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Publisher: AIP   (Total: 27 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 27 of 27 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acoustics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.456, CiteScore: 1)
APL Bioengineering     Open Access  
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.63, CiteScore: 4)
APL Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.382, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.156, CiteScore: 12)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 2)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.592, CiteScore: 2)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.716, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Laser Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.046, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 1)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.19, CiteScore: 3)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 1)
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.66, CiteScore: 1)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Scilight     Full-text available via subscription  
Structural Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.625, CiteScore: 4)
Surface Science Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Journal Cover
Review of Scientific Instruments
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.585
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0034-6748 - ISSN (Online) 1089-7623
Published by AIP Homepage  [27 journals]
  • Review of Scientific Instruments New Products
    • Authors: Andreas Mandelis
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      In order to supplement manufacturers’ information, this Department will welcome the submission by our readers of brief communications reporting measurements on the physical properties of materials which supersede earlier data or suggest new research applications.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-16T06:42:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5086690
  • Application of improved fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter in the
           nonlinear initial alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system
    • Authors: Tao Zhang, Jian Wang, Bonan Jin, Yao Li
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      This paper addresses the state estimation of the nonlinear initial alignment of the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), which mainly focuses on the initial alignment on the swaying base and under the in-motion condition with the measurement uncertainties. In order to achieve a higher alignment precision, stronger numerical stability, and lower computational cost for the initial alignment of SINS on the swaying base, a new discrete large azimuth misalignment error model of SINS is established, and an improved fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter (5th-CKF) algorithm is proposed, which combines the 5th-CKF and a simplified dimensionality reduction filtering algorithm. The 5th-CKF is introduced to solve the nonlinear filtering problem, a simplified dimensionality reduction algorithm is derived to reduce the large calculation values of 5th-CKF. Furthermore, under the Bayesian framework, a novel filtering approach named the fifth-degree variational Bayesian (VB) adaptive cubature Kalman filter is deduced for the in-motion alignment with a large azimuth misalignment angle and unknown and time-varying measurement noise statistics, which combines the iterative VB approach and 5th-CKF. The 5th-CKF is exploited to handle the nonlinear initial alignment model, and the VB approach is utilized to iteratively estimate the sufficient statistics of the measurement noise. Mathematical simulation, turntable, and vehicle experiments are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed approaches.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-16T06:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5061790
  • The Crystal Backlighter Imager: A spherically bent crystal imager for
           radiography on the National Ignition Facility
    • Authors: G. N. Hall, C. M. Krauland, M. S. Schollmeier, G. E. Kemp, J. G. Buscho, R. Hibbard, N. Thompson, E. R. Casco, M. J. Ayers, S. L. Ayers, N. B. Meezan, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, R. Nora, B. A. Hammel, L. Masse, J. E. Field, D. K. Bradley, P. Bell, O. L. Landen, J. D. Kilkenny, D. Mariscal, J. Park, T. J. McCarville, R. Lowe-Webb, D. Kalantar, T. Kohut, K. Piston
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      The Crystal Backlighter Imager (CBI) is a quasi-monochromatic, near-normal incidence, spherically bent crystal imager developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which will allow inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions to be radiographed close to stagnation. This is not possible using the standard pinhole-based area-backlighter configuration, as the self-emission from the capsule hotspot overwhelms the backlighter signal in the final stages of the implosion. The CBI mitigates the broadband self-emission from the capsule hot spot by using the extremely narrow bandwidth inherent to near-normal-incidence Bragg diffraction. Implementing a backlighter system based on near-normal reflection in the NIF chamber presents unique challenges, requiring the CBI to adopt novel engineering and operational strategies. The CBI currently operates with an 11.6 keV backlighter, making it the highest energy radiography diagnostic based on spherically bent crystals to date. For a given velocity, Doppler shift is proportional to the emitted photon energy. At 11.6 keV, the ablation velocity of the backlighter plasma results in a Doppler shift that is significant compared to the bandwidth of the instrument and the width of the atomic line, requiring that the shift be measured to high accuracy and the optics aligned accordingly to compensate. Experiments will be presented that used the CBI itself to measure the backlighter Doppler shift to an accuracy of better than 1 eV. These experiments also measured the spatial resolution of CBI radiographs at 7.0 μm, close to theoretical predictions. Finally, results will be presented from an experiment in which the CBI radiographed a capsule implosion driven by a 1 MJ NIF laser pulse, demonstrating a significant (>100) improvement in the backlighter to self-emission ratio compared to the pinhole-based area-backlighter configuration.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-16T06:38:10Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5058700
  • Outlier classification using autoencoders: Application for fluctuation
           driven flows in fusion plasmas
    • Authors: R. Kube, F. M. Bianchi, D. Brunner, B. LaBombard
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Understanding the statistics of fluctuation driven flows in the boundary layer of magnetically confined plasmas is desired to accurately model the lifetime of the vacuum vessel components. Mirror Langmuir probes (MLPs) are a novel diagnostic that uniquely allow us to sample the plasma parameters on a time scale shorter than the characteristic time scale of their fluctuations. Sudden large-amplitude fluctuations in the plasma degrade the precision and accuracy of the plasma parameters reported by MLPs for cases in which the probe bias range is of insufficient amplitude. While some data samples can readily be classified as valid and invalid, we find that such a classification may be ambiguous for up to 40% of data sampled for the plasma parameters and bias voltages considered in this study. In this contribution, we employ an autoencoder (AE) to learn a low-dimensional representation of valid data samples. By definition, the coordinates in this space are the features that mostly characterize valid data. Ambiguous data samples are classified in this space using standard classifiers for vectorial data. In this way, we avoid defining complicated threshold rules to identify outliers, which require strong assumptions and introduce biases in the analysis. By removing the outliers that are identified in the latent low-dimensional space of the AE, we find that the average conductive and convective radial heat fluxes are between approximately 5% and 15% lower as when removing outliers identified by threshold values. For contributions to the radial heat flux due to triple correlations, the difference is up to 40%.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-16T06:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5049519
  • Vacuum formed temporary spherically and toroidally bent crystal analyzers
           for x-ray absorption and x-ray emission spectroscopy
    • Authors: Evan P. Jahrman, William M. Holden, Alexander S. Ditter, Stosh A. Kozimor, Scott L. Kihara, Gerald T. Seidler
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We demonstrate that vacuum forming of 10-cm diameter silicon wafers of various crystallographic orientations under an x-ray permeable, flexible window can easily generate spherically bent crystal analyzers and toroidally bent crystal analyzers with ∼1-eV energy resolution and a 1-m major radius of curvature. In applications at synchrotron light sources, x-ray free electron lasers, and laboratory spectrometers, these characteristics are generally sufficient for many x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering applications in the chemical sciences. Unlike existing optics manufacturing methods using epoxy or anodic bonding, vacuum forming without adhesive is temporary in the sense that the bent wafer can be removed when vacuum is released and exchanged for a different orientation wafer. Therefore, the combination of an x-ray compatible vacuum-forming chamber, a library of thin wafers, and a small number of forms having different secondary curvatures can give extreme flexibility in spectrometer energy range. As proof of this method, we determine the energy resolution and reflectivity for several such vacuum-formed bent crystal analyzers in laboratory-based XAFS and XES studies using a conventional x-ray tube. For completeness, we also show x-ray images collected on the detector plane to characterize the resulting focal spots and optical aberrations.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-16T06:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5057231
