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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 199)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Photoenergy
  [SJR: 0.348]   [H-I: 28]   [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1110-662X - ISSN (Online) 1687-529X
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • Small-Scale Flat Plate Collectors for Solar Thermal Scavenging in Low
           Conductivity Environments

    • Abstract: There is great opportunity to develop power supplies for autonomous application on the small scale. For example, remote environmental sensors may be powered through the harvesting of ambient thermal energy and heating of a thermoelectric generator. This work investigates a small-scale (centimeters) solar thermal collector designed for this application. The absorber is coated with a unique selective coating and then studied in a low pressure environment to increase performance. A numerical model that is used to predict the performance of the collector plate is developed. This is validated based on benchtop testing of a fabricated collector plate in a low-pressure enclosure. Model results indicate that simulated solar input of about 800 W/m2 results in a collector plate temperature of 298 K in ambient conditions and up to 388 K in vacuum. The model also predicts the various losses in W/m2 K from the plate to the surroundings. Plate temperature is validated through the experimental work showing that the model is useful to the future design of these small-scale solar thermal energy collectors.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural
           Network with Air Quality Index

    • Abstract: High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV) power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI) is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP) neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2017 06:01:16 +000
  • Experimental Study of the Slit Spacing and Bed Height on the Thermal
           Performance of Slit-Glazed Solar Air Heater

    • Abstract: The thermal performances of three slit-glazed solar air heaters (SGSAHs) were investigated experimentally. Three SGSAHs with different bed heights (7 cm, 5 cm, and 3 cm) were fabricated with multiple glass panes used for glazing. The length, width, and thickness of each pane were 154 cm, 6 cm, and 0.4 cm, respectively. Ambient air was continuously withdrawn through the gaps between the glass panes by fans. The experiments were conducted for four different gap distances between the glass panes (0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) and the air mass flow rate was varied between 0.014 kg/s and 0.057 kg/s. The effects of air mass flux on the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency were studied. For the SGSAH with bed height of 7 cm and glass pane gap distance of 0.5 mm, the highest efficiency was obtained as 82% at a mass flow rate of 0.057 kg/s and the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet (∆T) was maximum (27°C) when the mass flow rate was least. The results demonstrate that for lower mass flow rates and larger gaps, the performance of SGSAH with a bed height of 3 cm was better compared to that of others. However, for higher mass flow rates, the SGSAH with 7 cm bed height performed better.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Modeling and Modulation of NNPC Four-Level Inverter for Solar Photovoltaic
           Power Plant

    • Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) power plant is an attractive way of utilizing the solar energy. For high-power PV power plant, the multilevel inverter is of potential interest. In contrast to the neutral-point clamped (NPC) or flying capacitor (FC) multilevel inverter, the nested neutral point clamped (NNPC) four-level inverter has better features for solar photovoltaic power plant. In practical applications, the common mode voltage reduction of the NNPC four-level is one of the important issues. In order to solve the problem, a new modulation strategy is proposed to minimize the common mode voltage. Compared with the conventional solution, our proposal can reduce the common mode voltage to 1/18 of the DC bus voltage. Moreover, it has the capability to balance the capacitor voltages. Finally, we carried out time-domain simulations to test the performance of the NNPC four-level inverter.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • An Analysis of ZnS:Cu Phosphor Layer Thickness Influence on
           Electroluminescence Device Performances

    • Abstract: Electroluminescence (EL) device is a new technology; its thickness is within micrometer range which can bend more easily and emit light. However, the thickness of ZnS:Cu phosphor layer may affect the light intensity, so we have analyzed the thickness of ZnS:Cu phosphor layer on EL device. The EL devices consist of ITO:PET/ZnS:Cu phosphor/insulator (BaTiO3)/Ag electrode. The EL devices were fabricated in changing thickness 10 μm, 30 μm, and 50 μm. At 100 V 400 Hz, the luminance of EL devices was 51.22 cd/m2 for thickness 30 μm more than that of 45.78 cd/m2 (thickness: 10 μm) and 42.58 cd/m2 (thickness: 50 μm). However, the peak light intensity was achieved at wavelength of 507 nm which was not influenced by the thickness of the ZnS:Cu phosphor. The use of the ZnS:Cu phosphor layer at thickness 30 μm in the EL device significantly improves the luminescence performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Enhancement of UV Radiation by Cloud Effect in NE of Brazil

