Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 232)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Photoenergy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.341
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1110-662X - ISSN (Online) 1687-529X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • A New Configuration of Vertically Connecting Solar Cells: Solar Tree

    • Abstract: Solar energy is a renewable type, clean, and inexhaustible which is sufficiently available on the Algerian territory. The energy received daily on a horizontal surface of 1 m2 is in the order of 5 kWh over almost the whole Algerian territory; the duration of sunshine surpasses 2000 hours annually and can reach 3900 hours on the highlands and the Sahara. The importance of this work is based on exploiting solar energy to produce electricity. This study is based on the experimental exploitation of solar energy using solar tree’s prototype suggestion. This new model is focused to replace the leaf of a tree by the solar cell, starting by examining the solar field and physical phenomenon related with it; the description of cell photovoltaic comes after; and finally, the dimension of the solar system and the experimental studies are virtually released in the University of M’sila. In this work, a prototype of new artificial solar tree is proposed experimentally by using material available in the local market: 25 solar panels, metal support, electrical queues, regulator, and battery. The results highlight a power improvement in the case of the proposed new model (solar tree) compared to the traditional one provided (solar panel), for the specified time range between 8 am and 2:30 pm. On the other hand, the traditional model values improve if the time dimension is extended from 2:30 pm to 6:00 pm. This is due to the temperature of the region and the presence of interstellar spaces between the cells of the solar tree.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2020 07:50:01 +000
  • Effect of Chemical and Physical Parameters on the Electrical Outputs of
           Cu2ZnFeSnS4-Based Solar Cells by wxAMPS

    • Abstract: Cu2ZnFeSnS4-based solar cells with different mole fractions of iron have been analyzed using numerical simulations in this study. The analysis deals with the effect of the iron content on the overall electrical performance of solar cells. Results revealed that the Voc is affected by the increase of the iron content even if it improves the other parameters. We found that the CZFTS solar cell with a mole fraction of iron equal to 1 (CFTS) showed the best results in terms of power conversion efficiency (PCE). Moreover, variations of several structural and physical parameters of the buffer CdS and the best absorber CFTS on the overall electrical characteristics of the cell were investigated. Simulations showed promising results with PCE of 20.35%, Jsc of 26.09 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.93 V, and FF of 83.93%. The results obtained can serve as a basis for the design and manufacture of high-efficiency CZFTS solar cells.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 14:20:10 +000
  • Elastic, Mechanical, and Phonon Behavior of Orpiment Arsenic Trisulfide
           under Pressure

    • Abstract: Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) has been found to be an excellent glass former at high temperature and pressure. However, there is still some scarcity for the elastic and phonon behavior of the orpiment phase. By using the Dreiding force field of the geometry optimization computations, we investigated the elastic constants, mechanical moduli, and the phonon dispersion of orpiment As2S3 under the pressure from 0 to 5 GPa. Some results of the elastic parameters of orpiment-As2S3 at 0 GPa are consistent with the experimental data. The phonon dispersions for orpiment As2S3 under pressure are also reasonable with previous calculations.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Sep 2020 07:20:05 +000
  • Outdoor Performance Assessment of New and Old Photovoltaic Panel
           Technologies Using a Designed Multi-Photovoltaic Panel Power Measurement

    • Abstract: This paper presents a new multi-photovoltaic panel measurement and analysis system (PPMAS) developed for measurement of atmospheric parameters and generated power of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Designed system presented with an experimental study evaluates performance of four new and four 5-year-old PV panel technologies which are based on polycrystalline (Poly), monocrystalline (Mono), copper indium selenide (CIS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) in real time, under same atmospheric conditions. The PPMAS system with the PV panels is installed in Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara Province, in Turkey. The designed PPMAS consists of three different subsystems which are (1) photovoltaic panel measurement subsystem (PPMS), (2) meteorology measurement subsystem (MMS), and (3) data acquisition subsystem (DAS). PPMS is used to measure the power generation for PV panels. MMS involves different types of sensors, and it is designed to determine atmospheric conditions including wind speed, wind direction, outdoor temperature, humidity, ambient light, and panel temperatures. The measured values by PPMS and MMS are stored in a database using DAS subsystem. In order to improve the measurement accuracy, PPMS and MMS are calibrated. This study also focuses on outdoor testing performances of four new and four 5-year-old PV panels. Average monthly panel efficiencies are estimated as 8.46%, 8.11%, 5.65%, and 3.88% for new Mono, new Poly, new CIS, and new CdTe PV panels, respectively. Moreover, average monthly panel efficiencies of old panels are calculated as 8.22%, 7.85%, 5.35%, and 3.63% in the same order. Test results obtained from the experimental system are also statistically examined and discussed to analyze the performance of PV panels in terms of monthly panel efficiencies.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:20:03 +000
  • Corrigendum #2 to “Expanding Thermal Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition
           of ZnO:Al Layers for CIGS Solar Cells”

