International Journal of Rotating Machinery
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1023-621X - ISSN (Online) 1542-3034
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Using Simplified Models to Assist Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Large
Abstract: Based on experimental evidence collected in a set of twenty 700 MW hydrogenerators, this article shows that the operating conditions of large hydrogenerators journal bearings may have unpredictable and significant changes, without apparent reasons. These changes prevent the accurate determination of bearing dynamic coefficients and make the prediction of these machines dynamic behavior unfeasible, even using refined models. This makes it difficult to differentiate the normal changes in hydrogenerators dynamics from the changes created by a fault event. To overcome such difficulty, this article proposes a back-to-basics step, the using of simplified mathematical models to assist hydrogenerators vibration monitoring and exemplifies this proposal by modeling a 700 MW hydrogenerator. A first model estimates the influence of changes in bearing operating conditions in the bearing stiffnesses, considering only the hydrodynamic effects of an isoviscous oil film with linear thickness distribution. A second model simulates hydrogenerators dynamics using only 10 degrees of freedom, giving the monitored vibrations as outputs, under normal operating conditions or in the presence of a fault. This article shows that simplified models may give satisfactory results when bearing operating conditions are properly determined, results comparable to those obtained by more refined models or by measurements in the modeled hydrogenerator.
PubDate: Thu, 27 Apr 2017 06:46:08 +000
- Dynamic Model of Spur Gear Pair with Modulation Internal Excitation
Abstract: In the actual measurements, vibration and noise spectrum of gear pair often exhibits sidebands around the gear mesh harmonic orders. In this study, a nonlinear time-varying dynamic model of spur gear pair was established to predict the modulation sidebands caused by the AM-FM modulation internal excitation. Here, backlash, modulation time-varying mesh stiffness, and modulation transmission error are considered. Then the undamped natural mode was studied. Numerical simulation was made to reveal the dynamic characteristic of a spur gear under modulation condition. The internal excitation was shown to exhibit obvious modulation sideband because of the modulation time-varying mesh stiffness and modulation transmission error. The Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equations for analyzing the dynamic characteristics with the effect of modulation internal excitation. The result revealed that the response under modulation excitation exhibited obvious modulation sideband. The response under nonmodulation condition was also calculated for comparison. In addition, an experiment was done to verify the prediction of the modulation sidebands. The calculated result was consistent with the experimental result.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Economic Evaluation of Three Available Solutions for Promotion of Wind
Abstract: The limited operational flexibility of combined heat and power (CHP) units is the main cause of wind power curtailment in the thermal-electrical power system of Northern China. Pumped hydrostorage (PHS), heat storage (HS), and electric boiler (EB) are investigated as three alternative options for the promotion of wind power integration. On the basis of two linear models that determine the capacities of these three facilities required for integrating the curtailed wind power, economic evaluation in terms of investment costs and environmental benefits is presented. Analysis results show that HS requires the least investment and has a good performance of coal saving when accommodating the same amount of curtailed wind power. And EB has the greatest potential for wind power integration with the huge growth of installed capacity of wind power in the future.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- High Humidity Aerodynamic Effects Study on Offshore Wind Turbine
Airfoil/Blade Performance through CFD Analysis
Abstract: Damp air with high humidity combined with foggy, rainy weather, and icing in winter weather often is found to cause turbine performance degradation, and it is more concerned with offshore wind farm development. To address and understand the high humidity effects on wind turbine performance, our study has been conducted with spread sheet analysis on damp air properties investigation for air density and viscosity; then CFD modeling study using Fluent was carried out on airfoil and blade aerodynamic performance effects due to water vapor partial pressure of mixing flow and water condensation around leading edge and trailing edge of airfoil. It is found that the high humidity effects with water vapor mixing flow and water condensation thin film around airfoil may have insignificant effect directly on airfoil/blade performance; however, the indirect effects such as blade contamination and icing due to the water condensation may have significant effects on turbine performance degradation. Also it is that found the foggy weather with microwater droplet (including rainy weather) may cause higher drag that lead to turbine performance degradation. It is found that, at high temperature, the high humidity effect on air density cannot be ignored for annual energy production calculation. The blade contamination and icing phenomenon need to be further investigated in the next study.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 09:37:15 +000