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and finite element analysis
           modeling of a 4-electrode humidity sensor for natural gas transportation
    • Authors: Derek M. Hall, Timothy Duffy, Margaret Ziomek-Moroz, Serguei N. Lvov
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Reliable corrosion monitoring of natural gas transmission lines is a major tool providing a foundation for safe management of natural gas infrastructures. Through the development of membrane-based electrochemical sensors which are able to function in low-conductivity gas environments, corrosion monitoring practices can be further strengthened by real-time monitoring of key risk factors such as relative humidity and corrosion rates of corrodible structures. In this work, we demonstrate and validate how a 4-electrode conductivity sensor can provide a means to monitor relative humidity in gases via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy through finite element analysis (FEA). For a relative humidity range of 5%–55%, the impedance response varied from 1 kΩ to 66 kΩ, showing a high sensitivity for gas humidity. To confirm that the measured impedance values reliably interpreted relative humidity, it was found that precise estimation of the sensor’s cell constant was needed. FEA was used to assess how the cell constant depended on the electrode geometry, membrane geometry, and electrode placement within the sensor. Through this approach, assumptions about the characteristic area and length were validated using electrolyte equipotential and current density vector mapping. This reduced possible cell constant uncertainties by 70%. With a cell constant of 14.84 cm−1, obtained via FEA, membrane conductivity values were in good agreement with published data.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-15T06:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5063465
  • Solving Fresnel equation for refractive index using reflected optical
           power obtained from Bessel beam interferometry
    • Authors: Pooja Gupta, Amit Pandey, Kaushal Vairagi, Samir K. Mondal
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      This work demonstrates an interferometric technique to estimate the reflected powers from dielectric interfaces and the reflection coefficient using the Fresnel equation for measurement of the refractive index (RI) of liquid samples. It uses low-coherence common-path optical interferometry that is commonly used for optical imaging. A uniquely designed optical fiber tip generating a high-quality non-diffractive Bessel beam probes liquid samples in a glass container non-invasively. The light reflected from different interfaces of the container is recollected by the same optical fiber tip. The reflected beams interfere with the reference beam generated at the fiber tip itself. This interference spectrum is further processed using fast-Fourier transform to measure reflected powers from the respective interfaces. The acquired powers are used to solve the Fresnel equation to find RI of liquid samples. As a proof of concept, experiments have been performed on several liquid samples including turbid media such as blood. This non-invasive interferometric technique could also be an ideal example confirming the Fresnel equation for reflection of light. Unlike other optical fiber-based RI sensors, this technique does not require temperature compensation. The method can be employed for inspection of the production process in terms of RI in pharmaceutical and chemical process plants, etc.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-14T05:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5043240
  • Slow- and rapid-scan frequency-swept electrically detected magnetic
           resonance of MOSFETs with a non-resonant microwave probe within a
           semiconductor wafer-probing station
    • Authors: Duane J. McCrory, Mark A. Anders, Jason T. Ryan, Pragya R. Shrestha, Kin P. Cheung, Patrick M. Lenahan, Jason P. Campbell
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We report on a novel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique that merges electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) with a conventional semiconductor wafer probing station. This union, which we refer to as wafer-level EDMR (WL-EDMR), allows EDMR measurements to be performed on an unaltered, fully processed semiconductor wafer. Our measurements replace the conventional EPR microwave cavity or resonator with a very small non-resonant near-field microwave probe. Bipolar amplification effect, spin dependent charge pumping, and spatially resolved EDMR are demonstrated on various planar 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (4H-SiC MOSFET) structures. 4H-SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor and the leading polytype for high-temperature and high-power MOSFET applications. These measurements are made via both “rapid scan” frequency-swept EDMR and “slow scan” frequency swept EDMR. The elimination of the resonance cavity and incorporation with a wafer probing station greatly simplifies the EDMR detection scheme and offers promise for widespread EDMR adoption in semiconductor reliability laboratories.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-14T05:13:19Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5053665
  • Probing orientation information using 3-dimensional reciprocal space
           volume analysis
    • Authors: C. M. Fancher, C. M. Hoffmann, M. D. Frontzek, J. R. Bunn, E. A. Payzant
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      The crystallographic texture of polycrystalline materials is the result of how these materials are processed and what external forces materials have experienced. Neutron and X-ray diffraction are standard methods to characterize global crystallographic textures. However, conventional neutron and X-ray texture analyses rely on pole figure inversion routines derived from intensity analysis of individual reflections or powder Rietveld analysis to reconstruct and model the orientation distribution from slices through reciprocal space. In this work, we describe an original approach to directly probe the crystallographic texture information of rolled aluminum from the intensity distribution in 3-dimensional reciprocal space volumes measured simultaneously. Using the TOPAZ time-of-flight Laue neutron diffractometer, reciprocal space analysis allowed determination of “pole spheres” with
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-14T05:11:39Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5034135
  • Radio frequency measurement and tuning of a 13 MeV Alvarez-type drift tube
           linac for a compact pulsed hadron source
    • Authors: Y. Lei, Q. Z. Xing, B. C. Wang, S. X. Zheng, R. Tang, P. F. Ma, H. Y. Zhang, X. L. Guan, X. W. Wang, C. T. Du, Q. K. Guo, J. Li, W. Q. Guan
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      This paper describes the radio frequency (RF) measurement and tuning result of a 13 MeV Alvarez-type drift tube linac (DTL) for a compact pulsed hadron source (CPHS) at Tsinghua University. The design, machining, assembly, and alignment of the DTL are presented for integrity. The CPHS project consists of a high-current proton linac (13 MeV, 16 kW, peak current of 50 mA, 0.5 ms pulse width at 50 Hz), a neutron target station, a small-angle neutron scattering instrument, and a neutron imaging/radiology station. The linac contains an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, a low energy beam transport line, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, an Alvarez-type DTL, a high energy beam transport line, and a RF power supply and distributor. Construction on the CPHS started in June 2009, and the CPHS has provided 2000 h since 2013 to users with the neutrons produced by the 3 MeV proton beam from the radio frequency quadrupole bombarding on the beryllium target as an achievement of its mid-term objective. Presently, the tuning of the assembled DTL cavity has been completed successfully. The 4.3-m-long DTL consists of 40 accelerating cells, among which 39 full-length drift tubes (DTs) are suspended inside the cavity, and two half-length DTs are mounted inside the two end flanges of the cavity. Each DT contains a permanent magnet quadrupole. Thirteen post couplers and nine tuners are available for the tuning of the field. The relative error of the field after tuning is within ±1.6%, with a tilt sensitivity within ±33%/MHz in all cells. The beam energy will reach its designed value of 13 MeV after the DTL is installed in the beam line downstream the 3 MeV RFQ accelerator.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-14T05:06:59Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5064462
  • Erratum: “An enhanced Bouc-Wen model for characterizing rate-dependent
           hysteresis of piezoelectric actuators” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(11),
           115002 (2018)]
    • Authors: Jinqiang Gan, Xianmin Zhang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.

