP, GERM and POULT (>93%); intermediate in FeHY and FeENZ (85%–88%); and moderate in OKA and YeastP (70%–78%). The essential amino acids' ADC mean was above 91% in POULT, β-Lg, GERM and FishP, 84%–89% in FeHY and FeENZ and 73%–76% in YeastP and OKA. Energy ADC was highest in POULT and β-Lg (89%–95%) and lowest in YeastP and OKA (61%–64%). Lipid ADC was highest for POULT and GERM (100%). Phosphorus ADC was lowest in GERM (19%) and highest in β-Lg (88%). FeHY, FeENZ, POULT, GERM, FishP and β-Lg are highlighted as protein sources for European seabass.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24T05:20:20.634955-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12665
  • Effects of detoxified Jatropha curcas protein isolate on growth
           performance, nutrient digestibility and physio-metabolic response of Labeo
           rohita fingerlings
    • Authors: F.J. Fawole; N.P. Sahu, N. Shamna, V. Phulia, B.O. Emikpe, A.A. Adeoye, A.Z. Aderolu, O.M. Popoola
      Abstract: Jatropha protein isolate was prepared following the principle of isoelectric precipitation. The isolated protein is low in fibre, lipid and ash, and high in protein and gross energy contents. The antinutritional factors such as phytic acid, tannin and trypsin inhibitor were found to decrease after protein extraction except phorbol esters (PEs), which remain bounded to the protein matrix. Thus, the protein isolate was detoxified and the PEs content reduced significantly. For the feeding trial, six isonitrogenous diets were formulated as DJP 0, DJP 25, DJP 50, DJP 75, DJP 100, or DJP 100 + lysine with detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJP) in replacement for soybean protein isolate (SPI) and fed to L. rohita fingerlings (3.25 ± 0.02 g) for 60 days. The weight gain percentage (WG %), specific growth rate and metabolic growth rate values among the groups showed no significant difference (p > .05), except DJP 100 fed group. The feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value, and survival, digestive and hepatic aminotransferase enzymes activities were not significantly affected, whereas intestinal alkaline phosphatase and serum alanine transaminase differ significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T23:40:26.136912-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12660
  • Antioxidant effects of nanoencapsulated lipoic acid in tissues and on the
           immune condition in haemolymph of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus
           vannamei (Boone, 1931)
    • Authors: Á.C. Silva Martins; J. Artigas Flores, C. Porto, L.A. Romano, W. Wasielesky Junior, S.S. Caldas, E.G. Primel, I. Külkamp-Guerreiro, J.M. Monserrat
      Abstract: The antioxidant and oxidative damage responses and immune parameters in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in clear water (CW) and in a biofloc system (BFT) were evaluated. The animals were given feed supplemented with either nanocapsules containing the antioxidant lipoic acid (NCLA) or empty nanocapsules (NC). Antioxidant and oxidative stress analyses were evaluated by measuring glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The immune parameters were then determined by the differential hemocyte count in the haemolymph. The final weight of the shrimp reared in both CW and BFT and treated with NCLA increased (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T06:20:23.274098-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12663
  • Developing a low fishmeal diet for juvenile Pacific white shrimp,
           Litopenaeus vannamei, using the nutritional value of FM as the reference
    • Authors: S. Xie; J. Niu, W. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Tian
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish-meal replacement on growth performance, antioxidative ability, immune capacity and haemolymph metabolites of Litopenaeus vannamei. A 250 g/kg fish-meal diet was used as control (Diet 1). Other two diets contained 100 g/kg fishmeal, Diet 2 was supplemented with three indispensable amino acids, and Diet 3 was supplemented with microbalance components and phytase. Weight gain was lower in shrimp fed the Diet 2 than shrimp fed the Diet 1. Feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and survival were higher in shrimp fed the Diet 1 than other groups. Glutathione and nitric oxide contents in haemolymph were decreased in shrimp fed the Diet 2, and nitric oxide synthetase, phenoloxidase, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities showed the similar tendency. In hepatopancreas, antioxidative ability and immune capacity also lower in shrimp fed the Diet 2. In haemolymph, 21 differential metabolites were identified, and 13 metabolism pathways were affected by different diets. Generally, the fishmeal inclusion level could be reduced from 250 g/kg to 100 g/kg without affecting the growth performance of L. vannamei, and meanwhile, the protein utilization efficiency and antioxidative ability of shrimp fed the low fishmeal diets should be more focused on in future studies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T06:15:27.865916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12657
  • Preliminary study to evaluate the effects of dietary bile acids on growth
           performance and lipid metabolism of juvenile genetically improved farmed
           tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed plant ingredient-based diets
    • Authors: M. Jiang; H. Wen, G.W. Gou, T.L. Liu, X. Lu, D.F. Deng
      Abstract: A 9-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BAs) on juvenile genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) (Oreochromis niloticus) based on the evaluations of growth performance and parameters relevant to lipid metabolism. Each of five vegetable protein-based diets containing BAs at a level of 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.45 or 1.35 g/kg diet was fed to three replicates with 40 fish (8.2 g per fish). The results showed that weight gain (WG) increased significantly with the increase in BAs from 0 to 0.15 g/kg diet and then decreased significantly at a higher BA supplementation. Dietary BAs significantly reduced the crude lipid content in the whole body, muscle and liver tissue of GIFT. Fish fed diet with 1.35 g BAs/kg diet developed serious nuclear migration and vacuolization in hepatocytes. Gall bladder appeared to contain white solid and has fragile capsules. Dietary BA supplementation had significant effects on serum biochemical indices and activities of lipid metabolism enzymes in liver and intestine. In conclusion, dietary bile acid supplementation (0.15 g/kg) can facilitate the lipid metabolism and therefore promote the growth of tilapia. However, overdosed dietary BAs induced gallstone development, disrupted lipid metabolism and depressed the growth performances of GIFT.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T06:12:25.587428-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12656
  • Evaluation of solid-state fermented protein concentrates as a fish meal
           replacer in the diets of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
    • Authors: M. Moniruzzaman; J.H. Bae, S.H. Won, S.J. Cho, K.H. Chang, S.C. Bai
      Abstract: We evaluated four fermented protein concentrates (FPCs) as a fish meal replacer in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Ten diets were formulated to contain low-temperature fish meal (LT-FM), Vietnam fish meal (VT-FM) and four types of FPCs as fish meal replacers (FPC-A, B, C & D) at 30% and 50% FM replacement levels. FPC-A was a mixture of solid-state fermented soybean meal (SBM) and corn gluten meal (CGM) with Bacillus subtilis; FPC-B was pretreated acid-hydrolysed FPC-A; FPC-C and FPC-D were FPC-A + 2% shrimp soluble extract (SSE) and FPC-B + 2% SSE, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish (average 15.4 g) were fed one of the experimental diets for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed the LT-FM, FPC-B, FPC-C and FPC-D diets showed significantly higher growth performance at 30% FM replacement than those of fish fed the FPC diets at 50% FM replacement. Fish fed 30FPC-B, 30FPC-C and 30FPC-D diets showed higher weight gain (WG) than fish fed 30FPC-A diet. Haematological parameters showed no clear trends among the experimental groups. Superoxide dismutase, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be higher in fish fed the LT-FM, FPC-A, FPC-B, FPC-C and FPC-D diets at 30% FM replacement than in fish fed the FPC diets at 50% FM replacement. Antinutritional factors such as α- and β-conglycinin, glycinin, trypsin inhibitors or zein were absent in FPC compared with SBM and CGM. Intestinal villi length and muscular thickness were significantly reduced in fish fed the VT-FM and FPC diets at 50% FM replacement compared to fish fed the LT-FM and FPC diets at 30% FM replacement. The results show that FPC-B, FPC-C, FPC-D could replace up to 30% of LT-FM in juvenile rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T06:11:02.311983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12658
  • Improved digestibility of plant ingredient-based diets for European
           seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) with exogenous enzyme supplementation
    • Authors: R. Magalhães; P. Díaz-Rosales, A.F. Diógenes, P. Enes, A. Oliva-Teles, H. Peres
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of supplementation of a plant ingredients-based diet with two levels of commercially digestive enzyme products: Synergen™ and Natugrain® on the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients and on digestive enzyme activities in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. A control diet was formulated with 450 g/kg CP (200 g/kg from fish meal + 800 g/kg from plant protein) and 180 g/kg CL (fish oil), and four other diets were made similar to the control but supplemented with 0.2 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg of Synergen™ and Natugrain®. Digestive enzyme activities were not affected by dietary treatments. Nevertheless, chyme pH along the intestine of fish fed the Natugrain®-supplemented diets was reduced. The ADC of nutrients increased with exogenous digestive enzyme supplementation, with the highest ADC values being observed for the 0.4 g/kg Natugrain® diet. The ADC of dry matter, protein, lipids, energy and phosphorus in this diet were 26%, 6%, 4%, 16% and 63% higher, respectively, than in the control diet. Overall, diet supplementation with exogenous enzyme complexes seems to have high potential for improving the utilization of plant feedstuff-rich diets for seabass juveniles. This study revealed that Natugrain® was more effective than Synergen™ in improving the ADC of nutrients and energy in European seabass juveniles.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T05:55:57.437367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12666
  • Cichlasoma dimerus responds to refeeding with a partial compensatory
           growth associated with an increment of the feed conversion efficiency and
           a rapid recovery of GH/IGFs axis
    • Authors: T.H. Delgadin; I. Simó, D.I. Pérez Sirkin, M.P. Di Yorio, S.E. Arranz, P.G. Vissio
      Abstract: Many fish species display compensatory growth (CG), a phenomenon by which fasted fish grow faster during refeeding. However, most studies use a group-housed fish approach that could be problematic in social fish when interaction between individuals is not considered or eliminated. Additionally, the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors’ (IGF-1 and IGF-2) axis is implicated in postnatal growth in vertebrates, but its relevance in CG is not fully understood. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether CG occurs in a social fish, Cichlasoma dimerus, using an individually held fish approach and secondly, to evaluate the GH/IGFs expression profile during refeeding by 3 days and 3 weeks. C. dimerus showed partial CG. The feed conversion efficiency (FCE) was higher in three-day-refed fish, which presented higher GH plasma and mRNA levels than controls but shown no differences in liver and muscle GH receptors (GHR1 and GHR2) and IGFs mRNA levels. Surprisingly, three-week-refed fish exhibited GHR1 and IGF-2 increments, but a reduction in GHR2 expression in muscle. These results show a strong association between GH levels, growth rate and FCE during refeeding, and a long-lasting effect of refeeding on muscular expression of GHRs and IGF-2.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T05:50:33.653556-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12661
  • Utilization of fermented soybean meal for fishmeal substitution in diets
           of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
    • Authors: N. Van Nguyen; L. Hoang, T. Van Khanh, P. Duy Hai, L. T. Hung
      Abstract: Two feeding experiments were carried out to evaluate the utilization of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The digestibility experiment was assessed with four diets: a reference diet and three ingredient test diets containing FSBM, local and Chilean fishmeal. The growth experiment was conducted including four isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets formulated to contain the graded levels of dietary fishmeal (0 g/kg, 150 g/kg, 300 g/kg and 450 g/kg) substituted by FSBM. The results indicated that ADCs of crude protein in FSBM were high (888.4 g/kg) and equal in local fishmeal but little lower than Chilean fishmeal while without any significant differences observed in ADCs of crude lipid among the different test ingredients. After 75 days of growth trial, survival rates and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different among the experimental treatments. However, shrimp fed the diets with increasing inclusions of FSBM had a tendency to reduce weight gain and specific growth rate. Based on the correlation between weight gain and substituted fishmeal level analysed by broken-line regression, the optimum level of fishmeal replaced by FSBM in diet was 253.6 g/kg without adverse effects on growth and feed utilization of Pacific white shrimp.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T00:06:06.132418-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12648
  • Effects of different arginine/lysine level on growth performance, body
           composition and digestive enzyme activity of Macrobrachium rosenbergii
    • Authors: X. J. Dong; J. Wu, Y. Shen, J. Y. Chen, S. Y. Miao, X. J. Zhang, L. S. Sun
      Abstract: Given the universal presence of antagonism between arginine and lysine, determining the optimal dietary arginine/lysine level is of great importance. In this study, eight diets were formulated to contain different arginine/lysine level, followed by a 9-week feeding trial with shrimps of 2.10 ± 0.01 cm in length and 0.38 ± 0.02 g in weight to determine the effect of dietary arginine/lysine level on growth performance, body composition and enzyme activity. The results showed that the Diet 6 (arginine/lysine level of 29.4/21.0 g/kg) group had significantly higher weight gain rate, and specific growth rate than the control group and most of the other groups (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-09T00:35:47.98399-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12649
  • Dietary histidine requirement of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama
    • Authors: O.-M. Wilson-Arop; H. Liang, X. Ge, M. Ren, H.-M. Habte-Tsion, K. Ji
      Abstract: An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary histidine requirement of juvenile blunt snout bream. The results showed that final body weight, weight gain rate and specific growth rate significantly increased with increasing dietary histidine levels up to 9.9 g/kg (p  .05). About 9.9 g/kg dietary histidine level significantly improved whole-body protein and lowered moisture content. The contents of plasma total protein, cholesterol, urea and triglyceride levels were not significantly affected by dietary histidine levels. About 9.9 g/kg dietary histidine level significantly upregulated target of rapamycin and insulin-like growth factor mRNA levels (p 
      PubDate: 2018-01-05T03:56:00.921992-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12651
  • Partial and total replacement of fishmeal by a blend of animal and plant
           proteins in diets for Seriola dumerili: Effects on performance and
           nutrient efficiency
    • Authors: R. Monge-Ortiz; A. Tomás-Vidal, F.J. Gallardo-Álvarez, G. Estruch, S. Godoy-Olmos, M. Jover-Cerdá, S. Martínez-Llorens
      Abstract: A 154-day trial was performed to assess the use of an alternative protein blend (corn gluten, krill and meat meal) as a substitute for fishmeal in diets for juvenile yellowtail, using four isolipidic (140 g/kg) and isoenergetic diets (24 MJ/kg) with the same digestible protein content (50%). The control diet was FM100, without replacement, and in FM66, FM33 and FM0, fishmeal was replaced at 33 g/kg, 66 g/kg and 100 g/kg, respectively. At the end of the experiment, no differences in growth parameters were observed. Fish fed the FM0 diet exhibited the lowest survival (23%). This high mortality may be due to different factors, such as a dietary amino acid imbalance or some antinutrient factors contained in the alternative ingredients. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, digestible protein intake and protein efficiency ratio were similar in all diets. However, digestible energy intake and protein efficiency retention were lowest in fish fed the FM0 diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients for protein, energy and amino acids diminished as a substitution for fishmeal increased. Significant differences were observed in the diet whole-fish body profile amino acid retention (AAR) ratio for the seven essential amino acids. In summary, total fishmeal replacement by the blend assayed was not feasible for yellowtail. The FM66 diet resulted in good growth, high survival and good nutrient efficiency.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05T00:35:34.654523-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12655
  • Effect of increased dietary protein level in meagre (Argyrosomus regius)
           juvenile growth and muscle cellularity
    • Authors: M. Saavedra; T.G. Pereira, A. Candeias-Mendes, L. Carvalho, P. Pousão-Ferreira, L.E.C. Conceição
      Abstract: In this study, two different dietary protein levels were tested (500 and 600 g/kg) in meagre juveniles of approximately 2 g, to determine whether a higher body protein diet would favour muscle growth. Results showed that meagre survival and growth were not affected by different levels of dietary protein. However, a higher content of protein was observed in the body composition of meagre fed the P60 diet (656 g/kg versus 624 g/kg). When fish were 82 days after hatched (DAH), protein retention efficiency was significantly higher in fish that were fed the P50 diet (37.1% versus 32.5%). Muscle cellularity changed considerably from the beginning to the end of the trial. The contribution of fibre hyperplasia to muscle growth was reduced although still accounted for 30% in 96 DAH meagre. Several differences were found in the frequency of fibres with areas between 1,000 μm2 and 2,200 μm2 between younger and older meagre, but no effect was found associated with dietary protein. This study suggests that neither growth nor muscle cellularity of fast-growing juvenile meagre is positively affected by an increased dietary protein levels.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03T23:40:41.506734-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12654
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T04:03:08.741963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12615
  • Effects of dietary geniposidic acid on growth performance, flesh quality
           and collagen gene expression of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella
    • Authors: W.T. Sun; X.Y. Xu, X.Q. Li, W.Q. Pan, X.J. Leng
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary geniposidic acid (GA) on growth performance, flesh quality and collagen gene expression of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish with an initial body weight of 47.1 ± 0.8 g were fed one of the seven diets, including control diet, Eucommia ulmoides (EU)-supplemented diet (20 g/kg) and GA-supplemented diets (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 mg/kg GA) for 75 days. The growth performance and muscle proximate composition showed no difference among groups (p > .05). Dietary GA (200–1,000 mg/kg) increased the contents of total collagen and alkaline-insoluble collagen in skin (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T23:20:41.573197-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12650
  • Fishmeal levels can be successfully reduced in white shrimp (Litopenaeus
           vannamei) if supplemented with DL-Methionine (DL-Met) or
           DL-Methionyl-DL-Methionine (Met-Met)
    • Authors: J.-J. Xie; A. Lemme, J.-Y. He, P. Yin, C. Figueiredo-Silva, Y.-J. Liu, S.-W. Xie, J. Niu, L.-X. Tian
      Abstract: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methionine supplementation when reducing fishmeal levels in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Tested diets consisted of a positive control with 260 g/kg fishmeal (D1), two negative controls with 100 g/kg fishmeal and no amino acid (AA) supplementation (D2) or supplemented with lysine but not methionine (D3), and four additional diets with 100g/kg fishmeal supplemented with increasing levels of DL-Met (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) (D4, D5, D6) or Met-Met (1.0 g/kg) (D7). Each diet was fed to four groups of 30 shrimp for 8 weeks at a daily rate of 70 g/kg body weight. Reduction in fishmeal from 260 g/kg down to 100 g/kg did not significantly affect survival rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) or protein retention efficiency (PR%) of white shrimp. However, growth performance (final body weight, FBW; weight gain, WG; specific growth rate, SGR) was reduced when dietary fishmeal level was reduced from 260 g/kg (D1) to 100 g/kg without methionine supplementation (D2). The growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR) of shrimp was significantly increased by supplementation of the 100 g/kg fishmeal diet with increasing levels of DL-Met (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T04:26:28.506266-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12653
  • Utilization of unprocessed and fibre-reduced oilseed cakes of rapeseed and
           sunflower seed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.)
           nutrition—Evaluation of apparent digestibility and growth performance
    • Authors: A.M. Greiling; R. Reiter, M. Rodehutscord
      Abstract: Two digestibility trials were carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for crude protein (CP), crude lipid (CL) and energy of unprocessed and two differently processed fibre-reduced rapeseed and sunflower seed oil cakes (sieved oilseed cakes and oilseed cakes produced from partially dehulled seeds) in rainbow trout (40 fish per tank; four tanks per diet). Each trial was followed by a 63-day growth trial, wherein the respective oilseed cakes with the highest ADCs were evaluated as fishmeal substitutes, based on digestible CP. Oilseed cakes of rapeseeds and sunflower seeds had low nutrient ADCs (Trial 1). Nonetheless, the protein in rapeseed cake was able to replace up to 10% of the fishmeal protein in a diet without negatively affecting performance traits (Trial 2). Fibre reduction increased the ADCs of both types of oilseed cakes substantially (Trial 3). However, when fish were fed diets with 0%, 25% and 50% fishmeal protein replaced with dehulled rapeseed or dehulled sunflower seed cake protein, performance traits decreased with increasing substitution levels (Trial 4). Nonetheless, the amount of fishmeal needed per unit weight gain was lower for all fish fed the diets containing either one of the dehulled oilseed cakes than for the reference diets.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T06:08:55.445099-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12652
  • An evaluation of increasing linolenic acid level in the diet of
           Macrobrachium nipponense: Lipid deposition, fatty acid composition and
           expression of lipid metabolism-related genes
    • Authors: N. Luo; Z.-L. Ding, Y.-Q. Kong, R.-F. Zhang, Y.-X. Zhang, C.-L. Wu, Z.-Q. Jiang, J.-Y. Ye
      Abstract: To determine the effects of linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3) in oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense), an 8-week feeding experiment was conducted using six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified diets containing 0.07 g/kg (control), 7.3 g/kg, 16.6 g/kg, 20.2 g/kg, 27.3 g/kg and 36.3 g/kg LNA. The hepatopancreas lipid content decreased significantly when dietary LNA content was>20.2 g/kg. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the percentage of 18:3n-3 in the hepatopancreas significantly increased with increasing dietary LNA levels, while 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels in the hepatopancreas decreased in a curvilinear manner as dietary LNA increased. Additionally, qRT-PCR results revealed that hepatopancreas mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) decreased with increasing dietary LNA, while the greatest carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1(CPT1) mRNA expression was observed in the 2.73 g/kg and 36.3 g/kg groups. Furthermore, hepatopancreas mRNA expression of acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase (SCD) and fatty acyl elongase 6(elovl6) was downregulated when prawns fed the diets containing>20.2 g/kg LNA. These results indicate that dietary 18:3n-3 could decrease lipid deposition through increased fatty acid β-oxidation and modulated fatty acid synthesis, and alter fatty acid composition by regulating fatty acyl elongase and fatty acyl desaturase mRNA expression in the M. nipponense.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T03:41:32.688856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12604
  • Effect of dietary synbiotic on growth performance, body composition,
           digestive enzyme activity and gut microbiota in Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.)