    • Abstract: This paper reports a detailed analysis of ground-based measurements of cloud-enhanced global solar and UV radiation in NE Brazil in the city of Recife. It was found that (a) the phenomenon of UV enhancement, above clear sky model, is not uncommon and that it occurs on at least eight months; (b) the cumulative duration can reach 13 minutes; (c) there is a clear seasonal effect, and the probability of occurrence on a monthly basis shows two peaks, one in March and another in October; and (d) the most extreme UV radiation was 70.4 W/m2, approximately 6 W/m2 higher than the clear sky UV radiation. The extreme values should be taken into account in the study of effects related to the UV index and biological effects. Two statistical models also were elaborated, to estimate the UV solar radiation, in which the first is for all sky conditions and the second exclusively for situations where the global solar radiation is equal to or higher than 1367 W/m2, resulting from the enhancement effect caused by a particular configuration of the clouds. The statistical indicatives for both models presented, respectively, MBE% of 3.09 and 0.48% and RMSE% of 15.80 and 3.90%.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Selective Adsorption and Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes Using
           Polyoxometalate Hybrid Supported on Magnetic Activated Carbon
           Nanoparticles under Sunlight, Visible, and UV Irradiation

    • Abstract: In this study, magnetic activated carbon (MAC) nanoparticles were coated with an organic hybrid of silicotungstic acid that makes MAC suitable for adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of dyes. The prepared composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Dye adsorption and photocatalytic properties of composite were examined by studying the decolorization of model dyes methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB), and their mixture solutions. The results show that the composite can selectively adsorb MB molecules from binary mixtures of MB/MO or MB/RhB, and its adsorption capacity is enhanced as compared with the MAC. The composite is also, unlike MAC, a good photocatalyst in the degradation of dyes under sunlight, visible, and UV irradiation and can be separated by magnet, recovered and reused. Removal is via combination of adsorption and then photocatalytic degradation through direct oxidation by composite or indirect oxidation by •OH radicals. While the sunlight is not able to degrade alone MO and RhB solution in the presence of composite, it degrades the MO and RhB mixed with MB solution.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Solar Heating and Cooling System in a Nearly Zero-Energy Building: A
           Case Study in China

    • Abstract: The building sector accounts for more than 40% of the global energy consumption. This consumption may be lowered by reducing building energy requirements and using renewable energy in building energy supply systems. Therefore, a nearly zero-energy building, incorporating a solar heating and cooling system, was designed and built in Beijing, China. The system included a 35.17 kW cooling (10-RT) absorption chiller, an evacuated tube solar collector with an aperture area of 320.6 m2, two hot-water storage tanks (with capacities of 10 m3 and 30 m3, respectively), two cold-water storage tanks (both with a capacity of 10 m3), and a 281 kW cooling tower. Heat pump systems were used as a backup. At a value of 25.2%, the obtained solar fraction associated with the cooling load was close to the design target of 30%. In addition, the daily solar collector efficiency and the chiller coefficient of performance (COP) varied from 0.327 to 0.507 and 0.49 to 0.70, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2017 03:37:13 +000
  • Solar Energy and PV Systems in Smart Cities

    • PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 08:04:06 +000
  • Modulation above Pump Beam Energy in Photoreflectance

    • Abstract: Photoreflectance is used for the characterisation of semiconductor samples, usually by sweeping the monochromatized probe beam within the energy range comprised between the highest value set up by the pump beam and the lowest absorption threshold of the sample. There is, however, no fundamental upper limit for the probe beam other than the limited spectral content of the source and the responsivity of the detector. As long as the modulation mechanism behind photoreflectance does affect the complete electronic structure of the material under study, sweeping the probe beam towards higher energies from that of the pump source is equally effective in order to probe high-energy critical points. This fact, up to now largely overseen, is shown experimentally in this work. E1 and E0 + Δ0 critical points of bulk GaAs are unambiguously resolved using pump light of lower energy. This type of upstream modulation may widen further applications of the technique.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Recent Overview of Solar Photocatalysis and Solar Photo-Fenton Processes
           for Wastewater Treatment