- Performance and Flow Field of a Gravitation Vortex Type Water Turbine
Abstract: A gravitation vortex type water turbine, which mainly comprises a runner and a tank, generates electricity by introducing a flow of water into the tank and using the gravitation vortex generated when the water drains from the bottom of the tank. This water turbine is capable of generating electricity using a low head and a low flow rate with relatively simple structure. However, because its flow field has a free surface, this water turbine is extremely complicated, and thus its relevance to performance for the generation of electricity has not been clarified. This study aims to clarify the performance and flow field of a gravitation vortex type water turbine. We conducted experiments and numerical analysis, taking the free surface into consideration. As a result, the experimental and computational values of the torque, turbine output, turbine efficiency, and effective head agreed with one another. The performance of this water turbine can be predicted by this analysis. It has been shown that when the rotational speed increases at the runner inlet, the forward flow area expands. However, when the air area decreases, the backward flow area also expands.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:21:19 +000
- Fault Identification of Rotor System Based on Classifying Time-Frequency
Image Feature Tensor
Abstract: In the field of rotor fault pattern recognition, most of classical pattern recognition methods generally operate in feature vector spaces where different feature values are stacked into one-dimensional (1D) vector and then processed by the classifiers. In this paper, time-frequency image of rotor vibration signal is represented as a texture feature tensor for the pattern recognition of rotor fault states with the linear support higher-tensor machine (SHTM). Firstly, the adaptive optimal-kernel time-frequency spectrogram visualizes the unique characteristics of rotor fault vibration signal; thus the rotor fault identification is converted into the corresponding time-frequency image (TFI) pattern recognition. Secondly, in order to highlight and preserve the TFI local features, the TFI is divided into some TFI subzones for extracting the hierarchical texture features. Afterwards, to avoid the information loss and distortion caused by stacking multidimensional features into vector, the multidimensional features from the subzones are transformed into a feature tensor which preserves the inherent structure characteristic of TFI. Finally, the feature tensor is input into the SHTM for rotor fault pattern recognition and the corresponding recognition performance is evaluated. The experimental results showed that the method of classifying time-frequency texture feature tensor can achieve higher recognition rate and better robustness compared to the conventional vector-based classifiers, especially in the case of small sample size.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Adaptive Morphological Feature Extraction and Support Vector Regressive
Classification for Bearing Fault Diagnosis
Abstract: Numerous studies on fault diagnosis have been conducted in recent years because the timely and correct detection of machine fault effectively minimizes the damage resulting in the unexpected breakdown of machineries. The mathematical morphological analysis has been performed to denoise raw signal. However, the improper choice of the length of the structure element (SE) will substantially influence the effectiveness of fault feature extraction. Moreover, the classification of fault type is a significant step in intelligent fault diagnosis, and many techniques have already been developed, such as support vector machine (SVM). This study proposes an intelligent fault diagnosis strategy that combines the extraction of morphological feature and support vector regression (SVR) classifier. The vibration signal is first processed using various scales of morphological analysis, where the length of SE is determined adaptively. Thereafter, nine statistical features are extracted from the processed signal. Lastly, an SVR classifier is used to identify the health condition of the machinery. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is validated using the data set from a bearing test rig. Results show the high accuracy of the proposed method despite the influence of noise.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 08:05:58 +000
- Effect of Tip Clearance on the Internal Flow and Hydraulic Performance of
a Three-Bladed Inducer
Abstract: The influence of the tip clearance on the internal flow and hydraulic performances of a 3-bladed inducer, designed at ALTA, Pisa, Italy, are investigated both experimentally and numerically. Two inducer configurations with different blade tip clearances, one about equal to the nominal value and the other 2.5 times larger, are considered to analyze tip leakage effects. The 3D numerical model developed in ANSYS CFX to simulate the flow through the inducer with 2 different clearances under different operating conditions is illustrated. The internal flow fields and hydraulic performance predicted by the CFD model under different operating conditions are compared with the corresponding experimental data obtained from the inducer tests. As expected, both experimental and numerical results indicate that higher pressure rise and hydraulic efficiency are obtained from the inducer configuration with the nominal tip clearance.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 09:11:54 +000