    • PubDate: Sat, 12 Sep 2020 15:35:02 +000
  • Enhancing the Performance of the Standalone Rooftop SPV Module during Peak
           Solar Irradiance and Ambient Temperature by the Active Cooling of the Rear
           Surface with Spraying Water and the Front Surface with Overflowing Water

    • Abstract: The usage of the solar photovoltaic (SPV) module to meet the power demands, especially in residential and office buildings, is inevitable in forthcoming years. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the possibility of improving the performance of the standalone rooftop SPV module used in the residential and office buildings during peak solar irradiance and ambient temperature with active cooling of the rear surface alone by spraying water and the front surface alone by water overflowing over it and cooling of the rear and the front surfaces simultaneously. The underneath of the SPV module is attached with a tray with a length of 1580 mm, a width of 640 mm, and a depth of 100 mm. It is filled with 40-70 litres of water. Accouters are made for water overflowing from the tube over the front surface of the module and cooling of the rear surface by spraying water. The rear surface cooling, front surface cooling, and simultaneous cooling of both the surfaces reduce the average operating temperature of the module by 15.52°C (maximum 18.6°C), 24.29°C (maximum 28.7°C), and 28.52°C (maximum 34.7°C), respectively. This temperature reduction leads to the increase in the power output of the 150 W module by 10.70 W, 18.48 W, and 20.56 W and percentage increase in efficiency by 8.778%, 15.278%, and 16.895% for rear, front, and simultaneous cooling of surfaces, respectively. The net power output of the module with the front surface cooling by overflowing (0.9 litre/min) water is higher, i.e., 15.88 W/150 W, and produces installation capacity of 0.4234 watt-hour (Wh) of more energy per watt during the test period 10 AM to 2 PM in a day. The recommended cooling methods eliminate the need for freshwater and separate arrangements to dissipate the heat carried by the circulated water and reduced the power required and quantity of water circulated. They also reduced the heat loads of the room by the shadow effect and by maintaining the tray water above the roof.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Sep 2020 05:50:01 +000
  • A Status Review on Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells

    • Abstract: Photovoltaics has become a significant branch of next-generation sustainable energy production. Kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 (copper-zinc-tin-(sulfur, selenium) or CZTS(Se)) is considered one of the most promising, earth-abundant, and nontoxic candidates for solar energy generation over the last decade. However, shallow phase stability of the quaternary phase and the presence of various secondary phases and defects are the main hindrances in achieving the target device performance. This paper summarizes various approaches to synthesize the CZTS absorber layer and the CdS -type material layer. Besides, different CZTS solar cell device structures, as well as a comprehensive review of secondary phases and defects, have been illustrated and discussed. At last, this review is intended to highlight the current challenges and prospects of CZTS solar cells.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 02:20:08 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Sensitivity of P-Channel MOSFET to X- and Gamma-Ray

    • PubDate: Mon, 31 Aug 2020 07:35:15 +000
  • Performance Analysis of Ti-Doped In2O3 Thin Films Prepared by Various
           Doping Concentrations Using RF Magnetron Sputtering for Light-Emitting

    • Abstract: The influences of doping amounts of TiO2 on the structure and electrical properties of In2O3 films were experimentally studied. In this study, titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) conductions were deposited on glass substrate by the dual-target-type radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFS) system under different conditions of Ti-doped In2O3 targets, from Ti-0.5 wt% to Ti-5.0 wt%, along with 10 mTorr and 300 W pressure of RF power control that was used as a cost-effective transparent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) cell. From this process, the correlation between structural, optical, and electrical properties is reported. It was found that the best  Ω cm of resistivity was from Ti-2.5 wt% with the highest carrier concentration (1.15 × 1021 cm-3), Hall mobility (46.03 cm2/V·s), relatively transmittance (82%), and ECL efficiency (0.43 lm·W-1) with well crystalline structured and smooth morphology. As a result, researchers can be responsible for preparing ITiO thin films with significantly improved microstructure and light intensity performance for the effectiveness of the display devices, as well as its simple process and high performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 12:20:13 +000
  • High-Performance Standalone Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Using
           Induction Motor

