for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Journal Cover
Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Science and Health
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2579-4434
Published by Yayasan Aliansi Cendekiawan Indonesia Thailand Homepage  [2 journals]
  • GLOBAL HEALTH: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF TRANSLATING POLICY INTO
           PRACTICE

    • Authors: Andrew John Macnab
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: -
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • HOW TO ENGAGE A COMMUNITY AND IMPROVE CHILDREN'S ORAL HEALTH

    • Authors: Andrew John Macnab, Ronald Mukisa
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Background: Globally, gingivitis (gum inflammation) and dental caries (tooth decay) have a negative impact on the health and quality of life of children. Those from disadvantaged populations suffer disproportionally from poor oral health, yet much of the pathology and associated pain and suffering is preventable if children are taught simple and inexpensive practices that can improve their oral health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for more programs to improve children’s oral health worldwide. Aims: To summarize how readily implemented school-based programs can provide knowledge and teach health practices that promote behaviors that can enable children to improve their oral health through better hygiene and a reduced incidence of gum disease and caries.
      Results: The WHO Health Promoting School (HPS) program model is well suited to address poor oral health. The model begins with community dialogue to establish understanding of the cause, adverse effects and approaches to prevention. Next teachers are helped to establish, sustain and evaluate an intervention in the local school. Intervention is based on the two core components of WHO HPS programs; first, teachers add health-related curriculum and visual aid production to classroom activities, and second, opportunities are added for children to participate in health-related practices while at school, for example tooth brushing or tooth stick sessions to clean their teeth after the lunch break. Conclusions: Poor oral health is an example of a worldwide public health issue of central importance to children where school-based intervention has been shown to have benefits, through changes in behaviors achieved through teaching a combination of simple factual knowledge and inexpensive health practices.
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR HEALTH POLICY

    • Authors: Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul
      First page: 4
      Abstract: -
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • CURRENT STATE OF THE ART HEALTH POLICY IN INDONESIA: THE ROLE OF
           UNIVERSITY

    • Authors: Adang Bachtiar
      Pages: 5 - 6
      Abstract: -
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • BURDEN OF CANCER ATTRIBUTABLE TO SMOKING IN GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC)
           COUNTRIES

    • Authors: Mouaddh Abdulmalik, Montarat Thavorncharoensap
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Background: Smoking is a major cause of premature mortality worldwide. Smoking is recognized as the leading preventable cause of cancer and mortality from cancer. This study aims at estimating the number of cancer mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) attributable to smoking in GCC countries in 2015.
      Methods: Smoking prevalence was combined with Relative Risks (RRs) of cancer to obtain smoking attributable fractions (SAFs). Mortality data of people older than 15 years were derived from WHO deaths estimates while life expectation was obtained from WHO life tables 2015. Sixteen types of cancer were included in the analysis. Results: Smoking is responsible for 2,141 cancer deaths among people aged 15 years and above in GCC countries (1,895 deaths among men, 246 deaths among women). This represents 15% of cancer deaths in GCC (26.43% in male, 3.5% in female). Additionally, cancer deaths attributable to smoking were responsible for 40,485 YPLL (35,361 years among men, 5,124 years among women). Conclusion: Smoking causes a considerable burden in GCC countries in term of mortality and years of potential life lost. Effective smoking control initiatives and sustained efforts are needed to minimize cancer burden in the future. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF MALARIA INCIDENCE ALONG HLAINGBWE TOWNSHIP IN
           MYANMAR AND THA SONG YANG DISTRICT IN THAILAND

    • Authors: Aung Minn Thway, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Jetsumon Prachumsri, Siam Lawawirojwong, Aung Thi, Tin Maung Hlaing, Thiha Myint Soe, Chawarat Rotejanaprasert
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: Background: Malaria stays a serious public health problem in many countries of the world. The border regions are difficult to control for the malaria elimination due to the importation or reintroduction of malaria. A key to address such problem is reinforcing of surveillance activities with rapid identification. The objective of the study was to describe the malaria incidence rate and analyze the space and time distribution of malaria incidence rate in the high endemic border areas between Myanmar and Thailand, the Hlaingbwe Township and Tha Song Yang District. Methodology: Daily malaria data were collected, using a passive surveillance system, from patients visiting local health facilities in both Tha Song Yang and Hlaingbwe regions. ArcMap software version 10.4.1 was used to describe the disease mapping of malaria incidence rate in both regions.
      Results: Compared to their counterparts, male gender had higher malaria incidence rates in both Tha Song Yang and Hlaingbwe regions. Non-Thai people had higher incidence rate than Thai in Tha Song Yang district. The higher incidence rates had seasonal pattern and the pattern was similar in both regions. The areas with a higher incidence rate could be seen in both inner side and along Thai- Myanmar border (upper and lower parts) in Tha Song Yang area. But in Hlaingbwe Township, the higher incidence rate occurred only in the inner and upper parts except for Me La Yaw and Tar Le areas which are situated along the Thai-Myanmar border. Along the border, the higher incidence rates were connected to the adjacent area in upper and lower parts between these two regions. Conclusion: The descriptive statistics and presented map in this study gave the health policy makers an important overview of malaria situation in this regions in order to intervene high risk areas more effectively, and distribute the resources in a useful manner. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITE AND RELATED FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL
           CHILDREN IN SUAN PHUENG SUBDISTRICT, RATCHABURI, THAILAND

    • Authors: Pyae Phyo Kyaw, Chirawat Paratthakonkun, Rapeeporn Yaicharoen, Reongwit Nilkote, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, Pattaneeya Prangthip, Pannamas Maneekan, Aung Phone Zaw, Sai Wai Yan Myint Thu, Dumrongkiet Arthan
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are still regarded as the major public health problems in Thailand, especially in rural areas. The presence of intestinal parasites in school children is a well- accepted indicator of poor personal hygiene and low economic standards. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and its associated risk factors among primary school children (Grade 4 to 6) in Suan Phueng sub-district, Ratchaburi, Thailand, where is located at Thai-Myanmar border areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at three selected governmental primary schools. A total of 252 school children (130 boys, 51.6% and 122 girls, 48.4%) were recruited in this study. Intestinal parasites were detected from their stool samples by using formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Socio-demographic status and personal hygiene were assessed by a validated structured questionnaire. Results: An overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 19%. Poly-parasitism was found in 4% of school children. The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (6.4%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5%), Endolimax nana cyst (4.0%), and Giadia lumbria (1.8%). Additionally, family income, drinking water sources from school and home, hand-washing habit after using toilet, anal cleansing after defecation, and parents’ education level were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Conclusions: High prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was found in primary school children at Suan Phueng sub-district, Ratchaburi, Thailand. Therefore, health promotion, modern health education, water sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs are crucial for prevention of intestinal parasitic infections in primary schools, particularly in Thai-Myanmar border areas. Reducing the prevalence of parasitic infections in school children may be of immense benefits on child growth, development, and educational outcomes. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • PERCEPTION OF MEDICAL DOCTORS ON CHEST TUBE THORACOSTOMY SIMULATION MODEL

    • Authors: Phone Myint Hlaing, Thasaneeya Ratanaroutai Nopparatjamjomra, Suchai Nopparatjamjomras
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Background: Chest tube thoracostomy is a common procedure that offers in patients with medical emergency conditions. Severe complications or even death can occur to the patients if medical doctors do not well perform and skillfully. This study aims to find medical doctors’ perception of the realistic features of the chest tube thoracostomy simulation model, which was developed by researchers. Methods: Fifteen Myanmar medical doctors were voluntarily to enroll in a half-day, chest tube thoracostomy workshop. Data of medical doctors’ perception was collected using a 5-points Likert’s scale self-evaluation survey form. In addition, the participants were asked to write their comments or suggestions for the realistic features of the chest tube thoracostomy simulation model. Results: Medical doctors’ perception on the realistic features of the chest tube thoracostomy simulation model was positive by responding as agree and strongly agree. All experts perceived as strongly agree in cost effectiveness of the model (100%) and using the model in the procedural training (100%). The postgraduate doctors responded to similar human sensations and complying procedural steps as agree (92.3%) in both statements. All experts rated to self-confidence (100%) as agree whereas the postgraduate doctors responded to it as agree (84.6%). Participants preferred the structures of the simulation model and its educational values for the chest tube thoracostomy procedural skills training. They suggested to use this simulation model for training medical students. Conclusion: The perception of the medical doctors on the realistic features of the chest tube thoracostomy simulation model showed that this simulation model could use as an effective educational tool in the procedural skills training. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • BIOACTIVE ACTIVITY OF A RECOMBINANT LONGAN (Dimocarpus longan LOUR.) SEED
           PEPTIDE

