BioMed Research International
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2314-6133 - ISSN (Online) 2314-6141
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Improving the Robustness of Real-Time Myoelectric Pattern Recognition
against Arm Position Changes in Transradial Amputees
Abstract: Previous studies have showed that arm position variations would significantly degrade the classification performance of myoelectric pattern-recognition-based prosthetic control, and the cascade classifier (CC) and multiposition classifier (MPC) have been proposed to minimize such degradation in offline scenarios. However, it remains unknown whether these proposed approaches could also perform well in the clinical use of a multifunctional prosthesis control. In this study, the online effect of arm position variation on motion identification was evaluated by using a motion-test environment (MTE) developed to mimic the real-time control of myoelectric prostheses. The performance of different classifier configurations in reducing the impact of arm position variation was investigated using four real-time metrics based on dataset obtained from transradial amputees. The results of this study showed that, compared to the commonly used motion classification method, the CC and MPC configurations improved the real-time performance across seven classes of movements in five different arm positions (8.7% and 12.7% increments of motion completion rate, resp.). The results also indicated that high offline classification accuracy might not ensure good real-time performance under variable arm positions, which necessitated the investigation of the real-time control performance to gain proper insight on the clinical implementation of EMG-pattern-recognition-based controllers for limb amputees.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 09:30:12 +000
- The Effect of L-Carnitine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Supplementation on the
Quality of Cryopreserved Chicken Semen
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC), hypotaurine (HT), and taurine (T) on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen. Pooled semen samples were divided into seven aliquots (control, 1 mM LC, 5 mM LC, 1 mM HT, 10 mM HT, 1 mM T, and 10 mM T) and subjected to cryopreservation. Postthaw sperm motility was determined by IVOS system and sperm characteristics were assessed with fluorochromes and flow cytometry. The highest sperm motility and the highest percentage of viable sperm were in the HT1 group ( and ) following cryopreservation. After thawing, we observed a higher percentage of sperm without apoptosis and membrane reorganization changes in the LC1 and T1 group when compared to the control (). There was a higher percentage of live sperm without lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all treatments (; ), when compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial potential significantly increased with LC1, T1, and T10 (). Supplementation of the diluent with LC1, LC5, and T1 significantly () reduced DNA susceptibility to fragmentation, compared to the control and HT1 groups. These results indicate that the addition of examined antioxidants improves the quality of cryopreserved chicken semen.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 08:46:45 +000
- Online Detection of Peroxidase Using 3D Printing, Active Magnetic Mixing,
and Spectra Analysis
Abstract: A new method for online detection of peroxidase (POD) using 3D printing, active magnetic mixing, fluidic control, and optical detection was developed and demonstrated in this study. The proposed POD detection system consisted of a 3D printing and active magnetic mixing based fluidic chip for online catalytic reaction, an optical detector with a fluidic flow cell for quantitative determination of the final catalysate, and a single-chip microcontroller based controller for automatic control of two rotating magnetic fields and four precise peristaltic pumps. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as research model and a linear relationship between the absorbance at the characteristic wavelength of 450 nm and the concentration of HRP of 1/4–1/128 μg mL−1 was obtained as = + 1.425 ( = 0.976). For the HRP spiked pork tests, the recoveries of HRP ranged from 93.5% to 110.4%, indicating that this proposed system was capable of detecting HRP in real samples. It has the potential to be extended for online detection of the activity of other enzymes and integration with ELISA method for biological and chemical analysis.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 08:14:09 +000
- Novel Treponema pallidum Recombinant Antigens for Syphilis Diagnostics:
Current Status and Future Prospects
Abstract: The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise. Current review revealed novel recombinant antigens: surface-exposed proteins, adhesins, and periplasmic and flagellar proteins, which are promising candidates for the improved syphilis serological diagnostics. The opportunities and limitations of diagnostic usage of these antigens are discussed and the criteria for selection of optimal antigens panel summarized.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Identification of “BRAF-Positive” Cases Based on Whole-Slide