    • Authors: P. Kumar; K. K. Jain, P. Sardar, M. Jayant, N. C. Tok
      Abstract: A feeding trial of 60 days was conducted to delineate the effect of dietary synbiotic on maximum growth, body composition, digestive enzyme activity and subsequently gut microbiota in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. One hundred and eighty acclimatized fingerlings of mrigal with initial body weight ranging from 2.87 ± 0.01 g to 3.26 ± 0.05 g were randomly distributed in three replicates of each of four experimental groups including control (without probiotic and prebiotic), T1 (high probiotic + low prebiotic), T2 (low probiotic + high prebiotic) and T3 (high probiotic + high prebiotic), using completely randomized design (CRD). Results showed that growth performance parameters, such as specific growth rate (SGR), per cent weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER), were reported to be higher in the T2 group followed by the T3 group. Maximum gut microbiota activity was found in the T3 group which was significantly different from other treatment groups. Similarly, body composition and digestive enzyme activity varied significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T00:10:31.393116-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12628
  • The effect of varying dietary digestible protein and digestible
           non-protein energy sources on growth, nutrient utilization efficiencies
           and body composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio) evaluated with a
           two-factorial central composite study design
    • Authors: M.C. Heinitz; C. Figueiredo Silva, C. Schulz, A. Lemme
      Abstract: To determine optimized dietary nutrient supply for common carp (Cyprinus carpio), nine isoenergetic diets were formulated according to a two-factorial central composite design on digestible basis. Digestible protein contents (DP) in diets ranged from 208.8 to 251.2 g/kg, and digestible fat-to-digestible carbohydrate energy ratios (DEF/DEC) varied from 0.79 to 1.21. Carp were fed four times a day at a daily feeding rate of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 56 days. Optima of responses were determined by applying the standard least squares method according to response surface methodology. All diets resulted in excellent performance with feed conversion ratios lower than 1 and digestible protein efficiency ratios (PERdig) higher than 4.6. For most parameters, calculated extreme values were minimum points, except for FCR, retention efficiencies of digestible arginine (RetArgdig) and of digestible methionine (RetMetdig), being maximum points, and retention efficiencies of digestible isoleucine, digestible sulphuric amino acids and digestible lysine, being saddle points. Highest growth and feed utilization efficiency were graphically determined for a diet containing 208.8 g/kg DP/1.21 DEF/DEC. Body lipid was optically increased for 251.2 g/kg DP/0.79 DEF/DEC in comparison with 208.8 g/kg DP/1.21 DEF/DEC.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T02:06:04.700765-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12601
  • Effect of dietary bile acids on growth, body composition, lipid metabolism
           and microbiota in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: J.S. Zhou; H.J. Chen, H. Ji, X.C. Shi, X.X. Li, L.Q. Chen, Z.Y. Du, H.B. Yu
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BA) on growth and metabolism of lipid in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, C. idella) at high dietary lipid level, a basal diet (50 g kg–1 lipid, 5L group) was supplemented with 20 g kg–1 soybean oil (70 g kg–1 lipid, 7L group); then, 0.06 g/kg BA was added in 7L diet to form the third diet (7L+BA group). The 96 C. idella (69.86 ± 6.24 g) were divided into three groups (duplicate per group) and fed three diets, respectively, for 8 weeks, and then, growth and lipid metabolism were determined. Results showed that growth of fish in 7L+BA group was significantly higher than 5L and 7L groups. The lipid level in whole body, hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp in 7L+BA group were significantly lower than 7L group. Relative expression of lipid catabolism genes in hepatopancreas and muscle of 7L+BA group was significantly higher than 5L group. The amount of microbiota in intestine of fish in 7L+BA group was significantly higher than the other two groups. The present results indicated that BA in 7L diet improved growth of fish by increasing protein synthesizing, decreasing lipid content in fish body and by regulating amount of microbiota in intestine of fish.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:45:48.837412-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12609
  • Growth, immunity and ammonia excretion of albino and normal Apostichopus
           japonicus (Selenka) feeding with various experimental diets
    • Authors: S.-D. Xia; M. Li, L.-B. Zhang, M.M. Rahman, Q.-Z. Xu, L.-N. Sun, S.-L. Liu, H.-S. Yang
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of six experimental diets on growth performance, ammonia excretion and immunity of albino and normal Apostichopus japonicus. A factorial design was used, the factors being type of diets (six levels) and colour of A. japonicus (two levels). A total of 30 randomly selected albino A. japonicus were housed in each (60 × 50 × 30 cm3) of 18 blue plastic aquaria to form six groups in triplicate, and the same set-up was used for the normal A. japonicus. Each group of animals was fed with one of the six experimental diets. Apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD) and apparent crude protein digestibility (ACPD) were analysed using acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content method. At the end of the experiment, all A. japonicus were harvested and weighed to calculate growth parameters. After weighing, six individuals from each aquarium were randomly sampled for immune indices. Results indicated that all growth parameters of A. japonicus increased with decreasing nutrient content in their diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T01:40:29.245397-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12646
  • Natural dietary additive yellow loess as potential antibiotic replacer in
           Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica: Effects on growth, immune responses,
           serological characteristics and disease resistance against Edwardsiella
    • Authors: S.H. Lee; Y.K. Lee, K. Katya, J.K. Park, S.C. Bai
      Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an additive derived from the nature as an alternative of dietary antibiotic in Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Six experimental diets were formulated to contain no antibiotics or additive (yellow loess/YL) (control/CON), three graded levels of yellow loess at 5 (YL5), 10 (YL10) and 20 g/kg (YL20), oxytetracycline at 5 (OTC) and amoxicillin at 10 g/kg amoxicillin (AMX) of diet. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) from fish fed CON or YL5 diets were significantly lower than those of fish fed YL20 or OTC diets. Among non-specific enzyme, lysozyme activity of fish fed YL20, OTC or AMX was detected to be significantly higher than that from fish fed CON or YL5 diets, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the fish fed CON was significantly lower than that for fish fed other experimental diets. Challenge test with bacteria, Edwardsiella tarda, showed improved disease resistance among the fish fed different levels of natural additive without any statistical difference from those fed antibiotics (OTC and/or AMX) supplemented diets. Therefore, these results demonstrated the potential of natural feed additive, yellow loess to replace oxytetracycline and/or amoxicillin in Japanese eel, A. japonica.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T00:05:50.960479-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12641
  • Replacing fish meal with a blend of poultry by-product meal and feather
           meal in diets for giant croaker (Nibea japonica)
    • Authors: Y.B. Wu; X. Ren, X.J. Chai, P. Li, Y. Wang
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of replacing fish meal with poultry by-product meal (PBM) and feather meal (FEM) in giant croaker (Nibea japonica) diet. The control diet (C) contained 400 g/kg fish meal, and 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the fish meal in diet C was replaced by a blend of PBM and FEM (PBM: FEM = 7:3) in diets B20, B40, B60 and B80, respectively. The weight gain and feed intake of fish fed diet C did not differ from those of fish fed diets B20 and B40 (p > .05), but were higher than those of fish fed diets B60 and B80 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T01:45:25.170271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12647
  • Dietary requirements for leucine, isoleucine and valine (branched-chain
           amino acids) by juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus
    • Authors: S. Castillo; D.M. Gatlin
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the minimum dietary requirements of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine [Leu], isoleucine [Ile] and valine [Val]) for juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. This was accomplished by conducting three independent 49-day feeding trials with juvenile red drum. Experimental diets were prepared by supplementing a basal diet containing 370 g/kg crude protein from red drum muscle and crystalline amino acids with incremental levels of Leu (9.0, 13.0, 17.0, 21.0, 25.0 and 29.0 g/kg of dry diet), Ile (5.0, 8.0, 11.0, 14.0, 17.0 and 20.0 g/kg of dry diet) and Val (6.8, 8.0, 9.2, 10.4, 11.6, 12.8 and 14.0 g/kg of dry diet). Fish were fed to apparent satiation twice daily in each trial, after which growth performance parameters were calculated and body composition and concentrations of BCAAs in plasma were analysed. Incremental levels of dietary Leu, Ile and Val significantly affected weight gain, feed efficiency and protein retention. Analyses of the weight gain data using a broken-line regression model estimated the minimum Leu, Ile and Val requirements for maximum growth of juvenile red drum to be 15.7 ± 1.7 g/kg (±95% confidence interval), 11.1 ± 2.3 g/kg and 12.4 ± 0.6 g/kg of dry diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T04:00:24.944001-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12644
  • Mineral contents of the muscle tissue and the digestive gland of Octopus
           vulgaris during short-term starvation
    • Authors: P. S. Morillo-Velarde; J. Cerezo Valverde, B. García García
      Abstract: We used spectrometry to study variation in the contents of minor (B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and major essential elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) in the muscle tissue and digestive glands of Octopus vulgaris after 1, 2, 4 or 8 days of starvation and in fed controls. The contents of the major essential elements remained constant during 8 days of starvation. Na was the principal element found in both tissues, followed by K, P and Mg. The contents of the minor essential elements were higher in the digestive gland than in the muscle tissue, with increased contents of Fe, Mn and Zn (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T01:20:26.556473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12624
  • Effects of soybean meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth,
           serum biochemistry and morphological condition of liver and distal
           intestine of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus
    • Authors: R. Novriadi; M. Rhodes, M. Powell, T. Hanson, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: This study evaluated the suitability of commercially produced fermented soybean meal (FSBM) known as PepSoyGen™, in a plant-based diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus fingerlings. An 8-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of four isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing 0, 206, 309 and 410 g/kg FSBM, replacing approximately 0%, 50%, 75% and 100% SBM (designated as Basal, FSBM 50, FSBM 75 and FSBM 100, respectively) on growth performance, body composition, serum biochemistry and morphological condition of liver and distal intestine of Florida pompano. There were no significant differences in final mean weight, percentage weight gain, thermal unit growth coefficient and feed conversion ratio in all treatments. For serum biochemistry analysis, there were no significant differences in total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, bile acids, plasma alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in all treatments. Cellular infiltration, presence of goblet cells and the width of lamina propria in the distal intestine were partly improved in fish fed FSBM 75 and 100 compared to the fish fed FSBM 50 and basal diet. Glycogen granulation, inflammation and nuclear change condition in the liver of pompano were better as the inclusion of fermented product increased. Results of this study indicate that FSBM can be utilized as an alternative protein source and microbial fermentation process could improve the functional properties of SBM.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T04:17:31.52085-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12645
  • Replacement of dietary macroalgae with corn starch in juvenile sea
           cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)
    • Authors: B. Wen; Y.-J. Sun, Q.-F. Gao, S.-L. Dong, Z.-Z. Chen, J.-Z. Gao
      Abstract: A 70-day experiment was conducted to investigate the optimal dietary macroalgae and substitute proportion by corn starch in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumbers were fed by eighteen different diets formulated with one of the three macroalgae including Sargassum muticum, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Ulva lactuca and six graded levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/kg) of corn starch as the replacements for each seaweed. An isotope mixing model indicated that the relative contribution of corn starch to the growth of A. japonicus did not consistently increase, even slightly decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level. The contributions of corn starch to A. japonicus fed by diets containing S. muticum were higher than those fed by diets containing G. lemaneiformis with corresponding corn starch levels or containing U. lactuca at 200–400 g/kg replacement proportions. The growth of A. japonicus first significantly increased and then decreased with increasing corn starch level, regardless of macroalgal species. The corn starch could replace up to 200 g/kg of dietary G. lemaneiformis or U. lactuca, even up to 300 g/kg of S. muticum without affecting growth performance. Based on the polynomial regression model, the replacement of S. muticum with 114 g/kg corn starch was optimal for A. japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T02:02:15.346413-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12639
  • Effects of dietary inclusion of yacon, ginger and blueberry on growth,
           body composition and challenge test of juvenile rockfish (Sebastes
           schlegeli) against Edwardsiella tarda
    • Authors: H.S. Kim; K.W. Lee, H.S. Jung, J. Kim, A. Yun, S.H. Cho, M. Kwon
      Abstract: Effects of dietary inclusion of yacon, Polymnia sonchifolia (YC), ginger, Zingiber officinale (GG), and blueberry, Vaccinium ashei (BB), on growth, body composition and challenge test of rockfish against Edwardsiella tarda compared to ethoxyquin were investigated. Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into 12 flow-through tanks. Four experimental diets were prepared: the control diet (Con) with 0.1 g/kg ethoxyquin, and YC, GG and BB diets. Each diet was assigned to triplicate tanks of fish and hand-fed for 8 weeks. Externally normal fish after fourth and eighth weeks of feeding trial were infected with Edwardsiella tarda for challenge test. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed the YC diet were greater than those of fish fed all other diets. Feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention of fish fed the YC diet were higher than those of fish fed all other diets. In the both fourth and eighth weeks of infection trials, mortality of fish fed the Con diet was higher than that of fish fed all other diets. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of YC, GG and BB increased weight gain and SGR of fish. YC, GG and BB for 4 and 8 weeks lowered mortality of fish at occurrence of E. tarda.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T02:00:21.60253-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12643
  • Successful rearing of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae fed a
           desiccation-tolerant nematode to replace Artemia
    • Authors: L.H. Seychelles; S. Happe, E. Palacios, M. Ludwig, S. Hollmer, R.-U. Ehlers, C. Schulz, L. Mercier
      Abstract: The nematode Panagrolaimus sp. was tested as live feed to replace Artemia nauplii during first larval stages of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In Trial 1, shrimp larvae were fed one of four diets from Zoea 2 to Postlarva 1 (PL1): (A) Artemia nauplii, control treatment; (NC) nematodes enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided by the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii; (N) non-enriched nematodes; and (Algae) a mixture of microalgae supplemented in C. cohnii cells. In Trial 2, shrimp were fed (A), (NC) and a different treatment (NS) with nematodes enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) provided by the commercial product S.presso®, until Postlarva 6 (PL6). Mysis 1 larvae fed nematodes of the three dietary treatments were 300 μm longer (3.2 ± 0.3 mm) than control larvae. At PL1, control shrimp were 300 μm longer (4.5 ± 0.3 mm) than those fed DHA-enriched or PUFAs-enriched nematodes. No differences were observed in length and survival at PL6 between control larvae and those fed DHA-enriched nematodes (5.1 ± 0.5 mm; 33.1%–44.4%). Shrimp fed microalgae showed a delay in development at PL1. This work is the first demonstration of Panagrolaimus sp. suitability as a complete substitute for Artemia in rearing shrimp from Zoea 2 to PL6.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T01:50:25.126248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12626
  • Fishmeal replacement by mixed plant proteins and effect on growth and
           sensory attributes in on-growing turbot
    • Authors: J. Árnason; A.K.D. Imsland, T. Helmig, S. Gunnarsson, G.Ö. Kristjánsson
      Abstract: Fishmeal replacement with a mixture of plant protein (PP) raw materials (soya, wheat gluten meal, corn gluten meal and rapeseed meal) in diets for 300-950 g turbot was tested. Eight different diets with fishmeal protein stepwise varying from 53.7% of crude protein (CP) to 93% of CP of the total protein in the diet were tested. The fish was weighed at monthly intervals for following of weight development and calculation of specific growth rates, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At the end of the experiment, fish was sampled for sensory evaluation. Average final weight was 950 g and did not vary between the experimental groups. There were no effects of dietary treatment on specific growth rates, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio or sensory attributes measured. The least-cost diet (with 53.7% fishmeal protein) is about 12% lower in raw material cost (based on material price of diet components) than the all fishmeal diet. The results therefore indicate that the raw material cost in feed for on-growing turbot can be reduced considerably without any negative effect on growth and feed utilization.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T00:35:28.524701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12642
  • Chemical, bioactive properties and in vitro digestibility of spray-dried
           fish silages: Comparison of two discard fish (Equulites klunzingeri and
           Carassius gibelio) silages
    • Authors: G. Ozyurt; M. Boga, Y. Uçar, E.K. Boga, A. Polat
      Abstract: The fermented fish silages produced with Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici and Enterococcus gallinarum, and formic acid silages were compared for production of two discard fish silages (Equulites klunzingeri and Carassius gibelio). The E/NE ratio of spray-dried fish silages was determined in range of 0.80–1.10 for E. klunzingeri and 0.80–0.90 for C. gibelio silages. Pediococcus acidilactici and En. gallinarum groups had greater antioxidant activity than other silage groups. The DPPH radical scavenging ability was found as 6.14%–14.71% and 6.99%–13.36% for E. klunzingeri and C. gibelio silages, respectively. The OMD, ME and NEL values were determined in range of 69.74%–80.08%, 6.38–8.65 MJ/kg DM and 6.45–7.49 MJ/kg DM, respectively for spray-dried E. klunzingeri silages and 81.18%–86.62%, 8.97–9.61 MJ/kg DM and 7.61–8.08 MJ/kg DM, respectively, for spray-dried C. gibelio silages. According to the nutritional and chemical evaluation, spray-dried fish silages have great potential as a feed components because of high rate of digestibility and nutritious components.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T02:10:25.059097-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12636
  • Mobilization of energetic reserves during starvation in juveniles of
           different size of the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus
    • Authors: N.S. Calvo; L. Stumpf, E. Cortés-Jacinto, F. Castillo Díaz, L.S. López Greco