    • Abstract: This literature research, although not exhaustive, gives perspective to solar-driven photocatalysis, such as solar photo-Fenton and solar photocatalysis, reported in the literature for the degradation of aqueous organic pollutants. Parameters that influence the degradation and mineralization of organics like catalyst preparation, type and load of catalyst, catalyst phase, pH, applied potential, and type of organic pollutant are addressed. Such parameters may also affect the photoactivity of the catalysts used in the studied solar processes. Solar irradiation is a renewable, abundant, and pollution-free energy source for low-cost commercial applications. Therefore, these solar processes represent an environmentally friendly alternative mainly because the use of electricity can be decreased/avoided.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Thermal Storage Capacity and Night Ventilation Performance of a Solar
           Chimney Combined with Different PCMs

    • Abstract: Thermal storage capacity and airflow rate of a solar chimney combined with different PCMs are numerically studied during nighttime. PCMs with phase change temperatures of 38°C, 44°C, 50°C, and 63°C are selected in this numerical study. Results show that the maximum average ventilation rate of 610 kg/m2 and maximum thermal storage of 4750 kJ/m2 are achieved at the phase change temperature of 38°C. However, for phase change temperature of 63°C, night ventilation does not occur under the identical conditions. The findings reveal that a lower phase change temperature can increase the chargeability (and therefore the dischargeability) of a solar chimney, since a higher phase change temperature demands higher solar radiation intensity and longer charging time for a solar chimney. For PCM with a phase change temperature of 44°C, most of the heat stored in PCM is lost to ambient through glass cover by radiation and only a small portion is used for heating the air within air channel.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 01:21:57 +000
  • Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon
           Photovoltaic Modules

    • Abstract: Cumulative photovoltaic (PV) power installed in 2016 was equal to 305 GW. Five countries (China, Japan, Germany, the USA, and Italy) shared about 70% of the global power. End-of-life (EoL) management of waste PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and recycling is a valid option. Technological solutions are already available in the market and environmental benefits are highlighted by the literature, while economic advantages are not well defined. The aim of this paper is investigating the financial feasibility of crystalline silicon (Si) PV module-recycling processes. Two well-known indicators are proposed for a reference 2000 tons plant: net present value (NPV) and discounted payback period (DPBT). NPV/size is equal to −0.84 €/kg in a baseline scenario. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. NPV/size varies from −1.19 €/kg to −0.50 €/kg. The absence of valuable materials plays a key role, and process costs are the main critical variables.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Efficient Inverted ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Based on Transparent
           Silver Electrode with Aqueous Solution-Processed ZnO Interlayer

    • Abstract: Efficient inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) with the MoO3 (2 nm)/Ag (12 nm) transparent cathode and an aqueous solution ZnO electron extraction layer processed at low temperature are investigated in this work. The blend of low bandgap poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]] (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methylester (PC71BM) is employed as the photoactive layer here. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.55% is achieved for such indium tin oxide- (ITO-) free OSCs under AM 1.5G simulated illumination, comparable to that of ITO-based reference OSCs (PCE of 6.11%). It is found that this ZnO interlayer not only slightly enhances the transparency of MoO3/Ag cathode but also obtains a lower root-mean-square (RMS) roughness on the MoO3/Ag surface. Meanwhile, ITO-free OSCs also show a good stability. The PCE of the devices still remains above 85% of the original values after 30 days, which is slightly superior to ITO-based reference OSCs where the 16% degradation in PCE is observed after 30 days. It may be instructive for further research of OSCs based on metal thin film electrodes.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using a Composite of PEDOT:PSS and Carbon
           Derived from Human Hair for a Counter Electrode