    • Abstract: This work is aimed at achieving a simple and reduced-cost configuration of photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system (PVWPS) using an induction motor with high efficiency. The proposed PV system is composed of two stages of converters which the first one ensures the maximum power point by controlling the duty ratio of boost converter using variable step size incremental conductance (VSS INC) technique. Fuzzy logic control based on direct torque control is proposed to serve the purpose of operating an induction motor. Moreover, the combining of these proposed control strategies has been never discussed. The proposed control scheme is modeled and simulated in detail under MATLAB/Simulink software to evaluate its performance under fast variations of irradiance and daily climatic profile. The obtained simulation results using the suggested control strategies are compared to those using the most used method in the literature (variable step size perturb and observe (VSS P&O) algorithm). The simulation results indicate that the proposed PVWPS performed best in terms of the time of response; pumped water, flux ripples, and the stator currents are reduced.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Aug 2020 13:05:13 +000
  • Analyzing the Off-Grid Performance of the Hybrid Photovoltaic/Diesel
           Energy System for a Peripheral Village

    • Abstract: Grid extension from the distribution network is being used to meet the demand for rural electricity all over the world. Due to the extra cost of extending electric lines to rural villages, it is not feasible as the installing and commissioning costs are directly related to several constraints such as distance from the main grid, the land location, utilities to be used, and the size of the approximate load. Consequently, it becomes a challenge to apply technoeconomic strategies for rural electrification. Therefore, considering the above issues of rural electrification through grid power, the renewable energy system can be an attractive solution. This research analyzes different types of loads considering domestic, industrial, and agricultural requirements for a remote village in a developing country like Bangladesh. In this paper, four types of demand scenarios are developed considering the income level of inhabitants of the village. The investigation identifies the optimal scope for renewable energy-based electrification and provides a suitable technoeconomic analysis with the help of HOMER software. The obtained results show that a combined architecture containing solar panel, diesel generator, and battery power is a viable solution and economically beneficial. The optimal configuration suggested for the primary scenario consists of 25 kW diesel generators to fulfill the basic demand. The hybrid PV-diesel-battery system becomes the optimal solution while the demand restriction is removed for secondary, tertiary, and full-option scenarios. Commercial and productive loads are considered in the load profile for these three scenarios of supply. For the primary scenario of supply, the electricity cost remains high as $0.449/kWh. On the other hand, the lowest electricity cost ($0.30/kWh) is obtained for the secondary scenario. Although the suggested optimal PV-diesel-battery might not reduce the cost of electricity (COE) and NPC significantly, it is capable to reduce dependency on diesel utilization. Hence, the emission of carbon is reduced due to less utilization of diesel that helps to minimize the greenhouse effect on the environment.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 14:35:12 +000
  • A Modified ESC Algorithm for MPPT Applied to a Photovoltaic System under
           Varying Environmental Conditions

    • Abstract: Photovoltaic solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. However, the production of this energy is nonlinear and varies depending on atmospheric parameters. Therefore, the operating point of the photovoltaic panel (PV) does not always coincide with the maximum power point (MPP). A mechanism that allows the research of the maximum power point known as maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is then needed to yield the maximum power permanently. This paper presents an intelligent control technique based on the ESC (Extremum Seeking Control) method for MPPT under varying environmental conditions. The proposed technique is an improvement of the classical ESC algorithm with an additional loop in order to increase the convergence speed. A detailed stability analysis is given not only to ensure a faster convergence of the system towards an adjustable neighborhood of the optimum point but also to confirm a better robustness of the proposed method. In addition, simulation results using Matlab/Simulink environment and experimental results using Arduino board are presented to demonstrate that the proposed modified ESC method performs better than the classical ESC under varying atmospheric conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2020 08:50:07 +000
  • Study on the Improved Electrical and Thermal Performance of the PV/T
           Façade System