    • Authors: Thanaporn Wichai, Ruethairat Boonsombat
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Background: Consumption of antioxidants has been evident to prevent diseases caused by free radicals damage. Antioxidants can be found in the form of peptide in various natural sources. From our previous study, to overcome obstacles of direct longan seed hydrolysate extraction, the recombinant Longan1 peptide which contains 4 repeats of ISYVVPVYIAEITPKTFRGGF linked by D was produced from Escherichia coli. The in vitro bioactive properties of this recombinant peptide were characterized. Methods: The recombinant and chemically synthesized Longan1 peptides were tested for bioactive activity including, DPPH, ABTS, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays, the ability to protect plasmid DNA from hydroxyl radicals, anti-proliferative activity to several cancer cell lines, and anti- inflammatory effects in cell culture level. Results: The recombinant peptide revealed antioxidative activities, including DPPH, ABTS, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, which are similar to the chemically-synthesized one. However, the recombinant peptide exhibited higher in vitro ability to protect DNA from hydroxyl radicals. The IC50 value of the recombinant Longan1 peptide could only be calculated through the assay of anti- proliferation of stomach KATO-III cancer cell line, while IC50 value from the chemically synthesized peptide could not be calculated in any tested cell lines. Finally, the anti-inflammatory effect determined by the inhibition of nitric oxide production from macrophages RAW 264.7 activated by LPS revealed that the recombinant Longan1 peptide could inhibit nitric oxide production from macrophage cells, whereas the chemically-synthesized one could not. Conclusion: With all these properties, the recombinant Longan1 peptide seems to have bioactivity that can possibly be a candidate for further medical application or supplementary products. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • MAIN SOURCES OF SUGAR INTAKE OF ADOLESCENTS IN DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
           PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    • Authors: Yohannes Willihelm Saleky, Nipa Rojroongwasinkul
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Background: There was 16.9% of population in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) Province with excess sugar intake, higher than national prevalence 4.8%. Nevertheless, there has not been studied yet about sugar intake of adolescents in this province. The adverse effects of excessive sugar intake leads to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, directly and indirectly through body weight and fat gain in later life. Twenty to forty percent of overweight adolescents are twice likely to develop CVD and seven times greater risk of atherosclerosis. Thus, it is important to prevent NCDs since the behaviours established during adolescent have life-long consequences particularly regarding NCDs in DIY Province. This study aims to assess the daily sugar intake and the main sources of sugar of adolescents in DIY province, Indonesia. Methods: This is an observational study with cross sectional design with the targeted population of all the adolescents aged 15 to 17 years old in urban and rural area of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province, Indonesia. Four schools were chosen with the total sample of 380 students. Four instruments were used in this study i.e. general information questionnaire, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ), digital weighing scale and BIA analysis, and microtoise. Mann Whitney test was used to analyze the difference of daily sugar intake between urban and rural area. Statistical tests were considered as significant at P <0·05. Results: Means of daily sugar intake of adolescents were 107.0 g and 87.4 g in urban and rural area respectively. In urban area, the minimum intake of sugar was 15.2 g/day and the maximum intake of sugar was 317.2 g/day. Whereas in rural area, the minimum intake of sugar was 17.2 g/day and the maximum sugar intake was 87.4 g/day. There was a significant difference between average daily sugar intake of adolescents in urban and rural area (P= 0.004). Conclusion: The main sources of sugar intake of adolescents both in urban and rural area were sweetened beverages, additional foods and sweet snacks respectively. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • CHANGING COSMETIC BRANDS INCREASE RISK OF FREQUENCY AND DEGREE OF ACNE
           VULGARIS IN FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    • Authors: Annida Maharani, Witri Pratiwi, Donny Nauphar
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: Background: Acne vulgaris is a skin disease caused by chronic inflammation of the follicular pilosebacea marked by the presence of blackheads, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts in place of healthy skin. One of the risk factors for Acne vulgaris is changing cosmetic brands which may contain comedogenic and acnegenic ingredients. The aim of this study is to find out the relationship of changing cosmetic brands and the prevalence of Acne vulgaris in female undergraduates. Methods: This was an observational study with cross sectional design. The subjects were 344 female undergraduates who used two out of four types of cosmetics, recruited by total sampling. Data were analyzed to see the relationship of changing cosmetic brands with the degree and the frequency of acne. Results: Based on Spearman correlation test, changing cosmetic brands has a strong positive correlation (r2= 0.762) with the degree of acne and a mild positive correlation (r2=0.461) with acne frequency. Chi-square test showed statistical significance (p<0.05) between changing cosmetic brands and the degree and frequency of acne. Subjects who frequently changes cosmetics has a 66 times higher risk of having bad acne (PR= 66.994; CI 95% = 32.099–139.320) and 8 times higher risk of having more frequent acne (PR= 8.432; CI 95% = 4.969-14.308) compared to subjects that do not frequently change cosmetics. Conclusion: Changing cosmetic brands increased the risk for both the degree of acne and the frequency of acne. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • HOUSEKEEPING GENES ANALYSIS OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Vibrio
           parahaemolyticus ISOLATED FROM AQUATIC BIRDS IN THAILAND

    • Authors: Eakapong Tamboon, Peeraya Ekchariyawat, Orasa Suthienkul, Chonchanok Muangnapoh
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the leading causative agent of foodborne disease. Infection is caused by consumption of undercooked contaminated seafood. V. parahaemolyticus is commonly found in crustacean species and marine environment. Presence of this organism in avian host has been previously reported, however genetic analysis of avian V. parahaemolyticus is required for molecular epidemiological study of this organism. The aim of this study was to determine genetic profile of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from fecal aquatic bird samples by modified Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) method. Methods: Three housekeeping genes fragments (dnaE, gyrB and pntA) of total 18 V. parahaemolyticus isolates from fecal aquatic bird samples at Bangpoo resort, Samut Prakarn province, Thailand, during 2016-2017, were amplified by using conventional PCR for nucleotide sequencing. Nucleotide sequences were analyzed and phylogenetic tree were constructed by MEGA 7.0 software. Comparative genetic analysis of avian isolates from Thailand and worldwide isolates were performed by using information from MLST database of V. parahaemolyticus ( https://pubmlst.org /vparahaemolyticus/). Results: Three housekeeping genes of 18 isolates were successfully amplified and purified for nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic tree analysis of concatenated nucleotide sequences indicated that 18 Thai avian isolates were genetically diverse. Five isolates (MUVP 9, 11, 22, 23 and 24) represented identical genetic profile with clinical isolates from China, India, Japan and Peru. Other examined isolates were closely related to environmental isolates from China and United Kingdom. These results showed that aquatic birds are natural reservoir of V. parahaemolyticus strains with multiple genetic background. Conclusion: This study indicated that aquatic birds possessed potentially pathogenic V . parahaemolyticus and may play a role in transmission of this organism across the countries. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH FINANCING MECHANISM AND MORTALITY RATE IN
           SANTA MARIA PEKANBARU HOSPITAL

    • Authors: Arifin Arifin, Amal Chalik Sjaaf
      Pages: 68 - 72
      Abstract: Background: The main challenge of the health financing mechanism in Indonesia is the allocation of health spending which is still dominated by the private sector, whereas the largest proportion comes from out of pocket payments. The system are a significant barrier in accessing health services. Many individuals with chronis diseases postpone the search for medical services because of high health care cost. The consequences of the delay is the loss of opportunities to overcome chronic illness. This research was aimed to analyze the relationship between health financing mechanism and mortality rate (GDR and NDR) in Santa Maria Pekanbaru Hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study involves GDR and NDR of patients using out of pocket payment and those using health insurance in the year between 2014 - 2017. Data analysis was performed by independent samples t-Test (significance level p < 0,05).
      Conclusion: The health service outcome in patients with out of pocket payment is lower than health insurance patients. The out of pocket payment financing mechanism is one of the major problems in the transition to Universal Health Covered. It is recommended that our government must increase the health budget which is at least in accordance with the rule of law and improve the allocation of public sector health funds at least 2/3 of the total health budget to reduce the proportion of out of pocket to total health expenditure. Health care providers should do efficiency in all areas to reduce the cost of health services. Patient who do not have health insurance will have to rearrenge the allocation of their household expense to pay premium insurance and implement the healthy life habits. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN CELERY JUICE (Apium graveolens L.) AND
           2% MICONAZOLE TOWARDS THE GROWTH OF Malassezia furfur

    • Authors: Ronaa Hammada, Witri Pratiwi, Shofa Nur Fauzah, Donny Nauphar, Amanah Amanah
      Pages: 73 - 77
      Abstract: Introduction: Pityriasis versicolor is caused by the fungi Malassezia furfur with a worldwide prevalence of 50%, including tropical countries, second only to dermatitis in Indonesia. Pityriasis versicolor is difficult to treat and requires long-term treatment. The disease has high recurrence risk and may cause drug resistance. 2% Miconazole is known to have long-term side effects; therefore, alternative treatment is needed. Several studies suggested that celery (Apium graveolens L.) contains active substances with anti-fungal properties. This paper aims to investigate the comparison of effectiveness between celery juice and 2% Miconazole towards the growth of Malassezia furfur. Methods: This is an in-vitro experimental study with post-test only control group design. The subjects were split into 5 groups which were given celery juice in 10% DMSO with the concentration of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. A negative control group was given only 10% DMSO and the positive control group was given 2% Miconazole. The data were then analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results: The Kruskall-Wallis test showed all concentration of celery juice had antifungal effect with p=0.000 (p<0.05) and were effective in inhibiting the growth of Malassezia furfur. The Mann-Whitney test showed that the 50% celery concentration was as effective as 2% Miconazole in inhibiting the growth of Malassezia furfur (p=0.495). Conclusion: Celery juice (Apium graveolens L.) was effective in inhibiting the growth of Malassezia furfur with 50% concentration as the most effective concentration. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ANTENATAL CARE (ANC) VISIT FREQUENCY IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER AND PRETERM
           EVENTS IN PUSKESMAS PONDOH AND JUNTINYUAT IN INDRAMAYU REGENCY BETWEEN
           2014-2016

    • Authors: Elinda Ameliana, Donny Nauphar, Ruri Eka Maryam
      Pages: 78 - 81
      Abstract: Background: World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 15 million babies are born preterm every year and this number continues to increase. Several risk factors for preterm are identified as mother’s lifestyle such as smoking, malnutrition, weight gain during pregnancy, and drug use or other factors such as socioeconomic status. In 2015, WHO reported more than 300.000 women died from pregnancy-related causes and 2.6 million babies were still born worldwide with half occurring during the third trimester. Antenatal Care (ANC) in the third semester aims to identify fetal position and identify complication during pregnancy and screen for pre-eclampsia, infection of the reproductive organs and urinary tract, and plan for delivery. The ANC in the third semester is crucial in keeping pregnant mother healthy throught pregnancy and delivery. Aim: To find out the relationship between third trimester Antenatal Care (ANC) visit frequency and preterm birth event at Puskesmas Pondoh and Juntinyuat in Indramayu regency between 2014-2016. Methods: This was observational analytic study with cross-sectional approach. The sampling technique in this research was done by total sampling with 100 respondens. Data were collected from maternal cohort book and control card of pregnant women. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Prevalence Ratio. Results: This study found that the proportion of pregnant mothers with insufficient third trimester ANC was 38% and the number of mothers delivering preterm baby was 32%. Statistical analysis showed that there was a statistical significance between third trimester ANC visit frequency and preterm labor with p=0,000 (p<0,05) and women with insufficient ANC visit have 40 times higher risk of preterm baby compared to mothers who has sufficient ANC visit (PR=40,60; CI95%=11.699-140.8862) in Puskesmas Pondoh and Juntinyuat Indramayu District 2014-2016. Conclusion: Having less than 4 ANC visit in the third trimester may increase the risk of delivering preterm babies. Pregnant women are advised to do ante natal care monthly of a minimum 4 times during the third trimester. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • POTENTIAL ACCELERATING EFFECT OF Ageratum conyzoides L. LEAVES EXTRACT ON
           FIBROBLASTS DENSITY OF INCISION WOUND OF MALE WHITE MICE (Mus musculus)