Abstract: A key requirement for precision medicine is the accurate identification of patients that would respond to a specific treatment or those that represent a high-risk group, and a plethora of molecular biomarkers have been proposed for this purpose during the last decade. Their application in clinical settings, however, is not always straightforward due to relatively high costs of some tests, limited availability of the biological material and time, and procedural constraints. Hence, there is an increasing interest in constructing tissue-based surrogate biomarkers that could be applied with minimal overhead directly to histopathology images and which could be used for guiding the selection of eventual further molecular tests. In the context of colorectal cancer, we present a method for constructing a surrogate biomarker that is able to predict with high accuracy whether a sample belongs to the “BRAF-positive” group, a high-risk group comprising V600E BRAF mutants and BRAF-mutant-like tumors. Our model is trained to mimic the predictions of a 64-gene signature, the current definition of BRAF-positive group, thus effectively identifying histopathology image features that can be linked to a molecular score. Since the only required input is the routine histopathology image, the model can easily be integrated in the diagnostic workflow.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Chondrocyte-Specific Knockout of TSC-1 Leads to Congenital Spinal
Deformity in Mice
Abstract: Congenital spinal deformity is the most severe clinical orthopedic issue worldwide. Among all the pathological processes of congenital spinal deformity, the imbalance of endochondral ossification is considered to be the most important developmental cause of spinal dysplasia. We established chondrocyte-specific TSC-1 knockout (KO) mice to overactivate the energy metabolic component, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and measured the spinal development by general, imaging, histological, and Western-blot assessments. In addition to skeletal dysplasia, the KO mice displayed severe congenital spinal deformity and significant intervertebral disc changes. This study suggests that, in the process of endochondral ossification, excessive activation of mTORC1 signaling in chondrocytes induces obvious spinal deformity, and the chondrocytes may be the cell type responsible for congenital spinal deformity.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Relationship between HLA-DQ Gene Polymorphism and Hepatitis B Virus
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the predominant risk factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The association between HBV infection and human leukocyte antigen- (HLA-) DQ polymorphism (rs2856718 and rs7453920) has been demonstrated in other studies; however, the results were controversial or inconclusive. Therefore, to derive a more precise estimation of the association, a meta-analysis was performed. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association between HLA-DQ polymorphism (rs2856718 and rs7453920) and HBV infection risk. A total of 11 articles were used to evaluate the effect of the two polymorphisms on risk of HBV infection. The pooled data showed that HLA-DQ rs2856718-G polymorphism showed protection against HBV infection, and rs2856718-A was a risk factor for chronic HBV infection. The pooled risk estimates indicated that HLA-DQ rs7453920-A polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of HBV infection, and rs7453920-G serves as a risk factor in HBV infection. However, these stratified analyses were lacking credibility due to the limitation of correlational study numbers; further investigation on a large population and different ethnicities is warranted.
PubDate: Sun, 23 Apr 2017 09:04:31 +000
- Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Bluetongue Virus Infection in Tibetan
Sheep and Yaks in Tibetan Plateau, China
Abstract: Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is an arthropod-borne viral disease in ruminants. However, information about BTV infection in yaks in China is limited. Moreover, no such data concerning BTV in Tibetan sheep is available. Therefore, 3771 serum samples were collected from 2187 Tibetan sheep and 1584 yaks between April 2013 and March 2014 from Tibetan Plateau, western China, and tested for BTV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall seroprevalence of BTV was 17.34% (654/3771), with 20.3% (443/2187) in Tibetan sheep and 13.3% (211/1584) in yaks. In the Tibetan sheep group, the seroprevalence of BTV in Luqu, Maqu, Tianzhu, and Nyingchi Prefecture was 20.3%, 20.8%, 20.5%, and 19.1%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BTV in different season groups varied from 16.5% to 23.4%. In the yak group, BTV seroprevalence was 12.6%, 15.5%, and 11.0% in Tianzhu, Maqu, and Luqu counties, respectively. The seroprevalence in different seasons was 12.6%, 15.5%, 15.4%, and 9.0% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The season was the major risk factor concerning BTV infection in yaks (). The date of the BTV seroprevalence in Tibetan sheep and yaks provides baseline information for controlling BT in ruminants in western China.
