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Accounting and Financial Control
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2543-5485 - ISSN (Online) 2544-1450
Published by Business Perspectives Homepage  [16 journals]
  • Understanding accounting as a social and institutional practice: possible
           exit of accounting science from crisis

    • Abstract: This article highlights the transformation of views on the understanding of accounting as a science in the new conditions for the functioning of enterprises operating in globalized markets in a dynamic competitive environment. The necessity of considering external factors (corporate scandals, financial crisis, etc.) in the development of accounting as a science is emphasized. The reasons for the need to confirm the scientific status of accounting are considered, the hypotheses concerning the gradual crowding out and replacement of accounting by information systems with artificial intelligence are refuted. Accordingly, the study aims to confirm the scientific significance of accounting and justify the need for its further development as a social science aimed at solving social issues and having a deeper social context. Various accounting models and identification of factors affecting their construction, as a result of which the goals of accounting are transformed, make the theoretical basis of this study. It is concluded that accounting is a social science that studies the features of the functioning of the accounting system as a social and institutional practice. Such an understanding of accounting science is considered one of the ways out of the existing crisis. The reasons for the lack of understanding among Ukrainian researchers of accounting as a social science are highlighted, and the ways to overcome them are suggested. It is proved that accounting, on the one hand, is a product of the social environment, an instrument for reflecting the economic reality of an enterprise. On the other hand, it influences the formation of social reality, being an instrument for shaping social processes and relations arising from the functioning of accounting as a separate socio-economic institute.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jun 2020 13:18:24 +000
  • Auditor’s verification of a management report: implementation of
           European experience in Ukrainian banks in crisis conditions

    • Abstract: The research is devoted to the analysis of the European and Ukrainian experience of banks’ management report audit assurance, the disclosure of the national features of such assurance using the case study of 75 state-owned banks, banks with private and foreign capital in Ukraine, and the specific features of audit verification of this report in the current crisis conditions. It was discovered that the requirements of national regulatory documents and guidelines for preparing a management report for banking institutions generally comply with the European approaches, particularly with Directive 2014/95/EU, Directive 2013/34/EU, and Directive 2014/56/EU (Legislation of EU, 2013, 2014). However, specific national requirements for the content of the report and the procedure for its audit are duplicated, intersect, and create inaccuracies in the disclosure of non-financial information by banks. Besides, the requirements for the reflection of the information on the management report in the independent auditors’ report of the studied banks of Ukraine are partially met. The common challenges for accounting and audit support for the management report for Ukrainian and European banks are disclosed in terms of the current crisis caused by global health risks and their economic consequences for banks.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2020 05:52:03 +000
  • Logistics costs accounting: challenges for identification in Ukrainian
           accounting practice

    • Abstract: Development of an effective logistics infrastructure for companies contributes to ensuring their effective work, directly affects financial performance and requires the establishment of a management and accounting system for logistics costs. Classifying and registering logistics costs becomes more important in this regard. At this stage of Ukrainian accounting practice, there are challenges for logistics costs accounting such as their identification and registration. Methodological basis of study among different logistics concepts (concept of general logistics costs, concept of reengineering business processes in logistics, concept of an integrated logistics strategy, concept of supply chain management) was total logistics costs concept or the concept of full value as well as process-oriented approach. In the work, the generalization and formalization of existing approaches to the logistics costs accounting was made. Feasibility of using a process-oriented approach among other approaches (absorption costing, direct costing target costing, kaizen costing, etc.) were substantiated. The algorithm of identification and registration of logistics costs for Ukrainian enterprises was proposed. It is based on such inclusion in the relevant economic process (supply, production, sales and administration of logistics processes) and the use of a new consolidated account 29 “Logistics costs”. This authors’ approach to solving the problem of identification and registration of logistics costs for accounting purposes allows to optimize and increase the informativeness of accounting logistics costs reflection in Ukrainian accounting practice.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 May 2019 06:08:33 +000
  • Accounting systems in developing countries under sustainability: first
           glance from Ukraine and Ghana