      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-11T06:43:57Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5087005
  • Use of synchrotron-based radiography to diagnose pulsed power driven wire
           explosion experiments
    • Authors: S. P. Theocharous, S. N. Bland, D. Yanuka, A. Rososhek, M. P. Olbinado, A. Rack, Ya. E. Krasik
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We describe the first use of synchrotron radiation to probe pulsed power driven high energy density physics experiments. Multi-frame x-ray radiography with interframe spacing of 704 ns and temporal resolution of
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-11T06:43:54Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5055949
  • Measuring the lifetime of intense-laser generated relativistic electrons
           in solids via gating their Cherenkov emission
    • Authors: Moniruzzaman Shaikh, Amit D. Lad, Deep Sarkar, Kamalesh Jana, G. Ravindra Kumar, P. P. Rajeev
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Optical Kerr gating technique has been employed to investigate the life history of relativistic electrons in solids by temporally gating their Cherenkov emission. Mega-ampere currents of relativistic electrons are created during ultra-intense (2 × 1019 W/cm2) laser-solid interactions. In order to measure the lifetime of these relativistic electrons in solids, we temporally gate their Cherenkov emission using an optical Kerr gate (OKG). The OKG is induced in a nonlinear medium, namely, carbon-di-sulphide (CS2), with a measured gate-width (FWHM) of 2 ps. The gate femtosecond laser pulse is synchronized with the intense interaction pulse generating relativistic electrons. The arrival time of the gate laser pulse on the CS2 cell is varied with the help of a delay stage. We find that Cherenkov emission from relativistic electrons created with a ultra-short laser pulse (25 fs) lives as long as 120 ps, a few thousand times that of the incident light pulse.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-11T06:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5054785
  • Noise-optimized ultrastable low-noise current amplifier
    • Authors: C. Krause, D. Drung, M. Götz, H. Scherer
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We have developed a noise-optimized ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) aimed at reducing the uncertainty at low currents. It involves a thin-film resistor network with 6.75 GΩ at the high-ohmic path which reduces the noise level to 1.6 fA/[math]. Noise investigations as well as short-term and long-term stability studies were carried out. The stability of the input current gain was measured using a cryogenic current comparator at ±6.1 nA. Methods for investigating the measurement accuracy at low input currents of about 100 pA at a level of below one part in 107 are introduced and experimentally verified. The performance of the noise-optimized ULCA is compared with that of the standard variant introduced in 2014. It is shown that the reduced noise floor is achieved without impairing the stability of the transresistance.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-11T06:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5078572
  • Temperature gradients for thermophysical and thermochemical property
           measurements to 3000 °C for an aerodynamically levitated spheroid
    • Authors: Scott J. McCormack, Anthony Tamalonis, Richard J. K. Weber, Waltraud M. Kriven
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      This study examines thermal gradients in ceramic oxide spheroids being aerodynamically levitated in a conical nozzle levitator (CNL) system equipped with a CO2 laser (10.6 µm wavelength). The CNL system is a versatile piece of equipment that can easily be coupled with advanced thermophysical and thermochemical measuring devices, such as diffraction/scattering (X-ray and neutron), nuclear magnetic resonance, and calorimetry, for the analysis of bulk spheroidal solids and liquids. The thermal gradients of a series of single crystal, polycrystalline solids, and liquid spheroids have been measured spatially in the CNL system, by means of a disappearing filament pyrometer (800–3000 °C) and by X-ray diffraction with reference to an internal standard (Pt: 800–1600 °C). The thermal gradient in a levitated sample being heated by a laser from the top can be minimized by: (i) maximizing the sphericity, (ii) maximizing the density, and (iii) minimizing microstructural features. A spheroid with these properties can be manufactured via machining a perfect sphere from a highly dense, chemically and phase pure pellet. These properties promote rotation of the sample about multiple axes in the air stream, enabling homogeneous heating. This homogeneous heating is the dominant factor in reducing thermal gradients in solid state samples. It was found that the thermal gradient in an ∼3 mm diameter solid sample could be reduced from 1000 °C to 30 °C, by having a perfectly spherical shape that could rotate on multiple axes in a high velocity gas stream (∼1500–2000 cm3/min). These findings will allow accurate thermophysical and thermochemical property measurements of solids in situ at high temperatures, using the CNL system.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T06:29:58Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5055738
  • Development of a multi-position indentation setup: Mapping soft and
           patternable heterogeneously crosslinked polymer networks
    • Authors: J. N. M. Boots, R. Fokkink, J. van der Gucht, T. E. Kodger
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We present the development of a multi-position indentation setup capable of spatially mapping mechanically heterogeneous materials. A detailed description of the indentation instrumentation is first provided, emphasizing force sensitivity, noise reduction, and signal fidelity. We first present indentation experiments on soft hydrogels that are submerged in water and show how the large contributions to the measured force due to the air-water surface tension can be avoided. The displacement field of the indented hydrogel is visualized using fluorescently coated microspheres embedded in the hydrogel, allowing simultaneous mapping of the stress and strain fields for a soft polymer network. We then fabricate a polymer network with patterned elasticity using halftone UV lithography and map the elastic modulus with the multi-position indentation instrument. The applied UV pattern is found back in the measured elastic modulus map, showing the capability of the multi-position indentation setup to map mechanically heterogeneous polymer networks.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T06:29:57Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5043628
  • High performance and high power circularly polarized horn antenna for
           K-band microwave processing systems
    • Authors: P. H. Hung, W. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Hsieh, F. H. Cheng, J. D. Wang, S. H. Chen
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A single-ridged K-band circularly polarized horn antenna offering excellent performance has been developed by improving the polarization conversion and manufacturing complexity. The numerical and experimental results are consistent showing the return loss of this antenna to be less than −20 dB and the axial ratio at the boresight direction to be less than 0.7 dB in the frequency range from 23.5 GHz to 24.5 GHz. In addition, the gain of this antenna is higher than 20 dB. The newly designed circularly polarized horn antenna has a simple structure and outperforms many existing circular polarization devices in high-power operations.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T06:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5045632
  • Highly efficient power conversion in magnetoelectric gyrators with high
           quality factor
    • Authors: Jitao Zhang, Weiwei Zhu, D. A. Filippov, Wei He, Dongyu Chen, Kang Li, Shengtao Geng, Qingfang Zhang, Liying Jiang, Lingzhi Cao, Roshan Timilsina, Gopalan Srinivasan