PubDate: Sun, 23 Apr 2017 06:42:59 +000
- Expression of YAP/TAZ in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors and Its Possible
Association with Proliferative Behavior
Abstract: The aim of this study is to clarify whether YAP/TAZ is involved in the pathogenesis and proliferative growth of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The expression levels of YAP/TAZ and downstream proteins and genes in normal oral mucosa (OM) and KCOT were determined and compared by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the expression of YAP/TAZ and downstream proteins (Cyr61, CTGF) was significantly upregulated in KCOT with upregulation of Ki-67 compared to OM. Importantly, the mRNA levels of transcription factors (TEAD1, TEAD4, and RUNX2) and cell cycle related genes (CDK2, PCNA), which interact with the transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ, are also upregulated in the KCOT. In addition, the results from Spearman rank correlation test revealed the close relationship between YAP/TAZ and Ki-67, which was further evidenced by double-labelling immunofluorescence that revealed a synchronous distribution for YAP/TAZ with Ki-67 in KCOT samples. All the data suggested YAP/TAZ might be involved in the proliferative behavior of KCOT.
PubDate: Sun, 23 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Inhibitory Effect of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Artemisia
iwayomogi on Polyol Pathway and Simultaneous Quantification of Major
Abstract: Blocking the polyol pathway plays an important role preventing diabetic complications. Therefore, aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation has significant effect on diabetic complications. Artemisia iwayomogi has long been used as treatment of various diseases in Korea. However, no literatures have reported on AR and AGEs formation inhibitory activities of A. iwayomogi. For these reasons, we aimed to assess that A. iwayomogi had potential as anti-diabetic complications agents. We led to isolation of two coumarins (1 and 2), nine flavonoids (3–11), five caffeoylquinic acids (12–16), three diterpene glycosides (17–19), and one phenolic compound (20) from A. iwayomogi. Among them, hispidulin (4), 6-methoxytricin (6), arteanoflavone (7), quercetin-3-gentiobioside (10), 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (13), and suavioside A (18) were first reported on the isolation from A. iwayomogi. Not only two coumarins (1 and 2), nine flavonoids (3–11), and five caffeoylquinic acids (12–16) but also extracts showed significant inhibitor on AR and AGEs formation activities. We analyzed contents of major bioactive compounds in Korea’s various regions of A. iwayomogi. Overall, we selected Yangyang, Gangwon-do, from June, which contained the highest amounts of bioactive compounds, as suitable areas for cultivating A. iwayomogi as preventive or therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetic complications.
PubDate: Sun, 23 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Positive Correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ Levels in Rhesus Monkeys
(Macaca mulatta) with Either Naturally Acquired or Experimental Infection
of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Abstract: Numerous studies identify that IP-10 and IFN-γ are involved in leucocyte migration and activation and regarded as promising surrogate biomarkers in human and bovine tuberculosis infection, but there is lack of evidence for IP-10 in nonhuman primates. In this study, we directly determined IP-10 and IFN-γ levels in plasma from 30 healthy monkeys, 30 monkeys with naturally acquired tuberculosis, 4 monkeys experimentally infected with tuberculosis, and PPD stimulated whole blood of 14 monkeys with naturally acquired tuberculosis by ELISA. Higher plasma levels of IP-10 and IFN-γ were observed in natural tuberculosis monkeys than in healthy controls. The dynamic changes of plasma IP-10 and IFN-γ in experimental infections showed consistent representation of a transient increase during the infection period. After PPD stimulation, release of IP-10 and IFN-γ is significantly induced in natural tuberculosis monkeys, but the stimulation index of IP-10 was significantly lower than IFN-γ. Further analysis showed that positive correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ existed in healthy and tuberculosis monkeys. Our findings support plasma IP-10 and IFN-γ as biomarkers for monitoring ongoing inflammation of nonhuman primate tuberculosis, and IFN-γ is a more valuable diagnostic biomarker.
