Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
BioMed Research International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.935
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2314-6133 - ISSN (Online) 2314-6141
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Autologous Micrografts from Scalp Tissue: Trichoscopic and Long-Term
           Clinical Evaluation in Male and Female Androgenetic Alopecia

    • Abstract: Tissue engineering in hair regrowth aims to develop innovative and not-invasive procedures to advance the hair regrowth. A placebo-controlled, randomized, evaluator-blinded, half-head group study to compare hair regrowth with micrografts containing human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (HF-MSCs) vs. placebo was reported. After 58 weeks, 27 patients displayed in the targeted area an increase of hair count and hair density, respectively, of 18.0 hairs per 0.65 cm2 and 23.3 hairs per cm2 compared with baseline, while the control area displayed a mean decrease of 1.1 hairs per 0.65 cm2 and 0.7 hairs per cm2 (control vs. treatment: ). After 26 months, 6 patients revealed dynamic hair loss and were retreated. More broad controlled examinations are required. HF-MSCs contained in micrografts may represent a safe and viable treatment alternative against hair loss.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 08:20:00 +000
  • Expanding the Scope of Immunotherapy in Colorectal Cancer: Current
           Clinical Approaches and Future Directions

    • Abstract: The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in an increasing range of heavily mutated tumor types such as melanoma has culminated in their exploration in different subsets of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). As a result of their dramatic and durable response rates in patients with chemorefractory, mismatch repair-deficient-microsatellite instability-high (dMMR-MSI-H) mCRC, ICIs have become potential alternatives to classical systemic therapies. The anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) agents, Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab, have been granted FDA approval for this subset of patients. Unfortunately, however, not all CRC cases with the dMMR-MSI-H phenotype respond well to ICIs, and ongoing studies are currently exploring biomarkers that can predict good response to them. Another challenge lies in developing novel treatment strategies for the subset of patients with the mismatch repair-proficient-microsatellite instability-low (pMMR-MSI-L) phenotype that comprises 95% of all mCRC cases in whom treatment with currently approved ICIs has been largely unsuccessful. Approaches aiming at overcoming the resistance of tumors in this subset of patients are being developed including combining different checkpoint inhibitors with either chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, cancer vaccines, adoptive cell transfer (ACT), or bispecific T-cell (BTC) antibodies. This review describes the rationale behind using immunotherapeutics in CRC. It sheds light on the progress made in the use of immunotherapy in the treatment of patients with dMMR-MSI-H CRC. It also discusses emerging approaches and proposes potential strategies for targeting the immune microenvironment in patients with pMMR-MSI-L CRC tumors in an attempt to complement immune checkpoint inhibition.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jan 2020 13:35:00 +000
  • PBX3 Promotes Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis via Activation of AT1R/VEGFR2
           Pathway in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    • Abstract: PBX3 (Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 3) had been considered to be a multifunctional oncogene which involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in leukemia and some solid tumors. However, the contribution of PBX3 to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains unclear. In this study, we found that PBX3 expression was significantly upregulated in PTC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and high levels of PBX3 were correlated with tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, TMN stage, and poor prognosis of PTC patients. Overexpression of PBX3 in PTC cell lines promoted cell proliferation. Consistently, knockdown of PBX3 by shRNA induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, and inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, PBX3 promoted PTC cell proliferation and angiogenesis through activation of AT1R/VEGFR2 pathway while overexpression of AT1R and treatment with VEGFA reversed PBX3-shRNA-induced decreased phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream (ERK1/2, AKT and Src). It demonstrated that PBX3 could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PTC.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jan 2020 13:20:00 +000
  • Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing Ling Zhi 8 Protein Ameliorates
           Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver and Early Atherogenesis in Cholesterol-Fed

    • Abstract: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by lipid deposits in the subendothelial space leading to severe inflammation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) shares several risk factors with atherosclerosis, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, all of which lead to lipid deposition in the liver causing inflammation and fibrosis. Several clinical trials have shown that certain Chinese herbal medicines with anti-inflammatory effects can be used as adjuvant therapy to prevent the development of cardiovascular events and liver disease. Ling Zhi 8 (LZ8) is an immunomodulatory protein isolated from a medicinal mushroom and has been well documented to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing LZ8 protein on NAFLD and atherogenesis in a cholesterol-fed rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were divided into three groups and fed with syrup only, L. lactis vehicle, or recombinant L. lactis-LZ8 once a day on weekdays for five weeks, respectively. The gene expression of IL-1β in the aorta was significantly suppressed after oral administration of L. lactis-LZ8. Moreover, in hematoxylin and eosin staining of the aorta, the intima-medial thickness was decreased, and foam cells were significantly reduced in the subendothelial space. LZ8 also inhibited the expression of IL-1β in the liver, decreased fat droplet deposits and infiltration of inflammatory cells, and improved liver function by decreasing liver enzymes in an animal model. Our results suggest that the Lactococcus-expressing LZ8 appears to be a promising medicine for improving both NAFLD and early atherogenesis owing to its anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, it is available as a low-cost food-grade product.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jan 2020 07:35:00 +000
  • Whole-Genome Resequencing of Twenty Branchiostoma belcheri Individuals
           Provides a Brand-New Variant Dataset for Branchiostoma