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A high-Q magnetoelectric (ME) gyrator consisting of a trilayer laminate of nickel-iron-based constant elasticity alloy (Ni–Fe–Cr) and lead zirconate titanate with a coil wound around it has been developed and systematically characterized. Highly efficient magneto-mechanical-electric conversion can be achieved by means of the combination contributions of high quality factors from individuals, and much energy can be transferred through the gyration device. Under an electromechanical resonance frequency of 54.04 kHz, experimental results show that maximum efficiency reaches as high as 88.5% under an extremely low input density of 3.31 µW/cm3 with an optimum load resistance of 9.6 kΩ and a magnetic bias of 66 Oe. Such a highly efficient ME gyrator with a high Q factor can be beneficial or degrade the design goals that are likely to be achievable for practical applications in compact power transfer electronic devices.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T06:58:44Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5082833
  • Intracavity cold atomic ensemble with high optical depth
    • Authors: Yue Jiang, Yefeng Mei, Yueyang Zou, Ying Zuo, Shengwang Du
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We describe the apparatus of an optical cavity loaded with cold 85Rb atoms of high optical depth (OD) in the weak coupling regime. The relevant cavity-atom parameters are the single-photon Rabi frequency g0 = 2π × 0.25 MHz, the cavity power decay rate κ = 2π × 9.0 MHz, and the atomic excited state decay rate Γ = 2π × 5.75 MHz. In this bad-cavity configuration where the atomic natural linewidth (Γ/2π) is less than the cavity linewidth (κ/2π), the cavity enhancement factor for the longitudinal OD is about 188. We obtain a cavity enhanced OD up to 7600, corresponding to an atomic ensemble with a bare single-pass OD of 40, coupled to the cavity mode. Our intracavity cold atomic ensemble with high OD may have many applications in studying collective atom-light interaction inside an optical cavity.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T06:57:44Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5065431
  • Gamma-ray imaging with a time-modulated random coded aperture
    • Authors: Dongming Wang, Ivan N. Ruskov, Huasi Hu, Yuri N. Kopatch, Dimitar N. Grozdanov, Nikita A. Fedorov, Fuad A. Aliyev
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      In this article, we present a new industrial gamma-ray imaging system. This system takes advantage of a time-modulated random coded aperture (TMRCA). The gamma-ray detector coupled to the TMRCA can be position-sensitive or non-position-sensitive. The TMRCA imaging system could offer the ability to identify radioactive sources without losing spatial resolution. With a non-position-sensitive BGO detector, a prototype TMRCA imaging system was constructed. The prototype system was investigated with two gamma-ray sources (137Cs, 60Co) and a 238Pu–Be neutron source, which was placed in a paraffin moderator to produce an extended source. The experimental results suggest that the TMRCA imaging system offers the opportunity to achieve high spatial-energy resolution cost-effectively for high-energy gamma rays.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-08T05:28:09Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5050211
  • High current variable temperature electrical characterization system for
           superconducting wires and tapes with continuous sample rotation in a split
           coil magnet
    • Authors: M. Lao, J. Hänisch, S. Kauffmann-Weiss, R. Gehring, H. Fillinger, A. Drechsler, B. Holzapfel
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A new state-of-the-art electrical transport measurement system was developed for the characterization of industrially produced coated conductors (CCs). The current leads are rated to a conduct current of up to 1000 A, which opens up the possibility of measuring the critical current Ic of tapes at a wide range of temperatures. The setup operates in a He-gas flow cryostat that provides stable temperatures between 1.8 and 200 K. The setup is equipped with a split-coil magnet that can apply fields of up to 6 T. A continuous rotation of the sample with respect to the magnetic field with an angular resolution of 0.5° enables characterization of anisotropic Ic of different tapes. In the measured voltage-current curves, weak sample heating mostly occurs from the dissipation in the tape during the Ic transition. It is demonstrated that the system can provide reliable data on the properties of CCs at temperatures lower than 77 K for a magnet design and other applications. The results allow the study of vortex pinning for further prospects of engineering the microstructure of the superconducting layer as well as to assess the performance of various tapes with different architectures to achieve optimum performance at different operating temperatures and magnetic fields.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-08T05:26:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5078447
  • An autonomous robot for continuous tracking of millimetric-sized walkers
    • Authors: A. Serrano-Muñoz, S. Frayle-Pérez, A. Reyes, Y. Almeida, E. Altshuler, G. Viera-López
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      The precise and continuous tracking of millimetric-sized walkers—such as ants—is quite important in behavioral studies. However, due to technical limitations, most studies concentrate on trajectories within areas no more than 100 times bigger than the size of the walker or longer trajectories at the expense of either accuracy or continuity. Our work describes a scientific instrument designed to push the boundaries of precise and continuous motion analysis up to 1000 body lengths or more. It consists of a mobile robotic platform that uses digital image processing techniques to track the targets in real time by calculating their spatial position. During the experiments, all the images are stored and afterwards processed to estimate with higher precision the path traced by the walkers. Some preliminary results achieved using the proposed tracking system are presented.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-08T05:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5049377
  • Collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at Wendelstein 7-X
    • Authors: D. Moseev, M. Stejner, T. Stange, I. Abramovic, H. P. Laqua, S. Marsen, N. Schneider, H. Braune, U. Hoefel, W. Kasparek, S. B. Korsholm, C. Lechte, F. Leipold, S. K. Nielsen, M. Salewski, J. Rasmussen, M. Weißgerber, R. C. Wolf
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic is installed at Wendelstein 7-X for ion temperature measurements in the plasma core. The diagnostic utilizes 140 GHz gyrotrons usually used for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) as a source of probing radiation. The CTS diagnostic uses a quasi-optical transmission line covering a distance of over 40 m. The transmission line is shared between the ECRH system and the CTS diagnostic. Here we elaborate on the design, installation, and alignment of the CTS diagnostic and present the first measurements at Wendelstein 7-X.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-08T05:21:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5050193
  • Design and construction of a multistage Zeeman decelerator for crossed
           molecular beams scattering experiments
    • Authors: Theo Cremers, Niek Janssen, Edwin Sweers, Sebastiaan Y. T. van de Meerakker
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Zeeman deceleration is a relatively new technique used to obtain full control over the velocity of paramagnetic atoms or molecules in a molecular beam. We present a detailed description of a multistage Zeeman decelerator that has recently become operational in our laboratory [Cremers et al., Phys. Rev. A 98, 033406 (2018)] and that is specifically optimized for crossed molecular beams scattering experiments. The decelerator consists of an alternating array of 100 solenoids and 100 permanent hexapoles to guide or decelerate beams of paramagnetic atoms or molecules. The Zeeman decelerator features a modular design that is mechanically easy to extend to arbitrary length and allows for solenoid and hexapole elements that are convenient to replace. The solenoids and associated electronics are efficiently water cooled and allow the Zeeman decelerator to operate at repetition rates exceeding 10 Hz. We characterize the performance of the decelerator using various beams of metastable rare gas atoms. Imaging of the atoms that exit the Zeeman decelerator reveals the transverse focusing properties of the hexapole array in the Zeeman decelerator.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-08T05:19:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5066062
  • A multi-module energy-saving pulsed magnetic field generator
    • Authors: Jinzhen Liu, Yuling Wang, Yimei Chen, Hui Xiong, Wanpeng Sun