PubDate: Thu, 20 Apr 2017 07:47:36 +000
- Drug Susceptibility of 33 Reference Strains of Slowly Growing Mycobacteria
to 19 Antimicrobial Agents
Abstract: Objectives. Slowly growing mycobacteria (SGM) are prevalent worldwide and cause an extensive spectrum of diseases. Methods. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 33 reference strains of SGM to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using a modified microdilution method. Results. Cefmetazole (32/33) and azithromycin (32/33) exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, and dapsone (9/33) exhibited the lowest activity against the tested strains. Cefoxitin (30/33), cefoperazone (28/33), and cefepime (28/33) were effective against a high proportion of strains, and macrolides were also highly effective as well as offering the benefit of convenient oral administration to patients. Linezolid (27/33), meropenem (26/33), sulfamethoxazole (26/33), and tigecycline (25/33) showed the highest activity; clofazimine (20/33) and doxycycline (18/33) showed intermediate activity; and rifapentine (13/33), rifabutin (13/33), and minocycline (11/33) showed low antimicrobial activity, closely followed by thioacetazone (10/33) and pasiniazid (10/33), against the tested organisms. According to their susceptibility profiles, the slowly growing species Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium simiae were the least susceptible to the tested drugs, whereas Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium asiaticum, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium szulgai, Mycobacterium branderi, and Mycobacterium holsaticum were the most susceptible. Conclusions. In summary, cephalosporins and macrolides, particularly cefmetazole, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, showed good antimicrobial activity against the reference strains of SGM.
PubDate: Thu, 20 Apr 2017 07:27:47 +000
- A Frailty Index from Next-of-Kin Data: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the
Mexican Health and Aging Study
Abstract: Objectives. To construct a frailty index from next-of-kin information of the last year of life of community-dwelling 50 years old or older adults and test its association with health services utilization. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis from next-of-kin data available from the last wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Measurements. Along with descriptive statistics, the frailty index (FI) was tested in regression models to assess its association with adverse outcomes previous to death: number of hospitalized days in the previous year and number of visits to a physician in the previous year, in unadjusted and adjusted models. Results. From a total of 2,649 individuals the mean of age was 74.8 (±11.4) and 56.3% (n = 1,183) were women. The mean of the FI was of 0.279 (±SD 0.131, R = 0.0–0.738) and distribution was biased to the right. There was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the FI and number of hospitalized days (β = 45.7, 95% CI 36.1–55.4, p < 0.001) and for the number of visits to a physician (β = 25.93, 95% CI 19.27–32.6, p < 0.001) both models adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion. The FI constructed with next-of-kin data showed similar characteristics to similar indexes of older adults. It was independently associated with health care use.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 09:44:52 +000
- Postneonatal Mortality and Liver Changes in Cloned Pigs Associated with
Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor I-Fc and Human Heme Oxygenase-1
Abstract: Soluble human tumor necrosis factor (shTNFRI-Fc) and human heme oxygenase 1 (hHO-1) are key regulators for protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury for xenotransplantation. Somatic cells with more than 10 copy numbers of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 were employed in somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cloned pigs, thereby resulting in seven cloned piglets. However, produced piglets were all dead within 24 hours after birth. Obviously, postnatal death with liver apoptosis was reported in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets. In liver, the transcript levels of ferritin heavy chain, light chain, transferrin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly highly expressed compared to those of lower copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets (). Also, H2O2 contents were increased, and superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets (). These results indicate that TNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 overexpression may apparently induce free iron in the liver and exert oxidative stress by enhancing reactive oxygen species production and block normal postneonatal liver metabolism.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 09:11:22 +000
- Therapeutic Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicinal Herbs on Depression