    • Abstract: As the extant representatives of the basal chordate lineage, amphioxi (including the genera Branchiostoma, Asymmetron and Epigonichthys) play important roles in tracing the state of chordate ancestry. Previous studies have reported that members of the Branchiostoma species have similar morphological phenotypic characteristics, but in contrast, there are high levels of genetic polymorphisms in the populations. Here, we resequenced 20 Branchiostomabelcheri genomes to an average depth of approximately 12.5X using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. In this study, over 52 million variations (~12% of the total genome) were detected in the B. belcheri population, and an average of 12.8 million variations (~3% of the total genome) were detected in each individual, confirming that Branchiostoma is one of the most genetically diverse species sequenced to date. Demographic inference analysis highlighted the role of historical global temperature in the long-term population dynamics of Branchiostoma, and revealed a population expansion at the Greenlandian stage of the current geological epoch. We detected 594 Single nucleotide polymorphism and 148 Indels in the Branchiostoma mitochondrial genome, and further analyzed their genetic mutations. A recent study found that the epithelial cells of the digestive tract in Branchiostoma can directly phagocytize food particles and convert them into absorbable nontoxic nutrients using powerful digestive and immune gene groups. In this study, we predicted all potential mutations in intracellular digestion-associated genes. The results showed that most “probably damaging” mutations were related to rare variants (MAF 
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Jan 2020 07:20:00 +000
  • The Effect of Grapefruit Juice on the Pharmacokinetics of Tadalafil in

    • Abstract: We developed and validated a novel, sensitive, selective, and inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of tadalafil in rats plasma and to investigate the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of tadalafil in rats. The ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm) chromatography column can be used to separate tadalafil and carbamazepine (internal standard, IS). A mixture of acetonitrile-0.2% trifluoroacetic acid-water (48 : 10 : 42, V/V/V) was used as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 35.0°C. The detection wavelength was set at 286 nm. The tadalafil was extracted by ethyl acetate from plasma at the alkaline condition. 12 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, Group A (experimental group, received grapefruit juice 5 mL/kg for 7 days) and Group B (control group, received normal saline for 7 days). All the rats were given a single dose of tadalafil (5 mg/kg) after the last administration. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software. Under the conditions of this experiment, the plasma concentrations of tadalafil in the range of 10–2000 ng/ml had a good linear relationship. The intra- and interday precision for tadalafil in plasma were less than 15%, and the relative recovery rate was good at low, medium, and high QC levels. The Cmax of tadalafil in the control group and the experimental group was (725.89 ± 161.59) ng/mL and (1271.60 ± 179.31) ng/mL, t1/2 was (9.28 ± 2.07) h and (11.70 ± 1.47) h, AUC (0-t) was (7399.61 ± 696.85) ng·h/mL and (9586.52 ± 2048.81) ng·h/mL, and AUC(0-∞) was (7995.50 ± 707.23) ng·h/mL and (10639.43 ± 2235.94) ng·h/mL, respectively. Results show that the Cmax of tadalafil in group A was 75.17% higher than that in group B, the Vz/F was also reduced, and the t1/2 was increased by 2.42 h. The developed HPLC–DAD method for the determination of tadalafil in rats plasma was accurate, reproducible, specific, and it was found to be suitable for the pharmacokinetics of tadalafil and food-drug interactions. Grapefruit juice can inhibit the metabolism of tadalafil and increase the exposure of tadalafil in rats.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 15:20:01 +000
  • HbA1C Variability Is Strongly Associated with Development of
           Macroalbuminuria in Normal or Microalbuminuria in Patients with Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Year Follow-Up Study

    • Abstract: Background. Glycemic variability is associated with higher risk of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim. To test the hypothesis that glycemic variability can contribute to progression to macroalbuminuria in normal or microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design. This prospective study enrolled 193 patients with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary medical center. Methods. For each patient, the intrapersonal glycemic variability (mean, SD, and coefficient of variation of HbA1c) was calculated using all measurements obtained three years before the study. Patients were divided into four groups stratified by both urine albumin/creatinine ratio and HbA1c-SD. The presence of macroalbuminuria was assessed with Kaplan–Meier plots and compared by log-rank test. Results. Of the 193 patients, 83 patients were in the macroalbuminuria state. Patients in the initial macroalbuminuria group after enrollment had the highest diabetes duration, mean, CV-HbA1c and HbA1c-SD, and uric acid level, and the lowest estimate glomerular filtration rate, followed by subsequent macroalbuminuria and without macroalbuminuria groups. Patients with microalbuminuria and high HbA1c-SD showed the highest progression rate to macroalbuminuria, after a six-year follow-up study by Kaplan–Meier Plots and compared by log-rank test. Conclusions. Higher HbA1C variability is more likely to progress to macroalbuminuria in those patients who are already in a microalbuminuria state. We recommend that clinicians should aggressively control blood glucose to an acceptable range and avoid blood glucose fluctuations by individualized treatment to prevent renal status progression.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 14:35:00 +000
  • Study on the Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Connective Tissue
           Disease Associated with Interstitial Lung Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Connective tissue disease (CTD) associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) affects the lungs and can lead to considerable morbidity and shortened survival. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a readily available parameter that is routinely reported with complete blood cell count (CBC) This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of RDW in CTD-ILD. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 180 patients with CTD-ILD and 202 patients with CTD but without ILD between April 2016 and December 2018. Baseline demographics, laboratory results, imaging examinations, and results of ultrasound scans were analysed. Results. In comparison with patients without ILD, patients with CTD-ILD displayed a larger RDW (14.65 ± 2.08 vs. 14.17 ± 1.63, ), and RDW shared positive relationships with pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = 0.349; ), length of hospital confinement (r = 0.172; ), and hospitalisation expenses (r = 0.158; ). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that RDW (odds ratio (OR): 1.232, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.053–1.422, ), IgG (OR: 1.103, 95% CI: 1.051–1.159, ), and age (OR: 1.032, 95% CI: 1.010–1.054, ) are independent predictors of CTD-ILD risk. The optimal cut-off value of RDW for predicting CTD-ILD was 14.85%, with a sensitivity and a specificity value of 41.2% and 75.2%, respectively. Conclusions. RDW was significantly increased in patients with CTD-ILD under various CTD backgrounds and may be a promising biomarker that may help physicians predict CTD-ILD risk.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Aseptic Technology for Cryoprotectant-Free Vitrification of Human
           Spermatozoa by Direct Dropping into Clean Liquid Air: Apoptosis, Necrosis,
           Motility, and Viability