      Abstract: Mobilization patterns of energy reserves during starvation are highly variable among crustaceans, and understanding this process is useful to satisfy the nutritional requirements of cultured organisms. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mobilization patterns on early and advanced juveniles—first free stage and one-gram juveniles—of redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus). A biochemical approach was used to analyse the organic carbon, total proteins, lipids and glycogen levels of the entire animal, and a histochemical approach was adopted to identify location of metabolites in the hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. While starvation did not affect early juvenile protein levels, it showed a significant decrease in advanced juveniles. Histochemical analysis showed that lipid storage of hepatopancreas R cells was depleted near point of no return (PNR) and recovered after feeding. Glycogen storage was localized in the F cells of the hepatopancreas, and among muscle fibres of the abdomen, where after feeding, a pronounced accumulation was observed. Early and advanced juveniles of redclaw crayfish showed different patterns of consumption mainly related to the protein level, which was the most abundant reserve in advanced juveniles and the most consumed during starvation. Hepatopancreas R cells were confirmed as the principal lipid storage, whereas the abdominal muscle was the main glycogen storage. In crustacean aquaculture, the understanding of resistance to temporary feed deprivation is relevant to achieve an adequate feeding management, thereby avoiding the overfeeding and diminishing operating costs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T00:51:19.783961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12631
  • Probiotic effect of Streptomyces spp. on shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
           postlarvae challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    • Authors: M. García-Bernal; R. Medina-Marrero, C. Rodríguez-Jaramillo, O. Marrero-Chang, Á.I. Campa-Córdova, R. Medina-García, J.M. Mazón-Suástegui
      Abstract: The effect of Streptomyces strains RL8 and N7 on the growth, survival and histological structure of the hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei was determined. Shrimp post-larvae of 0.02 ± 0.01 g were fed with diets supplemented with Streptomyces spp. RL8 and N7 at 108 CFU g⁻1 of feed for 30 days, followed by challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Toxicity was also assessed by recording the mortality associated with the use of 1-100 g/L of cell mass and 108-1010 CFU/g of feed of these strains in Artemia salina and L. vannamei, respectively. The group treated with Streptomyces sp. RL8 had significantly better weight gain (0.62 ± 0.18 g) and survival rates (84.44 ± 5.7%) after challenge, whereas the one fed with Streptomyces sp. N7 showed significantly higher survival rate (57.77 ± 6.8%) than the control group (0.55 ± 0.20 g and 11.11 ± 9.0%, respectively). The hepatopancreas of Streptomyces-fed shrimps showed better histological integrity with significantly lower degree of atrophy and necrotic tubules than their unfed counterpart. No toxicity associated with these strains was found. Consequently, they can be excellent probiotic candidates to improve the physiological status and prevent infectious diseases of cultured L. vannamei.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T00:36:04.657322-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12622
  • Molecular characterization and nutritional regulation of specificity
           protein 1 (Sp1) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Authors: F. Qu; J. Tang, R. Hu, G. Hao, Y. Zhou, S. Lu, Q. Zhao, C. You, Y. Li, Z. Zhou, Z. Liu
      Abstract: Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is a ubiquitous nuclear factor in eukaryotic cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of di-/tripeptide absorption in the intestine. However, the function of Sp1 in bony fish remains poorly understood. In this study, a fish Sp1 gene (designated CiSp1) was identified from Ctenopharyngodon idella. The deduced CiSp1 protein contains structural features typical of Sp1 family proteins, including a glutamine-rich (Q-rich) region and three typical Cys2His2 zinc fingers. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed ubiquitous expression of CiSp1 in all tested tissues and embryonic developmental stages of grass carp. In addition, CiSp1 expression in the intestine was significantly increased after feeding with fish meal and 270 g/kg dietary protein. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo glutamine dipeptide treatments showed similar stimulatory effects on the expression of the transcription factors CiSp1 and CiCDX2 and their potential target gene CiPepT1 in the intestines of grass carp. Finally, our results demonstrated that the mRNA expression of CiSp1/CiCDX2/CiPepT1 in the intestine was significantly increased after treatment with sodium butyrate in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these results demonstrate for the first time that grass carp possesses a functional Sp1 and that its expression is regulated by dietary protein and feed additives.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T05:40:41.691744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12630
  • Dietary thiamin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch) based
           on growth, protein gain, liver thiamin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and
           biochemical composition
    • Authors: S. Zehra; M. A. Khan
      Abstract: Dietary thiamin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus was quantified by feeding casein/gelatin-based diets (450 g/kg CP; 18.39 kJ/g GE) with seven graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish (6.9 ± 0.93 cm; 4.91 ± 0.62 g) for 16 weeks. Fish fed diet with 2.5 mg/kg thiamin reflected highest absolute weight gain (AWG), protein gain (PG), RNA/DNA ratio and lowest feed conversion ratio. Similarly, highest liver thiamin concentration was also recorded in fish fed 2.5 mg/kg thiamin diet. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration responded negatively with increasing concentrations of dietary thiamin up to 2.5 mg/kg, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were found to improve with the increasing levels of dietary thiamin from 0 to 2.5 mg/kg. Transketolase activity also improved as the thiamin concentrations increased up to 2.5 mg/kg. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PG, RNA/DNA ratio, liver thiamin concentrations, transketolase and TBARS activities exhibited the thiamin requirement in the range of 2.34–2.59 mg/kg diet. Data generated during this study would be useful in formulating thiamin-balanced feeds for the intensive culture of this fish.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T05:05:29.060892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12638
  • Availability of minerals in rendered meat and bone meal for Nile tilapia:
           Preliminary observations
    • Authors: L. B. de Moura; T. O. Xavier, D. A. V. Campelo, M. Michelato, F. L. Alves de Almeida, L. V. O. Vidal, W. M. Furuya
      Abstract: A digestibility trial was conducted with 180 Nile tilapia (32.65 ± 4.52 g) fed a reference diet containing 350 g/kg crude protein and 4,500 kcal/kg gross energy. Five different meat and bone meals (MBMs) were evaluated. The test diets compound by 70% of reference diet and 30% of each MBM were elaborated and classified according to ash content: MBM-430, MBM-400, MBM-370, MBM-340 and MBM-310. The apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of minerals and the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter (DM) were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T00:25:22.267153-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12635
  • Apparent digestibility of animal, plant and microbial ingredients for
           Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; L. Nguyen, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: A digestibility trial was conducted to determine apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, energy and amino acids of animal, plant and microbial ingredients for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The tested ingredients included traditional soybean meal (TSBM), PepsoyGen soybean meal (PSBM), NutriVance soybean meal (NSBM), fish meal (FM), poultry meal (PM), squid hydrolysis (SQH), scallop hydrolysis (SCH), flash dried yeast (FDY), two batches of Ulva meal (UMF and UMS) and bacteria biomass (BB). A basal diet was formulated and produced along with the experimental diets which included 300 g/kg of each ingredient and 700 g/kg of the basal diet. Juvenile shrimp (initial mean weight: 12 g, six shrimp/tank, n = 3) were stocked in a recirculation system. Apparent dry matter, protein and energy digestibility coefficients ranged from −40.11% to 78.51%, 15.17% to 97.03% and 13.33% to 82.56% among different protein sources, respectively. In general, protein and energy digestibilities in soy sources (77.6% to 97.03% and 62.77% to 82.56%, respectively) are higher than the tested animal protein (51.39% to 71.41% and 45.29% to 69.77%, respectively) and single-cell protein sources (15.17% to 53.47% and 13.33% to 40.39%, respectively). Among the three soybean sources, TSBM showed highest protein and energy digestibility. Apparent individual amino acid digestibility coefficients were also variable among different types of ingredients, and there was a reasonable correspondence to protein digestibility. The most digestible feed ingredients for Pacific white shrimp in this study were conventional soybean meal (SBM) and NutriVance soybean meal (NSBM), which indicated that these ingredients are good protein and amino acid sources for Pacific white shrimp. Resultant digestibility data may provide useful information to commercial shrimp feed industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T23:30:58.705403-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12629
  • Evaluation of a fish meal analogue as a replacement for fish meal in
           practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; H. Tian, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: Three six-week growth trials and a digestibility trial were conducted to evaluate a fish meal analogue (FMA) as a replacement for fish meal (FM) in shrimp feeds. Trials 1 and 2 evaluated and confirmed the potential of FMA supplementation (0, 48.5, 97, 145.5 and 194 g/kg) as a replacement for FM up to 200 g/kg without balancing for phosphorus (P) in practical diets for juvenile Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei. At the end of trial 1, shrimp offered diets containing 48.5 g/kg FMA exhibited significantly higher weight gain (WG) than those fed with the diet containing 145.5 g/kg FMA. At the end of trial 2, dietary FMA inclusion at 48.5 and 97 g/kg significantly improved WG and protein retention (PR), while reducing FCR and protein content of shrimp body compared to the diet containing 194 g/kg FMA. To determine whether P deficiency is the cause of reduced growth, the third trial was conducted utilizing equivalent diet but balanced for P. At the end of trial 3, shrimp fed diet containing 48.5 g/kg FMA+P showed significantly higher WG and PR than those fed diet containing 145.5 g/kg FMA+P. No decreasing trend of growth was detected in the diets containing FMA compared to the FM-based diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, energy, protein and amino acids of FMA were determined using chromic oxide as an inert maker and the 70:30 replacement technique. The energy, protein and individual amino acid digestibility of FMA were significantly lower than those of soybean meal and FM which were run at the same time. Results of this work indicate that FMA can replace up to 200 g/kg FM in shrimp diets with supplemental inorganic P. Given the good growth across the range of inclusion without any indication of a growth depression, the low nutrient digestibility of FMA may be due to an atypical response or the product simply does not work with the testing technique.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T23:20:32.575518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12634
  • Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and
           faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)
    • Authors: L.C. Tran-Tu; T.T.T. Hien, R.H. Bosma, L.T.N. Heinsbroek, J.A.J. Verreth, J.W. Schrama
      Abstract: The ingredients’ particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878). The experiment had a 2 × 3 factorial-design: two feed mesh particle sizes, by grinding ingredient mixtures at two screen sizes (0.8 versus 1.0 mm); and three dietary viscosity levels, created by exchanging carboxymethylcellulose by guar gum (GG) (0, 3 and 6 g of GG/kg of diet). Six diets were assigned to 18 tanks, each connected to three faecal settling tanks. All aquaria were stocked with 20 fish (82 g per fish). After 52 experimental days, dietary viscosity negatively affected both feed digestibility and performance of striped catfish; as a result, the amount of organic matter in the culture system through faeces had increased significantly. The coarse diets significantly increased the digestibility of dry matter and carbohydrate but worsened feed conversion ratio. Increasing dietary viscosity tended to increase the viscosity and moisture content of the faeces, but significantly accelerated the faecal disintegration through the reduction of both faecal recovery and the amount of recovered faeces.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T05:45:36.456753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12632
  • Assessment of the fecundity, population growth and fatty acid composition
           of Apocyclops royi (Cyclopoida, Copepoda) fed on different microalgal
    • Authors: Y.-J. Pan; I. Sadovskaya, J.-S. Hwang, S. Souissi
      Abstract: The brackish cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops royi is used in Taiwanese aquaculture industry as a prey for fish larvae. This study investigated the effects of seven microalgal diets, namely single-species diets of Isochrysis galbana (ISO), Nannochloropsis oculata (NAN), and Tetraselmis chui (TET), two-species diets (ISO+NAN, ISO+TET and TET+NAN), and a three-species diet (ISO+NAN+TET), on the population growth, female fecundity and fatty acid composition of A. royi. For reproductive traits, the combination ISO+NAN was found to be the most supportive diet for both population growth and female fecundity. For nutritional value, copepods fed ISO and ISO+NAN were detected to have the highest content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (18.99% and 10.73% total fatty acid, respectively) and, more importantly, a high DHA/EPA ratio (6.09 and 4.09, respectively). Additionally, a comparison of fatty acid composition between copepods and microalgae gives a tentative indication that A. royi may have the ability to synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from short-chain PUFA. Our findings illustrate that ISO+NAN is the most suitable microalgal diet for mass culturing A. royi because it increases productivity and enhances the nutritional value of the copepods for use as fish larvae prey.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T05:41:20.07766-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12633
  • Supplementation of diets for Oreochromis niloticus with essential oil
           extracts from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and geranium (Pelargonium
           graveolens) and effects on growth, intestinal microbiota, antioxidant and
           immune activities
    • Authors: A. A. Al-Sagheer; H. K. Mahmoud, F. M. Reda, S. A. Mahgoub, M. S. Ayyat
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) (LEO) and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) (GEO) essential oils on growth, immunity, antioxidant responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (3.04 ± 0.003 g) were fed the basal diet (G1), or the basal diet supplemented with LEO at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 of the diet (G2 and G3), or GEO at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 of the diet (G4 and G5), respectively for 12 weeks. Growth indices and feed utilization were significantly improved with G2, G3 and G5 groups. Also, a significant increase in protein content of the whole body was recorded in all groups. G2 and G5 showed a significant rise of both catalase activity and reduced glutathione content with a significant incline in the MDA level. Lysozyme activity and total IgM levels were significantly increased in G2 and G5 groups. G3 and G5 groups had a significantly lower intestinal total bacteria, Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas spp counts. Following challenge with A. hydrophila, all groups had a high survival rate. In conclusion, LEO and GEO could be a candidate dietary supplementation in fish improving growth performance, feed utilization, oxidative status, immune responses and disease resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T05:30:57.681195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12637
  • Effect of replacing fish meal with meat and bone meal on growth, feed
           utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion for juvenile
           Pseudobagrus ussuriensis
    • Authors: B. Tang; X. Bu, X. Lian, Y. Zhang, I. Muhammad, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, Y. Yang
      Abstract: The effect of replacing fish meal (FM) with meat and bone meal (MBM) in diets for juvenile Pseudobagrus ussuriensis was evaluated in a 90-day feeding trial. Six isonitrogenous (crude protein, 430 g/kg) and isolipidic (crude lipid, 74 g/kg) diets were formulated to contain MBM to replace FM at 0 (S0), 200 (S20), 400 (S40), 600 (S60), 800 (S80) and 1000 g/kg (S100), respectively. The results showed that there was no significant difference in weight gain (WG) among fish fed S0, S20 and S40 diets. However, a significant reduction in WG occurred when 600, 800 and 1000 g/kg FM protein was replaced by MBM (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T00:45:31.19271-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12625
  • Replacing fish meal with vegetable protein sources in feed for juvenile
           red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii: Effects of amino acids
           supplementation on growth and feed utilization
    • Authors: Q. Tan; D. Song, X. Chen, S. Xie, X. Shu
      Abstract: An 8-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fish meal replacement with a vegetable mixture of soybean meal and rapeseed meal (1:1) on growth of juvenile red swamp crayfish. Nine isonitrogenous diets were designed: V0, V34, V50, V65, V73 and V81 with six levels of vegetable proteins, and VA48, VA63 and VA78 by further adding crystalline lysine and methionine into V50, V65 and V81. Compared with V0, V34 significantly improved the specific growth rate (SGR), while V65, V73, V81 and VA78 depressed the SGR (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:40:21.769952-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12621
  • Cloning and characterization of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the effects
           of dietary lipid levels on the expression of LPL in the redlip mullet
           (Liza haematocheila)
    • Authors: A. Wang; W. Yang, F. Liu, Z. Wang, P. Cang, X. Yin, Y. Yu, G. Qiao, J. Ni
      Abstract: The genetic improvement of redlip mullet Liza haematocheila through breeding programmes is of interest for this important aquaculture species. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in lipid deposition and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional regulation of LPL in redlip mullet. We cloned and identified the LPL gene, determined LPL gene expression in various tissues, and examined the effect of dietary lipid level on hepatic LPL gene expression. The LPL gene of redlip mullet Liza haematocheila (L.hLPL) was 2,395 bp in length and encoded 516 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that L.hLPL shared 61%–90.3% identity with LPLs in other species. Expression patterns of hepatic L.hLPL were studied in redlip mullet fed diets containing 2.0, 4.8, 7.5, 9.8, 12.0 or 14.6 g/kg, crude fat for 60 days by real-time quantitative PCR. The abundance of LPL mRNA in hepatic tissue increased with the increase in dietary fat. The expression L.hLPL mRNA was significantly higher in the groups fed diets with 14.6 and 12.0 g/kg fat than in the other groups (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T23:55:50.145837-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12612
  • Evaluation of a novel bacterial biomass as a substitution for soybean meal
           in plant-based practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus
    • Authors: X. Qiu; H.Y. Tian, D.A. Davis