Abstract: Background. Depression is a recurrent, common, and potentially life-threatening psychiatric disease related to multiple assignable causes. Although conventional antidepressant therapy can help relieve symptoms of depression and prevent relapse of the illness, complementary therapies are required due to disadvantage of the current therapy such as adverse effects. Moreover, a number of studies have researched adjunctive therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for depression patients. Purpose. One potential complementary method with conventional antidepressants involves the use of medicinal herbs and phytochemicals that provide therapeutic benefits. Studies have revealed beneficial effects of medical herbs and phytochemicals on depression and their central nervous system mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the therapeutic benefits of phytochemicals and medicinal herbs against depression and describe their detailed mechanisms. Sections. There are two sections, phytochemicals against depression and medical herbs against depression, in this review. Conclusion. Use of phytomedicine may be an alternative option for the treatment of depression in case conventional drugs are not applicable due to their side effects, low effectiveness, or inaccessibility. However, the efficacy and safety of these phytomedicine treatments for depression have to be supported by clinical studies.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 08:18:32 +000
- Learning Curve and Clinical Outcomes of Performing Surgery with the
InterTan Intramedullary Nail in Treating Femoral Intertrochanteric
Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the learning curve of performing surgery with the InterTan intramedullary nail in treating femoral intertrochanteric fractures, to provide valuable information and experience for surgeons who decide to learn a new procedure. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed data from 53 patients who underwent surgery using an InterTan intramedullary nail at our hospital between July 2012 and September 2015. The negative exponential curve-fit regression analysis was used to evaluate the learning curve. According to 90% learning milestone, patients were divided into two group, and the outcomes were compared. Results. The mean operative time was 69.28 (95% CI 64.57 to 74.00) minutes; with the accumulation of surgical experience, the operation time was gradually decreased. 90% of the potential improvement was expected after 18 cases. In terms of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, and Harris hip score significant differences were found between two groups (, , , and , resp.). Partial weight bearing time, fracture union time, tip apex distance, and the number of blood transfusions and complications were similar between two groups (). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the learning curve of performing surgery with the InterTan intramedullary nail is acceptable and 90% of the expert’s proficiency level is achieved at around 18 cases.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 07:15:17 +000
- Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Vascular Milieu and the
Potential Therapeutic Role of Exercise
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a model of accelerated aging. More specifically, CKD leads to reduced physical functioning and increased frailty, increased vascular dysfunction, vascular calcification and arterial stiffness, high levels of systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress, as well as increased cognitive impairment. Increasing evidence suggests that the cognitive impairment associated with CKD may be related to cerebral small vessel disease and overall impairment in white matter integrity. The triad of poor physical function, vascular dysfunction, and cognitive impairment places patients living with CKD at an increased risk for loss of independence, poor health-related quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this review is to discuss the available evidence of cerebrovascular-renal axis and its interconnection with early and accelerated cognitive impairment in patients with CKD and the plausible role of exercise as a therapeutic modality. Understanding the cerebrovascular-renal axis pathophysiological link and its interconnection with physical function is important for clinicians in order to minimize the risk of loss of independence and improve quality of life in patients with CKD.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 07:05:16 +000
- Collagen External Scaffolds Mitigate Intimal Hyperplasia and Improve
Remodeling of Vein Grafts in a Rabbit Arteriovenous Graft Model
Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study was to test the effects of collagen external scaffold (CES) in intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts and explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods. Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into no-graft group, graft group, and CES group. The rabbit arteriovenous graft model was established. In CES group, the vein graft was wrapped around with CES. The hemodynamic parameters of vein grafts were measured intraoperatively and 4 weeks after operation by ultrasonic examination. Histological characteristics of vein grafts were also evaluated 4 weeks later. The mRNA and protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), active cleaved-caspase-3 (ClvCasp-3), and smooth muscle 22 alpha (SM22α) were measured 4 weeks later by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Results. CES significantly improved the hemodynamic stability of vein grafts, with higher blood velocity and blood flow. Similarly, CES also markedly mitigated intimal hyperplasia and inhibited dilatation of vein grafts. In CES group, the upexpression of PCNA and ClvCasp-3 and the downexpression of SM22α were inhibited. Conclusion. CES exerts beneficial effects in mitigating intimal hyperplasia and improving remodeling of autogenous vein grafts, which may be associated with reducing the proliferation and apoptosis and preserving the phenotype of VSMCs.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 06:20:21 +000
- Determination of the Use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium
freudenreichii Application on Fermentation Profile and Chemical
Composition of Corn Silage
Abstract: Corn was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii either independently or as a mixture at ensiling, in order to determine the effect of bacterial additives on corn silage quality. Grain corn was harvested at 32–37% of dry matter and ensiled in a 4 L laboratory silo. Forage was treated as follows: bacterial types: B0 (without bacteria-control), B1 (L. plantarum), B2 (P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii), and B3 (combination of L. plantarum and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii). Each 2 kg of chopped forage was treated with 10 mL of bacterial culture and allowed to ferment for 27 days. The first experiment determined the most suitable wavelength for detection of bacteria (490 nm and 419 nm for B1 and B2, resp.) and the preferable inoculation size (1 × 105 cfu/g). The second experiment analysed the effect of B1 and B2 applied singly or as a mixture on the fermentation characteristics and quality of corn silage. L. plantarum alone increased crude protein (CP) and reduced pH rapidly. In a mixture with P. freudenreichii, the final pH was the lowest compared to other treatments. As a mixture, inclusion of bacteria resulted in silage with lower digestibility than control. Corn silage treated with L. plantarum or P. freudenreichii either alone or mixed together produced desirable silage properties; however, this was not significantly better than untreated silage.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Vitamin D Modulates Hematological Parameters and Cell Migration into
Peritoneal and Pulmonary Cavities in Alloxan-Diabetic Mice
Abstract: Background/Aims. The effects of cholecalciferol supplementation on the course of diabetes in humans and animals need to be better understood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of short-term cholecalciferol supplementation on biochemical and hematological parameters in mice. Methods. Male diabetic (alloxan, 60 mg/kg i.v., 10 days) and nondiabetic mice were supplemented with cholecalciferol for seven days. The following parameters were determined: serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, red blood cell count, white blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit, hemoglobin, differential cell counts of peritoneal lavage (PeL), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and morphological analysis of lung, kidney, and liver tissues. Results. Relative to controls, cholecalciferol supplementation increased serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell counts and decreased leukocyte cell counts of PeL and BAL fluids in diabetic mice. Diabetic mice that were not treated with cholecalciferol had lower serum calcium and albumin levels and hemoglobin, WBC, and mononuclear blood cell counts and higher serum creatinine and urea levels than controls. Conclusion. Our results suggest that cholecalciferol supplementation improves the hematological parameters and reduces leukocyte migration into the PeL and BAL lavage of diabetic mice.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Novel -72 (T→A) β-Promoter Mutation Causing Slightly Elevated HbA2 in
a Vietnamese Heterozygote
Abstract: We report a novel β+-thalassemia mutation found in a Vietnamese family. The molecular defect T→A lies at -72 of the β-globin gene promoter, within the conserved CCAAT box. The index case was a 5-year-old child having red blood cells indices close to normal and slightly increased level of HbA2 (3.96%). The expression of the mutated β allele was inferred by luciferase reporter assay in K562 cells. The β -72 determinant is the eighth β-thalassemic mutation identified in Vietnam and it was not previously reported in any population. The absence of homozygous or compound heterozygous states did not allow us to precisely predict either its clinical impact or its relevance in management programs. Our results further underline the importance of identifying and characterizing new or rare β+-thalassemic alleles in carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Association between NLPR1, NLPR3, and P2X7R Gene Polymorphisms with
