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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 281 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 190)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Photoenergy
  [SJR: 0.348]   [H-I: 28]   [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1110-662X - ISSN (Online) 1687-529X
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Photoactivity of Titanium Dioxide Foams

    • Abstract: TiO2 foams have been prepared by a simple mechanical stirring method. Short-chain amphiphilic molecules have been used to stabilize colloidal suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 foams were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photoassisted oxidation of NO in the gas phase according to ISO 22197-1 has been used to compare the photoactivity of the newly prepared TiO2 foams to that of the original powders. The results showed that the photoactivity is increased up to about 135%. Foam structures seem to be a good means of improving the photoactivity of semiconductor materials and can readily be used for applications such as air purification devices.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Reduced Recombination and the Enhanced Lifetime of Excited Electron in
           QDSSCs Based on Different ZnS and SiO2 Passivation

    • Abstract: In this study, we focus on the enhanced absorption and reduced recombination of quantum dot solar cells based on photoanodes which were coated by different ZnS or SiO2 passivations using the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction methods. The quantum dot solar cells based on photoanode multilayers, which were coated with a ZnS or SiO2 passivation, increased dramatic absorption in the visible light region as compared with other photoanodes and reduced rapid recombination proccesses in photovoltaic. As a result, the performance efficiency of TiO2/CdS/CdSe photoanode with SiO2 passivation increased by 150% and 375% compared with TiO2/CdS/CdSe with ZnS passivation and TiO2/CdSe photoanode, respectively. For this reason, we note that the tandem multilayers can absorb more wavelengths in the visible light region to increase a large amount of excited electrons, which are transferred into the TiO2 conduction band, and decrease number of electrons returned to the polysulfide electrolyte from QDs when a ZnS or SiO2 passivation is consumed. Moreover, it is obvious that there was a far shift towards long waves in UV-Vis spectra and a sharp drop of intensity in photoluminescence spectra. In addition, the dynamic process in solar cells was carried out by electrochemical impedance spectra.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Apr 2018 09:38:04 +000
  • CFD Analysis and Electrical Efficiency Improvement of a Hybrid PV/T Panel
           Cooled by Forced Air Circulation

    • Abstract: The thermal and electrical efficiency of a custom-designed PV/T panel cooled by forced air circulation was investigated by experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Experiments were carried out with four different array configurations, under constant irradiation of 1100 W/m2 and 3 different air velocities (3.3 m/s, 3.9 m/s, and 4.5 m/s). The heat transfer surface area and forced air circulation are known to positively affect the total heat transfer, and therefore, it is foreseeable that an increased number of fins and higher air velocities will help maintain the electrical efficiency of the panel at higher levels. The main objective of this study is to determine the critical threshold for the abovementioned parameters as well as to show how important parameters, such as fin arrangement and consequent turbulent air flows, are for satisfying the heat removal needs. Highest efficiency was achieved with a 108 pc type 1 arrangement at 12.02% as expected. Nevertheless, while the 108 pc type 2 arrangement could maintain the electrical efficiency at 11.81%, a close level of 11.55% could be obtained with a 54 pc type 2 arrangement. Experimental results are compared with ANSYS Fluent program, and the effect of the number and arrangement of the fins on the efficiency of the panel has been shown.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Apr 2018 07:52:35 +000
  • MPPT for Photovoltaic System Using Nonlinear Controller

    • Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) system generates energy that varies with the variation in environmental conditions such as temperature and solar radiation. To cope up with the ever increasing demand of energy, the PV system must operate at maximum power point (MPP), which changes with load as well as weather conditions. This paper proposes a nonlinear backstepping controller to harvest maximum power from a PV array using DC-DC buck converter. A regression plane is formulated after collecting the data of the PV array from its characteristic curves to provide the reference voltage to track MPP. Asymptotic stability of the system is proved using Lyapunov stability criteria. The simulation results validate the rapid tracking and efficient performance of the controller. For further validation of the results, it also provides a comparison of the proposed controller with conventional perturb and observe (P&O) and fuzzy logic-based controller (FLBC) under abrupt changes in environmental conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 09:18:38 +000
  • A Five-Level H-Bridge STATCOM for an Off-Grid PV Solar Farm under Two
           Controllers PI and PIλ-MPC Hybrid