    • Abstract: This study aimed to compare the quality of human spermatozoa vitrified by direct plunging into liquid nitrogen vs. liquid air. Spermatozoa were divided into three groups: fresh spermatozoa (Group F) were used as a control. Spermatozoa suspension (20 μl) was vitrified in open granules by direct dropping into liquid nitrogen (Group LN) or clean liquid air (Group LA). After warming at 37°C, the progressive motility rate of Group F was reduced from 65.9 ± 2.5% to 34.0 ± 1.9% (Group LN) and 38.1 ± 2.3% (Group LA), respectively (P1-2,3 
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Microvessel Proliferation and Basal Membrane
           Degradation in the Bone Marrow of Rats Regulated through the
           IL-6/JAK2/STAT3/MMP-9 Pathway

    • Abstract: Chronic hypoxia (CH) is characterized by long-term hypoxia that is associated with microvessel proliferation and basal membrane (BM) degradation in tissues. The IL-6/JAK2/STAT3/MMP-9 pathway has been described in a variety of human cancers and plays an essential role in microvessel proliferation and BM degradation. Therefore, this study investigated the role of the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3/MMP-9 pathway in hypoxia-mediated microvessel proliferation and BM degradation in the rat bone marrow. Eighty pathogen-free Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four groups (20 per group)—control group, CH group (exposed to hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber at a simulated altitude of 5000 m for 28 d), CH + STAT3 inhibitor group (7.5 mg/kg/d), and CH + DMSO group. Microvessel density (MVD) and BM degradation in the bone marrow were determined by immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy. Serum IL-6 levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the levels of P-JAK2, P-STAT3, and MMP-9 were assessed by western blot analysis and real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Hypoxia increased serum IL-6 levels, which in turn increased JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, which subsequently upregulated MMP-9. Overexpression of MMP-9 significantly promoted the elevation of MVD and BM degradation. Inhibition of STAT3 using an inhibitor, SH-4-54, significantly downregulated MMP-9 expression and decreased MVD and BM degradation. Surprisingly, STAT3 inhibition also decreased serum IL-6 levels and JAK2 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3/MMP-9 pathway might be related to CH-induced microvessel proliferation and BM degradation in the bone marrow.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 13:50:01 +000
  • GanoCare┬« Improves Oil Palm Growth and Resistance against Ganoderma Basal
           Stem Rot Disease in Nursery and Field Trials

    • Abstract: Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to sustainable oil palm production especially in Southeast Asia and has brought economic losses to the oil palm industry around the world. With no definitive cure at present, this study introduces a new fertilizer technology called GanoCare®, as an effort to suppress BSR incidence in oil palm. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of GanoCare® on growth, physiology, and BSR disease suppression using sitting technique in the oil palm nursery stage. A follow-up using similar treatments was carried out in the field to test on severity of Ganoderma using baiting technique under natural condition. Treatments tested were 10 g/month and 30 g/three months given as pretreatment only or continuous treatment. Results showed that GanoCare® increased the height, bulb diameter, leaf area, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate, and fresh and dry weight of the leaf, bole, and root of oil palm seedlings in the nursery trial. Seedlings treated with GanoCare® exhibited reduced percentage of disease severity, incidence, and dead seedlings, compared to the control. In nursery and field, lowest percentage of dead seedlings due to Ganoderma was found in seedlings given combination of pretreatment and continuous treatment of 30 g/three months (T4) with 5.56 and 6.67%, while control seedlings significantly marked the maximum percentage of 94.45 and 93.33%. The most successful treatment in both nursery and field was T4 with disease reductions of 77.78 and 82.36%, respectively, proving that nutrients contained in GanoCare® are essential in allowing better development of a strong defense system in the seedlings.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 13:35:00 +000
  • Screening and Identification of Key Biomarkers for Bladder Cancer: A Study
           Based on TCGA and GEO Data

    • Abstract: Bladder cancer (BLCA) is a common malignant cancer, and it is the most common genitourinary cancer in the world. The recurrence rate is the highest of all cancers, and the treatment of BLCA has only slightly improved over the past 30 years. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development and progression of BLCA. However, the mechanism of cancer development remains to be proven. Therefore, the identification of potential oncogenes is urgent for developing new therapeutic directions and designing novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of BLCA. Based on this need, we screened overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEG) from the GSE7476, GSE13507, and TCGA BLCA datasets. To identify the central genes from these DEGs, we performed a protein-protein interaction network analysis. To investigate the role of DEGs and the underlying mechanisms in BLCA, we performed Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Gene and Genomic Encyclopedia (KEGG) analysis; we identified the hub genes via different evaluation methods in cytoHubba and then selected the target genes by performing survival analysis. Finally, the relationship between these target genes and tumour immunity was analysed to explore the roles of these genes. In summary, our current studies indicate that both cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) and abnormal spindle microtubule assembly (ASPM) genes are potential prognostic biomarkers for BLCA. It may also be a potential immunotherapeutic target with future clinical significance.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 12:05:02 +000
  • Identification of Key Modules, Hub Genes, and Noncoding RNAs in Chronic
           Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps by Weighted Gene Coexpression Network