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      In order to generate the unipolar and bipolar pulsed magnetic fields and improve the energy efficiency of the magnetic field generator, a multi-module energy-saving (MMES) pulsed magnetic field generator is designed. The circuit topology of the MMES pulsed magnetic field generator is presented and the experimental data are measured by experiments. The results show that the peak current values of unipolar and bipolar pulsed magnetic fields are 156 A and 154 A by discharging two capacitors, and the intensities are 87.6 mT and 86.5 mT, respectively. The energy-saving rates of unipolar and bipolar pulsed magnetic fields can be up to 17.64% and 19.36%, respectively. Therefore, it has very high application and research value in the field of biological magnetism therapy.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T06:48:58Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5041902
  • Exploring a new ammeter traceability route for ionisation chamber
    • Authors: S. P. Giblin, G. Lorusso
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We compared the performance of a commercial ammeter and a home-made integrating electrometer in reading ionisation chamber currents less than 100 pA. The integrating electrometer charges a capacitor with the unknown current and measures the resulting rate of change of voltage, whereas the ammeter uses a high-value resistor as the feedback element to an amplifier which converts current to voltage. The noise performance of both systems was very similar for averaging times less than 1000 s. Both systems were calibrated using a reference current source with 1 part per million (ppm) accuracy, revealing an error of 460 ppm in the electrometer indicated current, of unknown origin. This error is well within the uncertainty budget for radionuclide calibrations but much larger than the individual uncertainties in the traceable calibrations of capacitance, voltage, and time. The noise in the ionisation chamber current was much larger than the noise floor of both instruments, with tests providing strong indication that the excess noise originated in the high voltage source used for energising the chamber.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T06:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5052717
  • A compact solid-state high voltage pulse generator
    • Authors: Jingming Gao, Song Li, Chengyu Shi, Yancheng Cui, Hanwu Yang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      In this paper, a compact solid-state high voltage pulse generator, composed of a pulse transformer and a magnetic pulse compressor, is investigated numerically and experimentally. The generator can achieve pulses with a peak voltage over several tens of kilovolts and a rise-time in the microsecond level, which can be widely used in plasma physics research, high power microwave generation, and material treatment. Specifically, PSpice software is used to analyze the performance of the generator. Then, the generator was constructed in our laboratory. The experimental results illustrate that when the charging voltage of the generator was changing from 10 kV to 14 kV, typical pulses with a peak voltage ranging from 67 kV to 95 kV and rise-time between 10 µs and 12 µs were obtained on a dummy load. The generator can continually work over 10 min with a repetitive rate of 20 Hz, and until now, it has been successfully achieving over 1 × 106 high voltage pulses. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T06:37:38Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5053780
  • Performance and application of heavy ion nuclear microbeam facility at the
           Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež, Czech Republic
    • Authors: Oleksandr Romanenko, Vladimir Havranek, Anna Mackova, Marie Davidkova, Mariapompea Cutroneo, Alexander G. Ponomarev, Gyula Nagy, James Stammers
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      The Tandetron Laboratory of the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences is equipped with five beam lines associated with a 3 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator model 4130 MC from High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V. This accelerator is coupled with two duoplasmatron sources and a single sputter ion source and provides ions from hydrogen to gold. One of these lines is a nuclear microbeam facility, utilizing ion beams of micro- and sub-micro sizes for materials research by use of particle induced x-ray emission spectroscopy, particle induced gamma emission, Rutherford back-scattering spectroscopy, and scanning transmission ion microscopy methods as well as for ion beam writing. The major advantage of the presented microprobe is a possibility of 3D structure creation not only in polymer materials using light ions but also in other materials such as glass, ceramics, etc. by use of heavy ions. The focusing system allows focusing of charged particles with a maximum rigidity of 11 MeV amu/q2. The usual resolution in high and low current modes is 2 × 3 µm2 for a 100 pA and 0.3 × 0.5 µm2 for the 2000 ions/s of 2 MeV protons, respectively. A detailed facility description is given in the paper. The applications of focused beams of heavy ions as well as examples of light ions utilizing are also presented in the article.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T06:31:56Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5070121
  • A washer gun plasma system for microwave—plasma interaction
    • Authors: Anitha V. P., Priyavandana J. Rathod, Jayesh Raval, Renu Bahl, Y. C. Saxena
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A washer-gun based plasma system has been developed to enable high power microwave (HPM)—plasma interaction in a system for microwave plasma experiments. The critical pre-requisites of the plasma are density, ne ∼ (1–10) × 1017 m−3, uniformity over a radial extent ≈10 cm and axial extent ≈20–30 cm, an axial density gradient of scale-length Ln ≈ wavelength of HPM, and ambient pressure low enough to maintain electron-neutral collision frequency much less than plasma frequency. The system developed deploys a ten stage pulse forming network, discharged to the washer-gun to produce pulsed (τpulse ∼ 100 μs) discharges that get ejected into an experimental chamber. The system is capable of generating ne ∼ 1018 m−3 and Te ∼ 10 eV. Temporal and spatial regimes are identified to obtain the required extents of radial and axial ne uniformity of 10 cm and 20 cm, respectively, and a steep axial gradient Ln ≈ 10 cm. Based on the desired frequency of the interacting HPM (in the range 3-5 GHz) planned for a particular experimental campaign, the density and spatial density profiles of the plasma can be tailored. The present paper presents an account of the plasma source and characterization of the plasma.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T06:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5051802
  • Imaging of material defects with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer
    • Authors: P. Bevington, R. Gartman, W. Chalupczak
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Non-destructive inductive testing of defects in metal plates using the magnetic resonance signal of a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer is demonstrated. The shape and amplitude of the spatial profile of the signal features, which represent structural defects, are explored. By comparing numerical and experimental results on a series of benchmark aluminium plates, we show correspondence between the properties of the secondary field and those of the magnetometer signal. In particular, we show that two components of the secondary field are mapped onto the amplitude and phase of the atomic magnetometer signal. Hence, a magnetic field measurement with the atomic magnetometer, although scalar in its nature, provides semi-vectorial information on the secondary field. Moreover, we demonstrate a robust process for determining defect dimensions, which is not limited by the size of the sensor. We prove that the amplitude and phase contrast of the observed profiles enables us to reliably measure defect depth.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T06:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5053959
  • Erratum: “Angular truncation errors in integrating nephelometry” [Rev.
           Sci. Instrum. 74, 3492 (2003)]
    • Authors: Hans Moosmüller, W. Patrick Arnott
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.