    • Abstract: Carbon derived from hair is interesting because it has good electrocatalytic activity due to the existence of innate heteroatom dopants especially nitrogen and sulfur. In this study, a carbon catalyst containing high nitrogen contents (9.47 at.%) was fabricated without using any harsh chemicals. Moreover, the carbonization temperature was only 700°C. Carbonized hair/PEDOT:PSS composites (CxP) with varied carbon contents from x = 0.2 to 0.8 g were tested as a counter electrode (CE) for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This type of DSSC CE has scarcely been investigated. A DSSC with a C0.6P CE provides the best efficiency (6.54 ± 0.11%) among all composite CEs because it has a high fill factor (FF) and a high short-circuit current density (Jsc). The efficiency of DSSC with C0.6P CE is lower than Pt’s (7.29 ± 0.01%) since the Pt-based DSSC has higher FF and Jsc values. However, C0.6P is still promising as a DSSC CE since it is more cost-effective than Pt.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Hole-Transporting Layer Treatment of Planar Hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS Solar
           Cells with Power Conversion Efficiency up to 14.5%

    • Abstract: A systematical investigation was carried out into the effects of the hole-transporting layer treatment of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on the performance of planar hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells. Triton X-100 and ethylene glycol (EG) were chosen to improve the conductivity and surface morphology of the PEDOT:PSS film. It was found that the annealing temperature has a great influence on the PEDOT:PSS material properties and the corresponding device performance. By optimizing the annealing temperature, the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS film doped with Triton X-100 and EG could be enhanced by a factor of more than three orders. And the corresponding device also shows record power conversion efficiency as high as 14.5% with an open circuit voltage of 0.627 V, a short circuit current of 32.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 70.7%.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants 2017

    • PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Optimal Site Selection for a Solar Power Plant in the Central Anatolian
           Region of Turkey

    • Abstract: Primary energy sources are running out due to the increase in electrical energy consumption. Environmental problems caused by primary energy sources are also increasing. Using more renewable energy resources (RES) can be considered as one of the most powerful solutions to address these problems. Today, required photovoltaic power systems (PVPS) and wind energy systems (WES) are widely used as RES for addressing these problems. Because of their high costs, feasibility studies are required for locating large systems associated with these resources. In this study, various suggestions are determined about location selection, which is an important stage in the PVPS’s establishment. Hence, the criteria for selecting the appropriate location are analyzed by the multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods and the results are evaluated for 5 cities in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. In conclusion, it is determined which city is the most suitable place for installation of solar power plants.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Detailed Modeling of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Vacuum Glazing

    • Abstract: A theoretical analysis of flat plate solar collectors with a vacuum glazing is presented. Different configurations of the collector have been investigated by a detailed theoretical model based on a combined external and internal energy balance of the absorber. Performance characteristics for vacuum flat plate collector alternatives have been derived. Subsequently, annual energy gains have been evaluated for a selected variant and compared with state-of-the-art vacuum tube collectors. The results of modeling indicate that, in the case of using advanced vacuum glazing with optimized low-emissivity coating (emissivity 0.20, solar transmittance 0.85), it is possible to achieve efficiency parameters similar to or even better than vacuum tube collectors. The design presented in this paper can be considered promising for the extension of the applicability range of FPC and could be used in applications, which require low-to-medium temperature level.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 09:16:47 +000
  • Nanostructured Dielectric Layer for Ultrathin Crystalline Silicon Solar

    • Abstract: Nanostructures have been widely used in solar cells due to their extraordinary photon management properties. However, due to poor pn junction quality and high surface recombination velocity, typical nanostructured solar cells are not efficient compared with the traditional commercial solar cells. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to design, simulate, and fabricate whole-wafer nanostructures on dielectric layer on thin c-Si for solar cell light trapping. The optical simulation results show that the periodic nanostructure arrays on dielectric materials could suppress the reflection loss over a wide spectral range. In addition, by applying the nanostructured dielectric layer on 40 μm thin c-Si, the reflection loss is suppressed to below 5% over a wide spectra and angular range. Moreover, a c-Si solar cell with 2.9 μm ultrathin absorber layer demonstrates 32% improvement in short circuit current and 44% relative improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Our results suggest that nanostructured dielectric layer has the potential to significantly improve solar cell performance and avoid typical problems of defects and surface recombination for nanostructured solar cells, thus providing a new pathway towards realizing high-efficiency and low-cost c-Si solar cells.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    • Abstract: Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Organic Dyes Containing Coplanar Dihexyl-Substituted Dithienosilole Groups
           for Efficient Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells

    • Abstract: A chromophore containing a coplanar dihexyl-substituted dithienosilole (CL1) synthesised for use in dye-sensitised solar cells displayed an energy conversion efficiency of 6.90% under AM 1.5 sunlight irradiation. The new sensitiser showed a similar fill factor and open-circuit voltage when compared with N719. Impedance measurements showed that, in the dark, the charge-transfer resistance of a cell using CL1 in the intermediate-frequency region was higher compared to N719 (69.8 versus 41.3 Ω). Under illumination at AM 1.5G-simulated conditions, the charge-transfer resistances were comparable, indicative of similar recombination rates by the oxidised form of the redox couple. The dye showed instability in ethanol solution, but excellent stability when attached to TiO2. Classical molecular dynamics indicated that interactions between ethanol and the dye are likely to reduce the stability of CL1 in solution form. Time-dependent density functional theory studies were performed to ascertain the absorption spectrum of the dye and assess the contribution of various transitions to optical excitation, which showed good agreement with experimental results.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 May 2017 02:05:37 +000
  • Perovskite Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Inorganic Hole Conducting

    • Abstract: Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have recently shown great potential for application, due to their advantages of low-cost, excellent photoelectric properties and high power conversion efficiency. Perovskite-based thin film solar cells have achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 20%. Hole transport materials (HTMs) are one of the most important components of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), having functions of optimizing interface, adjusting the energy match, and helping to obtain higher PCE. Inorganic p-type semiconductors are alternative HTMs due to their chemical stability, higher mobility, high transparency in the visible region, and applicable valence band (VB) energy level. This review analyzed the advantages, disadvantages, and development prospects of several popular inorganic HTMs in PSCs.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2017 03:48:50 +000
  • Improving the Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal System Performance Using
           Water-Cooling Technique and Zn-H2O Nanofluid

    • Abstract: This paper presented the improvement of the performance of the photovoltaic panels under Iraqi weather conditions. The biggest problem is the heat stored inside the PV cells during operation in summer season. A new design of an active cooling technique which consists of a small heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at the PV rear surface is implemented. Nanofluids (Zn-H2O) with five concentration ratios (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) are prepared and optimized. The experimental results showed that the increase in output power is achieved. It was found that, without any cooling, the measuring of the PV temperature was 76°C in 12 June 2016; therefore, the conversion efficiency does not exceed more than 5.5%. The photovoltaic/thermal system was operated under active water cooling technique. The temperature dropped from 76 to 70°C. This led to increase in the electrical efficiency of 6.5% at an optimum flow rate of 2 L/min, and the thermal efficiency was 60%. While using a nanofluid (Zn-H2O) optimum concentration ratio of 0.3% and a flow rate of 2 L/min, the temperature dropped more significantly to 58°C. This led to the increase in the electrical efficiency of 7.8%. The current innovative technique approved that the heat extracted from the PV cells contributed to the increase of the overall energy output.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Observer-Based Load Frequency Control for Island Microgrid with
           Photovoltaic Power

    • Abstract: As renewable energy is widely integrated into the power system, the stochastic and intermittent power generation from renewable energy may cause system frequency deviating from the prescribed level, especially for a microgrid. In this paper, the load frequency control (LFC) of an island microgrid with photovoltaic (PV) power and electric vehicles (EVs) is investigated, where the EVs can be treated as distributed energy storages. Considering the disturbances from load change and PV power, an observer-based integral sliding mode (OISM) controller is designed to regulate the frequency back to the prescribed value, where the neural network observer is used to online estimate the PV power. Simulation studies on a benchmark microgrid system are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of OISM controller, and comparative results also demonstrate that the proposed method has a superior performance for stabilizing the frequency over the PID control.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 07:13:42 +000
  • Feasibility Study of a Building-Integrated PV Manager to Power a Last-Mile
           Electric Vehicle Sharing System