    • Authors: Mega Ayu Lestari, Ariestya Indah Permata Sari, Amanah Amanah
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Background: Wound treatment using traditional medicine has been known widely in various countries in the world. Ageratum conyzoidesL. is commonly known by the ancient people to treat wound due to its potential anti-inflammatory effect. This study aims determine the effect of Ageratum conyzoidesL. leaves extract on fibroblast density of incision wound of male white mice (Mus musculus). Methods: This post-test only control group design experimental study used 35 male white mice which were randomly divided into five groups, i.e. negative control group K(-), positive control group K(+) (10% povidone iodine), and treatment group P1, P2, and P3 that were each given billy-goat weed leaf with increasing dose (15%, 30%, and 45% respectively). On each day, the length of the incision was measured by a ruler. After 7 days, the mice were terminated to obtain wound tissue which were used to prepare H&E stained histopathological sections to observe fibroblast density. Non-parametric analyses using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann Whitney test were used to compare the wound length and fibroblasts density. Results: Lengths of incision wound between all pairs of groups at the 7th day are significantly different (p< 0.05) with group P3 showed the shortest one. Significant differences were also observed in fibroblasts density between group K(-) and K(+), K(-) and P1, K(-) and P2, K(-) and P3, K(+) and P3, P1 and P3, P2 and P3 (p< 0.05) with group P3 showed the highest density among all groups. Conclusions: Ageratum conyzoidesL. leaves extract 45% has more potential effect than povidone iodine 10% in accelerating healing process by enhancing fibroblasts density. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS, WORK VENUE, KNOWLEDGE, AND CONDOM USE
           WITH CLIENTS AMONG INDIRECT FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN DENPASAR, BALI,
           INDONESIA

    • Authors: I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra, Dusita Phuengsamran, Aree Jampaklay, Panithee Thammawijaya, Pande Putu Januraga
      Pages: 90 - 96
      Abstract: Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs) remain an important key population affected by HIV&AIDS in Indonesia. Indirect FSWs, in particular, are exposing to higher risk comparing to direct FSWs due to their characteristics and working conditions that could be barriers to safe sex or consistent condom use. This study aimed to identify association between sociodemographic characteristics, work venue, and knowledge on HIV&AIDS toward condom use among indirect FSWs. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data from a survey on indirect FSWs conducted by Center for Public Health Innovation (CPHI), Udayana University, Indonesia during August to October 2017. About 171 indirect FSWs were eligible for this analysis. The dependent variable in this study was consistent condom use during the last month. Independent variables consisted of socio-demographic characteristics, work venue, and knowledge on HIV&AIDS. Data were analysed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: About half of indirect FSWs (50.17%) reported using condom consistently with their clients during the last month. Indirect FSWs were more likely to use condom consistently if they completed senior high school or higher (OR=3.49; 95%CI=1.42-8.57), but less likely to use condom if they were currently or ever married compared to single ones (OR=0.23; 95%CI=0.06-0.82). Those who worked in karaoke, cafe, and bar were less likely to use condom consistently compared to those in massage parlor, spa, and beauty salon (OR=0.09; 95%CI=0.03-0.26). Conclusions: Level of consistent condom use was low, indicating the need to intensify HIV prevention to indirect FSWs. Significant determinants of consistent condom use included marital status, educational level, and work venue. This study informed that providing HIV&AIDS information and improving negotiation skill that fit with characteristics of indirect FSWs and giving institutional support at workplace is crucial to ensure consistent condom use among indirect FSWs. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • PROGNOSIS OF INHALATION INJURY IN SEVERE BURN PATIENTS ON EMERGENCY PHASE

    • Authors: Ida Ayu Agung Laksmi
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Background: Inhalation injury in severe burns is a serious problem cause mortality and morbidity. Survival prognosis of severe burn is most important for patients and family in the emergency phase. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of inhalation injury in severe burn patient during emergency phase in Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia. Methods: This study was a cohort retrospective design of the 78 samples of medical records at Sanglah Hospital in a period of 2 years, from March 2014 until March 2016.
      Results: The results of logistic regressions with mediation show that inhalation injury is a predictor factor of patient’s survival (p = 0.000) that mediated by respiratory rate. The equation obtained y” = -6.608 + (5.589) (Inhalation Injury) + (1.942) (RR). The probability for patient with severe burn to die in the first 48 hours if the patient has an inhalation injury and has a respiratory rate in the first 8 hours after fluid resuscitation of more than 24 x/m is 71.4%. Conclusions: Patient with inhalation injury on severe burn has better prognosis if respiratory rate on first 8 hours is less than 24 cycles per minute. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ADOLESCENTS' PROBLEM RECOGNITION, CONSTRAINT RECOGNITION AND LEVEL OF
           INVOLVEMENT IN REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH INFORMATION SEEKING AND PROCESSING

    • Authors: Ricky Alexander Samosir, Hendriyani Hendriyani
      Pages: 103 - 111
      Abstract: Background: As social and sexual being, adolescent have rights to exchange, seek and process information regarding their sexual and reproductive health. However, many adolescent in Indonesia did not seek and process information about reproductive health due to some barriers. Using situational theory of publics in the context of adolescent reproductive health in Indonesia, this study aimed to determine the effect of problem recognition, constraint recognition and level of involvement on information seeking and information processing. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in September until December 2013 among 124 high school students in SMA Angkasa 1 Lanud Medan.
      Results: This study found that problem recognition, constraint recognition and level of involvement has 14% effect on information seeking with constraint recognition as the independent variable that has the biggest effect (12.1%). Problem recognition, constraint recognition and level of involvement has 9.8% effect on information processing with constraint recognition as the independent variable that has the biggest effect (8.1%). Conclusions: Realizing that constraint recognition had the highest effect both on information seeking and information processing, researcher recommend health communication campaign manager has to reduce adolescent’s constraint recognition in reproductive health, so adolescent can have higher information seeking and processing in reproductive health. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • EFFECTIVENESS OF ‘FAST’ STROKE CAMPAIGN FOR FAST STROKE RECOGNITION
           AND RESPONSE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Herpani Sudirman, Citra Yuliyanti, Andrea Indra Sari
      Pages: 112 - 121
      Abstract: Background: FAST campaigns help people recognize the signs and symptoms of stroke rapidly to bring the patient to the hospital or emergency department immediately. However, the effectiveness is still be questioned. This present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign of early detection in stroke patients to reduce the risk of disability. Methods: A systematic review of articles published between 2010 and 2017 examining the effectiveness of FAST campaign using interventions was conducted along with narrative synthesis and review of intervention development. Information from all relevant published articles that determine how the intervention was developed and evaluated for measuring the effectiveness of FAST campaign were extracted and analyzed. Results: Eleven studies were included, six studies report the effectiveness of FAST campaign, but the other five studies report that the campaigns still do not hit the target. The professionals claim that FAST campaign has been promoted internationally as a great success, but some studies report that the FAST campaign still do not have any significant impact in promoting swift response for Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Conclusions: Campaigns aimed at the public may raise awareness of signs of stroke, but have limited impact on behavior. Thus, new campaigns of FAST should survey the principles of good design and be intensely evaluated for the effectiveness of the implementation. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • DELAYED CLAIM PAYMENT AND THE THREAT TO HOSPITAL CASH FLOW UNDER THE
           NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME IN INDONESIA

    • Authors: Citra Yuliyanti, Hasbullah Thabrany
      Pages: 122 - 128
      Abstract: Background: Indonesia commits to ensure health care access for all population through the National Health Insurance (JKN) managed by the BPJS Health. By February 2018, the JKN covered 193 million people (73% of the total population). To ensure health delivery, 2,104 public and private hospitals are contracted by the BPJS and prospective payment using Case-mix Based Group (CBG) that changes hospital managements. Hospitals become more dependent on payments by BPJS. Delay in claim payment will have serious impact on hospital managements. This study aims to identify current practices in timely payment to hospitals and finding factors correlate with delay in payments. Methods: This study used trend analysis of the secondary claim data of BPJS with the total sample of 57,475 bundles of claims. Total claim population was used in this study. In addition, qualitative study via in-depth interview with six informants consisting of members of National Social Security Council, hospital director of three different classes, and BPJS. Results: This study found 60% of claims were paid within one month (N-1) of claim submission, below the target of 100%. There were tendencies of delays in claim settlements since November 2017. Informants believed that late payments were correlated with non-compliance of doctor to complete medical records, incompetence coders, inadequate management information system, and financial condition of BPJS. There were three main problems faced by hospitals as a result of delay in payments: 1) disturbed drug availability, 2) decreased performance of doctors, 3) poorer maintenance of medical equipment. Conclusion: Delayed in claim payments were occurred and led to a threat of decreasing quality of care to patients. The study suggests the government should fix the problems to protect patients from decreasing quality of care. Hospitals should provide reserve funds to protect them from financial hardship when delays occur. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT UNIT “ANGGREK PAVILION” AT RSAL DR.
           MINTOHARDJO IN 2014 - 2017 USING MANAGEMENT APPROACH