    • Abstract: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with relatively easy recurrence. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of this disease are poorly known. Based on gene sequencing data obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we constructed coexpression networks by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed by the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The core gene of pathogenesis, CRSwNP, was screened by protein-protein interaction data (PPI) from the HPRD database. Unsupervised clustering was applied to screen hub genes related to the phenotype of CRSwNP. Blue and turquoise modules were found to be most significantly related to the pathogenicity of CRSwNP. Functional enrichment analysis showed that cell proliferation in the blue modules, the apoptotic process in the turquoise module, and the cancer pathway in both modules were mostly significantly correlated with the development of CRSwNP. The noncoding RNAs (long noncoding RNA and microRNA) and the top 10 core genes in each module were found to be associated with the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. A total of nine hub genes were identified to be related to the CRSwNP phenotype. By qRT-PCR analysis, AKT1, CDH1, PIK3R1, CBL, LRP1, MALAT1, and XIST were proven to be associated with the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. AGR2, FAM3D, PIP, DSE, and TMC were identified to be related to the CRSwNP phenotype. Further exploration of these genes will reveal more important information about the mechanisms of CRSwNP.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 12:05:01 +000
  • Identification of Urinary Biomarkers for Exercise-Induced
           Immunosuppression by iTRAQ Proteomics

    • Abstract: Purpose. To identify noninvasive immune biomarkers of exercise-induced immunosuppression using the iTRAQ proteomics technique. Methods. Fifteen healthy males were recruited and subjected to a four-week incremental treadmill running training program. After each week of training, WBC counts and CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were measured to monitor the immune function status. iTRAQ proteomics technology was used to identify differential proteins and their characteristics in urine. Results. Our data showed that the WBC counts, CD4+ lymphocytes, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased by more than 10% after four weeks of training, suggesting exercise-induced immunosuppression. A total of 1854 proteins were identified in urine during the incremental running using the iTRAQ technology. Compared with the urine before training, there were 89, 52, 77, and 148 proteins significantly upregulated and 66, 27, 68, and 114 proteins significantly downregulated after each week, respectively. Among them, four upregulated proteins, SEMG-1, PIP, PDGFRL, and NDPK, increased their abundance with the increased exercise intensity. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that these proteins are involved in stress response and immune function. Conclusion. Four weeks of incremental treadmill running induced immunosuppression in healthy males. By using iTRAQ proteomics, four proteins in the urine, SEMG-1, PIP, PDGFRL, and NDPK, were found to increase incrementally with the increased exercise intensity, which have the potential to be used as noninvasive immune biomarkers of exercise-induced immunosuppression.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 12:05:00 +000
  • The Establishment of Esophageal Precancerous Lesion Model by Using p53
           Conditional Knockout Mouse in Esophageal Epithelium

    • Abstract: Understanding the molecular mechanisms of precancerous lesion of esophageal cancer is beneficial for early diagnosis and early treatment. The deletion of p53 gene is common in esophageal cancer, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. An animal model is urgently needed to study the mechanisms of esophageal cancer and p53 deficiency. KO mice (p53flox/flox.ED-L2-Cre+/−) and the corresponding control Loxp mice (p53flox/flox.ED-L2-Cre−/−) were obtained by crossing between the p53flox/flox mice and ED-L2-Cre+/− mice. Methylbenzylnitrosamine (NMBA) was injected subcutaneously to induce esophageal precancerous lesion of these two groups of mice. Hematoxylin and eosin staining analysis was performed to evaluate the number and extent of esophageal precancerous lesions in KO mice and Loxp mice at the 16th and 48th weeks. Immunohistochemistry analysis was used to detect the change of Ki67, P21, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. The number and extent of esophageal precancerous lesions in KO mice were significantly increased compared with the control at the 16th and 48th weeks under the induction of NMBA. The Ki67, P21, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins also had cancer-related pathological characteristics. These results suggest that the esophageal precancerous lesion model was established under the combined effect of p53 gene deletion in esophageal epithelium and NMBA, which could provide a new esophageal precancerous lesion model to explore the mechanism of precancerous lesions.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 08:50:02 +000
  • Determinants of Implant Utilization among Married Women of Childbearing
           Age in Chencha Town, Southern Ethiopia, 2017: A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Globally, 53% of women in reproductive age group use modern methods of contraception, with less than one percent of which using implants. In Ethiopia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, short-term contraceptive methods have been more utilized than long-acting methods like implants. Despite their effectiveness, implants have been underutilized due to various reasons. There is a dearth of stronger evidences on those factors in the country in general and the study area in particular. Therefore, this study aimed to identify determinants of implant utilization among married women of reproductive age at Chencha town, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. A community-based case-control study design was conducted among 324 women of reproductive age, 90 cases (users of implants) and 234 controls (users of short-acting contraceptives) from July to August 2017. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview. The data were entered and coded using Epi info 3.5.1 and then exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 for cleaning and analysis. Descriptive analysis was done to quantify proportions, means, and standard deviations of variables. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were done to identify the determinants of implant utilization. A total of 324 married women of reproductive age group were interviewed with response rate of 98%. In this study, the major determinants for implant utilization were desire to have 3–4 children {AOR = 0.104, 95% CI (0.03, 0.4)}, husband disproval {AOR = 0.11, 95% CI (0.038, 0.314)}, joint decision {AOR = 3.11, 95% CI (1.02, 9.48)}, and decision by other persons {AOR = 0.065, 95% CI (0.012, 0.352)}. This study found out that desire to have more children, husband disapproval, joint decision making, and decision by other persons were determinants of implant utilization among the target women. Implant utilization would improve through strengthening existing interventions targeting women with high fertility desire, transformation of gender norms in household decisions, and counseling for informed decisions.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 08:50:01 +000
  • Comparison of Single-Level Open and Minimally Invasive Transforaminal
           Lumbar Interbody Fusions Presenting a Learning Curve