    • Abstract: This paper is aimed at improving the performance of a building-integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPV/T) system driven by a refrigerant pump. The research is aimed at optimizing and upgrading the BIPV/T system to address the shortcomings of the original system by replacing roll-bond PV/T units with improved heat transfer features. The system’s connecting form was redesigned using a liquid separator to solve the uneven distribution of the refrigerant on the PV/T façade. We proposed the variable frequency refrigerant pump that can be adjusted to suit the working condition. An experimental study was performed to analyze the electrical and thermal efficiency of the proposed system. The results show that the electrical efficiency of the BIPV/T system was 8% which is 14.3% higher than the traditional BIPV system, while in the test period, the BIPV/T system average COP was 3.4. The thermal and comprehensive efficiencies were 20% and 42%, respectively. Besides, the proposed system’s average COP was 3.7 times greater than the original BIPV/T system.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Aug 2020 07:50:06 +000
  • Perspective of CIGS-BIPV’s Product Competitiveness in China

    • Abstract: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film battery has high photoelectric conversion efficiency, better spectral dispersion ability, and weak light-adsorption characteristics, as well as shape and size flexibility. CIGS-BIPV (building integrated photovoltaic) has attracted more and more research attention with the advantages of good curvature, form and color diversity, and broad application prospects. This paper uses the classical “Porter’s Five Forces Model” to make a preliminary analysis of the competitiveness of CIGS-BIPV products. A more specific competitiveness analysis model is further built with the index modeling method, and the competitiveness of CIGS-BIPV products is thoroughly analyzed from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Six primary research indicators are used, i.e., safety index, building aesthetics index, economic index, energy-saving and environmental protection index, innovation index, and sales force index. The weight analysis of index modeling shows that compared with a glass curtain wall, exterior stone, and silica-based BIPV, CIGS-BIPV is characterized by high product competitiveness, acceptable cost, attractive appearance, environmental benignity, high technical quality, and certain economic benefits. The product competitiveness of CIGS-BIPV could be further enhanced through the construction and promotion of sales channels.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 07:50:02 +000
  • Obtaining and Characterization of TiO2-GO Composites for Photocatalytic

    • Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TD) and graphene oxide (GO) were synthesized by sol-gel and improved Hummers method, respectively. This study shows the results of the incorporation through four different conditions (sol-gel, sol-gel and ultrasonic, annealed, and UV radiation, C1 to C4, respectively). It was observed that a homogeneous incorporation of TD on sheets of GO was obtained satisfactorily. The composites of TiO2/GO were characterized using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The photocatalytic activity of the composites was determined from the degradation of the dye azo tartrazine using UV and solar radiation. The best incorporation of TD nanoparticles on GO was obtained with condition C3 (thermal incorporation method) at a temperature of 65°C. This shows a uniformity in the size and shape of the TD as well as an excellent adherence to the sheet of GO. This addition is accomplished by ionic bonding in the presence of electrostatic Coulomb forces. The C3 composite degraded the tartrazine dye using UV radiation and sunlight. With the latter, the degradation time was three times faster than using UV light.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Aug 2020 16:35:01 +000
  • Preparation and Photocatalytic Water Splitting Hydrogen Production of
           Titanium Dioxide Nanosheets

    • Abstract: Improving the efficiency of photocatalytic water splitting to produce hydrogen is currently a hot topic in research. TiO2 nanosheets are a good carrier of photocatalytic materials and have become attractive materials in the new century because of their high active surface exposure characteristics and special morphology. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of conventional chemical and physical methods that are used for preparing TiO2 nanosheets, an optimized scheme for the preparation of TiO2 nanosheets via hydrothermal calcination was proposed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible diffuse reflection absorption spectra (DRS) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the TiO2 nanosheets, and differences in the photocatalytic water splitting hydrogen production activity of the different calcination temperatures were compared. The suitable calcination temperature of the TiO2 nanosheets was 400°C, and the hydrogen production rate was 270 μmol/h, which indicated that the sheet structure was beneficial for improving the photocatalytic water splitting hydrogen production performance of the material. It is hoped that this work will support the regulation of the surface morphology and surface modification of nanomaterials.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Aug 2020 08:35:03 +000
  • Dynamic Heating System of Multiphase Flow Digester by Solar-Untreated
           Sewage Source Heat Pump