    • Abstract: Investigations were presented in order to eliminate the reactive power on microgrid loads fed by an off-grid and mid-power photovoltaic solar energy system (PVSES) with a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) device. The electric network is specifically characterized by P-Q loads, ambient temperature, and widely variable solar radiation levels. Two main innovations are developed. Firstly, the STATCOM apparatus is a 5-level H-bridge inverter with capacitances as load and must totally compensates the reactive power in the network load. Secondly, this compensation is controlled by a set of fractional PI (PIλ) and model predictive control (MPC) hybrid. The efficiencies of these controllers were compared with classical PI controllers. Large simulations, without and with reactive power compensation, in steady and transient states, are carried out to underline the merits of the presented works, by performing in the MATLAB-Simulink environment.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry
           through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high content of color (5952 ± 76 Pt-Co), turbidity (1648 ± 49 FAU), and COD (3608 ± 250 mg/L). Therefore, enhanced performance could be achieved by combining pretreatment techniques to increase the efficiencies of the physical, chemical, and biological treatments. In the integrated process, there was a turbidity reduction of 96.1 ± 0.2% and an increase in dissolved oxygen from 3.8 ± 0.05 mg/L (inlet sand filtration) to 6.05 ± 0.03 mg/L (outlet sand filtration) after 120 min of treatment. These results indicate good water quality necessary for all forms of elemental life. Color and COD removals were 98.2 ± 0.2% and 39.02 ± 2.2%, respectively, during the electrocoagulation process (0.2915 mA/cm2 current density and 120 min of treatment). The proposed integrated process could be an attractive alternative of pretreatment of real wastewater to increase water quality of conventional treatments.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Design and Comparison of Central and Distributed Light Sensored Smart
           LED Lighting Systems

    • Abstract: There is a lack of published peer-reviewed research comparing the efficiencies of distributed versus central sensor-controlled LED lighting systems. This research proposes improving the smart illumination of a room with external fenestration using central and distributed light sensors. The optical and electrical measurements of the daylight have been made in the case where the light was not distributed evenly and not sufficient. Test results show that the proposed distributed light sensor illumination system has increased the efficiency by 28% when compared to the proposed central system. It has also been shown that the two tested systems are more cost-effective than common smart illumination systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Preliminary Estimate of Coriolis Force of Vapor Flow in Rotating Heat
           Pipes Based on Analytical Solution

    • Abstract: In current theory models for rotating heat pipes, the temperature field of the vapor phase is often supposed to be homogenous, and as a result of such simplification, the experiment result of the heat transfer performance for high rotating speed has some discrepancy with that predicted by theory models. In this paper, the analytical solution of the vapor flow in rotating heat pipes was obtained on the hypothesis of potential flow and with the method of variable separation. A specific rotating heat pipe was examined under three kinds of boundary conditions: linear distribution, uniform but asymmetric distribution, and uniform as well as symmetric distribution of heat load. The flow field was calculated, the Coriolis force is estimated, and it is found that (1) for a rotating heat pipe with high speed or large heat load, it is necessary to consider the Coriolis force, as its magnitude can be that of the gravitational acceleration; (2) the maximum Coriolis force is located at the vapor-liquid interface at the evaporator and condenser sections, and the directions in these two sections are opposite; (3) the Coriolis force is closely related with working conditions and working fluids, and it decreased with working temperature and increased with the heat load; and (4) the maximum viscous shear stress is located at the adiabatic section.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • 1D TiO2 Nanostructures Prepared from Seeds Presenting Tailored TiO2
           Crystalline Phases and Their Photocatalytic Activity for Escherichia coli
           in Water