    • Abstract: Transportation is one of the largest single sources of air pollution in urban areas. This paper analyzes a model of solar-powered vehicle sharing system using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), resulting in a zero-emission and zero-energy mobility system for last-mile employee transportation. As a case study, an electric bicycle sharing system between a public transportation hub and a work center is modeled mathematically and optimized in order to minimize the number of pickup trips to satisfy the demand, while minimizing the total energy consumption of the system. The whole mobility system is fully powered with BIPV-generated energy. Results show a positive energy balance in e-bike batteries and pickup vehicle batteries in the worst day of the year regarding solar radiation. Even in this worst-case scenario, we achieve reuse rates of 3.8 people per bike, using actual data. The proposed system manages PV energy using only the batteries from the electric vehicles, without requiring supportive energy storage devices. Energy requirements and PV generation have been analyzed in detail to ensure the feasibility of this approach.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • An Optimal Charging Strategy for PV-Based Battery Swapping Stations in a
           DC Distribution System

    • Abstract: Photovoltaic- (PV-) based battery swapping stations (BSSs) utilize a typical integration of consumable renewable resources to supply power for electric vehicles (EVs). The charging strategy of PV-based BSSs directly influences the availability, cost, and carbon emissions of the swapping service. This paper proposes an optimal charging strategy to improve the self-consumption of PV-generated power and service availability while considering forecast errors. First, we introduce the typical structure and operation model of PV-based BSSs. Second, three indexes are presented to evaluate operational performance. Then, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is developed to calculate the optimal charging power and to minimize the charging cost for each time slot. The proposed charging strategy helps decrease the impact of forecast uncertainties on the availability of the battery swapping service. Finally, a day-ahead operation schedule, a real-time decision-making strategy, and the proposed PSO charging strategy for PV-based BSSs are simulated in a case study. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy can effectively improve the self-consumption of PV-generated power and reduce charging cost.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • PV-Powered CoMP-Based Green Cellular Networks with a Standby Grid Supply

    • Abstract: This paper proposes a novel framework for PV-powered cellular networks with a standby grid supply and an essential energy management technique for achieving envisaged green networks. The proposal considers an emerging cellular network architecture employing two types of coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission techniques for serving the subscribers. Under the proposed framework, each base station (BS) is powered by an individual PV solar energy module having an independent storage device. BSs are also connected to the conventional grid supply for meeting additional energy demand. We also propose a dynamic inter-BS solar energy sharing policy through a transmission line for further greening the proposed network by minimizing the consumption from the grid supply. An extensive simulation-based study in the downlink of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular system is carried out for evaluating the energy efficiency performance of the proposed framework. System performance is also investigated for identifying the impact of various system parameters including storage factor, storage capacity, solar generation capacity, transmission line loss, and different CoMP techniques.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Design and Optimization of Elliptical Cavity Tube Receivers in the
           Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    • Abstract: The nonfragile cavity receiver is of high significance to the solar parabolic trough collector (PTC). In the present study, light distributions in the cavity under different tracking error angles and PTC configurations are analyzed. A new elliptical cavity geometry is proposed and analyzed. It is obtained from this study that light distribution on the tube receiver is asymmetrical when tracking error occurs. On increasing the tracking error angle, more lights are sheltered by the cavity outer surface. The PTC focal distance has negative correlation with the cavity open length, whereas the PTC concentration ratio has positive correlation with the cavity open length. Increasing the tracking error angle and increasing the PTC focal distance would both decrease the cavity blackness. Introducing a flat plate reflector at the elliptical cavity open inlet can largely increase the cavity darkness.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 06:32:37 +000
  • Technoeconomic Evaluation for an Installed Small-Scale Photovoltaic Power

    • Abstract: Solar energy production and economic evaluation are analyzed, in this study, by using daily solar radiation and average temperature data which are measured for 3 years in the Osmaniye province in Turkey. Besides, this study utilizes the photovoltaic- (PV-) based grid connected to a power plant which has an installed capacity of 1 MW investment in electricity production. Economic values show that the net present value (NPV), the first economic method in the research, is about 111941 USD, which is greater than zero. Therefore, the payback year of this investment is approximately 8.3. The second one of these methods, the payback period of the simple payback period (PBP), is 6.27 years. The last method, which is the mean value of the internal rate of return (IRR), is 10.36%. The results of this study show that Osmaniye is a considerable region for the PV investment in electricity production. As a result, investment of a PV system in Osmaniye can be applicable.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 06:18:09 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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