    • Abstract: Background. Comparison of single-level open and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (O-TLIF and MI-TLIF) of a single surgeon and presentation of his MI-TLIF learning curve in a retrospective observational cohort study. Methods. 27 MI-TLIF and 31 O-TLIF patients, performed between 03/01/2013 and 03/31/2018, were compared regarding the operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion frequency, postoperative length of stay (LOS), and adverse events. An overall comparison of pre- and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) results and Visual Analog Score (VAS) results of low back and leg pain was performed in the case of the two techniques. For a learning curve presentation, the MI-TLIF cases were compared and the optimal operative time was determined. Results. The gender ratio and age did not differ in the groups. Operative time showed no difference () between the MI-TLIF (161.2 ± 33.7 minutes) and O-TLIF groups (160 ± 33.6 minutes). Intraoperative blood loss was less () in the MI-TLIF group (288.9 ± 339.8 mL) than in the O-TLIF group (682.3 ± 465.4 mL) while the incidence of blood transfusion was similar (). The MI-TLIF group had shorter LOS (2.7 ± 1.1 days vs. 5 ± 2.7, ). The frequencies of the surgical site infections (SSI), durotomy, new motor, and sensory deficit were not significantly different (, 0.5, 0.29, 0.92). All the ODI, the VAS low back pain, and the VAS leg pain scores improved in both groups significantly (,, and in the MI-TLIF group and ,, and in the O-TLIF group). The comparison of the pre- and postoperative results of the ODI and VAS questionnaires of the two techniques showed no significant difference regarding the improvement of these scores (MI-TLIF versus O-TLIF pre- and postoperative ODI difference , VAS low back pain , and VAS leg pain ). Assessing the MI-TLIF learning curve, operative time was shortened by 63 minutes (). After the 14th MI-TLIF case, the surgical duration became relatively constant. Comparing the 14th and previous MI-TLIF cases to the later cases, LOS showed reduction by 1.03 days (), while the other parameters did not show significant changes. Conclusions. Similar operative time and postoperative quality of life improvement can be achieved by MI-TLIF procedure as with O-TLIF, and additionally LOS and blood loss can be reduced. When comparing parameters, MI-TLIF can be an alternative option for O-TLIF with a similar complication profile. The learning curve of MI-TLIF can be steep, although it depends on the circumstances.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • Determinants of Subjective Health, Happiness, and Life Satisfaction among
           Young Adults (18-24 Years) in Guyana

    • Abstract: . Persistent urban-rural disparity in subjective health and quality of life is a growing concern for healthcare systems across the world. In general, urban population performs better on most health indicators compared with their rural counterparts. However, research evidence on the urban-rural disparity on perceived health, happiness, and quality of life among the young adult population is scarce in South American countries like Guyana. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate whether subjective health, happiness, and quality of life differ according to place of residence among the young adult population in Guyana. Methods. Cross-sectional data on 2,434 men and women aging between 15 and 24 years were collected from the most recent Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in 2014. Outcome variables were perceived: satisfaction about health, life, and happiness, as well as life satisfaction before and after one year from the time of the survey. The urban-rural disparity in reporting satisfaction for these indicators was assessed by multivariate regression methods and by adjusting for relevant sociodemographic factors. Results. More than four-fifth of the respondents reported satisfaction with health (82.4%) and life (81.4%) and 77.9% reported being happy. A vast majority expressed improvement in life situation compared with a year ago (81.4%), and nearly all of the participants (95.4%) expect to have better life situation a year later. Multivariate analysis revealed an inverse association between rural residence and subjective health among men [OR = 0.518, 95%CI = 0.297, 0.901], and happiness [OR = 0.662, 95%CI = 0.381, 0.845] and life satisfaction [OR = 3.722, 95%CI = 1.502, 9.227] among women. Women having secondary [OR = 2.219, 95%CI = 1.209, 3.720] and higher [OR = 1.600, 95%CI = 1.041, 3.302] education also had higher odds of satisfaction with happiness. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate the existence of significant urban–rural disparities in perceived health and quality of life among the young adult population in Guyana, especially among women. National health promotion projects should therefore take proper policy actions to address the underlying factors contributing to the urban–rural gaps in order to establish a more equitable healthcare system. Further researches are necessary to explore the underlying causes behind such disparities.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 04:35:00 +000
  • The Value of Next-Generation Sequencing for Treatment in Non-Small Cell
           Lung Cancer Patients: The Observational, Real-World Evidence in China

    • Abstract: Background. Great success has been made in the targeting therapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nowadays, next generation sequencing (NGS) is acquirable and affordable in developed area of China. Using this feasible and accurate method of detecting therapeutic genes would help to select optimal treatments to extend patients survival. Here, we identified somatic mutations by NGS and analyzed the value for treatment of NSCLC in a real-world clinical setting. Methods. NGS was carried out on biopsy samples obtained from 66 advanced unresectable NSCLC patients who had not received any treatment. 23 patients received liquid biopsy after failure of first-line targeted treatment. The mutation profiling as well as associations between mutations and clinicopathological characters was analyzed. The study also assessed the values of NGS for choosing treatment options and predicting prognosis in NSCLC patients. Results. 152 somatic mutations were identified in 45 (68.18%) tissue samples. The most frequently mutated genes were EGFR (42.42%), TP53 (31.82%) and KRAS (15.15%). Specifically, the most frequent EGFR mutation subtypes were exon 19 deletion (60.71%) and L858R in exon 21 (46.43%). 83.33% mutated patients received targeted therapy. Among the adenocarcinoma cases, patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation have longer overall survival (OS) than the wide-type (36.0 months versus 19.0 months ). In addition, in the smoking group, patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation tended to have longer OS (38.0 months versus 16.5 months ). After the failure of first-line targeted therapy, 23 EGFR mutated patients received liquid biopsy, and the positive rate of T790M mutation in EGFR exon 20 was 47.83%. T790M positive patients have longer progression-free survival (PFS) than the others (15 months versus 9.5 months ).Conclusions. The observational study from real-world demonstrated that using NGS in routine clinical detection may be useful in guiding the therapy decisions and benefit more Chinese NSCLC patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 04:20:01 +000
  • Positive Balance Recovery in Ischemic Post-Stroke Patients with Delayed
           Access to Physical Therapy