    • Authors: Fidela Eniraisa, Budi Hidayat
      Pages: 129 - 135
      Abstract: Background:. The increasing number of hospitals built by both private and government parties to make patients can choose the hospital they want, so that will lead to increased competition between hospitals. It requires a hospital to be ready to compete and be more creative in developing its services. One of the most important elements in a hospital is the management department who play an active role. This study aims to explain the relationship between the five M’s of management with the performance improvement of an inpatient unit ”Orchid Pavilion”. So the other hospital with a low performance may be more concerned with the five management factors at the hospital and this study can be a good example which can be applied by other hospitals. Methods: This research was conducted at inpatient unit “Orchid Pavilion”Rumah Sakit Angkatan Laut (Navy Hospital) Dr. Mintohardjo. The research was conducted by qualitative method, that is to conduct in-depth interview with Head of Orchid Pavilion and Deputy Head of Orchid Pavilion, and study data obtained from Medical Administration Department Rumah Sakit Angkatan Laut (Navy Hospital) Dr. Mintohardjo. Results: The results show that there has been an improvement of performance in inpatient unit “Orchid Pavilion” and many improvement on the five M’s in management (Men, Money, Materials, Machines, and Method) resulting in significant increase of Bed Occupancy Ratio value in the room. Conclusions: Improvements in five M’s in management greatly affect the improvement of performance in inpatient unit “Orchid Pavilion” Rumah Sakit Angkatan Laut (Navy Hospital) Dr. Mintohardjo. The five M’s in management (Men, Money, Materials, Machines, and Method) have a strong role in improving the performance of inpatient unit “Orchid Pavilion”. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • EVALUATION OF MOTHER AND CHILD HEALTH (MCH) HANDBOOK: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Wike Pratiastuti, Ahmad Syafiq
      Pages: 136 - 142
      Abstract: Background: Maternal and Child Health (MCH) handbook is a home-based health record for both mother and child. The handbook can be used to monitor the health of women and her child, to give record in the utilization of health services, promote maternal health education, and provide information when either mother or child is referred. Several countries adopted the MCH handbook as a tool to promote better health knowledge and health service seeking behavior among women, and numerous countries have succeeded in applying it. Therefore a strategy is needed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the MCH handbook with strong evidence. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency the implementation of the recording, information and education usefulness of the MCH handbook. Methods: Using systematic review method, the literature review using PICOS was employed 3 articles with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) approach by taking sources from online database: Proquest, Jstor, Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct and Scopus. Results: Previous studies from three (3) countries stated that the contents of the MCH handbook were complete which included the ANC (antenatal care) record, delivery, PNC (post-natal care), child development, notification of birth, an educational message to raise the demand and awareness of healthy behavior of women in pregnancy and motherhood and improve their essential service utilization. For use of the MCH handbook in 3 countries it is known that almost are used to record all health and treatments consultations during pregnancy, delivery, after delivery and during infant care, including immunization and growth monitoring (birth weight is accurate data to monitor stunting in children under 5 years), maternal and neonatal death surveillance and response records. In Burundi, it is also used in birth registration procedures. Conclusions: The MCH handbook is an effective health education tool for women with less education, a reliable source of information for primiparous women, delivery, and childcare; and an effective aid for health communication between women and health providers, and their husbands. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • PERCEIVED INSUFFICIENT MILK (PIM) AMONG MOTHERS OF 0-6 MONTHS INFANTS IN
           CIPAYUNG HEALTH CENTRE, DEPOK INDONESIA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    • Authors: Stella Maris Bakara, Sandra Fikawati
      Pages: 143 - 148
      Abstract: Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is breast milk given to infant since their birth to the age of 6 (six) months, without adding and/or replacing with other foods or beverages (except medicines, vitamins, and minerals). One of the factors that affect the exclusive breastfeeding was the perceptions of insufficient milk. Milk insufficiency is considered to happen when the mother stops breastfeeding exclusively with some reasons such as no breast milk, low milk supply, or insufficient milk. This research was to examine more deeply the perception of insufficient milk and factor influencing it. Methods: This was a qualitative study that used a primary data of study "Intervention of Breastfeeding Enhancement and Weaning Food in the Implementation of the First-1000-Days-of-Life Program". Informants selected through who has been intervened research by PKGK. Triangulation of data sources was a midwife, informants’ husbands, documents of mother and child health books (MCH) and secondary data from PKGK research. Results: Based on the result from the interview: a) there was found a tendency of knowledge increase on mothers receiving treatment. b) Mostly, the lactation guidance was given without supporting device. c) Mother perception about their will gained weight if giving the sufficient milk has not been in line with Body Mass Index (BMI) before pregnancy. d). Family support towards mothers breastfeeding has not been provided optimally. e) Early breast-feeding (EBF) was not complete in accordance with the standard. Conclusions: Mothers who had not received treatment were having lack of knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding. Implementation of EBF was not in line with the procedure. The role of a delivery helper on EBF is vital in order to make the implementation of the EBF carried out according to the procedure. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE IMPLEMENTATION OF VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA BUNDLE (VAP) IN THE
           ICU OF EKA HOSPITAL, PEKANBARU

    • Authors: Erna Maria, Vetty Yulianty Permanasari
      Pages: 149 - 154
      Abstract: Background: Nosocomial infections or known as Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) is a worldwide problem. VAP is nosocomial pneumonia which occurs more than 48 hours after installation of mechanical ventilation, either through an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. The patient in ICU have high risk on VAP infection and increasing morbidity, mortality and also prolonged length of hospital stay Methods: This research is an observational study evaluating conditions before and after a specific standard operating procedure being implemented in reducing VAP infection in ICU EKA Hospital Pekanbaru.
      Results: It’s obtained from medical record data of 339 patients hospitalized at ICU of Eka Hospital Pekanbaru ranging from 2016 to 2017. There is significant decrease number of VAP infections in 2017 by 60%. The reduction occurred due to the application of a routine VAP Bundle covering 100% for all hospitalized ICU patients. Conclusions: Strict monitoring and supervision are required to maintain VAP bundle and reduce the incidence of VAP infection in ICU of Eka Hospital Pekanbaru. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • DELAY OF ELECTIVE OPERATIONS IN AWAL BROS PANAM PEKANBARU HOSPITAL
           JANUARI-APRIL 2018

    • Authors: Muhammad Eriex Fornando Suka, Adik Wibowo
      Pages: 155 - 159
      Abstract: Background: Competition between hospitals is increasing, for thathospital should maintain the quality of service and patient satisfaction. Hospitals should have innovation targets for cost effectiveness and productivity without compromising patient safety and quality of care. Operation delays are one barrier to optimal patient flow, increasing patient anxiety, affecting interprofessional teamwork across the medical discipline and ultimately putting patients at risk of safety. Methods: This research is descriptive research with a quantitative approach, data obtained from the surgery room register and interview which then grouped and analyzed.
      Results: There was an elective delay in surgery of 38%, with the highest cause being the staffing factor of 81%, the highest percentage of delays was plastic surgery 61% of total surgery performed, The highest number of delays occurred in Urology that is 213 cases. Conclusions: To reduce the delay required clear rules in the event of delays and rules of payment based on performance services, which is timeliness of attendance elective operation schedule is one of the assessment tools, and scheduling operations outside the time outpatient service. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • DETERMINANTS OF TRADITIONAL, COMPLEMENTARY, AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE
           (TCAM) CHOICES : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Zainal Abidin, Prastuti Soewondo
      Pages: 160 - 167
      Abstract: Background: Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) is one of the treatment methods that have existed for a long time. The use of TCAM as treatment is increasing in many countries. Extensively, TCAM is used to treat various diseases, especially patients with two or more chronic diseases. TCAM as treatment is chosen by the community based on their HBM (Health Belief Model). This study aims to look at the reasons patients choose to seek treatment at TCAM. Methods: Systematic review with journal tracking through 3 database source, ProQuest, Scopus and Springer Link. We use the keywords “determinants” AND “traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine” for journals published in the last five years. Then we conduct critical appraisal of the selected journals. Results: From the five selected studies , we found that health satisfaction variables are the strongest reason in TCAM choice as treatment. They visit health modalities to improve their well-being or health status. Some believe and agree that TM is more safety, more convenient, more effective, cheaper, and easier to use. The use of TCAM is related to patient satisfaction, TCAM knowledge, outsides influence, positive perception, higher education, and more than 1 chronic illness. All these factors explain the model of peoples belief to health services. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction was strongly predictor of TCAM choices. Their well-being have perceived more better after using TCAM services. The socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables are modifying factors that doesn’t always influence patient decision. All these determinants enrich the HBM theory as follows patient satisfaction, patient knowledge, socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and distrust as barrier. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • FACTORS AFFECTING NURSE TURNOVER IN HOSPITAL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    • Authors: Luvi Christiani, Jaslis Ilyas
      Pages: 168 - 175
      Abstract: Background: A turnover occurrence in the hospital was a constant problem. The cause of turnover was largely inclined to the level of job satisfaction, hostile work environment, excessive workload, resulting in a lack of motivation to stay.
      Methods: This study was conducted in a narrative review by looking at the factors causing turnover at various hospitals. The review was done by searching for articles and journals related to factors that lead to nurse turnover in the hospital. The referral journals are published in the accredited journal publications. The literature investigation was conducted in October-December 2017 through Universitas Indonesia online library and Google Scholar. Journals were selected based on predefined criteria and carried out a critical appraisal process. Results: The results of the journal investigation showed that some factors that support the nurse turnover in the hospital were the poor work environment, job dissatisfaction, excessive workload, the poor relationship between nurse and manager, lack of self-appreciation, burnout and low social support. Conclusions: The suggestion that can be given is to improve the work environment that is emphasized through policies to maintain the nurse in the workplace. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE INCIDENCE OF PHLEBITIS AMONG INPATIENT IN THE HOSPITAL: SYSTEMATIC
           REVIEW