    • Abstract: TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled proportion of anatase and rutile. Tailoring of TiO2 phases was achieved by adjusting the pH and type of acid used in the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (first step in the sol-gel synthesis). The anatase proportion in the precursor nanoparticles was in the 3–100% range. Tube-like nanostructures were obtained with an anatase percentage of 18 or higher while flake-like shapes were obtained when rutile was dominant in the seed. After annealing at 400°C for 2 h, a fraction of nanotubes was conserved in all the samples but, depending on the anatase/rutile ratio in the starting material, spherical and rod-shaped structures were also observed. The photocatalytic activity of 1D nanostructures was evaluated by measuring the deactivation of E. coli in stirred water in the dark and under UV-A/B irradiation. Results show that in addition to the bactericidal activity of TiO2 under UV-A illumination, under dark conditions, the decrease in bacteria viability is ascribed to mechanical stress due to stirring.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 06:33:01 +000
  • Shockley’s Equation Fit Analyses for Solar Cell Parameters from I-V

    • Abstract: Some of the technical problems that appear are obtaining solar cell parameters from I-V curve measurement data. One simple method is using linear graphical fit at zero current or voltage conditions. Although the accuracy of the obtained values is acceptable, other problems may arise regarding the number of parameters which could be obtained. We report a comparison between manual or graphical fit and fit using Shockley’s equation. The single I-V curve under the lighting was inferred to obtain the intrinsic parameters of the solar cells’ performance. The fittings were performed using the nonlinear equation of Shockley by determining some initial values of fittings such as Rs, Rsh, n, I0, Iph, and T. In the case of the Shockley equation fit, the iteration was performed several times to obtain the least possible inferred parameters. We have successfully obtained a better result of nonlinear Shockley fitting compared to the manual linear fit.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Application of DC-AC Hybrid Grid and Solar Photovoltaic
           Generation with Battery Storage Using Smart Grid”

    • PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Study of Temperature Coefficients for Parameters of Photovoltaic Cells

    • Abstract: The temperature is one of the most important factors which affect the performance of the photovoltaic cells and panels along with the irradiance. The current voltage characteristics, I-V, are measured at different temperatures from 25°C to 87°C and at different illumination levels from 400 to 1000 W/m2, because there are locations where the upper limit of the photovoltaic cells working temperature exceeds 80°C. This study reports the influence of the temperature and the irradiance on the important parameters of four commercial photovoltaic cell types: monocrystalline silicon—mSi, polycrystalline silicon—pSi, amorphous silicon—aSi, and multijunction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge (Emcore). The absolute and normalized temperature coefficients are determined and compared with their values from the related literature. The variation of the absolute temperature coefficient function of the irradiance and its significance to accurately determine the important parameters of the photovoltaic cells are also presented. The analysis is made on different types of photovoltaics cells in order to understand the effects of technology on temperature coefficients. The comparison between the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current was also performed, calculated using the temperature coefficients, determined, and measured, in various conditions. The measurements are realized using the SolarLab system, and the photovoltaic cell parameters are determined and compared using the LabVIEW software created for SolarLab system.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • LEDs for the Implementation of Advanced Hydrogenation Using Hydrogen
           Charge-State Control

    • Abstract: Light-induced degradation (LID) of p-type Cz solar cells has plagued the industry for many decades. However, in recent years, new techniques for solving this LID have been developed, with hydrogen passivation of the boron-oxygen defects appearing to be an important contributor to the solution. Advanced hydrogenation approaches involving the control of the charge state for the hydrogen atoms in silicon to enhance their diffusivity and reactivity are developed and evaluated in this work for commercial application using a prototype industrial tool in conjunction with solar cells manufactured on commercial production lines. This prototype tool, unlike the previous successful laser-based laboratory approaches, is based on the use of LEDs for controlling the charge state of the hydrogen atoms. The illumination from the LEDs is also used in this work to passivate process-induced defects and contamination from the respective production lines with significant improvements in both efficiency and stability. The results indicate that the low-cost LED-based industrial tool performs as well as the laser-based laboratory tool for implementing these advanced hydrogen passivation approaches.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Fabrication of Affordable and Sustainable Solar Cells Using NiO/TiO2 P-N