      Abstract: Three growth trials and a digestibility trial were designed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel bacterial biomass (BB) in commercial-type feed formulation for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In trial 1, the basal diet was supplemented with 0, 60 and 120 g/kg BB to replace soybean meal (SBM). Significant improvement was observed in the survival when BB was incorporated in the diets. However, shrimp fed diets containing 120 g/kg BB exhibited significantly lower weight gain (WG) and higher feed conversion ratio (FCR). To confirm the results from trial 1 and explore the effects of BB supplementation at low levels, the basal diet was incorporated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 120 g/kg BB to replace SBM in trial 2. Significant reductions in WG, FCR, lipid content of whole body, protein retention efficiency and most amino acids retention efficiency were detected in shrimp fed with diet containing 120 g/kg BB. Trial 3 was designed to elucidate whether the digestible protein is the cause of reduced growth. No improvements in terms of growth performance and FCR were detected in the treatments balanced for digestible protein. Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein and amino acid (AA) for BB were determined using chromic oxide as an inert marker and the 70:30 replacement technique. The energy, protein and individual amino acid digestibility coefficients of BB were significantly lower than those of fish meal (FM) and SBM that were given at the same time. Results of this study indicated that BB can be utilized up to 40 g/kg in shrimp feed without causing a decrease in growth. However, supplementations (≥60 g/kg) of BB can result in negative effects on growth response, FCR and protein as well as amino acids retention efficiency. At the lower levels of inclusion, shrimp performance was improved when BB was supplemented on a digestibility basis; however, at the higher level of inclusion, there was no improvement, indicating there may be other nutrients limiting. Based on enhanced survival in the treatment with BB supplementation in trial 1, further research regarding the immune effects of BB in practical shrimp feed will be necessary.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T23:40:23.249851-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12623
  • Dietary protease modulates nutrient retention efficiency and
           hepatopancreatic protease activity in juvenile Chinese mitten crab
           Eriocheir sinensis
    • Authors: M.A.K. Chowdhury; J. Zhu, C. Cai, Y. Ye, J. He
      Abstract: An 8-week growth trial was conducted with juvenile Chinese mitten crab fed a high fishmeal (FM) diet (PC), a low FM diet (NC) and three other diets (NC125, NC150 and NC175) supplemented with 125, 150 and 175 mg/kg of a dietary protease. In the NC diets, a portion of FM (from PC diet) was replaced by a combination of plant proteins. All diets were isoproteic (404 ± 3 g/kg) and isoenergetic (18.6 ± 0.2 kJ/g). No differences were observed among treatments in most parameters except protein (PRE, %) and lipid (LRE, %) retention efficiencies, where LRE was the highest (37.9%) in NC175 followed by the PC. A linear regression demonstrated significant effects of protease on hepatopancreatic trypsin activity (HPRO, p = .001), and PRE (p = .05) and LRE (p = .014) but not on energy retention efficiency (ERE). Dietary protease level was positively correlated with HPRO and nutrient retention efficiency (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T06:15:22.591786-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12627
  • Dietary amino acid profile affects muscle cellularity, growth, survival
           and ammonia excretion of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) larvae
    • Authors: M. Saavedra; T.G. Pereira, A. Candeias-Mendes, L.E.C. Conceição, B. Teixeira, R. Mendes, P. Pousão-Ferreira
      Abstract: Formulation of diets according to fish amino acid (AA) qualitative requirements may improve fish growth. Two diets with different AA profiles were tested on 16-day-old meagre during 20 days. The first diet had an AA profile closer to meagre larval AA requirements (BAL), whereas the second had a different AA profile (UNBAL). Results showed that larvae fed the diet with higher similarities to the AA profile of meagre carcass had a higher final weight (19.8 ± 0.5 mg versus 13.4 ± 1.8 mg) and lower ammonia excretion after being fed (0.6 ± 0.1 ml/(g DW. larvae. h) and 0.8 ± 0.1 ml/(g DW larvae. h)). A higher mean fibre area was obtained in 36 DAH larvae fed the BAL diet (224.8 ± 33.3 μm2 versus 158.8 ± 34.5 μm2) as well as higher larval weight. When fibre area distribution was analysed, a higher frequency of larger fibres was observed in 36 DAH BAL larvae, suggesting that fibre hypertrophy had a higher importance in this treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that meagre larvae fed a diet with an AA profile closer to their requirements had lower nitrogen losses and higher final weight, as result of higher muscle hypertrophy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T00:05:53.101943-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12610
  • Supplementation of heat-inactivated Bacillus clausii DE5 in diets for
           grouper, Epinephelus coioides, improves feed utilization, intestinal and
           systemic immune responses and not growth performance
    • Authors: J. Wang; H.-L. Yang, H.-Q. Xia, J.-d. Ye, K.-L. Lu, X. Hu, Y. Feng, L. Ruan, Y.-Z. Sun
      Abstract: In recent years, more and more attentions have been paid to the development and application of probiotics in aquaculture, and viable probiotics have been extensively studied, while rare information was available about inactivated probiotics in aquaculture. Therefore, in this study, a feeding trial was designed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus clausii DE5 on growth performance, immune response and key immune genes expression in head kidney and intestine in grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish were fed for 60 days with control diet (C) and two experimental diets containing 1.0 × 108 CFU/g live (T1) and heat-inactivated (T2) B. clausii DE5, respectively. The probiotic treatments did not affect the final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of E. coioides at days 30 and 60 (p > .05), while both heat-inactivated and live B. clausii DE5 significantly decreased the feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at day 60 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T00:25:29.886881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12611
  • Elevated concentrations of T-2 toxin cause oxidative stress in the rainbow
           trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: H. Modra; E. Sisperova, J. Blahova, V. Enevova, P. Fictum, A. Franc, J. Mares, Z. Svobodova
      Abstract: T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium fungi that can contaminate plant components used in feed for aquaculture. The aim of this 28-day study was to investigate the effect of the T-2 toxin in feed in concentrations 1.0 and 1.8 mg/kg (0.01 mg/kg b.w. and 0.018 mg/kg b.w.) on the oxidative stress markers and on the detoxifying enzymes of the rainbow trout. The results showed that T-2 toxin in both tested concentrations induced oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in the liver of trout manifesting by the increase in activities of enzymes glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase and the decrease in the catalase activity. The increase in lipid peroxidation was recorded only in the higher concentration of T-2 toxin. Ceruloplasmin activity in the plasma increased at both tested concentrations, and the ferric reducing ability of the plasma increased at the higher toxin concentration. The T-2 toxin in feed caused alteration of the total protein, albumin and triacylglycerols as well as the alkaline phosphatase activity in the plasma. Despite no changes in histological examination were found, the influence of T-2 toxin on scavenger system may result in increased sensitivity to other stress factors.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T04:05:27.457059-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12613
  • Geometric approach to evaluate the energy/protein balance in tambaqui
           (Colossoma macropomum): Can fish ensure nutritional intake targets by
           postingestion signals'
    • Authors: E.C.T.N. Filho; B.O. Mattos, A.A. Santos, K.A. Barreto, R.C.B. Albinati, L.V. Oliveira Vidal, F.J. Sánchez-Vázquez, R. Fortes-Silva
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) to balance the energy (E) and protein (P) ratio by encapsulated diets (without sensory properties). Thirty fish (71.37 ± 2.58 g) were distributed in six 250-litre tanks. Protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and fat (F) were encapsulated separately to ensure the same sensory properties of each macronutrient. Diets varied in terms of macronutrients to allow the maximal/minimal possibility of ingesting each nutrient following a geometric approach. P, C and F capsules were provided for 40 days (phase 1). After this procedure, fish were subjected to fixed low and poor protein challenges (200 g/kg), and freely to C + F, to evaluate whether they maintained a given intake target (phase 2). As a result, tambaqui showed an intake target at 300 g/kg of crude protein and 16.74 MJ per kg. Give the possibility of freely feeding protein, fish regulated their feed intake and showed a constant E/P ratio pattern (5.024-5.861 MJ/kg). When protein was restricted and fixed at 200 g/kg, fish maintained similar feed consumption until the end of phase 1, probably to keep a minimal protein amount according to their nutritional requirements.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T05:27:16.974345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12602
  • Effect of sex and protein level on the intermediary metabolism, growth,
           deposition of nutrients and profile of volatile compounds of silver
           catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
    • Authors: T.J. Adorian; P.I. Mombach, F.R. Goulart, D. Pianesso, M.B. Fagundes, R. Wagner, R. Lazzari, J. Radünz Neto, L.P. Silva
      Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the intermediary metabolism, growth, nutritional deposition and volatile compounds of fillet of female and male silver catfish created in cages having commercial diets at two levels of crude protein. A total of 1,200 silver catfish were randomly distributed in 12 cages with initial weight of 130.05 ± 0.14 g and visually sexed. Commercial diets with 280 g/kg and 320 g/kg of crude protein were offered twice a day in the amount of 30 g/kg their biomass/day, for 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, biometry was performed to collect data, blood and tissue for later determination of plasma metabolites, hepatic metabolites, digestive enzymes, volatile compounds, deposition of nutrients and calculation of growth variables. There were metabolic differences due to the sex of silver catfish, reflecting greater productive efficiency on the females. For the plasma metabolites, in male, there were higher values of triglycerides and free amino acids than in female. For hepatic glucose, males fed with diet containing 280 g/kg of crude protein showed higher values. For protein and free amino acids, the interaction between males that received 320 g/kg of crude protein was higher. In males, there were higher values of AST and hepatic glycogen than in females. In turn, hepatic ammonia was higher in females. There was greater activity of acid protease enzymes and trypsin in the silver catfish that received diets containing 320 g/kg of crude protein. Regardless of sex, in this cultivation phase, diets with 320 g/kg of crude protein provided better performance to silver catfish. The profile of volatile compounds suggests mild odour for the fillet of silver catfish, which can be a competitive advantage of the species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T02:05:50.997362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12608
  • Effects of Chinese herbal medicines mixture on growth performance
           digestive enzyme activity immune response of juvenile Japanese seabass,
           Lateolabrax japonicus
    • Authors: C.-Y. Wang; Z.-B. Li, Y.-Z. Sun, Q. Chen, W.-J. Li, Y.-C. Huang, J. Lu
      Abstract: A single factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbal medicines mixture (CHMM) on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immune response of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus (initial weight 5.01 ± 0.32 g). The fish were fed diets containing six levels of CHMM (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 g/kg) for 4 weeks. The results showed that the weight gain rate and specific growth rate (SGR) enhanced significantly in fish fed diet containing 8 g/kg CHMM (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T05:05:22.560501-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12597
  • Effects of dietary inulin and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)
           on intestinal microbiota community and morphology of Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings
    • Authors: S. Boonanuntanasarn; N. Tiengtam, T. Pitaksong, P. Piromyou, N. Teaumroong
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of dietary inulin and Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on intestinal microbiota and morphometry of Nile tilapia fingerlings. Five treatment diets were designed to supplement inulin at 0 (basal diet), 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg, and JA at 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg. Nile tilapia larvae were fed experimental diets from the first feeding through the fingerling stage (84 days). The cultivation-dependent technique showed that dietary inulin at 5.0 g/kg and JA (at both levels) increased lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp., but decreased Vibrio spp. (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T03:36:16.442209-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12600
  • Effects of supplemental phytic acid on the apparent digestibility and
           utilization of dietary amino acids and minerals in juvenile grass carp
           (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
    • Authors: L.W. Liu; X.-F. Liang, J. Li, X.C. Yuan, J.G. Fang
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted for 8 weeks to evaluate the effects of supplemental phytic acid (PA) on the apparent digestibility and utilization of dietary amino acids (AAs) and minerals in juvenile grass carp. Five experimental diets consisted of graded levels of PA (0.2, 4.7, 9.5, 19.1 and 38.3 g kg−1, named as P0, P5, P10, P20 and P40). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 22.37 ± 0.16 g) were fed twice daily (08:00 and 16:00 h). The crude protein content in whole body significantly (p 4.7 g kg−1) significantly reduced the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of AAs (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Cys, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Phe, Lys, Pro, His and Arg) and the ADC of minerals (P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in grass carp. The contents of minerals (P, Ca, Mg and Zn) in whole body and bone were also found to be significantly reduced in dietary PA> 4.7 g kg−1, while the bone ash, serum Alkp and Zn contents were found to be significantly decreased when the PA supplementation level was above 9.5 g kg−1, and the contents of serum Ca and Mg were found to be markedly altered in higher PA-supplemented groups. The results indicated that supplemental PA decreased the apparent digestibility and utilization of AAs and minerals, and thus reduced the feed utilization of grass carp, suggesting that the level of total PA should be below 4.7 g kg−1 in grass carp diet.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:15:21.253531-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12614
  • Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil blends in feeds for greater
           amberjack (Seriola dumerili) juveniles: Effect on growth performance, feed
           efficiency, tissue fatty acid composition and flesh nutritional value
    • Authors: R. Monge-Ortiz; A. Tomás-Vidal, D. Rodriguez-Barreto, S. Martínez-Llorens, J.A. Pérez, M. Jover-Cerdá, A. Lorenzo
      Abstract: This study was undertaken to assess the effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by a mixture of alternative vegetable oils (VO) on Seriola dumerili culture performance. A 154-day feeding experiment was conducted using juveniles (39.2 ± 1.6 g average weight). Three isolipidic and isoenergetic meal-based diets were formulated varying their lipid component. The control diet contained 100% FO (FO100), whereas diets VO50 and VO100 included 1/2 of oil blend and all the oil from blend of palm oil (PO) and linseed oil (LO) as substitute for FO, respectively. Dietary regime did not significantly affect growth performance, biometric indices, feed efficiency, plasma chemistry and liver and muscle lipid contents. Nonetheless, dietary VO inclusion impacted on the fatty acid profile of target tissues, especially in the liver. Fatty acid profiles of the fillets reflected those of the dietary oils except that there was apparent selective utilization of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1n-9) and apparent selective retention of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). The nutritional value and the potential ability to prevent the development of coronary heart diseases of the flesh lipid fraction decreased with gradual FO substitution.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T05:05:34.662192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12595
  • Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, feed utilization, digestive
           tract enzyme activity and lipid deposition of juvenile Manchurian trout,
           Brachymystax lenok (Pallas)
    • Authors: J. Chang; H.X. Niu, Y.D. Jia, S.G. Li, G.F. Xu
      Abstract: Six isoproteic diets were designated to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels (from 70 to 270 g/kg) on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive tract enzyme activity and lipid deposition of juvenile Brachymystax lenok (average initial weight 0.54 ± 0.04 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (30 fish per tank) in an indoor closed recirculating system for 9 weeks. Final body weight and weight gain were highest in fish fed 190 g/kg diet and lowest in fish fed the 70 g/kg diet. Specific growth rate of fish fed with 190 g/kg diet was significantly higher than those fed with 70 and 270 g/kg diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-20T02:00:21.9326-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12598
  • Effects of dietary sunflower oil on growth parameters, fatty acid profiles
           and expression of genes regulating growth and metabolism in the pejerrey
           (Odontesthes bonariensis) fry
    • Authors: J.I. Bertucci; M.O. Tovar, S. Unniappan, J.C. Navarro, L.F. Canosa
      Abstract: Aquaculture fish diets usually contain an addition of fish oil to improve their nutritional value. The effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil (FO) by sunflower oil (SfO) on growth, fatty acid composition and expression of genes implicated in somatic growth, feed intake and fatty acid metabolism was studied in pejerrey fry. Fry were fed per 45 days with diets containing FO/SfO ratios of 100% FO; 50% FO:50% SfO; 20% FO:80% SfO; and 100% SfO. No differences were detected in growth and in the total per cent of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Gh, ghr-I and ghr-II showed a higher mRNA expression in head and trunk of fry fed with 100% SfO diet. Expression of igf-II was higher in trunk of fry fed with 100% SfO diet compared with 100% FO diet. The Δ6-desaturase gene expression was upregulated in head and trunk of fry fed with 100% SfO diet. The nucb2/nesfatin-1 gene expression decreased in the trunk of fry with increasing dietary SfO. We conclude that the replacement of fish oil by sunflower oil in pejerrey fry feed does not affect growth and is a viable strategy to reduce production costs of this fish.
      PubDate: 2017-08-20T01:45:26.904353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12603
  • Dietary ascorbic acid requirement for growth of striped catfish,
           Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) juveniles
    • Authors: N. Daniel; A.P. Muralidhar, P.P. Srivastava, K.K. Jain, K. Pani Prasad, J. Manish, T. Sivaramakrishnan
      Abstract: A sixty-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the ascorbic acid (AA) requirement for growth of striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus juveniles. Seven iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic (370 g protein per kg and 19.6 MJ/kg) purified diets were prepared with different levels of ascorbic acid such as control (0), T1 (17.5), T2 (35), T3 (70), T4 (175), T5 (350) and T6 (700) mg ascorbic acid (L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate) equivalent per kg diet. Fish with a mean body weight of 3.2–3.4 g were stocked (fifteen fish per tank) in triplicates following a completely randomized design. Each group was fed to satiation twice a day for 60 days. Significant differences were observed in growth, survival, body composition and metabolic enzymes activities with different dietary ascorbic acid levels. Maximum weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were found in fishes fed with 35 mg AA per kg diet, supported by best feed conversion. Fish fed a diet containing vitamin C had the highest activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to those fed with vitamin C-depleted diets. In this study, based on using broken-line regression analysis, the dietary vitamin C requirement for growth of P. hypophthalmus juveniles was estimated to be in the range of 46–76 mg AA per kg, depending on the criterion used, growth and liver storage. Our results will be helpful for the formulation of cost-effective ascorbic acid incorporated diets for striped catfish, P. hypophthalmus.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T05:05:39.368088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12596
  • Effect of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly larvae meal
           on growth and fatty acid composition of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var.