    • Authors: Muchamad Muchamad, Mieke Savitri
      Pages: 176 - 189
      Abstract: Background: Plebitis causes increase in medical cost and decreasing motivation in health workers and patients. One of the important issues in phlebitis can be found in the treatment process and has a great risk for the occurrence of a complication that can cause thrombus which subsequently becomes thrombophlebitis, causing the need to increase infuse therapy Methods: Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute results that summarize influence factors related causes plebitis. We systematically searched ProQuest, Springer, Google Scholar from 7 days on 23-30 April 2018 for eligible systematic reviews with language limitation in English and Indonesian. Results: The literature search and screening process resulted in 21 full text articles. We found all 21 studies results proved influence factors that can cause plebitis and can be categorizes to 4 major factor which are: procedure and techniques,place and position,people,and types of fluids and medicines factors. Influence factors that mostly cause plebitis occurring in the 7 countries are from procedures and techniques, and people factors. Many are caused by violation the procedures and low soft skill in health workers.
      Conclusions: Plebitis incidence has become major issue in nosocomial infection at the hospital many countries. There should be new policy for monitoring and evaluation, supervision, documentation, analysis in plebitis sign with patient condition, increased competence knowledge and soft skill of health workers, fluid analysis and medicines, and nurse compliance for implementation of procedures and protocol. Plebitis is of particular concern because it can hurt many sectors ranging from patient, hospital, government and countries. It can cause increased length of hospital stay, increased medical cost and decreased motivation of work. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE EFFECTS OF SECTION CAESAREA TO EARLY BREASTFEEDING INITIATION: A
           SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Nur Annisa Fauziyah, Helda Helda
      Pages: 190 - 197
      Abstract: Background: The early breastfeeding initiation is one of the crusial process for successful in exclusive breastfeeding, unfortunately based on UNICEF, globally only 45% of newborns were put to the breast within the first hours of life. The other condition, nowdays caesarean sections have become increasingly common in both developed and developing countries, research showed that mothers who delivered their baby section caesarea have a higher percentage failure of early breastfeeding initiation than mother with vaginal delivery, from that condition his research aims to analyze effects section caesarea to early breastfeeding initiation. Methods: This study used systematic review based on the Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews & Meta-Analyses) Protocol to identify all the published literature using relevant keywords. The initial screening was conducted by human population, the year of publication (5 years) and free full text, then reading the titles, abstracts than assessed for eligibility founded 6 articles, those studies included in this review after selected using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion are journal from rearch reported in english, has no accompanying disease or health problem as cardiac disease, cancer, herpes, HIV/AIDS, obesity ect. The baby is normal, baby can drink orally. Exclusion: the articles published less than 2013, after sectio caesarea mother and infant require special therapy. Results: The studies showed there were effects of section caesarea to early breastfeeding initiation, the mothers who birth their babies with caesarea most of them failure to initiate early breastfeeding. Conclusions: The way to Improve the rates of early breastfeeding initiation with giving antenatal breastfeeding education to all mothers especially who known to be having a cesarean section and health care professionals must support. All of the hospitals must apply baby friendly hospital initiative to support success of early breastfeeding initiation 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN STRATEGY TO ALLEVIATE OVERCROWDING IN EMERGENCY
           ROOM: NARRATIVE REVIEW

    • Authors: Yani Oryza, Jaslis Ilyas
      Pages: 198 - 208
      Abstract: Background: Emergency Room (ER) of hospital worldwide undergoes significantly challenging problems; overcrowding patient leads to block the access, causes discomfort and increases demands to be served by medical personnel immediately. To overcome these problems, the ER needs to implement lean strategies. This study presents a narrative review aimed to identify whether there is a positive impact of the lean implementations in overcoming the overcrowded ER or not. Methods: This narrative review explores the current literature from an online database and highlights the lean strategies adopted by several ER to reduce overcrowding and delaying and to streamline patient flow. Literatures without data on waiting time, length of stay (LOS), and untreated patients leaving the ER, will be excluded from this review. The types of intervention were grouped into team triage, streaming, fast track, point-of-care test (POCT), and nurse-requested x-ray. Results: The evidence of lean intervention is beneficial in reducing patients’ waiting time and length of stay (LOS). Fast track reduces the length of waiting time, LOS, and the number of untreated patients by physician. Team triage consisting of appointed doctors and nurses also has a positive impact on shortening the waiting time. There is not enough evidence to suggest that streaming, POCT early in arrival, and x-rays by nurses can reduce waiting times and LOS.Conclusions: The implementations of lean strategy have a positive impact in shortening the waiting time and LOS, and help speed up the patients’ flow and access to other supporting units. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • STAFFING NEEDS ANALYSIS IN THE PHARMACY UNIT OF SANTA MARIA HOSPITAL
           PEKANBARU 2017

    • Authors: Monika Noviena Susanto, Vetty Yuliaty Permanasari
      Pages: 209 - 217
      Abstract: Background: Several previous studies have calculated the workload and the needs of human resources in the pharmacy unit and found that the availability of human resources is still not in accordance with the workload undertaken. This study aims to analyse the workload and human resource requirement in Pharmacy Installation of Santa Maria Hospital Pekanbaru 2017 Methods: This research is descriptive research conducted at Hospital Santa Maria Pekanbaru from January until December 2017. Subject of the research included pharmacist laboratory and pharmaceutical technical personnel (pharmacist assistant). Data collection was done by in-depth interview with key informants and from hospital staffing documents and hospital pharmacy installation documents. Results: Total requirement of pharmaceutical work force during effective day is 40 persons, while requirement during holiday accounted for 21 persons and make it totally 61 persons.
      Conclusions: With The current number of employee of 54 people, the hospital required an additional seven person to cope with the workload at the Pharmacy unit of Santa Maria Hospital. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE COGNITIVE SCREENING IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD IN DEVELOPING
           COUNTRIES: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

    • Authors: Siti Aisah, Kemal Nazarudin Siregar
      Pages: 218 - 227
      Abstract: Background: Stunting or being too short affects one-third of children under five years old in developing countries. Stunting has long-term effects on cognitive development, school performance and economic productivity in adulthood. Early detection of cognitive impairment caused by stunting offers rapid strategies for reducing stunting by examine the consequence on cognitive development. Reliable assessment tools are necessary to properly track cognitive development caused by stunting. This study identifies that the use of appropriate cognitive assessment tools assists in early detection of the impact of stunting in children under five years old in developing countries. Methods: Systematic literature review using PRISMA-P guidelines were applied for this study. Studies were identified from 4 electronic sources (Scopus, Science Direct, EBSCO and Google Scholar) from 2015 to 2018 using relevant keywords. All studies were conducted on children under five years old in developing countries. The used studies for this review are limited to full-text in English and Bahasa Indonesia. Studies conducted from 19 April to 11 May 2018. Results: From 492 studies that have been extracted, there are 10 studies reported the cognitive impairment assessment tools for under five years old children used in developing countries. The satisfying assessment tools in eligibility criteria are Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID III), the Indonesian child development pre-screening questionnaire (Kuesioner Pra-Skrining Perkembangan/KPSP ) and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST II). They appear promising to be used in identifying and monitoring cognitive development of children in developing countries. Conclusions: In the context of stunting in children under five years old, rapid assessment of cognitive ability is feasible for routine clinical use. The BSID III, KPSP and DDST II are the most common used in developing countries and they have moderately good accuracy to detect the cognitive impairment. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PATHWAY IN IMPROVING HOSPITALS COST EFFICIENCY

    • Authors: Taufiqurrahman Taufiqurrahman, Mardiati Nadjib
      Pages: 228 - 233
      Abstract: Background: Clinical Pathway (CP) is a method of clinical documentation that reflects clinical practice standards for physicians, nurses and other members of healthcare team. Clinical pathways are collaborative guidelines for treating patients focused on diagnosis, clinical problems and stages of care. The advantage is any intervention given and the development of the patient recorded systematically based on the time criteria set and is expected to improve the quality of service and to lower hospital costs. The aim of this narrative review is to assess the role of CP in improving the efficiency of hospital costs. Methods: Narrative review was performed by analyzing the scientific articles obtained through Electronic Library provided by the University of Indonesia through online database list and chooses Science Direct as a search. The keywords used in the search were "Clinical Pathway and Hospital Cost". Search strategy was conducted by searching for articles related to CP role on hospital cost efficiency. Articles were selected using inclusion criteria and through several stages. Results: Acquired as many as 1.324 articles conducted search through Science Direct. From the results of the screening finally 4 scientific articles were chosen relevant to the topic of writing and the criteria of inclusion or exclusion. After the analysis, it was found that the use of CP in the management of patients can lower hospital costs. Conclusions: Implementation of clinical pathway for the management of patients in hospital can improve hospital cost efficiency. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ELECTRONIC CIGARETTE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Edi Junaidi, Budi Hidayat
      Pages: 234 - 239
      Abstract: Background: The innovation of the cigarettes industry leads to evolved into an electric cigarette. US General Surgeon in 2016 reports that 13.5% of junior high school students, 37.7% of high school students and 35.8% of young adolescents in America have used electric cigarettes. This study aims to identify the use of electric cigarette among adolescent Methods: This study utilized systematic reviews using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews & Meta-Analyzes) to identify all published literature using relevant keywords. The selection process is based on the literature of which the population is human, published in the last 5 years, and there is a complete text form, then selected back by title and abstract. The journal used is the selected journal based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Electric cigarettes are used by adolescents influence through social media or commercial advertisement. One type of electric cigarette that is widely used is the Electronic Vapor Product (EVP) that can easily to obtain from retail stores, kiosks, malls, and the internet. Electric cigarette users were led to increasing the symptoms of bronchitis and asthma in adolescents. Conclusions: The use of electric cigarettes in adolescents has increased mainly among male adolescents. The current study revealed the use of electronic cigarette was influenced by the several factors: lifestyle, electric cigarette prices, and the teenager’s pocket money. Therefore, serious efforts needed to control the factors that affected the teenage users of electric cigarette. Campaign on ruthless effects of the electric cigarette among adolescents should be implemented in the school, furthermore in several places related to teenagers. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE ASSOCIATION OF UNINTENDED PREGNANCY WITH STUNTING ON CHILDREN UNDER
           FIVE YEARS OLD: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Annisa Lidra Maribeth, Ahmad Syafiq
      Pages: 240 - 248
      Abstract: Introduction: One of the complex causes of stunting is an unintended pregnancy. Children from unintended pregnancies are at greater risk for stunting than children born from intended pregnancies. This study aims to analyze the association of intended pregnancies with stunting events in children under 5 years old. Methods: This systematic review used PRISMA-P protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) in 2009. Studies were collected through search in the source data Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed from January 2015 through May 2018. Keywords search used PICO- S (Population Intervention Compare Outcome-Study design) technique. 278 studies were found and five studies were included in this study. Results: From the 5 studies reviewed, it was found that unintended pregnancies can be the cause of stunting in the range 1.25 to 2.19 times higher than the intended pregnancy.
      Conclusion: We found a significant relationship between unintended pregnancies among 5 countries (Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Northern Malawi, and Indonesia) with stunting in children under 5 years’ old. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE STRATEGY TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG HEROIN ADDICTS THROUGH
           METHADONE MAINTENANCE THERAPY