    • Abstract: Background. Since patient’s prognosis after stroke depends on its severity, brain location, and type early intervention is strongly recommended. Objective. We aimed to determine whether it is still possible to improve balance in chronic patients, who suffered Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Strokes (ICHS) or Ischemic Strokes (IS), after later intervention. Methods. 34 patients who had unilateral ICHS or IS and involved the motor cortex or sub-cortical areas took part in the study. The patients underwent clinical balance evaluation (using the Berg Balance Scale) and posturographic assessment (with a capacitive pressure platform) at the time of admission to the physiotherapy and at the end of the study. The physiotherapy intervention consisted of 20 sessions of 60 minutes carried out 3 times per week, following standard protocols: stretching; passive range of motion (ROM); active assistive ROM; active ROM; resistance training; coordination and balance activities while sitting and standing, and Large-muscle activities such as walking, treadmill, stationary cycle, combined arm-leg ergometry, arm ergometry, seated stepper and circuit training. Results. In the posturographic assessment, the IS group had significant lower amplitude of center of pressure (COP) anteroposterior displacement, after physical therapy intervention. Also, the 95% confidence ellipse area of the COP and the total COP displacement showed significant interaction between the subtype of stroke and the assessment period, meaning the IS group improved their balance after treatment on the contrary of ICHS. The structural analysis of the COP reinforced these results. On the other hand, no difference was observed in the clinical scale, between the assessment periods, for any subtype of stroke. Conclusion. Only IS patients have shown balance improvements after conventional intervention. COP measurements are more sensible to assess balance in chronic patients than Berg Balance Scale.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 04:20:00 +000
  • Qualitative Research: Institutional Preparedness During Threats of
           Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    • Abstract: Background. As demonstrated during the global Ebola crisis of 2014–2016, healthcare institutions in high resource settings need support concerning preparedness during threats of infectious disease outbreaks. This study aimed to exploratively develop a standardized preparedness system to use during unfolding threats of severe infectious diseases. Methods. A qualitative three-step study among infectious disease prevention and control experts was performed. First, interviews () were conducted to identify which factors trigger preparedness activities during an unfolding threat. Second, these triggers informed the design of a phased preparedness system which was tested in a focus group discussion (). Here preparedness activities per phase and per healthcare institution were identified. Third, the preparedness system was completed and verified in individual interviews (). Interviews and the focus group were recorded, transcribed, and coded for emerging themes by two researchers independently. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Four preparedness phases were identified: preparedness phase green is a situation without the presence of the infectious disease threat that requires centralized care, anywhere in the world. Phase yellow is an outbreak in the world with some likelihood of imported cases. Phase orange is a realistic chance of an unexpected case within the country, or unrest developing among population or staff; phase red is cases admitted to hospitals in the country, potentially causing a shortage of resources. Specific preparedness activities included infection prevention, diagnostics, patient care, staff, and communication. Consensus was reached on the need for the development of a preparedness system and national coordination during threats. Conclusions. In this study, we developed a standardized system to support institutional preparedness during an increasing threat. Use of this system by both curative healthcare institutions and the (municipal) public health service, could help to effectively communicate and align preparedness activities during future threats of severe infectious diseases.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 16:35:00 +000
  • Dental and Skeletal Changes after Transpalatal Distraction

    • Abstract: Maxillary constriction is a common skeletal craniofacial abnormality, and transverse maxillary deficiency affects 30% of patients receiving orthodontic and surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to analyse craniofacial skeletal changes in adults with maxillary constriction after transpalatal distraction. The study group consisted of 36 patients (16 women) aged 17 to 42 years (M = 27.1; SD = 7.8) with a known complete skeletal crossbite and who underwent transpalatal distraction procedure. The measurements were obtained on diagnostic models, and cephalometric PA radiograms were obtained at time points, i.e., before treatment (T1) and after the completion of active distraction (T2). The analysis of diagnostic models involving the arch width measurement at different levels demonstrated a significant increase in L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, and L6 dimensions after transpalatal distraction. The largest width increase (9.5 mm) was observed for the L3 dimension (the intercanine distance). The analysis of frontal cephalograms displayed a significant increase in W1, W2, and W3 dimensions after transpalatal distraction. The largest width increase (4.9 mm) was observed for the W1 dimension at the level of the alveolar process of the maxilla. Transpalatal distraction is an effective treatment for transverse maxillary deficiency after the end of bone growth. The expansion observed on diagnostic models is close to a parallel segment shift mechanism, with a mild tendency towards a larger opening anteriorly. The maxillary segment rotation pattern analysed based on the frontal cephalograms is close to a hand fan unfolding with the rotation point at the frontonasal suture.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 15:20:02 +000
  • Statistical Experimental Design Optimization of Microbial Proteases
           Production under Co-Culture Conditions for Chitin Recovery from Speckled
           Shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros By-Product

    • Abstract: This study was designed with the aim to produce microbial proteases in presence of speckled shrimp by-product. For this reason, three strains belonging to Bacillus genus, namely, Aeribacillus pallidus VP3, Lysinibacillus fusiformis C250R, and Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis M1V were studied under co-culture procedure. A Taguchi L27 experimental design was applied to optimize the co-culture parameters. The experimental design was built with 9 factors (by-product powder concentration, the pH of the medium, the temperature, the sucrose concentration, the agitation speed, the inoculum sizes of VP3, M1V, and C250R strains, and the culture volume) at three different levels. The obtained results showed that a total protease activity of 8,182 U/mL could be achieved after 24 h of incubation in presence of 20 g/L shrimp by-product and 10 g/L sucrose, at an initial pH of 7, a 40°C temperature and absorbance, at 600 nm, of inoculum sizes of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.1 for VP3, M1V, and C250R strains, respectively. The agitation was set at 200 rpm, and the final volume was 25 mL. Taguchi’s design allowed the identification of temperature, the inoculum size for strain VP3, the inoculum size for strain M1V, and the final culture volume as the most influencing variables. A Box–Behnken design with 27 experiments was carried out for the optimization of these four selected factors. Following such design, the highest protease production reached was 11,300 U/mL. This yield was obtained in a final culture volume of 15 mL containing 20 g/L shrimp by-product powder and 10 g/L sucrose and inoculated with VP3, C250R, and M1V strains at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2, respectively. The flasks were incubated at 45°C for 24 h with shaking at 200 rpm. The efficiency of chitin extraction by co-cultivation was investigated under the latter conditions. The chitin yield from shells by-product was 16.7%. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis of the obtained chitin displayed characteristic profiles similar to that of the commercial α-chitin.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 15:20:01 +000
  • Monitoring the Outcome of Phonosurgery and Vocal Exercises with
           Established and New Diagnostic Tools