    • Authors: J.S. Zhou; S.S. Liu, H. Ji, H.B. Yu
      Abstract: To explore the effect of replacing dietary fish meal (FM) with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (BSFLM) on growth and body composition of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), the FM in basal diet of Jian carp was replaced by 0, 35, 70, 105 and 140 g/kg BSFLM respectively to form five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets. A total of 300 Jian carp (10.1 ± 1.6 g) were randomly divided into five groups (triplicate per group) and fed five diets, respectively. After 56 days of feeding, growth and body composition of fish were determined. Results showed that serum maleic dialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in fish significantly decreased and 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0 significantly increased with increasing replacement of BSFLM. The growth, biological parameters, proximate composition, amino acid composition and serum biochemical parameters of Jian carp were not affected by the replacement of BSFLM. In conclusion, up to 140 g/kg BSFLM (100% replacement of FM) can be included in diets of Jian carp without unfavourable effects on growth while decreasing n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) composition in body of fish, suggesting that BSFLM could be used after nutrient enrichment with n-3 HUFA to bring active effects on fish quality.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T03:55:22.031791-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12574
  • Dietary supplements of guanosine improve the growth, non-specific immunity
           of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, and its resistance
           against Vibrio splendidus
    • Authors: X.R. Chen; K.S. Mai, W.B. Zhang, B.P. Tan, Y.H. Yuan, Q.C. Wang, H.O. Liang, L.M. Zhao
      Abstract: The growth response, non-specific immune activities and disease resistance were measured in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka (initial average weight 6.80 ± 0.10 g), when fed diets supplemented with graded levels of guanosine from the guanosine-5’-monophosphate disodium (GMP) at 0 (control), 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg for 8 weeks. The results showed that GMP supplemented at 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg significantly enhanced the growth of sea cucumber. Sea cucumber fed a diet with 0.6 g/kg of GMP had significantly higher intracellular superoxide anion production, nitric oxide synthase activity, lysozyme activity and the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity than those in control group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T01:35:27.484671-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12590
  • Chlorella vulgaris meal improved growth performance, digestive enzyme
           activities, fatty acid composition and tolerance of hypoxia and ammonia
           stress in juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: S. Pakravan; A. Akbarzadeh, M.M. Sajjadi, A. Hajimoradloo, F. Noori
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of fish meal substitution by Chlorella vulgaris meal in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Experimental diets contained varying levels of fish meal (400, 300, 200, 100 and 0 g/kg) which was replaced by increasing levels of C. vulgaris (0, 97.2, 194.4, 291.6 and 388.8 g/kg). After 8 weeks of feeding trial, shrimp fed diet with 97.2 g/kg C. vulgaris showed significantly improved growth compared to other treatments including control. Similarly, shrimp fed diet with 97.2 g/kg C. vulgaris showed significantly higher amount of trypsin and amylase activities compared to other treatments. The contents of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly higher in the whole body of L. vannamei fed with different levels of C. vulgaris compared to those of control group. After exposure to hypoxia, the survival rate of shrimp fed diets contained different levels of C. vulgaris was higher than that of control group, while no significant differences were observed in ammonia tolerance among treatments. In conclusion, this study indicated that fish meal can be completely replaced with C. vulgaris in the diet of juvenile L. vannamei with no adverse effects on the performance of shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T01:35:46.709865-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12594
  • Effect of supplementation of dietary fibre concentrates on biochemical
           parameters, stress response, immune response and skin mucus of jundiá
           (Rhamdia quelen)
    • Authors: F.R. Goulart; T.J. Adorian, N.M. Lovatto, B.B. Loureiro, D. Pianesso, L.G. Barcellos, G. Koakoski, L.P. da Silva
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary fibre concentrates (DFC: Mucilage = MG; pectin = PN or β-glucan+mannan = βg+M), on biochemical parameters, stress and immune response and skin mucus of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). The fish (7.16 ± 0.06 g) were fed with Control diet (0 g/kg of DFC); diet supplemented with 5 g/kg of commercial prebiotic (CP 5) or diets supplemented with 5 or 10 g/kg of MG; PN or βg+M. After 8 weeks of the feeding trials, biochemical parameters (cholesterol, glucose, albumin and total protein), cortisol, immunoglobulin IgM and mucoproteins of skin mucus were assessed. Results demonstrated that supplementation with PN increased cholesterol levels (p
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T00:07:02.48556-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12568
  • The effects on some non-enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative stress of
           Astacus leptodactylus (Esch., 1823) of starvation periods
    • Authors: Özden Barim-Öz
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of starvation (78 days) and refeeding (33 days) on the oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)] and the non-enzymatic antioxidants [vitamin E (VE), vitamin C (VC), vitamin A (VA), beta carotene (βC) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] in the hepatopancreas, muscle and gill tissues of freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus). Crayfish were divided into three experimental groups: control (fed), starved (not fed) crayfish for 78 days and refeeding crayfish for 33 days after 78 days of starvation. The biochemical analysis of the tissues was conducted at 3, 18, 33, 48, 63 and 78 days of starvation and feeding and at 3, 18 and 33 days of refeeding. It was determined that crayfish can withstand starvation period of 78 days. In all of the periods, the MDA levels were significantly higher in the tissues of starved crayfish when compared with the control. The findings of this study demonstrate that starvation has a negative effect on the VE, VC, VA, βC and GSH levels in the crayfish. The measured parameters returned to control values after 33 days of the refeeding. Additionally, the starvation resulted in decreased levels of VE, VA and βC in the abdomen muscle of crayfish consumed by humans.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T23:55:43.011472-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12582
  • Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 probiotic supplementation as enhancer of
           Artemia n-3 HUFA contents and growth performance in Senegalese sole
    • Authors: C. Lobo; M.V. Martín, X. Moreno-Ventas, S.T. Tapia-Paniagua, C. Rodríguez, M.A. Moriñigo, I. García de la Banda
      Abstract: Adequate enrichment of live prey like Artemia, naturally deficient of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), is critical for the rapidly developing tissues, survival, normal development and production of good-quality fingerlings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a pulse (10–30 dah) of Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 (2.5*107 cfu/ml) using Artemia metanauplii as live vector, on its proper lipid profiles and resultant Solea senegalensis body composition and performance. Probiotic administration significantly increased total lipids and specifically n-3 HUFA levels in Pdp11-enriched Artemia. The live prey lipid modulation was also reflected in the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of Pdp11 sole specimens, which achieved a higher growth performance. A fatty acid multivariate principal component analysis confirmed a neat separation of two groups corresponding to Control and probiotic fish for each age sampled (23, 56, 87 and 119 dah). In addition, a further SIMPER analysis highlighted that the Pdp11 Artemia effect on sole lipid profile was different for each fatty acid and was gradually diluted with age. Results suggest an ability of Pdp11 strain to produce n-3 HUFA as an effective tool for fish marine larviculture optimization.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T02:10:23.869716-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12587
  • Evaluation of dietary taurine concentrations in microparticulate diets
           provided to larval California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis) postlarvae
    • Authors: K. Stuart; M. Hawkyard, F. Barrows, M. Rust, M. Drawbridge
      Pages: 3 - 13
      Abstract: Taurine is an important amino acid derivative for marine and freshwater fish, especially during early development. We investigated the range of taurine concentrations that influence the growth and survival rates of California yellowtail (CYT; Seriola dorsalis) during transition from live feeds to microparticulate diets, as well as the extent to which nutrient leaching from the microparticulate diets affects these ranges. We tested particle-assisted rotationally agglomerated (PARA) particles with four levels of taurine: 4 (low taurine; LT), 45 (medium taurine; MT), 93 (high taurine; HT) and 122 g/kg (very high taurine; VHT). Our results showed that CYT postlarvae had no significant differences in growth, survival and feed consumption rates between the MT, HT and VHT treatments. However, it should be noted that the PARA particles containing 122 g/kg (VHT) taurine were especially prone to leaching and may have had taurine concentrations as low as 34.9 g/kg before they settled on the bottom of the tank. Therefore, the actual dietary taurine concentrations experienced by the larvae were likely lower than the initial dietary concentrations. More research is needed to evaluate the potential nutrient toxicity of elevated dietary taurine concentrations for marine fish larvae and juveniles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:25:37.91647-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12527
  • Functional amino acids stimulate muscle development and improve fillet
           texture of Atlantic salmon
    • Authors: T.-K.K. Østbye; B. Ruyter, I.B. Standal, L.H. Stien, D. Bahuaud, J.-E. Dessen, M.S. Latif, B. Fyhn-Terjesen, K.-A. Rørvik, T. Mørkøre
      Pages: 14 - 26
      Abstract: Sufficient firmness is essential for consumer appreciation and the suitability for processing of fish fillets. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of functional amino acids (AA) on fillet texture and muscle development of Atlantic salmon. Triplicate net pens of 105 g salmon were fed a standard diet, or the same diet with added 15 g/kg arginine or 15 g/kg glutamate during a 5-month rearing period. The growth rate and FCR (0.91–0.92) showed no significant dietary effects (body weight 864–887 g). Glutamate supplementation resulted in delayed postmortem glycogen degradation (pH drop) and rigour development, along with improved fillet firmness and intercellular myofibre integrity. An in vitro study with salmon myosatellite cells showed that exogenous glutamine or arginine increased the expression of muscle growth markers (myog, tnnl2, myl) at both 8 and 16°C culture temperature. The expression of a marker for proteolysis (ctsb), myl and myog were highest for the glutamine treatment at 16°C. Significant interaction between exogenous AA and temperature indicated elevated AA requirement when growth is accelerated. It is concluded that AA from the glutamate family are vital for fillet firmness. The dispensable glutamine and glutamate appear more critical compared to arginine, particularly during high-performance periods.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T07:25:34.195871-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12528
  • Ferulic acid: A natural compound as an efficient feed additive for GIFT
           (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: L.-J. Yu; F. Wu, M. Jiang, C.-G. Yang, W. Liu, J. Tian, X. Lu, H. Wen
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and some physical characteristics of flesh in genetic improvement of farmed tilapia (GIFT) juveniles. Five diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg FA were prepared. Weight gain was significantly increased, while feed conversion ratio, viscerosomatic index and hepatosomatic index were significantly decreased in fish fed FA diet at 100 mg/kg feed (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T23:15:26.086053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12529
  • Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid requirement of juvenile rock bream,
           Oplegnathus fasciatus
    • Authors: J.W. Hong; S.H. Lee, M. Moniruzzaman, Y. Park, S.H. Won, H.Y. Jo, S.S.O. Hung, S.C. Bai
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the optimum dietary level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) based on growth and non-specific immune responses in juvenile rock bream. A basal diet without EPA supplementation was used as a control, and six other diets were prepared by supplementing with 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 or 40 g of EPA per kg diet. The actual EPA concentrations of the diets were 0.5, 4.3, 8.5, 13.0, 16.8, 21.0 and 41.2 g of EPA per kg diet, and the diets were abbreviated as EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5, EPA13.0, EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish averaging 1.06 ± 0.01 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the seven experimental diets at the apparent satiation for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency of fish fed EPA16.8, EPA21.0 and EPA41.2 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed EPA0.5, EPA4.3, EPA8.5 and EPA13.0 diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:05:42.745342-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12530
  • Effects of dietary coated protease on growth performance, feed
           utilization, nutrient apparent digestibility, intestinal and
           hepatopancreas structure in juvenile Gibel carp (Carassius auratus
    • Authors: W. Liu; J.P. Wu, Z. Li, Z.Y. Duan, H. Wen
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protease on growth performance, feed utilization, whole-body proximate composition, nutrient digestibility, intestinal and hepatopancreas structure of juvenile Gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (mean weight 8.08 ± 0.18 g). Six diets were prepared, including a positive control diet (dietary protein 350 g/kg, PC), one negative control diet (dietary protein 33 g/kg, NC) and four protease supplementations diets, which were 75, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg protease NC diet. After 12 weeks of diet feeding in indoor recycle aquarium tanks, no significant difference (p > .05) was found on growth performance between fish fed diet with 75–600 mg/kg protease and the PC group. Compared with the fish fed the NC diet, the specific growth rate of fish fed 300 mg/kg protease increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:50:27.929751-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12531
  • Digestibility of the defatted microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. and
           Desmodesmus sp. when fed to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar
    • Authors: Y. Gong; H.A.D.S. Guterres, M. Huntley, M. Sørensen, V. Kiron
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of defatted biomass derived from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. and Desmodesmus sp. when fed to Atlantic salmon postsmolts in seawater. Two experiments, one employing cold-pelleted and the other employing extruded pellets, were carried out to determine the ADC of dry matter (DM), protein, ash and energy. The test feeds consisted of a fishmeal-based reference feed and the algal biomass, at a ratio of 70:30, and yttrium oxide as the inert marker. The ADC of DM and protein in fish fed microalgae-incorporated cold-pelleted feeds were significantly higher for Nannochloropsis sp. compared with Desmodesmus sp. The Nannochloropsis sp. inclusion in extruded feeds also led to higher ADCs of DM and energy compared with Desmodesmus sp. The extrusion processing significantly increased the ADC of ash in both defatted microalgae biomass, as well as ADCs of DM in Nannochloropsis and protein in Desmodesmus sp. In conclusion, the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. was more digestible than Desmodesmus sp., and extrusion processing can be used as a means to improve digestibility of certain nutrients.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T23:50:28.223394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12533
  • European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) ability to discriminate between
           diets made with different dietary fat sources
    • Authors: R.K. Luz; D. Boluda-Navarro, F.J. Sánchez-Vázquez, R. Fortes-Silva, M.C. Portella, S. Zamora Navarro, J.A. Madrid
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine whether juvenile and adult European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), fed ad libitum manually and with self-feeding demand feeders, respectively, were able to discriminate between a fish oil-based diet and a series of diets made with vegetable oils (soybean, linseed, rapeseed and sunflower oil), as well as a fat-free diet. Adult D. labrax (443.6 ± 108.8 g) selected diets made from soybean (SYO) and rapeseed (RO) in proportions similar to fish oil (FO). Demand levels for the other two diets, sunflower (SUO) and linseed (LO) oils, were significantly lower than FO, whilst juveniles (56.4 ± 11.2 g) displayed a preference for SYO and FO. The lowest demand levels were associated with a fat-free diet (FF). Selection percentages of the diets for adult and juvenile fish were, respectively, FF—22.96% and 39.76%, SYO—43.02% and 53.26%, LO—36.48% and 36.19%, SUO—39.87% and 37.32%, and RO—46.38% and 40.94%. The animals’ size and feeding method did not significantly affect dietary selection. However, a statistical difference in specific growth rate (1.37% ± 0.26% day−1) for juveniles was only observed for FO+FF combination. For juveniles, no differences were observed in the conversion index. The juvenile group (FO + FF) had the highest food intake (2.00 ± 0.35 g 100 g−1 body weight). Moreover, the groups fed FO + SUO and FO + RO consumed the least. In conclusion, this study shows D. labrax can discriminate between diets where the only difference is the lipid source. These findings should be used to understand the acceptance or rejection of different source oils, which are increasingly being used in aquaculture such as aquafeeds for European seabass.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T07:50:55.262021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12534
  • Effect of dietary valine levels on the growth performance, feed
           utilization and immune function of juvenile golden pompano, Trachinotus
    • Authors: Z. Huang; X.-h. Tan, C.-p. Zhou, Y.-k. Yang, C.-l. Qi, S.-y. Zhao, H.-z. Lin
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of dietary valine on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes, serum antioxidant and immune indices of juvenile Trachinotus ovatus and determine its valine requirement. Six diets with different concentrations of L-valine (15.0, 16.6, 18.6, 20.7, 23.5 and 25.4 g/kg dry diet, defined as diet Val-1 to Val-6.), were formulated to contain 430 g/kg crude protein with fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal and precoated crystalline amino acids. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate treatments of 20 fish (the initial body weight was 5.34 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the final body weight and percent weight gain (PWG) increased with increasing valine concentration up to 18.6 g/kg (diet Val-3), whereas the diets containing higher valine concentration reduced the growth performance significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:55:39.744739-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12535
  • Combined effects of dietary malic acid and Bacillus subtilis on growth,
           gut microbiota and blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
    • Authors: M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan, S. Jarmołowicz, H.S. Abdo
      Pages: 83 - 93
      Abstract: The study investigated effect of dietary supplementation with malic acid, Bacillus subtilis and a mixture of the two (3 × 2 factorial trial) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) health. Treatment groups (T1–T6) were fed diets containing three levels of malic acid (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/kg), each of which was supplemented with 0 and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. Each treatment group was assigned randomly to triplicate groups of 35 fish (5.26 ± 0.06 g) in 18 tanks for 84 days. The results indicated that survival was higher in all dietary treatments as compared to the control fed fish. The highest values of FBW, WG and SGR (%), PER, PPV and ER were recorded in groups T4 and T6, which were fed diets supplemented with 5 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis and 10 g malic acid/kg and 1.1 × 105 cfu/g B. subtilis, respectively. The best value of FCR was obtained in groups T4 and T6. The lowest total bacterial count in the gut and faeces was detected in fish from group T6. The values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:25:30.882616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12536
  • Practical feeds for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) prepared
           by replacing Rastrineobola argentea fishmeal with freshwater shrimp
           (Caridina nilotica) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) meals
    • Authors: G.K. Kubiriza; A.M. Akol, J. Arnason, Ó. Sigurgeirsson, S. Snorrason, T. Tómasson, H. Thorarensen
      Pages: 94 - 101
      Abstract: This study examined the potential of using the freshwater shrimp, Caridina nilotica (CNM), and mung beans, Vigna radiata (VRM), to replace Rastrineobola argentea fishmeal (RAF) as the primary protein source in fish feeds in East Africa. Six diets with varying proportions of RAF, CNM, VRM and full fat soybean meal were tested on Nile tilapia (initial body mass ± SD: 3.30 ± 0.27 g). The growth performance was best in groups fed diets containing either R. argentea or C. nilotica or a combination of the two. Growth was poorest in the fish fed a combination of C. nilotica and V. radiata, and intermediate in the groups fed the commercial formulation and a diet containing a combination of R. argentea and V. radiata. The cost of feed per kg of fish produced decreased with increasing inclusion of C. nilotica. The price of feed per kg fish produced was comparatively high in feeds containing V. radiata due to poor feed conversion ratio. Of all the diets tested, the price of feed per kg of fish produced was highest in the commercial formulation. Caridina nilotica is a good candidate to substitute R. argentea fishmeal in practical diets for Nile tilapia.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T23:00:37.663553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12537
  • Early introduction of an inert diet and unenriched Artemia enhances growth
           and quality of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae
    • Authors: Ø.J. Hansen; V. Puvanendran, J.P. Jøstensen, I.-B. Falk-Petersen
      Pages: 102 - 111
      Abstract: The effects of two weaning diets and different weaning protocols on growth, survival, skeletal deformity and gut morphology of Atlantic cod larvae were studied in four groups from 16 to 45 days posthatch (dph). Cod larvae in groups 1 (early weaning with control diet) and 2 (early weaning with experimental diet) were used to evaluate the effects of different polar lipid content of weaning diets on larval and juvenile performance. Cod larvae in groups 2, 3 (early weaning with experimental diet + cofeeding with Artemia) and 4 (earlier weaning with experimental diet and earlier cofeeding with Artemia) were used to evaluate the effects of early introduction of dry diet and Artemia. From 45 to 170 dph, cod juveniles from all four groups were reared using a standard feeding protocol. No significant differences in growth, survival, deformities and gut morphology were found between cod larvae and juveniles from groups 1 and 2. Cod larvae fed on cofeeding regime with Artemia nauplii (groups 3 and 4) were bigger and had lower frequencies of jaw and neck deformities and higher foregut microvillus circumference than cod larvae from group 2. Our results demonstrate the importance of proper weaning protocols in producing better quality cod juveniles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T05:25:35.652721-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12538
  • The effect of plant-based diet and suboptimal environmental conditions on
           digestive function and diet-induced enteropathy in rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: P. Mosberian-Tanha; J.W. Schrama, T. Landsverk, L.T. Mydland, M. Øverland
      Pages: 112 - 122
      Abstract: This experiment investigated intestinal enteropathy and digestive function of rainbow trout challenged with soybean meal-based diet (SBM) at optimal or suboptimal environments created by normal or reduced water flow, respectively. Oxygen level remained above 7 mg L-1 for optimal environment and between 4 and 5 mg L-1 for suboptimal environment. Triplicate groups of fish (mean body weight 74 g) were fed fishmeal-based diet (FM) or SBM at optimal environment in period 1 (28 days). In period 2 (42 days), fish were subjected to a change from FM to SBM or remained on the same diet as used in period 1. The fish were also exposed to change from optimal to suboptimal environment or remained under optimal conditions. The fish subjected to change from FM to SBM, regardless of their environment, showed similar degree of enteropathy from day 14. Lipid and starch digestibility was lower in SBM-fed fish at suboptimal environment compared to fish fed the same diet at optimal environment. Crude protein digestibility, however, was highest in SBM-fed fish at suboptimal environment throughout period 2. In conclusion, in SBM-fed rainbow trout, exposure to suboptimal environment did not change the degree of enteropathy; however, lipid and starch digestibility were further reduced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T00:35:35.588875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12539
  • Interactive effects of coffee bean supplementation and waterborne zinc
           toxicity on growth performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant
           activity and zinc bioaccumulation in whole body of common carp, Cyprinus
           carpio L.