Abstract: Objectives. Clinical and experimental evidence has clarified that the inflammatory processes within the brain play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of seizures and epilepsy. Inflammasomes and P2X7 purinergic receptor (P2X7R) are important mediators during the inflammatory process. Therefore, we investigated the possible association between partial seizures and inflammasomes NLPR1, NLRP3, and P2X7R gene polymorphisms in the present study. Method. A total of 163 patients and 201 health controls were enrolled in this study and polymorphisms of NLPR1, NLRP3, and P2X7R genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction- (PCR-) ligase detection reaction method. Result. The frequency of rs878329 (G>C) genotype with C (CG + CC) was significantly lower among patients with partial seizures relative to controls (OR = 2.033, 95% CI = 1.290–3.204, for GC + CC versus GG). Intriguingly, we found that the significant difference of rs878329 (G>C) genotype and allele frequency only existed among males (OR = 2.542, 95% CI = 1.344–4.810, for GC + CC versus GG), while there was no statistically significant difference among females. However, no significant results were presented for the genotype distributions of rs8079034, rs4612666, rs10754558, rs2027432, rs3751143, and rs208294 polymorphisms between patients and controls. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated the potentially significant role of NLRP1 rs878329 (G>C) in developing susceptibility to the partial seizures in a Chinese Han population.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- EEG-Based Computer Aided Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using
Wavelet, Entropy, and ANN
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder with core impairments in the social relationships, communication, imagination, or flexibility of thought and restricted repertoire of activity and interest. In this work, a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of autism based on electroencephalography (EEG) signal analysis is investigated. The proposed method is based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT), entropy (En), and artificial neural network (ANN). DWT is used to decompose EEG signals into approximation and details coefficients to obtain EEG subbands. The feature vector is constructed by computing Shannon entropy values from each EEG subband. ANN classifies the corresponding EEG signal into normal or autistic based on the extracted features. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for assisting autism diagnosis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve metric is used to quantify the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method obtained promising results tested using real dataset provided by King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 09:49:46 +000
- Glycyrrhizin Protects Rats from Sepsis by Blocking HMGB1 Signaling
Abstract: Background. HMGB1 acts as an important inflammatory mediator and is a potential therapeutic target for sepsis. Glycyrrhizin (GL), a natural triterpene glycoside derived from licorice, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 activity. The aim of this study is to explore how GL affects the HMGB1 signaling in sepsis. Methods. We used a CLP model of sepsis and in vitro LPS or HMGB1-treated NR8383 cells to examine the effects of GL on expression of HMGB1 and proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we explored the effect of GL on interactions between HMGB1 and RAGE or TLR4 and the activations of NF-κB and MAPKs. Results. GL significantly decreased mortality and reduced serum levels of HMGB1 in vivo. GL also attenuated the release and expression of HMGB1 and proinflammatory cytokines. Direct stimulation by HMGB1 elevated the release of proinflammatory cytokines faster than LPS did and it was also inhibited by GL. Furthermore, GL blocked the interaction of HMGB1 with RAGE and TLR4 and suppressed the downstream MAPKs/NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion. GL may protect rats against sepsis by blocking the interaction of HMGB1 with cell surface receptors and HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 09:17:34 +000
- Two-Step Optimization for Spatial Accessibility Improvement: A Case Study
of Health Care Planning in Rural China
Abstract: A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed “two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI).” The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 09:07:43 +000
- Quantitative Aortic Distensibility Measurement Using CT in Patients with
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Reproducibility and Clinical Relevance