    • Abstract: Instrument-assisted measuring procedures expand the options within phoniatric diagnostics by quantifying the condition of the voice. The aim of this study was to examine objective treatment-associated changes of the recently developed vocal extent measure (VEM) and the established dysphonia severity index (DSI) in relation to subjective tools, i.e., self-evaluation via voice handicap index (VHI-12) and external evaluation via auditory-perceptual assessment of hoarseness (H). The findings for H (3 raters’ group assessment), VHI-12, DSI, and VEM in 152 patients of both sexes (age range 16–75 years), taken before and 3 months after phonosurgery or vocal exercises, were compared and correlated. Posttherapeutically, all of the recorded parameters improved (). The degree of H reduced on average by 0.5, the VHI-12 score sank by 5 points, while DSI and VEM rose by 1.5 and 19, respectively. The correlations of these changes were significant but showed gradual differences between H and VHI-12 (r = 0.3), H and DSI (r = −0.3), and H and VEM (r = −0.4). We conclude that all investigated parameters are adequate to verify therapeutic outcomes but represent different dimensions of the voice. However, changes in the degree of H as gold standard were best recognized with the new VEM.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 14:35:01 +000
  • Development and Validation of a 34-Gene Inherited Cancer Predisposition
           Panel Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    • Abstract: The use of genetic testing to identify individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes has been widely adopted by clinicians for management of inherited cancer risk. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 34-gene inherited cancer predisposition panel using targeted capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS). The panel incorporates genes underlying well-characterized cancer syndromes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2), along with more recently discovered genes associated with increased cancer risk. We performed a validation study on 133 unique specimens, including 33 with known variant status; known variants included single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertions and deletions (Indels), as well as copy-number variants (CNVs). The analytical validation study achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity for SNVs and small Indels, with 100% sensitivity and 98.0% specificity for CNVs using in-house developed CNV flagging algorithm. We employed a microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) method for all specimens that the algorithm flags as CNV-positive for confirmation. In combination with aCGH confirmation, CNV detection specificity improved to 100%. We additionally report results of the first 500 consecutive specimens submitted for clinical testing with the 34-gene panel, identifying 53 deleterious variants in 13 genes in 49 individuals. Half of the detected pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were found in BRCA1 (23%), BRCA2 (23%), or the Lynch syndrome-associated genes PMS2 (4%) and MLH1 (2%). The other half were detected in 9 other genes: MUTYH (17%), CHEK2 (15%), ATM (4%), PALB2 (4%), BARD1 (2%), CDH1 (2%), CDKN2A (2%), RAD51C (2%), and RET (2%). Our validation studies and initial clinical data demonstrate that a 34-gene inherited cancer predisposition panel can provide clinically significant information for cancer risk assessment.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 14:35:00 +000
  • An Anatomical Basis for the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Abductor
           Hallucis Muscle

    • Abstract: Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by pain and a limited range of joint motion caused by muscle contracture related to motor-end-plate dysfunction and the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). It is the most frequent cause of musculoskeletal pain, with a worldwide prevalence varying between 13.7% and 47%. Of the patients with myofascial pain syndrome, approximately 17% have pain in the medial hindfoot area. The abductor hallucis muscle is located in the medial, posterior region of the foot and is related to painful plantar syndromes. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of the medial plantar nerve and their anatomical relationship with MTrPs found in the literature. Thirty abductor hallucis muscles were dissected from 15 human cadavers (8 males and 7 females). The muscles were measured, and the distribution data of the medial plantar nerve branches in each quadrant were recorded. For statistical analysis, we used generalized estimation equations with a Poisson distribution and a log logarithm function followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons of the means. The data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. The level of significance was adjusted to 5% (). A high concentration of nerve branches was observed in the first quadrant (Q1) of the abductor hallucis muscle, which is the same area in which the MTrPs are described. The topography of the entry points of the branches of the medial plantar nerve to the abductor hallucis muscle correlates with the topography of the muscular trigger points. The anatomical structure of the MTrPs may be useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial disorders and provide a basis for surgical and clinical treatments.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 13:50:00 +000
  • Enhancement Effect of Microbubble-Enhanced Ultrasound in Microwave
           Ablation in Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumors

    • Abstract: Objectives. One reason for the high recurrence and metastatic rates of tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by microwave ablation (MWA) is the presence of residual foci in the tumor due to heat sink effect. Microbubble-enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) can noninvasively disrupt and block the tumor blood perfusion and has the potential to overcome the heat sink effect and enhance the therapeutic effect of MWA. The study aimed at evaluating the potential additional benefit of microbubble-enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by microwave ablation (MWA). Methods. In this study, a new strategy of combining MWA with MEUS for treating HCC was proposed. Twenty-four rabbits with VX2 tumors in livers were randomly divided into MEUS + MWA, MEUS alone, MWA alone, and blank control groups, respectively (n = 6). In the MEUS group, the tumors were directly exposed to therapeutic ultrasound for 5 min with a concurrent intravenous injection of microbubbles (0.1 ml/kg diluted into 5 ml saline). In the MWA group, the tumors were treated by MWA for 1 min. In the MEUS + MWA group, tumors were ablated by MWA for 1 min after ultrasound cavitation enhanced by microbubbles as in the MEUS group. In the blank control group, the tumors received probe sham and intravenous saline. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed before treatment and immediately after treatment to display the size, shape, and contour of the tumors. Throughout the treatment process, the local temperature of the treatment area was detected by a temperature needle punctured into the tumor. The blood samples of animals were obtained after treatment for evaluating the liver function. Tumor cell necrosis and apoptotic rates were observed after treatment by histological examination. Results. CEUS showed that although perfusion defects appeared in all the treatment groups, especially in the MEUS + MWA group, there was no significant difference between the two groups on the volumes of perfusion defects, which were 1.78 ± 0.31 (cm3) in the MWA group and 1.84 ± 0.20 (cm3) in the combined group . The time to reach the peak temperature of the treatment area was 21.7 ± 5.0 (s) in the MWA group and 10.3 ± 5.0 (s) in the MEUS + MWA group . The peak temperature (PT) of the two groups were 100.9 ± 5.0 (°C) and 134.1 ± 6.0 (°C), respectively . This showed that the local temperature of the treatment area was sharply increased to a higher PT using MEUS + MWA. Histological examination results showed that the apoptosis rate and necrosis rate in the MEUS + MWA group were 23.6 ± 4.6% and 60.5 ± 9.7%, respectively, which are significantly higher than those in the MWA group (17.9 ± 4.5% and 37.6 ± 3.4%) and those in the MEUS group (18.2 ± 1.0% and 37.6 ± 3.4%). They are all higher than those in the control group (3.85 ± 1.72% and 5.3 ± 1.1%). Hematological examination showed no significant differences between treatment groups on liver function. Conclusions. These results suggested MEUS treatment alone may significantly reduce tumor blood perfusion and led to a sharp rise in the local temperature of the treatment area to a higher PT using MEUS + MWA with higher rates of necrosis and apoptosis of cancer cells without severe liver function damage, which might be a safe strategy for treating HCC.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 13:35:00 +000
  • Prognostic Value of Circular RNA ciRS-7 in Various Cancers: A
           PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis. As a member of circRNAs, ciRS-7 is thought to be a negative prognostic indicator in multiple types of cancer. The present study aimed to comprehensively explore the value of ciRS-7 in tumor malignancy. Materials and Methods. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library was carried out to examine the related studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated from the available publications by STATA 12.0. Subgroup analysis, publication bias, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression were conducted. Results. This meta-analysis included 1,714 patients from 13 cohorts. The results suggested that high ciRS-7 expression was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.50–3.15, ) in various cancers. Stratified analyses indicated that elevated levels of ciRS-7 appeared to be a powerful prognostic biomarker for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.07–6.07, ), colorectal cancer (CRC) (HR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.34–2.84, ), and gastric cancer (GC) (HR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.48–3.64, ). A similar effect was also observed in subgroup of sample size, analysis method, and cutoff value, except for ethnicity. The increased ciRS-7 expression was associated with a higher tumor stage (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.69–3.13, ).Conclusions. High expression of ciRS-7 has a significant correlation with the high stage in various cancers, and ciRS-7 is intimately associated with an adverse OS in numerous cancers. Thus, ciRS-7 may act as a potential biomarker for the development of malignancies.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 13:05:00 +000
  • Screening and Functional Analysis of Hub MicroRNAs Related to Tumor
           Development in Colon Cancer

    • Abstract: Various microRNAs (miRNAs) are of importance in the development of colon cancer, but most of the mechanisms of the miRNAs are still unclear. In order to clarify the hub miRNAs and their roles in colon cancer development, GSE98406 was used to screen hub miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis. 46 DE-miRNAs (14 were upregulated and 32 were downregulated) and 1738 target genes of DE-miRNAs were ascertained. miRNAs-gene-networks and miRNAs-GO-networks were built to get more knowledge about the function of candidate miRNAs. After validation, three miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-182-5p and miR-200a-3p) were recognized to be hub miRNAs associated with the progression of colon cancer. More importantly, the hub miRNAs and the putative targets genes might be new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for colon cancer in the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 11:05:01 +000
  • Psoriasis-Like Inflammation Induced Renal Dysfunction through the
           TLR/NF-κB Signal Pathway

    • Abstract: Pathological studies have shown an association between psoriasis and renal injury (RI), but the mechanism between RI and psoriasis was still unclear. This paper was designed to investigate the relationship and mechanism between psoriasis-like inflammation and renal injury in BALB/C mice. Mice were topically smeared imiquimod followed by various analyses in skin lesions, urine protein, kidney/serum inflammatory cytokines, kidney function, podocyte membrane proteins, and toll-like receptors/nuclear factor kappa-b (TLR/NF-κB) pathway-associated proteins. Meanwhile, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dexamethasone (DEX) were intraperitoneally injected to promote and inhibit inflammation accompanied by imiquimod to elaborate the relevance between inflammatory levels and RI. In the model group, the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores of scaly and erythema obviously increased (), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen significantly increased (), the positive area of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining in kidney increased (), malondialdehyde significantly increased with superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased (), 24-hour urine protein increased and the expressions of podocin and CD2 associate protein (CD2AP) decreased (), and kidney/serum inflammatory factors (IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-22) and TLR/NF-κB-related expression (TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κBp65) all increased (). The RI was aggravated with the TLR/NF-κB related expression being upregulated by LPS (). On the contrary, the RI was alleviated by DEX (). Our data showed that psoriasis-like inflammation damaged the renal function via the TLR/NF-κB signal pathway. Inhibiting TLR/NF-κB-related protein expression may be effective for the treatment of RI caused by psoriasis.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 13:20:00 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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