      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T03:21:15Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5085240
  • Large dynamic range data acquisition system for time-domain
           electromagnetic interference (TDEMI) measurement receiver
    • Authors: Hao Zeng, Jian Gao, Peng Ye, Lianping Guo, Ke Liao
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurement is essential in wireless communications to avoid both performance degradation and serious fault failures. In this paper, we present the design of an acquisition system for a time-domain EMI measurement receiver intended for monitoring potential EMI. The platform consists of both hardware and software systems. The hardware system is constructed using a modular design method and contains a conditioning module, a data acquisition and processing module, and a clock generation module. The software system provides an interactive interface for device operation and offers an automatic sampling/processing procedure that is developed on a slot 0 controller. An additional outstanding feature of the proposed system is its high dynamic range. We propose a novel multi-stage architecture and a data reconstruction algorithm that are combined to achieve large dynamic range acquisition. The proposed acquisition architecture breaks through the dynamic range limitations of conventional analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) on a significant scale. The implemented system is able to capture an analog waveform with a 300 MHz bandwidth and a 1 GS/s sampling rate. The experimental results show that the maximum dynamic range achieved is 96.43 dB, which is far greater than the single ADC dynamic range of 52 dB.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T08:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5062618
  • An articulated finger driven by single-mode piezoelectric actuator for
           compact and high-precision robot hand
    • Authors: Di Chen, Xinjian Li, Jiamei Jin, Chongyuan Ruan
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      In this paper, a novel finger driven by single-mode piezoelectric actuator for a compact and high-precision robot hand is proposed. Three piezoelectric actuators are articulated by two sets of connecting elements to form the finger. The finger utilizes a single model of the piezoelectric actuator to generate friction force to drive the joint. Without the difficulty to adjust for the coincidence of modal frequencies, the design of the piezoelectric actuator has fewer restrictions on size and structure; thus, the finger has a compact structure. The bidirectional motion of the joint is achieved by changing the temporal phase difference of two excitation signals applied on the two adjacent piezoelectric actuators. In addition, due to the characteristics of piezoelectric drive, such as power cut self-locking and quick response, the finger has a high resolution to realize micromanipulation for high precise movement. In our design, the first order longitudinal vibration mode of the piezoelectric actuator is used to generate the friction force. By using a finite element model, the geometric parameters of the piezoelectric actuator are obtained. A prototype of the finger is fabricated and experimentally investigated, the size (111 × 10 × 10 mm) is approximately 1.5 times that of a human middle finger, and the weight is 0.11 kg. The experimental results indicate that the angular speed of the prototype reaches 6.6 rad/s, the resolution is 20 mrad, and the startup and shutdown response times are 26 ms and 7 ms under a voltage of 400 Vpp, respectively. The fingertip force is 0.27 N under a voltage of 400 Vpp. The proposed finger has a compact size and simple structure with a high resolution (20 mrad).
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T07:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5045817
  • Fuzzy adaptive multi-mode sliding mode control for precision linear stage
           based on floating stator
    • Authors: Jiwen Fang, Wei Zhong, Chong Li, Zhong Zhao, Michael Yu Wang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      This paper outlines a precision motion stage actuated by using a voice coil motor with a floating stator. For getting good performance, a multi-mode sliding mode control (MMSMC) was designed to operate this linear motion stage. MMSMC contains two sliding mode controllers: a sliding-mode control (SMC) and an integral sliding-mode control. The switching of two SMCs will be activated according to the setting error threshold. In order to eliminate the chattering phenomenon, a soft switching control is developed to replace the signum function with a smooth function. To obtain improved performance, a fuzzy controller and an adaptive controller are introduced into the MMSMC to form a fuzzy adaptive multi-mode sliding mode control (FAMMSMC). The fuzzy control is adopted to tune the slope of the sliding mode function, and the gain of the switching control is tuned according to the adaptive law. The results of the experiments are provided to make a comparison with the FAMMSMC, MMSMC, and proportional-integral-derivative control. The experimental results show that good positioning and tracking performance can be provided by using FAMMSMC.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T07:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5059365
  • Visible astro-comb filtered by a passively stabilized Fabry-Perot cavity
    • Authors: Yuxuan Ma, Fei Meng, Yizhou Liu, Fei Zhao, Gang Zhao, Aimin Wang, Zhigang Zhang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We demonstrate a compact 29.3 GHz visible astro-comb covering the spectrum from 560 nm to 700 nm. A 837 MHz Yb:fiber laser frequency comb phase locked to a Rb clock served as the seed comb to ensure the frequency stability and high side mode suppression ratio. After the visible super-continuum generation, a Fabry-Perot cavity based on ultra-low expansion glass was utilized to filter the comb teeth. The mirrors were home-made complementary chirped mirrors pair with zero net-dispersion and high reflection to guarantee no mode skipping. Those filtered comb teeth were clearly resolved in an astronomical spectrograph of 49 000 resolution, exhibiting sharp line shape, zero noise floor, and uniform exposure amplitude.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T07:31:46Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5053706
  • A large-aperture strip-grid beam splitter for partially combined two
           millimeter-wave diagnostics on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced
    • Authors: D. J. Lee, W. Lee, H. K. Park, T. G. Kim
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A large-aperture beam splitter has been developed for simultaneous operation of two millimeter-wave diagnostics employing different probe beams in the frequency and polarization, microwave imaging reflectometer (∼85 GHz X-mode), and collective scattering system (300 GHz O-mode), on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research device. The beam splitter was designed based on a polarizer concept (i.e., grid of metal strips on a thin dielectric sheet), and this can be an optimal solution for these two diagnostics. Fabrication of the strips with uniform sub-millimeter width and spacing on a large dielectric sheet was achieved with an etching technique, and the laboratory test results on the reflection and transmission ratio are in good agreement with design values.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T07:31:46Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5066611
  • Efficiency signal conversion parameter to evaluate astigmatic
           femtosecond-optical parametric oscillator cavities
    • Authors: G. Castro-Olvera, J. Garduño-Mejía, M. Rosete-Aguilar
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      In this work, we define the efficiency signal conversion numerical parameter, Veff, useful to evaluate the operation efficiency of femtosecond-Optical Parametric Oscillator (fs-OPO) cavities considering the astigmatism effect. For the validation of the Veff, we have performed experimental measurements. We present different high efficiency home-made singly resonant fs-OPO cavities, with signal tuneability from 1.1 µm to 1.6 µm based on a 0.5 mm Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate doped with MgO (MgO:PPLN) crystal. We have also defined the pump energy threshold per crystal unit length, [math]. Pump threshold, achieved by following the Veff, was 142 mW at 810 nm, and [math] = 2.10 nJ/mm, the lowest value, in comparison with other studies. The Veff is based on an ABCD matrix Gaussian beam propagation method, which calculates the mode coupling between the pump and signal beams along the crystal under different cavity configurations taking into account the astigmatism. The model was compared and tested with 3 different experimental singly resonant fs-OPO ring cavity configurations that we have defined as single-folded, two-folded, and direct-pump cavity.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T07:31:45Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5041966