- A New Processing Method Combined with BP Neural Network for Francis
Turbine Synthetic Characteristic Curve Research
Abstract: A BP (backpropagation) neural network method is employed to solve the problems existing in the synthetic characteristic curve processing of hydroturbine at present that most studies are only concerned with data in the high efficiency and large guide vane opening area, which can hardly meet the research requirements of transition process especially in large fluctuation situation. The principle of the proposed method is to convert the nonlinear characteristics of turbine to torque and flow characteristics, which can be used for real-time simulation directly based on neural network. Results show that obtained sample data can be extended successfully to cover working areas wider under different operation conditions. Another major contribution of this paper is the resampling technique proposed in the paper to overcome the limitation to sample period simulation. In addition, a detailed analysis for improvements of iteration convergence of the pressure loop is proposed, leading to a better iterative convergence during the head pressure calculation. Actual applications verify that methods proposed in this paper have better simulation results which are closer to the field and provide a new perspective for hydroturbine synthetic characteristic curve fitting and modeling.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:39:48 +000
- Experimental Aspects in the Vibration-Based Condition Monitoring of Large
Abstract: Based on experimental observations on a set of twenty 700 MW hydrogenerators, compiled from several technical reports issued over the last three decades and collected from the reprocessing of the vibration signals recorded during the last commissioning tests, this paper shows that the accurate determination of the journal bearings operating conditions may be a difficult task. It shows that the outsize bearing brackets of large hydrogenerators are subject to substantial dimensional changes caused by external agents, like the generator electromagnetic field and the bearing cooling water temperature. It also shows that the shaft eccentricity of a journal bearing of a healthy large hydrogenerator, operating in steady-state condition, may experience unpredictable, sudden, and significant changes without apparent reasons. Some of these phenomena are reproduced in ordinary commissioning tests or may be noticed even during normal operation, while others are rarely observed or are only detected through special tests. These phenomena modify journal bearings stiffness and damping, changing the hydrogenerator dynamics, creating discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements, and making damage detection and diagnostics difficult. Therefore, these phenomena must be analyzed and considered in the application of vibration-based condition monitoring to these rotating machines.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Study on Driving Performance of the Axial-Flow Blood Pump under the
Condition of Large Gap
Abstract: The paper demonstrates an improvement of the simulation and computational methods for research on the system magnetic field and driving performance of the large gap magnetic drive system, which is used to drive the axial flow blood pump. The operational principle and structure of large gap magnetic drive system are narrated. Ansoft is adopted to simulate a three-dimensional driving torque to improve accuracy of computation. Experiments and theoretical study show that the use of Z10-T25 oriented silicon steel sheets as the electromagnetic core material can remarkably improve the system driving performance as well as optimize the volume and weight of the electromagnets. So the electromagnet made with oriented silicon steel sheets is conducive to improving the driving performance.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Research and Modeling of the Bidirectional Half-Bridge Current-Doubler
Abstract: Due to its high step-up voltage ratio, high utilization rate, and good stability, the bidirectional half-bridge current-doubler topology is widely used in lithium battery system. This paper will further analyze the bidirectional half-bridge current-doubler topology. Taking into account the fact that the current is not equal to the two times current inductance may lead to a greater transformer magnetizing current leaving the transformer core saturation occurring. This paper will focus on the circuit modeling of steady-state analysis and small signal analysis, analyzing the influence parameters for the inductor current by steady-state model and analyzing the stability of the system by the small signal model. The PID controllers and soft start algorithm are designed. Then the influence of circuit parameters on the steady state and the effect of soft start algorithm is verified, and finally the function of the soft start algorithm is achieved by the experimental prototype.