    • Authors: M. Abdel-Tawwab; K.M. Sharafeldin, N.E.M. Ismaiel
      Pages: 123 - 130
      Abstract: Roasted coffee powder (RCP; Coffea arabica) is usually used as a beverage for human but there are few attempts to use it as a natural feed supplement in fish diets. In this study, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., (11.8 ± 0.09 g) were reared in zinc (Zn)-containing water at concentrations of 0.0 or 5.0 mg/L and cosupplemented with 0.0 or 1.0 g RCP/kg diet for 6 weeks to investigate effects of RCP supplementation, Zn exposure and their interaction on fish performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant activity and Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body. Fish growth and feed intake were significantly affected by RCP supplementation, Zn toxicity and their interaction. However, fish fed a RCP-supplemented diet did not exhibit better performance than those fed the RCP-free diet and both diets produced higher fish performance than the Zn-toxicated fish. It is noticed that RCP supplementation to Zn-toxicated fish enhanced their growth, and feed utilization as compared to Zn-toxicated fish alone. Fish fed control and RCP-enriched diets showed no significant differences in biochemical variables, which were significantly altered due to waterborne Zn toxicity. Moreover, Zn reduced significantly; meanwhile, RCP supplementation increased significantly superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Notably, Zn exposure could reduce fish growth and antioxidant activity and increase Zn deposition in whole fish body. And RCP intake could enhance the antioxidant activity exerting a protective effect against Zn toxicity, thereby reducing Zn bioaccumulation in whole fish body.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:15:25.526877-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12540
  • Dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio in low-lipid diets for Senegalese sole
           (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) juveniles. Influence on growth
           performance, nutrient utilization and flesh quality
    • Authors: E. Salas-Leiton; M. Conde-Sieira, N. Pelusio, A. Marques, M.R.G. Maia, J.L. Soengas, L.M.P. Valente
      Pages: 131 - 142
      Abstract: Four isoenergetic (21 kJ/g dry matter, DM) and isolipidic (65 g/kg DM) diets containing different crude protein/total carbohydrate (CHO) ratios: 60/26, 56/30, 52/34 and 48/38, were tested in 22 g Senegalese sole for 104 days. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) were not affected by the treatments, and all groups presented extremely low starch ADC values (22.8%–36.5%). Replacement of dietary protein by CHO did not affect daily growth index (0.9–1.0), but significantly increased voluntary feed intake of fish. Regression analyses demonstrated that digestible protein content, rather than digestible energy, was the main dietary factor influencing such feeding activity (R2 = .952). A significantly increased feed conversion ratio was observed in sole fed increasing CHO contents. The dietary protein/CHO ratio did not influence whole-body composition. Sole fed the 48/38 diet showed the lowest efficiency in terms of N and energy utilization. PUFA were the most represented fatty acid fraction in fillet, regardless of the dietary protein/CHO ratio, mainly due to the high content of DHA. Senegalese sole increase feed intake under low dietary protein/CHO ratios to ensure an adequate N intake. Such compensatory mechanism seems to be triggered to satisfy a specific protein metabolic requirement for energy purposes as tissue accretion remained unchanged.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T02:16:34.41109-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12541
  • Evaluation of replacing fish meal with corn protein concentrate in Nile
           tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings commercial diet
    • Authors: N.S.A. Khalifa; I.E.H. Belal, K.A. El-Tarabily, S. Tariq, A.A. Kassab
      Pages: 143 - 152
      Abstract: Four isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 50, 100 and 190 g/kg corn protein concentrate (CPC) as replacement for dietary fish meal were fed to Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings for 8 weeks. Tilapia growth parameters were not significantly (p > .05) different in fish fed diets with 0, 50 and 100 g/kg CPC and found to be superior compared to those fed on 190 g/kg CPC. Fish dressing ratios and body composition were similar among all treatments. The electron microscope indicated that the stomach size of control fish was slightly smaller and the wall was thinner while the stomach of the fish fed all other levels of CPC undergone a remarkable size increase and their walls were thicker after feeding diets with CPC. Total aerobic bacterial and coliform counts were significantly decreased in fish intestine when fed diets with 100 and 190 g/kg CPC compared with fish fed diets with 0 g/kg or 50 g/kg CPC. This study indicates that it is possible to replace up to 534 g/kg of dietary fish meal in tilapia fingerlings using 100 g/kg of CPC without any negative effect on fish growth and proximate body composition.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:05:51.913747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12542
  • Prebiotics effect on growth performance, hepatic intermediary metabolism,
    • Authors: I. Guerreiro; C. R. Serra, P. Pousão-Ferreira, A. Oliva-Teles, P. Enes
      Pages: 153 - 163
      Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on growth performance, hepatic metabolism, gut microbiota and digestive enzymes activities of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to control but supplemented with 10 g of scFOS, XOS or GOS per kilo diet, which were fed to fish during 12 weeks. Prebiotics had no effect on growth, feed efficiency or gut microbiota. Plasmatic triglycerides were lower in fish fed XOS than FOS and GOS diets. Malic enzyme activity was lower in fish fed XOS than FOS diet. Fish fed XOS diet had lower fatty acid synthetase (FAS), a key lipogenic enzyme and higher alanine aminotransferase activities. Fifteen days after the start of the trial, an enhancement of total alkaline protease, trypsin and lipase activities was observed in fish fed prebiotics, but such effect disappeared at 12 weeks. In conclusion, scFOS, XOS or GOS seem to have limited applicability in white sea bream feed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T06:50:51.166215-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12543
  • Effects of dietary phospholipid and cholesterol levels on growth and fatty
           acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus
    • Authors: T. Han; J.T. Wang, X.Y. Li, Y.X. Yang, M. Yang, H.L. Tian, P.Q. Zheng, C.L. Wang
      Pages: 164 - 172
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different phospholipids (PL) and cholesterol (CH) levels on the growth, moulting and fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Six diets were designed to contain three PL levels (0, 10 and 20 g/kg) and two CH levels (2 and 8 g/kg). Juvenile swimming crabs (3.48 ± 0.02 g/crab) were reared for 8 weeks. The weight gain (WG) was significantly (p  .05). The moulting frequency (MF), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FCR) were not significantly (p > .05) affected by the dietary treatments. The serum total cholesterol (TCH) significantly (p > .05) increased with increasing dietary PL level. The C20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3 content of the whole body of crabs increased with the addition of PL to the diet containing 2 g/kg CH of diet. An interaction was observed between PL and CH on certain saturated and unsaturated fatty acid concentrations of body.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:55:35.608624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12544
  • Evaluation of three non-genetically modified soybean cultivars as
           ingredients and a yeast-based additive as a supplement in practical diets
           for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; A. Buentello, R. Shannon, A. Mustafa, A. Abebe, D.A. Davis
      Pages: 173 - 183
      Abstract: Two growth trials and a physiology assessment were conducted to evaluate three non-genetically modified (GM) soybean cultivars as ingredients in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In addition, a commercially available fermented yeast product was evaluated as dietary supplement. For the growth trials (46 and 35 days, respectively, for trials 1 and 2), the basal diet was primarily composed of soybean meal (SBM), fishmeal (FM), whole wheat, corn protein concentrate, poultry meal (PM, pet food grade) and corn starch. Non-GM cultivars were processed with novel methodologies to produce Navita™ ingredients (N1, N2 and N3) which were incorporated at low (L) or high (H) levels into the experimental diets, in partial replacement of FM and full replacement of conventional SBM. The last two formulations incorporated the fermented yeast for a total of nine experimental diets (Table ). Results from the growth trials indicate that shrimp fed diet 5 (HN2) exhibited significantly lower (p 
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T00:50:38.313559-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12545
  • Effects of totally replacing dietary fish oil by linseed oil or soybean
           oil on juvenile hybrid sturgeon, Acipenser baeri Brandt♀×A. schrenckii
    • Authors: C. Liu; J. Wang, Z. Ma, T. Li, W. Xing, N. Jiang, W. Li, C. Li, L. Luo
      Pages: 184 - 194
      Abstract: The growth performance, body composition, fillet fatty acid content, serum hepatic enzymes and postprandial changes in serum lipid metabolism of hybrid sturgeon (70.8 ± 0.5 g) were investigated to determine the effects of total replacement of 80 g kg-1 fish oil (diet A) with linseed oil (diet B) and soybean oil (diet C), respectively. No significant differences in weight gain rate and specific growth ratio were observed among all fish groups (p > .05). Diet A fish group had the highest, but diet B fish group had the lowest feed intake (p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T00:35:38.764992-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12546
  • Different preference is modulated by the feeding stimulants
           supplementation in different Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus
           sinensis) basic diets
    • Authors: C.-X. Sun; W.-N. Xu, D.-D. Zhang, X.-F. Li, P.-F. Li, G.-Z. Jiang, W.-B. Liu
      Pages: 195 - 203
      Abstract: Five 2-week feeding trials were conducted to investigate five stimulants on P. sinensis. Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated, one contained 600 g kg–1 fishmeal (FM diet) and the other contained 420 g kg–1 fishmeal and 225 g kg–1 animal protein blend (APB diet), and each tested one stimulant with four levels. The feeding stimulant candidates were betaine, 2-carboxy-ethyl dimethyl sulphonium bromide (DMPT), inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP), taurine and squid extract. In the experiment on each stimulant, turtles (10.85 ± 0.10 g) were equally divided into FM and APB groups and fed with an equal mixture of corresponding diets containing four levels of stimulants, respectively. Each diet contained a unique rare earth oxide as inert marker. Turtles were fed twice daily (8:00 and 17:00), and faeces were collected. Preference for each diet was estimated based on the relative concentration of each marker in the faeces. In the FM group, only IMP showed the enhanced attraction. But in APB groups, all the stimulants, except IMP, showed higher preference than basal diets for at least one inclusion level, and the optimum level was 10 g kg–1 for betaine, 0.1 g kg–1 for DMPT, 0.1 g kg–1 for IMP, 5 g kg–1 for taurine and 10 g kg–1 for squid extract, and the squid extract had the strongest stimulating effect among the stimulants.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:41:30.363156-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12547
  • Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, lipid metabolism and health
    • Authors: C. Xu; E. Li, Y. Liu, S. Wang, X. Wang, K. Chen, J.G. Qin, L. Chen
      Pages: 204 - 214
      Abstract: Three isonitrogenous diets containing 60 g kg–1, 90 g kg–1 or 120 g kg–1 lipid were formulated and fed to the Litopenaeus vannamei (2.00 ± 0.08 g) under two salinities (25 or 3 psu) in triplicate for 8 weeks. Shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid had higher weight gain and specific growth rate than shrimp fed the other two diets regardless of salinity, and the hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary lipid at both salinities. The shrimp at 3 psu had significantly lower survival and ash content, higher condition factor, weight gain and specific growth rate than the shrimp at 25 psu. Increasing dietary lipid level induced the accumulation of serum MDA regardless of salinity, and at 3 psu, it reduced the serum GOT and GPT activities and the mRNA expression of TNF-α in intestine and gill of L. vannamei. The hepatopancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) and CPT-1 mRNA expression showed the highest value in shrimp fed 90 g kg–1 lipid diet at 3 psu. This study indicates that 120 g kg–1 dietary lipid may negatively affect the growth and induce oxidative damage in shrimp, but can improve immune defence at low salinity; 60 g kg–1 dietary lipid cannot afford the growth and either has no positive impact on the immunology for L. vannamei at 3 psu.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T06:01:02.599968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12548
  • Dietary manganese requirement of juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus
           lanceolatus × E. fuscoguttatus
    • Authors: Y. Liu; J.Y. Wang, B.S. Li, H.J. Qiao, X.D. Liu, T.T. Hao, X.Y. Wang
      Pages: 215 - 223
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary manganese (Mn) requirement for juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus × E. fuscoguttatus. The basal diet was formulated to contain 520 g/kg crude protein from casein and fishmeal. Manganese methionine was added to the basal diet at 0 (control group), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg Mn/kg diet providing 7.48, 10.34, 13.76, 19.72, 31.00 and 53.91 mg Mn/kg diet, respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of juveniles, and each tank was stocked with 20 fish (initial weight, 60.06 ± 0.68 g). The manganese content in rearing water was monitored and kept below 0.01 mg/L. Results showed that the weight gain ratio (WGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), Mn contents in whole body, liver and vertebra, and activities of hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), total SOD (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were significantly improved by dietary Mn supplementation (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:16:50.470314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12549
  • You are what you eat' Differences in lipid composition of cod larvae
           reared on natural zooplankton and enriched rotifers
    • Authors: A. Folkvord; R. Koedijk, O. Grahl-Nielsen, S. Meier, B. Rydland Olsen, G. Blom, E. Otterlei, A.K. Imsland
      Pages: 224 - 235
      Abstract: A laboratory experiment with larval cod fed natural zooplankton and enriched rotifers was carried out to investigate the effects of feed type on fatty acid (FA) and lipid composition. A divergence in FA composition was observed within a week of feeding on respective diets, and subsequent transfers of larvae from one feeding regime to the other also confirmed a rapid change in FA composition towards that of the newly provided feed source. The rapid change in FA composition after switching diet is in part expected to be due to the high growth and tissue turnover of cod larvae during the early life stages and provides an opportunity to assess recent feeding history by means of FA analysis. The FA contents also varied between the main analysed lipid classes, with relatively higher eicosapentaenoic acid levels in neutral lipids than in polar lipid classes. Although zooplankton contained notably more polar lipids and less neutral lipids than enriched rotifers, the relative amounts of polar and neutral lipids in larvae from respective prey groups were similar, signifying that the larval composition only partly reflects what they have been eating. Still, the FA composition of the previous diet was still discernible in larvae after 1–2 weeks of transfer to a new diet or after weaning to a formulated feed. The potential long-term effects of these nutritional differences are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T23:10:28.311375-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12550
  • Effects of dietary yeast inclusion and acute stress on postprandial plasma
           free amino acid profiles of dorsal aorta-cannulated rainbow trout
    • Authors: D. Huyben; A. Vidaković, M. Langeland, A. Nyman, T. Lundh, A. Kiessling
      Pages: 236 - 246
      Abstract: In a 4-week experiment, 15 cannulated rainbow trout were fed three diets based on fish meal (FM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (SC) and Wickerhamomyces anomalus and S. cerevisiae yeast mix (WA). Fish were fed daily, and blood samples were collected on day 7 of each week at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr after feeding. In the final week, fish were exposed to a 1-min netting stressor. All essential and non-essential plasma amino acid levels except methionine were similar between fish fed diets FM, SC and WA. Plasma methionine and sarcosine were significantly higher in fish fed diets SC and WA, possibly due to the crystalline methionine level, form or feeding regime. Hydroxy-proline and 3-methyl-histidine were higher in fish fed diet FM, which can be explained by the higher levels present in fish meal compared with yeast. In stressed fish, there were no dietary effects on plasma amino acid levels, but significant increases in taurine and cystathionine were found in stressed compared with unstressed fish. These results demonstrate that yeast-based diets produce similar plasma amino acid profiles to fish meal and suggest that yeast may be a suitable fish meal replacement in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T02:25:40.192162-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12551
  • Effect of in vitro selected synbiotics (galactooligosaccharide and
           mannanoligosaccharide with or without Enterococcus faecalis) on growth
           performance, immune responses and intestinal microbiota of juvenile narrow
           clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823
    • Authors: O. Safari; M. Paolucci
      Pages: 247 - 259
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the best synbiotic combination (based on growth and short-chain fatty acids production) between Enterococcus faecalis and eight prebiotics. Based on the results of in vitro studies, E. faecalis + galactooligosaccharide (EGOS) and E. faecalis + mannanoligosaccharide (EMOS) were selected as synbiotics. A 126-day feeding trial was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotics, probiotic and synbiotics on the growth indices, In vivo ADC of nutrients, digestive enzymes, hemolymph indices and finally, biological responses against 48-hr Aeromonas hydrophila exposure challenges of juvenile (4.13 ± 0.12 g) crayfish. The highest values of SGR (2.19% body weight day−1), VFI (2.75% body weight day−1), survival rate (96.67%) and the lowest FCR (2.33) were observed in the juvenile crayfish fed the EGOS- diet. The significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T05:41:29.979206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12553
  • Suitability of two agglomerated commercial microdiets for rearing larvae
           of different strains of Coregonus lavaretus under cold-water conditions
    • Authors: S. Esmaeilzadeh-Leithner; J. Wanzenböck
      Pages: 260 - 268
      Abstract: The suitability of two agglomerated commercial microdiets (“Gemma micro®” and “O.range®” from now on called diet A and diet B) as a starter feed was tested on larvae of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Two strains (Baltic and Alpine) were tested in a 60-day experiment under ambient cold-water conditions (average 7.6 ± 1.9°C). The experiment was carried out in 400-L PVC tanks with a stocking density of 5,000 larvae per tank. Samples were removed weekly to determine growth, survival and feed acceptance, in addition to water quality. Striking differences between the feeds and different strains were observed. For one diet, growth and survival were distinctively higher in strain 1 compared to strain 2, where it was invariably low with both diets. For the second diet, growth and survival in strain 1 were also low and similar to strain 2. Feed acceptance in strain 1 was found higher compared to strain 2. Final weights were significantly different with strain 1 being heavier; however, in terms of relative growth rate, no differences between strains were found. Strong differences in the performance in terms of growth, survival and feed acceptance of different strains of European whitefish became apparent. Furthermore, the rearing of larvae exclusively on standard agglomerated commercial microdiets under cold-water conditions is possible, but not every microdiet is suitable.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T03:30:37.803483-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12554
  • Dietary riboflavin requirement of fingerling Channa punctatus (Bloch)
           based on growth, conversion efficiencies, protein retention, liver
           riboflavin storage, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition
    • Authors: Seemab Zehra; M.A. Khan
      Pages: 269 - 276
      Abstract: A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the dietary riboflavin requirement of the fingerling Channa punctatus (6.7 ± 0.85 cm; 4.75 ± 0.72 g) by a feeding casein–gelatin-based (450 g/kg crude protein; 18.39 kJ/g gross energy) purified diet containing graded levels of riboflavin (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/kg diet) to triplicate groups of fish near to satiation at 09:30 and 16:30 hr. Absolute weight gain (AWG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR, % per day), protein retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to 6 mg riboflavin per kg diet but did not decrease further with higher riboflavin supplementation. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration also supported the pattern of FCR, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased with increasing concentrations of dietary riboflavin from 0 to 6 mg/kg. Liver riboflavin concentrations increased with increasing levels of riboflavin up to 8 mg/kg diet. Broken-line regression analysis of AWG, PRE and liver riboflavin concentrations of fingerling C. punctatus with dietary riboflavin level indicated optimum growth and liver riboflavin saturation at 5.7, 6.1 and 7.7 mg riboflavin per kg diet, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:55:24.744416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12555
  • Effect of dietary lipid on growth, expression of canthaxanthin-based
           coloration, digestive enzymes activities and immunity in blood parrot
           cichlid Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus
    • Authors: M. Li; M.M. Rahman, Y.-C. Lin, K. Chiu
      Pages: 277 - 284
      Abstract: A 42-day experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of four different lipid containing diets (lipid 74.0, 105.3, 135.0, 168.1 g/kg diet) on growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and expression of canthaxanthin-based coloration in parrot cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus). Each diet contained canthaxanthin 0.05 g/kg diet. Two hundred and eighty-eight fish were randomly stocked into 12 glass aquaria to form four triplicate groups. Fish were fed one of four diets daily at 20 g/kg of their total body weight. Growth, digestive enzymes activities, immunology and body colour parameters were measured at the end of experiment. Based on the polynomial regression of dietary lipid level and specific growth rate, the dietary lipid level inclusion was calculated as 117.2 g/kg for the highest specific growth rate of these animals. The polynomial regression of skin colour parameters and dietary lipid levels indicated the critical threshold lipid inclusions in diet: 113.7 g/kg for the best expression of lightness, 112.1 g/kg for redness, 127.5 g/kg for yellowness and 125.3 g/kg for chroma of fish's skin. Considering redness, lightness and specific growth rate are most important variables, a diet containing lipid 115.0 g/kg can be recommended for blood parrot cichlid.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:07:28.503966-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12556
  • Effect of dietary Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth
           performance and pigmentation of Queen loach Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822)
    • Authors: S. Gogoi; S.C. Mandal, A.B. Patel
      Pages: 285 - 291
      Abstract: The present Present experiment was conducted for 75 days in triplicates groups in 18 aquaria of 50 L each to study the effect of Wolffia arrhiza and Spirulina platensis on growth and pigmentation of Botia dario. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared with 350 g/kg crude protein (CP) level. Diet 1 (T1) was prepared without fortification of spirulina and wolffia. T2 diet was prepared with spirulina as supplement of carotenoids. Similarly, T3, T4, T5 and T6 diets were prepared by substituting 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg of CP from spirulina with wolffia, respectively. Significant differences (p  .05). Thus, it can be concluded that diet containing 100 g/kg spirulina can be effective for better growth while diet containing 25 g/kg spirulina and 150 g/kg wolffia can be effective for higher survival and pigmentation in Botia dario.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:22.060789-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12558
  • Response of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to unrefined peanut oil
           diets: Effect on growth performance, fish health and fillet fatty acid
    • Authors: Ü. Acar; A. Türker
      Pages: 292 - 299