    • Abstract: The dissemination of sustainability reporting and integrated reporting is a key trend in the development of accounting systems under the influence of the concept of sustainable development. This statement is fair not only for developed countries, but also for developing countries. On the example of Ghana and Ukraine, a comparative study of regulatory requirements and conceptual frameworks for the compilation of sustainability reporting and integrated reporting has been conducted; the dynamics, size of reporting companies, their sectoral affiliation and the standards used are researched. It was proved that the basis for the promotion sustainability reporting and integrated reporting in these countries are regulatory requirements, as well as increasing the perception of CSR, the transparency and accountability of business, the practices of stakeholder participation and assurance the reliability of reporting for stakeholders.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Dec 2018 07:10:21 +000
  • Understanding the concept of profit as an economic information instrument:
           disclosure of semantic meanings

    • Abstract: Accounting information presented in financial statements is likened to a set of symbols. These symbols are expected to represent certain realities, which are called semantic meanings. One of the symbols presented in the financial statements is profit. As a communication medium, the presentation of profits must be interpreted exactly the same as the intended meaning, so that accounting information becomes unbiased. The purpose of this study is to reveal the understanding of the concept of profit based on semantic meaning from the point of view of the accounting accountant. This study uses an interpretive qualitative approach. Data were obtained from structured interviews with informants, namely educator accountants in Indonesia with “mainstream and anti-mainstream” schools of thought. The results of the study reveal that the tendency has been a shift in thinking from educator accountants that originated from idealism to being pragmatic. The meaning of profit at the semantic level is not only materially interpreted. Although profit is used as an indicator of the success of the company, profit is interpreted as a representation of changes in the company’s economic reality. That, the meaning of profit reflects the company’s efforts to improve its economic capacity and its usefulness to the wider community. In other words, that profit is an economic information instrument that is expected to provide value-added to its users.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Nov 2018 12:42:01 +000
  • Evaluating pedagogy in educating business majors: an empirical analysis of
           teaching accounting without debits and credits

    • Abstract: An upper-level intermediate accounting course taught at two large mid-west universities in the United States provides a natural experimental setting to examine whether teaching debits/credits in the introductory financial accounting course matters. Students in the upper-level course fall into two groups: those who learned debits/credits in the introductory course and those who weren’t. The performance of both groups is evaluated during the semester while they take the upper level accounting course. Regression results show that the prior knowledge of debits/credits offers only a mild advantage in the first mid-term exam, but not thereafter. Results also indicate that grade point average (standardized tests like ACT scores) are a good (not a good) predictor of the performance in the upper-level accounting class. These results suggest that teaching debits and credits in the introductory accounting course does not provide any advantage in learning the material of upper-level accounting course.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Nov 2018 12:30:24 +000
  • Management of enterprise’s financial sustainability and improvement
           of its methods

    • Abstract: The article is dedicated to the solution of the relevant issue, concerning management of enterprise`s financial sustainability. Financial sustainability assessment is one of the most important principles of enterprise`s activity, which provides information about financial capabilities of the company at the time of its evaluation and for the future. It is a requirement for the enterprise activity, which provides a high level of competitiveness, efficiency and intensity. Thus, the restoration and strengthening of financial sustainability is a priority task for the enterprise, a basic precondition for its effective functioning. The purpose of the research is to analyze financial sustainability and to improve the methods and approaches of its evaluation. The following methods were used in this research: financial and economic analysis, economic and mathematical modeling, analysis and synthesis, comparison. The main results of the study are following: the theoretical and essential characteristics of enterprise financial sustainability has been determined; the financial status of PJSC “Turboatom” has been analyzed; the taxonomic index of financial sustainability has been calculated and the forecast of its significance has been made, the approaches to increase enterprise financial sustainability have been proposed.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 07:15:37 +000
  • A novel hybrid MCDM model for financial performance evaluation in Iran's
           food industry

    • Abstract: The use of financial ratios as the necessary information is considered as one of the noticeable issues for researchers to apply quantitative models for evaluating the performance of institutions. The reason for introducing these new approaches is that the financial ratios cannot individually provide a correct and adequate understanding of an institution’s performance. This study sought to propose a model for evaluating and ranking 14 companies which are considered as the largest companies in Iran’s food industry according to the recent report of Industrial Management institute (IMI). To accomplish this, an integrated model composed of Best-Worst method and PROMETHEE II was used. Results of data analysis revealed that in final evaluation, some companies such as NOOSH MAZAN Co., PYAZR AI Co. and PEGAH ESF Co had higher positions compared to the others.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Apr 2018 13:35:19 +000
  • Fair value: history, assessment and financial crisis