    • Abstract: The traditional biogas heating system has the disadvantages of a low energy efficiency ratio and high energy consumption. In this study, a solar-untreated sewage source heat pump system (SUSSHPS) was developed for heating a 12 m3 multiphase flow digester (MFD) in Suining, China. To investigate the operating effects, two modes were defined according to the solar fractions in different regions. On the basis of experimental data, thermodynamic calculations and operating simulation analysis were performed, and the solar collector area () and the minimum length of the sewage double-pipe heat exchanger () for the two modes were calculated. The results indicated that the and of mode 2 were larger than those of mode 1 at different solar fractions. Additionally, the results suggested that mode 1 can be used at a solar fraction of 0.5. Moreover, a comprehensive evaluation of different biogas heating systems was performed. Two evaluation methods were used for modeling calculations, and the results of the two methods were consistent. The SUSSHPS had the largest comprehensive evaluation value among the four systems. The proposed SUSSHPS can play a significant role in improving current biogas heating systems and promoting the development of biogas projects.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 08:50:02 +000
  • Thickness Dependence of Window Layer on CH3NH3PbI3-XClX Perovskite Solar

    • Abstract: CH3NH3PbI3-xClx has been studied experimentally and has shown promising results for photovoltaic application. To enhance its performance, this study investigated the effect of varying thickness of FTO, TiO2, and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx for a perovskite solar cell with the structure glass/FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/Spiro-OMeTAD/Ag studied using SCAPS-1D simulator software. The output parameters obtained from the literature for the device were 26.11 mA/cm2, 1.25 V, 69.89%, and 22.72% for Jsc, Voc, FF, and , respectively. The optimized solar cell had a thickness of 100 nm, 50 nm, and 300 nm for FTO, TiO2, and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx layers, respectively, and the device output were 25.79 mA/cm2, 1.45 V, 78.87%, and 29.56% for Jsc, Voc, FF, and , respectively, showing a remarkable increase in FF by 8.98% and 6.84% for solar cell efficiency. These results show the potential of fabricating an improved CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cell.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jul 2020 08:35:09 +000
  • Microstructure Optimization of Mos2/Sepiolite Nanocomposites via a
           Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Strategy for High Efficiency

    • Abstract: The unique structure of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with rich active sites makes it a promising catalyst, whereas it also brings structural instability. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of MoS2 can be regarded as a simple way to regulate the microstructure. In this work, the surfactant additives were adopted to optimize the microstructure of MoS2/sepiolite nanocomposite, and the effects of surfactants type and concentration were investigated. For the sample prepared with 1 mol/L sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), it exhibits the highest intensity for the peak of MoS2 at 14.2°, highly dispersed MoS2 nanosheet on the sepiolite, the lowest absorption intensity of Rhodamine B (RhB) at 553 nm of the wavelength, and the highest photocatalytic activity which is 2.5 times and 4.2 times higher than those prepared with 1 mol/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and 1 mol/L polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) after a 150-minute irradiation, respectively. The above results suggest SDBS is the optimal surfactant to optimize the microstructure of MoS2/sepiolite nanocomposite. This work could provide new insights into the fabrication of high-quality MoS2-based nanocomposite.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jul 2020 15:20:05 +000
  • Evaluation and Design of Power Controller of Two-Axis Solar Tracking by
           PID and FL for a Photovoltaic Module

    • Abstract: Solar trackers represent an essential tool to increase the energy production of photovoltaic modules compared to fixed systems. Unlike previous technologies where the aim is to keep the solar rays perpendicular to the surface of the module and obtain a constant output power, this paper proposes the design and evaluation of two controllers for a two-axis solar tracker, which maintains the power that is produced by photovoltaic modules at their nominal value. To achieve this, mathematical models of the dynamics of the sun, the solar energy obtained on the Earth’s surface, the two-axis tracking system in its electrical and mechanical parts, and the solar cell are developed and simulated. Two controllers are designed to be evaluated in the solar tracking system, one Proportional-Integral-Derivative and the other by Fuzzy Logic. The evaluation of the simulations shows a better performance of the controller by Fuzzy Logic; this is because it presents a shorter stabilization time, a transient of smaller amplitude, and a lower percentage of error in steady-state. The principle of operation of the solar tracking system is to promote the orientation conditions of the photovoltaic module to generate the maximum available power until reaching the nominal one. This is possible because it has a gyroscope on the surface of the module that determines its position with respect to the hour angle and altitude of the sun; a data acquisition card is developed to implement voltage and current sensors, which measure the output power it produces from the photovoltaic module throughout the day and under any weather conditions. The results of the implementation demonstrate that a Fuzzy Logic control for a two-axis solar tracker maintains the output power of the photovoltaic module at its nominal parameters during peak sun hours.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jul 2020 09:35:01 +000
  • New Design of Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal Hybrid System for Performance
           Improvement of Solar Photovoltaic