    • Abstract: The need for affordable, clean, efficient, and sustainable solar cells informed this study. Metal oxide TiO2/NiO heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using the spray pyrolysis technique. The optoelectronic properties of the heterojunction were determined. The fabricated solar cells exhibit a short-circuit current of 16.8 mA, open-circuit voltage of 350 mV, fill factor of 0.39, and conversion efficiency of 2.30% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. This study will help advance the course for the development of low-cost, environmentally friendly, and sustainable solar cell materials from metal oxides.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Thermal Feature of a Modified Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall

    • Abstract: This work is to study a novel solar PCM storage wall technology, that is, a dual-channel and thermal-insulation-in-the-middle type solar PCM storage wall (MSPCMW) system. The system has the following four independent functions, passive solar heating, heat preservation, heat insulation, and passive cooling, and it can agilely cope with the requirements of climatization of buildings in different seasons throughout the year and is exactly suitable for building in regions characterized by hot summer and cold winter. The present work experimentally analyzes thermal feature of the system working in summer and winter modes, respectively.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Photocatalytic Activity under Simulated Sunlight of Bi-Modified TiO2 Thin
           Films Obtained by Sol Gel

    • Abstract: The synthesis of Bi-modified TiO2 thin films, with different Bi contents, is reported. The obtained materials were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), in order to obtain information on their chemical composition, vibrational features, and optical properties, respectively. Compositional characterization reveals that the bismuth content can be varied in an easy way from 0.5 to 25.4 at. %. Raman results show that the starting material corresponds to the anatase phase of crystalline TiO2, and Bi addition promotes the formation of bismuth titanates, Bi2Ti2O7 at Bi contents of 10.4 at. % and the Bi4Ti3O12 at Bi contents of 21.5 and 25.4 at. %. Optical measurements reveal that the band gap narrows from 3.3 eV to values as low as 2.7 eV. The photocatalytic activity was tested in the degradation reaction of the Malachite Green carbinol base dye (MG) as a model molecule under simulated sunlight, where the most relevant result is that photocatalytic formulations containing bismuth showed higher catalytic activity than pure TiO2. The higher photocatalytic activity of MG degradation of 67% reached by the photocatalytic formulation of 21.5 at. % of bismuth is attributed to the presence of the crystalline phase perovskite-type bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Novel Imidazole Substituted Bodipy-Based Organic Sensitizers in
           Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    • Abstract: A comparative study on the photophysical, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic performances of pure imidazole dyes containing varying linker groups is done. Two new organic dyes containing 4,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazole (BPI) unit as an electron donor, boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) chromophore as a conjugate bridge, cyanoacetic acid as an electron acceptor, and phenylene (BPI-P) or thienyl (BPI-T) as a additional linker have been synthesized for fabricating dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A reference dye (DPI-T) with 6,9-dimethoxy-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole as the donor has also been synthesized for comparison. The overall conversion efficiencies of 0.18%, 0.32%, and 1.28% were obtained for DSSCs based on BPI-P, BPI-T, and DPI-T, respectively. DPI-T was found to be more efficient than BPI-P and BPI-T because of its enhanced light harvesting efficiency and better coplanar geometry of the electronic structure.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Design and Simulation of a Solar Chimney PV/T Power Plant in Northwest

    • Abstract: A solar chimney PV/T power plant (SCPVTPP) is proposed. Mathematical models are established for the PV/T solar collector, the chimney, and the power conversion unit, respectively. Performances of the designed SCPVTPP are then simulated. The SCPVTPPs with different PV module areas are finally discussed. It is found that the PV cells hold the highest temperature in the solar collector. Temperature rise of the PV module has significant influences to its power generation. Without cooling, the PV power capacity has an average decrease of 28.71%. The contradictory influences of temperature rise and airflow cooling lead to an 11.81% decrease of the average power capacity. By adding the power generated by PVT, the total PV-related power contribution increases by 4.72%. With the increase of the solar collector ratio, the temperature rise and the wind velocity both first decrease then increase, the SCPP power productivity decreases linearly, and the PV power productivity increases linearly, whereas the PVT power productivity first increases linearly then increases superlinearly. There is a reversed solar collector ratio, exceeding which the PV generates most power. In this study, solar thermal power takes the major role when the solar PV area ratio is smaller than 0.055.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Phase Distribution for Subcooled Flow Boiling in an Inclined Circular Tube