  • Seamless global positioning system/inertial navigation system navigation
           method based on square-root cubature Kalman filter and random forest
    • Authors: Yufeng Xiong, Yu Zhang, Xiaoting Guo, Chenguang Wang, Chong Shen, Jie Li, Jun Tang, Jun Liu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      In this paper, a seamless navigation dual-model based on Square-Root Cubature Kalman Filter (SRCKF) and Random Forest Regression (RFR) is developed to enhance the performance of the Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation system. By using the proposed method, the system can ensure seamless navigation ability even during GPS signal outages. In the proposed dual-model, sub-model 1 that directly relates the specific force of INS to the measurement of filter and sub-model 2 that directly relates the cubature points and innovation of SRCKF to the error caused by filter are established. Combined with SRCKF and RFR algorithms, the dual-model system can predict and estimate the velocity and position of the vehicle seamlessly when GPS signals are blocked. Field test data are collected to evaluate the proposed solution, and the experimental results show that the model proposed has obvious improvement in navigation accuracy by comparison. The prominent advantages of the proposed seamless navigation method include the following: (i) the proposed dual-model can effectively provide corrections to standalone INS during GPS outages, which outperforms traditional widely used single model; (ii) the proposed combination of SRCKF and RFR achieves better performance in the prediction of INS errors than other combination algorithms.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T07:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5079889
  • An iterative optimization method for estimating accelerometer bias based
           on gravitational apparent motion with excitation of swinging motion
    • Authors: Tongwei Zhang, Yongjiang Huang, Haibing Li, Songbing Wang, Xiaole Guo, Xixiang Liu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Field calibration is an important method to guarantee the accuracy of a strapdown inertial navigation system. Zero velocity update based on the zero-velocity constraint when the carrier is without translational motion is a typical system-level calibration method. In zero velocity update, there is a coupling between biases and horizontal misalignment angles. The accuracy of horizontal misalignment angles is determined by the equivalent accelerometer biases in horizontal directions, which means that improving the accuracy of horizontal angles needs accurate calibration of accelerometer biases. Meanwhile, alignment with gravitational apparent motion is widely used taking advantages of its alignment ability in a swinging condition. But it is an analytical method and cannot calibrate sensor biases and is always dealt as a coarse alignment method. In order to calibrate accelerometer biases and utilize advantages of the alignment method with gravitational motion, a method to estimate accelerometer biases based on an iterative optimization method and gravitational apparent motion is presented in this paper. First, accelerometer biases are introduced to calculate apparent acceleration and an objective function is constructed. Then, Newton’s iteration is applied to iteratively optimize the parameters describing gravitational apparent motion and accelerometer biases. As revealed by the theoretical analysis and experimental results, different patterns of gravity and accelerometer biases will be generated when the carrier exhibits a swinging motion; thus, the convergence of the proposed algorithm will be ensured. After accelerometer biases are removed, initial alignment performed with the gravitational apparent motion reconstructed by the estimated parameters gives nearly zero horizontal misalignment angles.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T07:30:06Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5042442
  • A combined sinusoidal transmission grating spectrometer and x-ray diode
           array diagnostics for time-resolved spectral measurements in laser plasma
    • Authors: Ze’ev Shpilman, Gilad Hurvitz, Liron Danon, Tomer Shussman, Yosi Ehrlich, Shlomo Maman, Izhak Levy, Moshe Fraenkel
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A new system which combines two independent diagnostic devices on the same line of sight is used to measure the X-ray spectrum in the 50-1000 eV regime. The first device is an array of six channels of time-resolved X-ray diodes (XRD’s), arranged to cover the spectral band with low spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 3). The second device is a time-integrated sinusoidal transmission grating spectrometer (STGS) with a wide spectral range coverage and moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 30). The spectral band of each XRD can be tuned by selecting a cathode, an x-ray mirror, and a filter. The novel sinusoidal shape of the STGS allows acquisition of a pure first-order spectrum without contribution of high dispersion orders, resulting in a higher accuracy spectrum measurement. The system described here has recently been used [Y. Ehrlich et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 043507 (2017)] to demonstrate an improved unfolding algorithm of an XRD-acquired spectrum, achieved by experimental information gathered from the STGS measurement.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T07:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5051486
  • Design and analysis of a burst strength device for testing vascular grafts
    • Authors: C. Pérez-Aranda, F. Gamboa, O. Castillo-Cruz, J. V. Cauich-Rodríguez, F. Avilés
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      The design and analysis of a device to measure the burst strength (strength under a state of pure radial internal pressure) and compliance of vascular grafts and flexible pressurized tubes is presented. The device comprises three main sections, viz., a clean air-dry pressure controller, a test specimen holder, and automated software for control and data collection. Air pressure is controlled by means of a valve and a dedicated mechanism allowing reaching up to 120 psi in increments of 1 psi, and recording pressure changes with 0.04 psi resolution. The circumferential strain is determined by measuring the radial displacement of the vascular graft using an optical arrangement capable of determining a maximum radial displacement of 10 mm with 0.02 mm resolution. The instrument provides a low uncertainty in compliance (±0.32%/100 mm Hg−1) and burst strength measurements. Due to its simplicity, the device can easily be reproduced in other laboratories contributing to a dedicated instrument with high resolution at low cost. The reliability of the apparatus is further confirmed by conducting finite element analysis, elasticity solutions for pressurized cylinders, and testing of small diameter vascular grafts made of a commercial aliphatic polyurethane tested under radial internal pressure.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T07:21:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5037578
  • Parameter estimation of linear frequency modulation signals based on
           sampling theorem and fractional broadening
    • Authors: Xuelian Liu, Jun Han, Chunyang Wang, Bo Xiao
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals are a class of important radar signals, but it is difficult to estimate their parameters in electronic warfare. Fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is one of the most important methods for estimating the parameters of LFM signals, but the computational efficiency is strongly influenced by the search range and evaluation of the optimum FRFT order. To improve the estimation speed, we present a novel method for the parameter estimation of LFM signals using sampling theorem and fractional broadening. First, sampling theorem is used to calculate the search range of the optimum FRFT transform order. Then, the LFM signals are transformed by FRFT in the search range. Finally, the fractional broadening of the LFM signals is calculated, and the optimum FRFT order is obtained according to the relationship between the fractional broadening and the FRFT order. Experiments are performed to compare the proposed method and the traditional FRFT method. The results show that the proposed method is six times faster than the traditional FRFT method while preserving the accuracy. Moreover, it can quickly and accurately achieve the parameter estimation of multi-component LFM signals in the case of white Gaussian noise with a low signal-to-noise ratio.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T07:21:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5041031
  • Design optimization through thermomechanical finite-element analysis of a
           hybrid piston-clamped anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance
    • Authors: N. Barbero, G. Abbiati, E. Enrico, G. Amato, E. Vittone, H.-R. Ott, J. Mesot, T. Shiroka