    • Abstract: For the last 20 years fair value accounting has considerably extended its domain. Fair value is a probabilistic market value, which is expected to be obtained on the basis of forecasting of future events, connected with an asset sale or transfer of liabilities. The purpose of fair value is to define a price of an ordinary operation of an asset sale or transfer of liabilities between the market participants, which would have taken place by the date of measurement in the present market conditions. Market value is fair only with an active market, at which prices are determined by demand and supply. This is the reason of a discussion about the use of fair value. The opponents of fair value accounting state that exactly fair value has become a cause of financial crisis and had a negative influence on companies. However, there are many supporters of fair value accounting, who state that fair value is the indicator of financial system significant difficulties and it helps in warning financial crises. The purpose of the article is to validate the economic characteristics of fair value and to analyze its` role in a financial crisis
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 09:24:12 +000
  • Coordination of state fiscal and monetary policy the in the context of
           post-conflict recovery

    • Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of fiscal and monetary components of state`s financial policy and their coordination after the completion of hostilities. The urgency of the topic is determined by the need to find an optimal (in terms of economic system) strategy of interaction between the government and the central bank in the conditions of post-conflict recovery. The purpose of the article is to summarize the world experience of formation of fiscal and monetary policy as well as their coordination in order to effectively overcome the consequences of military conflicts. The author analyzes the data on the post-war development of 12 countries that succeeded in restoring their national economies during the first decade after the end of hostilities (Angola, Cambodia, the Republic of Congo, Croatia, Georgia, Indonesia, Liberia, Macedonia, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Tajikistan) As a result, the author discovers a gradual transition from the fixed and regulated exchange rate regime to the floating exchange rate in the long-term perspective, reduction of inflation and interest rates on loans, as well as a gradual increase of GDP and the net inflow of foreign direct investments, while the share of tax revenues and public expenditures in GDP remained stable. On the basis of generalization of the world experience the conclusion was made about the key role of central banks in ensuring economic growth in the context of post-conflict recovery by ensuring price stability and stimulating lending. In addition, the importance of geographic location and availability of natural resources in the restoration of the national economy of some countries was emphasized.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jul 2017 10:17:17 +000
  • IFRS convergence: opportunities and challenges in India

    • Abstract: Past decade has witnessed several changes in the process of conduct of business activities across the world especially due to the wave of globalization. It has also made drastic changes in the process of financial reporting, in particular the continuing adoption of IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) worldwide. IFRS are high quality, understandable, enforceable and globally acceptable accounting standards issued by IASB (International Accounting Standard Board). Thus these are a set of international accounting standards stating how a particular type of transaction and other events should be reported in the financial statements. Thus IFRS are designed as a common global language for business affairs so that company accounts are understandable and comparable across international boundaries. IFRS is becoming the global language of business with over 40% of the world adopting this as their standard for reporting. India also decided to converge to IFRS from 1st April 2016 in a phased manner, which in turn improves the financial statement comparability and transparency that helps to attract greater cross border investments. This paper focuses on the convergence of IFRS with Indian Accounting Standards, its utility, issues and challenges faced by the stakeholders. It also throws light to the ways through which problems can be addressed.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Jun 2017 05:24:48 +000
  • The role of accounting in sustainable development

    • Abstract: Ideology of Sustainable Development and Sustainable Development Goals influence the transformation of business processes in the companies. Professional accountants are important part of this transformation. In this paper the role of accounting in Sustainable Development Goals achievement is discussed. Different approaches to structuring the role of professional accountants in Sustainable Development are investigated. Among them are types of roles that perform accountants, their professional functions, skills and competencies in the corporate environment. As the result a holistic vision of the role of accounting in sustainable development in the new economic conditions is provided.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 10:19:30 +000
  • Financial planning and improving of its methods