    • Abstract: Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal systems are most widely used renewable energy technologies. Theoretical study indicates that the energy conversion efficiency of solar photovoltaic gets reduced about 0.3% when its temperature increases by 1°C. In this regard, solar PV and thermal (PVT) hybrid systems could be a solution to draw extra heat from the solar PV panel to improve its performance by reducing its temperature. Here, we have designed a new type of heat exchanger for solar PV and thermal (PVT) hybrid systems and have studied the performance of the system. The PVT system has been investigated in comparison with an identical solar PV panel at outdoor condition at Dhaka, Bangladesh. The experiments show that the average improvement of open circuit voltage (Voc) is 0.97 V and the highest improvement of Voc is 1.3 V. In addition, the overall improvement of output power of solar PV panel is 2.5 W.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jul 2020 16:20:02 +000
  • Photovoltaic Module with Uniform Water Flow on Top Surface

    • Abstract: Though the solar photovoltaic (PV) module is used for power production, it usually works at high temperatures, decreasing its efficiency and therefore its output. So if an effective cooling method is to be implemented, it would reduce the heat from the solar PV module and increase its power production. Significant research in water cooling on both top and bottom surfaces of the PV module widen the scope for uniform cooling with constant module temperature throughout at any instant. In this work, uniform flow is maintained by means of overflow water from a tank fitted on the top of the PV module. Experiments were carried out with and without cooling. Performance parameters in terms of power output and efficiency have been presented for the PV module without cooling and cooling with three different mass flow rates. The results show that there is a significant rise in efficiency of the PV module by reducing its temperature. An accelerated output power of 23 W has been observed for a higher mass flow rate of 5.3 kg/min which is 15% higher than the photovoltaic module operating without cooling. Results were compared with previous researchers’ work and found to be a good enhancement. Theoretical results agree well with experiments.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 16:20:03 +000
  • Oxygen Vacancy-Mediated Interfacial Charge Transfer of Au/ZnO Schottky
           Heterojunctions for Enhanced UV Photodegradation

    • Abstract: We intend to report an interesting phenomenon related to the different interfacial transfer processes between ellipsoidal-like ZnO (E-ZnO) and rod-like ZnO (R-ZnO) nanoheterojunctions witness by the nanosecond time-resolved transient photoluminescence (NTRT-PL) spectra. Fristly, E-ZnO and R-ZnO nanoarchitectures were fabricated via facilitating the electrochemical route; and then, they decorated it with dispersed Au nanoparticles (NPs) by the methods of ion-sputtering deposition, constituting Au/E-ZnO and Au/R-ZnO Schottky-heterojunction nanocomplex, which is characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman analysis, and UV-vis absorption spectra. Steady-state photoluminescence and NTRT-PL spectra of as-fabricated Au/E-ZnO and Au/R-ZnO nanocomposites were probed for interfacial charge transfer process under 266 nm femtosecond (fs) light irradiation. Simultaneously, a distinct diversification for the NTRT-PL spectra is observed, closely associating with oxygen vacancies (Vo), which is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra. Furthermore, Au NPs act as an “annular bridge” and “transit depot” for interfacial charge transfer through local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect and Schottky barrier, respectively, which is identified by NTRT-PL and time-resolved PL (TRPL) decay spectrum. Moreover, this mechanism is responsible for the enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of methyl orange (MO) photodegradation under UV light irradiation.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jul 2020 16:50:02 +000
  • Implementation of Distributed Generation with Solar Plants in a 132 kV
           Grid Station at Layyah Using ETAP