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding study with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted to determine the effects of replacement of fish oil (FO) by unrefined peanut oil (PO) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, fatty acid composition and serum biochemical and haematological parameters. Rainbow trouts (51.60 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets formulated by replacing dietary FO with PO at levels of level 0 (PO0), 1/4 (PO25), 1/2 (PO50), 3/4 (PO75) and 4/4 (PO100), respectively. As a result, the best growth performance was observed in fish fed with PO0 and PO50 diet. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of body compositions. Fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets reflected the fatty acid profiles of the feeds that the fishes were fed with. In this study, the haematological parameters detected that there were no significant differences compared to the control group, whereas the serum biochemical parameters generally worsened as the ratio of peanut oil in the ration exceeded half of fish oil. As a conclusion, the results of the study suggested that the unrefined peanut oil could be used as a replacer of fish oil in diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:50:24.337606-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12559
  • Graded replacing fishmeal with canola meal in diets affects growth and
           target of rapamycin pathway gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream,
           Megalobrama amblycephala
    • Authors: Q.-L. Zhou; H.-M. Habte-Tsion, X. Ge, J. Xie, M. Ren, B. Liu, L. Miao, L. Pan
      Pages: 300 - 309
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) with canola meal (CM) on the growth performance, feed utilization and related gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fishes were fed with five isonitrogenous (330 g/kg crude protein) and isoenergetic (15 MJ/kg) diets for 16 weeks, which was graded replacing levels of fishmeal (replacing 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5 and 150 g/kg FM with CM). The results revealed that specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio of the groups with replacement level up to half were significantly higher than the others, while feed intake was inverse. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) mRNA level in the gut was significantly up-regulated in groups CM25 and CM50 compared to other groups. Relative gene expression of IGF-1 among groups was extremely significant based on the nonparametric test. Replacement of FM with CM caused a reduction in the hepatic expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), while significant increase trends were observed in hepatic genes of protein kinase B (AKT) and eIF4-binding protein (4E-BP2). However, TOR gene expression in the gut was significantly up-regulated first and then down-regulated, while mRNA levels of 4E-BP2 and S6K1 in the gut were first significantly decreased and then increased in CM75, finally significantly decreased to the lowest. The overall results indicated that up to 75 g/kg FM could be replaced by CM (350.5 g/kg CM) in the diets for juvenile blunt snout bream. Besides, these signalling molecules could explain further the mechanisms that juvenile blunt snout can only maintain optimal growth performance up to 75 g/kg FM replacement with CM.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:16:19.377181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12560
  • Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus
           punctatus growth performance
    • Authors: B.C. Peterson; M.H. Li
      Pages: 310 - 314
      Abstract: Juvenile channel catfish (5.6 g/fish) were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain, wheat middlings) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. The basal diet was supplemented with three levels of crystalline taurine to provide 1, 2 and 5 g/kg taurine. In addition, a fifth diet that contained 80 g/kg menhaden fishmeal formulated with the same plant-source ingredients was included as the positive control diet. Fish were fed the five diets once daily for 12 weeks. Weight gain was highest in catfish fed taurine at 2 g/kg (47.8 g/fish) compared to catfish fed the control basal diet (40.8 g/fish) and 80 g/kg fishmeal diet (41.1 g/fish) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T07:16:43.24428-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12561
  • Dietary valine requirement of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: W. Xiao; D.Y. Li, J.L. Zhu, Z.Y. Zou, Y.R. Yue, H. Yang
      Pages: 315 - 323
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to quantify the dietary valine requirement of cultured juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Six isonitrogenous (280 g/kg crude protein) and isoenergetic (16.06 MJ/kg gross energy) diets with graded levels of valine (amounting to 4.1, 7.2, 9.9, 12.7, 15.6 and 18.8 g/kg of dry diet) were formulated. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish (6.48 ± 0.06 g). Results showed that the weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention efficiency all increased with an increasing level of dietary valine up to 12.7 g/kg, but remained relatively constant for fish fed higher levels of dietary valine. In addition, the total protein concentration and aspirate aminotransferase activity in plasma, hepatic lysozyme and catalase activities were all significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:36.588147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12562
  • Effect of dietary taurine and methionine supplementation on growth
           performance, body composition, taurine retention and lipid status of
           Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897), fed with plant-based
    • Authors: S.M. Hoseini; S.A. Hosseini, S. Eskandari, M. Amirahmadi
      Pages: 324 - 331
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary taurine and methionine on Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) fed with plant-based diets. To this purpose, sturgeons were fed with either of methionine + taurine-supplemented (MT), without taurine supplementation (M) or without methionine supplementation (T) diets. Growth performance, body composition, tissue amino acids and serum glucose and lipids were studied at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the treatments T and MT had similar growth performance and feed efficiency, which were significantly higher than the treatment M. Dietary taurine and methionine significantly altered carcass and liver taurine and methionine contents. The highest serum glucose was observed in the treatment M and the lowest in treatment MT. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the treatments T and MT were similar and significantly higher than those of the treatment M. This study showed that Persian sturgeon needs taurine supplementation when fed with plant-based diets, but the supplemented level seems to be lower than those of the other species. Taurine has hypoglycaemic and lipidogenesis effects on Persian sturgeon. However, further studies are required to illustrate taurine and methionine metabolism in Persian sturgeon.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T06:36:00.250887-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12563
  • Apparent digestibility coefficients of European grain legumes in rainbow
           trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: S.C.Q. Magalhães; A.R.J. Cabrita, P. Valentão, P.B. Andrade, P. Rema, M.R.G. Maia, L.M.P. Valente, A.J.M. Fonseca
      Pages: 332 - 340
      Abstract: Two trials were carried out to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), lipids, starch and gross energy (GE) of six European varieties of grain legumes, namely chickpea-type Kabuli (CHK), chickpea-type Desi (CHD), field pea (FP), faba bean (FB), white lupin (WL) and chickling vetch (CV), in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia juveniles. The ADCs were measured using a reference diet and six experimental diets (700 g/kg of the reference diet and 300 g/kg of each raw grain legume) containing 10 g/kg chromic oxide as inert marker. Additionally, grain legumes were analysed for the organic acids profile. In rainbow trout, FP presented the highest ADCs of DM, CP and GE, whereas chickpeas and FB had the lowest DM, GE and starch ADC values. In Nile tilapia, the lowest values of nutrients (except starch) and energy ADCs were found for FP and CV. Nutrients and energy of chickpeas, WL and FB were better digested by tilapia, whereas FP was better digested by trout. Overall results reveal raw grain legumes as promising feed sources for both fish species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:33.367686-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12564
  • Effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio on growth, feed
           utilization, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of golden
           pompano (Trachinotus ovatus)
    • Authors: L.-F. Dong; T. Tong, Q. Zhang, Q.-C. Wang, M.-Z. Xu, H.-R. Yu, J. Wang
      Pages: 341 - 347
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO: L) on growth, feed utilization, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus. Five iso-nitrogenous (450 g/kg protein) and iso-energetic (19 MJ/kg gross energy) diets with varying CHO: L ratios of 0.68, 1.02, 1.62, 2.61 and 4.35, respectively, were fed to triplicate groups of 30 fish (average 13.8 ± 0.1 g). Results showed that dietary CHO: L ratios did not show any significant influence on survival of golden pompano (p > .05) but significantly affected its growth performance and feed utilization (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:30:24.003745-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12565
  • Utilization of H2SO4-hydrolysed phosphorus from herring bone by-products
           in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) 0+ postsmolt
    • Authors: S. Albrektsen; E.-J. Lock, G. Bæverfjord, M. Pedersen, A. Krasnov, H. Takle, E. Veiseth-Kent, R. Ørnsrud, R. Waagbø, E. Ytteborg
      Pages: 348 - 365
      Abstract: The utilization efficiency of phosphorus (P) hydrolysed from herring by-products in feed for Atlantic salmon 0+ postsmolt was studied. Seven diets were produced with a low P level (D1): 5 g soluble P/kg, with P hydrolysed from herring by-products (D2, D3, D4): 7, 9 and 11 g soluble P/kg, or blue whiting fish bone meal (D5): 9 g soluble P/kg, and with P from NaH2PO4 (D6, D7): 9 g soluble P/kg diet. Diet D7 was also added (NH4)2SO4. Fish fed D1 had significantly lower growth compared to D3, D5 and D7, morphological changes in bone consistent with low mineral contents, significantly reduced scale macromineral contents and changes in P markers, that is bone ALP and NaPi in pyloric caeca. The average P retention was 3.6 and 3.2 g P/kg weight gain, respectively, in D2–D7 and in D1. Fish fed D3, D5 and D6 showed similar growth, P digestibility, tissue mineralization, P retention and P excretion. The dietary P requirement in salmon was met between 5.1 and 7.4 g/kg soluble P (DM). This study shows that P hydrolysed from fish bones can be recycled and used as an efficient P source in feed for Atlantic salmon.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T01:45:59.198771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12566
  • Effects of increasing protein level on the performance, enzyme activity
           and body composition of the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis
           (Steindachner, 1879)
    • Authors: F.C. Sterzelecki; J.K. Sugai, M. Baloi, G. Passini, C.V.A. Carvalho, D.M. Fracalossi, V.R. Cerqueira
      Pages: 366 - 374
      Abstract: A six-week growth trial was performed to estimate the dietary protein requirements for maximum growth of juvenile Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) based on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and digestive enzyme activity. Six isoenergetic diets were formulated to contain protein levels that increased from 250 to 500 g/kg. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 160 fish with mean initial body weight of 0.93 ± 0.13 g, which were fed four times a day to apparent satiation. Growth tended to increase with the increase in the dietary protein level up to 400 g/kg. Total protein intake was indirectly correlated to apparent protein utilization. No significant differences in whole-body composition were found between fish fed the different protein levels. Acid protease and neutral lipase activities did not show significant differences among the different protein dietary groups. Alkaline protease activity increased in fish fed up to 350 g/kg of protein and amylase activity in fish fed up to 400 g/kg. Using polynomial regression, 367 g/kg was estimated to be the optimum dietary protein requirement for maximum weight gain of juvenile Brazilian sardines.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T08:10:25.424934-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12567
  • Evaluation of dried fermented biomass as a feed ingredient in plant-based
           practical diets for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: X. Qiu; D.A. Davis
      Pages: 383 - 391
      Abstract: Two growth trials were designed to evaluate the utilization of dried fermented biomass (DFB) in commercial type feed formulation for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In trial 1, four experimental diets were formulated to utilize increasing levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 g/kg) of spray-dried fermented biomass (SDFB) as a replacement of fish meal (FM). Results indicated that SDFB can be utilized up to 50 g/kg as a substitution for FM without causing growth depression in shrimp. However, dietary SDFB supplementation at 100 g/kg significantly reduced the weight gain (WG) of shrimp and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR). This reduction in performance is likely due to palatability or nutrient imbalances of the feed. In trial 2, nine experimental diets were formulated with increasing levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 120 g/kg) of spray-dried (S) or granular (G) DFB to replace soy protein concentrate (SPC) or SPC + corn protein concentrate (CPC). This allowed the comparison between spray-dried and ring-dried products. Ring drying produced a granular product, reducing dust and increasing product particle size. Shrimp fed with diet containing 20 g/kg GDFB performed the best in terms of final mean weight, WG and FCR. Significantly reduced growth and increased FCR were observed in shrimp fed diets containing 60 and 120 g/kg SDFB. Lipid content of whole body was significantly reduced when GDFB was incorporated at 120 g/kg. No significant differences were detected in survival, protein retention efficiency as well as protein and ash contents of the whole shrimp. Results from analysis of covariance indicated that the processing method (covariant) had a significant effect on final mean weight, WG and FCR. In general, shrimp fed with diet containing granular product performed better as compared to those fed with diets utilizing spray-dried product. GDFB can be utilized in the diets up to 120 g/kg in practical shrimp feeds as a substitute for SPC and CPC without compromising the growth of shrimp. However, a significant reduction in WG was observed in the diets containing 60 and 120 g/kg SDFB. The results in the current study demonstrate that processing changes to produce a granular product produced an improved feed ingredient for shrimp.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T06:36:02.45768-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12569
  • Effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin on growth, haemato-biochemical
           parameters, immune functions and tolerance to air exposure stress in the
           African cichlid Sciaenochromis fryeri
    • Authors: A.M. Moradian; S. Dorafshan, F. Paykan Heyrati, E. Ebrahimi
      Pages: 392 - 399
      Abstract: The effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin (LF) on the growth, haemato-biochemical parameters, non-specific serum immunity and stress responses were investigated in the African cichlid, Sciaenochromis fryeri. Four isocaloric diets containing 0 (control), 200, 400 and 800 mg LF kg−1 diet were formulated and fed to juvenile fish for 8 weeks. The treatments had no effects on the survival rate, growth performance or haematological parameters. Nor were the serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin significantly influenced. Serum iron levels and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), however, changed vigorously as the result of dietary LF. Dietary LF led to significant reductions in serum levels of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The highest lysozyme and bactericidal activities were observed in the fish fed the diets with 200 and 800 mg/kg of LF, respectively, while no changes were observed in their ACH50 levels. Recovery rates were measured after 10 min of air exposure stress. The rate was about twice higher (36% vs 20%) in fish fed on 400 mg LF than in those fed the control diet. Results revealed that adding 400 mg/kg LF could be beneficial as an iron discriminator, for liver function as well as an immune and stress resistance promoter.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T13:25:14.868825-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12570
  • Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from
           rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792), with inhibitory
           activity against Vagococcus salmoninarum and Lactococcus garvieae
    • Authors: B.I. Didinen; E.E. Onuk, S. Metin, O. Cayli
      Pages: 400 - 407
      Abstract: In this study, a total of 98 lactic acid bacteria isolated from rainbow trout intestines were screened for their probiotic properties. The isolates were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of Vagococcus salmoninarum and Lactococcus garvieae. Based on in vitro antagonism, 10 isolates were selected and evaluated pathogenicity in rainbow trout. Isolates were further investigated for hydrophobicity, bile salts and acid tolerance. These isolates were able to survive low pH and high bile concentrations and showed good adherence characteristics. Isolates were characterized phenotypically, and then, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used for confirmation. Selected strains were administered orally at 108 cfu/g feed, and fish were challenged with V. salmoninarum and L. garvieae. The fish fed with lactic acid bacteria supplemented diets did not improve protection against V. salmoninarum. However, administration of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis M17 2-2 and Lactobacillus sakei 2-3 resulted in a significant reduction in mortality due to L. garvieae when compared to the control fish. RPS values were calculated as 80 and 53% in fish fed with L. sakei 2-3 and L. lactis subsp. lactis M17 2-2, respectively. Our results suggest that these strains could provide an alternative for lactococcosis control in aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:35:31.840039-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12571
  • Effect of three natural phytochemicals supplementation on growth
           performance, testosterone level and feed utilization of Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus)
    • Authors: A.T. Mansour; E.A. Omar, T.M. Srour, M.I. Yousef
      Pages: 408 - 415
      Abstract: An 84-day feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary ginseng extract (GE), tribulus extract (TE) and date palm pollen grains (DPPG) on growth, testosterone level and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings. Seven experimental treatments were conducted in three replicates: control fed basal diets without any supplementations, GE0.2 (supplemented with 0.2 g GE/kg diet), GE0.4 (supplemented with 0.4 g GE/kg diet), TE0.6 (supplemented with 0.6 g TE/kg diet), TE1.2 (supplemented with 1.2 g TE/kg diet), DPPG3 (supplemented with 3 g DPPG/kg diet) and DPPG6 (supplemented with 6 g DPPG/kg diet). The results indicated that all dietary phytochemicals significantly increased growth compared to the control. Plasma testosterone levels were improved by 86.27%, 64.58%, 57.35% and 24.58% with TE1.2, GE0.4, TE0.6 and DPPG6, respectively, more than the control. The relationship between testosterone and final body weight showed a significant simple linear regression with a positive correlation. The nutrient utilization imprxoved with higher doses of phytochemical supplementations. Moreover, protein content increased and ether extract decreased with phytochemical supplementation. The present results concluded that higher doses of GE, TE and DPPG could be used as growth promoters and testosterone boosters for Nile tilapia fingerlings.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T02:55:52.518018-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12572
  • Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of advanced
           nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing Black
           Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal
    • Authors: E. Devic; W. Leschen, F. Murray, D.C. Little
      Pages: 416 - 423
      Abstract: A 32-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects on the performance, feed utilization efficiency and body composition of a strategic inclusion of Black Soldier Fly larvae meal (MM) in a commercially formulated diet for advance nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were commercially formulated and manufactured as a control and three test diets with strategic inclusions of MM inclusions (0, 30, 50 and 80 g/kg) and poultry by-product meal substituting gradually three conventional expensive feedstuffs: fish meal, fish oil and soybean meal. Fish (5.7 ± 0.5 g/fish) were nursed in a cage-in-lake system (Volta Lake, Ghana), under conditions similar to commercial farming practices. Control and experimental diets were fed to triplicate cages by hand to visual satiety, six times per day. Growth performance (final weight; weight gain and SGR), feed utilization efficiency indices (FCR and PER) and feed intake were not significantly different (p ≥ .05) between treatments. Survival was significantly different (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:25:20.3709-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12573
  • Combined effect of weaning time and co-feeding duration on growth and
           survival of peled Coregonus peled (Gmelin) larvae
    • Authors: V. Stejskal; J. Matousek, M. Prokesova, P. Podhorec, R. Sebesta, B. Drozd
      Pages: 434 - 441
      Abstract: The study investigated the combined effect of weaning from live feed to a commercial dry pellet at 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 days posthatching (dph) and co-feeding for 1, 3 or 6 days on survival and growth of Coregonus peled larvae. Additional groups fed only live Artemia sp. nauplii (ART), and only Biomar LARVIVA ProWean 100 (DRY) were included. A final survival rate of 66.4%–85.5% was observed in groups weaned after 20 dph. Final body weight (BW) and total length (TL) were significantly lower in groups weaned at 10 and 15 dph, regardless of the duration of co-feeding. Larvae reached 29–37 mg BW and TL of 17.7–19.0 mm in groups weaned at 20, 25 and 30 dph. The recommended minimum duration of feeding with live food, based on these results, is 20 days. Based on the significantly higher yield of larvae weaned after 20 dph irrespective of co-feeding duration, it can be concluded that abrupt weaning to dry food after 20 days of feeding with live prey can provide adequate production while reducing the effort and costs associated with live feed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24T03:52:39.361526-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12575
  • Astaxanthin krill oil enhances the growth performance and fatty acid
           composition of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared
           under hypersaline conditions
    • Authors: O.S. Castro; L. Burri, A.J.P. Nunes
      Pages: 442 - 452
      Abstract: Hypersalinity culture of marine shrimp can lead to poor growth and feed efficiency. This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of three oil sources (krill, fish and soybean) on the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared under high salinity. Shrimp of 2.79 ± 0.60 g were reared for 64 days under isosmotic (ISO, 23 ± 1.2 g/L) and hyperosmotic (HOS, 44 ± 2.0 g/L) conditions. Diets varied in their fatty acid composition: Control, 35 g/kg of the diet (as fed basis) soybean oil; Fish, 27 g/kg fish oil and 10 g/kg soybean oil; Krill, 48 g/kg krill oil and 4 g/kg soybean oil; Krill-, 15 g/kg krill oil and 21 g/kg soybean oil; Krill+, 55 g/kg krill oil and 4 g/kg soybean oil. At harvest, Krill diet promoted the fastest shrimp growth (1.01 ± 0.01 g/week) and body weight (11.97 ± 2.01 g), regardless of water salinity. There were no significant differences in shrimp survival (93.4 ± 5.07%) and yield (554 ± 68.5 g/m2) among different diets. Shrimp fed Fish, Krill and Krill+ had higher concentrations of PUFA compared to those fed Control and Krill- diets.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:00:47.360152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12577
  • Cross-effects of dietary probiotic supplementation and rearing temperature
           on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, cumulative mortality
           and innate immune response in seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
    • Authors: L.F. Pereira; M.J. Peixoto, P. Carvalho, K. Sansuwan, G.A. Santos, J.F.M. Gonçalves, R.O.A. Ozório
      Pages: 453 - 460
      Abstract: Probiotic influence on fish immune response and digestive capacity is extensively discussed in aquaculture. In this experiment, a feeding trial was carried out for 100 days to evaluate the cross-effects of probiotic supplementation and rearing temperature (17, 20 and 23°C) in juvenile seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The experimental diet was supplemented with a commercial probiotic blend (Biomin AquaStar Growout) at 3 g/kg diet (5.23 × 108 CFU/kg diet), and tested against a non-supplemented diet (control). Growth performance and innate immune responses were analysed at 70 and 100 days of feeding, whereas digestive enzyme activities were determined at 100 days of feeding. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were subjected to a handling stress and cumulative mortality was recorded. Digestive enzyme activities were influenced by temperature, with α-amylase and lipase activities peaking at the higher temperature (23°C) and trypsin at the lower temperature (17°C). Immune parameters showed a significant temperature versus feeding duration effect, with complement system (ACH50) and peroxidase peaking at 70 and 100 days of feeding, respectively. Poststress cumulative mortality was higher at the lowest temperature (17°C), especially in fish fed the control diet. In conclusion, water temperature was the main variable affecting the studied parameters, whereas the dietary probiotic supplementation had influence on the chymotrypsin activity and survival rate in seabass reared at 17°C.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T07:40:39.756623-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12578
  • The tolerance and safety assessment of taurine as additive in a marine
           carnivorous fish, Scophthalmus maximus L.