    • Abstract: An experimental investigation of phase distribution for subcooled flow boiling in an inclined circular tube (i.d. 24 mm) was conducted in this paper. The local interfacial parameters were measured by a double-sensor optical fiber probe, and the measurements were performed on three different directions in the inclined tube cross section. The experiment shows that the phase distribution under the inclined condition is different from the phase distribution under the vertical condition. The profiles skewed highly for and direction in the tube cross section, whereas the profile was also symmetrical at direction. These results can be explained by the fact that buoyancy caused the bubbles to move toward the top of the tube cross section under inclined condition. In addition, the typical distributions were also influenced by the inclination angles.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Tracking Error of Double-Axis Tracking Device on the Optical
           Performance of Solar Dish Concentrator

    • Abstract: In this paper, a flux distribution model of the focal plane in dish concentrator system has been established based on ray tracking method. This model was adopted for researching the influence of the mirror slope error, solar direct normal irradiance, and tracking error of elevation-azimuth tracking device (EATD) on the focal spot characteristics (i.e., flux distribution, geometrical shape, centroid position, and intercept factor). The tracking error transmission law of the EATD transferred to dish concentrator was also studied. The results show that the azimuth tracking error of the concentrator decreases with the increase of the concentrator elevation angle and it decreases to 0 mrad when the elevation angle is 90°. The centroid position of focal spot along x-axis and y-axis has linear relationship with azimuth and elevation tracking error of EATD, respectively, which could be used to evaluate and calibrate the tracking error of the dish concentrator. Finally, the transmission law of the EATD azimuth tracking error in solar heliostats is analyzed, and a dish concentrator using a spin-elevation tracking device is proposed, which can reduce the effect of spin tracking error on the dish concentrator. This work could provide fundamental for manufacturing precision allocation of tracking devices and developing a new type of tracking device.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Modeling of Photovoltaic System with Modified Incremental Conductance
           Algorithm for Fast Changes of Irradiance

    • Abstract: The first objective of this work is to determine some of the performance parameters characterizing the behavior of a particular photovoltaic (PV) panels that are not normally provided in the manufacturers’ specifications. These provide the basis for developing a simple model for the electrical behavior of the PV panel. Next, using this model, the effects of varying solar irradiation, temperature, series and shunt resistances, and partial shading on the output of the PV panel are presented. In addition, the PV panel model is used to configure a large photovoltaic array. Next, a boost converter for the PV panel is designed. This converter is put between the panel and the load in order to control it by means of a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The MPPT used is based on incremental conductance (INC), and it is demonstrated here that this technique does not respond accurately when solar irradiation is increased. To investigate this, a modified incremental conductance technique is presented in this paper. It is shown that this system does respond accurately and reduces the steady-state oscillations when solar irradiation is increased. Finally, simulations of the conventional and modified algorithm are compared, and the results show that the modified algorithm provides an accurate response to a sudden increase in solar irradiation.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Grid-Connected Semitransparent Building-Integrated Photovoltaic System:
           The Comprehensive Case Study of the 120 kWp Plant in Kunming, China