    • Abstract: Decentralized power generation efficaciously merges technological advances in a rapidly changing face of power networks introducing new power system components, advanced control, renewable sources, elegant communication, and web technology paving the way for the so called smart grids. Distributed generation technology lies at the intersection point of power systems, power electronics, control engineering, renewable energy, and communication systems which are not mutually exclusive subjects. Key features of renewable integration in a distribution network include loss minimization, voltage stability, power quality improvement, and low-cost consumption resulting from abundant natural resources such as solar or wind energy. In this research work, a case study has been carried out at a 132 kV grid station of Layyah, Pakistan, which has active losses, reactive losses, low power factor, low voltage on the demand side, and overloaded transformers and distribution lines. As a result, power outage issue is frequent on the consumer side. To overcome this issue, a simulation of load flow of this system is performed using the Newton-Raphson method due to its less computational time, fewer iterations, fast convergence, and independence from slack bus selection. It finds the harsh condition in which there were 23 overloaded transformers, 38 overloaded distribution lines, poor voltage profile, and low power factor at the demand side. There is a deficit of 24 MW in the whole system along with 4.58 MW active and 12.30 MVAR reactive power losses. To remove power deficiency, distributed generation using solar plants is introduced to an 11 kV distribution system with a total of 24 units with each unit having a capacity of 1 MW. Consequently, active and reactive power losses are reduced to 0.548 MW and 0.834 MVAR, respectively. Furthermore, the voltage profile improves, the power factor enhances, and the line losses reduce to a great extent. Finally, overloaded transformers and distribution lines also return to normal working conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jun 2020 10:20:03 +000
  • Critical Analysis and Application of Net-Metering Practice in MEPCO

    • Abstract: The electrical infrastructure around the globe is expanding at a rapid rate for the sake of fulfilling power demands in the domestic, commercial and entertainment industries aiming to boost the living standards. In this regard, renewable energy sources (RES) are globally accepted potential candidates for maintaining inexhaustible, clean, and reliable electricity with a supplementary feature of economic prospect. The efficiency of power distribution at reduced cost to the consumers can be further enhanced by introducing a two-way billing system so-called net-metering which has the potential to overcome issues such as voltage regulation, power blackouts, overstressed grid and need for expensive storage systems thereby making it beneficial for the grid and the end user. This envisioning has encouraged the Government of Pakistan to install net-metering infrastructure at places which accommodate surplus renewable energy reserves. According to the Electric Power Act 1997, the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) issued the net-metering rules and regulations in September 2015 by the endorsement of Federal Government which allowed the distribution companies in Pakistan to buy surplus electricity units generated by the consumers in order to partly reimburse the units imported from the utility grid. The aim behind this research work is to promote renewable energy utilization through net-metering mechanism in order to achieve maximum power. The export of units from consumer side to utility grid and vice versa can be made through bidirectional energy meter. In this paper, a solar net-metering analysis has been carried out on ETAP software to determine its benefits in a distribution network. Different scenarios have been investigated, and it is concluded that solar net-metering technique has multiple influential benefits, e.g., improvement in voltage regulation, reduction in transmission and distribution losses, increase in power availability, less billing to consumers, and reduction of loading on utility grid.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Jun 2020 10:50:06 +000
  • Variable Load Demand Scheme for Hybrid AC/DC Nanogrid

    • Abstract: This paper addresses the use of nanogrid technology in resolving the issue of blanket load shedding for domestic consumers. This is accomplished by using different load management techniques and load classification and utilizing maximum solar energy. The inclusion of DC-based load in basic load and DC inverter load in regular load and scheduling of the burst load during the hours of maximum solar PV generation bring novelty in this work. The term “nanogrid” as a power structure remains ambiguous in various publications so far. An effort has been done in this paper to present a concise definition of nanogrid. Demand side load management is one of the key features of nanogrid, which enables end users to know major characteristics about their energy consumption during peak and off-peak hours. A microgrid option with nanogrid facility results in a more reliable system with overall improvement in efficiency and reduction in carbon emission. PV plants produce DC power; when used directly, the loss will automatically be minimized to 16%. The AC/DC hybrid nanogrid exhibits 63% more efficiency as compared to AC-only nanogrid and nearly 18% more efficiency as compared to DC-only nanogrid. Smart load shifting smoothens the demand curve 54% more adequately than during conventional load shifting. Simulation results show that real-time pricing is more economical than flat rate tariff for a house without DG, whereas flat rate results are more economical when DG are involved in nanogrids. 12.67%-21.46% saving is achieved if only flat rates are used for DG in nanogrid instead of real-time pricing.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Apr 2020 11:35:03 +000
  • Synthesis of TiO2/Pd and TiO2/PdO Hollow Spheres and Their Visible Light
           Photocatalytic Activity