    • Authors: Y. Liu; P. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Li, J. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. Ai, W. Xu, W. Zhang, K. Mai
      Pages: 461 - 471
      Abstract: The effects of dietary taurine on growth performance, liver and intestine morphology, serum physiological and antioxidant parameters, serum thyroid hormone level, muscle taurine content and fatty acid composition of turbot were first evaluated, for the safe utilization in marine fish feed and for human food safety. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 10, 50 and 100 g/kg taurine. Each diet was randomly assigned to six replicates of 30 juvenile turbot (initial mean weight of 7.46 g). The feeding trial lasted for 10 weeks. The growth performance of fish was significantly enhanced by 10 g/kg dietary taurine. The integrity of the distal intestine was impaired and the absorptive surface was found to be significantly reduced by 100 g/kg dietary taurine. The obvious pathological changes in liver were observed in fish fed 100 g/kg taurine. Dietary taurine with 10 and 50 g/kg significantly increased the activities of serum superoxide dismutase, lysozyme and thyroid hormone. The taurine content in muscle was found to be significantly increased by dietary taurine; however, no significant differences were observed among taurine-supplemented treatments. This study suggested that 10 g/kg taurine was safe in turbot feed, and fivefold of safety margin was obtained.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:05:56.233704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12579
  • Effects of dietary vitamin E and astaxanthin on growth, skin colour and
           antioxidative capacity of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea
    • Authors: X. Yi; H. Shen, J. Li, Z. Wei, J. Shentu, W. Zhang, K. Mai
      Pages: 472 - 480
      Abstract: A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E and astaxanthin on growth performance, skin colour and antioxidative capacity of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. Six practical diets were formulated in a 2 × 3 factorial design to supplement with two levels of astaxanthin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin E (0, 120 and 800 mg/kg). The results showed that both the highest final body weight and specific growth rate were found in fish fed diets with 120 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation. No significant differences were found in survival rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio among all the treatments (p > .05). Skin lightness (L*) was not significantly affected by dietary treatments (p > .05). Ventral skin redness (a*) of fish fed diet with 25 mg/kg astaxanthin and 0 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation was significantly lower than that of fish fed with other diets. Yellowness (b*) and carotenoid contents both in the dorsal and in the ventral skin were found to be significantly increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin or vitamin E (p  .05). The vitamin E content in liver reflected the dietary vitamin E content. Level of vitamin E content in fish fed diets with 800 mg/kg vitamin E supplementation was significantly higher than that in fish fed with the other diets (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:15:21.592978-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12580
  • Effects of complete fish meal replacement by rice protein concentrate with
           or without lysine supplement on growth performance, muscle development and
           flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
    • Authors: W.-C. Cai; G.-Z. Jiang, X.-F. Li, C.-X. Sun, H.-F. Mi, S.-Q. Liu, W.-B. Liu
      Pages: 481 - 491
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of fish meal (FM) replacement by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with supplementation of microcapsule lysine (ML) or crystalline lysine (CL) on growth performance, muscle development and flesh quality of blunt snout bream. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated, including FM diet (containing 50 g/kg FM), RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC), MRPC diet (FM replaced by RPC with ML supplementation) and CRPC diet (FM replaced by RPC with CL supplementation). Fish fed FM diet had significantly higher weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy utilization than that of RPC group, but showed no statistical difference with other treatments. In addition, fish fed RPC diet showed higher muscle fibre frequency in the 20- to 50-μm class but lower>50-μm class and higher cooking loss than that of the other groups. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in whole-body proximate compositions, frequency distribution of
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T07:40:32.53198-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12581
  • Efficacy of feeding tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes on moon jellyfish with
           respect to nutritional composition and behavioural traits
    • Authors: Y. Miyajima-Taga; R. Masuda, A. Kurihara, R. Komi, Y. Yamashita, T. Takeuchi
      Pages: 504 - 514
      Abstract: Although jellyfish blooms are serious nuisances for fisheries and other industries, the utilization and nutritional value of by-catch jellyfish has drawn public attention. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of feeding tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes with moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. using 20-day rearing experiments. Feeding on jellyfish had no positive effect on growth performance, although it significantly reduced neutral lipids and increased proportions of polar lipids, n−3 and n−6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), especially arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and taurine. Supplemental feeding on jellyfish plus pellets elevated activity and responsiveness in the fish, with no effect on burst swimming speed or prevention of aggressive biting by siblings. The present research suggests that feeding on jellyfish improves body composition and some behaviours in tiger puffers. As cultured fish tend to accumulate excessive amounts of lipids from lipid-rich pellets that can induce an unhealthy condition, and behavioural deficits of hatchery-reared fish reduce survival after release in the wild, we propose the use of jellyfish as a supplemental diet in the nursery production of tiger puffer. Moreover, feeding on jellyfish can overcome deficiencies in alternative soy-material feeds by supplying phospholipid, HUFAs, or taurine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24T03:52:31.615742-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12583
  • Dietary nucleotide mixture effects on reproductive and performance, ovary
           fatty acid profile and biochemical parameters of female Pacific shrimp
           Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Authors: A. Arshadi; V. Yavari, A. Oujifard, S.M. Mousavi, E. Gisbert, M.T. Mozanzadeh
      Pages: 515 - 523
      Abstract: The effects of different dietary nucleotide mixture (NT) levels (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/kg) were investigated on the reproductive performance, fatty acid profile and biochemical parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei female that were co-fed with fresh food (two times daily) and experimental diets (two times daily) for 30 days. Sampling was carried out at the first day of the trial, before eyestalk ablation (ESA) (day 21) and after ESA (day 30). Reproductive performance parameters including the hepatopancreatic index, absolute fecundity, egg diameter and latency period were higher in the NT-supplemented groups than the control group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:20:19.802476-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12584
  • 1H-NMR metabolomic profiling of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus
           subjected to polyphenol-enriched diets
    • Authors: Susan Costantini; Lucia Parrillo, Eliana Guerriero, Dominique Melck, Giovanni Colonna, Maria Grazia Volpe, Marina Paolucci
      Pages: 524 - 538
      Abstract: 1H-NMR analysis of the hepatopancreas, muscle and haemolymph of Astacus leptodactylus after feeding with polyphenol-enriched diet is reported. 1H-NMR spectra of lipophilic extracts showed the presence of cholesterol, fatty acid residues, phospholipids and triglycerides. 1H-NMR spectra of aqueous extracts identified 35 metabolites in the hepatopancreas, 31 in the muscle and 22 in the haemolymph. A total of 20 metabolites (amino acids and their derivatives) were present in the hepatopancreas, the muscle and the haemolymph. A total of 10 metabolites were present in both the hepatopancreas and the muscle (five amino acids, 2-hydroxybutyrate, choline, myo-inositol, glycogen and uracil). 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate and creatine were present in both the hepatopancreas and the haemolymph. Phosphorylethanolamine, phosphocholine and fumarate were present only in the hepatopancreas and isoleucine only in the muscle. Statistical analysis showed that the percentage of weight gain was statistically higher in polyphenol-enriched diet groups compared to the control and that polyphenols had a stimulating effect on the general metabolism. No stress-related metabolites were higher in crayfish fed with polyphenol-enriched diet. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and DHA, linked to resistance to environmental stress and diseases, were higher compared to the control diet. This study indicates that 1H-NMR is a useful tool to study the metabolomics in relation to diet differences.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:35:39.149729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12585
  • Evaluating dietary supply of microminerals as a premix in a complete plant
           ingredient-based diet to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Authors: P. Antony Jesu Prabhu; J.W. Schrama, S. Fontagné-Dicharry, C. Mariojouls, A. Surget, M. Bueno, I. Geurden, S.J. Kaushik
      Pages: 539 - 547
      Abstract: Two basal diets M0 and V0 were formulated with marine and plant based ingredient composition. Seven experimental diets were prepared from the two basal diets namely M0, M100, V0, V30, V60, V100 and V150 by incorporating different levels of a micromineral premix (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn). Triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20 g) reared at 17°C were fed one of each diet to apparent visual satiation over 12 weeks. Among the V diet fed fish, growth and feed intake exhibited maximal response at V60 level of premix inclusion; Apparent availability coefficient of Fe, Cu and Zn decreased linearly with increasing level of premix whereas apparent availability coefficient of Mn and Se was unaffected. The available dietary concentration in basal V0 diet was for Fe, 20.6; Cu, 2.8; Mn, 6.5; Zn, 17.3 and Se, 0.195 (in mg/kg DM) and in the M0 diet for Fe, 63.3; Cu, 5.2; Mn, 2.9; Zn, 35.2 and Se, 0.87 (in mg/kg DM). In reference to NRC (Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. Washington, DC: National Research Council, The National Academies Press, 2011) recommendations, the V0 basal diet accounted for 34.3%, 92.9%, 53.9%, 115% and 130.2% and the contribution from M0 diet for 105.5%, 173.3%, 24.2%, 234.7% and 580% of the minimal dietary inclusion levels of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se to rainbow trout, respectively. However, data on whole body mineral contents showed that normal levels were maintained only for Cu and Mn through supply from basal V0 diet. For Zn and Se, available supply even from the highest supplemented diet (V150) was not sufficient to maintain normal body mineral levels of rainbow trout in the present study. On the whole, optimal dietary inclusion levels of microminerals are altered while using fishmeal-free diets for rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T06:25:20.623846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12586
  • Use of marine by-product meals in diets for juvenile longfin yellowtail
           Seriola rivoliana
    • Authors: A. Benitez-Hernández; S.P.L. Jiménez-Bárcenas, E.Y. Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.C. Pérez-Urbiola, D. Tovar-Ramírez, E. Palacios, R. Civera-Cerecedo
      Pages: 562 - 570
      Abstract: A 60-day feeding trial to determine the nutritional value of marine by-product meals in diets for longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana juveniles (48.1 ± 0.6 g initial weight) was conducted. Five diets were evaluated: a reference diet (RD; 500 g kg−1 CP, 130 g kg−1 L), containing 500 g kg−1 of fish meal (FM); three experimental diets with 125 g kg−1 of shrimp head (SM), Catarina scallop viscera (CM) or Pen shell viscera (PM) meals; and one diet (SCP) containing 125 g kg−1 of each of the experimental meals, to partially replace FM. Survival was not significantly affected by any treatment. Individual weight gain per day was high for the PM (5.3 ± 0.51 g d−1) and SM (4.7 ± 0.32 g d−1) diets, being significantly higher than the RD (3.5 ± 0.23 g d−1) and the other treatments (
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T02:05:24.322566-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12588
  • Effect of feeding frequency on growth and enzymatic activity of
           Litopenaeus vannamei during nursery phase in biofloc system
    • Authors: S. Peixoto; E. Silva, C.B. Costa, R.C. Nery, F. Rodrigues, J.F. Silva, R. Bezerra, R. Soares
      Pages: 579 - 585
      Abstract: This study evaluated the zootechnical performance and enzymatic activity of Litopenaeus vannamei reared at different feeding frequencies during the nursery phase in biofloc system. The experiment consisted of four treatments, corresponding to the feeding frequencies of one, two, three and four times a day. Twelve-day postlarvae (PL12) were stocked in 12 circular tanks at a density of 3,000/m2 for 35 days. These tanks were connected to a recirculation system supplied by a matrix tank where biofloc management was carried out. Water quality remained within acceptable limits for the species over the experiment. Food frequencies had no influence on survival (88.5–92.7%) and feed conversion ratio (1.5–1.7), but the final mean weight (0.43–0.56 g) was significantly higher in shrimp fed three times a day. This fact is probably associated with amylase (14.58 U/mg) and trypsin (23.84 U/mg) activities, as well as the significant increase of chymotrypsin (11.74 U/mg) and lipase (1.27 U/mg) in shrimp of this treatment at the end of culture period. Feeding three times a day provided the highest enzymatic activity and the best zootechnical performance of L. vannamei during the nursery phase in biofloc system.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T00:00:47.93736-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12591
  • Substitution effect of sea tangle (ST) (Laminaria japonica) with tunic of
           sea squirt (SS) (Halocynthia roretzi) in diet on growth and carcass
           composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis discus, Reeve 1846)
    • Authors: B. Jang; P.Y. Kim, H.S. Kim, K.W. Lee, H.J. Kim, D.G. Choi, S.H. Cho, B. Min, K. Kim, H. Han
      Pages: 586 - 593
      Abstract: Substitution effect of sea tangle (ST) with tunic of sea squirt (SS) in diet on growth and carcass composition of juvenile abalone was determined. One thousand four hundred and seventy abalones were distributed into 21 containers. Six formulated diets in triplicate were prepared. A 200 g/kg ST was included into the ST0 diet. The 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 g/kg of ST were substituted with the same amount of tunic of SS, referred to as the ST200, ST400, ST600, ST800 and ST1000 diets, respectively. Finally, Undaria was prepared to compare effect of the formulated diets on performance of abalone. The experimental diets were fed to abalone for 16 weeks. Weight gain of abalone fed the ST400 diet was higher than that of abalone fed the ST0, ST600, ST800 and ST1000 diets and Undaria. Weight gain of abalone fed the formulated diets was higher than that of abalone fed the Undaria. The chemical composition of the carcass of abalone was affected by dietary substitution of ST with tunic of SS. In conclusion, ST could be completely substituted with tunic of SS without retardation in performance of abalone. Abalone fed the ST400 diet substituting 400 g/kg ST with tunic of SS achieved the best growth.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T04:30:52.474085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12593
  • Evaluation of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance and
           antioxidant status in hybrid snakehead (Channa argus × Channa maculata)
    • Authors: H. Zhao; H.-J. Ma, S.-N. Gao, X.-R. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, P.-F. Zhao, S.-M. Lin
      Pages: 625 - 632
      Abstract: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth performance and antioxidant status of juvenile snakehead. The snakeheads (20.47 ± 0.06 g) were fed with five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets that contained 13 (the basal diet), 52, 79, 168 and 326 mg of vitamin E kg−1, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake (FI) were achieved in fish fed on a diet with 79 mg kg−1 vitamin E (p  .05). Vitamin E supplementation improved hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity significantly. A consistent decline in the hepatic and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed diets with the increased supplementation of vitamin E (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:57:27.810719-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12552
  • Replacing live feed with formulated diets in juvenile Patagonian red
           octopus (Enteroctopus megalocyathus)
    • Authors: E. Martínez-Montaño; I. Uriarte, C. Rosas, R. Amthauer, A. Romero, A. Farías
      Pages: 633 - 643
      Abstract: Two formulated diets were evaluated to replace live crab (C) as feed for juveniles Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Formulated diets consisted of crab paste (CP) and a mixture of freeze-dried meals of crab and squid (C&S). After 10 weeks of feeding, the effect of each diet was analysed on productive performance, nutritional and physiological condition and immune system. Both the crab and C&S diets produced the best values for specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The diet C&S proved to be the most digestible with greatest metabolized energy. The CP diet was similar to the C diet in terms of biological value and protein apparent digestibility; nevertheless, its performance was weaker for the other indicators. Furthermore, the highest α-amylase, lipase and alkaline proteolytic activity values were observed in octopuses fed live crab, as opposed to those fed formulated feeds. The type of diet did not affect lysozyme activity in neither mucus nor haemolymph. The production of reactive oxygen species was highest in octopuses fed CP diet. It is proposed the use of C&S diet to study the nutritional requirements and to develop an optimal formulated diet for juvenile Patagonian red octopus.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T01:45:23.08075-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12589
  • Dietary effects of soybean products on gut microbiota and immunity of
           aquatic animals: A review
    • Authors: Z. Zhou; E. Ringø, R.E. Olsen, S.K. Song
      Pages: 644 - 665
      Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most commonly used vegetable ingredient to replace fish meal in fish diets. However, SBM is limiting in some essential amino acids and contains numerous antinutritional factors and antigens that can affect intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans and compromise health. The impact of SBM on health and gut microbiota of aquatic animals is not only affected by SBM in general, but also on the degree of treatment of the meal and exposure. Recently, many studies are actively seeking ways to complement or balance those adverse responses induced by high inclusion of SBM in aquaculture diets. These include advanced processing and mixture of feed with other feed components to balance antinutritional factors. The impact of dietary soybean oil on gut microbiota has also been investigated but to a lesser extent than SBM. As the gastrointestinal tract has been suggested as one of the major routes of infection in finfish species and crustaceans, the effect of soybean products on the gut microbiota is important to investigate. Several studies have focus on supplementation of SBM on the adverse responses of the innate immune system as immunological mechanisms are likely involved in the underlying pathology. However, the precise cause of the inflammatory process has not yet been clarified, even though some investigations have suggested that alcohol-soluble antinutritional factors, especially soy saponins, are potential causative factors. Possible interactions between soybean products and innate immune system in several finfish species and crustaceans are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:07:21.369937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12532
  • Replacing the substitute—Guar meal as an alternative for non-genetically
           modified soybean meal in the nutrition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
           mykiss, Walbaum, 1792)
    • Authors: F. Pach; F. Nagel
      Pages: 666 - 672
      Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) is widely used in aqua feed products. In the European Union, only non-genetically modified (non-GM) SBM is accepted. However, global production of non-GM soybeans is declining and is limiting its utilization in aqua feeds. Therefore, non-GM SBM alternatives are required. In this study, guar meal was evaluated as a substitute for non-GM SBM in test feeds for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (initial weight of 57 ± 10.1 g) were stocked to 12 experimental tanks of a freshwater recirculation system with a stocking density of 6 kg/tank (500 L). Fish were organized in triplicate groups and received isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds designated as control and test feeds 1–3, where 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg feed of non-GM SBM was replaced by guar meal. During the experimental test period of 56 days, fish were fed twice a day until apparent satiation. Compared to the control group, daily feed intake of test feeds 1–3 was significantly increased by guar meal inclusion. No significant differences in feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate were detected among all the treatments. Furthermore, guar meal inclusion did not affect protein efficiency ratio. However, protein productive value was significantly impaired when guar meal incorporation was above 100 g/kg feed. In accordance with the affected protein productive value, the crude protein content of the proximate whole fish body declined significantly. In contrast, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, slaughter yield and fillet yield provided no significant differences between the experimental groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that non-GM SBM could be entirely replaced by guar meal without affecting the general performance of fish and suggests guar meal as an appropriate alternative for non-GM SBM in the nutrition of rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:15:49.800489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12557
  • Dietary lysine requirement of juvenile dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus
    • Authors: A.A. Adesola; C.L.W. Jones, T.A. Shipton
      Pages: 673 - 680
      Abstract: To determine dietary lysine requirement of dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (431 g/kg crude protein, 141 g/kg lipid and 20 kJ/kg) were formulated with graded levels of crystalline L-lysine (18–42 g/kg of the dry diet). The protein source in the basal diet comprised fishmeal and soya, where a combination of L-aspartic and L-glutamic acids was maintained at a ratio of 1:1, and all diets were supplemented with a mixture of crystalline essential amino acids to simulate the amino acid profile in dusky kob. Dietary treatments were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 12 fish (4.5 ± 0.2 g, mean weight; 66.5 ± 1.1 mm, total length ± SD), which were fed to apparent satiation three times daily for 12 weeks. The fish fed dietary L-lysine at 21, 29 and 33 g/kg dry diet showed the highest specific growth rates (SGR) and the lowest feed conversion ratio. For most amino acids, retention in the body of the fish increased with an increase in dietary lysine from 18 to 21 g/kg, and it reached a maximum somewhere between 21 and 33 g/kg, where after amino acid retention decreased with increasing dietary lysine. Based on SGR and using segmented broken-line analysis, the dietary L-lysine requirement of juvenile dusky kob was estimated at 31.7 ± 1.6 g/kg dry diet corresponding to 73.5 g lysine per kg protein.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:51:42.196278-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/anu.12576
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