Abstract: Purpose. To investigate the reproducibility of aortic distensibility () measurement using CT and assess its clinical relevance in patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. 54 patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm were studied to determine their distensibility by using 64-MDCT. Aortic cross-sectional area changes were determined at two positions of the aorta, immediately below the lowest renal artery (level 1.) and at the level of its maximal diameter (level 2.) by semiautomatic segmentation. Measurement reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analyses. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to assess linear associations between aortic and anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Results. A mean distensibility of and was found. ICC proved excellent consistency between readers over two locations: 0.92 for intraobserver and 0.89 for interobserver difference in level 1. and 0.85 and 0.79 in level 2. Multivariate analysis of all these variables showed sac distensibility to be independently related () to BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and AAA diameter. Conclusions. Aortic distensibility measurement in patients with AAA demonstrated high inter- and intraobserver agreement and may be valuable when choosing the optimal dimensions graft for AAA before endovascular aneurysm repair.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 07:33:39 +000
- Weekday of Surgery Affects Postoperative Complications and Long-Term
Survival of Chinese Gastric Cancer Patients after Curative Gastrectomy
Abstract: Many factors have been reported to affect the long-term survival of gastric carcinoma patients after gastrectomy; the present study took the first attempt to find out the potential role of weekday carried out surgery in the postoperative prognosis of gastric cancer patients. 463 gastric cancer patients have been followed up successfully. Pearson test was used for univariate analyses. Survival curves were constructed by using Kaplan-Meier method and evaluated by using the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to find out the risk factors, and subgroup analysis was conducted to rule out confounding factors. We found that the patients who underwent gastrectomy on the later weekday (Wednesday–Friday) more easily suffered from a higher postoperative morbidity. Weekday of surgery was one of the independent indicators for the prognosis of patients after gastric cancer surgery. However, the role of weekday of surgery was significantly weakened in the complications group. In conclusion, surgery performed in the later weekday was more likely to lead to increased postoperative complications and an unfavorable role in prognosis of Chinese gastric cancer patients after curative gastrectomy.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 06:45:49 +000
- Negative Correlation between miR-200c and Decorin Plays an Important Role
in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Carcinoma
Abstract: Aim. To demonstrate the regulatory role of miRNA in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and reveal the transcript markers that may be associated with CRC clinical outcomes. Method. Herein, we analyzed both mRNA and miRNA gene expression profiles of 255 CRC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project to reveal the regulatory association between miRNA and mRNA. Also, the potential role of gene coexpression network in CRC has been explored. Results. The negative correlation between miR-200c and DCN (Decorin) was calculated in CRC, indicating that DCN could be a potential target of miR-200c. Clinical features indicated that colon polyp history and overall survival were significantly related to the expression level of miR-200c. Three coexpression networks have been constructed, and genes involved in the networks are related to cell cycle, NOTCH, and mTOR signaling pathways. Conclusion. Our result provides a new insight into cancer related mRNA coexpression network in CRC research.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 07:44:41 +000
- Shin’iseihaito (Xinyiqingfeitang) Suppresses the Biofilm Formation of
Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro
Abstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is the important pathogen that causes otolaryngeal diseases such as sinusitis. S. pneumoniae frequently forms the biofilm to prevent severe circumstances such as antimicrobial agents. Shin’iseihaito (xinyiqingfeitang) is a formula of Japanese traditional Kampo medicine that has 9 crude drugs and provides the medicinal usage for sinusitis. The objective of the present study is to reveal the mechanism of antibiofilm activity by Shin’iseihaito extract (SSHT). SSHT significantly inhibited the formation of biofilm from S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 in dose- and time-dependent manners. SSHT also significantly suppressed the biofilm formation by other five different cps types of S. pneumoniae clinical isolates. We found that the extracts of 8 out of 9 components in Shin’iseihaito had the inhibitory effects of biofilm formation, and the extract of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis had the strongest effect among the ingredients of Shin’iseihaito. We found that the capsule of SSHT-treated S. pneumoniae was significantly thinner than that of the untreated group and that SSHT reduced the hydrophobicity of bacterial cell surface. Our results suggest that Shin’iseihaito may be a useful agent for the treatment of S. pneumoniae-induced sinusitis because of the inhibition of biofilm formation of S. pneumoniae.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice
Abstract: Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000