PubDate: Wed, 01 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Hybrid Domain Degradation Feature Extraction Method for Motor Bearing
Based on Distance Evaluation Technique
Abstract: The vibration signal of the motor bearing has strong nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics, and it is arduous to accurately recognize the degradation state of the motor bearing with traditional single time or frequency domain indexes. A hybrid domain feature extraction method based on distance evaluation technique (DET) is proposed to solve this problem. Firstly, the vibration signal of the motor bearing is decomposed by ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). The proper intrinsic mode function (IMF) component that is the most sensitive to the degradation of the motor bearing is selected according to the sensitive IMF selection algorithm based on the similarity evaluation. Then the distance evaluation factor of each characteristic parameter is calculated by the DET method. The differential method is used to extract sensitive characteristic parameters which compose the characteristic matrix. And then the extracted degradation characteristic matrix is used as the input of support vector machine (SVM) to identify the degradation state. Finally, It is demonstrated that the proposed hybrid domain feature extraction method has higher recognition accuracy and shorter recognition time by comparative analysis. The positive performance of the method is verified.
PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2017 13:55:57 +000
- Numerical and Experimental Study on the Multiobjective Optimization of a
Two-Disk Flexible Rotor System
Abstract: With the ever-increasing requirement for the thrust to weight ratio, the rotational speed of modern aeroengine is increasingly improved; thus most of the aeroengine rotor is flexible. Some dynamic problems, such as excessive vibration, appear due to the increase of the rotation speed of the aeroengine. The aim of this study is to reduce the vibration level of the flexible rotor system through optimum design. A laboratory scale two-disk flexible rotor system representing a typical aeroengine rotor system is designed. A combinational optimization strategy coupling the rotordynamics calculation software ANSYS and the multidisciplinary optimization software ISIGHT is proposed to optimize the rotor system. The positions of the disks are selected as the design variables. Constraints are imposed on critical speeds. The disks’ amplitudes and bearings’ transmitted forces are chosen as the optimization objectives. Using this strategy, the optimal positions of the two disks are obtained. The numerical optimization results are verified by the experiments based on the test rig. The results show a significant vibration level reduction after optimization.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Jan 2017 11:15:53 +000
- Flow Control by Slot Position and Noise Baffle in a Self-Recirculation
Casing Treatment on an Axial Fan-Rotor
Abstract: To address the situations where the casing treatment needs to be used to stabilize axial compressors through strong recirculation, this paper initiated a CFD study to investigate how the flow could be suitably controlled in the casing treatment to minimize the efficiency penalty and increase the flow range. A counter-swirl self-recirculation casing treatment was first designed on a low speed axial fan rotor as a baseline case. Then three different slot positions and the influence of including the noise baffle were numerically studied. Based on the understanding of their coeffects, the shorter noise baffle was considered and it was found that the highest efficiency was achieved in the case of the upstream slot when the length of baffle was suitably adjusted to balance the incoming flow and recirculation. The largest flow range was achieved by locating the slot at the most downstream position and using a 50% length baffle since it suitably controlled the recirculating flow and relieved the separation at the low-span region. An optimization study showed that the optimum length of the baffle for efficiency was always larger than for the flow range. Both of the two optimum values reduce as the slot moves downstream.
PubDate: Wed, 11 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Application Research on Testing Efficiency of Main Drainage Pump in Coal
Mine Using Thermodynamic Theories
Abstract: The efficiency of a drainage pump should be tested at regular intervals to master the status of the drainage pump in real time and thus achieve the goal of saving energy. The ultrasonic flowmeter method is traditionally used to measure the flow of the pump. But there are some defects in this kind of method of underground coal mine. This paper first introduces the principle of testing the main drainage pump efficiency in coal mine using thermodynamic theories, then analyzes the energy transformation during the process of draining water, and finally derives the calculation formulae of the pump efficiency, which meet the on-site precision of engineering. On the basis of analyzing the theories, the protective sleeve and the base of the temperature sensor are designed to measure the water temperature at inlet and outlet of the pump. The efficiencies of pumps with two specifications are measured, respectively, by using the thermodynamic method and ultrasonic flowmeter method. By contrast, the results show that thermodynamic method can satisfy the precision of the testing requirements accuracy for high-flow and high-lift drainage pump under normal temperatures. Moreover, some measures are summed up to improve the accuracy of testing the pump efficiency, which are of guiding significance for on-site testing of the main drainage pump efficiency in coal mine.
PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2017 10:36:18 +000
- A New Adaptive Control for Five-Phase Fault-Tolerant Flux-Switching
Permanent Magnet Motor
Abstract: The five-phase fault-tolerant flux-switching permanent magnet (FT-FSPM) motor can offer high efficiency and high fault-tolerant capability. In this paper, its operation principle is presented briefly and its mathematical model is derived. Further, a new adaptive control for an FT-FSPM motor, based on the backstepping method and the sliding mode control strategy, is proposed. According to the backstepping method, the current controllers and voltage control laws are designed to track the speed and minimize the current static error, which enhance the dynamic response and the ability to suppress external disturbances. In order to overcome the influence of parameter variations, according to sliding mode control theory, the virtual control variables and the adaptive algorithm are utilized to approach uncertainty terms. Three Lyapunov functions are designed, and the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed in detail. Finally, both simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the proposed control method.
PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 14:22:15 +000
- The Design Method of Axial Flow Runners Focusing on Axial Flow Velocity
Uniformization and Its Application to an Ultra-Small Axial Flow Hydraulic
Abstract: We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement). As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.
PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2016 14:09:09 +000
- Effect of Impeller Inlet Geometry on Cavitation Performance of Centrifugal
Pumps Based on Radial Basis Function
Abstract: Aiming at the cavitation problem, the blade leading edge shape has been changed to analyze its impact on the cavitation performance for centrifugal pumps. And the response model has been established based on the Radial Basis Function. The calculation case results show that the leading edge extending forward along the shroud can improve the inlet flow condition and cavitation performance. But the cavitation performance has been reduced immensely when the leading edge extends backward along the shroud. Along with the leading edge which extends forward along the hub, the cavitation performance increases at first and then decreases. A better cavitation performance for centrifugal pumps has lower load of blade inlet and higher pressure of blade suction side. The pressure pulsation is affected by the vortex out of the impeller and the falling-off and collapsing of the cavitation bubbles. The lower the pressure pulsation for blade passing frequency and the second harmonics of the samples is, the better the cavitation performance is. A relatively accurate response model based on the Radial Basis Function has been established to predict the effect of the shape of blade leading edge on the cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps.
PubDate: Mon, 28 Nov 2016 11:30:25 +000
- Study on Hydraulic Performances of a 3-Bladed Inducer Based on Different
Numerical and Experimental Methods
Abstract: The hydraulic performances of a 3-bladed inducer, designed at Alta, Pisa, Italy, are investigated both experimentally and numerically. The 3D numerical model developed in ANSYS CFX to simulate the flow through the inducer and different lengths of its inlet/outlet ducts is illustrated. The influence of the inlet/outlet boundary conditions, of the turbulence models, and of the location of inlet/outlet different pressure taps on the evaluation of the hydraulic performance of the inducer is analyzed. As expected, the predicted hydraulic performance of the inducer is significantly affected by the lengths of the inlet/outlet duct portions included in the computations, as well as by the turbulent flow model and the locations of the inlet/outlet pressure taps. It is slightly affected by the computational boundary conditions and better agreement with the test data obtained when adopting the turbulence model. From the point of the pressure tap locations, the pressure rise coefficient is much higher when the inlet/outlet static pressure taps were chosen in the same locations used in the experiments.
PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2016 05:43:40 +000
- An Effective Gear Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Singular Value
Decomposition and Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform
Abstract: The ability of the frequency slice wavelet transform (FSWT) to distinguish the fault feature is weak under the condition of strong background noise; in order to solve this problem, a fault feature extraction method combining the singular value decomposition (SVD) and FSWT was proposed. Firstly, the Hankel matrix was constructed using SVD, based on which the SVD order was determined according to the principle of the single side maximum value. Then, the denoised signal was further processed by the FSWT to obtain the time-frequency spectrum of the passband. Finally, the detailed analysis was carried out in the time-frequency area with concentrated energy, and the signal was reconstructed by the inverse-FSWT. The processing effect for the pitting corrosion and the tooth broken faults of the gears shows that the faulty feature can be extracted effectively from the envelope spectrum of the reconstructed signal, which means the proposed method is able to help obtain a qualified result and has the potential to be carried out for the practical engineering application.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2016 06:16:59 +000
- An Investigation on the Dynamics of High-Speed Systems Using Nonlinear
Analytical Floating Ring Bearing Models
Abstract: The scope of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of a rotor-bearing system of high-speed under recently developed analytical bearing models. The development of a theory that can yield the dynamic response of a high-speed system without short/long bearing approximation and without time-consuming numerical methods for the finite-length bearing model is the outcome of this work. The rotor system is introduced as a rigid body so that the dynamics of the system are influenced only from the nonlinear bearing forces which are introduced with closed form expressions. The outcome is a system of nonlinear equations and its solution produces the dynamic response of the high-speed system using exact analytical solution for the bearing forces. The transient dynamic response of the system is evaluated through the wide range of rotating speed and under different bearing solutions including short bearing approximation, presenting the subsynchronous components that are developed when instabilities occur. Time-frequency analysis of the resulting response time-series is presented and the outcome is compared with that obtained from numerical solution of the bearing lubrication and with the short bearing approximation model.
PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2016 16:17:49 +000
- Influence of Turbulence Model for Wind Turbine Simulation in Low Reynolds
Abstract: In designing a wind turbine, the validation of the mathematical model’s result is normally carried out by comparison with wind tunnel experiment data. However, the Reynolds number of the wind tunnel experiment is low, and the flow does not match fully developed turbulence on the leading edge of a wind turbine blade. Therefore, the transition area from laminar to turbulent flow becomes wide under these conditions, and the separation point is difficult to predict using turbulence models. The prediction precision decreases dramatically when working with tip speed ratios less than the maximum power point. This study carries out a steadiness calculation with turbulence model and an unsteadiness calculation with laminar model for a three-blade horizontal axis wind turbine. The validation of the calculations is performed by comparing with experimental results. The power coefficients calculated without turbulence models are in agreement with the experimental data for a tip speed ratio greater than 5.
PubDate: Mon, 05 Sep 2016 13:07:48 +000
- Rolling Bearing Degradation State Identification Based on LPP Optimized by
Abstract: In view of the problem that the actual degradation status of rolling bearing has a poor distinguishing characteristic and strong fuzziness, a rolling bearing degradation state identification method based on multidomain feature fusion and dimension reduction of manifold learning combined with GG clustering is proposed. Firstly, the rolling bearing all-life data is preprocessed by local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD) and six typical features including relative energy spectrum entropy (LREE), relative singular spectrum entropy (LRSE), two-element multiscale entropy (TMSE), standard deviation (STD), RMS, and root-square amplitude (XR) are extracted and compose the original multidomain feature set. And then, locally preserving projection (LPP) is utilized to reduce dimension of original fusion feature set and genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the process of feature fusion. Finally, fuzzy recognition of rolling bearing degradation state is carried out by GG clustering and the principle of maximum membership degree and excellent performance of the proposed method is validated by comparing the recognition accuracy of LPP and GA-LPP.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 06:32:15 +000
- A Wave Energy Extraction System in Experimental Flume
Abstract: Ocean wave energy is a high energy density and renewable resource. High power conversion rate is an advantage of linear generators to be the competitive candidates for ocean wave energy extraction system. In this paper, the feasibility of a wave energy extraction system by linear generator has been verified in an experimental flume. Besides, the analytical equations of heaving buoy oscillating in vertical direction are proposed, and the analytical equations are proved conveniently. What is more, the active power output of linear generator of wave energy extraction system in experimental flume is presented. The theoretical analysis and experimental results play a significant role for future wave energy extraction system progress in real ocean waves.
PubDate: Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:47:30 +000
- Flettner Rotor Concept for Marine Applications: A Systematic Study
Abstract: The concept of Flettner rotor, a rotating cylinder immersed in a fluid current, with a top-mounted disk, has been analyzed by means of unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulations, with the aim of creating a suitable tool for the preliminary design of the Flettner rotor as a ship’s auxiliary propulsion system. The simulation has been executed to evaluate the performance sensitivity of the Flettner rotor with respect to systematic variations of several parameters, that is, the spin ratio, the rotor aspect ratio, the effect of the end plates, and their dimensions. The Flettner rotor device has been characterized in terms of lift and drag coefficients, and these data were compared with experimental trends available in literature. A verification study has been conducted in order to evaluate the accuracy of the simulation results and the main sources of numerical uncertainty. All the simulation results were used to achieve a surrogate model of lift and drag coefficients. This model is an effective mathematical tool for the preliminary design of Flettner rotor. Finally, an example of assessment of the Flettner rotor performance as an auxiliary propulsion device on a real tanker ship is reported.
PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2016 10:57:31 +000
- Extended Calibration Technique of a Four-Hole Probe for Three-Dimensional
Abstract: The present paper reports the development and nonnulling calibration technique to calibrate a cantilever type cylindrical four-hole probe of 2.54 mm diameter to measure three-dimensional flows. The probe is calibrated at a probe Reynolds number of 9525. The probe operative angular range is extended using a zonal method by dividing into three zones, namely, center, left, and right zone. Different calibration coefficients are defined for each zone. The attainable angular range achieved using the zonal method is ±60 degrees in the yaw plane and −50 to +30 degrees in the pitch plane. Sensitivity analysis of all the four calibration coefficients shows that probe pitch sensitivity is lower than the yaw sensitivity in the center zone, and extended left and right zones have lower sensitivity than the center zone. In addition, errors due to the data reduction program for the probe are presented. The errors are found to be reasonably small in all the three zones. However, the errors in the extended left and right zones have slightly larger magnitudes compared to those in the center zone.
PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2016 11:33:45 +000
- The Effect of Viscosity on Performance of a Low Specific Speed Centrifugal
Abstract: Centrifugal pump delivery head and flow rate drop effectively during the pumping of viscous fluids. Several methods and correlations have been developed to predict reduction rate in centrifugal pump performance when handling viscous fluids, but their results are not in very good agreement with each other. In this study, a common industrial low specific speed pump, which is extensively used in different applications, is studied. The entire pump, including impeller, volute, pipes, front and rear sidewall gaps, and balance holes, is simulated in Computational Fluid Dynamics and 3D full Navier Stokes equations are solved. CFD results are compared with experimental data such as pump performance curves, static pressure in casing, and disk friction loss. Dimensionless angular velocity and leakage rate are investigated in sidewall gap and efficiency variation due to viscosity is studied. The results demonstrate that the behavior of the fluid in sidewall gap is strictly sensitive to viscosity. Increasing viscosity improves the volumetric efficiency by reducing internal leakage through wear rings and balance holes, causing, however, a significant fall in the disk and overall efficiency. Results lead to some recommendations for designing centrifugal pumps which may be used in transferring viscous fluids.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2016 09:52:16 +000
- Characterization of a Twin-Entry Radial Turbine under Pulsatile Flow
Abstract: In automotive applications radial gas turbines are commonly fitted with a twin-entry volute connected to a divided exhaust manifold, ensuring a better scavenge process owing to less interference between engines’ cylinders. This paper is concerned with the study of the unsteady performances related to the pulsating flows of a twin-entry radial turbine in engine-like conditions and the hysteresis-like behaviour during the pulses period. The results show that the aerodynamic performances deviate noticeably from the steady state and depend mainly on the time shifting between the actual output power and the isentropic power, which is distantly related to the apparent length. The maximum of efficiency and output shaft power are accompanied by low entropy generation through the shroud entry side, and their instantaneous behaviours tend to follow mainly the inlet total pressure curve. As revealed a billow is created by the interaction between the main flow and the infiltrated flow, affecting the flow incidence at rotor entry and producing high losses.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Jun 2016 09:03:50 +000
- Simulations of Steady Cavitating Flow in a Small Francis Turbine
Abstract: The turbulent flow through a small horizontal Francis turbine is solved by means of Ansys-CFX at different operating points, with the determination of the hydrodynamic performance and the best efficiency point. The flow structures at different regimes reveal a large flow eddy in the runner and a swirl in the draft tube. The use of the mixture model for the cavity/liquid two-phase flow allowed studying the influence of cavitation on the hydrodynamic performance and revealed cavitation pockets near the trailing edge of the runner and a cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube. By maintaining a constant dimensionless head and a distributor vane opening while gradually increasing the cavitation number, the output power and efficiency reached a critical point and then had begun to stabilize. The cavitation number corresponding to the safety margin of cavitation is also predicted for this hydraulic turbine.
PubDate: Sun, 05 Jun 2016 14:14:00 +000