    • Abstract: A 120 kWp building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system was installed on the south facade of the Solar Energy Research Institute building in Yunnan Normal University. The area of the curtain wall was 1560 m2 (26 m × 60 m), which consisted of 720 semitransparent monocrystalline silicon double-glazing PV panels. This paper studied the yearly and monthly variations of power generation in terms of solar data and meteorological parameters. The total amount of power generation of the BIPV system measured from October 2014 to September 2015 was 64.607 MWh, and the simulation results with TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation Program) provided the 75.515 MWh predicted value of annual electricity production with the meteorological database of Meteonorm, while, based on the average value of the performance ratio (PR) of 60% and the life cycle assessment (LCA) of the system, the energy payback time (EPBT) of 9.38 years and the potential for pollutant emission reductions have been evaluated and the environmental cost is RMB ¥0.01053 per kWh. Finally, an economic analysis was carried out; the net present value (NPV) and the economic payback time of the BIPV system were estimated to be RMB ¥359,347 and 15 years, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Influence of Gas-Liquid Interface on Temperature Wave of Pulsating Heat

    • Abstract: The influence of the interface on the amplitude and phase of the temperature wave and the relationship between the attenuation of the temperature wave and the gas-liquid two-phase physical parameters are studied during the operation of the pulsating heat pipe. The numerical simulation shows that the existence of the phase interface changes the direction of the temperature gradient during the propagation of the temperature wave, which increases the additional “thermal resistance.” The relative size of the gas-liquid two-phase thermal conductivity affects the propagation direction of heat flow at phase interface directly. The blockage of the gas plug causes hysteresis in the phase of the temperature wave, the relative size of the gas-liquid two-phase temperature coefficient will gradually increase the phase of the temperature wave, and the time when the heat flow reaches the peak value is also advanced. The attenuation of the temperature wave is almost irrelevant to the absolute value of the density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the gas-liquid two phases, and the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the gas-liquid two phases is related. When the temperature of the heat pipe was changed, the difference of heat storage ability between gas and liquid will lead to the phenomenon of heat reflux and becomes more pronounced with the increases of the temperature wave.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Photovoltaic Energy-Assisted Electrocoagulation of a Synthetic Textile

    • Abstract: The feasibility of using photovoltaic modules to power a continuous 14 L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye with an efficiency of 70% is reported. The photovoltaic modules were directly connected, and the system efficiency was observed properly maintained when currents were applied in the range of 2.5 to 7.9 A. This value depends on solar radiation. Likewise, it was found that the efficiency depends mainly on the current density and the flow rate prevailing in the reactor.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Comparative Analysis of 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio)-Benzothiazole
           Degradation Using Electro-Fenton and Anodic Oxidation on a Boron-Doped
           Diamond Electrode

    • Abstract: 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole (TCMTB) is used as fungicide in the paper, tannery, paint, and coatings industries, and its study is important as it is considered toxic to aquatic life. In this study, a comparison of direct anodic oxidation (AO) using a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) and electro-Fenton (EF) processes for TCMTB degradation in acidic chloride and sulfate media using a FM01-LC reactor was performed. The results of the electrolysis processes studied in the FM01-LC reactor showed a higher degradation of TCMTB with the anodic oxidation process than with the electro-Fenton process, reaching 81% degradation for the former process versus 47% degradation for the latter process. This difference was attributed to the decrease in H2O2 during the EF process, due to parallel oxidation of chlorides. The degradation rate and current efficiency increased as a function of volumetric flow rate, indicating that convection promotes anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton processes. The results showed that both AO and EF processes could be useful strategies for TCMTB toxicity reduction in wastewaters.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Preparation and Thermal Properties of Eutectic Hydrate Salt Phase Change
           Thermal Energy Storage Material

    • Abstract: In this study, a new cold storage phase change material eutectic hydrate salt (K2HPO4·3H2O–NaH2PO4·2H2O–Na2S2O3·5H2O) was prepared, modified, and tested. The modification was performed by adding a nucleating agent and thickener. The physical properties such as viscosity, surface tension, cold storage characteristics, supercooling, and the stability during freeze-thaw cycles were studied. Results show that the use of nucleating agents, such as sodium tetraborate, sodium fluoride, and nanoparticles, are effective. The solidification temperature and latent heat of these materials which was added with 0, 3, and 5 wt% thickeners were −11.9, −10.6, and −14.8°C and 127.2, 118.6, 82.56 J/g, respectively. Adding a nucleating agent can effectively improve the nucleation rate and nucleation stability. Furthermore, increasing viscosity has a positive impact on the solidification rate, supercooling, and the stability during freeze-thaw cycles.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Small-Sized Parabolic Trough Collector System for Solar Dehumidification
           Application: Design, Development, and Potential Assessment