    • Abstract: The paper investigates issues, concerning financial planning at the enterprise. Methods and models of financial forecasting are analyzed and their unification is proposed. The main problems of financial instruments using (such as financial planning) are described. Planning is important element of management, which ensures achievement of strategic priorities. Effective financial planning is essential tool of achieving of the main goals of the enterprise - profit maximization and cost of the enterprise. As market conditions in Ukrainian market of goods and services have its own specificity, which is defined, on the one hand, by means of analysis, formation and allocation of financial resources, and, on the other hand, the sources of reserves increasing, in order to implement the operating and investment activities to ensure their sustainable financial development. It should be noted that the formation of these processes has a significant impact on both objective and subjective factors, such as instability of tax policy and regulatory legislation for national currency, the impact of the global economic crisis, reducing the resources and available current assets etc.Thus, the increasing volatility of external environment requires managerial entities to speed decision-making and direct financial planning and forecasting, in order to reduce the impact of exogenous and endogenous factors on the financial activities of enterprises.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 12:32:27 +000
  • Public companies non-financial reporting and audit in Ukraine: challenges
           and prospects

    • Abstract: Public interest entities and public companies as their representatives should be an example in implementing of sustainable development initiatives (sustainable development goals of the United Nations, development strategy «Europe-2020», «Sustainable Development Strategy»Ukraine-2020») in the light of Association agreement. Main challenges for Ukrainian public companies are non-financial information disclosure and assurance of both financial and non-financial reporting through statutory audit. Key prospects of public companies accounting system reform were outlined in this regard. This research may contribute to the existing literature in regard of identifying key areas of improving financial and non-financial information PIEs disclosure as well as its independent verification through statutory audit. This improvement should incorporate European experience and provision of Directive 2014/95 / EU, Directive 2013/34 / EU, Directive 2014/56 / EU and Regulation (EU) no. 537/2014. Among the promising areas of research, introduction of integrated reporting for Ukrainian PIEs is worth noting.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 12:03:48 +000
  • Inter-organizational imitation: Definition and typology

    • Abstract: The sustained idea of this article is that the concept of imitation has not been sufficiently developed in the field of strategic management and has often been confused with the notion of mimicry. Therefore, the objective of this research is to emphasize the distinction between different types of imitation unlike a lot of research on companies imitative behavior focused on one type as the perfect imitation. This will clarify ambiguities in the literature on imitation, and show that the mobilization of neo institutional theory is not sufficient to explain all the imitative behavior of organizations in a market.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 11:09:47 +000
  • Financial mechanism of state land regulation in Ukraine

    • Abstract: The paper is devoted to research of existing variants of land reform in Ukraine towards cancelling the moratorium on the sale-purchase of agricultural lands. The authors prove that the financial function of the land is realized insufficiently, which is connected with the absence of open land market and ineffective functioning of state land regulation financial mechanism. The aim of the paper is to substantiate the directions of state land regulation in Ukraine on the basis of evaluating the economic effect of cancelling the moratorium on the sale-purchase of agricultural lands. The authors analyzed three most likely variants of land reform at the current stage of Ukraine’s economy development, and calculated economic effect from its implementation. Based on the calculations, conclusion is made about the feasibility of gradually cancelling the moratorium, which corresponds to third variant under study, which is offered to be implemented in two stages: 1) sale of state and community lands; 2) sale of private lands. Economic effect of implementing such a variant, calculated by the authors, gives a possibility to create additional annual cash flow to local budgets in the amount of 68-83 %, which is more than the revenue of other variants described in the paper. It is proven that for possibility to put the variant offered into practice, it is necessary to observe some prerequisites (organizational, financial, legal and regulatory), valuation of which enabled to offer the directions to improve state land regulation, the realization of which would favor the full functioning of agricultural land market.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 10:56:51 +000
  • What do we know about empirical joint audit research' A literature

    • Abstract: This literature review evaluates empirical studies which concentrate on economic effects on joint audits from an international perspective. We briefly introduce the theoretical and empirical joint audit framework that comprises an adequate structure of the state-of-the-art of empirical research in this field. This is followed by a discussion of the following output factors of joint audits: (1) audit quality; (2) audit costs and (3) audit market concentration. We will summarize the key findings in each area, and provide a description of the analyzed proxies. Finally, we will discuss the current limitations of the studies and give useful recommendations for future empirical research activities in this topic.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 10:42:09 +000
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