    • Authors: Eka Yuliartiningsih, Puput Oktamianti
      Pages: 249 - 256
      Abstract: Background: Many cases of heroin abuse was the leading cause of death. Due to difficulties stop addiction to heroin, many methods were used for the recovery process. The effective and approved therapy method with a medical approach was transferal heroin with another substance program, which was called methadone maintenance therapy. Methadone was chosen as the main substitution therapy because it has a similar effect to heroin with lengthier bioavailability, so it could be prescribed once a day. There are positive benefits that can make heroin addicts function normally with methadone maintenance therapy, it will improve the quality of life people with heroin addicts. Methods: This research used a narrative review method with data retrieval from Universitas Indonesia online database such as PubMed and Springer Link. The research strategy has done by employed several articles about life quality improvement of heroin addicts with methadone maintenance therapy service, which already publish in Universitas Indonesia online database in December 2017. The chosen articles were use, selected by inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Results: From the reviewed the 5 published journal articles, revealed one of the benefits from methadone maintenance therapy services is improving the life quality of heroin addicts.
      Conclusions: Methadone maintenance therapy services could improve the life quality of heroin addicts. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • COST AND FINANCIAL ECONOMIC IMPACT IN CATHETER ASSOCIATED URINARY TRACT
           INFECTION (CAUTI): A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Fatimah Sarah, Oktaminati Puput
      Pages: 257 - 265
      Abstract: Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) was the first condition chosen for nonpayment because of its anticipated effect on large numbers of hospitalizations. The risk of CAUTI is mainly related to the duration of catheterization, occurring at a rate of 5% per day. This study is to identify the cost and financial economic impact of intervention and prevention including an indication of CAUTI, number of events, duration of urinary catheterization, length of stay, the cost for antibiotics and hospitalization cost in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) to reducing the rate and hospital payment. Methods: Systematic Review with PRISMA – P Protocol in 2009 method from a relevant database such as PubMed and ProQuest search engine in 2007 until 2017. Total document selected by full text is 10 article. Results: Based on literature search and screening article after using intervention and prevention strategy for CAUTI in the USA, UK and Thailand have a good impact in the duration of urinary catheterization, length of stay, the cost for antibiotic and hospitalization cost. Some article result that the change in the rate of CAUTI was not significantly different before and after the policy and validity in identifying CAUTI is limited. Conclusions: Cost impact in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) can preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use (appropriate indication), shortening catheter duration, bladder bundles intervention, supervision, and evaluation of the implementation. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • EFFECT OF TREE MARIGOLD (Tithonia diversifolia (HEMSL.) A. GRAY) LEAVES
           INFUSION AND ETHANOL EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL AND LIVER
           HISTOPATHOLOGY OF STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED MALE WISTAR RATS

    • Authors: Rachma Ayu Maulidiany, Eni Suhaeni, Catur Setiya Sulistiyana, Ariestya Indah Permata Sari
      Pages: 266 - 273
      Abstract: Background: Common Indonesians often use alternative therapy for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) due to its high prevalence. Tree marigold (Tithonia difersivolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray) leaves show its positive effect in decreasing blood glucose level. Thus, it is important to analyze the negative effect of consuming the proposing alternative including its toxicity level to vital organs. This study aims to observe the blood glucose level and liver histopathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats treated by infusion and ethanol extract of the tree marigold leaves. Methods: Pretest and posttest with control group design experiment was conducted to analyze effect on blood glucose level and posttest only with control group design was for determining liver histopathology. Twenty-four male white rats (Wistar strain) were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (KN), positive control group (K+) treated with 0.45mg/kg of glibenclamid, treatment group 1 (P1) treated by 100 mg/kg of tree marigold leaves ethanol extract, and treatment group 2 (P2) treated by 1373 mg/kg of tree marigold leaves infusion. The rats at the groups of K+, P1, and P2 were induced by streptozotocin to reach hyperglycemic state. Comparison of blood glucose level effect between infusion and ethanol extract was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA continued by post-hoc test, while comparison of liver histopathology effect was determined by Kruskal-Wallis continued by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Significant differences of blood glucose level decrease were found in all groups. Group P2 significantly decreased blood glucose level more than P1 (p=0.000) as much as 124.97 mg/dl and 101.46 mg/dl respectively. Significant differences of liver histopathology were obtained between KN vs K(+), KN vs P2, K(+) vs P2, and P1 vs P2. Group P2 showed more severe of liver histopathology changes than P1 (p=0.025). Conclusion: Tree marigold leaves extract is more effective in lowering blood glucose level and has less toxic effect to liver histopathology than its infusion. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • EFFECT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY ON
           OVERWEIGHT LEVEL AMONG HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENT

    • Authors: Lita Harlianti, Witri Pratiwi, Donny Nauphar, Eni Suhaeni
      Pages: 274 - 278
      Abstract: Background: Obesity was believed to be one of the risk factors of degenerative diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Obesity occurred gradually that started with overweight. Risk factors for overweight are lack of physical activity, and consumption of high caloric fatty food which may cause accumulation of fats inside the body. This research aims to examine the effect of physical activity and fast food consumption frequency on overweight level among high school adolescent in Cirebon. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 262 high school students aged 15-17 years using stratified random sampling.
      Results: The result based on Spearman correlation test showed negative correlation between physical activity and overweight level with p= 0,001 (p< 0,05) and correlation coefficient of -0,627. There was positive correlation between consumption fast food frequency with overweight with p=0,037 (p=0,05) and correlation coefficient of 0,423. Conclusions: Physical activity and fast food consumption frequency have effects on overweight level in high school adolescent in Cirebon. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • INHIBITORY EFFECT OF Sansevieria trifasciata L ON AERIAL PATHOGENIC
           MICROFUNGI IN TUTORIAL ROOMS

    • Authors: Sharah Julia Andayani, Amanah Amanah, Tissa Octavira Permatasari
      Pages: 279 - 286
      Abstract: Background: Air pollutants in a room can be caused by several things, such as microorganisms in the form of fungi. Fungi that dispersed in air with concentration>700 CFU/m3 can be categorized as air pollution which could lead to many symptoms of various human diseases An effort that may improve indoor air pollution is using anti pollutant plant such as Sansevieria trifasciata L. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of Sansevieria trifasciata L on the concentration of aerial pathogenic microfungi in the tutorial room in Faculty of Medicine Swadaya Gunung Jati University and identify the aerial pathogenic microfungi species in the tutorial room. Methods: This study was a quasi experimental research with pre and post-test group design. Eight tutorial rooms with 4 repetitions were tested for species microfungi growth using Saburoud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media in 32 petri discs. After 7 days of incubation, microfungi were identified and the colony form unit (CFU) number was counted. The data was analyzed using paired T test. Results: Ten aerial pathogenic microfungi growth were significantly (p = 0.000) inhibited by Sansevieria trifasciata L demonstrated by CFU number reduction from 54.18 – 204.94 CFU/m3 to 16.48 – 44.75 CFU/m3.
      Conclusions: Sansevieria trifasciata L effectively inhibited aerial pathogenic microfungi growth in tutorial rooms. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • DETERMINANTS OF EARLY MARRIAGE IN INDONESIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Sri Windiarti, Besral Besral
      Pages: 287 - 293
      Abstract: Background: Early marriage is a formal or informal marriage that entered by individuals before the age of 18. In Indonesia, the marriage age is legally regulated in the Marriage Law with age limit of 16 years for female. This phenomenon contributed to the high number of early marriages and its impacts on maternal and child health. This study aims to examine the determinants of early marriage in Indonesia. Methods: Journal articles were collected by searching in academic article database, such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Pubmed from 2016 to 2018.
      Authors used the PRISMA-P protocol (Prefed Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) in 2009 as systematic writing guidelines. Results: Determinants of early marriage in Indonesia were unwanted pregnancy, peer influence, parent role, education level, knowledge of reproductive health, family economic status, culture, and media exposure. Conclussions: Reviewing Indonesian marriage law is needed to reduce early marriage cases in Indonesia. Improving quality of reproductive health services, improving women's education and improving the economic status of the family is equally important to prevent early marriage and improve maternal and child Health in Indonesia. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • SUCROSE AND SWADDLING EFFECTIVELY REDUCE PAIN RESPONSE ON NEONATAL BLOOD
           SPOT BY HEEL PRICK

    • Authors: Mega Hasanul Huda, Rustina Yeni, Agustini Nur
      Pages: 294 - 298
      Abstract: Background: Pain stimulates distress emergence that potentially impairs the development and growth on neonates. Heel prick brings about pain. This research aimed at observing the effectiveness of sucrose and swaddling on pain response to neonates.
      Methods: A clinical trial was designed by random under control using cross-over design. This study involved 24 neonates (aged 28 days) which taken from population using a consecutive sampling technique. Each subject was given two treatments of sucrose (24%) and swaddling, but the pain responses were observed at different time during and after received the heel prick (1, 2, and 3 minutes). Response of neonatal pain focused on face observation, oxygen saturation, and heart rate, but scored by the experts using a set of observation sheets from Cries Neonatal Postoperative Pain Measurement Tool (CNPPMT). Results: During the heel prick, the average of pain response was found higher on sucrose group (2.67). After a minute elapsed, the average of pain response on both groups was similar (1.96). After two and three minutes elapsed, the average of pain response was found higher on swaddling group. Bivariate results showed that there was no different average of the pain response on both groups during the heel prick (p=0.925) and after the heel prick (one minute (p=0.915), two minutes (p= 0.942), and three minutes (p=0.132)). Conclusions: Research revealed that sucrose and swaddling equally effective in reducing pain response on neonatal blood spot by heel prick. Swaddling could be carried out to reduce pain response on infants when pricking applied. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ANALYSIS OF NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF TORBANGUN (Coleus amboinicus Lour) LEAF
           BISCUIT