    • Abstract: The current study presents a numerical and real-time performance analysis of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) system designed for solar air-conditioning applications. Initially, a thermodynamic model of PTC is developed using engineering equation solver (EES) having a capacity of around 3 kW. Then, an experimental PTC system setup is established with a concentration ratio of 9.93 using evacuated tube receivers. The experimental study is conducted under the climate of Taxila, Pakistan in accordance with ASHRAE 93-1986 standard. Furthermore, PTC system is integrated with a solid desiccant dehumidifier (SDD) to study the effect of various operating parameters such as direct solar radiation and inlet fluid temperature and its impact on dehumidification share. The experimental maximum temperature gain is around 5.2°C, with the peak efficiency of 62% on a sunny day. Similarly, maximum thermal energy gain on sunny and cloudy days is 3.07 kW and 2.33 kW, respectively. Afterwards, same comprehensive EES model of PTC with some modifications is used for annual transient analysis in TRNSYS for five different climates of Pakistan. Quetta revealed peak solar insolation of 656 W/m2 and peak thermal energy 1139 MJ with 46% efficiency. The comparison shows good agreement between simulated and experimental results with root mean square error of around 9%.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Parametric Study on the Thermal Performance and Optimal Design Elements of
           Solar Air Heater Enhanced with Jet Impingement on a Corrugated Absorber

    • Abstract: Previous works revealed that cross-corrugated absorber plate design and jet impingement on a flat absorber plate resulted in a significant increase in the performance of a solar air heater (SAH). Involving these two designs into one continuous design to improve the SAH performance remains absent in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the achieved enhancement on performance parameters of a SAH with jet impingement on a corrugated absorber plate. An energy balance model was developed to compare the performance parameters of the proposed SAH with the other two SAHs. At a clear sky day and a mass flow rate of 0.04 kg/s, the hourly results revealed that the max fluid outlet temperatures for the proposed SAH, jet-to-flat plate SAH, and cross-corrugated plate SAH are 321, 317, and 313 K, respectively; the max absorber plate temperatures are 323.5, 326.5, and 328 K, respectively; the maximum temperature differences between the absorber plate and fluid outlet are ~3, 9, and 15 K, respectively; the max efficiencies are 65.7, 64.8, and 60%, respectively. Statistical t-test results confirmed significant differences between the mean efficiency of the proposed SAH and SAH with jet-to-flat plate. Hence, the proposed design is considered superior in improving the performance parameters of SAH compared to other designs.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Microcrack Length in Silicon Cells on the Potential Induced
           Degradation Behavior

    • Abstract: The presence of microcracks may lead to loss in the module output power and safety hazard of the module. This paper investigated whether the existed microscopic microcracks in cells will facilitate the PID behavior. Cells with different degrees of microcracks were fabricated into small modules to undergo the simulated PID test. The I-V performance and EL images of the modules were characterized before and after the PID test. The obtained results demonstrate that with the increase in the microcracked area or length, the modules would show a more serious PID behavior. The mechanism of this microcrack length-related degradation under high negative bias was proposed.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Physics-Based Modeling and Experimental Study of Si-Doped InAs/GaAs
           Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    • Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study on the impact of doping and recombination mechanisms on quantum dot solar cells based on the InAs/GaAs system. Numerical simulations are built on a hybrid approach that includes the quantum features of the charge transfer processes between the nanostructured material and the bulk host material in a classical transport model of the macroscopic continuum. This allows gaining a detailed understanding of the several physical mechanisms affecting the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and provides a quantitatively accurate picture of real devices at a reasonable computational cost. Experimental results demonstrate that QD doping provides a remarkable increase of the solar cell open-circuit voltage, which is explained by the numerical simulations as the result of reduced recombination loss through quantum dots and defects.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
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