International Journal of Plant Genomics
[SJR: 1.578] [H-I: 20] [4 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5370 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5389
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Preformed Defense System in
Apple Root of a Resistant Genotype of G.935 in the Absence of Pathogen
Abstract: Two apple rootstock genotypes G.935 and B.9 were recently demonstrated to exhibit distinct resistance responses following infection by Pythium ultimum. As part of an effort to elucidate the genetic regulation of apple root resistance to soilborne pathogens, preinoculation transcriptome variations in roots of these two apple rootstock genotypes are hypothesized to contribute to the observed disease resistance phenotypes. Results from current comparative transcriptome analysis demonstrated elevated transcript abundance for many genes which function in a system-wide defense response in the root tissue of the resistant genotype of G.935 in comparison with susceptible B.9. Based on the functional annotation, these differentially expressed genes encode proteins that function in several tiers of defense responses, such as pattern recognition receptors for pathogen detection and subsequent signal transduction, defense hormone biosynthesis and signaling, transcription factors with known roles in defense activation, enzymes of secondary metabolism, and various classes of resistance proteins. The data set suggested a more poised status, which is ready to defend pathogen infection, in the root tissues of resistant genotype of G.935, compared to the susceptible B.9. The significance of preformed defense in the absence of a pathogen toward overall resistance phenotypes in apple root and the potential fitness cost due to the overactivated defense system were discussed.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 08:09:40 +000
- Transcript Polymorphism Rates in Soybean Seed Tissue Are Increased in a
Single Transformant of Glycine max
Abstract: Transgenic crops have been utilized for decades to enhance agriculture and more recently have been applied as bioreactors for manufacturing pharmaceuticals. Recently, we investigated the gene expression profiles of several in-house transgenic soybean events, finding one transformant group to be consistently different from our controls. In the present study, we examined polymorphisms and sequence variations in the exomes of the same transgenic soybean events. We found that the previously dissimilar soybean line also exhibited markedly increased levels of polymorphisms within mRNA transcripts from seed tissue, many of which are classified as gene expression modifiers. The results from this work will direct future investigations to examine novel SNPs controlling traits of great interest for breeding and improving transgenic soybean crops. Further, this study marks the first work to investigate SNP rates in transgenic soybean seed tissues and demonstrates that while transgenesis may induce abundant unanticipated changes in gene expression and nucleotide variation, phenotypes and overall health of the plants examined remained unaltered.
PubDate: Tue, 29 Nov 2016 09:35:15 +000
- Application of Microsatellite Loci for Molecular Identification of Elite
Genotypes, Analysis of Clonality, and Genetic Diversity in Aspen Populus
tremula L. (Salicaceae)
Abstract: Testing systems for molecular identification of micropropagated elite aspen (Populus tremula L.) genotypes were developed on the base on microsatellite (SSR) loci. Out of 33 tested microsatellite loci, 14 were selected due to sustainable PCR amplification and substantial variability in elite clones of aspen aimed for establishment of fast-rotated forest plantations. All eight tested clones had different multilocus genotypes. Among 114 trees from three reference native stands located near the established plantations, 80 haplotypes were identified while some repeated genotypes were attributed to natural clones which appeared as a result of sprouting. The selected set of SSR markers showed reliable individual identification with low probability of appearance of identical aspen genotypes (a minimum of and 1 × 10−4 for unrelated and related individuals, resp.). Case studies demonstrating practical applications of the test system are described including analysis of clonal structure and levels of genetic diversity in three natural aspen stands growing in the regions where plantations made of elite clones were established.
PubDate: Mon, 28 Dec 2015 11:23:26 +000
- Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in
Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley
Abstract: Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Sep 2015 06:22:37 +000
- Toward Coalescing Gene Expression and Function with QTLs of Water-Deficit
Stress in Cotton
Abstract: Cotton exhibits moderately high vegetative tolerance to water-deficit stress but lint production is restricted by the available rainfed and irrigation capacity. We have described the impact of water-deficit stress on the genetic and metabolic control of fiber quality and production. Here we examine the association of tentative consensus sequences (TCs) derived from various cotton tissues under irrigated and water-limited conditions with stress-responsive QTLs. Three thousand sixteen mapped sequence-tagged-sites were used as anchored targets to examine sequence homology with 15,784 TCs to test the hypothesis that putative stress-responsive genes will map within QTLs associated with stress-related phenotypic variation more frequently than with other genomic regions not associated with these QTLs. Approximately 1,906 of 15,784 TCs were mapped to the consensus map. About 35% of the annotated TCs that mapped within QTL regions were genes involved in an abiotic stress response. By comparison, only 14.5% of the annotated TCs mapped outside these QTLs were classified as abiotic stress genes. A simple binomial probability calculation of this degree of bias being observed if QTL and non-QTL regions are equally likely to contain stress genes was × 10−15. These results suggest that the QTL regions have a higher propensity to contain stress genes.
PubDate: Thu, 18 Jun 2015 09:03:22 +000
- Identification and DUS Testing of Rice Varieties through Microsatellite
Abstract: Identification and registration of new rice varieties are very important to be free from environmental effects and using molecular markers that are more reliable. The objectives of this study were, first, the identification and distinction of 40 rice varieties consisting of local varieties of Iran, improved varieties, and IRRI varieties using PIC, and discriminating power, second, cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, and, third, determining the ability of microsatellite markers to separate varieties utilizing the best combination of markers. For this research, 12 microsatellite markers were used. In total, 83 polymorphic alleles (6.91 alleles per locus) were found. In addition, the variation of PIC was calculated from 0.52 to 0.9. The results of cluster analysis showed the complete discrimination of varieties from each other except for IR58025A and IR58025B. Moreover, cluster analysis could detect the most of the improved varieties from local varieties. Based on the best combination of markers analysis, five pair primers together have shown the same results of all markers for detection among all varieties. Considering the results of this research, we can propose that microsatellite markers can be used as a complementary tool for morphological characteristics in DUS tests.
PubDate: Sun, 08 Feb 2015 10:38:14 +000
- Identification and Validation of Expressed Sequence Tags from Pigeonpea
(Cajanus cajan L.) Root
Abstract: Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) is an important food legume crop of rain fed agriculture in the arid and semiarid tropics of the world. It has deep and extensive root system which serves a number of important physiological and metabolic functions in plant development and growth. In order to identify genes associated with pigeonpea root, ESTs were generated from the root tissues of pigeonpea (GRG-295 genotype) by normalized cDNA library. A total of 105 high quality ESTs were generated by sequencing of 250 random clones which resulted in 72 unigenes comprising 25 contigs and 47 singlets. The ESTs were assigned to 9 functional categories on the basis of their putative function. In order to validate the possible expression of transcripts, four genes, namely, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, phosphoglycerate kinase, serine carboxypeptidase, and methionine aminopeptidase, were further analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR. The possible role of the identified transcripts and their functions associated with root will also be a valuable resource for the functional genomics study in legume crop.
PubDate: Tue, 06 May 2014 12:34:36 +000