    • Authors: Donal Nababan
      Pages: 299 - 304
      Abstract: Background: One of the local food ingredients that can be utilized as a complementary food is a torbangun leaf. Torbangun leaf is usually consumed in the form of torbangun leaf soup or served as vegetables with main meal. Torbangun is rich in iron, vitamin C, energy, protein, fat that is very beneficial for infant growth and is widely available in the market with cheap price. Torbangun leaves, especially when made into powder, can be processed into a wide range of food products such as biscuit, but needs several intervention trials to search its long shelf life with high energy density. Methods: The purpose of this research is to study the formulation of torbangun leaf biscuit and to analyze the nutrient content in meeting the nutritional requirements of child stunting aged 12-18 months. Organoleptic test was conducted with 5 point hedonic rating test. This study used Anova test to see the mean difference in the assessment of leaf biscuits torbangun. Results: With the addition of 10% (A), 20% (B), and 30% (C) torbangun leaf powder in every 100 gr biscuit, the organoleptic test showed that biscuit with 20% of torbangun flour had the highest organoleptic score on taste, flavor, texture and color. The biscuit contents energy and protein similar to the commercial fortified (PMT) biscuit with high content of iron and calcium. Compared with the PMT biscuits, the torbangun leaf biscuit meets the energy criteria (at least 400 kcal/100gr) but slightly having lower protein (less than 8gr/100gr). However iron content of torbangun biscuit equals the upper range of the PMT biscuit (4-7.5 mf/100gr) and very high calcium content (almost 10 times higher than the PMT biscuit). Consclusions: The selected biscuits with 20% torbangun leaf powder will be used in the following intervention study promoting complementary food recommendation with fortified biscuits. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • EFFECTIVENESS OF WILLIAM FLEXION EXERCISE TO REDUCE PAIN INTENSITY ON LOW
           BACK PAIN (LBP) OF WOODCARVERS IN BALI, INDONESIA

    • Authors: Istri Dalem Hana Yundari, Putu Puspita Wulandari Mas
      Pages: 305 - 311
      Abstract: Background: Previous study shown 8 of 10 woodcarver in Bali experience low back pain (LBP), a clinical syndrome with major symptoms of pain or discomfort sense in the lower back area. A William’s flexion exercise, an exercise program consisting of six kinds of movements, may decrease the pain by decreasing the lumbar lordosis (flexion). This study is to evaluate the effect of William’s Flexion Exercise in reducing pain intensity of LBP to woodcarvers in Bali, Indonesia. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL KNOWLEDGE ON EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN
           CIPAYUNG SUB-DISTRICT, DEPOK CITY, INDONESIA

    • Authors: Alifani Faiz Faradhila, Sandra Fikawati
      Pages: 312 - 317
      Abstract: Background: Exclusive breastfeeding practice during six-months could reduce morbidity and mortality of mother and infant. This study aims to examine the sociodemographic characteristics as the the factors associated with knowledge among six-months exclusively breastfeeding mothers in Cipayung Sub-District, Depok City, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional collected from 122 mothers with six-months exclusively breastfeeding. The participants selected through purposive sampling in Cipayung Sub-District in year 2017.
      Results: Only 80% mothers exclusively breastfeeding for six months. More than half mothers (59%) had high educational level, advance and tertiary. Most of mothers (91%) were unemployed. Approximately 22.1% mothers had high status of social economic. Eighty-two percent mothers who have children more than one. Six-months exclusively breastfeeding mothers who had high educational level were more likely has high knowledge than those with low educational level (p=0.010; OR=2.85; CI95%=1.34-6.06). Mothers who had low educational level were 2.85 times higher risk to have low maternal knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding compared with high educational level. Conclusions: Knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers was significantly associated to educational level. Interventions emphasizing practical education should therefore be targeted at addressing factors that associated knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF NURSE IN MUFID ACEH
           GENERAL HOSPITAL

    • Authors: Putri Ilham Sari, Adang Bachtiar
      Pages: 318 - 323
      Abstract: Background: To improve the human resources of the hospital, one of nurses to ensure the hospital service is well organized, the hospital management must have good strategy management.This research was conducted at Mufid Aceh General Hospital to get an overview of the factors that affect the performance of nurses at Mufid Aceh General Hospital. Methods: It was a qualitative research focused on employment documents, income documents, monthly staff satisfaction, monthly performance results nursing, patient satisfaction in Mufid Aceh General Hospital.
      Results: Internal factors that affect the low performance of nurses at Mufid Aceh General Hospital are satisfaction, work-related stress factors, short working period and low work motivation. While External factors that affect the low performance of nurses is work load factor. Conclusions: Based on the result of this research, it is suggested to Mufid Aceh General Hospital to planning of nurse requirement well, to make policy about income, to make job description and authority in accordance with competence of nurse staff and creating a retention program. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • THE EFFECT OF CLINICAL PATHWAY TOWARD HOSPITAL’S QUALITY AND COST IN
           “RSUS” HOSPITAL BANDAR LAMPUNG

    • Authors: Toki Himawati, Adang Bachtiar
      Pages: 324 - 327
      Abstract: Background: One of the most appropriate policies to overcome the over budget is the quality control of cost control, the instrument is a clinical pathway, so that the hospital can perform service functions well and quality without experiencing financial loss. This research has a purpose to know how far is clinical pathway can be good as a tool of quality control of cost control at “RSUS” Hospital Bandar Lampung. Methods: The research used a qualitative research involved 35 informants comprised of shareholders, Board of Directors, Medical Committee, Provision of Care Services and Coder. Results: The results showed that in general, the informants agreed with the implementation of the clinical pathway because it can improve the quality of service, the certainty of procedures and can overcome the budget. Conclusion: RSUS Hospital has not fully use clinical pathway as a tool of quality control of cost control, thus over budget remains with low quality of service 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • INTEGRATED REHABILITATION PROGRAM FOR PERSONNEL WITH DISABILITIES IN THE
           MINISTRY OF DEFENSE AND INDONESIAN NATIONAL ARMED FORCES

    • Authors: Ari Wijayanti, Puput Oktaminanti
      Pages: 328 - 334
      Abstract: Background: In carrying out their main duties, soldiers are often confronted with risks that can cause them to have disabilities either when carrying out operational tasks or having accident in the service. Efforts to improve the life of persons with disabilities are empowered through integrated rehabilitation process for Personnel of The Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Indonesia and Indonesian National Armed Forces with disabilities. This research was aimed to describe and analyzing the integrated rehabilitation on persons with disabilities at the Ministry of Defense Rehabilitation Center, and describing the factors that support and inhibit the implementation of integrated rehabilitation. Methods: This research was a descriptive qualitative research with an in-depth interview as instrument to obtain data from informants who were the participants of integrated rehabilitation.With Triangulation the source was the instructor and the rehabilitation organizer. Results: Based on the results of interview analysis conducted, the researchers also have identified several supporting factors and inhibiting factors on the implementation of integrated rehabilitation program. The inhibiting factors are Resources: the limited number of instructors (human resources) that have sufficient competence and the lack of facilities for the accessibility of persons with disabilities this will hinder the implementation of rehabilitation. From the results of research indicates that communication, disposition and bureaucratic structure is a supporting factor in the implementation of integrated rehabilitation. Conclusions: Implementation of integrated rehabilitation has been running well although there are still inhibiting factors. Therefore, the Ministry of Defense Rehabilitation Center should continue to strive to become professional rehabilitator in order to create self-sufficient and productive persons with disabilities so as to improve their welfare. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION OF BACK REFERRAL PROGRAM DIABETES MELLITUS AND
           HYPERTENSION IN HOSPITAL X, JAKARTA

    • Authors: Riza Ambari, Mieke Savitri
      Pages: 335 - 339
      Abstract: Background: Since morbidity rate of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension in Indonesia increased, the number of referral in hospital automatically high. National Health Insurance and hospital burden also increase if the Back- Referral Program (BRP) has not been implemented yet. The impact of the ineffectiveness of Back-Referral Program also felt by Hospital "X" in Jakarta. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness implementation of Back-Referral Program (BRP) Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension in Hospital "X". Methods: This research was conducted in Hospital "X" of East Jakarta by using Qualitative Method. The informant are considered influential with Back-Referral Program (BRP) in Hospital "X" , consisting of Head of Medical Service Section, Internist Doctors, Nurses in internist station, Diabetes mellitus and Hypertension patients in Hospital “X”, Doctor’s in first health facility (FKTP) , BPJS pharmacy partner and Head of Health Services Primary Management Unit (MPKP) BPJS East Jakarta. Results: This study found an indication of medicine shortage in first health facility (FKTP). Lack of communication and coordination between BPJS, Hospitals, FKTP and BPJS pharmacy partner, and also less of monitoring and evaluation of Back-Referral Program (BRP) in hospital.
      Conclusions: Since Back-Referral Program (BRP) has not been implemented yet in Hospital “X” will induce long queue in internist station and caused the internist cannot examine and verify patients with properly. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • STROKE CARE: STROKE UNIT VERSUS NON STROKE UNIT

    • Authors: Widy Hartono, Ede Surya Darmawan
      Pages: 340 - 347
      Abstract: Background: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability in adults. A comprehensive and integrated stroke unit care plays an important role to reduce these burdens. This paper aims to describe the difference in outcomes between stroke care in stroke units and non-stroke units as information basis to encourage hospitals to establish this service. Methods: This review is done based on research articles on stroke treatment outcomes in the stroke unit. The literature search was conducted in December 2017 to May 2018 through University of Indonesia's online library and Google Scholar. Five articles are selected based on predetermined criteria. Articles that examined comparison of stroke treatment outcomes in stroke units with non- stroke units were selected and analyzed. Results: Many studies have shown that stroke treatment in the stroke unit provides better outcomes compared to other non-stroke units. Treatment in the stroke unit improves survival and independency, decreases mortality and disability and shortens length of stay in the hospital. Conclusion: The stroke unit is an important part of stroke management because it provides comprehensive and integrated services that resulting in better treatment outcomes. Stroke unit will increase hospital credibility. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • FOODS CONTAINING FORMALIN AND CHLORINE IN THE EAST SURABAYA AREA