    • Abstract: A series of TiO2, TiO2/Pd, and TiO2/PdO hollow sphere photocatalysts was successfully prepared via a combination of hydrothermal, sol-immobilization, and calcination methods. The structure and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Telleranalysis, Barrett-Joyner-Halenda measurement, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalysis efficiencies of all samples were evaluated through the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. Results indicated that TiO2/PdO demonstrated a higher photocatalytic activity (the photocatalytic degradation efficiency could reach up to 100% within 40 min) than the other samples and could maintain a stable photocatalytic degradation efficiency for at least four cycles. Finally, after using different scavengers, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were identified as the primary active species for the effectiveness of the TiO2/PdO photocatalyst.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Apr 2020 15:50:03 +000
  • Improvement in the Flux Uniformity of the Solar Dish Concentrator System
           through a Concave Quartz Window

    • Abstract: A nonuniform and high-strength heat flux load would reduce the working efficiency, safety, and in-service life of a cavity receiver. Four types of concave quartz windows, including conical, spherical, sinusoidal, and hyperbolic tangent, were proposed to be used in the cylindrical cavity receiver of a solar dish concentrator system, which can improve the flux uniformity and reduce the peak concentration ratio of the receiver. For each concave quartz window, 36 structural schemes were offered. Based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, the results showed that the nonuniformity coefficient of the receiver was 0.68 and the peak concentration ratio was 1320.21 by using a plane quartz window. At the same time, when the receiver is in the best optical performance, it is the receiver with sinusoidal, conical, spherical, and hyperbolic tangent quartz windows, respectively. The optical efficiency of the receiver with the above four types of quartz windows was basically the same as that of the receiver with the plane quartz window, but their nonuniformity coefficients were reduced to 0.31, 0.35, 0.36, and 0.39, respectively, and the peak concentration ratio was reduced to 806.82, 841.31, 853.23, and 875.89, respectively. Obviously, the concave quartz window was better than the plane quartz window in improving the flux uniformity. Finally, a further study on the sinusoidal quartz window scheme of all of the above optimal parameter schemes showed that when the installation position of the receiver relative to the dish concentrator was changed, the flux uniformity of the receiver could continue to improve. When the surface absorptivity of the receiver was reduced, the optical efficiency would be reduced. For the parabolic dish concentrator with different focal distance, the concave quartz window can also improve the uniformity of the flux distribution of the cylindrical cavity receiver.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 14:05:03 +000
  • Simplified Modeling and Simulation of Electricity Production from a
           Dish/Stirling System

    • Abstract: This work is part of the dynamic of proposing a solution to the problem of access to electricity in Chad, which has a rate of access to electricity of 3%. N’Djamena has significant solar potential that can be harnessed to generate electricity. In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the performances of the Dish/Stirling system with the purpose of producing electricity, based on a mathematical model taking into account each of the subparts of the system (concentrator, solar cavity receiver, and Stirling engine). Hydrogen is preferred to helium as the working fluid for operating the Stirling engine at high temperatures. This coupled model made it possible to estimate the monthly average of the electric power produced by this modular system and also its overall solar electricity yield.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 13:05:08 +000
  • Intelligent Control of a Photovoltaic Generator for Charging and
           Discharging Battery Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    • Abstract: This paper presents a method of intelligent control of a photovoltaic generator (PVG) connected to a load and a battery. The system consists of charging and discharging a battery. An intelligent algorithm based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is presented in this work. It performs two separate tasks simultaneously. First, it is used as a PVG Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) command. This same algorithm is used secondly for protecting the battery against deep charges and discharges. A regulation of the DC bus voltage is also carried out by means of a PI corrector for a good supply of the load. The simulation results under MATLAB/Simulink show that the method proposed in this work allows the PV system to function normally by charging and discharging the battery whatever the weather conditions.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 05:20:02 +000
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