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      The investigation of materials under extreme pressure conditions requires high-performance cells whose design invariably involves trade-offs between the maximum achievable pressure, the allowed sample volume, and the possibility of real-time pressure monitoring. With a newly conceived hybrid piston-clamped anvil cell, we offer a relatively simple and versatile system, suitable for nuclear magnetic resonance experiments up to 4.4 GPa. Finite-element models, taking into account mechanical and thermal conditions, were used to optimize and validate the design prior to the realization of the device. Cell body and gaskets were made of beryllium-copper alloy and the pistons and pusher were made of tungsten carbide, while the anvils consist of zirconium dioxide. The low-temperature pressure cell performance was tested by monitoring in situ the pressure-dependent 63Cu nuclear-quadrupole-resonance signal of Cu2O.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T07:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5059391
  • A cryogenic cylindrical ion trap velocity map imaging spectrometer
    • Authors: Zefeng Hua, Shaowen Feng, Zhengfang Zhou, Hao Liang, Yang Chen, Dongfeng Zhao
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A cryogenic cylindrical ion trap velocity map imaging spectrometer has been developed to study photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of gaseous molecular ions and ionic complexes. A cylindrical ion trap made of oxygen-free copper is cryogenically cooled down to ∼7 K by using a closed cycle helium refrigerator and is coupled to a velocity map imaging (VMI) spectrometer. The cold trap is used to cool down the internal temperature of mass selected ions and to reduce the velocity spread of ions after extraction from the trap. For CO2+ ions, a rotational temperature of ∼12 K is estimated from the recorded [1 + 1] two-photon dissociation spectrum, and populations in spin-orbit excited X2Πg,1/2 and vibrationally excited states of CO2+ are found to be non-detectable, indicating an efficient internal cooling of the trapped ions. Based on the time-of-flight peak profile and the image of N3+, the velocity spread of the ions extracted from the trap, both radially and axially, is interpreted as approximately ±25 m/s. An experimental image of fragmented Ar+ from 307 nm photodissociation of Ar2+ shows that, benefitting from the well-confined velocity spread of the cold Ar2+ ions, a VMI resolution of Δv/v ∼ 2.2% has been obtained. The current instrument resolution is mainly limited by the residual radial speed spread of the parent ions after extraction from the trap.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T07:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5079264
  • Fixed-bed reactor for catalytic studies on low-surface area materials
    • Authors: Dennis C. A. Ivarsson, Ioannis G. Aviziotis, Toni Keilhauer, Marc Armbrüster
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Comparability of information gathered by different methods is vital to enhance knowledge in heterogeneous catalysis. A new type of flow-reactor has been developed which enables the comparison between the detailed information gained by surface science methods and industrial catalysis, thus contributing to bridge the pressure and material gaps. The design allows for catalytic investigations of compact, low-surface area materials at temperatures and pressures up to 500 °C and 10 bar, respectively. Catalytic measurements on pressed pills of Pd11Bi2Se2 in the semi-hydrogenation of acetylene and oriented single-crystalline slabs of InPd in methanol steam reforming are used as test cases for the reactor design. In the former, high-conversion of acetylene is demonstrated along with ensured inert sample transfer. In the latter, higher catalytic activity for the (110) surface is observed compared to the (100) and (111) surfaces. Most importantly, both test cases prove the viability of the reactor design, which opens new possibilities for studying different materials and systems.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-02T09:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5064713
  • A novel microsensor for measuring thermal conductivity of fluid based on
           three omega method
    • Authors: Libo Zhao, Yunyun Luo, Xiangxiang Huang, Xiangyang Zhou, Rahman -Hebibul, Jianjun Ding, Zhikang Li, Zhuangde Jiang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      A novel microsensor has been designed for the measurement of thermal conductivity of fluids based on the three omega (3ω) method. First, we theoretically analyzed the heat conduction using the 3ω method to demonstrate the mechanism of the microsensor to measure the thermal conductivity of a fluid. For the main structure of the microsensor, a heater was supported by the thin dielectric layers. In order to obtain the optimal parameters, we used the finite element method to simulate the working condition of the microsensor. In the simulation model, the effects of the thicknesses of the heater and dielectric layers on the thermal conductivity λ of the fluid were analyzed. The simulation results confirmed the validity and accuracy of conventional analytical calculations. Based on the simulation and theoretical calculation, a microsensor was optimally designed and fabricated to measure the thermal conductivity of fluids. Experimental data are consistent with those reported in the literature and demonstrate that the proposed sensor is effective for measuring thermal conductivity of fluids, including conductive ones.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-02T09:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5053835
  • A single-chip integrated transceiver for high field NMR magnetometry
    • Authors: Marco Grisi, Gaurasundar Marc Conley, Pascal Sommer, Jacques Tinembart, Giovanni Boero
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      We present the design and performance of a broad-band single-chip integrated transceiver specifically conceived for nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometry. The single-chip transceiver is realized using a standard silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit technology. A radio-frequency (RF) transmit amplifier, a transmit/receive switch, a low noise RF receive amplifier, a quadrature (IQ)-mixer, and two intermediate frequency amplifiers are integrated on a single silicon chip of 1.8 mm2. The advantages and problematic aspects with respect to conventional discrete electronic approaches are discussed. We show the results of magnetic field measurements performed at 1.4 and 7.05 T, using solid and liquid samples having volumes from 40 μl down to 100 pl. Particular attention is devoted to the comparison of the experimentally measured magnetic field standard deviation with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower bound value. With a sample of distilled water (T1 ≅ T2 ≅ 3 s, [math] 20 ms) having a volume of 40 μl, a standard deviation of 2.5 nT at 7.05 T (i.e., 0.5 ppb) in 1 s of averaging time is achieved, with a projected Cramer-Rao lower bond of 8 pT (i.e., 1.1 ppt).
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-02T05:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5066436
  • Ultra-low noise and high bandwidth bipolar current driver for precise
           magnetic field control
    • Authors: Yu-Meng Yang, Hong-Tai Xie, Wen-Chao Ji, Yue-Fei Wang, Wei-Yong Zhang, Shuai Chen, Xiao Jiang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2019.
      Current sources with extremely low noise are significant for many branches of scientific research, such as experiments of ultra-cold atoms, superconducting quantum computing, and precision measurements. Here we construct and characterize an analog-controlled bipolar current source with high bandwidth and ultra-low noise. A precise and stable resistor is connected in series with the output for current sensing. After being amplified with an instrumentation amplifier, the current sensing signal is compared with an ultra-low noise reference, and proportional-integral (PI) calculations are performed via a zero-drift low-noise operational amplifier. The result of the PI calculation is sent to the output power operational amplifier for closed-loop control of the output current. In this way, a current of up to 16 A can be sourced to or sunk from a load with a compliance voltage of greater than ±12 V. The broadband current noise of our bipolar current source is about [math] and 1/f corner frequency is less than 1 Hz. Applications of this current source in a cold atom interferometer, as well as active compensation of a stray magnetic field, are presented. A method for measuring high-frequency current noise in a 10 A DC current with a sensitivity down to a level of 10 μA is also described.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2019-01-02T05:02:07Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5046484
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