    • Authors: Sherly Dwi Agustiningrum, Nita Kusuma Wardani, Neshia Nurindah Alifianti
      Pages: 348 - 355
      Abstract: Background: Safe and nutritious food is very important for our body. Unfortunately not all foods meet food safety requirements. Some traders use prohibited food additives such as formalin and chlorine. Increasing competition and desire to increase financial benefits make some traders use that way. Therefore this study was conducted to provide an overview of the situation of illegal use of food additives. The results of the study are expected to be used as a reference for the Government to control the use of food additives in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to identify foods containing formalin and chlorine in East Surabaya Area. Methods: This descriptive-observational research use purposive sampling technique. The samples consist of 16 foods for formalin test and 16 foods for chlorine test. It is obtained from food traders suspected of selling food containing those substances in East Surabaya. Tests were conducted in the Environmental Health Laboratory of Universitas Airlangga Surabaya. Formalin and chlorine tests are carried out qualitatively, using test kits to see the formalin content and color reaction test to see the chlorine content. The results of data analysis is presented descriptively in the form of table and figure. Results: The results show 12.5% samples (salted fish and white tofu) are containing formalin. While chlorine test results show 75% samples (white cracker, rice, noodle, salt, wheat flour, white tofu and tea dye samples) are positive of chlorine. Conclusions: There are some foods containing formalin and chlorine in East Surabaya area. Health institutions are advised to conduct regular inspection and investigation of food content. In addition, regular education and coaching needs to be done to food vendors to improve their knowledge regarding the use of formalin and chlorine. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ACHIEVEMENT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER SEEN THROUGH ACCREDITATION RESULTS:
           CASE STUDY IN PUSKESMAS "X", IN SURABAYA

    • Authors: Meily Arovi Qulsum, Kurnia Sari, Adang Bachtiar, KM Taufiq
      Pages: 356 - 362
      Abstract: Background: Accreditation and recognition of a Community Health Center (Puskesmas) are given by an independent accredited organization, established by the Minister of Health after comply the accreditation standards. The accreditation achievement in East Java is at most of main level 76.7%. Puskesmas "X" is one of Puskesmas in Surabaya which has been accredited with basic level of status in 2015. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the issues affecting the achievement of Puskesmas accreditation. Methods: This research is a qualitative descriptive study with in-depth interview and document searching using an accreditation instrument standard.
      Results: Based on accreditation results, the planning of the health centre was less appropriate because it was not based on identification of need and expectation. The mobilization and implementation was not working well due to lack of human health resource. Monitoring, control, and performance appraisal of the health centre have not been done. Conclusions: The accreditation of the health center, the Puskesmas X, in Surabaya is not only assessed by the document but also by the processes and system implementation activities. Achievement of Puskesmas accreditation status represents as a description of Puskesmas management and the result will have an impact on Puskesmas performance, and service quality. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ASSOCIATION OF COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR AND CONDITION OF THE HOME EXPOSED TO
           VOLCANIC ASH WITH THE ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) AMONG VILLAGERS IN
           PERBAJI

    • Authors: Frida Lina Tarigan
      Pages: 363 - 368
      Abstract: Background: Volcanic dust from the eruption of Mount Sinabung causes the air condition to be bad and also disturbs the health of the surrounding population. This causes the occurrence of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), as well as various other diseases such as cough, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between citizen behavior and the condition of the house exposed to volcanic ash with the incidence of ARI (Acute Respiratory Infection) to the residents of Karo Regency Perbaji Village in 2017. Methods: This research is a cross-sectional study involved the head of family who is domiciled and has a permanent population of 209 households in the village of Perbaji, Tiganderket District, Karo Regency, with a total sample of 68 families. Data analysis used in this research is univariate and bivariate analysis with Chi Square test. Results: The result shows that based on Chi Square test, there is a significant correlation between residents’ behavior exposed to volcanic ash with the incidence of ARI (p value = 0.000). It is noted also a significant correlation between the house condition exposed to volcanic ash and the ARI occurrence (p value = 0.000). Conclusion: The results suggested that the villagers of Perbaji Village to use masks if they are outdoors in the event of an eruption. For the poor housing conditions, it is expected that the residents will improve their houses, such as covering the holes that can be penetrated by volcanic ash using plastic or paper. It is needed to pay attention to the condition of Perbaji village residents who are exposed to volcanic ash by distributing masks, and giving free treatment. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON BREAST CANCER DETECTION USING BREAST
           SELF-EXAMINANTION (SADARI) METHOD

    • Authors: Aulia Rahman Tanjung, Ella Nurlaella Hadi
      Pages: 369 - 373
      Abstract: Background: In Indonesia, breast cancer takes second place after cervical cancer with estimated 61,682 cases. According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) data in 2012, breast cancer was found to be the highest percentage of new cases, amounting approximately 43.3% and the death percentage caused by breast cancer reached 12.9%. Based on Basic Health Research data of 2013, the prevalence of breast cancer in Indonesia reaches 0.5 per 1,000 women. The objective of this research was to find out about teenage female students’ perception about early detection of breast cancer with SADARI method (Breast Self-Examination). Methods: This research employed qualitative research method with the phenomenological approach by using.
      Results: Based on the research results, there were different perceptions on the importance of conducting SADARI for teens. There were some obstacles to do SADARI such as feeling embarrassed, not having enough time to do SADARI, being forgetful, lacking information about SADARI and lacking support from family and closest people around them. Conclusions: Teenager perceptions about SADARI affect behavior to do breast self-examination. The solution to overcoming those obstacles included collecting information about early detection of breast cancer using SADARI method, learning about it, and visiting the nearest health facility to do SADARI. In addition, there must be external support from family or other closest relatives. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE CONTROL PROGRAM ON THE RATIONAL USE OF
           ANTIBIOTICS IN EKA HOSPITAL PEKANBARU, INDONESIA

    • Authors: Rosinta Magdalena, Adang Bachtiar
      Pages: 374 - 380
      Abstract: Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. Rational use of antibiotics can reduce the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, cost of treatment, length of stay in hospitals, and improve health outcomes. This study aims to analyse the output of AMR control program implementation on the rational use of antibiotics in hospitals. Method: This research is a retrospective study, using descriptive analysis with Gyssens' algorithm. Data were assessed from the medical records of patients treated at Eka hospital in 2017. The number of samples 877, in the ICU wards amounted to 307 and Hopea B 570. The analysis was performed by assessing the suitability of antibiotic therapy. The results are presented in therapeutic terms: the antibiotics used and the percentage of use based on the Gyssens algorithm. Result:The results of data analysis found there is an increase in the rationality of the use of antibiotics on the unit ICU (67.77%), Hopea B (67.36%). There is a decrease in Patients Length of Stay (LOS) in ICU (26%), in Hopea B (58%). The level of antibiotic use without indication in ICU (8.82%). in the Hopea B ward (5.34%.). Attitude of non-compliance of doctors against hospital guidelines and inadequate monitoring of antibiotic therapy. In the case of prophylactic antibiotics remain unobserved because of the lack of pharmacists who can monitor their use. Conclusion: Eka Hospital has established an AMR Control program, but it has not been implemented properly. Continuous evaluation, awareness raising and understanding of doctors, the addition of monitoring officers (pharmacists), patient screenings and hospital staff on an ongoing basis, are worthy of consideration in order to improve the implementation of the program. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BIRTH SPACING AMONG CHILD MARRIAGE COUPLES IN
           INDONESIA

    • Authors: Puput Kusumawardani Moehas
      Pages: 381 - 387
      Abstract: Background: Child marriage has been proved resulting adverse outcomes for both groom and brides. Those who married before the age of 15, are more likely to have more than 3 children before they are 24 years old. This, along with the fact that girls are not physically mature enough to give birth, places both mothers and their babies at risk. This study aims to review factors that might influence decision making on spacing birth among child marriage couple in Indonesia. Methods: Data from Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Basic Health Research) of Indonesia 2013 were employed with additional several papers from other countries to strengthen the analysis. The theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were used to explain that behavior is not fully under control of the individuals. Results: Girls aged of 15-19 were less likely to use contraception. Study shows the birth spacing was affected by attitudes toward behavior. The other factors are subjective norms, where people surrounding are influencing the birth spacing decision. Internal factor such as the affordability of the service may influence them to access the services. External factor such as the availability of the services will help them easier in accessing contraceptive for birth spacing. Conclusions: Child marriage trends are start to decline year by year. Yet, the impact of child marriage needs to be reduced to make a better quality of life of the child marriage. A good practice and positive attitudes to birth spacing will lower the adverse impacts to the brides, and it can give a better outcome for the children as well. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
  • QUALITY OF SERVICE OF OUTPATIENT UNIT IN BA HOSPITAL, INDONESIA

    • Authors: Suvonalya Suvonalya, Adang Bachtiar
      Pages: 388 - 394
      Abstract: Background: The quality of healthcare services is crucial in the healthcare service organization to encourage every healthcare service organization to improve their healthcare service quality. This study aims to identify the description of the service quality of outpatient department in RSBA, East Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia using the criteria of Malcolm Baldridge. Method: This research was a descriptive analytical study with cross-sectional study combined with qualitative and quantitative approaches (mix method). About 110 respondents were selected as sample. The data analysis employed were univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis of multiple logistic regression test conducted by using SPSS statistic software for Windows. Result : There was a significatt influence of on workforce, and last focus on process and focus on the service quality of outpatient department of RSBA with p-value of < 0.05 and 9. In multiple logistic regression tests, the factors that had strong closeness were the leadership and the measurement analysis and knowledge management. Conclusion : The Healthcare quality of the outpatient department of RSBA needed improvement, especially on the focus on the customers and the process. The commitment of all elements in the hospital was requried. The well and correct service customers, appropriate to the medical treatment according to the standard operating procedures, the excellent service and the effort to meet the completeness of the hospital infrastructure were important aspects that should be undergone by RSAB to improve the hospital’s service quality. 
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 34.236.145.124
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-